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Sample records for rohil rajasthan india

  1. Quitline Activity in Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rakesh; Verma, Vinit; Mathur, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Quitline activity in Rajasthan, India is a voluntary activity of Rajasthan Cancer Foundation (RCF) since April 2013. To kick-off, it took the benefit of the State Government- PIRAMAL SWASTHYA (PS)1 collaborative 104 Health Information Helpline that existed already in public-private partnership. It is a reactive quitline that helps callers through the counselors and nursing staff trained specifically through the weekly sessions held by the first author, the RCF resource on quitline. Besides structuring of the scripts for primary intervention and follow-ups after 1 week, 1 month, 6 months and a year, he also monitors calls, advices and coordinates with the supervisors to manage and analyze the data base, and reports to the PS lead at the Jaipur Center on overall performance and to plan strategic communication with the State Government on its outcomes. The quitline has limitations of its informal existence through a voluntary effort of RCF, no specific resource allocation, suboptimal data management, minimal awareness in the masses due to poor IEC (Information, Education and Communication; except its efforts made by RCF in last 1 year through the government-run State TV and City Radio) and staff shortage and its attrition due to lack of plan for career advancement. Despite these challenges in the year 2013, the quit line has registered a quit rate (for complete abstinence) of 19.93% amongst 1525 callers. The quit rate were 58.01% (304/ 524) among the responders at the 3rd follow-up at 18 months (in September 2014)2. In view of an increase in quit rate by 5- 9 times over the prevailing quit rate in the former ever daily users [both smokers and the users of smokeless tobacco (SLT)], efforts are being made by RCF in concurrence with PS to have this cost-effective model established formally with optimal resource allocation in collaboration with willing agencies (the State and Central Governments and the International Quitline Agencies) and its replication in 4 more states

  2. Adoption of appropriate technology: smokeless wood stoves in Rajasthan, India

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    A multi-method research design consisting of in-depth interviews with program officials and builders, field-level observation, and field surveys with randomly chosen acceptors was used to provide a unique set of insights into the process of diffusion and acceptance of improved smokeless wood stoves in Rajasthan, India. Over 450 village women were interviewed about their energy use, use of their stove, and cooking practices as well as family characteristics. These women were improved stove acceptors and non-acceptors associated with three improved stove-disseminating organizations in Rajasthan, the Rural Development Department of the Rajasthan state government, the Local Self Government Institute and the Social Work and Research Center. The improved stoves disseminated by these three programs are all largely subsidized by the Government of India. A variable named Levels of Acceptance is used to aid in quantifying differences in stove condition and frequency of stove use.

  3. The Aravalli sequence of Rajasthan, India: A Precambrian continental margin?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdougall, J. D.; Willis, R.; Lugmair, G. W.; Roy, A. B.; Gopalan, K.

    1985-01-01

    The extent to which plate tectonics in its present form operated during the Precambrian is unknown, but is a subject of considerable current interest. A remarkable succession of Precambrian rocks in Rajasthan, Northwestern India, which may help to shed more light on this question are discussed. Data indicates that the Aravalli sequence has a number of characteristics generally ascribed to active continental margins. Although much more work is required to bear this out, the evidence suggests that the processes operating in such an environment in the early Proterozoic or late Archean were not vastly different from today.

  4. Recommendations on Implementing the Energy Conservation Building Code in Rajasthan, India

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Makela, Eric J.; Evans, Meredydd; Mathur, Jyotirmay

    2012-02-01

    India launched the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007 and Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) recently indicated that it would move to mandatory implementation in the 12th Five-Year Plan. The State of Rajasthan adopted ECBC with minor modifications; the new regulation is known as the Energy Conservation Building Directives – Rajasthan 2011 (ECBD-R). It became mandatory in Rajasthan on September 28, 2011. This report provides recommendations on an ECBD-R enforcement roadmap for the State of Rajasthan.

  5. Household Coverage of Fortified Staple Food Commodities in Rajasthan, India

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, Grant J.; Sodani, Prahlad R.; Sankar, Rajan; Fairhurst, John; Siling, Katja; Guevarra, Ernest; Norris, Alison; Myatt, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A spatially representative statewide survey was conducted in Rajasthan, India to assess household coverage of atta wheat flour, edible oil, and salt. An even distribution of primary sampling units were selected based on their proximity to centroids on a hexagonal grid laid over the survey area. A sample of n = 18 households from each of m = 252 primary sampling units PSUs was taken. Demographic data on all members of these households were collected, and a broader dataset was collected about a single caregiver and a child in the first 2 years of life. Data were collected on demographic and socioeconomic status; education; housing conditions; recent infant and child mortality; water, sanitation, and hygiene practices; food security; child health; infant and young child feeding practices; maternal dietary diversity; coverage of fortified staples; and maternal and child anthropometry. Data were collected from 4,627 households and the same number of caregiver/child pairs. Atta wheat flour was widely consumed across the state (83%); however, only about 7% of the atta wheat flour was classified as fortifiable, and only about 6% was actually fortified (mostly inadequately). For oil, almost 90% of edible oil consumed by households in the survey was classified as fortifiable, but only about 24% was fortified. For salt, coverage was high, with almost 85% of households using fortified salt and 66% of households using adequately fortified salt. Iodized salt coverage was also high; however, rural and poor population groups were less likely to be reached by the intervention. Voluntary fortification of atta wheat flour and edible oil lacked sufficient industry consolidation to cover significant portions of the population. It is crucial that appropriate delivery channels are utilized to effectively deliver essential micronutrients to at-risk population groups. Government distribution systems are likely the best means to accomplish this goal. PMID:27760123

  6. Thermo Gravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis of Clay of Western Rajasthan (india)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhawat, M. S.

    The paper presents the study of thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis of blended clay. Western part of Rajasthan (India) is rich resource of Ball clays and it is mainly used by porcelain, sanitary ware, and tile industry. The quality and grade of clay available in the region vary from one deposit to other. To upgrade the fired colour and strength properties, different variety of clays may be blended together. The paper compares the results of thermal analysis one of blended clay B2 with reference clay of Ukraine which is imported by industries owners. The result revealed that the blended clay is having mineral kaolinite while the Ukrainian clay is Halloysite.

  7. Taking Flight: Adolescent Girls' Camps in Lok Jumbish of Rajasthan, India. Education for All: Making It Work. Innovation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    The Education for All: Making It Work series is a major international interagency program designed to collect, analyze, and promote successful basic education projects in the least developed and developing countries. This project report describes the innovative work being undertaken in adolescent girls' camps in Lok Jumbish (Rajasthan, India).…

  8. Demonstrating a Situated Learning Approach for In-Service Teacher Education in Rural India: The Quality Education Programme in Rajasthan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saigal, Anju

    2012-01-01

    Recent educational policy in India has repositioned elementary school teachers as active, reflective practitioners, not just "deliverers" of syllabus material. This article examines innovations in teacher support in Rajasthan's government schools through the "Quality Education Program." Drawing on qualitative research of collaborative learning…

  9. Association between early marriage and intimate partner violence in India: a focus on youth from Bihar and Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Speizer, Ilene S; Pearson, Erin

    2011-07-01

    The relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and early marriage is explored using the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3). The NFHS-3 collected data from a representative sample of women and men in India with a large enough sample size to have a representative sample at the state level. The focus is on youth from Bihar and Rajasthan, two states with high IPV and early marriage. Multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrate that women aged 20 to 24 who married before age eighteen, the legal age at marriage in India, are more likely to have ever experienced IPV in their lifetime and recently experienced IPV (in the last 12 months) than their counterparts who married later. The results were significant in Rajasthan but not in Bihar. To reduce IPV, targeted efforts must be made to decrease the proportion of India's girls who are married under the legal age of marriage.

  10. Assisting community management of groundwater: Irrigator attitudes in two watersheds in Rajasthan and Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varua, M. E.; Ward, J.; Maheshwari, B.; Oza, S.; Purohit, R.; Hakimuddin; Chinnasamy, P.

    2016-06-01

    The absence of either state regulations or markets to coordinate the operation of individual wells has focussed attention on community level institutions as the primary loci for sustainable groundwater management in Rajasthan and Gujarat, India. The reported research relied on theoretical propositions that livelihood strategies, groundwater management and the propensity to cooperate are associated with the attitudinal orientations of well owners in the Meghraj and Dharta watersheds, located in Gujarat and Rajasthan respectively. The research tested the hypothesis that attitudes to groundwater management and farming practices, household income and trust levels of assisting agencies were not consistent across the watersheds, implying that a targeted approach, in contrast to default uniform programs, would assist communities craft rules to manage groundwater across multiple hydro-geological settings. Hierarchical cluster analysis of attitudes held by survey respondents revealed four statistically significant discrete clusters, supporting acceptance of the hypothesis. Further analyses revealed significant differences in farming practices, household wealth and willingness to adapt across the four groundwater management clusters. In conclusion, the need to account for attitudinal diversity is highlighted and a framework to guide the specific design of processes to assist communities craft coordinating instruments to sustainably manage local aquifers described.

  11. Occurence and distribution of fluoride in groundwaters of central Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Vikas, C

    2009-07-01

    High fluoride in groundwater has been reported from many parts of India, particularly its impact on human health. Waterborne fluorosis is prevalent in parts of Ajmer and Jaipur districts in central Rajasthan which can be correlated to excessive concentration of the toxic fluoride ions in drinking water. The area, falling under the semiarid terrain of central Rajasthan, is geologically occupied by Precambrian rocks where groundwater occurs under unconfined conditions. Fluoride concentration in shallow aquifer samples of the study area ranges between 0.12 to 16.9 mg/L. Presence of fluoride bearing minerals in the host rock and their interaction with water is considered to be the main cause for fluoride in groundwater. Chemical weathering under arid to semiarid conditions with relatively high alkalinity favours high concentration of fluoride in groundwater, which has resulted in dental and skeletal fluorosis in the study area. The incidence of fluorosis, caused by an excess of fluoride compounds in drinking water, has been rising at an alarming rate in the state. PMID:21117430

  12. Occurence and distribution of fluoride in groundwaters of central Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Vikas, C

    2009-07-01

    High fluoride in groundwater has been reported from many parts of India, particularly its impact on human health. Waterborne fluorosis is prevalent in parts of Ajmer and Jaipur districts in central Rajasthan which can be correlated to excessive concentration of the toxic fluoride ions in drinking water. The area, falling under the semiarid terrain of central Rajasthan, is geologically occupied by Precambrian rocks where groundwater occurs under unconfined conditions. Fluoride concentration in shallow aquifer samples of the study area ranges between 0.12 to 16.9 mg/L. Presence of fluoride bearing minerals in the host rock and their interaction with water is considered to be the main cause for fluoride in groundwater. Chemical weathering under arid to semiarid conditions with relatively high alkalinity favours high concentration of fluoride in groundwater, which has resulted in dental and skeletal fluorosis in the study area. The incidence of fluorosis, caused by an excess of fluoride compounds in drinking water, has been rising at an alarming rate in the state.

  13. Association between Early Marriage and Intimate Partner Violence in India: A Focus on Youth from Bihar and Rajasthan

    PubMed Central

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Pearson, Erin

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and early marriage is explored using the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3). The NFHS-3 collected data from a representative sample of women and men in India with a large enough sample size to have a representative sample at the state level. The focus is on youth from Bihar and Rajasthan, two states with high IPV and early marriage. Multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrate that women ages 20-24 who married before age eighteen, the legal age at marriage in India, are more likely to have ever experienced IPV in their lifetime and recently experienced IPV (in the last 12 months) than their counterparts who married later. The results were significant in Rajasthan but not in Bihar. To reduce IPV, targeted efforts must be made to decrease the proportion of India’s girls who are married under the legal age of marriage. PMID:20587462

  14. Vegetation Status of the Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India (April 2009)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2009-01-01

    The biodiversity of aquatic plant species may be reduced in the future by drought and/or climate change in monsoonal wetlands. After a number of years of low water levels, the aquatic vegetation of the Keoladeo National Park in Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India, was assessed. Though likely reduced in areal extent, most of the aquatic species were found in locations in the park that contained the seed bank of aquatic species in the 1980s. Some of the species of concern observed included Cyperus rotundus, Nymphoides indica, Paspalum distichum, Potamogeton pectinatus, Scirpus tuberosus, and Vallisneria natans. While it is likely that the abundance of these species has declined over time, this cannot be determined quantitatively without detailed field studies designed to replicate the 1980s analyses.

  15. Abortion and sex determination: conflicting messages in information materials in a District of Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Nidadavolu, Vijaya; Bracken, Hillary

    2006-05-01

    Public information campaigns are an integral component of reproductive health programmes, including on abortion. In India, where sex selective abortion is increasing, public information is being disseminated on the illegality of sex determination. This paper presents findings from a study undertaken in 2003 in one district in Rajasthan to analyse the content of information materials on abortion and sex determination and people's perceptions of them. Most of the informational material about abortion was produced by one abortion service provider, but none by the public or private sector. The public sector had produced materials on the illegality of sex determination, some of which failed to distinguish between sex selection and other reasons for abortion. In the absence of knowledge of the legal status of abortion, the negative messages and strong language of these materials may have contributed to the perception that abortion is illegal in India. Future materials should address abortion and sex determination, including the legal status of abortion, availability of providers and social norms that shape decision-making. Married and unmarried women should be addressed and the participation of family members acknowledged, while supporting independent decisions by women. Sex determination should also be addressed, and the conditions under which a woman can and cannot seek an abortion clarified, using media and materials accessible to low-literate audiences. Based on what we learned in this research, a pictorial booklet and educator's manual were produced, covering both abortion and sex determination, and are being distributed in India.

  16. Contaminated drinking water and rural health perspectives in Rajasthan, India: an overview of recent case studies.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Surindra

    2011-02-01

    Access to safe drinking water is an important issue of health and development at national, regional, and local levels. The concept of safe drinking water assumes greater significance in countries like India where the majority of the population lives in villages with bare infrastructures and poor sanitation facilities. This review presents an overview of drinking water quality in rural habitations of northern Rajasthan, India. Although fluoride is an endemic problem to the groundwater of this region, recently, other anthropogenic chemicals has also been reported in the local groundwater. Recent case studies indicate that about 95% of sites of this region contain a higher fluoride level in groundwater than the maximum permissible limit as decided by the Bureau of Indian Standards. Nitrate (as NO3-) contamination has appeared as another anthropogenic threat to some intensively cultivable rural habitations of this region. Biological contamination has appeared as another issue of unsafe drinking water resources in rural areas of the state. Recent studies have claimed a wide variety of pathogenic bacteria including members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in local drinking water resources. Overall, the quality of drinking water in this area is not up to the safe level, and much work is still required to establish a safe drinking water supply program in this area.

  17. Nitrate contamination in groundwater of some rural areas of Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Surindra; Bishnoi, Preeti; Singh, Sushma; Mutiyar, Pravin K; Nema, Arvind K; Patil, Nagraj S

    2009-11-15

    Efforts were made to evaluate the level of nitrate in some agro-economy based rural habitations of northern Rajasthan, India. A total of 64 groundwater samples from 21 different villages/sub-villages of district Sri Ganganagar, India were collected and analyzed for nitrate (as NO(3)(-)), sulphate (as SO(4)(2-)) and few other parameters. NO(3)(-) level in groundwater was 7.10-82.0 mg l(-1) for individual samples. But average NO(3)(-) for total samples was 60.6+/-33.6 (SD) mg l(-1), which indicates the non-suitability of groundwater for drinking purposes, if BIS permissible limit (22.6 mg l(-1)) is considered as reference level. SO(4)(2-) ranged form 28.6 to 660.3 mg l(-1) in this area. The regression analysis indicates the difference sources for NO(3)(-) and SO(4)(2-) contamination in different regions rather than a common source. The point and non-point sources of NO(3)(-) and SO(4)(2-) in groundwater of this region may be N-fertilizer, sewerage, animal waste, organic manure, geology of sub-surface soil layers, pit latrines, etc. Results thus indicated that groundwater of this part of the State is severely polluted due to anthropogenic activities. The continuous consumption of such water may pose serious health hazardous in local residents.

  18. K-T magmatism of western Rajasthan, India: Manifestation of Reunion plume activity or extensional lithospheric tectonics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, K.

    2004-12-01

    A number of alkaline plutons have been recorded at the K-T (Cretaceous-Tertiary) boundary in western Rajasthan, India. Significant magmatism occurred at Mundwara, Barmer, Sarnu-Dandali and Tavider. The evolution of the Cambay-Sanchor-Barmer rift during the K-T period resulted in these alkaline complexes at the rift margins. Sedimentary basins are developed in the Barmer and Jaiselmer regions. The magmatism of Mundwara and Sarnu-Dandali is dated at 68.50 Ma and considered as an early pulse of Deccan volcanism. Several workers correlated K-T sedimentary basin evolution, magmatism and other tectonic features of western Rajasthan with the Reunion plume-interaction in the northwestern Indian shield. Alkaline igneous complexes along the rift from the southern part are reported from Phenai Mata, Amba Dongar and Seychelles. The Seychelles was part of the northwestern Indian shield prior to Deccan volcanism. The Mundwara igneous complex represents three distinct circular plutonic bodies - Toa, Mer and Mushala, which are situated in the periphery of an area three kilometers in radius. Besides these, there are numerous concentric and radial dykes of lamprophyre, carbonatite, dolerite and amphibolite. All these three bodies represent different phases of intrusion and are not similar to each other. The alkaline rocks of Sarnu-Dandali occur as dykes and isolated plugs in the desert sand. Carbonatite dykes are also reported from southeast of Barmer. The Tavider outcrop is devoid of any plutonic rock and consists of rhyolite, andesite and basalt. These rocks occur along the Precambrian Malani magmatic lineaments. The development of the Cambay-Sanchor-Barmer rift caused reactivation of Precambrian fractures and resulted in magmatism at the basin margin. The Gondwanaland fragmentation during the Mesozoic era caused extensional tectonics in the northwestern Indian shield. This led to the development of rift basins in Gujarat and western Rajasthan. Deccan volcanism, separation of the

  19. Radon levels in drinking water and soil samples of Jodhpur and Nagaur districts of Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Sudhir; Rani, Asha; Mehra, Rohit

    2016-07-01

    Radon causes lung cancer when it is trapped inside the lungs. Therefore it is very important to analyze the radon concentration in water and soil samples. In the present investigation, water and soil samples collected from 20 different locations of Jodhpur and Nagaur districts of Northern Rajasthan, India have been studied by using RAD7. The measured radon concentration in water samples varies from 0.5 to 15Bql(-1). The observed values lie within the safe limit as set by UNSCEAR, 2008. The total annual effective dose due to radon in water corresponding to all studied locations has been found to be well within the safe limit of 0.1mSvy(-1) as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO, 2004) and European Council (EU, 1998). The measurements carried out on radon concentration in soil samples reveal a variation from 1750 to 9850Bqm(-3). These results explore that the water of Jodhpur and Nagaur districts is suitable for drinking purpose without posing any health hazard but soil hazards depend upon its permeability and radon concentration.

  20. Early warning of malaria at Bikaner, Rajasthan in India using AVHRR-based satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roytman, Leonid; Nizamuddin, Mohammad; Akhand, Kawsar; Kogan, Felix; Goldberg, Mitchell

    2013-09-01

    A better understanding of the relationship between satellites observed vegetation health, and malaria epidemics could help mitigate the worldwide increase in incidence of mosquito-transmitted diseases. This research investigates last 17- years association between vegetation health (condition) index and malaria transmission in Bikaner, Rajasthan in India an arid and hot summer area. The vegetation health (condition) index, derived from a combination of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and 10-μm to 11-μm thermal radiances, was designed for monitoring moisture and thermal impacts on vegetation health. We demonstrate that thermal condition is more sensitive to malaria transmission with different seasonal malaria activities. The weekly VH indices were correlated with the epidemiological data. A good correlation was found between malaria cases and Temperature Condition Index (TCI) one at least two months earlier than the malaria transmission season. Following the results of correlation analysis, Principal Component Regression (PCR) method was used to construct a model of less than 10% error to predict malaria as a function of the TCI.

  1. Fluoride contamination in drinking water in rural habitations of Central Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Ikbal; Arif, Mohd; Hussain, Jakir

    2012-08-01

    Fluoride concentration in groundwater sources used as major drinking water source in rural area of block Nawa (Nagaur District), Rajasthan was examined and the toxic effects by intake of excess fluoride on rural habitants were studied. In block 13, habitations (30%) were found to have fluoride concentration more than 1.5 mg/l (viz. maximum desirable limit of Indian drinking water standards IS 10500, 1999). In five habitations (11%), fluoride concentration in groundwater is at toxic level (viz. above 3.0 mg/l). The maximum fluoride concentration in the block is 5.91 mg/l from Sirsi village. As per the desirable and maximum permissible limit for fluoride in drinking water, determined by World Health Organization or by Bureau of Indian Standards, the groundwater of about 13 habitations of the studied sites is unfit for drinking purposes. Due to the higher fluoride level in drinking water, several cases of dental and skeletal fluorosis have appeared at alarming rate in this region. There is an instant need to take ameliorative steps in this region to prevent the population from fluorosis. Groundwater sources of block Nawa can be used for drinking after an effective treatment in absence of other safe source. The evaluation of various defluoridation methods on the basis of social and economical structure of India reveals that the clay pot chip, activated alumina adsorption, and Nalgonda techniques are the most promising. PMID:21931948

  2. Fluoride contamination in drinking water in rural habitations of northern Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Surindra; Garg, Vinod K; Jangir, Sushant; Kaur, Simarjeet; Goswami, Nidhi; Singh, Sushma

    2008-10-01

    This study was carried out to assess the fluoride concentration in groundwater in some villages of northern Rajasthan, India, where groundwater is the main source of drinking water. Water samples collected form deep aquifer based hand-pumps were analysed for fluoride content. Fluoride in presently studied sites was recorded in the ranges of 4.78 and 1.01 mg/l. The average fluoride concentration for this region was recorded 2.82 mg/l. As per the desirable and maximum permissible limit for fluoride in drinking water, determined by WHO or by Bureau of Indian Standards, the groundwater of about 95 of the studied sites is unfit for drinking purposes. Due to the higher fluoride level in drinking water several cases of dental and skeletal fluorosis have appeared at alarming rate in this region. The middle and eastern parts of the Hanumangarh, a northern most district of the state, can be classified as higher risk area for fluorosis; due to relatively high concentrations of fluoride (3-4 mg/l) in groundwater of this region. After evaluating the data of this study it is concluded that there is an instant need to take ameliorative steps in this region to prevent the population from fluorosis.

  3. Fluoride contamination in drinking water in rural habitations of Central Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Ikbal; Arif, Mohd; Hussain, Jakir

    2012-08-01

    Fluoride concentration in groundwater sources used as major drinking water source in rural area of block Nawa (Nagaur District), Rajasthan was examined and the toxic effects by intake of excess fluoride on rural habitants were studied. In block 13, habitations (30%) were found to have fluoride concentration more than 1.5 mg/l (viz. maximum desirable limit of Indian drinking water standards IS 10500, 1999). In five habitations (11%), fluoride concentration in groundwater is at toxic level (viz. above 3.0 mg/l). The maximum fluoride concentration in the block is 5.91 mg/l from Sirsi village. As per the desirable and maximum permissible limit for fluoride in drinking water, determined by World Health Organization or by Bureau of Indian Standards, the groundwater of about 13 habitations of the studied sites is unfit for drinking purposes. Due to the higher fluoride level in drinking water, several cases of dental and skeletal fluorosis have appeared at alarming rate in this region. There is an instant need to take ameliorative steps in this region to prevent the population from fluorosis. Groundwater sources of block Nawa can be used for drinking after an effective treatment in absence of other safe source. The evaluation of various defluoridation methods on the basis of social and economical structure of India reveals that the clay pot chip, activated alumina adsorption, and Nalgonda techniques are the most promising.

  4. Radon levels in drinking water and soil samples of Jodhpur and Nagaur districts of Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Sudhir; Rani, Asha; Mehra, Rohit

    2016-07-01

    Radon causes lung cancer when it is trapped inside the lungs. Therefore it is very important to analyze the radon concentration in water and soil samples. In the present investigation, water and soil samples collected from 20 different locations of Jodhpur and Nagaur districts of Northern Rajasthan, India have been studied by using RAD7. The measured radon concentration in water samples varies from 0.5 to 15Bql(-1). The observed values lie within the safe limit as set by UNSCEAR, 2008. The total annual effective dose due to radon in water corresponding to all studied locations has been found to be well within the safe limit of 0.1mSvy(-1) as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO, 2004) and European Council (EU, 1998). The measurements carried out on radon concentration in soil samples reveal a variation from 1750 to 9850Bqm(-3). These results explore that the water of Jodhpur and Nagaur districts is suitable for drinking purpose without posing any health hazard but soil hazards depend upon its permeability and radon concentration. PMID:27135605

  5. A Hospital Based Serosurveillance Study of Dengue Infection in Jaipur (Rajasthan) , India

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Smita

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dengue has been known to be endemic in India for over two centuries. There is a need to assess the magnitude of dengue virus establishment in the state of Rajasthan. A surveillance study was conducted to analyze dengue seropositivity among patients with clinical suspicion of dengue fever like illness, who presented to or were admitted at a tertiary care private hospital at Jaipur. Methods: Serum samples from 2169 suspected dengue cases (1356 males and 813 females) were received in the Serology lab over the four year study period (2008-2011). The samples were subjected to a rapid immuno-chromatography assay with differential detection of IgM and IgG antibodies. A primary dengue infection was defined by a positive IgM band and a negative IgG band, whereas a secondary infection was defined by a positive Ig G band with or without an IgM band. Result: Among the 2169 patients who were screened; 18.99% (412) were dengue specific IgM positive cases. 64. 49% (1399) cases were negative for dengue specific antibodies, 5.67% (123) were primary dengue cases, and 23.51% (510) were total secondary dengue cases. During the study period, the Dengue IgM seropositivity was highest in the year 2009 and was lowest in the year 2011. Most of the cases occurred in the post-monsoon season, with a peak in the month of October, each year. Conclusion: A detailed and continuous epidemiological surveillance is required, for monitoring the incrusion and spread of dengue viruses. This will help in undertaking and implementing effective control and management strategies. PMID:24179897

  6. Comparison of domiciliary and institutional delivery-care practices in rural Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Sharad D; Iyengar, Kirti; Suhalka, Virendra; Agarwal, Kumaril

    2009-04-01

    A retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess key practices and costs relating to home- and institutional delivery care in rural Rajasthan, India. One block from each of two sample districts was covered (estimated population--279,132). Field investigators listed women who had delivered in the past three months and contacted them for structured case interview. In total, 1947 (96%) of 2031 listed women were successfully interviewed. An average of 2.4 and 1.7 care providers attended each home- and institutional delivery respectively. While 34% of the women delivered in health facilities, modem care providers attended half of all the deliveries. Intramuscular injections, intravenous drips, and abdominal fundal pressure were widely used for hastening delivery in both homes and facilities while post-delivery injections for active management of the third stage were administered to a minority of women in both the venues. Most women were discharged prematurely after institutional delivery, especially by smaller health facilities. The cost of accessing home-delivery care was Rs 379 (US$ 8) while the mean costs in facilities for elective, difficult vaginal deliveries and for caesarean sections were Rs 1336 (US$ 30), Rs 2419 (US$ 54), and Rs 11,146 (US$ 248) respectively. Most families took loans at high interest rates to meet these costs. It is concluded that widespread irrational practices by a range of care providers in both homes and facilities can adversely affect women and newborns while inadequate observance of beneficial practices and high costs are likely to reduce the benefits of institutional delivery, especially for the poor. Government health agencies need to strengthen regulation of delivery care and, especially, monitor perinatal outcomes. Family preference for hastening delivery and early discharge also require educational efforts. PMID:19489423

  7. Pollution of water resources due to industrialization in arid zone of Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A

    2001-04-01

    In arid zone of Rajasthan, India, nearly 21,900 hm2 area along Bandi River has been affected by industrial effluent discharge into the river bed. Analysis of groundwater samples collected from these sites revealed that area at the vicinity of the river is most affected. The effluent water in the river is the main source of contamination of ground water. Concentration of sodium and chloride has been higher with proportional increase in TDS and EC value in the area within zone A (river water), zone B (0-100 m), zone C (101-250 m), zone D (251-500 m) and zone E (501-1000 m). There is decreasing trend in ion concentration from zone A to zone E and F, reflecting reduced effect of effluents. The pollution of water resources has resulted in the degradation of other natural resources such as land, soil and vegetation. Nearly 4463 hm2 (20.38%) area has been very severely affected. EC value at places exceeds 20 dS/m. Soil and land have become hard, compact and saline. Cropping intensity has declined. In the area (3633 hm2) affected severely, the EC value of water varies from 10-20 dS/m. Irrigation with such water has created problem of salinity, sodicity in soils. Herbal biomass declined considerably. Double cropping has almost stopped. Almost 8494 hm2 area is affected moderately. EC of ground water varies from 5 to 10 dS/m. Fragile surface crust, declining trend of phosphorous and potassium in the soil, poor density of natural vegetation are significant manifestations. Apart from this, 5305 hm2 area is slightly affected.

  8. Association of Temporomandibular Joint Signs & Symptoms with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Manifestations in Endemic Fluoride Areas of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan, India

    PubMed Central

    Asawa, Kailash; Bhat, Nagesh; Tak, Mridula; Shinde, Kushal; Jain, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Endemic fluorosis resulting from high fluoride concentration in groundwater is a major public health problem. India is among the numerous nations, where fluoride sullied groundwater is creating wellbeing issues. Safe drinking water in rural areas of India is predominantly rely on groundwater sources, which are exceptionally contaminated with fluoride. Aim To investigate the association of temporomandibular joint Signs & Symptoms with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Manifestations among people living in Dad, Bokersal & Deotalab villages of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods The study group consisted of 750 subjects who were born & brought up in Dad, Bokersal & Deotalab villages of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan. Temporomandibular joint & Dental fluorosis was assessed by performing type III clinical examination according to WHO guidelines (1997). For the assessment of skeletal manifestations, participants were asked to perform three diagnostic tests: (1)Touching the toes without bending the knees; (2) Touching the chest with the chin; (3) Stretching the arms sideways & folding the arms to touch the back of the head. Chi Square test & Multiple Logistic Regression were applied for statistical analysis. Results Among the 750 (462 males & 288 females) who participated in the study, 53% had moderate grade of dental fluorosis. The most prominent symptom suggesting Temporomandibular Joint Disorder was the clicking sound affecting 21.4% population.(p>0.001). TMJ Signs & Symptoms were prominent in the age group of 45-54 years & males were highly affected than females. Conclusion Clinical examination of TMJ in Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Fluorosis subjects showed a significant association with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Fluorosis. PMID:26816986

  9. Development Of Index To Assess Drought Conditions Using Geospatial Data A Case Study Of Jaisalmer District, Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhajer, Vaidehi; Prabhakar, Sumati; Rama Chandra Prasad, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan province of India was known to suffer with frequent drought due to poor and delayed monsoon, abnormally high summer-temperature and insufficient water resources. However flood-like situation prevails in the drought prone Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan as torrential rains are seen to affect the region in the recent years. In the present study, detailed analysis of meteorological, hydrological and satellite data of the Jaisalmer district has been carried out for the years 2006-2008. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Consecutive Dry Days (CDD) and Effective Drought Index (EDI) have been used to quantify the precipitation deficit. Standardized Water-Level Index (SWI) has been developed to assess ground-water recharge-deficit. Vegetative drought indices like Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI), Vegetation Health Index (VHI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Modified Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index 2 have been calculated. We also introduce two new indices Soil based Vegetation Condition Index (SVCI) and Composite Drought Index (CDI) specifically for regions like Jaisalmer where aridity in soil and affects vegetation and water-level.

  10. Gastrointestinal parasitic infection in diverse species of domestic ruminants inhabiting tribal rural areas of southern Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Choubisa, S L; Jaroli, V J

    2013-10-01

    A total of 415 adult domesticated ruminants, 130 cattle (Bos taurus), 108 buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), 94 goats (Capra hircus) and 83 sheep (Ovis aries) inhabiting tribal rural areas of southern Rajasthan, India were investigated for evidence of gastrointestinal protozoan and helminthic infections. In southern Rajasthan humid ecosystem is predominant and has number of perennial freshwater bodies. Fresh faecal samples of these animals were examined microscopically by direct wet smear with saline and 1 % Lugol's iodine and formalin ether concentration. Of these 296 (71.32 %) were found to be infected with different species of gastrointestinal parasites. The highest (93.84 %) prevalence of these parasitic infections was found in cattle followed by goats (82.97 %), sheep (55.42 %) and buffaloes (46.29 %). Except cattle no other ruminants revealed protozoan infection. A total 8 species of gastrointestinal parasites were encountered. Among these parasites Fasciola hepatica was the commonest (15.18 %) followed by Haemonchus contortus (11.32 %), Ancylostoma duodenale (10.36 %), Trichuris trichiura (9.15 %), Amphistome species (7.95 %), Moniezia expansa (6.98 %), Strongyloides stercoralis (4.57 %) and Balantidium coli (3.37 %). The prevalence rate of these parasitic infections also varied seasonally. The highest prevalence rate was found in rainy season (84.21 %) followed by winter (73.9 %) and summer (52.8 %). The possible causes for variation in prevalence of parasitic infections are also discussed. PMID:24431582

  11. Groundwater Quality in the Shallow Aquifers of the Hadauti Plateau of the District of Baran, Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Lokesh; Rakshit, Amitava

    2014-07-01

    With the rapid pace of agricultural development, industrialization and urbanization, the commonly observed geogenic contaminants in groundwater are fluoride and nitrate, whereas nitrate is the dominant anthropogenic contaminant in the south-eastern plains of Rajasthan, India. Samples obtained using a tube well and hand pump in November, 2012, demonstrate that Na-Cl is the dominant salt in the groundwater, and the total salinity of the water is between 211-1056 mg L-1. Moreover, the observed sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) values ranged between 0.87 to 26.22 meq L-1 and -12.5 to 30.5 meq L-1 respectively. The study further shows that 6% of the total samples contain high amounts of nitrate, and 49% contain fluoride. A water quality index (WQI) rating was carried out using nine parameters to quantify the overall groundwater quality status of the area.

  12. Neonatal mortality in India's rural poor: Findings of a household survey and verbal autopsy study in Rajasthan, Bihar and Odisha.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Vishal; Khanna, Rajesh; Jain, Anuradha; Kumar, Ajay M V; Shewade, Hemant D; Majumdar, Suman S

    2015-06-01

    In 2011, Save the Children India launched a project for the disadvantaged population of Rajasthan, Bihar and Odisha. As a baseline activity, neonatal deaths during January-December 2012 were investigated using modified verbal autopsy tool in six sub-district-level administrative units (blocks) adopting 30-cluster sample survey approach. Our study reported a total of 189 neonatal deaths of which 50% occurred at home and 39% happened on Day 1. About half of the deaths occurred in blocks from Bihar. High number of neonatal deaths belonged to households that were below poverty line (64%) and other disadvantaged classes (46%); among mothers who were illiterate (65%), <20 years of age (54%) and during their first-order births (36%). Birth asphyxia was a major cause of neonatal deaths across all blocks. These findings indicate need for easy and early access to transport services, specialized neonatal care and advocacy targeted towards increasing community awareness. PMID:25825343

  13. Importance of socioeconomic status and tree holes in distribution of Aedes mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Vinod; Sharma, R C; Sharma, Yogesh; Adha, Sandeep; Sharma, Keerti; Singh, Himmat; Purohit, Anil; Singhi, Manju

    2006-03-01

    Immature Aedes mosquitoes were found in domestic, peridomestic, and tree hole habitats within three socioeconomic strata of Jodhpur, a city within an arid area of Rajasthan, India, endemic for dengue. Peridomestic habitats served as a persistent source of Aedes vectors, especially those used for watering cows for religious reasons that were located within high socioeconomic areas. Domestic (indoor) containers within low socioeconomic strata showed a higher container index (27.0%) than periurban areas with cattle sheds (14.3%) or high socioeconomic areas (18.1%). Mosquitoes were collected in tree holes at zoos and gardens supporting several species of monkeys. Six of 67 Aedes albopictus Skuse reared from immatures collected in tree holes tested positive for dengue antigen acquired through vertical transmission, possibly indicating a persistence mechanism for dengue virus within an urban environment. PMID:16619619

  14. Role of Private-Public Partnership in Health Education: A Survey of Current Practices in Udaipur City, Rajasthan, India

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Jaddu J.; Multani, Suraj; Bhat, Nagesh; Sharma, Ashish; Singh, Sopan; Patel, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Background: The concept of a public-private partnership (PPP) has been proposed as a potential model for providing education services besides public finance and public delivery. The present study was conducted to survey the current practices of Private-Public Partnership (PPP) in health education in Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted among organizations involved exclusively and actively in health education in Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India. The pretested self designed structured questionnaire consisted of 21 items pertaining to the current practices of private-public partnership (PPP) in health education. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the data. Results: On the basis of inclusion criteria, 50 personnel from 2 private dental colleges, 1 private medical college, 2 Non Government Organizations (NGOs) and 1 health museum were selected. Only 15 (30%) of participants agreed that they have a written reference policy that outlines the services they provide to the general public. Regarding the collection of health education materials available, majority 35 (70%) had printed books followed by audio visual (AV) materials (slides, videos, audio cassettes) [22 (44%)]. 35 (70%) of participants reported that they loan only pamphlets and broachers to the public. Thirty four (68%) of participants provide information about oral health. Only 23 (46%) of participants reported that their institution/organization undergo periodic evaluation. Conclusions: Results of this survey show that that most of the PPP were involved in delivering health education, mostly concentrated on general health. Only few of them were involved in oral health education. The role of PPP in health education is integral to the effort of promoting a healthier population. This effort continues the trend and broadens the scope of involvement for further studies. PMID:24130954

  15. Landscape level analysis of disturbance regimes in protected areas of Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, P. Hari; Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Singh, Randeep; Jha, C. S.

    2014-04-01

    There is an urgent need to identify the human influence on landscape as disturbance regimes was realized for prioritization of the protected areas. The present study has attempted to describe the landscape level assessment of fragmentation and disturbance index in protected areas of Rajasthan using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Geospatial analysis of disturbance regimes indicates 61.75% of the total PAs are under moderate disturbance index followed by 28.64% and 9.61% under low and high respectively. Among the 28 protected areas- National Chambal WLS, Jaisamand WLS, Kumbhalgarh WLS, Sawai Man Singh WLS, Kailadevi WLS and Bandh Baratha WLS are representing high level of disturbance. The present study has emphasized the moderate to low disturbance regimes in protected areas, which infer low biotic pressure and conservation effectiveness of PA network in Rajasthan. The spatial information generated on PAs is of valuable use for forest management and developing conservation strategies.

  16. Pollution Status of Surface Water Resources in Arid Region of Rajasthan (india)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachhawa, Chanchal

    Present investigation deals with the evaluation of DO, BOD and COD of six surface water resources of Bikaner district which fall in arid region of Rajasthan - a part of Great Indian Desert, to determine pollution status. Water sample analysed for two years 2008-2009 showed these parameters beyond the limit of standard prescribed by WHO. These parameters also showed great seasonal fluctuation, indicating the degree of organic pollution more during summer season and least during winter season.

  17. Ramgarh Crater, Rajasthan, India - Study of multispectral images obtained by Indian remote sensing satellite (IRS-IA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murali, A. V.; Lulla, Kamlesh P.

    1992-01-01

    Ramgarh Crater, Rajasthan, India is a potential impact crater that has not been studied so far. The proximity of Ramgarh Crater to the Deccan flood basalt terrain makes it important to examine the spatial and temporal relationship of this crater to Deccan Volcanism because recent studies propose a strong link between impact cratering and major flood basalt eruptions. A detailed multidisciplinary study is necessary to evaluate the structure and lithology of Ramgarh Crater and its temporal relationship to the emplacement of Deccan eruptions in India. Application of the IRS-IA data to study the lithologic/surface characteristics of Ramgarh Crater (attempted for the first time) indicates the potential application of remote sensing data in these studies. The IRS-IA data are of good quality and resolution. Our preliminary assessment has shown that these data are helpful in generating lithology soil vegetation profiles of Ramgarh Crater region. These 'profile maps' would be useful for targeting the specific areas in the region for a closer look and ground truth verification during the field work and sample collection in the region.

  18. A multi-temporal analysis for change assessment and estimation of algal bloom in Sambhar Lake, Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Ritesh; Pinto, Shannon M; Kushwaha, Vikash K; Pal, Sukdeb; Nandy, Tapas

    2016-09-01

    Sambhar Lake in Rajasthan, India is the major inland salt water lake producing salt for centuries. The present study addresses the monitoring changes in and around the lake and its consequent effect on the lake water ecology. For this, satellite images of the years 1976, 1981, 1997, and 2013 are analyzed for land use land cover classes. Significant reduction in the water body is observed in contrast with the increase in salt pan around the periphery of lake and wetland classes. Further, the extent of water body and algae in the lake are delineated as per normalized difference water index and normalized difference vegetation index. Rainfall data do not indicate any major change in the pattern, but drastic decrease in the extent of water body and significant increase in algal bloom are serious concerns for the lake's existence. This may be due to surrounding anthropogenic activities and construction of check dams and anicuts in the lake catchment which curtail the runoff into the lake and provide favorable growth of algae. Sambhar Lake, being declared as a wetland according to the Ramsar Convention, is necessary to protect and conserve the ecological importance of the lake through sustainable planning and management. PMID:27502521

  19. Variation of annual effective dose due to radon level in indoor air in Marwar region of Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Asha; Mittal, Sudhir; Mehra, Rohit

    2015-08-01

    In the present work, indoor radon and thoron measurements have been carried out from different locations of Jodhpur and Nagaur districts of Northern Rajasthan, India using RAD7, a solid state alpha detector. The radon and thoron concentration in indoor air varies from 8.75 to 61.25 Bq m-3 and 32.7 to 147.2 Bq m-3 with the mean value of 32 and 73 Bq m-3 respectively. The observed indoor radon concentration values are well below the action level recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (200-300 Bq m-3) and Environmental Protection Agency (148 Bq m-3). The survey reveals that the thoron concentration values in the indoor air are well within the International Commission on Radiological Protection (2005). The calculated total annual effective dose due to radon level in indoor air varies from 0.22 to 1.54 mSv y-1 with the mean value of 0.81 mSv y-1 which is less than even the lower limit of action level 3-10 mSv y-1 recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (2005).

  20. Spectral pathways for exploration of secondary uranium: An investigation in the desertic tracts of Rajasthan and Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharti, Rishikesh; Kalimuthu, R.; Ramakrishnan, D.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims at identifying potential zones of secondary uranium enrichment using hyperspectral remote sensing, γ-ray spectrometry, fluorimetry and geochemical techniques in the western Rajasthan and northern Gujarat, India. The investigated area has suitable source rocks, conducive past-, and present-climate that can facilitate such enrichment. This enrichment process involves extensive weathering of uranium bearing source rocks, leaching of uranyl compounds in groundwater, and their precipitation in chemical deltas along with duricrusts like calcretes and gypcretes. Spatial distribution of groundwater calcretes (that are rich in Mg-calcite) and gypcretes (that are rich in gypsum) along palaeochannels and chemical deltas were mapped using hyperspectral remote sensing data based on spectral absorptions in 1.70 μm, 2.16 μm, 2.21 μm, 2.33 μm, 2.44 μm wavelength regions. Subsequently based on field radiometric survey, zones of U anomalies were identified and samples of duricrusts and groundwater were collected for geochemical analyses. Anomalous concentration of U (2345.7 Bq/kg) and Th (142.3 Bq/kg) are observed in both duricrusts and groundwater (U-1791 μg/l, Th-34 μg/l) within the palaeo-delta and river confluence. The estimated carnotite Solubility Index also indicates the secondary enrichment of U and the likelihood of occurrence of an unconventional deposit.

  1. Variation of annual effective dose due to radon level in indoor air in Marwar region of Rajasthan, India

    SciTech Connect

    Rani, Asha; Mittal, Sudhir; Mehra, Rohit

    2015-08-28

    In the present work, indoor radon and thoron measurements have been carried out from different locations of Jodhpur and Nagaur districts of Northern Rajasthan, India using RAD7, a solid state alpha detector. The radon and thoron concentration in indoor air varies from 8.75 to 61.25 Bq m{sup −3} and 32.7 to 147.2 Bq m{sup −3} with the mean value of 32 and 73 Bq m{sup −3} respectively. The observed indoor radon concentration values are well below the action level recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (200-300 Bq m{sup −3}) and Environmental Protection Agency (148 Bq m{sup −3}). The survey reveals that the thoron concentration values in the indoor air are well within the International Commission on Radiological Protection (2005). The calculated total annual effective dose due to radon level in indoor air varies from 0.22 to 1.54 mSv y{sup −1} with the mean value of 0.81 mSv y{sup −1} which is less than even the lower limit of action level 3-10 mSv y{sup −1} recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (2005)

  2. Evidence of pre-Gondwana tectono-thermal event from the Bhilwara Supracrustal units of Rajasthan, north-west India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Lopamudra; Sarkar, Saheli; Rakshit, Nibedita; Nasipuri, Pritam

    2014-05-01

    In the Indian subcontinent, two pre- Gondwana (pre- Pan African) orogenies are mostly recorded and well-studied from the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt: (i) >1.1 Ga and (ii) ~950 Ma. During the ~950Ma orogeny, the pre-existing granulites have been re-melted under granulite facies conditions at ~8 kbar, 800-850ºC in the sillimanite stability field with formation of garnet-orthopyroxene in the restites. In this study we report garnet-sillimanite bearing and garnet-staurolite-kyanite bearing supracrustal rocks from the Bhilwara Supergroup in Rajasthan, N-W India. Peak assemblage in the garnet-sillimanite bearing metapelite is: garnet-sillimanite-biotite-plagioclase-quartz. Garnet porphyroblasts contain sillimanite-biotite bearing inclusion trails. Matrix foliations consist of biotite, sillimanite, quartz. Peak pressure-temperature calculated for garnet formation are ~7-8 kbar, 800ºC. Garnet is replaced along the margins by biotite during retrogression. Within garnet-staurolite-kyanite schist, peak assemblage is formed of garnet-staurolite-biotite-kyanite quartz, where garnet and staurolite occur as porphyroclasts and the matrix foliations are formed of kyanite-biotite-quartz. Mineral assemblages and compositions in the rock indicate peak pressure-temperature >8 kbar, 600ºC. The ages of the metamorphic events at sillimanite and kyanite facies are not well-constrained. However since the Bhilwara supracrustal units occur close to the Grenvillian orogenic belt at Sandmata Complex, the timing of the peak metamorphism can be constrained at ~1.0 Ga. Garnet-sillimanite-bearing assemblages noted in the Bhilwara Supracrustal Belt, has also been noted from the Grenvillian belts in the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt. So the question that needs to be addressed is whether the Grenvillian orogenic belt recorded form the Sandmata Complex in Rajasthan and that of the Eastern Ghat Belt had been a continuous orogenic belt? Such possibilities can be addressed by establishing detailed structural

  3. Mineralogy of a scapolite-bearing rock from Rajasthan, northwest peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ram S.

    1981-04-01

    Electron-microprobe analyses of coexisting phases from a scapolite-garnet-epidote-calcite-plagioclase-hornblende-pyroxene (sphere-hematite-magnetite) rock of the Aravalli Group (Early Precambrian) at Karera, district Bhilwara, Rajasthan, reveal that chlorine is an important constituent of both scapolite (Me 71.3 and hornblende, making the latter a dashkesanite variety. The amphibole also contains an unusually high K 2O (3.7 wt.%), and is a chlor-potassium hastingsite. The epidote contains 41% pistacite and shows complete substitution of Al by Fe 3+ in the Al-site and to some extent also in AIO and/or Al(OH) sites. The garnet is also rich in ferric iron and has a mol. composition Pyr 23Alm 8.5Gro 13And 54.5 Sp 1.0. The pyroxene is dominantly a hedenbergite. The phase relations and textural as well as geological criteria exclude metasomatic processes and favour equilibrium recrystallization of the scapolite-bearing assemblage; the chlorine presumably derived from an evaporite component of the Aravalli metasediments. The geothermometry based on the fractionation of Na and Ca between scapolite (EqAn 43.3) and plagioclase (An 85-90 yields metamorphic temperatures of around 700°C for the scapolite-bearing rock which are in agreement with those obtained by other mineral equilibria in the associated pelitic assemblages.

  4. Use of Salmonella/microsome reversion bioassay for monitoring industrial wastewater treatment plants in Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep; Bakre, Prakash

    2012-05-01

    Salmonella/microsome reversion assay was used as a biological parameter for monitoring the toxicity of common effluent treatment plant (CETP), Mandia road industrial area, Pali catering to textile industrial areas in Pali, Rajasthan. The influent and effluent water of CETP, surface water (Bandi river) and underground water were tested using Ames bioassay. The results showed presence of mutagens in surface water of Bandi river and the underground water in Pali. Further, comparison of mutagenicity of CETP influent and effluent water revealed that the treatment method employed at this plant has failed to remove mutagenic substances present in Pali textile wastewater. The study also showed that Ames assay is an important tool in genotoxic studies because of its simplicity, sensitivity to genetic damage, speed, low cost of experimentation and small amount of sample required. Further Ames assay, as seen from the results of this study, can be used as a monitoring tool for not only CETPs but also for other water resources. The outcomes of the Ames assay demonstrated its performance as a sensitive, cost-effective and relatively rapid screening tool to assess the genotoxic potential of complex environmental samples. PMID:23029899

  5. Some observations on endemic fluorosis in domestic animals in Southern Rajasthan (India).

    PubMed

    Choubisa, S L

    1999-11-01

    Chronic fluoride toxicity in the form of osteo-dental fluorosis was observed in cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats from 21 villages of Banswara, Dungarpur and Udaipur districts of Southern Rajasthan where the mean fluoride concentration in drinking water varied from 1.5 to 4.0 ppm. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in calves (< 1 year age) was greater than that in adult cattle and buffaloes. At a fluoride concentration in the water of 4.0 ppm, 100% of calves, 65.6% of buffaloes and 61.0% of cattle were found to be affected with dental fluorosis to varying degrees. In the older group of buffaloes, their teeth were brownish black instead of creamy yellow as found in calves and cattle. Out of 780 goats and 564 sheep, none revealed evidence of osteo-dental fluorosis. The overall prevalence of skeletal fluorosis was 8.5%, with the highest prevalence of 29.0% in cattle and 37.5% in buffaloes at a fluoride concentration of 3.2 ppm. None of the calves were affected with skeletal fluorosis. Intermittent lameness was observed in the older group of animals (> 7 years age) at 2.8 ppm fluoride or more in the water. None of the fluorotic animals exhibited any apparent evidence of hypothyroidism, stunted growth or low milk production. There was no correlation between gender and the prevalence of fluorosis, but the prevalence and severity of skeletal fluorosis increased with increasing fluoride concentration and age. Possible factors causing variation in fluorosis in the cattle and buffaloes in villages with identical fluoride concentrations are discussed.

  6. Neighbourhood fluorosis in people residing in the vicinity of superphosphate fertilizer plants near Udaipur city of Rajasthan (India).

    PubMed

    Choubisa, Shanti Lal; Choubisa, Darshana

    2015-08-01

    Chronic industrial fluoride toxicosis in the forms of dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis was investigated in 162 villagers (94 males and 78 females) above 15 years of age living in the vicinity of superphosphate fertilizer plants located approximately 12 km south of Udaipur city of Rajasthan, India. Out of these villagers, 90 (55.5%) and 29 (18.0%) were found to be afflicted with mild to severe dental and skeletal fluorosis, respectively. Dental fluorosis characterized with light to deep-brownish bilaterally striated horizontal lines, pits or patches and fine dots or granules was noted on incisor teeth of villagers. Irregular wearing, excessive corrosions (abrasions), dark-brownish pigmentation of exposed cementum and dentine material, diastem as between teeth, pronounced loss of tooth supporting bone with recession and bulging of gingiva (gum) were also present in subjects of older age group (>55 years). Among 29 (18.0%) individuals, mild to moderate manifestations of skeletal fluorosis such as crippling, kyphosis, invalidism and genu-varum syndrome were found. In these fluorotic subjects pain/rigidity in major joints viz. neck, back, hip, knee and shoulder was also found. None of the fluorotic subjects showed evidence of genu-valgum syndrome. Other signs of chronic industrial fluoride intoxication in soft tissues (non-skeletal fluorosis) included colic, intermittent diarrhoea or constipation, bloating, polyuria and polydipsia. These findings indicate that surrounding environment of superphosphate fertilizer plants is contaminated with fluoride emission, which in turn is causing diverse ill health effects in humans which are discussed. PMID:26160742

  7. Neighbourhood fluorosis in people residing in the vicinity of superphosphate fertilizer plants near Udaipur city of Rajasthan (India).

    PubMed

    Choubisa, Shanti Lal; Choubisa, Darshana

    2015-08-01

    Chronic industrial fluoride toxicosis in the forms of dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis was investigated in 162 villagers (94 males and 78 females) above 15 years of age living in the vicinity of superphosphate fertilizer plants located approximately 12 km south of Udaipur city of Rajasthan, India. Out of these villagers, 90 (55.5%) and 29 (18.0%) were found to be afflicted with mild to severe dental and skeletal fluorosis, respectively. Dental fluorosis characterized with light to deep-brownish bilaterally striated horizontal lines, pits or patches and fine dots or granules was noted on incisor teeth of villagers. Irregular wearing, excessive corrosions (abrasions), dark-brownish pigmentation of exposed cementum and dentine material, diastem as between teeth, pronounced loss of tooth supporting bone with recession and bulging of gingiva (gum) were also present in subjects of older age group (>55 years). Among 29 (18.0%) individuals, mild to moderate manifestations of skeletal fluorosis such as crippling, kyphosis, invalidism and genu-varum syndrome were found. In these fluorotic subjects pain/rigidity in major joints viz. neck, back, hip, knee and shoulder was also found. None of the fluorotic subjects showed evidence of genu-valgum syndrome. Other signs of chronic industrial fluoride intoxication in soft tissues (non-skeletal fluorosis) included colic, intermittent diarrhoea or constipation, bloating, polyuria and polydipsia. These findings indicate that surrounding environment of superphosphate fertilizer plants is contaminated with fluoride emission, which in turn is causing diverse ill health effects in humans which are discussed.

  8. Combining molecular-marker and chemical analysis of Capparis decidua (Capparaceae) in the Thar Desert of Western Rajasthan (india).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sushil; Sharma, Ramavtar; Kumar, Vinod; Vyas, Govind K; Rathore, Abhishek

    2013-03-01

    The Thar Desert, a very inhospitable place, accommodates only plant species that survive acute drought, unpredictable precipitation, and those can grow in the limited moisture of sandy soils. Capparis decidua is among one of the few plants able to grow well under these conditions. This species is highly exploited and has been naturally taken, as local people use it for various purposes like food, timber and fuel, although, no management or conservation efforts have been established. The present study was conducted in this arid area of Western Rajasthan (India) with the aim to obtain preliminary molecular information about this group of plants. We evaluated diversity among 46 samples of C. decidua using chemical parameters and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Fourteen chemical parameters and eight minerals (total 22 variables) of this species fruits were estimated. A total of 14 RAPD primers produced 235 band positions, of which 81.27% were polymorphic. Jaccard's similarity coefficients for RAPD primers ranged from 0.34 to 0.86 with a mean genetic similarity of 0.50. As per observed coefficient of variation, NDF (Neutral Detergent Fiber) content was found to be the most variable trait followed by starch and soluble carbohydrate. The Manhattan dissimilarity coefficient values for chemical parameters ranged between 0.02-0.31 with an average of 0.092. The present study revealed a very low correlation (0.01) between chemical parameters and RAPD-based matrices. The low correlation between chemical- and RAPD-based matrices indicated that the two methods were different and highly variable. The chemical-based diversity will assist in selection of nutritionally rich samples for medicinal purpose, while genetic diversity to face natural challenges and find sustainable ways to promote conservation for future use.

  9. Morphology and Chemical composition of Atmospheric Particles over Semi-Arid region (Jaipur, Rajasthan) of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Agnihotri, R.; Yadav, P.; Singh, S.; Tawale, J. S.; Rashmi, R.; Prasad, M.; Arya, B. C.; Mishra, N.

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainties associated with the radiative forcing of atmospheric dust particles is highest, owing to lack of region-specific dust morphology (particle shape, size) and mineralogy (chemical composition) database, needed for modeling their optical properties (Mishra and Tripathi, 2008). To fill this gap for the Indian region, we collected atmospheric particles (with aerodynamic size <5um, PM5 and a few bulk particles; TSP) from seven sites of Jaipur and nearby locales (semi-arid region, in the vicinity of Thar Desert of Rajasthan) at varying altitude, during late winters of ca. 2012. PM5 particles were collected on Teflon filters (for bulk chemical analyses), while pure Tin substrates (~1×1 mm2) were used for investigating individual particle morphology. Using Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with Energy Dispersive X ray (SEM-EDX) facility at NPL, images of individual particles were recorded and the morphological parameters (e.g. Aspect ratio; AR, Circulatory parameter; CIR.) were retrieved following Okada et al. (2001), whereas chemical compositions of individual particles were determined by EDX and bulk samples by X ray fluorescence (XRF). The geometrical size distributions of atmospheric particles were generated for each site. Based on NIST (National Institute of Standard and Technology, USA) morphology database, the site-specific individual particle shapes reveal predominance of "Layered" (calcite and quartz rich), "Angular" structures (quartz rich) and "Flattened" particles over all the sites. Particles were found to be highly non-spherical with irregular shapes (CIR varying from 1 to 0.22 with median value ~0.76; AR varying from 1 to 5.4 with median value ~1.64). Noteworthy to mention, that unit values of AR and CIR represent spherical particles. Chemical analyses of PM5 particles revealed dominance of crustal elements e.g. Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, in general. Particles over Kukas Hill (27.027° N, 75.919° E; ~800 MAGL) showed highest Fe mass fractions (~43

  10. Rifting to India-Asia Reactivation: Multi-phase Structural Evolution of the Barmer Basin, Rajasthan, northwest India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, M. J.; Bladon, A.; Clarke, S.; Najman, Y.; Copley, A.; Kloppenburg, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Barmer Basin, situated within the West Indian Rift System, is an intra-cratonic rift basin produced during Gondwana break-up. Despite being a prominent oil and gas province, the structural evolution and context of the rift within northwest India remains poorly understood. Substantial subsurface datasets acquired during hydrocarbon exploration provide an unrivalled tool to investigate the tectonic evolution of the Barmer Basin rift and northwest India during India-Asia collision. Here we present a structural analysis using seismic datasets to investigate Barmer Basin evolution and place findings within the context of northwest India development. Present day rift structural architectures result from superposition of two non-coaxial extensional events; an early mid-Cretaceous rift-oblique event (NW-SE), followed by a main Paleocene rifting phase (NE-SW). Three phases of fault reactivation follow rifting: A transpressive, Late Paleocene inversion along localised E-W and NNE-SSW-trending faults; a widespread Late Paleocene-Early Eocene inversion and Late Miocene-Present Day transpressive strike-slip faulting along NW-SE-trending faults and isolated inversion structures. A major Late Eocene-Miocene unconformity in the basin is also identified, approximately coeval with those identified within the Himalayan foreland basin, suggesting a common cause related to India-Asia collision, and calling into question previous explanations that are not compatible with spatial extension of the unconformity beyond the foreland basin. Although, relatively poorly age constrained, extensional and compressional events within the Barmer Basin can be correlated with regional tectonic processes including the fragmentation of Gondwana, the rapid migration of the Greater Indian continent, to subsequent collision with Asia. New insights into the Barmer Basin development have important implications not only for ongoing hydrocarbon exploration but the temporal evolution of northwest India.

  11. Ichnofauna from the Harbans Bed of the Badhaura Formation (Sterlitmakian), Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Kantimati G.; Borkar, Vidyadhar D.

    2014-03-01

    In the first ever systematic study of trace fossils from the Badhaura Formation, the authors described a nesting burrow, which they ascribed to a stomatopod. The purpose of this paper is two-fold: primarily, to document ichnofauna from (post-glacial marine late Palaeozoic rocks of peninsular India) the Badhaura Formation (Sterlitmakian) representing marine rocks deposited following the Late Palaeozoic glaciation and secondly to contribute to the data on post-glacial ichnofauna from constituent continents of the Gondwanaland. Trace fossils described here are from the Harbans Bed, the topmost lithounit of the Badhaura Formation. The ichnofauna includes Arenicolites tenuis, Beaconites isp., Curvolithus isp., Cylindrichnus concentricus, Didymaulichnus lyelli, Ophiomorpha isp., Palaeophycus tubularis, Planolites beverleyensis, P. montanus, Rosselia chonoides, R. socialis, Skolithos linearis, Taenidium cameronensis, Thalassinoides paradoxicus, Thalassinoides isp. and a flask-shaped brood chamber assigned to a stomatopod crustacean. This mixed assemblage is assigned to distal Skolithos ichnofacies and is suggestive of a period of relatively quiet, shallow water conditions of deposition. The ichnofauna, when viewed in context of peri-gondwanic ichnofaunas, mainly consisting of simple tracks and trails, from late Palaeozoic post-glacial deposits of other Gondwanan continents, is interesting due to dominance of domichnia. Profusion of brood chambers along with Thalassinoides in the Badhaura Formation validates the concept of pre-Mesozoic Thalassinoides being non-decapod in origin and suggestive of adaptive convergence.

  12. Polychronous (Early Cretaceous to Palaeogene) emplacement of the Mundwara alkaline complex, Rajasthan, India: 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, petrochemistry and geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Kanchan; Cucciniello, Ciro; Sheth, Hetu; Vijayan, Anjali; Sharma, Kamal Kant; Purohit, Ritesh; Jagadeesan, K. C.; Shinde, Sapna

    2016-07-01

    The Mundwara alkaline plutonic complex (Rajasthan, north-western India) is considered a part of the Late Cretaceous-Palaeogene Deccan Traps flood basalt province, based on geochronological data (mainly 40Ar/39Ar, on whole rocks, biotite and hornblende). We have studied the petrology and mineral chemistry of some Mundwara mafic rocks containing mica and amphibole. Geothermobarometry indicates emplacement of the complex at middle to upper crustal levels. We have obtained new 40Ar/39Ar ages of 80-84 Ma on biotite separates from mafic rocks and 102-110 Ma on whole-rock nepheline syenites. There is no evidence for excess 40Ar. The combined results show that some of the constituent intrusions of the Mundwara complex are of Deccan age, but others are older and unrelated to the Deccan Traps. The Mundwara alkaline complex is thus polychronous and similar to many alkaline complexes around the world that show recurrent magmatism, sometimes over hundreds of millions of years. The primary biotite and amphibole in Mundwara mafic rocks indicate hydrous parental magmas, derived from hydrated mantle peridotite at relatively low temperatures, thus ruling out a mantle plume. This hydration and metasomatism of the Rajasthan lithospheric mantle may have occurred during Jurassic subduction under Gondwanaland, or Precambrian subduction events. Low-degree decompression melting of this old, enriched lithospheric mantle, due to periodic diffuse lithospheric extension, gradually built the Mundwara complex from the Early Cretaceous to Palaeogene time.

  13. Tectonic significance of Neoproterozoic magmatism of Nakora area, Malani igneous suite, Western Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Naresh; Vallinayagam, G.

    2014-05-01

    Three magmatic phases are distinguished in the Neoproterozoic Nakora Ring Complex (NRC) of Malani Igneous Suite (MIS), namely (a) Extrusive (b) Intrusive and (c) Dyke phase. Magmatism at NRC initiated with minor amount of (basic) basalt flows and followed by the extensive/voluminous acid (rhyolites-trachytes) flows. The ripple marks are observed at the Dadawari area of NRC in tuffaceous rhyolite flow which suggests the aqueous condition of flows deposition. The emplacement of the magma appears to have been controlled by a well defined NE-SW tectonic lineament and cut by radial pattern of dykes. These NE-SW tectonic lineaments are the linear zones of crustal weakness and high heat flow. The spheroidal and rapakivi structures in the Nakora acid volcanics indicate the relationship between genetic link and magma mixing. Basalt-trachyte-rhyolite association suggests that the large amount of heat is supplied to the crust from the magma chamber before the eruption. The field (elliptical/ring structures), mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of Nakora granites attest an alkaline character in their evolution and consistent with within plate tectonic setting. The emplacement of these granites and associated volcanics is controlled by ring structures, a manifestation of plume activity and cauldron subsidence, an evidence of extensional tectonic environment. NRC granites are the product of partial melting of rocks similar to banded gneiss from Kolar Schist Belt of India. The present investigations suggest that the magmatic suites of NRC rocks are derived from a crustal source and the required heat supplied from a mantle plume.

  14. Shift work--problems and its impact on female nurses in Udaipur, Rajasthan India.

    PubMed

    Rathore, H; Shukla, K; Singh, S; Tiwari, G

    2012-01-01

    Abstract : There is good evidence that shift work has negative effects on workers health, safety and performance. It is quite appropriate that attention is paid to this very important feature of socio-technical systems, which may adversely affect mental and physical health, social life and safety of shift workers. Research into the impact of shift work on professionals has consistently identified a range of negative outcomes in physical, psychological, and social domains (Akerstedt, 1988; Costa, Lievore, Casaletti, Gaffuri, & Folkard, 1989; Kogi, 2005; Paley & Tepas, 1994). Hospitals, the biggest employer in the health care field, employ more night shift workers than any other industry. It can therefore be inferred that in medical domain high percentage of workforce may be affected by problems related to shift work. Thus the present study will provide knowledge base for the problems faced by the female nurses. The present study was undertaken with an objective of getting an insight into the problems faced by female nurses in shift work. . It was found that the female nurses in India worked on roaster pattern of change in shift every seven days. They did not have a say in the change of duties, it could only be done on mutual grounds. Partners of younger group did not much adjust to their shift pattern this created stress among the nurses.The results showed that the female nurses in both the age groups i.e. 30-45 years and 45-60 years faced many problems related to health and well being, fatigue, social and domestic situations. They could not give much time to their children in particular. Travelling in nights was risky for them. Common problem was the insufficient sleep during night shifts. The nurses had to cater to the needs of the family, children in particular along with the adjustments to be made due to shift work. They had to sometimes do the night duties and attend social functions as a part of their duty. Children and husband in some cases did not cooperate

  15. Nature and time of emplacement of a pegmatoidal granite within the Delhi Fold Belt near Bayalan, Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, N.; Sen, J.; Pal, T.; Ghosh, T.

    2009-04-01

    The study area is situated about 70 km south east of Ajmer, in Rajasthan, India around the village Bayala (26o 02' 19 N''; 74o 21' 01'') within the Ajmer district of Central Rajasthan. The area is along the eastern flank of the central portion of the Precambrian South Delhi Fold Belt (SDFB) and it stratigraphically belongs to the Bhim Group of rocks. Basement rocks of Archaean age, commonly known as the Banded gneissic Complex (BGC), is exposed to the east, where the rocks of the Bhim Group rests unconformably over BGC. To the west gneissic basement rocks of mid-Proterozoic times underlie the Bhim Group and have been referred to as the Beawar gneiss (BG). The Bhim Group of rocks comprises of metamorphosed marls and calc-silicate gneisses with minor amounts of quartzites and pelitic schists, indicative of its shallow marine origin. Within the Bhim Group, a pegmatoidal granite has intruded the calc silicate gneisses of the area. The pegmatoidal granite body is elliptical in outline with the long dimension(20 km) trending N-S and covers an area of 300 sq. km. approximately. This granite have so far been mapped as basement rocks (BG) surrounding the Beawar town (26o 06' 05'' N; 74o 19' 03'' E), 50 km south east of Ajmer. Rafts of calc-silicate gneisses, belonging to the Bhim Group, are seen to be entrapped within granite. Fragments of BG and its equivalents have also been found as caught up blocks within this pegmatoidal granite body near Andheri Devari, a small hamlet east of Beawar. The objective of the study was to map this pegmatoidal body, and decipher the mechanism and time of emplacement of this granite. A detailed structural mapping of the area in a 1:20000 scale spread over a 30 sq. km area in the vicinity of Bayala was carried out to analyse the geometry and the time of emplacement of the pegmatitic granite. The ridges of calc silicates and marbles adjoining the area were studied for the structural analyses of the Delhi fold belt rocks of the area. The calc

  16. Cocos sahnii Kaul: a Cocos nucifera L.-like fruit from the Early Eocene rainforest of Rajasthan, western India.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Anumeha; Mehrotra, Rakesh C; Guleria, Jaswant S

    2012-09-01

    Cocos sahnii Kaul, a fossil palm fruit, is validated and described from the Fuller's earth deposits of Kapurdi village of Rajasthan considered as Early Eocene in age. The fossil best resembles the genus Cocos, particularly Cocos nucifera L., which is now a common coastal element thriving in highly moist conditions. The recovery of this coconut-like fruit, along with earlier described evergreen taxa from the same formation, suggests the existence of typical tropical, warm and humid coastal conditions during the depositional period. The present arid to semi-arid climatic conditions occurring in Rajasthan indicate drastic climate change in the region during the Cenozoic. The possible time for the onset of aridity in the region which caused the total eradication of semi-evergreen to evergreen forests is discussed, as well as the palaeobiogeography of coconuts. PMID:22922201

  17. Acaricide resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Hyalomma anatolicum collected from Haryana and Rajasthan states of India.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Ruchi Singh; Sangwan, Arun Kumar; Sangwan, Nirmal; Kumar, Sachin

    2016-08-01

    Acaricide resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Hyalomma anatolicum ticks against deltamethrin and diazinon was assessed in Hisar (Haryana) and its adjoining district Churu (Rajasthan) using adult immersion test (AIT) and larval packet test (LPT). The mortality slope, LC50, LC95, 95 % confidence limit and resistance factor of field ticks were determined. Results showed that R. (B.) microplus ticks collected from Tohana (Hisar) were found resistant to both the acaricides while the ticks of Agroha (Hisar) were found to be susceptible using AIT. Similar results were observed by using standard method of LPT. Again, H. anatolicum tick isolates of Tara Nagar (Churu) were found susceptible whereas Churu tick isolates were found to be resistant using AIT for both the acaricides. LPT indicated susceptible status of H. anatolicum ticks collected from Churu as well as Tara Nagar for both the acaricides. The study warrants the need for strategic use of available acaricides to overcome the development of acaricide resistance in ticks.

  18. Opportunities and barriers in service delivery through mobile phones (mHealth) for Severe Mental Illnesses in Rajasthan, India: A multi-site study.

    PubMed

    Jain, Nikhil; Singh, Harful; Koolwal, Ghanshyam Das; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Aditya

    2015-04-01

    Widespread use of mobile technology holds a lot of promise for mental health service delivery in regions where mental health resources are scarce and the treatment gap is large. The felt needs of the clients, and the patterns and barriers of mobile usage must be understood before some intervention can be planned. The study presented in this paper was designed to fill this gap in the region of Rajasthan, India. The study was conducted in three tertiary care hospitals. Clients utilizing services for Severe Mental Illnesses (SMIs) were the participants of the study. Information about ownership, usage patterns and barriers to accessing mobile technology and felt needs in terms of mental health services that could be delivered through mobile phones were sought from the participants. The typical respondents in all three centres were middle-aged, married, Hindu males belonging to lower socio-economic strata from rural background. Seventy two to 92% of participants had access to mobile phone. The most preferred mode of service delivery was through calls. Helpline for crisis resolution and telephonic follow-up of stable patients emerged as the most felt need of the participants. Barriers to mobile phones usage included affordability, lack of necessity, poor signal. In conclusion, the study shows that the access to mobile phones amongst clients receiving services for SMI is widespread and offers new opportunities in service delivery in the region.

  19. Association between Early Marriage and Intimate Partner Violence in India: A Focus on Youth from Bihar and Rajasthan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Pearson, Erin

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and early marriage is explored using the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3). The NFHS-3 collected data from a representative sample of women and men in India with a large enough sample size to have a representative sample at the state level. The focus is on youth from…

  20. Acaricide resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Hyalomma anatolicum collected from Haryana and Rajasthan states of India.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Ruchi Singh; Sangwan, Arun Kumar; Sangwan, Nirmal; Kumar, Sachin

    2016-08-01

    Acaricide resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Hyalomma anatolicum ticks against deltamethrin and diazinon was assessed in Hisar (Haryana) and its adjoining district Churu (Rajasthan) using adult immersion test (AIT) and larval packet test (LPT). The mortality slope, LC50, LC95, 95 % confidence limit and resistance factor of field ticks were determined. Results showed that R. (B.) microplus ticks collected from Tohana (Hisar) were found resistant to both the acaricides while the ticks of Agroha (Hisar) were found to be susceptible using AIT. Similar results were observed by using standard method of LPT. Again, H. anatolicum tick isolates of Tara Nagar (Churu) were found susceptible whereas Churu tick isolates were found to be resistant using AIT for both the acaricides. LPT indicated susceptible status of H. anatolicum ticks collected from Churu as well as Tara Nagar for both the acaricides. The study warrants the need for strategic use of available acaricides to overcome the development of acaricide resistance in ticks. PMID:27100113

  1. Pregnancy-related deaths in rural Rajasthan, India: exploring causes, context, and care-seeking through verbal autopsy.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Kirti; Iyengar, Sharad D; Suhalka, Virendra; Dashora, Kalpana

    2009-04-01

    In 2002-2003, all deaths (n=156) of women aged 15-49 years in a block of southern Rajasthan were investigated to determine the cause of death and care-seeking behaviour. Family members of 156 (98%) of 160 deceased women were interviewed following the comprehensive listing of all deaths among women of reproductive age. Of the 156 deaths, 31 (20%) were pregnancy-related; 77% of these women died during the postpartum period, and 74% of the deaths occurred in the home. Direct and indirect obstetric causes were responsible for 58% and 29% of the deaths respectively; 12% were injury-related deaths. Medical care was sought for 65% of the women, and 29% were hospitalized. Family perception of not being able to afford treatment at distant hospitals was a major barrier to seeking care, and 60% of those who sought care had to borrow money for treatment. Lack of skilled attendance and immediate postpartum care were major factors contributing to deaths. Improved access to emergency obstetric care facilities in rural areas and steps to eliminate costs at public hospitals would be crucial to prevent pregnancy-related deaths. PMID:19489422

  2. Radon monitoring in groundwater samples from some areas of northern Rajasthan, India, using a RAD7 detector.

    PubMed

    Rani, Asha; Mehra, Rohit; Duggal, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    Radon monitoring has been increasingly conducted worldwide because of the hazardous effects of radon on the health of human beings. In the present research, groundwater samples were taken from hand pumps at different areas of the districts of SriGanganagar, Hanumangarh, Sikar and Churu in northern Rajasthan. RAD7, an electronic radon detector (Durridge co., USA), was used to estimate the radon concentration in groundwater used for drinking. Radon concentration in the groundwater ranged from 0.5 ± 0.3 Bq l(-1) (Chimanpura) to 85.7±4.9 Bq l(-1)(Khandela) with an average value of 9.03±1.03 Bq l(-1). In 89 % of the samples, radon concentration is well below the allowed maximum contamination level (MCL) of radon concentration in water of 11 Bq l(-1), proposed by US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Only in 11 % of the samples, the recorded values were found to be higher than MCL proposed by USEPA and only in 5 % of the samples, the recorded values were found to be higher than the values between 4 and 40 Bq l(-1) suggested for radon concentration in water for human consumption by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the effect of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The annual effective dose in stomach and lungs per person was also evaluated in this research. The estimated total annual effective dose of adults ranged from 1.34 to 229.68 µSv y(-1). The total annual effective dose from three locations of the studied area was found to be greater than the safe limit (0.1 mSv y(-1)) recommended by World Health Organization and EU Council.

  3. Reaction enhanced channelised fluid-flux along mid- crustal shear zone: An example from Mesoproterozoic Phulad Shear Zone, Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sadhana M.; Choudhury, Manideepa Roy; Das, Subhrajyoti

    2016-09-01

    Fluid infiltration at great depth during regional metamorphism plays a major role in mass transport and is responsible for significant rheological changes in the rock. Calc-silicate rocks of the Kajalbas area of Delhi Fold Belt, Rajasthan, are characterised by foliation parallel alternate bands of amphibole-rich and clinopyroxene-plagioclase feldspar-rich layers of varying thicknesses (mm to decimetre thick). Textural relation suggests that the amphibole grains formed from clinopyroxene and plagioclase in the late phase of regional deformation. Algebraic analysis of the reaction textures and mineral compositions was performed with the computer program C-Space to obtain the balanced chemical reactions that led to the formation of amphibole-rich bands. The computed balanced reaction is 70.74 Clinopyroxene + 27.23 Plagioclase + 22.018 H2O + 5.51 K++ 1.00 Mg2++ 27.15 Fe2+ = 22.02 Amphibole + 67.86 SiO2 aqueous + 36.42 Ca2++ 8.98 Na+. The constructed reaction suggests that aqueous fluid permeated the calc-silicate rock along mm to decimetre thick channels, metasomatized the clinopyroxene-plagioclase bearing rocks to form the amphibole-rich layers. The regional deformation presumably created the fluid channels thereby allowing the metasomatic fluid to enter the rock system. The above reaction has large negative volume change for solid phases indicating reaction-induced permeability. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the fluid-rock interaction occurred at 665 ±05∘C and 6.6 ±0.25 kbar (corresponding to ˜20 km depth). Textural modeling integrating the textural features and balanced chemical reaction of the calc-silicate rocks of Mesoproterozoic Phulad Shear Zone thus indicate that extremely channelled fluid flow was reaction enhanced and caused major change in the rock rheology.

  4. Occupational morbidities and their association with nutrition and environmental factors among textile workers of desert areas of Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Madhu B; Fotedar, Ranjana; Lakshminarayana, J

    2005-09-01

    In Rajasthan 21,000 workers are engaged in hand processing textile industries (process gray/raw cotton cloth). They are exposed to hazards of the textile industries besides the harsh conditions of the desert which contributes to adverse effects on their health. To explore the occupational health problems of the desert textile workers and their association with nutrition and environmental factors, investigations were carried-out in two districts, Jodhpur and Pali. Data on occupational disease conditions, environmental factors, nutritional deficiency signs and anemia were collected for a total of 1,240 individuals out of which 845 were textile workers and 395 were comparative group workers of the same age groups. The main disease conditions, i.e. aches (19.4%), respiratory (12.1%) and fever (7.7%), were higher in textile workers than the comparative group. Dyeing group workers suffered the most (25.5%) from aches, significantly higher than the comparative group (11.6%), may be due to a higher percentage of severe anemia, besides physical labour. Printing and bleaching group workers suffered from respiratory problems (15.5%) almost twice as much as the comparative group, possibly due to exposure to fumes of acids and use of chemical dyes. Housing conditions, personal hygiene and education showed negative associations with disease conditions but positive associations with anemia. The study revealed that in the textile industry, disease conditions vary with the categorization of work. The findings suggest the need for implementation of safety measures according to the type of work in textile industries, besides extension of health and nutrition education and welfare programs.

  5. Perception of Rural and Urban Mothers about Consumption of Targeted Fortified Products in Jaipur, Rajasthan - India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani

    2013-01-01

    Background: Food fortification is the addition of one or more essential nutrients to a food whether or not it is normally contained in the food, for the purpose of preventing or correcting a demonstrated deficiency of one or more nutrients in the population or specific population groups. The present cross-sectional study was conducted to obtain comprehensive information towards consumption of Targeted Fortified Products (TFP) among rural and urban mothers of children <3 years in Jaipur, India. Methods: In this cross-sectional study conducted in 2012, three hundred rural and urban mothers were selected from Primary Health Centre, Achrol Village and Uniara Hospital in Jaipur, Rajasthan. The data were collected using a selfadministered questionnaire. The current nutritional status of children was determined by anthropometric measurements. Results: A total of 53.33% rural and 65.33% urban mothers had knowledge (P=0.046), amongst which 52.67% rural and 66.00% urban mothers (P= 0.026) consumed TFP directed towards mothers. In addition, 56% rural and 94.67% urban mothers had knowledge (P=0.000) about TFP directed towards children, amongst which 19.33% rural and 50.67% urban mothers (P=0.000) fed their children with TFP. Conclusion: There was significantly less awareness regarding consumption of TFP directed towards both pregnant women and children among rural when compared to urban population. Attitudes seemed to be governed by the traditional beliefs and family influences of region rather than the knowledge obtained. There is a need of intensive coordinated efforts to create awareness among mothers to enhance the maternal and child diets through TFP. PMID:24688954

  6. The Rajasthan Canal Project: A Case Study of Economic Development. Toward a Better World Series, Learning Kit No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Harriet; Ross-Larson, Bruce, Ed.

    This World Bank (Washington, D.C.) kit is designed to teach secondary school social studies students about the Rajasthan (India) Canal Project and the impact it has had on the state of Rajasthan and its population. The kit contains a pamphlet, a booklet, a sound filmstrip, and a teacher's guide. The pamphlet, "Economic Summary: India," places the…

  7. Mapping the Rural Adolescent Girls' Participation in Residential Non-Formal Education Program--A Study in Lunkaransar Block, Rajasthan, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shilpa

    2002-01-01

    The present study, "Mapping Rural Adolescent Girl's Participation in Residential Non- Formal Education Program--A Study in Lunkaransar Block, Rajasthan", was an attempt to understand the dimensions of rural adolescent girls' participation in the "Balika Shivir" Program. It is a six month residential non-formal education program being organized by…

  8. Origin of alternate amphibole and quartz rich bands in amphibole bearing quartzite from North Khetri Copper Belt, Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, J.; Baidya, A. S.; Pal, D. D. C.

    2015-12-01

    North Khetri Copper Belt (NKCB), located in the northern part of Western Indian shield, is one of most important copper repositories in India. Mineralization is hosted by quartzite containing abundant amphibole in the form of alternation of amphibole ± albite and quartz ± albite bands. In a succession near Chandmari mine of NKCB, this thick banded unit is laterally extended over few hundreds of meters. Band thickness varies from few millimetres to tens of centimetres. Such banding (commonly appearing as gneissic banding) of amphibole ± albite is unlikely to be generated in a quartzo-feldspathic rock metamorphosed at lower amphibolite facies. Amphibole, under microscope, shows pleochroism in shades of green. Their grains are inclusion free and do not show any orientation. From major oxide analysis, their average composition is found to be Ca2Mg2.5Fe2+1.5Fe3+0.5Al1.5Si7O22(OH)2. Forming Fe-Mg rich amphibole in a quartzo-feldspathic unit is again challenging its metamorphic origin. Also, amphibole of same composition found in the form of veins within the host rock. All these observations inferring that the amphibole is probably of hydrothermal origin. Albite in host rock can supply Si, Al and O. If a fluid containing Fe, Mg and Ca intrudes into the host rock, the amphibole of desirable composition may form. However, such alternating banding of amphibole ± albite and quartz ± albite is enigmatic. It is possible that the banded nature is inherited from an existing banded rock with different mineralogy and mineral solubility, e.g. alternation of impure/siliceous carbonate and siliciclastic rocks. Presence of carbonate, mainly dolomite, has been reported early and also observed in field. When a hydrothermal fluid, containing some Fe, had invaded this unit, it reacted with carbonate units and replaced the carbonate by amphibole. This will result in amphibole of expected composition and will also mimic the inherited banded nature in original succession. Reaction will

  9. Acceptability of Home-Assessment Post Medical Abortion and Medical Abortion in a Low-Resource Setting in Rajasthan, India. Secondary Outcome Analysis of a Non-Inferiority Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Mandira; Iyengar, Kirti; Essén, Birgitta; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Iyengar, Sharad D.; Bring, Johan; Soni, Sunita; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies evaluating acceptability of simplified follow-up after medical abortion have focused on high-resource or urban settings where telephones, road connections, and modes of transport are available and where women have formal education. Objective To investigate women’s acceptability of home-assessment of abortion and whether acceptability of medical abortion differs by in-clinic or home-assessment of abortion outcome in a low-resource setting in India. Design Secondary outcome of a randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial. Setting Outpatient primary health care clinics in rural and urban Rajasthan, India. Population Women were eligible if they sought abortion with a gestation up to 9 weeks, lived within defined study area and agreed to follow-up. Women were ineligible if they had known contraindications to medical abortion, haemoglobin < 85mg/l and were below 18 years. Methods Abortion outcome assessment through routine clinic follow-up by a doctor was compared with home-assessment using a low-sensitivity pregnancy test and a pictorial instruction sheet. A computerized random number generator generated the randomisation sequence (1:1) in blocks of six. Research assistants randomly allocated eligible women who opted for medical abortion (mifepristone and misoprostol), using opaque sealed envelopes. Blinding during outcome assessment was not possible. Main Outcome Measures Women’s acceptability of home-assessment was measured as future preference of follow-up. Overall satisfaction, expectations, and comparison with previous abortion experiences were compared between study groups. Results 731 women were randomized to the clinic follow-up group (n = 353) or home-assessment group (n = 378). 623 (85%) women were successfully followed up, of those 597 (96%) were satisfied and 592 (95%) found the abortion better or as expected, with no difference between study groups. The majority, 355 (57%) women, preferred home-assessment in the event of a future

  10. A retrospective approach to assess human health risks associated with growing air pollution in urbanized area of Thar Desert, western Rajasthan, India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution has been a matter of great concern globally because of the associated health risks to individuals. The situation is getting worse in developing countries with more urbanization, industrialization and more importantly the rapidly growing population posing a threat to human life in the form of pulmonary, cardiovascular, carcinogenic or asthmatic diseases by accumulating toxic pollutants, harmful gases, metals, hydrocarbons etc. Objective The present study was undertaken to assess the magnitude of ambient air pollutants and their human health risks like respiratory ailments, infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases and cancer using a Retrospective Approach of Bart Ostra. Methodology The parameters PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2, NH3 and O3 were monitored at all selected study sites monitored through a high volume sampler (APM 451 Envirotech, Envirotech Instruments Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India). Retrospective Approach was used for assessment of risk factors and disease burden of respiratory and cardiopulmonary health problems. Results Environmental burden of disease showed that the problem of health related to air pollution is a main concern particularly in the growing cities of India. High to critical level of air pollution including PM10, PM2.5, NOx, SO2, NH3 and O3 was observed in all seasons at traffic intersections and commercial sites. The respiratory infections (25% incidence in population exposed to indoor smoke problems) and a prevalence of asthma/COPD (4.4%) in households exposed to high vehicular pollution along with signs of coronary artery/heart disease and/or hypertension and cancers (37.9-52.2%), were reported requiring preventive measures. Conclusion The study reflects a great concern for the mankind with the need of having streamline ways to limit air pollution and emphasize upon efficiently determining the risk of illness upon exposure to air pollution. PMID:24406114

  11. Maternal Health: A Case Study of Rajasthan

    PubMed Central

    Iyengar, Kirti; Gupta, Vikram

    2009-01-01

    This case study has used the results of a review of literature to understand the persistence of poor maternal health in Rajasthan, a large state of north India, and to make some conclusions on reasons for the same. The rate of reduction in Rajasthan's maternal mortality ratio (MMR) has been slow, and it has remained at 445 per 1000 livebirths in 2003. The government system provides the bulk of maternal health services. Although the service infrastructure has improved in stages, the availability of maternal health services in rural areas remains poor because of low availability of human resources, especially midwives and clinical specialists, and their non-residence in rural areas. Various national programmes, such as the Family Planning, Child Survival and Safe Motherhood and Reproductive and Child Health (phase 1 and 2), have attempted to improve maternal health; however, they have not made the desired impact either because of an earlier emphasis on ineffective strategies, slow implementation as reflected in the poor use of available resources, or lack of effective ground-level governance, as exemplified by the widespread practice of informally charging users for free services. Thirty-two percent of women delivered in institutions in 2005-2006. A 2006 government scheme to give financial incentives for delivering in government institutions has led to substantial increase in the proportion of institutional deliveries. The availability of safe abortion services is limited, resulting in a large number of informal abortion service providers and unsafe abortions, especially in rural areas. The recent scheme of Janani Suraksha Yojana provides an opportunity to improve maternal and neonatal health, provided the quality issues can be adequately addressed. PMID:19489421

  12. The tribal girl child in Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Bhanti, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the status of the girl child among tribes in India. Tribes have son preference but do not discriminate against girls by female infanticide or sex determination tests. Girls do not inherit land, but they are not abused, hated, or subjected to rigid social norms. Girls are not veiled and are free to participate in dancing and other recreational programs. There is no dowry on marriage. The father of the bridegroom pays a brideprice to the father of the girl. Widowed or divorced women are free to marry again. Daughters care for young children, perform housework, and work in the field with their brothers. In the tribal village of Choti Underi girls were not discriminated against in health and nutrition, but there was a gender gap in education. Both girls and boys were equally exposed to infection and undernourishment. Tribals experience high rates of infant and child mortality due to poverty and its related malnutrition. Child labor among tribals is a way of life for meeting the basic needs of the total household. A recent report on tribals in Rajasthan reveals that 15-20% of child labor involved work in mines that were dangerous to children's health. Girl children had no security provisions or minimum wages. Tribal children were exploited by human service agencies. Child laborers were raped. Government programs in tribal areas should focus on improving living conditions for children in general. Special programs for girls are needed for providing security in the workplace and increasing female educational levels. More information is needed on the work burden of tribal girls that may include wage employment as well as housework.

  13. The tribal girl child in Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Bhanti, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the status of the girl child among tribes in India. Tribes have son preference but do not discriminate against girls by female infanticide or sex determination tests. Girls do not inherit land, but they are not abused, hated, or subjected to rigid social norms. Girls are not veiled and are free to participate in dancing and other recreational programs. There is no dowry on marriage. The father of the bridegroom pays a brideprice to the father of the girl. Widowed or divorced women are free to marry again. Daughters care for young children, perform housework, and work in the field with their brothers. In the tribal village of Choti Underi girls were not discriminated against in health and nutrition, but there was a gender gap in education. Both girls and boys were equally exposed to infection and undernourishment. Tribals experience high rates of infant and child mortality due to poverty and its related malnutrition. Child labor among tribals is a way of life for meeting the basic needs of the total household. A recent report on tribals in Rajasthan reveals that 15-20% of child labor involved work in mines that were dangerous to children's health. Girl children had no security provisions or minimum wages. Tribal children were exploited by human service agencies. Child laborers were raped. Government programs in tribal areas should focus on improving living conditions for children in general. Special programs for girls are needed for providing security in the workplace and increasing female educational levels. More information is needed on the work burden of tribal girls that may include wage employment as well as housework. PMID:12158009

  14. Clinical & virological study of dengue fever outbreak in Jalore city, Rajasthan 1985.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, G S; Rodrigues, F M; Shaikh, B H; Ilkal, M A; Khangaro, S S; Mathur, K N; Joshi, K R; Vaidhye, N K

    1990-11-01

    An epidemic of acute febrile illness caused by dengue virus occurred in Jalore town, in south-west Rajasthan, in April and May, 1985. Most patients had classical signs and symptoms of dengue fever or had only a mild atypical febrile illness. A few patients had in addition haemorrhagic manifestations/shock or encephalitis. Virological studies (carried out by the National Institute of Virology, Pune) showed that dengue type 3 virus was the main etiological agent. This is the first reported outbreak of dengue in the arid zone in western Rajasthan, that occurred in summer (April-May) in contrast to other parts of India, where such outbreaks are commonly reported after the rains (between August and November).

  15. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a Nonendemic Area of South Rajasthan: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Balai, Manisha; Gupta, Lalit Kumar; Khare, Ashok Kumar; Srivastava, Ankita; Mittal, Asit; Singh, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) usually occurs in areas with hot and dry climate. In India, the desert areas of Rajasthan, Gujarat, and the plains of Northwestern frontier are endemic for this disorder. Aims and Objectives: The present study was aimed to describe clinicoepidemiological profile of the cases of CL from South Rajasthan, which is a nonendemic area of Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: During a period of 4 years (2010–2014), a total of 23 patients with CL were diagnosed. All the suspected cases of CL were interrogated in detail regarding visit to areas where CL is known to occur. This was followed by clinical examination, relevant investigations, and treatment. All except one patient were treated with azole antifungals. In one patient, CO2 laser ablation was done. Results: There were 12 (52.17%) males and 11 (47.83%) females with age ranging from 3 to 72 years. Duration of disease ranged from 7 days to 10 months. Face (15; 65.22%) and extremities (12; 52.17%) were involved in majority of the patients. Common morphologies were noduloulcerative lesions and crusted plaques. Tissue smear for Leishmania donovani bodies was positive in all except one patient. Conclusion: The present report highlights occurrence of CL in nonendemic area. Further epidemiological studies are required for identification of vector and strain of Leishmania involved. PMID:27688441

  16. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a Nonendemic Area of South Rajasthan: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Balai, Manisha; Gupta, Lalit Kumar; Khare, Ashok Kumar; Srivastava, Ankita; Mittal, Asit; Singh, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) usually occurs in areas with hot and dry climate. In India, the desert areas of Rajasthan, Gujarat, and the plains of Northwestern frontier are endemic for this disorder. Aims and Objectives: The present study was aimed to describe clinicoepidemiological profile of the cases of CL from South Rajasthan, which is a nonendemic area of Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: During a period of 4 years (2010–2014), a total of 23 patients with CL were diagnosed. All the suspected cases of CL were interrogated in detail regarding visit to areas where CL is known to occur. This was followed by clinical examination, relevant investigations, and treatment. All except one patient were treated with azole antifungals. In one patient, CO2 laser ablation was done. Results: There were 12 (52.17%) males and 11 (47.83%) females with age ranging from 3 to 72 years. Duration of disease ranged from 7 days to 10 months. Face (15; 65.22%) and extremities (12; 52.17%) were involved in majority of the patients. Common morphologies were noduloulcerative lesions and crusted plaques. Tissue smear for Leishmania donovani bodies was positive in all except one patient. Conclusion: The present report highlights occurrence of CL in nonendemic area. Further epidemiological studies are required for identification of vector and strain of Leishmania involved.

  17. Infant mortality in Rajasthan villages.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S D; Jain, T P; Joshi, S; Mangal, D K

    1981-02-01

    Social, cultural and economic factors, beside medical causes, contribute to the high percentage of infant mortality in India. This study was carried out in 12 villages in the area of the Rural Health Training Centre, Naila, India; all villages were being regularly visited by paramedical staff and doctors. During 1977 62 infants died. Most parents were illiterate and very poor. 50.3% of deaths occurred within the first 28 days of life, and 25.8% within the first 7 days of life; 72.8% of deaths occurred within the first 6 months of life. Infections and malnutrition accounted for 77.3% of all deaths; pneumonia alone claimed 25.8% of lives, malnutrition 19.3%, fever for unknown reasons 16.1%, diarrhea 14.5% and prematurity 12.9%. Deaths for pneumonia were 56.3% in the postneonatal period and 43.7% in the neonatal period, while fever predominated as a cause of death in the neonatal rather than in postneonatal period, with 70% and 30% of deaths respectively. 56.4% of deaths were recorded among children born to mothers aged 21-30, 30.7% among children of mothers over 30, and 12.9% among children of mothers below 20. 51.6% of dead children had a birth order of 5 and over; only 17.8% had first birth order. 50.1% of deaths were observed in infants who were born less than 12 months from the previous conception. Similar studies done in other Indian regions show similar percentages of infant mortality and of causes for mortality. PMID:7263000

  18. Mutagenicity assessment of textile dyes from Sanganer (Rajasthan).

    PubMed

    Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep

    2007-01-01

    Sanganer town, district Jaipur (Rajasthan, India) is famous worldwide for its hand block dyeing and textile printing industries. These industries use a variety of chemicals and dyes during processing and finishing of raw materials. Most of the textile dyes used by these industries have not been evaluated for their impact on health and the environment. The workers in these industries are exposed to such dyes with no control over the length and frequency of exposure. Further, untreated and sometimes even treated effluents from these industries are released into surface waters of Amani Shah drainage or through the drainage systems, seep into the ground water and adjoining water bodies. Since many textile dyes are known carcinogens and mutagens, a complete evaluation of the safety of these dyes in the human environment must include an evaluation of their genotoxicity or mutagenicity. A total of 12 textile dyes from Sanganer were tested for their mutagenicity, by Ames Salmonella reversion assay using strain TA 100 of Salmonella typhimurium. Only 1 dye, Red 12 B showed absence of mutagenic activity. The remaining 11 dyes were all positively mutagenic.

  19. MEDICINAL PLANTS OF RAJASTHAN IN INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Y.C.; Prabhu, V.V.; Pal, R.S.; Mishra, R.N.

    1996-01-01

    Medicinal plants used in Indian system of medicine from Rajasthan state have been surveyed and catagorised systematically. The paper deals with 205 medicinal plants, thoroughly indexed along with their important traditional application for the cure of various ailments. PMID:22556743

  20. textbf{New geochronological and isotopic constraints for the 1.7 Ga albitised A-type granitoids in NE Rajasthan, India: implications for Palaeoproterozoic crustal evolution of the Aravalli orogen}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Parampreet; Chaudhri, Naveen; Hofmann, Albrecht W.; Raczek, Ingrid; Kröner, Alfred; Okrusch, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Granitoid plutons of the Khetri complex have been studied for zircon U-Pb and Pb-Pb thermal ionisation mass spectrometry methods along with the whole-rock geochemistry to provide new constraints on the Palaeoproterozoic magmatic activity in the Aravalli orogen of northwestern peninsular India. The rocks are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, largely ferroan and intraplate A-type granites. All the intrusives, but for one, show evidence of moderate to extreme albitisation forming microcline-albite granite and albite granite, respectively. These granites have been albitised by two metasomatic fronts, an initial transformation of oligoclase to nearly pure albite, and a subsequent replacement by albite, with sharp contacts between the microcline-bearing and microcline-free zones. The mineralogical changes associated with progressive albitisation include transformation of oligoclase (~An12) and microcline (~Or95) to almost pure albite (~An0.5-2), ferropargasite to hastingsite and actinolite, and biotite to magenesio-hornblende/actinolite. Whole-rock mass balance calculations show that, during albitisation, the granites experienced major gain in Na, whereas K, Mg, Fe and Ca were lost along with Rb, Ba, Sr, Zn, LREE and U. At the scale of individual intrusions, the narrow ranges in ɛNdivalues (-1.3 to -2.9 and -4.9 to -6.2), 147Sm/144Nd ratios (0.1024 to 0.1236 and 0.1359 to 0.1492) and mean crustal residence ages (TDM = 2.28-2.17 Ga and 2.4-2.5 Ga) in moderately albitised rocks show that these parameters were not strongly affected by albitisation whereas the completely albitised granites exhibit relatively high 147Sm/144Nd ratios and low apparent ɛNdivalues. Severe scatter in the whole-rock Rb-Sr isochron plot reflects the high mobility of both Sr and Rb during albitisation. Extreme Rb loss in the completely albitised samples has effectively frozen 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the albite granites at very high values, indicating a considerable time lag (estimated to be at least

  1. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

  2. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

    Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

  3. India.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  4. India.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  5. Nyay karo ya jail bharo] Sathins of Rajasthan demand justice.

    PubMed

    Abha; Geetanjali; Radha; Ratna

    1992-01-01

    The experiences of Bhanwari, a 4-year old worker for the Women's Development Program in the Kumhar community in Rajasthan, India, is recounted. On September 22, 1992, 2 men from the Gujar community gang raped her and brutally assaulted her husband. The actions were viewed as a reprisal against her for trying to end child marriages. Legal and medical efforts were ineffective in protecting her human rights, and the actions of the men, who were known and identified within the community, were effectively concealed and condoned. The woman and her husband made a concerted effort to obtain a medical examination to prove that rape had occurred. The police accused her of making false allegations. A male doctor refused to examine her. The medical jurist refused to conduct an examination for rape unless orders were issued by the magistrate, who refused. The next day a doctor performed the examination and confirmed that Bhanwari (a mother of four) was not a virgin. Her clothing was taken as evidence, and she was forced to wear the blood-stained clothes of her husband. Since the rape, continued questioning by the police has taken the form of harassment. The National Commission for Women condemned the police behavior and concluded that evidence was tampered with and that the police were protecting the rapists. No arrests have been made. In protest over the mistreatment, a rally was held in Jaipur. During the public meeting, many accounts of sexual abuse by men were related. The issue of gender equality was raised as well as sexual harassment of female workers, who have not legal recourse. A comprehensive law is needed, and women need to speak out against the powerful alliance of politicians and state agencies.

  6. Study of {sup 222}Rn concentrations in some dwellings of Rajasthan

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, A.K.; Prasad, R.; Khan, A.J.

    1999-03-01

    Total potential alpha energy concentrations due to radon progeny were measured in 143 dwellings of Udaipur, Bikaner, and Barnswara towns of Rajasthan province of India with LR-115 type II detectors. The geometric mean values of total potential alpha energy concentrations in these three towns were found to be 1.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} J m{sup {minus}3}, 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} J m{sup {minus}3} and 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} J m{sup {minus}3} with a geometric standard deviation of 2.2, 2.2, and 2.5, respectively. The estimated lifetime risk of lung cancer due to indoor radon exposure for a total population of study area was estimated to be 6.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} or 0.67%. The mean relative loss of life expectancies were 0.20%, 0.12%, and 0.18%, respectively.

  7. India.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    In 1988, India's population stood at 817 million, 25% of which was concentrated in urban areas. The annual rate of population growth is 2.01%. Life expectancy is currently 56 years, and infant mortality is 90/1000 live births. Education is compulsory to the age of 14 years, but the adult literacy rate is only 36%. Of the work force of 300 million, 70% are engaged in agriculture, 19% are in industry and commerce, 8% work in the services and government sector, and 3% are employed in transport and communications. India's gross national product currently stands at US$246 billion, with a real growth rate of 1.8% and a per capita income of $313. Although India is a federal republic, its central government has greater power in relation to its states than is the case in the US and there is a parliamentary system. Nonetheless, some states have been revitalizing traditional village councils and introducing grassroots democracy at the village level. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and pool of skilled labor have emerged since India achieved independence, although agriculture remains the crucial economic sector. There was a surge in agricultural production in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a result of the "green revolution" that made India largely self-sufficient in grain production through the use of hybrid seeds, irrigation, and fertilizer. However, failed monsoons and severe drought conditions have created fluctuations in the output of the agricultural sector in recent years. Gradual deregulation of industry and trade is providing increased incentives for foreign trade, and the Indian Government is encouraging collaborations that involve the transfer of high technology.

  8. Investigating the allegations of Indian nuclear test preparations in the Rajasthan Desert

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, V.; Pabian, F.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes how commercial satellite imagery was used along with news reports and published scientific articles to investigate the December 1995 allegations of Indian nuclear test preparations in the Rajasthan Desert. Taking the allegations against India as an example of a future CTB compliance dispute, the investigation was conducted to test the utility of commercial satellite imagery for CTB verification. The technical inquiry produced a series of findings on India`s nuclear testing history and on the recent nuclear test allegations. These findings included the exact location of the subsidence crater created by the May 18, 1974 nuclear test, the discovery of an adjacent military range near Khetolai village, and the observation of recent large-scale, unusual activity at this military range in the immediate vicinity of the 1974 test site. The image-derived information was used to sift fact from fiction in the conflicting media reports. It was then integrated into the collection of credible evidence and analyzed to determine whether the observed activity at the Khetolai military range was conventional, missile testing, nuclear, or innocuous. 95 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Was the July 1981 rainstorm over Rajasthan unprecedented?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, O. N.; Rakhecha, P. R.; Mandal, B. N.; Sangam, R. B.

    1982-05-01

    The rainstorm of 17 to 21 July 1981 which caused exceptionally heavy rains and floods in arid Rajasthan, was analysed. It was observed that 7 stations in the rainstorm area broke their previous 80-year record of one-day rainfall, and two of these stations equalled their respective estimates of probable maximum precipitation (PMP). A comparison of areal raindepths of this rainstorm with the similar raindepths of past severe-most rainstorms of this region showed that this rainstorm gave unprecedented raindepths up to about 38 850 sq. km (i.e. 15 000 sq. miles) for a 3-day duration.

  10. Quantification of Net Erosion and Uplift Experienced by the Barmer Basin, Rajasthan Using Sonic Log

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, K.; Schulz, S.; Sarkar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Barmer Basin of Rajasthan, Western India is a hydrocarbon rich sedimentary basin currently being explored by Cairn India Limited. The hydrocarbon bearing Fatehgarh Formation is being found at different depths in different oil fields (e.g. From south to north: Guda, Vijaya & Vandana, Air field High) of the basin. The net uplift and erosion in the Barmer Basin has been quantified using compaction methodology. The sonic log, which is strongly controlled by porosity, is an appropriate indicator of compaction, and hence used for quantification of net uplift and erosion from compaction. The compaction methodology has been applied to the shale rich Dharvi Dungar Formation of Barmer Basin of Late Paleocene age. The net uplift and erosion is also being checked with the help of AFTA-VR and seismic sections. The results show relatively no uplift in the southernmost part of the basin and a Guda field well is thus taken to be the reference well with respect to which the uplifts in different parts of the basin have been calculated. The northern part of the basin i.e. Air Field High wells experienced maximum uplift (~2150m). Interestingly, a few wells further south of the reference well show evidence for uplift. The study was able to point out errors in the report produced with the help of AFTA-VR which found out less uplift in Vijaya & Vandana oil fields as opposed to sonic log data. The process of finding out uplift using sonic log has a standard deviation of 200m as compared to about 500m error in AFTA-VR method. This study has major implications for hydrocarbon exploration. Maturation of source rock will be higher for any given geothermal history if net uplift and erosion is incorporated in maturation modeling. They can also be used for porosity predictions of reservoir units in undrilled targets.

  11. The private sector: Cautiously interested in distribution in India

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, J.P.; Bowman, C.D.; Guy, J.; Gross, T.P.

    1998-06-01

    As privatization and liberalization proceed in India--the world`s second largest growth market for electricity--sensible experimentation by the states on the rules of the game is vital. A new joint venture approach in Rajasthan may be a helpful model. This article provides an overview of the principal challenges confronting US utilities interested in investing in distribution in India as well as a summary of two mechanisms developed to facilitate private investment. These challenges also should be considered in view of the changing political conditions in India owing to the recent election of the coalition government led by the Bharatiya Janata Party.

  12. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and its outcome in western Rajasthan

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Priyanka; Kachhwaha, Chetan Prakash; Singh, Hilda Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic disorder defined as glucose intolerance with the onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Women with GDM are at increased risk for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome. Hence, it is imperative that an early detection and management of the disease is done to ensure better maternal and fetal outcomes. Aims: This study was done to evaluate the prevalence of gestational diabetes using diabetes in pregnancy Study Group India (DIPSI) criteria and further assess its feto-maternal outcome in western Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in 500 patients between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation, attending the antenatal outdoor. These patients were given 75 g oral glucose irrespective of the meals and their plasma glucose was estimated at 2 h. Patients with plasma glucose values ΃140 mg/dl were labeled as GDM and the rest as the control or the non-GDM group. All GDM patients were followed up and treated with diet and/or insulin therapy till delivery to know maternal and fetal outcomes. Results: The prevalence of GDM in this study was 6.6%. Maternal and fetal complications in the GDM group were much higher than in the non-GDM group. Hypertension, vaginal candidiasis, and abruptio placentae were the common maternal complications, while macrosomia and stillbirths occurred in the fetuses. Conclusion: GDM as a disease entity adversely affects maternal and fetal outcomes. This also builds a strong case for following DIPSI guidelines in diagnosis and management of GDM. PMID:23961485

  13. Assessment of Fluoride Concentration of Soil and Vegetables in Vicinity of Zinc Smelter, Debari, Udaipur, Rajasthan

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Nagesh; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Mridula; Shinde, Kushal; Singh, Anukriti; Gandhi, Neha; Gupta, Vivek Vardhan

    2015-01-01

    Background As of late, natural contamination has stimulated as a reaction of mechanical and other human exercises. In India, with the expanding industrialization, numerous unsafe substances are utilized or are discharged amid generation as cleans, exhaust, vapours and gasses. These substances at last are blended in the earth and causes health hazards. Objective To determine concentration of fluoride in soils and vegetables grown in the vicinity of Zinc Smelter, Debari, Udaipur, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods Samples of vegetables and soil were collected from areas situated at 0, 1, 2, 5, and 10 km distance from the zinc smelter, Debari. Three samples of vegetables (i.e. Cabbage, Onion and Tomato) and 3 samples of soil {one sample from the upper layer of soil (i.e. 0 to 20 cm) and one from the deep layer (i.e. 20 – 40 cm)} at each distance were collected. The soil and vegetable samples were sealed in clean polythene bags and transported to the laboratory for analysis. One sample each of water and fertilizer from each distance were also collected. Results The mean fluoride concentration in the vegetables grown varied between 0.36 ± 0.69 to 0.71 ± 0.90 ppm. The fluoride concentration in fertilizer and water sample from various distances was found to be in the range of 1.4 – 1.5 ppm and 1.8 – 1.9 ppm respectively. Conclusion The fluoride content of soil and vegetables was found to be higher in places near to the zinc smelter. PMID:26557620

  14. Nutritional status of married adolescent girls in rural Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, S; Kapil, U; Bhanthi, T; Gnanasekaran, N; Pandey, R M

    1994-01-01

    Adolescence is period of rapid growth and development. The present study was undertaken to assess the nutritional status of 941 adolescent girls, aged 10-18 years belonging to Scheduled Caste communities in rural Rajasthan, using the probability proportionate to size sampling procedure. Data on 93 married adolescent girls was analysed in detail. Nutritional status of the subjects was assessed by anthropometry, dietary intake and by clinical examination of nutritional deficiency disorders. Anthropometric measurements were recorded for height, weight, chest circumference, MUAC and TSF using standardised techniques. On comparing the present study's data with ICMR's study data (1956-65) it was found that there has been a significant improvement in the height, weight and chest circumference of the adolescent girls but the values were below the well-to-do group study data. Dietary intake was assessed by 24 hours recall method. The dietary intake was compared against ICMR's RDA. It was found that the diets were deficient in calories by 30 to 40% in proteins by 25 to 37%, by 39 to 55% in iron and by 10 to 34% in vitamin A. 78% of the subjects suffered from various grades of anaemia and 40% of the subjects had B-complex deficiency.

  15. Ventilatory functions in stone quarry workers of Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P; Chaswal, M; Saxena, S

    1999-10-01

    Ninety two stone quarry workers from nearby villages of Jodhpur town were, assessed for their lung functions which included measurement of Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in Ist second (FEV1), and Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). A detailed questionnaire was administered to all the workers, who were divided into group I (cutting the stone) and group II (loading and unloading the stone) depending on the nature of their Job. The presenting complaints included cough with sputum (55%), chest pain (79%), bodyache (31%) and 21% gave the history as suffering from tuberculosis. Comparison of the lung function results between two groups indicated a significant decrement of FEV1 and PEFR in group II as compared to group I workers. The observed lung functions were also found to be lower on comparison with the normative data from Rajasthan. However, no difference in observed lung function results of smokers and nonsmokers were obtained. Thus the reported lower values of lung functions independent of smoking habits, may be due to occupational stone dust exposure.

  16. Perioperative status and complications in opium addicts in Western rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Malviya, Ajay; Negi, Nitin; Mandora, Manish; Yadav, J K

    2011-10-01

    Opium addiction is rampant in Western Rajasthan and probably has the highest number of opium addicts in the world. The study envisages upon the presentation, diagnosis and various postoperative complications in surgically ill opium addicts vis-à-vis non addicts. The study is purported to benefit clinicians dealing with opium addict patients. The prospective cohort study was conducted at Mahatma Gandhi Hospital, Jodhpur between December 2004 and February 2006 and included cohorts of 71 opium addict and 50 non-addict patients admitted in various surgical wards. The study focused on presentation and the post-surgical complications encountered in these patients vis-à-vis others. The results thus obtained were evaluated statistically (mean±SD, SEM, two tailed t test, chi-square test), p value of <0.05 was considered as significant. A thorough comparative analysis revealed that opium addict patients had a significantly higher incidence of postoperative respiratory, cardiovascular, systemic and local complications. The requirement of analgesics and duration of hospital stay were also significantly higher as compared to control group. The work concludes that opium addicts suffer a much higher degree of postoperative morbidity as compared to non-addicts.

  17. Entomological studies in a dengue endemic area, Jalore, Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Joshi, V; Mathur, M L; Dixit, A K; Singhi, M

    1996-08-01

    Entomological studies on prevalence of adult and immatures of Aedes aegypti along with associated ecological factors have been conducted in a dengue endemic area of Jalore, Rajasthan from 1992 to 1993. Studies in two areas; reportedly affected and unaffected revealed more adults and higher breeding indices in the affected area as compared to the unaffected one. Mosquitoes harbouring dengue antigen were found only in the affected locality. Presence of dengue antigen in field caught mosquitoes in the affected locality was observed mainly during the months of January to April in both the years. Statistical analysis of data has shown a correlation to be significant between adult house index and breeding index in the affected area while this association was found insignificant in the unaffected locality. Water storage practices of the population due to irregular water supply in the affected area is the possible cause for a higher vector concentration in the locality. Seasonality of occurrence of dengue fever patients in a particular period of the year is associated with a relatively higher vector density and the presence of infected mosquitoes which is due to favourable temperature, relative humidity, water temperature and pH.

  18. Identification and validation of QTLs conferring resistance to sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) and Rajasthan downy mildew (P. heteropogoni) in maize.

    PubMed

    Nair, S K; Prasanna, B M; Garg, A; Rathore, R S; Setty, T A S; Singh, N N

    2005-05-01

    We have mapped the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring resistance to sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi; SDM) and Rajasthan downy mildew (P. heteropogoni; RDM), two species of DM prevalent throughout India. QTL mapping was carried out on a backcross population of 151 individuals derived from a cross between CM139 (susceptible parent) and NAI116 (highly resistant to both SDM and RDM). Heritability estimates were 0.74 for SDM and 0.67 for RDM. Composite interval mapping combined with a linkage map constructed with 80 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers resulted in the identification of three QTLs (one each on chromosomes 2, 3 and 6) for SDM resistance and two QTLs (one each on chromosomes 3 and 6) for RDM resistance, all of which were contributed by NAI116. The significance of the major QTL on chromosome 6 (bin 6.05) that confers resistance to diverse DMs in tropical Asia, including SDM and RDM in India, was also verified. The results confirmed that some common QTLs contribute to both SDM and RDM resistance, while additional loci might specifically govern resistance to SDM. The QTL information generated in this study provide information that will aid in undertaking an integrated breeding strategy for the transfer of resistance to SDM and RDM in maize lines using marker-assisted selection.

  19. Fertility level changes in India.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, B N

    1989-12-01

    Survey data from India consistently show that female education above the primary school-level is the most powerful determinant of lowered fertility. The Government of India's strategies of increasing accessibility to family planning methods and improving the population's quality of life have been impeded by low levels of female education. The finding that rural women experience 0.8 more live births than their urban counterparts is a reflection of the higher education of the latter group. Within Calcutta, females in slum areas had an average of 5.6 live births compared to 3.5 births among those from nonslum parts of the city, again reflecting the influence of education on fertility. In the high-fertility states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, Madhyapradesh, Haryana, and Jammu and Kashmir, the percentage of females with an education above the primary level is under 5%. The intermediate variable of education beyond primary school seems to exert its effect on fertility by both raising the age at marriage and promoting use of modern contraceptive methods. Women with 1-4 years of education comprise the majority of sterilization acceptors; however, this minimal amount of education is not sufficient to motivate women to delay marriage and to use family planning methods to space births. Given the critical importance of female education, authorities in India should design extension programs and door-to-door campaigns to motivate parents to send their daughters to school and keep them enrolled. PMID:12316273

  20. Oral Health of Stone Mine Workers of Jodhpur City, Rajasthan, India

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Jitender; Gupta, Sarika; Chand, Sachin

    2014-01-01

    Background Occupational injuries cause major health problems, which the developed, developing, and underdeveloped nations worldwide are facing today. The present study aimed to assess dental caries, periodontal health of stone mine workers, and the relationship between wasting diseases and the years of working experience. Methods The study population comprised 510 men, selected based on the stratified cluster sampling procedure. Clinical oral examinations were carried out, and periodontal disease, dental caries, and wasting diseases were recorded. Results Workers were in the age group of 17–56 years; the prevalence of dental caries in the workers was found to be 74%, with a mean decayed, missing, filled teeth index of 2.89. A periodontal pocket of more than 6 mm was observed in 6% of the workers. Conclusion The oral health of mine workers is in a poor state; steps should be taken so as to provide basic medical and dental care facilities. PMID:25379327

  1. Characterization and open windrow composting of MSW in Jodhpur City, Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Ambade, Bhushan; Sharma, Sunil; Sharma, Yukti; Sharma, Yagya

    2013-07-01

    Solid waste is sometimes not suitable for direct land application. Processing solid waste through composting converts it to a humus-containing organic material advantageous for agriculture/horticulture use. Major advantages of composting are stabilization of the wastes; substantially reduced C/N ratio and gas formation, and virtually elimination of odors and pathogens. Composting is accomplished under aerobic conditions developing temperatures of 55 degrees C or above. The windrow technique is simple and accomplished easily with standard equipments. The open windrow composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) in windrows was analyzed in this study for six weeks. The raw MSW was introduced to active composting without any source segregations. The moisture content of the MSW dropped from 58.88% to 48.06% and windrow attained a thermophillic temperature for about two weeks. It was observed that the pH, C/N ratio and temperature variations were comparable to that of traditional windrow composting. The peak temperature recorded was 68 degrees C and temperature remained above 60 degrees C for more than three weeks. The volume reduction was obtained by using one-cu.m. cage. The results indicate that the bulk composting could reduce by about 29% the total mass of the waste.

  2. Trace fossils from the Nagaur Sandstone, Marwar Supergroup, Dulmera area, Bikaner district, Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Pandey, S. K.

    2010-04-01

    Thirteen trace fossils are described from the Nagaur Sandstone, the lower formation of the Nagaur Group. These are Rusophycusdidymus Salter, 1856, Chondrites isp. Brongniart, 1828, Cruziana isp. d'Orbigny, 1842, Isopodichnus isp. Bornemann, 1989, Dimorphichnusobliquus Seilacher, 1955, Monomorphichnusmonolinearis Shah and Sudan, 1983, Diplichnites isp. Dawson, 1873, Skolithos isp. Haldeman, 1840, Palaeophycustubularis Hall, 1847, Planolites isp. Nicholson, 1873, Ichnogenus A, Trails and Scratch Marks (?). This assemblage has been referred to as the Cruziana assemblage and on this basis the Nagaur Sandstone has been suggested a Lower Cambrian age. The Nagaur Sandstone has been correlated with the Purple Sandstone of Pakistan, the Tal succession of the Kumaun and Himachal Lesser Himalaya and the Garbyang, Lolab and Kunzum-La Formations of the Tethys Himalaya.

  3. Fluoride in the drinking water of Nagaur tehsil of Nagaur District, Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Arif, M; Hussain, I; Hussain, J; Sharma, S; Kumar, S

    2012-06-01

    Fluoride concentration of groundwater samples from 100 villages of Nagaur tehsil was determined, 85 villages were found to have fluoride concentration more than 1.5 mg/L. The maximum fluoride concentration was recorded 6.6 mg/L in groundwater of Singhani village, while the minimum was recorded in Kurchhi village. As per the desirable and maximum permissible limit for fluoride in drinking water, determined by World Health Organization, the groundwater of about 85 villages of the studied sites is unfit for drinking purpose. PMID:22415642

  4. Multiple regression equations modelling of groundwater of Ajmer-Pushkar railway line region, Rajasthan (India).

    PubMed

    Mathur, Praveen; Sharma, Sarita; Soni, Bhupendra

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, an attempt is made to formulate multiple regression equations using all possible regressions method for groundwater quality assessment of Ajmer-Pushkar railway line region in pre- and post-monsoon seasons. Correlation studies revealed the existence of linear relationships (r 0.7) for electrical conductivity (EC), total hardness (TH) and total dissolved solids (TDS) with other water quality parameters. The highest correlation was found between EC and TDS (r = 0.973). EC showed highly significant positive correlation with Na, K, Cl, TDS and total solids (TS). TH showed highest correlation with Ca and Mg. TDS showed significant correlation with Na, K, SO4, PO4 and Cl. The study indicated that most of the contamination present was water soluble or ionic in nature. Mg was present as MgCl2; K mainly as KCl and K2SO4, and Na was present as the salts of Cl, SO4 and PO4. On the other hand, F and NO3 showed no significant correlations. The r2 values and F values (at 95% confidence limit, alpha = 0.05) for the modelled equations indicated high degree of linearity among independent and dependent variables. Also the error % between calculated and experimental values was contained within +/- 15% limit.

  5. Microbial mat structures in profile: The Neoproterozoic Sonia Sandstone, Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Pradip; Mukhopadhyay, Soumik; Mondal, Anudeb; Sarkar, Subir

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitous microorganisms, especially cyanobacteria preferably grow on the sediment surface thereby producing microbial mats. In the absence of grazers and bioturbators, microbial mat is a unique feature of the Proterozoic. Most of the papers so far published described a wide variety of bed surface microbial mat structures with rare illustrations from sections perpendicular to bedding. Nonetheless, bed surface exposures are relatively rare in rock records. This limitation of bed surface exposures in rock records suggest that a study of microbial mats in bed-across sections is needed. The 60 m thick coastal marine interval of the Sonia Sandstone Formation is bounded between two terrestrial intervals, a transgressive lag at the base and an unconformity at the top, and has been chosen for exploration of microbial mat structures in bed-across sections. A wide variety of microbial mat-induced structures in bed-across sections are preserved within the coastal interval of the Sonia Sandstone. Though many of these structures are similar in some aspects with bed surface structures, some of those presented here are new. The palaeogeographic range of these microbial structures extends from supralittoral to neritic. Diagenetic alterations of microbial mats produce pyrite and those zones are suitable for the preservation of microbial remains. SEM and EDAX analyses show fossil preservation of filamentous microbial remains that confirm the presence of microbial mats within the coastal interval of the Sonia Sandstone. Effects of proliferation of microbial mats in the siliciclastic depositional setting are numerous. The mat-cover on sediment surfaces hinders reworking and/or erosion of the sediments thereby increases the net sedimentation rate. Successive deposition and preservation of thick microbial mat layer under reducing environments should have a great potential for hydrocarbon production and preservation and therefore these Proterozoic formations could be a target for exploration.

  6. Knowledge and attitude about computer and internet usage among dental students in Western Rajasthan, India

    PubMed Central

    Jali, Pramod K.; Singh, Shamsher; Babaji, Prashant; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Somasundaram, P; Lau, Himani

    2014-01-01

    Background: Internet is a useful tool to update the knowledge. The aim of the present study was to assess the current level of knowledge on the computer and internet among under graduate dental students. Materials and Methods: The study consists of self-administered close ended questionnaire survey. Questionnaires were distributed to undergraduate dental students. The study was conducted during July to September 2012. Results: In the selected samples, response rate was 100%. Most (94.4%) of the students had computer knowledge and 77.4% had their own computer and access at home. Nearly 40.8% of students use computer for general purpose, 28.5% for entertainment and 22.8% used for research purpose. Most of the students had internet knowledge (92.9%) and they used it independently (79.1%). Nearly 42.1% used internet occasionally whereas, 34.4% used regularly, 21.7% rarely and 1.8% don’t use respectively. Internet was preferred for getting information (48.8%) due to easy accessibility and recent updates. For dental purpose students used internet 2-3 times/week (45.3%). Most (95.3%) of the students responded to have computer based learning program in the curriculum. Conclusion: Computer knowledge was observed to be good among dental students. PMID:24818091

  7. Monitoring of organochlorine pesticides in and around Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Bhadouria, Bhumesh Singh; Mathur, Vinod B; Kaul, Rahul

    2012-09-01

    Keoladeo National Park (KNP) is an important wintering ground for thousands of birds that undertake a perilous journey over the Himalaya to make a seasonal home in a wetland ecosystem. However, this wetland is now getting polluted by various types of contaminants such as pesticides because of the agricultural practices in the catchment area from where the park receives water. Keeping this in mind, the present study has been undertaken to assess the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in the sediments inside and around KNP. Samples were collected from the different blocks of the park. The concentrations of α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH, S-HCH, aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, hept.epoxide, endosulfan-I, endosulfan-II, endo.sulfate, S-endosulfan, endrin, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDD, and DDT were quantified using gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Analysis showed that the samples were contaminated with the above mentioned pesticides and that the concentration of total OCPs in the sediments varied from 0.1173 (dieldrin) to 5.558 ppm (γ HCH) in the samples collected from inside the park, whereas a range of pesticides varying in concentration from 0.1245 (4,4'-DDD) to 7.54 ppm (γ HCH) was found in samples from outside the park. Residues of S-HCH and S-endosulfan were not detected in any of the sediment samples. The occurrence of pesticides inside the park is a major threat to the park's biodiversity. Eco-friendly agriculture practices with minimal use of inorganic chemicals are suggested to minimize the pesticide residue levels in the park.

  8. Selenium status in soils of northern districts of India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sanjiv K; Singh, Ishwar; Singh, Devender; Han, Sang-Do

    2005-04-01

    The HG-AAS technique was used to estimate the soil selenium status of the agricultural lands of northern parts of India. The drier lands where lesser rains were received or where less irrigation water was available in Rajasthan and southern parts of the Haryana states had above normal soil selenium levels. These soils were also found to be alkaline. Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and northern parts of the Haryana states had normal levels of selenium in their soils, except with slightly lower selenium levels in a few areas that were affected by floods along the river Yamuna. The results were also confirmed using the ICP-OES technique. PMID:15763155

  9. Selenium status in food grains of northern districts of India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sanjiv K; Singh, Ishwar; Sharma, Anita; Singh, Devender

    2008-09-01

    The selenium status in the food grains of the agricultural lands of northern parts of India was estimated by using the HG-AAS technique. The areas where lesser rains were received or less irrigation water was available in northern Indian states viz. Rajasthan and southern parts of the Haryana had higher selenium levels in food grains. Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and northern parts of the Haryana states had normal levels of selenium in their food grains, except for slightly lower selenium levels in a few areas that were affected by floods along the river Yamuna. PMID:17574725

  10. Selenium status in food grains of northern districts of India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sanjiv K; Singh, Ishwar; Sharma, Anita; Singh, Devender

    2008-09-01

    The selenium status in the food grains of the agricultural lands of northern parts of India was estimated by using the HG-AAS technique. The areas where lesser rains were received or less irrigation water was available in northern Indian states viz. Rajasthan and southern parts of the Haryana had higher selenium levels in food grains. Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and northern parts of the Haryana states had normal levels of selenium in their food grains, except for slightly lower selenium levels in a few areas that were affected by floods along the river Yamuna.

  11. Selenium status in soils of northern districts of India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sanjiv K; Singh, Ishwar; Singh, Devender; Han, Sang-Do

    2005-04-01

    The HG-AAS technique was used to estimate the soil selenium status of the agricultural lands of northern parts of India. The drier lands where lesser rains were received or where less irrigation water was available in Rajasthan and southern parts of the Haryana states had above normal soil selenium levels. These soils were also found to be alkaline. Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and northern parts of the Haryana states had normal levels of selenium in their soils, except with slightly lower selenium levels in a few areas that were affected by floods along the river Yamuna. The results were also confirmed using the ICP-OES technique.

  12. Earth observing data and methods for advancing water harvesting technologies in the semi-arid rain-fed environments of India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharma, C.; Thenkabail, P.; Sharma, R. R.

    2011-01-01

    The paper develops approaches and methods of modeling and mapping land and water productivity of rain-fed crops in semi-arid environments of India using hyperspectral, hyperspatial, and advanced multispectral remote sensing data and linking the same to field-plot data and climate station data. The overarching goal is to provide information to advance water harvesting technologies in the agricultural croplands of the semi-arid environments of India by conducting research in a representative pilot site in Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  13. The \\"Jaipur Foot\\": India?s Most Popular Prosthetic for Amputees Is Not the Latest in Technology, but It's Still the Most Suitable Option for Many Patients Almost 50 Years after Its Development.

    PubMed

    Mysore, Harish

    2016-01-01

    It is 8 a.m. on a December morning in Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. The day has just begun at Bhagawan Mahavir Vikalanga Sahayata Samithi (BMVSS), a nonprofit organization dedicated to fitting the disabled with artificial limbs (Figure 1). Slowly, patients from across India and neighboring countries gather in the center?s front yard. By the end of the day, more than 35 people will make a long journey back to their homes and communities outfitted with a new prosthetic leg or arm that will promise them a more active and functional future. The entire treatment is free. PMID:27187538

  14. Emergence and extinction of Dipterocarpaceae in western India with reference to climate change: Fossil wood evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Anumeha; Mehrotra, R. C.; Guleria, J. S.

    2013-10-01

    Climate has played a crucial role in assigning a different kind of topography to Rajasthan and Gujarat since the Cenozoic time. Evidently, three genera, namely, Dipterocarpus Gaert. f., Hopea Roxb. and Shorea Roxb. of the Dipterocarpaceae are described from the Neogene sediments of western India (Rajasthan and Gujarat). These taxa are marked by their complete absence in the region today. The presence of Dipterocarpaceae in western India has been noticed from the Early Eocene up to the Plio-Pleistocene in deep time. The family is usually a dominant component of the humid tropical and subtropical flora of the Indo-Malayan region and its discovery, along with earlier described fossils from western India indicates existence of ancient tropical rain forests in western India. A change in the climate affected warm and humid conditions occurring there during the Cenozoic resulting in arid to semi-arid climate at present which is responsible for the ultimate extinction of Dipterocarpaceae in the region. In addition, the palaeobiogeography of Dipterocarpaceae is reviewed.

  15. The influence of catchment on chemical and biological characteristics of two freshwater tropical lakes of southern Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Pandey, J; Verma, Anuya

    2004-01-01

    The effects of catchment characteristics on chemical and biological properties of two freshwater tropical lakes of Udaipur, Rajasthan were investigated. The study indicated that the catchment characteristics influence, in a major way, the water chemistry and dredging, could be an effective measure for the restoration of dryland lakes.

  16. Under utilization of MCH services--the major factor for very high IMR in rural Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, B; Mandowara, S L; Kumar, A; Agarwal, D

    1989-03-01

    Infant mortality rate (IMR) and its relation to the utilization of health services was studied in twelve villages of ICDS block Rajsamand, Rajasthan from 1st April, 1985 to 31st March, 1986. The total number of births and infant deaths were 386 and 74, respectively during one year, computing 37.44 as birth rate and 191.70 as IMR. Neonatal deaths contributed 51.4%, the most common causes of which were septicemia (28.9%), birth asphyxia (23.6%), extreme prematurity (18.4%) and tetanus neonatorum (13.1%). The common causes of deaths in post-neonatal period were pneumonia (36.1%), diarrhea (25.0%), complications of measles (16.7%) and that of pertussis (8.3%). Extreme under utilization of preventive, promotive and curative MCH services was found to be one of the major factors for very high IMR prevailing in the region. PMID:2753549

  17. Gender Disparity in Late-life Cognitive Functioning in India: Findings From the Longitudinal Aging Study in India

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Regina; Feeney, Kevin; Langa, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To examine gender disparities in cognitive functioning in India and the extent to which education explains this disparity in later life. Methods. This study uses baseline interviews of a prospective cohort study of 1,451 community-residing adults 45 years of age or older in four geographically diverse states of India (Karnataka, Kerala, Punjab, Rajasthan). Data collected during home visits includes cognitive performance tests, and rich sociodemographic, health, and psychosocial variables. The cognitive performance tests include episodic memory, numeracy, and a modified version of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Results. We find gender disparity in cognitive function in India, and this disparity is greater in the north than the south. We also find that gender disparities in educational attainment, health, and social and economic activity explain the female cognitive disadvantage in later life. Discussion. We report significant gender disparities in cognitive functioning among older Indian adults, which differ from gender disparities in cognition encountered in developed countries. Our models controlling for education, health status, and social and economic activity explain the disparity in southern India but not the region-specific disparity in the northern India. North Indian women may face additional sources of stress associated with discrimination against women that contribute to persistent disadvantages in cognitive functioning at older ages. PMID:24622150

  18. Genetic variability of Cotton leaf curl betasatellite in Northern India.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Azhar, Esam I; Kamal, Mohammad A; Bhattacharya, P S; Rana, D

    2014-12-01

    Cotton is an important crop and its production is affected by various disease pathogens. Monopartite begomovirus associated betasatellites cause Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) in Northern India. In order to access the occurrence and genetic variability of Cotton leaf curl betasatellites, an extensive field survey was conducted in states of Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. We selected the betasatellite sequence for analysis as they are reported as important for disease severity and sequence variability. Based on the field observations, the disease incidence ranged from 30% to 80% during the survey. Full genome and DNA β were amplified from various samples while no amplicon was obtained in some samples. The nucleotide sequence homology ranged from 90.0% to 98.7% with Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), 55.2-55.5% with Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus, 55.8% with Okra leaf curl virus and 51.70% with Tomato leaf curl virus isolates. The lowest similarity (47.8%) was found in CLCuV-Sudan isolate. Phylogenetic analysis showed that analyzed isolates formed a close cluster with various CLCuV isolates reported earlier. The analysis results show sequence variation in Cotton leaf curl betasatellite which could be the result of recombination. The results obtained by genome amplification and sequence variability indicate that some new variants are circulating and causing leaf curl disease in Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. PMID:25473373

  19. Geochemistry of Mesoproterozoic sedimentary rocks of upper Vindhyan Group, southeastern Rajasthan and implications for weathering history, composition and tectonic setting of continental crust in the northern part of Indian shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Mahshar; Khan, Abdullah; Bhardwaj, V. R.; Rais, Sarwar

    2012-04-01

    The upper Vindhyan succession of southeastern Rajasthan is divisible into Kaimur, Rewa and Bhander Groups. The major and trace element (including rare earth elements) data of the upper Vindhyan shales and sandstones are investigated to determine the weathering history, composition, and tectonic setting of Mesoproterozoic continental crust. CIA (chemical index of alteration) values, A-CN-K plot (A = Al2O3, CN = CaO* + Na2O, K = K2O) and depletion in U, Na2O, CaO, Sr and Ba suggest that the source area experienced moderate to high degree of chemical weathering under warm and humid conditions. Provenance modeling indicates that the Kaimur sandstones are best modeled with a mixture having 40% granitic gneiss, 20% Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG), 20% mafic enclaves and 20% Berach Granite of the Banded Gneissic Complex (BGC). A mixture of 60% granitic gneiss, 20% mafic enclaves and 20% Berach Granite of the BGC can model the Rewa and Bhander Groups. It is suggested that the upper Vindhyan sedimentation commenced at the time of Delhi-Sausar orogeny at about 1100-1000 Ma. The orogenic movements uplifted the parts of old continental crust in the BGC terrain creating positive areas, which exposed older crustal blocks containing TTG as important component. The debris of Kaimur sandstone probably derived from these uplifted blocks. As indicated by Palaeocurrent data, the Rewa and Bhander formations were derived from Bundelkhand Granitic Gneiss Complex (BGGC) occurring to the north of the basin and/or the Chotanagpur Granitic Gneiss Complex (CGGC) of eastern Indian shield. The derivation of Lower and upper groups of Vindhyan succession from different source terrains of identical composition suggests that at the time of Vindhyan sedimentation, the BGC of Rajasthan, the BGGC of Central India and the CGGC of eastern India had similar lithological composition. This implies that well before the origin of the Vindhyan basin these discrete terrains evolved as a single unit

  20. Health in India -- a futuristic scenario.

    PubMed

    Ali, A

    1999-01-01

    There has been considerable progress in the health situation in India over the last five decades following its independence. Mortality decreased dramatically, the death rate declined from 27.4 to 8.9, and the infant mortality rate decreased by almost half in 1997. Life expectancy, on the other hand, almost doubled from 32 years at the time of independence to 62 years in 1997. However, there are wide variations in the values of these health indicators among different regions. Progress has been uneven and confined to more advanced states. Improvements in the health status of the people have been most notable in the states of Kerala, Maharashtra, and Punjab, whereas states like Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan had the least progress. These neglected areas are considered as the result of various factors in India's political economy, which hinders health policy development and its implementation. In the last part of this article, major health problems, as well as recommendations for remedial actions are outlined.

  1. Emissions from India's transport sector: Statewise synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandra, T. V.; Shwetmala

    A decentralized emission inventories are prepared for road transport sector of India in order to design and implement suitable technologies and policies for appropriate mitigation measures. Globalization and liberalization policies of the government in 90's have increased the number of road vehicles nearly 92.6% from 1980-1981 to 2003-2004. These vehicles mainly consume non-renewable fossil fuels, and are a major contributor of green house gases, particularly CO 2 emission. This paper focuses on the statewise road transport emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2, PM and HC), using region specific mass emission factors for each type of vehicles. The country level emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2 and NMVOC) are calculated for railways, shipping and airway, based on fuel types. In India, transport sector emits an estimated 258.10 Tg of CO 2, of which 94.5% was contributed by road transport (2003-2004). Among all the states and Union Territories, Maharashtra's contribution is the largest, 28.85 Tg (11.8%) of CO 2, followed by Tamil Nadu 26.41 Tg (10.8%), Gujarat 23.31 Tg (9.6%), Uttar Pradesh 17.42 Tg (7.1%), Rajasthan 15.17 Tg (6.22%) and, Karnataka 15.09 Tg (6.19%). These six states account for 51.8% of the CO 2 emissions from road transport.

  2. Timing of continental arc-type magmatism in northwest India: Evidence from U-Pb zircon geochronology

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, G. ); Barman, T.R.; Corfu, F. )

    1989-09-01

    Charnockites and granodiorites, which occur within granulite facies metasediments of the Bhilwara Supergroup of Rajasthan, northwest India, are cogenetic and exhibit petrologic characteristics indicative of a magmatic derivation. Zircon U-Pb data yield a common crystallization age of 1,723 + 14/ - 7 Ma. These rocks, earlier believed to represent oldest (Archean) and deepest crust, actually mark a major Proterozoic event. They are believed to be the products of continental arc magmatism, where a basic layer underplating the lower crust led to intrusion of differentiated melts in crustal domains undergoing dry metamorphism.

  3. Association of growth related seedling traits in Acacia senegal under arid environment of western Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Pancholy, Anjly; Jindal, S K; Singh, S K; Pathak, Rakesh

    2015-07-01

    Climatic models and predictions indicate increase in aridity world over due to global warming. Arid environments occupy about one third land area of the world. A. senegal is the most important dryland resource of western Rajasthan desert ecosystem. The seeds of 13 low and high seed yielding exotic and indigenous provenances were evaluated for diversity and interrelationship among growth related seedling traits targeting establishment and end use of this species. Under the present study most of the growth related seedling traits varied within and amongst provenances. Highly significant correlation of dry biomass per plant of more than 72% with root length (73.3%), collar diameter (72.2%), shoot dryweight (99.7%), root dry weight (95.7%) and seedling length (79.9%) under the present study may be used for early selection. Similarly, highly significant positive correlation of seedling length with seven out of 12 growth related seedling traits validate strong inherent association of these traits under strong genetic control and are amenable for selection. Significant negative correlation in number of nodules per plant with root/shoot length ratio (-57.6%) and no correlation with 10 out of 12 growth related seedling traits tested advocate emphasis on other growth related seedling traits in selection of elite A. senegal genotypes for afforestation. The non significant associations suggest that per cent germination was independent of other characters and could be selected separately.

  4. Association of growth related seedling traits in Acacia senegal under arid environment of western Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Pancholy, Anjly; Jindal, S K; Singh, S K; Pathak, Rakesh

    2015-07-01

    Climatic models and predictions indicate increase in aridity world over due to global warming. Arid environments occupy about one third land area of the world. A. senegal is the most important dryland resource of western Rajasthan desert ecosystem. The seeds of 13 low and high seed yielding exotic and indigenous provenances were evaluated for diversity and interrelationship among growth related seedling traits targeting establishment and end use of this species. Under the present study most of the growth related seedling traits varied within and amongst provenances. Highly significant correlation of dry biomass per plant of more than 72% with root length (73.3%), collar diameter (72.2%), shoot dryweight (99.7%), root dry weight (95.7%) and seedling length (79.9%) under the present study may be used for early selection. Similarly, highly significant positive correlation of seedling length with seven out of 12 growth related seedling traits validate strong inherent association of these traits under strong genetic control and are amenable for selection. Significant negative correlation in number of nodules per plant with root/shoot length ratio (-57.6%) and no correlation with 10 out of 12 growth related seedling traits tested advocate emphasis on other growth related seedling traits in selection of elite A. senegal genotypes for afforestation. The non significant associations suggest that per cent germination was independent of other characters and could be selected separately. PMID:26364473

  5. Blood Meal Preference of Some Anopheline Mosquitoes in Command and Non-command Areas of Rajasthan, India

    PubMed Central

    Swami, Kailash Kumar; Srivastava, Meera

    2012-01-01

    Background: The present study was undertaken to compare the entomological situation by analyzing the blood meal of mosquitoes of canal irrigated and non-irrigated areas of Bikaner in order to explore scientific information on the vector biology and malaria burden profile and to plan proper strategies for malaria control and eradication. Methods: Adult mosquitoes were collected and the abdomen of the blood fed females were crushed on a filter paper for blood meal analysis and subjected to precipitin test. Results: The blood meal analysis showed that Anopheles subpictus had a preference towards cattle blood, An. culicifacies and An. stephensi preferred human blood, while, An. annularis was noted to feed only on bovine blood. Conclusion: Although An. annularis, has been recently reported from the area, was found to feed exclusively on bovine blood, earlier reports suggest that this species is a vector of malaria and therefore preventive measures should be taken well in advance before this species gets established in the area. PMID:23378966

  6. Potential of native shrubs Haloxylon salicornicum and Calligonum Polygonoides for restoration of degraded lands in Arid Western Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Rathore, V S; Singh, J P; Bhardwaj, S; Nathawat, N S; Kumar, Mahesh; Roy, M M

    2015-01-01

    Shrub-induced soil property spatial heterogeneity is common in arid and semi-arid ecosystems and aids desertified land restoration. However, the effectiveness of this technique may rely on the plant species used and the habitat conditions present. To assess the degree to which planting two native species, Haloxylon salicornicum and Calligonum polygonoides, facilitates degraded land restoration, soil and herbaceous plant community properties were measured 7 years after planting. Soil samples were extracted at two depths (0-5 and 5-20 cm) from three sub-habitats, i.e., under the shrub canopy, from alleys between shrubs and from the open area. Shrub planting increased the quantity of silt + clay content (30-39 %); enhanced water holding capacities (24-30 %); increased the levels of organic carbon (48-69 %), available nitrogen (31-47 %), available phosphorus (32-41 %), and electrical conductivity (21-33 %); and decreased the pH (7-12 %) and bulk density levels (5-6 %) in the surface layer of soils beneath the canopy. Soil property changes were more significant at the surface (0-5 cm) than in the deeper layer (5-20 cm), and were more pronounced under H. salicornicum than under C. polygonoides. Furthermore, the density and biomass levels of herbaceous plants were 1.1 to 1.2 and 1.4 to 1.6 times greater, respectively, in the shrub alleys than in open area. H. salicornicum induced more robust soil amelioration and herbaceous plant facilitative properties than did C. polygonoides. Artificially planting these shrubs may thus be employed to restore degraded areas of arid regions. PMID:25239772

  7. A case study for removal of sulphur-di-oxide from exhaust flue gases at thermal power plant, Rajasthan (India).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rashmi; Acharya, Shveta; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reduce the percent SO2 in environment and to produce a byproduct with SO2, to control air pollution. The present work envisages a situation that compares the efficiency of three different reagents, viz. sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide and waste product of water treatment plant containing CaO in removal of SO2 that would be generated in this situation. Various parameters were also observed with variation involving percent concentration of reactants, pH of the solution, time for reaction , temperature of solution and flow of flue gas in impingers. Pet coke with lime stone is being used for power generation in power plant during the experiment, the pet coke having 6% sulphur resulting in emission of SO2. Hence experiments have been conducted to trap these gases to produce sulphates. Waste product of water treatment plant, calcium hydroxide, and sodium hydroxide in various permutation and combination have been used with control flow by SO2 monitoring kit for preparation of calcium sulphate and sodium sulphate. Thus sodium hydroxide turned out to be better as compared to calcium hydroxide and sludge. It is also concluded that pH of the solution should be alkaline for good absorption of SO2 and maximum absorption of SO2 found in direct passing of SO2 in impinger as compared to indirect passing of SO2 in impingers. Good absorption of SO2 found at temperature range between 20-25 degrees C and it seems to be optimum. Maximum recovery of SO2 was obtained when the reaction took place for long time period.

  8. Palaeoproterozoic A-type felsic magmatism in the Khetri Copper Belt, Rajasthan, northwestern India: petrologic and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, P.; Chaudhri, N.; Okrusch, M.; Koepke, J.

    2006-05-01

    A number of small Palaeoproterozoic granitoid plutons were emplaced in the Khetri Copper Belt, which is an important Proterozoic metallogenic terrane in the northeastern part of Aravalli mountain range. Contiguous Biharipur and Dabla plutons are located about 15 km southeast of Khetri, close to a 170 km long intracontinental rift zone. The plutons are composed of amphibole-bearing alkali-feldspar granites, comprising microcline-albite granite, albite granite and late-stage microgranite. The albite granite in Biharipur is confined to the margins of the pluton, and shows extensive commingling with the synchronous mafic plutonics. Geochemically, the albite granites are characterised by low K2O (˜0.5 wt.%) and elevated Na2O (˜7.0 wt.%) abundances. By contrast, the microcline-albite granite does not show any significant mafic-granite interactions and shows normal concentrations of alkali elements. The granitoids display high concentrations of the rare earth (except Eu) and high field strength elements, high values of Ga/Al (>2.5), agpaitic index and Fe*-number. These features together with their alkaline metaluminous and ferroan nature classify the rocks as typical A-type within-plate granites. All the granitoid facies display similar REE and incompatible element profiles indicating their cogenetic nature. These granitoids were emplaced in a shallow crustal chamber under relatively low pressures, high temperature (≥850 °C) and relatively oxidising conditions. The oxidised nature, HFSE concentrations and Nd isotope data (ɛNd = -1.3 to -2.9) favour derivation of these granitoid rocks from crustal protoliths. The generation of albite granite is attributed to the replacement of alkali feldspar and plagioclase of the original granite by pure albite as a consequence of pervasive infiltration of a high Na/(Na + K) fluid at the late-magmatic stage. This model may have wider significance for the generation of albite granites/low-K granites or albitites in other areas. The A-type plutonism under consideration seems to be an outcome of ensialic rifting of the Bhilwara aulacogen.

  9. Potential of Native Shrubs Haloxylon salicornicum and Calligonum Polygonoides for Restoration of Degraded Lands in Arid Western Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathore, V. S.; Singh, J. P.; Bhardwaj, S.; Nathawat, N. S.; Kumar, Mahesh; Roy, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Shrub-induced soil property spatial heterogeneity is common in arid and semi-arid ecosystems and aids desertified land restoration. However, the effectiveness of this technique may rely on the plant species used and the habitat conditions present. To assess the degree to which planting two native species, Haloxylon salicornicum and Calligonum polygonoides, facilitates degraded land restoration, soil and herbaceous plant community properties were measured 7 years after planting. Soil samples were extracted at two depths (0-5 and 5-20 cm) from three sub-habitats, i.e., under the shrub canopy, from alleys between shrubs and from the open area. Shrub planting increased the quantity of silt + clay content (30-39 %); enhanced water holding capacities (24-30 %); increased the levels of organic carbon (48-69 %), available nitrogen (31-47 %), available phosphorus (32-41 %), and electrical conductivity (21-33 %); and decreased the pH (7-12 %) and bulk density levels (5-6 %) in the surface layer of soils beneath the canopy. Soil property changes were more significant at the surface (0-5 cm) than in the deeper layer (5-20 cm), and were more pronounced under H. salicornicum than under C. polygonoides. Furthermore, the density and biomass levels of herbaceous plants were 1.1 to 1.2 and 1.4 to 1.6 times greater, respectively, in the shrub alleys than in open area. H. salicornicum induced more robust soil amelioration and herbaceous plant facilitative properties than did C. polygonoides. Artificially planting these shrubs may thus be employed to restore degraded areas of arid regions.

  10. On reproductive justice: 'domestic violence', rights and the law in India.

    PubMed

    Madhok, Sumi; Unnithan, Maya; Heitmeyer, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we draw attention to the difficulty of accessing reproductive rights in the absence of effective state and legal guarantees for gender equity and citizenship, and argue that if reproductive rights are to be meaningful interventions on the ground, they must be reframed in terms of reproductive justice. Drawing on multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Rajasthan, Northwest India, we track two dynamic legal aid interventions on reproductive health rights in India, concerned with domestic violence and maternal mortality respectively, that have sought to fill this existing gap between ineffective state policies and the rhetoric on reproductive rights. Through an analysis of these interventions, we propose that requirements of reproductive justice cannot be met through discrete or private, albeit creative legal initiatives, pursued by individuals or civil society organisations but must involve comprehensive policies as well as strategies and alliances between state, non-state, transnational organisations and progressive political groups.

  11. On reproductive justice: 'domestic violence', rights and the law in India.

    PubMed

    Madhok, Sumi; Unnithan, Maya; Heitmeyer, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we draw attention to the difficulty of accessing reproductive rights in the absence of effective state and legal guarantees for gender equity and citizenship, and argue that if reproductive rights are to be meaningful interventions on the ground, they must be reframed in terms of reproductive justice. Drawing on multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Rajasthan, Northwest India, we track two dynamic legal aid interventions on reproductive health rights in India, concerned with domestic violence and maternal mortality respectively, that have sought to fill this existing gap between ineffective state policies and the rhetoric on reproductive rights. Through an analysis of these interventions, we propose that requirements of reproductive justice cannot be met through discrete or private, albeit creative legal initiatives, pursued by individuals or civil society organisations but must involve comprehensive policies as well as strategies and alliances between state, non-state, transnational organisations and progressive political groups. PMID:24927257

  12. SWOT Analysis of Dental Health Workforce in India: A Dental alarm

    PubMed Central

    B H, Naveen; Kumar, Santhosh; H, Sreenivasa

    2014-01-01

    Context: India faces an acute shortage of health personnel. Together with inequalities in distribution of health workers, dental health workers also become a part contributing to it impeding the progress towards achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Aim: To assess dental health-workforce distribution, identify inequalities in dental health-workers provision and report the impact of this mal distribution in India. Materials and Methods: Situational analysis done by using the primary data from the records of Dental Council of India. Results: In India, 0.088% of dental health worker per 1000 population exists. Inequalities in the distribution of dentists exist in India. Certain states are experiencing an acute shortage of dental health personnel whereas certain cities are over fledged with dentists like Karnataka, Maharastra, Tamilnadu being states with high concentration & Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Uttaranchal being the least. Conclusion: Although the production of health workers has expanded greatly in recent years by increase in number of dental colleges the problems of imbalances in their distribution persist. In the race of increasing dentist population ratio in total, inequitable distribution of appropriately trained, motivated and supported dentists gives a mere feel of saturation in jobs making youngsters to not to choose dentistry as a career giving an alarm. PMID:25584341

  13. How Do Age and Tooth Loss Affect Oral Health Impacts and Quality of Life? A Study Comparing Two State Samples of Gujarat and Rajasthan

    PubMed Central

    Jain, M.; Kaira, L. S.; Sikka, G.; Singh, SK.; Gupta, A.; Sharma, R.; Sawla, L.; Mathur, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Age and tooth loss are expected to have a complex relationship with oral health-related quality of life. So the purpose of this study was to explain the impact of age and tooth loss on oral health-related quality of life using the short form 14-item oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) among two population samples of Gujarat and Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 1441 subjects collected from two major cities of Gujarat and Rajasthan. Both questionnaire approaches using OHIP-14 scale and clinical examination were conducted in accordance with WHO criteria using type III procedure on the same day. Chi square test, ANOVA and stepwise multiple regression analysis were applied using SPSS software version 15.0. Results: With the increase of age, OHIP mean score in both states increased, but that among Rajasthan state was higher, depicting poor oral health. Whereas, in the remaining 23–27 number of teeth both states showed higher OHIP mean, however again the score was much higher among Rajasthan subjects showing worse oral hygiene. Hence, overall all mean OHIP score for Gujarat was lower indicating good oral health; whereas, that among Rajasthan was higher indicating poor oral health-related quality of life. Conclusion: Both age and tooth loss are associated with each other, but they have an independent effect on the oral health-related quality of life. Thus, all studied populations with complete natural dentition showed good oral health-related quality of life. PMID:23066478

  14. India: Gujarat

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... title:  Dewatering Effects from the Gujarat Earthquake     View Larger Image ... India's Republic Day is normally celebrated, a devastating earthquake hit the state of Gujarat. About 20,000 people died and millions were ...

  15. Deformation of footwall rock of Phulad Shear Zone, Rajasthan: Evidence of transpressional shear zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Manideepa Roy; Das, Subhrajyoti; Chatterjee, Sadhana M.; Sengupta, Sudipta

    2016-07-01

    Phulad Shear Zone (PSZ) of Delhi Fold Belt in Rajasthan is a northeasterly striking ductile shear zone with a well developed mylonitic foliation (035/70E) and a downdip stretching lineation. The deformation in the PSZ has developed in a transpressional regime with thrusting sense of movement. The northeastern unit, i.e., the hanging wall contains a variety of rocks namely calc-silicates, pelites and amphibolites and the southwestern unit, i.e., the footwall unit contains only granitic rocks. Systematic investigation of the granites of the southwestern unit indicate a gradual change in the intensity of deformation from a distance of about 1 km west of the shear zone to the shear zone proper. The granite changes from weakly deformed granite to a mylonite/ultramylonite as we proceed towards the PSZ. The weakly deformed granite shows a crude foliation with the same attitude of mylonitic foliation of the PSZ. Microscopic study reveals the incipient development of C and S fabric with angle between C and S varying from 15 ∘ to 24 ∘. The small angle between the C and S fabric in the least deformed granite variety indicates that the deformation has strong pure shear component. At a distance of about 1 m away from the PSZ, there is abrupt change in the intensity of deformation. The granite becomes intensely foliated with a strong downdip lineation and the rock becomes a true mylonite. In mesoscopic scale, the granite shows stretched porphyroclasts in both XZ and YZ sections indicating a flattening type of deformation. The angle between the C and S fabric is further reduced and finally becomes nearly parallel. In most places, S fabric is gradually replaced by C fabric. Calculation of sectional kinematic vorticity number ( W n) from the protomylonitic and mylonite/ultramylonite granites varies from 0.3 ± 0.03 to 0.55 ± 0.04 indicating a strong component of pure shear. The similarity of the geometry of structures in the PSZ and the granites demonstrates that the

  16. A study of two-weekly incidence of ARI in under-five children of rural area of Alwar (Rajasthan).

    PubMed

    Madhav, S M; Dixit, G C; Prakasam, P S; Sundaram, N S; Shrivastava, K N; Datta, K K; Sharma, R S

    1990-12-01

    A retrospective study of two-weekly incidence of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in the under-five children of rural area of Alwar District (Rajasthan) based on the previous fourteen days' recall by the mothers was undertaken during December 1989 to assess the magnitude of the problem and its' risk factors. The two-weekly ARI incidence was reported to be 33 episodes per 100 under-fives. Mothers in higher socio-economic strata reported higher incidence of ARI for their children due to more accurate recall. Majority of ARI cases (76 per cent) were found to be of mild degree. 26 per cent of deaths in under-fives during the previous year were reported to be ARI-related. 50 per cent of ARI cases were left untreated. Among the treated group, private practitioners were found to be the main source of health care. PMID:2098428

  17. Profile of epidemic emergencies in India during 1991-95.

    PubMed

    Khera, A K; Jain, D C; Datta, K K

    1996-06-01

    Epidemic emergencies have shown increasing trend in India and most parts of the country appear to be vulnerable to these emergencies. In this paper we present a profile of epidemic emergencies attended by the National Institute of Communicable Diseases in the last five years, to delineate aspects that will promote better preparedness and management. Water borne and water related disease epidemics constituted more than 70% of the epidemic emergencies in India. Non 01 cholera epidemics constituted one fourth of total cholera epidemics during 1991-95. Most of the hepatitis outbreaks were attributed to Non A Non B. The source of infection in majority of the cholera and jaundice epidemics was contaminated water. Dengue and resistant typhoid fever were among other emergencies reported during last five years. Some of these epidemic were reported to local health authorities as mysterious diseases due to lack of public health laboratory facilities. Encephalitis and encephalitis like epidemics in the form of Liquor poisoning and chronic Heat syndrome encephalopathy were also observed. The re-emerging disease epidemics like plague in Beed, Pneumonic plague in Surat and malaria in Rajasthan were also investigated during 1994. These observations indicate the weakness in the epidemiological and laboratory surveillance besides inadequacy in water management practices and other socio environmental reasons.

  18. Interview: Mr. Tevia Abrams, UNFPA Country Director for India.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    The government of India set up a population program 25 years ago, yet the population is expected to surpass that of China in the near future. The current UN Population Fund (UNFPA) program for India covers the period 1991-95 with coordination, implementation, and evaluation. Improved services focus on states with high fertility and mortality, high infant mortality, self-reliance in contraceptive production, models for maternal health care and traditional health care, national communication strategy, public awareness enhancement, and raising women's status by female literacy expansion and employment generation. UNFPA trains, provides equipment and contraceptives, and nongovernmental organization participation. The bulk of the $90 million cost of the program will come from UNFPA: maternal-child health, family planning (FP), and information, education, and communication (IEC) will receive the most funding. Ethnic and tribal areas will get attention under a decentralized scheme in accordance with the concept of a multicultural society where early age at marriage and high economic value of children are realities. The Ministry is responsible for IEC and FP targets and allocation of funds. Government institutes and universities carry out population research. The creation of India POPIN patterned after the Asia-Pacific Population Information Network is under development under IEC activities. The status of women is varied throughout India, in the state of Kerala literacy reaches 100%, and the birth rate of 19.8%/1000 women is below the national average of 30.5. In contrast, the states of Bihar and Rajasthan with female literacy of 23% and 21%, respectively, have birth rates of 34.4% and 33.9%.

  19. Potential for early warning of maalria in India using NOAA-AVHRR based vegetation health indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhiman, R. C.; Kogan, Felix; Singh, Neeru; Singh, R. P.; Dash, A. P.

    Malaria is still a major public health problem in India with about 1 82 million cases annually and 1000 deaths As per World Health Organization WHO estimates about 1 3 million Disability Adjusted Life Years DALYs are lost annually due to malaria in India Central peninsular region of India is prone to malaria outbreaks Meteorological parameters changes in ecological conditions development of resistance in mosquito vectors development of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum parasite and lack of surveillance are the likely reasons of outbreaks Based on satellite data and climatic factors efforts have been made to develop Early Warning System EWS in Africa but there is no headway in this regard in India In order to find out the potential of NOAA satellite AVHRR derived Vegetation Condition Index VCI Temperature Condition Index TCI and a cumulative indicator Vegetation Health Index VHI were attempted to find out their potential for development of EWS Studies were initiated by analysing epidemiological data of malaria vis-a-vis VCI TCI and VHI from Bikaner and Jaisalmer districts of Rajasthan and Tumkur and Raichur districts of Karnataka Correlation coefficients between VCI and monthly malaria cases for epidemic years were computed Positive correlation 0 67 has been found with one-month lag between VCI and malaria incidence in respect of Tumkur while a negative correlation with TCI -0 45 is observed In Bikaner VCI is found to be negatively related -0 71 with malaria cases in epidemic year of 1994 Weekly

  20. Internet India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews a number of Internet sites containing information on every aspect of life in Modern India. The various sites provide information on such diverse topics as the Indian film industry, politics, the booming Indian computer industry, changing status of women, and financial and political issues. (MJP)

  1. Using Third-Party Inspectors in Building Energy Codes Enforcement in India

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Kumar, Pradeep; Van Wie, Laura; Bhatt, Vatsal

    2013-01-31

    India is experiencing fast income growth and urbanization, and this leads to unprecedented increases in demand for building energy services and resulting energy consumption. In response to rapid growth in building energy use, the Government of India issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which is consistent with and based on the 2001 Energy Conservation Act. ECBC implementation has been voluntary since its enactment and a few states have started to make progress towards mandatory implementation. Rajasthan is the first state in India to adopt ECBC as a mandatory code. The State adopted ECBC with minor additions on March 28, 2011 through a stakeholder process; it became mandatory in Rajasthan on September 28, 2011. Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh have started to draft an implementation roadmap and build capacity for its implementation. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) plans to encourage more states to adopt ECBC in the near future, including Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Delhi. Since its inception, India has applied the code on a voluntary basis, but the Government of India is developing a strategy to mandate compliance. Implementing ECBC requires coordination between the Ministry of Power and the Ministry of Urban Development at the national level as well as interdepartmental coordination at the state level. One challenge is that the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), the enforcement entities of building by-laws, lack capacity to implement ECBC effectively. For example, ULBs in some states might find the building permitting procedures to be too complex; in other cases, lack of awareness and technical knowledge on ECBC slows down the amendment of local building by-laws as well as ECBC implementation. The intent of this white paper is to share with Indian decision-makers code enforcement approaches: through code officials, third-party inspectors, or a hybrid approach. Given the limited capacity and human

  2. Delhi, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  3. Fertility and mortality differentials among selected tribal population groups of north-western and eastern India.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, A K; Kshatriya, G K

    2000-04-01

    Selection potential based on differential fertility and mortality has been computed for six tribal groups inhabiting different geo-climatic conditions, namely: Sahariya, Mina and Bhil of the State of Rajasthan, north-western India, and Munda, Santal and Lodha of the State of West Bengal, eastern India. Irrespective of the methodology, the total index of selection was found to be highest among Lodhas (0.668), followed by Sahariyas (0.524), Santals (0.462), Bhils (0.386), Mundas (0.353) and Minas (0.334). Incidentally, Lodha and Sahariya are two of the seventy-four notified primitive tribal groups of India, and these two study populations show the highest index of total selection, mainly because of a higher embryonic and postnatal mortality. The relative contribution of the fertility component to the index of total selection is higher than the corresponding mortality component in all tribal groups. The analysis of postnatal mortality components indicates that childhood mortality constitutes the bulk of postnatal mortality, suggesting that children under 5 years need better health care in these tribal groups. PMID:10765614

  4. Bombay, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Formerly known as Bombay, the city of Mumbai is situated on India's west coast, on the Arabian Sea, roughly 500 km (310 miles) south of the Tropic of Cancer. Its large harbor and ideal location facing Africa, Europe, and the Middle East make it an excellent city for trade. Sometimes referred to as the 'Gateway of India,' Mumbai handles more than one third of the country's foreign trade. The city supports a population of more than 12 million people in an area of roughly 619 square km (239 square miles). The port was acquired in 1534 by Portugal, which named it Bom Bahia, meaning 'beautiful bay.' Originally, the city rested upon seven small islands, mostly basaltic bedrock from earlier lava flows. These islands are now connected to one another by reclaimed land, but each island, or neighborhood, still retains a distinct identity within the city. (For more details, visit Welcome to Bombay: The Gateway of India.) The blue-grey pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The dark green areas are heavily vegetated surfaces while the light brown regions are more sparsely vegetated. This image of Mumbai was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  5. Evaluation of the Secretor Status of ABO Blood Group Antigens in Saliva among Southern Rajasthan Population Using Absorption Inhibition Method

    PubMed Central

    Khajuria, Nidhi; Mamta; Ramesh, Gayathri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The ABO blood group system was the significant element for forensic serological examination of blood and body fluids in the past before the wide adaptation of DNA typing. A significant proportion of individuals (80%) are secretors, meaning that antigens present in the blood are also found in other body fluids such as saliva. Absorption inhibition is one such method that works by reducing strength of an antiserum based on type and amount of antigen present in the stains. Aim To check the efficacy of identifying the blood group antigens in saliva and to know the secretor status using absorption inhibition method among southern Rajasthan population. Materials and Methods Blood and saliva samples were collected from 80 individuals comprising 20 individuals in each blood group. The absorption inhibition method was used to determine the blood group antigens in the saliva and then the results were correlated with the blood group of the collected blood sample. The compiled data was statistically analysed using chi-square test. Results Blood groups A & O revealed 100% secretor status for both males and females. While blood groups B and AB revealed 95% secretor status. Conclusion Secretor status evaluation of the ABO blood group antigen in saliva using absorption inhibition method can be a useful tool in forensic examination. PMID:27042574

  6. Fungal weathering of asbestos in semi arid regions of India.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Shabori; John, P J; Ledwani, Lalita

    2016-02-01

    The science of Geomicrobiology, which deals with mineral- microbe interaction in nature contributes effectively to three important processes namely- mineral and metal bioremediation, biomining and soil mineral formation by microbes. Bioremediation one of the important process of the above, degrades or transforms hazardous contaminants to less toxic compounds. Several groups of fungi have proved highly efficient in this aspect, with asbestos being one such toxic entity in the environment on which their activity was studied. The present investigation uses the same tool as a device for detoxifying asbestos, a potent carcinogenic entity; with fungal isolates native to the asbestos mines of Rajasthan, India, being investigated for the first time. The cellular mechanism of asbestos toxicity is mainly attributed to the presence of iron in its chemical composition which catalyzes generation of free radicals leading to oxidation of biomolecules. The two dominant novel species found therein, identified as Aspergillus tubingenesis and Coemansia reversa have proved capable of actively removing iron from asbestos fibers as studied by scanning electron microscopy- electron diffraction X-ray (SEM-EDX) analysis. This probably could lead to a reduction in toxicity of asbestos, due to reduced iron concentration as reported in related studies. Many fungi are known to release iron chelating compounds, siderophores, which could be instrumental in the study. The findings related to two new fungal species being added to the list of earlier identified fungal bioremediators of asbestos, widens the prospect of using bioremediation as an effective tool for asbestos detoxification.

  7. Comparative Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infection Cases from Representative States of Northern and Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shivani; Padmavathi, DV

    2014-01-01

    Context: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are amongst the most common infections described in outpatient settings. Increased antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of urinary tract pathogens is a matter of global public health concern. Treatment of UTI depends on both prevalence and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of causative bacteria at any specific geographical location. Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the prevalence of uropathogens and their AMR profile in two different geographical parts of India. Materials and Methods: Clean-catch mid-stream urine samples were collected from adult patients, bacterial flora isolated from human urine was evaluated for antimicrobial susceptibility profile using Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method among patients from Hyderabad (Southern India), Rajasthan and Punjab (Northern India). The data were analysed using Chi-square (χ2) test, confidence interval (CI), odds ratio (OR) analysis and p-value using SPSS 16 software. Results: Escherichia coli (55.1%) were the most prevalent isolates followed by Enterococcus faecalis (15.8%). Amikacin was the most active antimicrobial agents which showed low resistance rate of 14%. The present study revealed the geographical difference in prevalence of uropathogens with Klebsiella pneumoniae being the second most common uropathogen followed by E. faecalis in the states from northern India while no K. pneumoniae was seen in samples from southern India but E. faecalis was the second most prevalent organism. Conclusion: Therefore, development of regional surveillance programs is highly recommended for implementation of national CA-UTI guidelines in Indian settings. PMID:25386432

  8. Presence of diabetes mellitus in the ‘Dawoodi Bohra youth community’ in Udaipur, Rajasthan

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, S.; Goyal, S.; Cornelius, T.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem worldwide. With the rising incidence of diabetes in India, it becomes particularly relevant to ascertain its prevalence in various ethnic groups. The objective of this study was to find out the presence of diabetes mellitus in the ‘Dawoodi Bohra Youth Community’ and also to assess the factors responsible for it. Methods: A house-to-house study was conducted and 2179 subjects were questioned randomly; children below 18 yr of age were excluded. A questionnaire was given to each member and questions were also asked to test their level of awareness regarding diabetes which was graded on a 5-pointer scale where 1 meant ‘very poor’ and 5-’excellent’. Diabetes was diagnosed using GOD-POD (oxidase-peroxidase) method according to the WHO criteria. Results: Total number of diabetic subjects found was 246 (11.29%) with a mean age of 60.21±10.91 years. The condition was more common in males (58.94%). The highest prevalence was recorded in the age group of 65-69 yr (22.01%) and none had diabetes in the age group 11-24 yr. Pedigree analysis showed that 109 (44.30%) subjects had at least one affected relative and 23 (9.34%) had at least two diabetic family members; 52 were found to have parents with diabetes. On the 5-pointer scale, the overall care in diabetic subjects was 3.76±0.56 as compared to 2.86±0.60 in non-diabetic subjects (P<0.001). Interpretation & conclusions: Our results indicated that the marital alliances, familial aggregation and lifestyle could be the major factors which enhanced the chances of diabetes in this community. This research work also reflected poor awareness among these people regarding their health and diseases. PMID:25297365

  9. Perceived barriers to the provision of preventive care among dentists of Udaipur, India

    PubMed Central

    Sanadhya, Sudhanshu; Batra, Mehak; Daryani, Hemasha; Ramesh, Gayathri; Aapaliya, Pankaj

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the practice-, patient- and dentist related barriers to the provision of preventive dental care as perceived by dentists of Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India. Settings and Design:- A cross sectional descriptive survey was conducted among 120 dentists of Udaipur city, Rajasthan. Material and Methods: Mean Content Validity Ratio (CVR) was calculated as 0.87 based on the opinions expressed by a panel of total six academicians. Cronbach’s coefficient was found to be 0.88, which showed a high internal reliability of the questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of demographic questions and 12 specific research questions. Statistical analysis used:- Student’s t-test and ANOVA test were applied for the statistical evaluation of means. Level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The barriers correlated strongly with each other (0.60 to 0.85). A significant gender difference was observed in mean sums of scores of practice and patient related barriers. Practice, dentist and patient related barriers for very much hindrance were reported by 8 to 13%, 5 to19% and 0 to 29% of the dentists respectively. A significant difference was observed among mean of sum scores of practice and patient related barriers with age and experience. Qualification was significantly related to practice related barriers. Conclusions: Perception of dentists showed that patient related barriers were found to be the foremost to the provision of preventive care. Also, dentist’s attitude towards health promotion and disease prevention needs a radical transformation. Key words:Dental care, dentists, patients, perception. PMID:25810847

  10. Factors affecting the performance of community health workers in India: a multi-stakeholder perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Reetu; Webster, Premila; Bhattacharyya, Sanghita

    2014-01-01

    Background Community health workers (CHWs) form a vital link between the community and the health department in several countries. In India, since 2005 this role is largely being played by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs), who are village-level female workers. Though ASHAs primarily work for the health department, in a model being tested in Rajasthan they support two government departments. Focusing on the ASHA in this new role as a link worker between two departments, this paper examines factors associated with her work performance from a multi-stakeholder perspective. Design The study was done in 16 villages from two administrative blocks of Udaipur district in Rajasthan. The findings are based on 63 in-depth interviews with ASHAs, their co-workers and representatives from the two departments. The interviews were conducted using interview guides. An inductive approach with open coding was used for manual data analysis. Results This study shows that an ASHA's motivation and performance are affected by a variety of factors that emerge from the complex context in which she works. These include various personal (e.g. education), professional (e.g. training, job security), and organisational (e.g. infrastructure) factors along with others that emerge from external work environment. The participants suggested various ways to address these challenges. Conclusion In order to improve the performance of ASHAs, apart from taking corrective actions at the professional and organisational front on a priority basis, it is equally essential to promote cordial work relationships amongst ASHAs and other community-level workers from the two departments. This will also have a positive impact on community health. PMID:25319596

  11. Satellite-based estimates of groundwater depletion in India.

    PubMed

    Rodell, Matthew; Velicogna, Isabella; Famiglietti, James S

    2009-08-20

    Groundwater is a primary source of fresh water in many parts of the world. Some regions are becoming overly dependent on it, consuming groundwater faster than it is naturally replenished and causing water tables to decline unremittingly. Indirect evidence suggests that this is the case in northwest India, but there has been no regional assessment of the rate of groundwater depletion. Here we use terrestrial water storage-change observations from the NASA Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellites and simulated soil-water variations from a data-integrating hydrological modelling system to show that groundwater is being depleted at a mean rate of 4.0 +/- 1.0 cm yr(-1) equivalent height of water (17.7 +/- 4.5 km(3) yr(-1)) over the Indian states of Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana (including Delhi). During our study period of August 2002 to October 2008, groundwater depletion was equivalent to a net loss of 109 km(3) of water, which is double the capacity of India's largest surface-water reservoir. Annual rainfall was close to normal throughout the period and we demonstrate that the other terrestrial water storage components (soil moisture, surface waters, snow, glaciers and biomass) did not contribute significantly to the observed decline in total water levels. Although our observational record is brief, the available evidence suggests that unsustainable consumption of groundwater for irrigation and other anthropogenic uses is likely to be the cause. If measures are not taken soon to ensure sustainable groundwater usage, the consequences for the 114,000,000 residents of the region may include a reduction of agricultural output and shortages of potable water, leading to extensive socioeconomic stresses.

  12. HIV testing in India.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Srikanth; Pereira, Michael; Tripathy, Sriram Prasad

    2012-06-01

    The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) has initiated programs for HIV/AIDS control in India. Algorithms for HIV testing have been developed for India. NACO programs have resulted in HIV situation improving over the last decade.

  13. Site Suitability Analysis of Water Harvesting Structures Using Remote Sensing and GIS - A Case Study of Pisangan Watershed, Ajmer District, Rajasthan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, H. C.; Bhalla, P.; Palria, S.

    2014-12-01

    Rajasthan is a region with very limited water resources. Water is the most crucial for maintaining an environment and ecosystem conducive to sustaining all forms of life. The principle of watershed management is the proper management of all the precipitation by the way of collection, storage and efficient utilization of runoff water and to recharge the ground water. The present study aim's to identify suitable zones for water harvesting structures in Pisangan watershed of Ajmer district, Rajasthan by using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Multi Criteria Evaluation (MSE). Multi criteria evaluation is carried out in Geographic Information system to help the decision makers in determining suitable zones for water harvesting structures based on the physical characteristics of the watershed. Different layers which were taken into account for multi criteria evaluation are; Soil texture, slope, rainfall data (2000-2012), land use/cover, geomorphology, lithology, lineaments, drainage network. The soil conservation service model was used to estimate the runoff depth of the study area Analytical Hierarchy Processes (AHP) is used to find suitable water harvesting structures on the basis of rainfall. Produced suitability map will help in the selection of harvesting structures such as percolation tanks, storage tank, check dams and stop dams.

  14. The India Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2012-01-01

    Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

  15. Identification of soil erosion risk areas for conservation planning in different states of India.

    PubMed

    Sharda, V N; Mandal, Debashis; Ojasvi, P R

    2013-03-01

    Assessment of soil erosion risks, especially in the developing countries, is a challenging task mainly due to non-availability or insufficiency of relevant data. In this paper, the soil erosion risks have been estimated by integrating the spatial data on potential erosion rates and soil loss tolerance limits for conservation planning at state level in India. The erosion risk classes have been prioritized based upon the difference between the prevailing erosion rates and the permissible erosion limits. The analysis revealed that about 50% of total geographical area (TGA) of India, falling in five priority erosion risk classes, requires different intensity of conservation measures though about 91% area suffers from potential erosion rates varying from < 5 to > 40 t ha(-1) yr(-1). Statewise analysis indicated that Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan share about 75% of total area under priority Class 1 (6.4 M ha) though they account for only 19.4% of the total area (36.2 M ha) under very severe potential erosion rate category (> 40 t ha(-1)yr(-1)). It was observed that about 75% of total geographical area (TGA) in the states of Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Kerala and Punjab does not require any specific soil conservation measure as the potential erosion rates are well within the tolerance limits. The developed methodology can be successfully employed for prioritization of erosion risk areas at watershed, region or country level.

  16. Real-time particulate and CO concentrations from cookstoves in rural households in Udaipur, India.

    PubMed

    Leavey, Anna; Londeree, Jessica; Priyadarshini, Pratiti; Puppala, Jagdeesh; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Yadama, Gautam; Biswas, Pratim

    2015-06-16

    Almost 3 billion people around the globe use traditional three-stone cookstoves and open fires to warm and feed themselves. The World Health Organization estimates annual mortality rates from domestic solid fuel combustion to be around 4 million. One of the most affected countries is India. Quantifying pollutant concentrations from these cookstoves during different phases of operation and understanding the factors influencing their variability may help to identify where improvements should be targeted, enhancing indoor air quality for millions of the world's most vulnerable people. Gas and particulate measurements were collected between June and August, 2012, for 51 households using traditional cookstoves, in the villages of Udaipur district, Rajasthan, India. Mean pollutant concentrations during steady-state mode were 4989 μm(2) cm(-3), 9835 μg m(-3), and 18.5 ppm for lung-deposited surface area, PM2.5, and CO, respectively. Simple and multivariate regression analysis was conducted. Fuel amount, fuel diameter, duration of the cookstove run, roof-type, and the room dimension explained between 7% and 21% of the variability for the pollutant metrics. CO demonstrated weaker correlations with explanatory variables. Some of these variables may be indicative of socio-economic status and could be used as proxies of exposure in lieu of pollutant measurements, hence these variables may help identify which households to prioritize for intervention. Such associations should be further explored. PMID:25985217

  17. Groundwater Storage Depletion in the Northwest India Aquifer using Forward Modeling and GRACE Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, D.; Scanlon, B. R.; Chen, J.

    2014-12-01

    Signal restoration of GRACE total water storage (TWS) and groundwater storage (GWS) changes for aquifers is challenging because human-induced water storage changes are often not simulated and have large uncertainties in land surface models (LSMs). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of forward modeling for restoring GRACE signal loss due to low-pass filtering applied to GRACE data. A new approach integrating the strengths of LSMs and forwarding modeling is developed to recover TWS and GWS changes using the North India Aquifer as a case study. GWS for a broad region of North India (~1,000,000 km2) during the past decade (Jan 2003-Jan 2013) showed a generally consistent decreasing trend at a rate of -2.1 cm/a (-22. 3 km3/a), and GWS changes for the three-state region (Punjab, Haryana & Delhi, and Rajasthan, 436,390 km2) for the period Jul 2003-Jul 2008 was estimated to be -2.9 cm/a (-12.7 km3/a). This study provides new insights into GRACE signal restoration for TWS and GWS estimation over aquifers.

  18. Chromium (VI) induced oxidative stress in halotolerant alga Dunaliella salina and D. tertiolecta isolated from sambhar salt lake of Rajasthan (India).

    PubMed

    Arun, N; Vidyalaxmi; Singh, D P

    2014-01-01

    Chromium (Cr) is one of the most serious pollutants in aquatic systems. This study was performed to understand the effect of Cr (VI) on halophilic algal strains of D. salina and D. tertiolecta. The results revealed good tolerance of D. salina towards chromium (VI) up to 8 ppm concentration, whereas tolerance level in D. tertiolecta was up to 2 ppm concentration. Cr (VI) not only inhibited the growth of D. tertiolecta, but also showed increased inhibition in the level of photosynthetic pigments, protein and carbohydrate. Results have revealed that chromium (VI) induced higher increase in lipid peroxidation and H2O2 production in D. tertiolecta than the D. salina, particularly at higher concentration of chromium (VI). Chromium (VI) induced increase in the rate of RNO bleaching, loss of pigments and thiol (-SH) group was relatively higher in D. tertiolecta than the D. salina, which is indicating that D. tertiolecta was prone to Cr (VI) induced oxidative stress. Results on RNO bleaching in the presence of radical quenchers suggested that OH° radical played an important role in the chromium (VI)-induced general oxidative stress in D. tertiolecta. PMID:25535718

  19. Chromium (VI) induced oxidative stress in halotolerant alga Dunaliella salina and D. tertiolecta isolated from sambhar salt lake of Rajasthan (India).

    PubMed

    Arun, N; Vidyalaxmi; Singh, D P

    2014-01-01

    Chromium (Cr) is one of the most serious pollutants in aquatic systems. This study was performed to understand the effect of Cr (VI) on halophilic algal strains of D. salina and D. tertiolecta. The results revealed good tolerance of D. salina towards chromium (VI) up to 8 ppm concentration, whereas tolerance level in D. tertiolecta was up to 2 ppm concentration. Cr (VI) not only inhibited the growth of D. tertiolecta, but also showed increased inhibition in the level of photosynthetic pigments, protein and carbohydrate. Results have revealed that chromium (VI) induced higher increase in lipid peroxidation and H2O2 production in D. tertiolecta than the D. salina, particularly at higher concentration of chromium (VI). Chromium (VI) induced increase in the rate of RNO bleaching, loss of pigments and thiol (-SH) group was relatively higher in D. tertiolecta than the D. salina, which is indicating that D. tertiolecta was prone to Cr (VI) induced oxidative stress. Results on RNO bleaching in the presence of radical quenchers suggested that OH° radical played an important role in the chromium (VI)-induced general oxidative stress in D. tertiolecta.

  20. A new thrust and dynamism. India.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, S

    1992-08-01

    The 1991 census indicated that India's population was 844.3 million, increasing from the 342 million of 1947 and 683.6 million of 1981. The annual rate of increase is 16 million. The Family Welfare Program was launched in 1951 and the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act was passed in 1971. The National Health policy of 1983 set demographic goals for 2000: infant mortality rate of 60, population growth rate of 1.2% (with a birth rate of 21/1000 and death rate of 9), and a contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) of 60%. Owing to the decline in mortality, the rate of population growth increased from 1.3 in 1931-41 to 2.2 in 1971-81; infant mortality rate decreased from 114 in 1980 to 80 in 1990; CPR reached 44.1%; and total fertility declined from 5.9 in 1960 to 4 in 1988. An extensive infrastructure was also proposed in 1985 in order to establish 1 subcenter for every 5000 population in normal areas and 3000 population in tribal areas; primary health centers for 30,000 in normal areas and 20,000 in hilly and tribal areas; and community health centers for 120,000 in normal areas and 80,000 in hilly and tribal areas. The universal immunization program was launched in 1985 with the aim of immunizing all pregnant women and all children. In 1985-86 coverage levels ranged between 29% for BCG and 41% for DPT. By the end of March 1991 it is estimated that 98% of infants were immunized with DPT3 and OPV3; 97% of infants with BCG and 89% of infants with measles vaccine. 78% of pregnant women were immunized with tetanus toxoid. The total number of poliomyelitis cases was only about 4000 in 1991 decreasing from 32,000 cases in 1981. In states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu population growth rated declined to 1.31% and 1.39%, respectively. However, the growth rates have stayed at 2.37% in Madhya Pradesh, 2.47% in Rajasthan, and 2.26% in Uttar Pradesh. PMID:12343894

  1. Spatial Temporal Sowing Pattern of Rapeseed-Mustard Crop in India Using Multi-Date IRS Awifs Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajak, D. R.; Patel, H. A.; Chaudhari, K. N.; Patel, N. K.; Panigrahy, S.; Parihar, J. S.

    2011-08-01

    This paper highlights the results on spatial pattern of sowing of rapeseed/mustard in four major states in India using multidate Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) data for 2010-11 crop season. Geo-referenced, calibrated AWiFS data acquired during October 2010 to February 2011 were used to generate the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) image sets. Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Technique (ISODATA) based clustering of the multi date NDVI dataset for mustard crop pixels was performed. The clusters were segregated to spectral emergence classes using a spectral profile matching approach with reference to ground truth data. The sowing dates were derived from the spectral emergence data using a lag period based on field observation. Analysis showed the sowing pattern in the study states is spread over around 60 days from mid October to mid December. Three distinct clusters of sowing pattern were observed. The major one (around 40%) is sown between mid October and first week of November. Around 25% area is sown from last week of November to mid December. The other 35% area is sown in between these two periods. Analysis of temperature, a key weather variable influencing the growth of this crop, showed that the crop sowing in northern Rajasthan and Haryana is delayed by about one month to avoid the frost damage during reproductive phase. In the parts of Gujarat, southern parts of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh (MP), an early sowing in the second fortnight of October was observed, mainly to avoid higher mean temperatures during the month of March.

  2. Assessment of essential newborn care services in secondary-level facilities from two districts of India.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Sumit; Zodpey, Sanjay P; Vidyasagaran, Aishwarya L; Sharma, Kavya; Raj, Sunil S; Neogi, Sutapa B; Pathak, Garima; Saraf, Abhay

    2014-03-01

    India faces a formidable burden of neonatal deaths, and quality newborn care is essential for reducing the high neonatal mortality rate. We examined newborn care services, with a focus on essential newborn care (ENC) in two districts, one each from two states in India. Nagaur district in Rajasthan and Chhatarpur district in Madhya Pradesh were included. Six secondary-level facilities from the districts-two district hospitals (DHs) and four community health centres (CHCs) were evaluated, where maximum institutional births within districts were taking place. The assessment included record review, facility observation, and competency assessment of service providers, using structured checklists and sets of questionnaire. The domains assessed for competency were: resuscitation, provision of warmth, breastfeeding, kangaroo mother care, and infection prevention. Our assessments showed that no inpatient care was being rendered at the CHCs while, at DHs, neonates with sepsis, asphyxia, and prematurity/low birthweight were managed. Newborn care corners existed within or adjacent to the labour room in all the facilities and were largely unutilized spaces in most of the facilities. Resuscitation bags and masks were available in four out of six facilities, with a predominant lack of masks of both sizes. Two CHCs in Chhatarpur did not have suction device. The average knowledge score amongst service providers in resuscitation was 76% and, in the remaining ENC domains, was 78%. The corresponding average skill scores were 24% and 34%, highlighting a huge contrast in knowledge and skill scores. This disparity was observed for all levels of providers assessed. While knowledge domain scores were largely satisfactory (> 75%) for the majority of providers in domains of kangaroo mother care and breastfeeding, the scores were only moderately satisfactory (50-75%) for all other knowledge domains. The skill scores for all domains were predominantly non-satisfactory (< 50%). The findings

  3. Assessment of Essential Newborn Care Services in Secondary-level Facilities from Two Districts of India

    PubMed Central

    Zodpey, Sanjay P.; Vidyasagaran, Aishwarya L.; Sharma, Kavya; Raj, Sunil S.; Neogi, Sutapa B.; Pathak, Garima; Saraf, Abhay

    2014-01-01

    India faces a formidable burden of neonatal deaths, and quality newborn care is essential for reducing the high neonatal mortality rate. We examined newborn care services, with a focus on essential newborn care (ENC) in two districts, one each from two states in India. Nagaur district in Rajasthan and Chhatarpur district in Madhya Pradesh were included. Six secondary-level facilities from the districts─two district hospitals (DHs) and four community health centres (CHCs) were evaluated, where maximum institutional births within districts were taking place. The assessment included record review, facility observation, and competency assessment of service providers, using structured checklists and sets of questionnaire. The domains assessed for competency were: resuscitation, provision of warmth, breastfeeding, kangaroo mother care, and infection prevention. Our assessments showed that no inpatient care was being rendered at the CHCs while, at DHs, neonates with sepsis, asphyxia, and prematurity/low birthweight were managed. Newborn care corners existed within or adjacent to the labour room in all the facilities and were largely unutilized spaces in most of the facilities. Resuscitation bags and masks were available in four out of six facilities, with a predominant lack of masks of both sizes. Two CHCs in Chhatarpur did not have suction device. The average knowledge score amongst service providers in resuscitation was 76% and, in the remaining ENC domains, was 78%. The corresponding average skill scores were 24% and 34%, highlighting a huge contrast in knowledge and skill scores. This disparity was observed for all levels of providers assessed. While knowledge domain scores were largely satisfactory (>75%) for the majority of providers in domains of kangaroo mother care and breastfeeding, the scores were only moderately satisfactory (50-75%) for all other knowledge domains. The skill scores for all domains were predominantly non-satisfactory (<50%). The findings

  4. India: Degree Verification Fees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Grady

    2004-01-01

    According to the USEFI (United States Education Foundation in India) Web site, (www.fulbright-india.org/eas/eas-general.htm), there are currently 74,603 Indian students in the United States. This immense cultural and educational exchange brings with it both rewards and difficulties for the students and the institutions who enroll them. One of the…

  5. The Myths of India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Frederick A.

    1988-01-01

    Stating that superficial stereotypes hinder the understanding of people and places, Day presents several well-known over-generalizations about India. Attempts to update readers about recent changes within the country while dispelling some popular myths. Discusses India's large population, poverty, economic growth, women's roles, and culture, along…

  6. Recourse to Dry Land Farming as a Possible Way to Arrest the Degradation of Groundwater, Soil and Land in Haryana, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A.; Lunkad, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Green Revolution enabled the small state of Haryna to become the wheat granary of India - though occupying 1.3% of geographical area of India, it accounts for 13% of wheat, and 3% of quality rice production in India. Haryana paid a heavy price for the impressive agricultural development - one-third of the irrigated land is salinity affected, water level declined by 3-12 m, and excessive nitrate levels in the groundwater (114-1800 mg/l) have rendered the groundwater non-potable in many areas. Groundwater in the arid western Haryana has become mostly saline ( TDS > 4000 mg/l). Improper canal irrigation has raised the water table by 3.0 -9.0 m in some areas, causing water logging over 2346 km2 of land. One possible way to arrest the degradation of groundwater and soil, is to switch to dryland farming. This would involve change in the irrigation method as well as proper selection and rotation of food crops like barley, sorghum, maize, different types of beans (pulses) and oil seeds like mustard, groundnut, etc and restricted use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Dryland farming could go hand in hand with the plantation of fruit trees, grasses and medicinal plants suitable to this agro- climatic zone, and animal husbandry. The same considerations hold good to eastern Rajasthan as well.

  7. Power quality in India

    SciTech Connect

    Deodar, P.S.

    1995-12-01

    This article is a summary of a Faraday Memorial Lecture on the state of power quality and reliability and its impact on the pace of India`s industrial growth and development. Poor quality is hurting industrial competitiveness and therefore their efforts to become a global supplier of goods. In this information age, there is a fast growth of computer usage in industry, commerce, business, trade, finance, healthcare, etc. These sensitive electronic products need clean and consistent power from the utility, and India`s State Electricity Board and other utilities simply cannot deliver it. The users, however, are ultimately response for the health and the safe operation of their equipment. Bad power quality available in India and the clean power requirement of the Informatic infrastructure are the two unfortunate realities of today`s electronic age.

  8. Modeling of groundwater draft based on satellite-derived crop acreage estimation over an arid region of northwest India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadra, Bidyut Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Paliwal, Rakesh; Jeyaseelan, A. T.

    2016-06-01

    Over-exploitation of groundwater for agricultural crops puts stress on the sustainability of natural resources in the arid region of Rajasthan state, India. Hydrogeological study of groundwater levels of the study area during the pre-monsoon (May to June), post-monsoon (October to November) and post-irrigation (February to March) seasons of 2004-2005 to 2011-2012 shows a steady decline of groundwater levels at the rate of 1.28-1.68 m/year, mainly due to excessive groundwater draft for irrigation. Due to the low density of the groundwater observation-well network in the study area, assessment of groundwater draft, and thus groundwater resource management, becomes a difficult task. To overcome the situation, a linear groundwater draft model (LGDM) has been developed based on the empirical relationship between satellite-derived crop acreage and the observed groundwater draft for the year 2003-2004. The model has been validated for a decade, during three year-long intervals (2005-2006, 2008-2009 and 2011-2012) using groundwater draft, estimated through a discharge factor method. Further, the estimated draft was validated through observed pumping data from random sampled villages (2011-2012). The results suggest that the developed LGDM model provides a good alternative to the estimation of groundwater draft based on satellite-based crop area in the absence of groundwater observation wells in arid regions of northwest India.

  9. Clinical trials in India.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Rituparna; M, Raghavendra

    2007-07-01

    The concept of outsourcing for the development and global studies on new drugs has become widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry due to its cost and uncertainty. India is going to be the most preferred location for contract pharma research and development due to its huge treatment naïve population, human resources, technical skills, adoption/amendment/implementation of rules/laws by regulatory authorities, and changing economic environment. But still 'miles to go' to fulfill the pre-requisites to ensure India's success. In spite of all the pitfalls, the country is ambitious and optimist to attract multinational pharmaceutical companies to conduct their clinical trials in India.

  10. Emerging Vector-Borne Zoonoses: Eco-Epidemiology and Public Health Implications in India

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Ramesh C.

    2014-01-01

    The diseases originating from animals or associated with man and animals are remerging and have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality. The present review highlights the re-emergence of emerging mainly zoonotic diseases like chikungunya, scrub typhus, and extension of spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis from western Rajasthan to Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and Haryana states; West Nile virus to Assam, and non-endemic areas of Japanese encephalitis (JE) like Maharashtra and JE to Delhi; Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever making inroads in Ahmedabad; and reporting fifth parasite of human malaria with possibility of zoonosis have been highlighted, which necessitates further studies for prevention and control. Emphasis has been given on understanding the ecology of reservoir hosts of pathogen, micro niche of vector species, climatic, socioeconomic risk factors, etc. Development of facilities for diagnosis of virus from insects, reservoirs, and human beings (like BSL4, which has been established in NIV, Pune), awareness about symptoms of new emerging viral and other zoonotic diseases, differential diagnosis, risk factors (climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic) and mapping of disease-specific vulnerable areas, and mathematical modeling for projecting epidemiological scenario is needed for preparedness of public health institutes. It is high time to understand the ecological link of zoonotic or anthroponotic diseases for updated risk maps and epidemiological knowledge for effective preventive and control measures. The public health stakeholders in India as well as in Southeast Asia should emphasize on understanding the eco-epidemiology of the discussed zoonotic diseases for taking preventive actions. PMID:25325052

  11. Not All Drinks Are Created Equal: Implications for Alcohol Assessment in India

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Madhabika B.; Kerr, William; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Pillai, Aravind

    2008-01-01

    Aims: There is sparse literature on drink alcohol content in developing countries. This study documented detailed information on drink sizes and ethanol content of alcoholic beverages consumed in three different parts of India. Methods: Data primarily from formative phases of studies on alcohol use patterns in the states of Delhi, Rajasthan and Goa are reported. Participant observation and semi-structured interviews with key informants and drinking respondents were used to assess different beverage types and to empirically measure actual drink sizes as poured. Investigation of ethanol content included the use of biochemical analyses, the alcoholmeter and the Analox Analyser AM3. Respondents interviewed in the post-formative phase in one study were also asked to define the volume of their drinks by indicating pour levels in select drinking vessels. Results: A wide range of alcoholic drinks were documented that varied in ethanol concentration across and within sites. Drink sizes, particularly for high-strength beverages, varied both by study site and respondent, with pours of distilled spirits on average being larger than standard measures. Conclusion: Estimates of both mean volume of alcohol consumption and heavy drinking amounts are influenced by variability in alcohol concentration and respondent-defined pour sizes. The variation in drink alcohol content found across Indian states indicates that prior to conducting quantitative surveys, preliminary work on sources of drink alcohol content variation should be undertaken to tailor measurement tools to specific beverages and drinking practices observed. Recommendations for alcohol research in developing countries are provided. PMID:18832137

  12. Female selective abortion - beyond 'culture': family making and gender inequality in a globalising India.

    PubMed

    Unnithan-Kumar, Maya

    2010-02-01

    There is an emerging global discourse on female selective abortion (FSA) as several Asian countries witness an increasing imbalance in their sex ratios in favour of boys. While there is an attendant increase in demographic and social surveys on the issue, little is understood about FSA as either a desired or contested practice of family making in the contexts in which it is practiced. Drawing on the accounts of feminists, doctors and lower, middle-class Hindu and Muslim women and their families in Rajasthan, Northern India, the paper explores differing perceptions and attitudes to FSA in the region. Focusing on the agency of pregnant women who resort to FSA, the paper suggests that gender inequality and marriage anxieties shape especially lower-middle-class women's engagement with reproductive technologies, including those of sex selection. The paper also concludes that the decisions of both Hindu and Muslim lower-middle-class women to abort female babies is informed by their shared, pragmatic understanding of the economic realities of gender discrimination and of their social obligation as wives to reproduce a particular quality of patriarchal family. PMID:19437177

  13. Chikungunya Infection in India: Results of a Prospective Hospital Based Multi-Centric Study

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Pratima; Ratagiri, Vinod H.; Kabra, Sushil K.; Lodha, Rakesh; Sharma, Sumit; Sharma, B. S.; Kalaivani, Mani; Wig, Naveet

    2012-01-01

    Background Chikungunya (CHIKV) has recently seen a re-emergence in India with high morbidity. However, the epidemiology and disease burden remain largely undetermined. A prospective multi-centric study was conducted to evaluate clinical, epidemiological and virological features of chikugunya infection in patients with acute febrile illness from various geographical regions of India. Methods and Findings A total of 540 patients with fever of up to 7days duration were enrolled at Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS), Karnataka (South); Sawai Man Singh Medical College (SMS) Rajasthan (West), and All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) New Delhi (North) from June 2008 to May 2009. Serum specimens were screened for chikungunya infection concurrently through RT-PCR and serology (IgM). Phylogenetic analysis was performed using Bioedit and Mega2 programs. Chikungunya infection was detected in 25.37% patients by RT-PCR and/or IgM-ELISA. Highest cases were detected in south (49.36%) followed by west (16.28%) and north (0.56%) India. A difference in proportion of positives by RT-PCR/ELISA with regard to duration of fever was observed (p<0.05). Rashes, joint pain/swelling, abdominal pain and vomiting was frequently observed among chikungunya confirmed cases (p<0.05). Adults were affected more than children. Anti-CHIK antibodies (IgM) were detected for more than 60days of fever onset. Phylogenetic analysis based on E1 gene from KIMS patients (n = 15) revealed ∼99% homology clustering with Central/East African genotype. An amino acid change from lysine to glutamine at position 132 of E1 gene was frequently observed among strains infecting children. Conclusions The study documented re-emergence of chikungunya in high frequencies and severe morbidity in south and west India but rare in north. The study emphasizes the need for continuous surveillance for disease burden using multiple diagnostic tests and also warrants the need for an appropriate molecular

  14. History of Nuclear India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  15. Assessment of genetic diversity and distribution of endophytic fungal communities of Alternaria solani isolates associated with the dominant Karanja plants in Sanganer Region of Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Kartikeya; Chittora, Manish

    2013-12-01

    Higher plants are ubiquitously colonized with fungal endophytes that often lack readily detectable structures. Current study examines the distribution of endophytic fungal communities within Karanja plants and diversity of novel fungal endophyte Alternaria solani isolates collected from different locations of Sanganer region of Rajasthan. Results confirmed that A. solani is a major fungal endophyte consortium associated with Karanja plants. PCR Amplified fragments using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers were subjected to unweighted pair group method analysis (UPGMA), which clearly distinguished twelve ecologically diverse A. solani isolates. A total of 58 RAPD loci were amplified, out of which 35 (60.34%) were polymorphic and 23 were monomorphic (39.66%) in nature. These polymorphic loci were identified with an average of 2.92 bands per primer. The efficacy of RAPD markers proved as an efficient marker system with respect to detection of polymorphism and number of loci scored and can be used for the identification of a particular isolates, thereby defining core collections and strengthening their exploitation in acquiring novel products produced by them. PMID:23888281

  16. Potential source identification for aerosol concentrations over a site in Northwestern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payra, Swagata; Kumar, Pramod; Verma, Sunita; Prakash, Divya; Soni, Manish

    2016-03-01

    The collocated measurements of aerosols size distribution (ASD) and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) are analyzed simultaneously using Grimm aerosol spectrometer and MICROTOP II Sunphotometer over Jaipur, capital of Rajasthan in India. The contrast temperature characteristics during winter and summer seasons of year 2011 are investigated in the present study. The total aerosol number concentration (TANC, 0.3-20 μm) during winter season was observed higher than in summer time and it was dominated by fine aerosol number concentration (FANC < 2 μm). Particles smaller than 0.8 μm (at aerodynamic size) constitute ~ 99% of all particles in winter and ~ 90% of particles in summer season. However, particles greater than 2 μm contribute ~ 3% and ~ 0.2% in summer and winter seasons respectively. The aerosols optical thickness shows nearly similar AOT values during summer and winter but corresponding low Angstrom Exponent (AE) values during summer than winter, respectively. In this work, Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) analysis is applied to identify locations of sources that influenced concentrations of aerosols over study area in two different seasons. PSCF analysis shows that the dust particles from Thar Desert contribute significantly to the coarse aerosol number concentration (CANC). Higher values of the PSCF in north from Jaipur showed the industrial areas in northern India to be the likely sources of fine particles. The variation in size distribution of aerosols during two seasons is clearly reflected in the log normal size distribution curves. The log normal size distribution curves reveals that the particle size less than 0.8 μm is the key contributor in winter for higher ANC.

  17. Spatio-temporal variation in chemical characteristics of PM10 over Indo Gangetic Plain of India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S K; Mandal, T K; Srivastava, M K; Chatterjee, A; Jain, Srishti; Saxena, M; Singh, B P; Saraswati; Sharma, A; Adak, A; K Ghosh, S

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents the spatio-temporal variation of chemical compositions (organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and water-soluble inorganic ionic components (WSIC)) of particulate matter (PM10) over three locations (Delhi, Varanasi, and Kolkata) of Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP) of India for the year 2011. The observational sites are chosen to represent the characteristics of upper (Delhi), middle (Varanasi), and lower (Kolkata) IGP regions as converse to earlier single-station observation. Average mass concentration of PM10 was observed higher in the middle IGP (Varanasi 206.2 ± 77.4 μg m(-3)) as compared to upper IGP (Delhi 202.3 ± 74.3 μg m(-3)) and lower IGP (Kolkata 171.5 ± 38.5 μg m(-3)). Large variation in OC values from 23.57 μg m(-3) (Delhi) to 12.74 μg m(-3) (Kolkata) indicating role of formation of secondary aerosols, whereas EC have not shown much variation with maximum concentration over Delhi (10.07 μg m(-3)) and minimum over Varanasi (7.72 μg m(-3)). As expected, a strong seasonal variation was observed in the mass concentration of PM10 as well as in its chemical composition over the three locations. Principal component analysis (PCA) identifies the contribution of secondary aerosol, biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion, vehicular emission, and sea salt to PM10 mass concentration at the observational sites of IGP, India. Backward trajectory analysis indicated the influence of continental type aerosols being transported from the Bay of Bengal, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Rajasthan, Gujarat, and surrounding areas to IGP region. PMID:27316652

  18. SVM-based base-metal prospectivity modeling of the Aravalli Orogen, Northwestern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porwal, Alok; Yu, Le

    2010-05-01

    The Proterozoic Aravalli orogen in the state of Rajasthan, northwestern India, constitutes the most important metallogenic province for base-metal deposits in India and hosts the entire economically viable lead-zinc resource-base of the country. The orogen evolved through near-orderly Wilson cycles of repeated extensional and compressional tectonics resulting in sequential opening and closing of intracratonic rifts and amalgamation of crustal domains during a circa 1.0-Ga geological history from 2.2 Ga to 1.0 Ga. This study develops a conceptual tectonostratigraphic model of the orogen based on a synthesis of the available geological, geophysical and geochronological data followed by deep-seismic-reflectivity-constrained 2-D forward gravity modeling, and links it to the Proterozoic base-metal metallogeny in the orogen in order to identify key geological controls on the base-metal mineralization. These controls are translated into exploration criteria for base-metal deposits, validated using empirical spatial analysis, and used to derive input spatial variables for model-based base-metal prospectivity mapping of the orogen. A support vector machine (SVM) algorithm augmented by incorporating a feature selection procedure is used in a GIS environment to implement the prospectivity mapping. A comparison of the SVM-derived prospectivity map with the ones derived using other established models such as neural-networks, logistic regression, and Bayesian weights-of-evidence indicates that the SVM outperforms other models, which is attributed to the capability of the SVM to return robust classification based on small training datasets.

  19. India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickler, Paul

    This curriculum packet on politics and international relations in India contains an essay, three lessons and a variety of charts, maps, and additional readings to support the unit. The essay is entitled "India 1994: The Peacock and the Vulture." The lessons include: (1) "The Kashmir Dispute"; (2) "India: Domestic Order and International Affairs, A…

  20. VENEREOLOGY IN INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Sivaranjini, Ramassamy

    2011-01-01

    Venereology-the study of venereal diseases or more recently, the sexually transmitted infections (STI) includes a variety of pathogens namely viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa for which the common factor is the mode of transmission and acquisition: Sexual relations between human beings. Medical and other historians have often suggested that well-known diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhea, chancroid and lymphogranuloma venereum have existed since earliest times. However, it is difficult to identify modern disease entities based on written historical record. Studying the origin of STIs helps us to learn the political, economic and moral conditions that led to the disease. Effective management of STI rests on three pillars of diagnosis, prevention and treatment. For most of past 50 years in India, the diagnostic pillar has been the least well-supported. Until well into present century, diagnosis of STI in India was clinical. Treatment of STIs in India followed the methods used in England. Of course in the 19th century, in many parts of the world, only a few had access to modern methods of treatment; in India, there was extensive use of Ayurvedic treatment with traditional medicines. This article thus gives just an overview and evolution of venereology in India with regard to venereal diseases (now more often known as STIs/disease), control measures, academic, association and journal development and finally future perspective. PMID:21965840

  1. Critical care in India.

    PubMed

    Udwadia, F E; Guntupalli, K K; Vidyasagar, D

    1997-04-01

    India is a vast democracy of nearly one billion people. Before the British rule ended in 1947, the life span of an Indian was a mere 21 years. Within a short span of 50 years, it increased to an impressive 63 years, largely due to public health measures initiated by the government. This created a pool of more than 300 million middle class Indians who could afford the benefits of modern and specialized care when needed. Critical care medicine, as practiced in the West, is still confined to large Metropolitan areas. A large pool of expatriate Indian physicians from all over the world are helping bridge the resource gap between the West and India by transfer of technology and providing appropriate training to physicians and paramedical personnel. This article describes the history and current status of development of critical care medicine in India. PMID:9107510

  2. The paleoposition of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Hotton, Nicholas

    In most of the plate tectonic models of paleocontinental assembly, the supercontinent Pangea has been disassociated into independent Laurasia and Gondwana, separated by a vast oceanic Tethys. The position of India remains problematical, but geological and geophysical data support a Pangea reconstruction. Traditionally India has always been regarded as a part of Gondwana as it shares two unique geologic features with other southern continents. These are the Upper Paleozoic glacial strata and the Glossopteris flora. However, neither line of evidence definitely proves continuity of land; together they indicate zonation of cold climates. The recent discovery of Upper Paleozoic glacial strata in the U.S.S.R., southern Tibet, Saudi Arabia, Oman, China, Malaya, Thailand, and Burma demonstrates that the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation was far more extensive beyond the Gondwana limit than is usually thought. Similarly the Glossopteris flora has been found farther north of the Indian Peninsula, in the Himalaya, Kashmir and Tibet. Moreover the floral similarities are explained easily by wind and insect dispersal. On the other hand, the distribution of large terrestrial tetrapods is strongly influenced by the distribution of continents. To terrestrial tetrapods, sea constitutes a barrier. In consequence, they are more reliable indicators of past land connections than are plants, invertebrates and fishes. The postulated separation of India from Antarctica, its northward journey, and its subsequent union with Asia, as suggested by the plate tectonic models, require that during some part of the Mesozoic or Early Tertiary India must have been an island continent. The lack of endemism in the Indian terrestrial tetrapods during this period is clearly inconsistent with the island continent hypothesis. On the contrary, Indian Mesozoic and Tertiary vertebrates show closest similarities to those of Laurasia, indicating that India was never far from Asia. The correlation of faunal

  3. Biosimilars in India.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Anurag S

    2015-09-01

    Biosimilars have been defined as biotech drugs that have been shown to have comparable quality, safety and efficacy to the original product. The past decade has seen a significant increase in interest in these products from the biotech industry. Major developments have occurred with respect to establishing a regulatory path for approval of these products as well as in our understanding of how the different quality attributes of a biosimilar impact its safety and efficacy. India is globally regarded to have great potential to become a significant player in development and commercialization of biosimilars. This short communication aims to provide a brief discussion on where India is with respect to development and commercialization of biosimilars, major challenges it faces, and finally the significant role that proteomics can play in establishing analytical comparability of biosimilars.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India.

  4. India Through Literature: An Annotated Bibliography for Teaching India. Part I: India Through the Ancient Classics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald; Johnson, Jean

    The past and the present interweave in contemporary India. To understand India, one must know of the traditional stories. Two short pocket books make them accessible and acceptable to students: 1) The Dance of Shiva and Other Tales from India by Oroon Ghosh, published by the New American Library in New York; and, 2) Gods, Demons, and Others by R.…

  5. Urology in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sakti

    2007-01-01

    The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland. PMID:19675749

  6. PV opportunities in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Jack L.; Ullal, Harin S.

    1996-01-01

    The growing middle class in India, coupled with a need for electricity to provide basic services to the masses, provides an opportunity to deploy photovoltaic systems in cost-effective applications ranging from grid-connected to isolated location requirements. This need is being satisfied by aggressive government programs, the availability of funds from agencies such as the World Bank, and the desire of Indian industries to form joint ventures for in-country manufacturing. The relaxed restrictions on doing business in India makes today's opportunities timely indeed.

  7. Frequency and pattern of radiological and laboratory investigations in patients with mental illnesses: A study from North Rajasthan

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Dhanesh K.; Suthar, Navratan; Singh, Vikram; Bihari, Mitesh; Kumar, Vijay; Verma, Kamal K.; Sidana, Roop; Sengupta, Somnath; Bhadoriya, Mahender Singh

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are widespread perceptions that excessive and unnecessary investigations are done in many patients with mental illnesses. There are no studies from India looking into this issue. Aims: (i) To study the frequency and pattern of various investigations such as electroencephalography (EEG), computerized tomography (CT) scan of head, magnetic resolution imaging (MRI) scan of brain, and blood investigations carried out by the previous doctors on patients seeking treatment in three different settings. (ii) To study the socio-demographic and clinical correlates of investigations carried out on these patients. Study Design and Settings: A cross-sectional study in a community outreach clinic, a district level psychiatric hospital, and psychiatry outpatient clinic of a medical college. Materials and Methods: 160 newly registered patients seeking treatment at these settings were assessed using a semi-structured pro forma regarding various investigations that they had undergone before seeking the current consultation. Frequency of investigations was analyzed. Results: About 47.5% of patients had at least one of the three brain investigations done. EEG, CT head, and MRI brain had been done in 37.5%, 20.0%, and 8.8% of the patients, respectively. Only 1.8% of the patients had blood tests done before current consultation. Conclusion: This study results raise question whether certain investigations such as EEG and CT head were carried out excessively and blood investigations were done infrequently. Further studies on larger samples with prospective study design to evaluate the appropriateness of current practices of carrying out investigations in patients presenting with psychiatric symptoms are required. PMID:27385852

  8. India's Cities in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryjak, George J.

    1984-01-01

    Indian cities are growing rapidly due to natural increase and migration from rural areas. This has caused huge pollution problems and has resulted in overcrowded schools and hospitals. Conflict between religious groups has increased; so has crime. India is modernizing, but not fast enough. (CS)

  9. Can India's "Literate" Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method…

  10. Planting Trees in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, James M.

    Reforestation is desperately needed in India. Three-fourths of the country's ground surface is experiencing desertification, and primitive forests are being destroyed. Reforestation would help moderate temperatures, increase ground water levels, improve soil fertility, and alleviate a wood shortage. In the past, people from the United States, such…

  11. Women's Work in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devi, D. Radha; Ravindran, M.

    1983-01-01

    The proportion of women in paid employment in India is very low, and working women tend to be concentrated in low-wage, low-status, unskilled jobs, especially in agriculture. Even for the few women working in the modern sector, discrimination is pervasive, and change seems unlikely to occur soon. (IS)

  12. Vocationalising Education in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacheti, A. K.; Ray, S.

    Since India gained its independence in 1947, three important commissions have examined the issue of educational reform. The first (in 1948) recommended a vocational emphasis in the intermediate (predegree) courses without sacrificing emphasis on preparation for university education. In 1954, the Secondary Education Commission resulted in the…

  13. Medical biotechnology in India.

    PubMed

    Lohray, Braj B

    2003-01-01

    The potential of biotechnology has just began to emerge in the 20th century. After the full knowledge of human genomes is available, biotechnology is going to play a major role in shaping the concept of future drug discovery, drug delivery, diagnostic methodology, clinical trials, and to a great extent the major lifestyle of the human society. This article is a comprehensive review of the major impact of biotechnology in diagnostics, antibiotics, r-proteins, vaccines, and antibodies production. It also highlights the future aspects of gene therapy in the management of healthcare. A comprehensive list of biotech products in healthcare management has been given. Also, the growth of biotechnology throughout the world at large and in the Indian industries in particular has been highlighted. Constraints, concerns and difficulties in biotechnology in India have been addressed mainly related to human resources, training institutions in India, funding in biotechnology, patent-related issues and regulatory hurdles. Like in information technology, India has great potential in bioinformatics as well. Some of the recent information on bioinformatics centers in India has been summarized. Indian biotechnology industries have the potential to use the modern discoveries in life sciences to reach an enviable position in the world of biotechnology.

  14. Comparative cost-effectiveness of the components of a behavior change communication campaign on HIV/AIDS in North India.

    PubMed

    Sood, Suruchi; Nambiar, Devaki

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies show that exposure to entertainment-education-based mass media campaigns is associated with reduction in risk behaviors. Concurrently, there is a growing interest in comparing the cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions taking into account infrastructural and programmatic costs. In such analyses, though few in number, mass media campaigns have fared well. Using data from a mass media communication campaign in the low HIV prevalence states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Delhi in Northern India, in this article we examine the following: (1) factors that mediate behavior change in different components of the campaign, comprising a TV drama, reality show for youth audiences, and TV spots; (2) the relative impact of campaign components on the behavioral outcome: condom use; and (3) the cost-effectiveness calculations arising from this analysis. Results suggest that recall of the TV spots and the TV drama influences behavior change and is strongly associated with interpersonal communication and positive gender attitudes. The TV drama, in spite of being the costliest, emerges as the most cost-effective component when considering the behavioral outcome of interest. The analysis of the comparative cost-effectiveness of individual campaign components provides insights into the planning of resources for communication interventions globally.

  15. Cost-Efficiency of Indigenously Fabricated Mobile-Portable Dental Unit in Delivery of Primary Healthcare in Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Ashok; Torwane, Nilesh Arjun

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Innovation in primary oral healthcare delivery is a potential yet relatively unexplored area in Dental literature. Aim of the present study was to assess the economic gains that can be made by designing and operating an indigenously fabricated portable dental unit in rural areas. Materials and Methods: Cost-efficiency was determined by comparing total revenue (number of patients treated) with total costs (direct – capital cost of fabrication; and indirect – dental materials, disposables, transport, miscellaneous) over a period of seven years (2005 to 2012). Operational efficiency of portable dental units was also compared with dental vans on various categories of performance indicators. Data analysis was based on institutional records of Rajasthan Dental College (RDC), Jaipur, India. Results: Results show that a total of 52,900 patients who attended 223 camps during this period were provided various primary oral healthcare services using four such portable dental units that were developed @ Rs. 24,000 ($ 417) per unit. Based on a cost-efficiency of Rs 35.53 ($ 0.65) per person, which is among the lowest reported from any part of the world, the authors conclude that indigenously fabricated portable dental units provide a cost-efficient service. The other aspects most relevant to portable equipment were ease of transportation and feasibility in domiciliary care provision. Conclusion: The Limitations of productivity due to time spent in setting up the unit and need for additional space/equipment was their main drawbacks vis-à-vis dental vans. PMID:25177627

  16. Comparative cost-effectiveness of the components of a behavior change communication campaign on HIV/AIDS in North India.

    PubMed

    Sood, Suruchi; Nambiar, Devaki

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies show that exposure to entertainment-education-based mass media campaigns is associated with reduction in risk behaviors. Concurrently, there is a growing interest in comparing the cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions taking into account infrastructural and programmatic costs. In such analyses, though few in number, mass media campaigns have fared well. Using data from a mass media communication campaign in the low HIV prevalence states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Delhi in Northern India, in this article we examine the following: (1) factors that mediate behavior change in different components of the campaign, comprising a TV drama, reality show for youth audiences, and TV spots; (2) the relative impact of campaign components on the behavioral outcome: condom use; and (3) the cost-effectiveness calculations arising from this analysis. Results suggest that recall of the TV spots and the TV drama influences behavior change and is strongly associated with interpersonal communication and positive gender attitudes. The TV drama, in spite of being the costliest, emerges as the most cost-effective component when considering the behavioral outcome of interest. The analysis of the comparative cost-effectiveness of individual campaign components provides insights into the planning of resources for communication interventions globally. PMID:17148103

  17. Identification of fluoride contamination with the interaction of physico-chemical characteristics in groundwater of Jodhpur (India).

    PubMed

    Modi, A N; Kumar, Pushpendra

    2012-10-01

    A hydrogeochemical investigation has been carried out in Jodhpur district of western Rajasthan in India. The investigated area has been classified into four types with reference to concentration of F(-) prescribed for drinking: low-F(-) (< 1.0 mgl(-1)), moderate-F(-) (1.0-1.50 mgl(-1)) , high-F(-) (1.5-3.0 mgl-(1)) and very high-F(-) ( > 3.0 mgl(-1)). Twenty three percent of the total groundwater samples belong to the very high-F(-) category, Twenty two percent samples belong to the high-F(-) category, Thirty four percent samples belong to the moderate-F(-) category and twenty one percent samples belong to the low-F(-) category. The correlation study suggests a positive correlation (r = 0.396) between the pH and fluoride concentration, indicating that higher alkalinity of the water promotes the leaching of fluoride and thus affect the concentration of fluoride in groundwaters. Highest positive correlation coefficient was observed between fluoride and alkalinity (r = 0.516) indicating that alkalinity favors the higher values of fluoride in the study area. The regression equations have been developed by taking fluoride as dependent variable and other water quality parameters as independent variable. Possible sources of fluoride (F(-)) are weathering and leaching of F(-) bearing minerals under the alkaline environment. Arid environment, high rate of evapotranspiration and longer residence time of waters in the aquifer zone are the supplementary factors to further increase the F(-) content in the ground waters.

  18. Female feticide in India.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  19. Antenatal care: provision and inequality in rural north India.

    PubMed

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Foss, Mary; Stones, R William

    2004-09-01

    The objectives of this paper are to examine factors associated with use of antenatal care in rural areas of north India, to investigate access to specific critical components of care and to study differences in the pattern of services received via health facilities versus home visits. We used the 1998-1999 Indian National Family Health Survey of ever-married women in the reproductive age group and analysed data from the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh (n = 11,369). Overall, about three-fifths of rural women did not receive any antenatal check-up during their last pregnancy. Services actually received were predominantly provision of tetanus toxoid vaccination and supply of iron and folic acid tablets. Only about 13% of pregnant women had their blood pressure checked and a blood test done at least once. Women visited by health workers received fewer services compared to women who visited a health facility. Home visits were biased towards households with a better standard of living. There was significant under-utilisation of nurse/midwives in the provision of antenatal services and doctors were often the lead providers. The average number of antenatal visits reported in this study was 2.4 and most visits were in the second trimester. Higher social and economic status was associated with increased chances of receiving an antenatal check-up, and of receiving specific components including blood pressure measurement, a blood test and urine testing but not the obstetric physical examination, which was however linked to ever-use of family planning and the education of women and their husbands. Thus, pregnant women from poor and uneducated backgrounds with at least one child were the least likely to receive antenatal check-ups and services in the four large north Indian states. Basic antenatal care components are effective means to prevent a range of pregnancy complications and reduce maternal mortality. The findings indicate substantial

  20. Maternal and child health in India: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Sinha, N K

    1995-10-01

    The Lady Dufferin Fund, founded in 1885 in India, had by 1940 established 400 hospitals to alleviate diseases and mortality related to childbirth. After independence 2328 community health centers and 21254 primary health centers were created in the country. During 1974-94 more than 131,000 subcenters were set up and about 620,000 auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs) had been trained. The Ministry of Health introduced four health prevention schemes in 1969: 1) immunization of children against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus; 2) immunization of pregnant women against tetanus; 3) prophylaxis of mothers and children against nutritional anemia; and 4) prophylaxis of children against blindness caused by vitamin A deficiency. As a result, infant mortality declined from 146/1000 live births to 74/1000 in 1993; but maternal mortality still stayed around 4-5/1000. In 1993 an estimated 117,356 maternal deaths occurred out of a total of 26,057,000 births, equalling 4.5 deaths per 1000 live births. The main causes of maternal deaths are hemorrhage, anemia, abortion, toxemia, and puerperal sepsis. Only about 411 first referral units in community health centers are functioning properly. Prenatal care of mothers includes the administration of tetanus toxoid and iron-folic acid tablets. However, the prenatal coverage reached only about 50% of mothers; and the coverage was only 21.4% in Bihar, 23.8% in Nagaland, 29.3% in Rajasthan, and 29.6% in Uttar Pradesh. In these areas administrative inefficiency is widespread with nonavailability of essential drugs for malaria, infections, sepsis, dysentery, and colds. During 1992-93 the rate of hospital deliveries ranged from 6.1% in Nagaland to 88.4% in Kerala, with a national average of only 25.6%. 71% of deliveries in rural areas and 30% in urban areas were conducted by untrained assistants. Although there are 450 ANM training schools in the country, the level of training has deteriorated. The major causes of infant deaths are respiratory

  1. Epilepsy surgery in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, V P

    2011-10-01

    Modern epilepsy started in India in 1995 at Sri Chitra Tirunal Institute of Medical Science and Technology, Trivandrum and at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. At both centres the attempt was to get the program going with patients having surgically remediable epilepsy syndromes -who could be evaluated with non invasive investigations. The mainstay of the evaluation was a good quality epilepsy specific MRI and video EEG coupled with a SPECT study and a neuropsychological evaluation. Concordance of the focus on all investigations was critical to a good outcome. There were several problems on the way - but they were managed keeping in consideration our local needs and requirements. Intraoperative electocorticography was done and good outcomes attained. The critical determinants of success were the formation of a team with various interdisciplinary specialists and a strong will to succeed. PMID:22069424

  2. Severe Flooding in India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Floods devestated parts of eastern India along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of India. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory

  3. Mass spectrometry in India.

    PubMed

    Vairamani, M; Prabhakar, S

    2012-01-01

    This review emphasizes the mass spectrometry research being performed at academic and established research institutions in India. It consists of three main parts covering the work done in organic, atomic and biological mass spectrometry. The review reveals that the use of mass spectrometry techniques started in the middle of the 20th century and was applied to research in the fields of organic, nuclear, geographical and atomic chemistry. Later, with the advent of soft and atmospheric ionization techniques it has been applied to pharmaceutical and biological research. In due course, several research centers with advanced mass spectrometry facilities have been established for specific areas of research such as gas-phase ion chemistry, ion-molecule reactions, proscribed chemicals, pesticide residues, pharmacokinetics, protein/peptide chemistry, nuclear chemistry, geochronological studies, archeology, petroleum industry, proteomics, lipidomics and metabolomics. Day-by-day the mass spectrometry centers/facilities in India have attracted young students for their doctoral research and other advanced research applications.

  4. Precipitation Across India's Ghats Mountains (IMERG)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of precipitation rates across India and surrounding countries. Notice the heavy rains throughout the Ghats Mountain range which resulted in devastating landslides along India's west coast...

  5. Medical tourism in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vijay; Das, Poonam

    2012-06-01

    The term 'medical tourism' is under debate because health care is a serious business and rarely do patients combine the two. India is uniquely placed by virtue of its skilled manpower, common language, diverse medical conditions that doctors deal with, the volume of patients, and a large nonresident Indian population overseas. Medical tourism requires dedicated services to alleviate the anxiety of foreign patients. These include translation, currency conversion, travel, visa, posttreatment care system,and accommodation of patient relatives during and after treatment.

  6. India's misconceived family plan.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J L

    1991-01-01

    India's goal of reducing the national birth rate by 50% by the year 2000 is destined to failure in the absence of attention to poverty, social inequality, and women's subordination--the factors that serve to perpetuate high fertility. There is a need to shift the emphasis of the population control effort from the obligation of individual women to curtail childbearing to the provision of the resources required for poor women to meet their basic needs. Female children are less likely to be educated or taken for medical care than their male counterparts and receive a lower proportion of the family's food supply. This discrimination stems, in large part, from parents' view that daughters will not be able to remunerate their families in later life for such investments. The myth of female nonproductivity that leads to the biased allocation of family resources overlooks the contribution of adult women's unpaid domestic labor and household production. Although government statistics state that women comprise 46% of India's agricultural labor force (and up to 90% of rural women participate in this sector on some basis), women have been excluded systematically from agricultural development schemes such as irrigation projects, credit, and mechanization. In the field of family planning, the Government's virtually exclusive focus on sterilization has excluded younger women who are not ready to terminate childbearing but would like methods such as condoms, diaphragms, IUDs, and oral contraceptives to space births. More general maternal-child health services are out of reach of the majority of poor rural women due to long distances that must be travelled to clinics India's birth rate could be reduced by 25% by 2000 just by filling the demand for quality voluntary family planning services. Without a sustained political commitment to improve the status of women in India, however, such gains will not be sustainable.

  7. Hepatocellular carcinoma in India.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Gouri Shankar; Babu, K Govind; Malhotra, Hemant; Ranade, Anantbhushan A; Murshed, Shaiqua; Datta, Debasis

    2013-12-01

    Cancers of the liver are one of the commonest cancers that occur in the world, the commonest of which is the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is considered to be the 5th commonest cancer in the world. In the areas that are endemic for hepatitis B and C, it is extremely common. Unfortunately, India which is an endemic zone for hepatitis B, there has been no comprehensive analyzed data for HCC. Incidence of HCC in India occurs at two peaks, one at a young age between 40 to 55 years and another above 60 years. Eighty per cent of all HCCs occurring in India occur with cirrhosis of liver in the background and 60% of all these cases are hepatitis B positive carriers. Symptoms are reflective of late presentation with advanced disease. Surgery, the only curative modulus available, unfortunately is not possible in 95% of HCC patients. Majority of the patients are treated with palliative and supportive care and life spans are limited. Sorafenib is used in a small section of patients. Characterization of HCC with molecular sub-typing is the need of the hour.

  8. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food-borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. This review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999

  9. Tobacco control in India.

    PubMed

    Chaly, Preetha Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Portuguese introduced tobacco to India 400 years ago. Ever since, Indians have used tobacco in various forms. Sixty five per cent of all men and 33% of all women use tobacco in some form. Tobacco causes over 20 categories of fatal and disabling diseases including oral cancer. By 2020 it is predicted that tobacco will account for 13% of all deaths in India. A major step has to be taken to control what the World Health Organization, has labeled a 'smoking epidemic' in developing countries. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance including banning smoking in public places, advertising and forbidding sale of tobacco to minors. Preventing the use of tobacco in various forms as well as treating nicotine addiction is the major concern of dentists and physicians. The dental encounter probably constitutes a "teachable moment" when the patient is receptive to counseling about life- style issues. Both policy makers and health professionals must work together for achieving a smoke free society for our coming generations. PMID:17347536

  10. Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, T. Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit’ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade. PMID:22960885

  11. Bioinformatics education in India.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni-Kale, Urmila; Sawant, Sangeeta; Chavan, Vishwas

    2010-11-01

    An account of bioinformatics education in India is presented along with future prospects. Establishment of BTIS network by Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India in the 1980s had been a systematic effort in the development of bioinformatics infrastructure in India to provide services to scientific community. Advances in the field of bioinformatics underpinned the need for well-trained professionals with skills in information technology and biotechnology. As a result, programmes for capacity building in terms of human resource development were initiated. Educational programmes gradually evolved from the organisation of short-term workshops to the institution of formal diploma/degree programmes. A case study of the Master's degree course offered at the Bioinformatics Centre, University of Pune is discussed. Currently, many universities and institutes are offering bioinformatics courses at different levels with variations in the course contents and degree of detailing. BioInformatics National Certification (BINC) examination initiated in 2005 by DBT provides a common yardstick to assess the knowledge and skill sets of students passing out of various institutions. The potential for broadening the scope of bioinformatics to transform it into a data intensive discovery discipline is discussed. This necessitates introduction of amendments in the existing curricula to accommodate the upcoming developments.

  12. Tobacco control in India.

    PubMed Central

    Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws. PMID:12640476

  13. Medicine in South India

    PubMed Central

    McHenry, Malcolm M.

    1978-01-01

    A three-month sabbatical allowed a superficial overview of Indian medical history and practice. As in Western nations, cost is a major determinant of health care delivery in India; poverty and fiscal shortages, however, deny care to many. The education of Indian physicians is similar to that in Western nations and a high level of clinical competence is seen. However, physician compensation is woefully low by Western standards. India possesses its own indigenous medical systems, purported to be the oldest in the world and predating Hippocrates by several millenia. Most Indians are cared for by native practitioners whose medical techniques are intricately related to the Hindu and Islamic religions. Many of their herbal medicines have been assimilated into contemporary Western practice. Diseases unknown to us except by textbooks are commonly seen and effectively treated. On the other hand, Western diseases such as coronary arteriosclerosis are not uncommon in a land of massive overpopulation and malnutrition. The humbling aspect of this experience is the realization that medical practice dating back several millenia can be made more modern and carried out competently by contemporary physicians. A Western physician working in India finds an unparalleled variety of disease in a totally different medical-religious environment allowing him to reorganize his priorities and to rediscover himself in the world within which he lives. PMID:716392

  14. Stroke program for India

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Nishant K.; Khadilkar, Satish V.

    2010-01-01

    India is silently witnessing a stroke epidemic. There is an urgent need to develop a national program towards “Fighting Stroke”. This program should be specific to our national needs. In order to recommend on who should lead an Indian fight-stroke program, we examined the published opinions of stroke clinicians and the official documents on stroke care training abroad. We identified the resources that already exist in India and can be utilized to develop a national fight-stroke program. Through a review of published literature, we noted different opinions that exist on who would best manage stroke. We found that because stroke is a cardiovascular disorder of the central nervous system, its management requires a multi-disciplinary approach involving clinicians with background not limited to neurology. India has very few neurologists trained in stroke medicine and they cannot care for all stroke patients of the country. We propose a mechanism that would quickly put in place a stroke care model relevant in Indian context. We recommend for tapping the clinical expertise available from existing pool of non-neurologist physicians who can be trained and certified in stroke medicine (Strokology). We have discussed an approach towards developing a national network for training and research in Strokology hoping that our recommendations would initiate discussion amongst stroke academicians and motivate the national policy makers to quickly develop an “Indian Fight Stroke Program.” PMID:20436743

  15. Carbon taxes and India

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H.; Shukla, P.R.

    1994-07-01

    Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India`s rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions.

  16. Mental hospitals in India.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, K; Venugopal, D; Alimchandani, A K

    2000-04-01

    This review traces the history of the mental hospital movement, initially on the world stage, and later in India, in relation to advances in psychiatric care. Mental hospitals have played a significant role in the evolution of psychiatry to its present statusThe earliest hospital in India were established during the British colonial rule. They served as a means to isolate mentally ill persons from the societal mainstream and provide treatments that were in vogue at the time. Following India's independence, there has been a trend towards establishing general hospital psychiatry units and deinstitutionalization, while at the same time improving conditions in the existing mental hospitals.Since 1947, a series of workshops of superintendents was conducted to review the prevailing situations in mental hospitals and to propose recommendations to improve the same. Implementation of the Mental Health Act, 1987, and grovernmental focus upon mental hospital reform have paved way for a more specific and futuristic role for mental hospitals in planning psychiatric services for the new millenium, especially for severe mental illnesses. PMID:21407925

  17. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek

    2016-05-01

    Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food- borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable Shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant Shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. this review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999

  18. Dengue in India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nivedita; Srivastava, Sakshi; Jain, Amita; Chaturvedi, Umesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Dengue virus belongs to family Flaviviridae, having four serotypes that spread by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. It causes a wide spectrum of illness from mild asymptomatic illness to severe fatal dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Approximately 2.5 billion people live in dengue-risk regions with about 100 million new cases each year worldwide. The cumulative dengue diseases burden has attained an unprecedented proportion in recent times with sharp increase in the size of human population at risk. Dengue disease presents highly complex pathophysiological, economic and ecologic problems. In India, the first epidemic of clinical dengue-like illness was recorded in Madras (now Chennai) in 1780 and the first virologically proved epidemic of dengue fever (DF) occurred in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Eastern Coast of India in 1963-1964. During the last 50 years a large number of physicians have treated and described dengue disease in India, but the scientific studies addressing various problems of dengue disease have been carried out at limited number of centres. Achievements of Indian scientists are considerable; however, a lot remain to be achieved for creating an impact. This paper briefly reviews the extent of work done by various groups of scientists in this country. PMID:23041731

  19. Dengue in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nivedita; Srivastava, Sakshi; Jain, Amita; Chaturvedi, Umesh C

    2012-09-01

    Dengue virus belongs to family Flaviviridae, having four serotypes that spread by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. It causes a wide spectrum of illness from mild asymptomatic illness to severe fatal dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Approximately 2.5 billion people live in dengue-risk regions with about 100 million new cases each year worldwide. The cumulative dengue diseases burden has attained an unprecedented proportion in recent times with sharp increase in the size of human population at risk. Dengue disease presents highly complex pathophysiological, economic and ecologic problems. In India, the first epidemic of clinical dengue-like illness was recorded in Madras (now Chennai) in 1780 and the first virologically proved epidemic of dengue fever (DF) occurred in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Eastern Coast of India in 1963-1964. During the last 50 years a large number of physicians have treated and described dengue disease in India, but the scientific studies addressing various problems of dengue disease have been carried out at limited number of centres. Achievements of Indian scientists are considerable; however, a lot remain to be achieved for creating an impact. This paper briefly reviews the extent of work done by various groups of scientists in this country.

  20. Occupational health in India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Tushar Kant; Smith, Kirk R

    2002-01-01

    The population of India has crossed the billion mark; only one other country (China) shares this distinction. A declining female population and low literacy are negatives in an otherwise vibrant country. The empowerment of females and their role in society has become a point of debate, and radical economic changes are likely, to allow India to join the global economy. Problems in occupational health and safety (OHS) include: OHS legislation that covers only a minority of the working population; child labour; a physician-driven OHS model; little attention to industrial hygiene; poor surveillance of occupational diseases (making it impossible to gauge the burden of illness due to occupational exposures); and a fragile OHS academic base. A silver lining comprises the inclusion of OHS in national health policy and the decision by the Indian Medical Association to educate its members in occupational health. India urgently requires modern OHS legislation with adequate enforcement machinery, and establishment of centres of excellence in occupational medicine, to catch up with the rest of the world.

  1. Impact of feeding on growth performance, blood biochemical and mineral profiles of pre-pubescent camels under pastoral management in arid western Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Saini, Nirmala; Kiradoo, Baldev Dass; Bohra, Dau Lal

    2014-08-01

    The experiment was undertaken on 20 pre-pubescent dromedary camels of 300 ± 7.0 kg average bodyweight (BW) and 1.5-2 years of age to determine change in body weight, blood biochemical and mineral profiles and morphometric parameters on rangeland grazing (GR) and supplementary stall feeding (GS) at arid northwestern part of Rajasthan over a period of 80 days. GR camels were maintained only on grazing, while GS camels were fed semi-intensively ad-lib groundnut haulms along with formulated concentrate and mineral mixture to meet maintenance requirement. Intake of young camels was determined using chromium(III) oxide as internal marker. The biomass yield of rangeland estimated was 0.54 t DM/ha. Dry matter intake (kg/day) by GR camels on rangeland grazing was lower than that by GS camels fed on supplementary feeding. The nutrient digestibility of dry matter and organic matter (P < 0.05) and crude protein was higher in GS camels than that in GR camels. Likewise, intake of digestible crude protein (P < 0.05) and metabolizable energy were higher in stall-fed young camels. Pre-pubescent camels fed on grazing had significantly (P < 0.01) low glucose and higher urea concentration compared to stall-fed camels. Final body weight of camels differed significantly (P < 0.05) between groups. The camels fed on supplementary stall feeding had significantly (P < 0.01) higher total gain (kg) and average daily gain (ADG) compared to camels on grazing. Among morphometric parameters, body length and body height showed more significant increase in GS compared to GR camels. Intake of digestible crude protein (DCP) by GR group was 43% low compared to the requirement for growing camel of 300 kg body weight. Despite this, GR camels were able to maintain body weight due to better recycling of urea which was significantly higher in comparison to GS camels. The findings of significantly (P < 0.01) low serum glucose and higher urea concentration and lower body weight

  2. India Co2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharan, S.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2010-12-01

    Is there a way to find a balance between improving living conditions for the people on the margins and also reducing emissions while limiting our negative impacts on the climate? This is a critical question today because there are many arguments between developed and developing countries about who is responsible for global warming. Developed countries believe that it is the poor countries because they are not educated enough to know about how they are affecting the climate. While the developing countries hold wealthy nations responsible because they are using the most resources. However it is important to acknowledge the fact that if there was no gap in between the developed and developing countries our emissions total would be much higher. This “gap” has been a natural controlling factor in climate change. This is why I wanted to see if I could plot what it would look like if a developing country such as India were to produce emissions that the US or Switzerland or Norway are producing as developed countries. India has a population total of 1.1 billion compared to the US with only 298 million, Switzerland with 7.5 million, and Norway with 4.6 million people. When the population is compared to the emissions output in metric tons, per capita, India produced the least emissions out of these countries, 1.4 tons per person while having the second largest population in the world, while the US produced 19 tons per capita, Switzerland produced 5.6 and Norway produced 8.7 tons per capita in 2006. The emissions rate is growing every year and increases widely and globally. If India was producing emissions that equal Norway, Switzerland and the US the total emissions it would be producing annually would be 9 billion for Norway, 6 billion for Switzerland and 20 billion emissions for the US, all in the year 2006 alone. This shows how the balance between countries with huge populations and very little emission output and average population and high emission out put has

  3. Nanoscale petrographic and geochemical insights on the origin of Paleoproterozoic stromatolitic phosphorites from Aravalli, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papineau, Dominic; De Gregorio, Bradley; Purohit, Ritesh; Fogel, Marilyn

    2015-04-01

    Stromatolites occur throughout the rock record starting at ca. 3.5 Ga, but their abundance and morphological and mineralogical diversity significantly expanded during the Paleoproterozoic Great Oxygenation Event. In particular, columnar-branching and multifurcate stromatolites composed of jasper or apatite begin to occur in post-Lomagundi-Jatuli successions around 1.9 Ga and suggest the emergence of novel types of biomineralization at that time. The microscopic and nanoscopic petrology of organic matter in stromatolitic phosphorites might provide insights into the suite of diagenetic processes of these types of stromatolites and/or into the role of specific microorganisms in these communities. Here, we report on the occurrence of nanoscopic disseminated organic matter in Paleoproterozoic stromatolitic phosphorite from Rajasthan, India. Microscopic spheroidal grains of apatite occur in both microbial mats in stromatolite columns and in the chert core of microscopic apatite rosettes. Organic petrography by Raman imaging demonstrates syngeneity of the organic matter. Our observations point to a microfossil origin for the microscopic spheroids of organo-apatite, which are cemented to calcite micro-spar by later diagenetic dolomite. Apatite rosettes also likely have a diagenetic origin. Total organic carbon of these stromatolitic phosphorite columns is between 0.05 and 3.0 wt% and has a large range of d13C values with an average of -18.5permil (1sigma = 4.5permil). Whole rock d15N values are between -1.2 to +2.7permil. Nitrogen and carbon isotope compositions suggest that high phosphate abundance caused these cyanobacteria to bloom, thereby enhancing fixing nitrogen to sustain community growth. Synchronous early diagenetic formation of calcite micro-spar, resulted in the growth of centimeter size columns from the seafloor and occasionally branching or multifurcate stromatolites. Finally, our findings suggest that these stromatolites accreted pelagic cyanobacterial

  4. India`s first solar chicken brooder

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, P.; Naryanaswamy, T.S.; Kumar, A.; Choudhary, U.; Sharma, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    A 1,200 bird solar chicken brooder was indigenously designed and operated by the Indian scientists for the first time in the country as a Project under funding by the Ministry of Non Conventional Energy Sources to the All India Women`s Conference. This multi disciplinary project was taken up on the International Sun Day, May 3, 1993 and completed on May, 1994. Data has been collected for the first nine months of operation. Its successful operation has justified multi disciplinary approach. The solar chicken brooder incorporates modern poultry concepts of breeding under controlled temperatures. In view of the mixed climate of Delhi, provision was made for heating and cooling both to take care of the 24 hour cycle. Comfort conditions have been identified and maintained (as is done in the their genetic characteristics) at different temperatures for a period of 8--10 weeks to grow them to a uniform weight of 2.0 kg. Growing them under controlled temperature for the first 4 weeks and then at room temperature was another new concept to grow hard stock. This development has opened avenues for new food industry based on processing of chicken utilizing internationally available technologies.

  5. Ancient India: The Asiatic Ethiopians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Carolyn McPherson

    This curriculum unit was developed by a participant in the 1993 Fulbright-Hays Program "India: Continuity and Change." The unit attempts to place India in the "picture frame" of the ancient world as a part of a whole, not as a separate entity. Reading materials enable students to draw broader general conclusions based on the facts presented. The…

  6. Teaching about India. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, S. Rex

    Although world history and global studies programs in U.S. public schools have expanded in recent years, teaching about India and South Asia has remained insufficient. As a result, students often develop cultural misunderstandings and false stereotypes. India, as a focus of study, provides students with the opportunity to examine an ancient…

  7. A Tale of Two Indias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The latest battle between India's increasingly successful haves and left-behind have-nots is playing out in the country's educational system. India's Supreme Court recently upheld a stay against a quota system for low-caste and historically oppressed Indians, who are officially called Other Backward Classes. The decision could halt quotas for…

  8. India's Trade in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    India has had an extremely adverse balance of trade in education. Though only a minor education exporter through Mode 2, India is the world's second largest student-sending country. Nevertheless, given English as the medium of instruction especially in apex institutions, low tuition and cost of living, quite a few world-class institutions, and a…

  9. Indigenisation of Psychology in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalal, Ajit K.

    2011-01-01

    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  10. Passages from India, Vol. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geils, Kenneth, Ed.

    This is compendium of readings designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study of India. There are seventeen categories of readings: (1) introduction to the subcontinent; (2) description of society; (3) caste and its continuing impact; (4) leadership roles; (5) women in India; (6) role playing in society; (7) marriage; (8)…

  11. Environment and Culture in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuthold, David

    India suffers from severe environmental problems with respect to deforestation, flooding, and pollution. These problems are associated with industrialization, lack of money to enforce anti-pollution practices, climatic and population pressures, and cultural factors. Half of India's forests have been cut in the last 40 years. Deforestation is the…

  12. Adult Education in India & Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Nikhil Ranjan

    A survey is made of various aspects of adult education in India since 1947, together with comparative accounts of the origin, development, and notable features of adult education in Denmark, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States. Needs and objectives in India, largely in the eradication of illiteracy, are set forth, and pertinent…

  13. Astronomy and Astrophysics in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narlikar, J.; Murdin, P.

    2001-07-01

    The growth in astronomy and astrophysics (A&A) in India has been mostly since the country achieved independence in 1947. The present work is carried out in a few select research institutes and in some university departments. The Astronomical Society of India has around 300 working A&A scientists as members, with another 50-60 graduate students....

  14. Science and Technology in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Assesses the current status of science and technology in India, focusing on developments in agriculture, energy, medicine, space, basic sciences, and engineering. Indicates that although India has benefited in many fields from international collaboration during the last 30 years, the country's leaders have also placed particularly strong emphasis…

  15. India and the Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilden, Clark G.

    In the 1960s it was predicted that famine would strike India because the country lacked the necessary resources to feed its rapidly growing population. Yet, in the 1970s and 1980s new agricultural developments occured that have helped abate the crisis. These developments comprise what is now called the Green Revolution. India's food/population…

  16. Status of women in India.

    PubMed

    Buxi, L S

    The status of women in India can only be improved through a joint program between the media and the community in providing Indian women with the power of literacy. Women in India are divided into unequal halves. Of 368 million women in India, 278 reside in rural areas, and most are illiterate. The majority of illiterate women number 75%, 25% are semi-literate, and only 5% may be considered educated. In an effort to integrate women into the mainstream of Indian social life, a campaign of providing literacy to all women has been undertaken. The welfare state of India has taken up the responsibility of providing education, and maternity and child welfare to these women. It has gone further in incorporating the media in educating people regarding these various programs. This approach will help integrate women more fully into the economic, political, and social mainstream of independent India.

  17. Medical tourism in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vijay; Das, Poonam

    2012-06-01

    The term 'medical tourism' is under debate because health care is a serious business and rarely do patients combine the two. India is uniquely placed by virtue of its skilled manpower, common language, diverse medical conditions that doctors deal with, the volume of patients, and a large nonresident Indian population overseas. Medical tourism requires dedicated services to alleviate the anxiety of foreign patients. These include translation, currency conversion, travel, visa, posttreatment care system,and accommodation of patient relatives during and after treatment. PMID:22727009

  18. Astronomical Instruments in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  19. India`s low-tech energy success

    SciTech Connect

    Sampat, P.

    1995-11-01

    This article describes a program by the Indian government which develops a inexpensive, readily available resource into electricity. A very simple method for converting cow dung into a flammable gase, biogas, has been used to improve the lives of over 10 million rural inhabitants of India. The dung provides cooking fuel, electric power, and as a by product an even better fertilizer than manure. Topics covered include the following: why biogas works in India; the economics of self-sufficiency in rural India; finding a strategy that works; tapping into the potential in the rural areas.

  20. Pharma industry in India.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, V M

    2008-01-01

    Globally ranked fourth by volume and 13th in value, the Indian pharma industry is a leading producer of high-quality, low-cost generic drugs. Its 14% share of the USD 57 billion world generic market is expected to increase to 50% by 2010. With the advantages of cost competitiveness, ability and experience in reverse engineering, availability of skilled scientific and engineering personnel and the capability to produce raw materials for a wide range of drugs from the basic stage, the industry delivers the entire range of therapeutic products. McKinsey & Co. predict that India's pharmaceutical market could reach a size of USD 20 billion by 2015, becoming one of the top 10 drug markets in the world. Generic versions of the cardiovascular drug carvedilol, ANDA-approved allopurinol, verapamil SR and the anticancer drug paclitaxel are some of the recent products introduced by Indian companies, with Caraco, Ranbaxy, Dabur, Dr. Reddy's, Nicholas Piramal India, leading the list. Setting up of integrated drug development companies and aggressive entries into the Japanese drug market have provided further impetus to the country's pharma manufacturing arena. PMID:18301810

  1. Holocene aridification of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponton, Camilo; Giosan, Liviu; Eglinton, Tim I.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Johnson, Joel E.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Collett, Tim S.

    2012-02-01

    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ˜4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ˜4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India.

  2. Holocene aridification of India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponton, C.; Giosan, L.; Eglinton, T.I.; Fuller, D.Q.; Johnson, J.E.; Kumar, P.; Collett, T.S.

    2012-01-01

    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ???4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ???4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. The biological sciences in India

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Karen

    2009-01-01

    India is gearing up to become an international player in the life sciences, powered by its recent economic growth and a desire to add biotechnology to its portfolio. In this article, we present the history, current state, and projected future growth of biological research in India. To fulfill its aspirations, India's greatest challenge will be in educating, recruiting, and supporting its next generation of scientists. Such challenges are faced by the US/Europe, but are particularly acute in developing countries that are racing to achieve scientific excellence, perhaps faster than their present educational and faculty support systems will allow. PMID:19204144

  4. The linkages of anthropogenic emissions and meteorology in the rapid increase of particulate matter at a foothill city in the Arawali range of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Ravi; Beig, G.; Jaaffrey, S. N. A.

    2014-03-01

    The city of Udaipur (24.58°N, 73.68°E) in the province of Rajasthan in the Western part of India has a special significance as it is surrounded by the Arawali mountain ranges on one side and desert on the other side. It is located around the foothills of the rocky Arawali range. It is on the world map due to its tourist attraction. The changing pattern in particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) during the past three years indicates an alarming increasing trend, posing a threat to its environment & tourism sector which regulates its economy to a period during the monsoon and distribution of particulate matter is found to be governed by the meteorology and changes the trend. The level of PM10, which was already above the threshold level in 2010, further increased in 2012. The trend is found to be rapid during the months of October & November where an increase by 37% is observed in 3 years. The level of PM2.5, which is the most hazardous for respiratory system diseases, has now started to cross the ambient air quality standards set by the World Health Organization. The impact is significant during winter when the inversion layer is down due to colder temperature and foreign tourists are a peak giving rise an increased morbidity rate. The linkages of local weather with an anthropogenically induced trend and long range transport of pollutants have been outlined.

  5. Prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among children aged 3-5 years in Jaipur City, India – A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chalissery, Vemina P.; Marwah, Nikhil; Jafer, Mohammed; Chalisserry, Elna P.; Bhatt, Tanmay; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among 800 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years in Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among children aged 3-5 years, who were enrolled in various private and public schools in Jaipur. Parents were asked to fill a form addressing socio-demographic data and clinical examinations were performed by a single dentist. Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) were assessed and recorded based on Andreasen's classification. Associated factors such as sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and the type of injury were also analyzed. The data were analyzed statistically using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (version 20). Results: An overall 10.2% prevalence of TDI was observed among the study population. TDI were reported to be more among male children (11.87%) compared to female children (8.14%). Enamel fractures (69%) were the most prevalent type of anterior dental trauma. Upper central incisors were the most frequently affected. The SES of the parents had little influence on the prevalence of TDI. Conclusions: The prevalence rate of dental trauma among children aged 3-5 years was 10.2%. Associated factors, such as SES, were observed to be not significantly correlated to dental trauma among the studied preschoolers. PMID:27195225

  6. Biobanking and Privacy in India.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Sachin; Srinivas, Krishna Ravi; Muthuswamy, Vasantha

    2016-03-01

    Biobank-based research is not specifically addressed in Indian statutory law and therefore Indian Council for Medical Research guidelines are the primary regulators of biobank research in India. The guidelines allow for broad consent and for any level of identification of specimens. Although privacy is a fundamental right under the Indian Constitution, courts have limited this right when it conflicts with other rights or with the public interest. Furthermore, there is no established privacy test or actionable privacy right in the common law of India. In order to facilitate biobank-based research, both of these lacunae should be addressed by statutory law specifically addressing biobanking and more directly addressing the accompanying privacy concerns. A biobank-specific law should be written with international guidelines in mind, but harmonization with other laws should not be attempted until after India has created a law addressing biobank research within the unique legal and cultural environment of India.

  7. Blood bank regulations in India.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Nabajyoti; Desai, Priti

    2012-06-01

    Successful blood services depend on legally empowered regulatory services. Blood transfusion services are important constituents of national health services. Blood transfusion services in India are regulated by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and its subsequent amendments. The Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 specifies about accommodation, manpower, equipment, supplies and reagents, good manufacturing practices, and process control to be followed in Indian blood transfusion services.Regulatory affairs in the Indian blood banking system are controlled by central and provincial Drug Control authority under Drug Controller General of India. National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) acts as a facilitator to Indian blood transfusion services on behalf of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India,especially to the government sector. The National Blood Policy was published by the Government of India in 2002 and it provides objectives to provide safe, adequate quantity of blood, blood components, and products.

  8. Biobanking and Privacy in India.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Sachin; Srinivas, Krishna Ravi; Muthuswamy, Vasantha

    2016-03-01

    Biobank-based research is not specifically addressed in Indian statutory law and therefore Indian Council for Medical Research guidelines are the primary regulators of biobank research in India. The guidelines allow for broad consent and for any level of identification of specimens. Although privacy is a fundamental right under the Indian Constitution, courts have limited this right when it conflicts with other rights or with the public interest. Furthermore, there is no established privacy test or actionable privacy right in the common law of India. In order to facilitate biobank-based research, both of these lacunae should be addressed by statutory law specifically addressing biobanking and more directly addressing the accompanying privacy concerns. A biobank-specific law should be written with international guidelines in mind, but harmonization with other laws should not be attempted until after India has created a law addressing biobank research within the unique legal and cultural environment of India. PMID:27256123

  9. Aging research in India.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Badithe T; Ali, Rashid

    2003-06-01

    Research on aging in India has been well documented since ancient times. As way back as 3000-1500 BC, the Indian medical system of Ayurveda was used as a means for the prevention of the effects of aging and generation of disease in organs or the whole organism, respectively. In recent years, the focus has been demographic studies on different aspects of aging and has been in isolation. Molecular aspects of aging have been addressed only by a few groups of scientists which has focused on regulation of gene expression, DNA damage and repair, development of immunochemical reagents to detect oxidative DNA damage and assessing the levels of circulating antibodies to reactive oxygen species modified DNA (ROS-DNA), etc. This review aims to recapitulate various research studies on aging since 3000 BC to date. PMID:12814794

  10. Can India's ``literate'' read?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-12-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method (RM) which required the same individuals to actually read a simple text at grade 2 level. The findings revealed a substantial difference between the reading literacy rates obtained by CM and RM. CM over-reported RM by 16%. The overestimation was higher for males. Decoding skills were found to erode in most cases after completion of primary schooling, assuming no further education. A minimum grade 8-9 education was required for decoding skills to not deteriorate after schooling.

  11. India's Worsening Uranium Shortage

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2007-01-15

    As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

  12. Neurosurgery in India: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    This overview of neurosurgery in India during the last six decades gives a holistic perspective of the phenomenal advances made. Neurosurgical education, the change in clinical spectrum of diseases and their presentation, evolution of various subspecialties and societies, the state of research, the issues peculiar to India, including the urban-rural health divide, the increasing role of information and communication technology in neurosurgery, and the gradual but definite global recognition of Indian neurosurgery will be addressed.

  13. Seasonal Drought Prediction in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, R.; Mishra, V.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is among the most costly natural disasters in India. Seasonal prediction of drought can assist planners to manage agriculture and water resources. Such information can be valuable for a country like India where 60% of agriculture is rain-fed. Here we evaluate precipitation and temperature forecast from the NCEP's CFSV2 for seasonal drought prediction in India. We demonstrate the utility of the seasonal prediction of precipitation and temperature for drought forecast at 1-2 months lead time at a high spatial resolution. Precipitation from CFSv2 showed moderate correlations with observed up to two months lead. For one month lead, we found a significant correlation between CFSv2 and observed precipitation during winter season. Air temperature from the CFSv2 showed a good correlation with observed temperature during the winter. We forced the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model with the CFSv2 forecast of precipitation and air temperature to generate forecast of hydrologic variables such as soil moisture and total runoff. We find that errors of the prediction reduce for the two month lead time in the majority of the study domain except the northern India. Skills of Initial Hydrologic Conditions combined with moderate skills of forcings based on the CFSv2 showed ability of drought prediction in India. The developed system was able to successfully predict observed top layer soil moisture and observed drought based on satellite remote sensing in India.

  14. DERMATOPHYTIC PROFILE OF JAIPUR (RAJASTHAN)

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, S. Radhika; Bhargava, Rhishi; Sharma, Meenakshi; Williamson, D.

    1995-01-01

    Out of 410 clinically diagnosed cases of superficial mycoses encountered during 1985 – 87, direct KOH mounts were positive in 250 (62.19%) cases and the cultures were positive in 123 (30.00%) cases. The organisms isolated included Trichophyton rubrum (36.58%). T. simii (32.52%), T.mentagrophytes (12.19%), C.tropicum (8.13%), Microsporum gypseum (6.50%), Epidermophyton floccossum (2.43%), T. violaceum (0.81%) and Candida albicans (0.81%). Majority of cases occurred among the age group of 21 – 30 years. Tinea corporis and tinea cruris were the commonest clinical types encountered. PMID:22556696

  15. Periodic Peritoneal Dialysis in End Stage Renal Disease: Is it Still Relevant? A Single Center Study from India

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, K; Prasad, D; Malhotra, V; Agrawal, D; Beniwal, P; Mathur, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: High cost of maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD) in India has made renal replacement therapy out of reach of many patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Repeated puncture PD although inferior to HD biochemically, is easily and freely available across Rajasthan, India, and is simple to perform, and does not require sophisticated machines, thus making it an attractive option for dialysis for ESRD. Aim: To analyze the outcomes of periodic PD in patients with ESRD requiring dialysis support. Subjects and Methods: A prospective study analyzing the data of patients who underwent PD between August 2010 and January 2013 in Sawai Man Singh Hospital, Jaipur, India was conducted. Patients were divided into three groups based on the time period between first and second session of PD. Detailed demographic and clinical data during the study period were collected along with PD related complications. The main outcome studied was technique survival 1 year post initiation of PD. Results: 234 patients received an initial session of PD, of which 174 had a good response and were included in the study. 19 patients received the second PD within 7 days of first (Group 1), 45 patients within 8–14 days (Group 2) and 110 patients within 15–21 days (Group 3). The overall 1 year technique survival was 68.4% (91/133), with a rate of 50% (5/10), 56.8% (21/37), and 75.6% (65/86) for Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3, respectively. The time duration between first and second PD proved to be reliable indicator of the subsequent response, with a technique survival rate significantly lower in Group 1 patients compared to Groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.04). Median dialysis free days were 11, 16 and 21 days in Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3, respectively. Peritonitis rate observed was 2.1% (49/2261) during the study period. Conclusion: Periodic PD is a simple, safe and cheap procedure, which can be considered as used as a palliative measure in

  16. Phenetic and functional characterization of endophytic root-nodule bacteria isolated from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and mothbean (Vigna aconitifolia l.) of arid-and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Saroj; Gaur, Rajarshi Kumar; Choudhary, Devendra Kumar

    2012-09-15

    In the present study we recovered endophytic root-nodule bacteria from chickpea (Cicer arietinumi L.) and mothbean (Vigna aconitifolia L.). Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of isolates was performed by employing biochemical and genetic approaches. Sequencing data showed that most isolates belonged to genus, Pseudomonas spp. being a dominant species. They also showed similarity with Rhizobium, Agrobacterium and Erwinia spp. Isolates were screened functionally for indole-3-acetic acid, siderophore production and inorganic phosphorus (Pi) solubilization. All isolates showed Pi solubilization except CJS-2. Nine isolates (CSS-1, CBS-1, CLS-3, CCS-1, CHS-1, VS-1, VL-1, VN-1, VN-2) were found positive for IAA production and eight isolates (CBS-1, CCS-1, CHS-2, CKS-2, CNS-2, VS-1, VJ-1) exhibited positive results for siderophore production. An understanding of the phonetic and functional diversity of these microbes that interact with plants will be worthwhile to fully achieve the biotechnological potential of efficient plant-microbe partnerships for a range of applications.

  17. India Culture Trunk. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeksen, Peggy

    This unit is intended to provide students with a general knowledge of the history and culture of India. Activities include: (1) "What Do You Know about India?"; (2) "What Is All This Stuff For?"; (3) "Name That Spice and Why It's Nice"; (4) "Where and How Are These Elephants Marching?"; (5) "Why Is India What It Is?"; (6) "Why is India the Cover…

  18. Decriminalising homosexuality in India.

    PubMed

    Misra, Geetanjali

    2009-11-01

    This paper examines the successful fight against the provision in Section 377 of the Penal Code of India that criminalised private consensual sex between adults of the same sex. This law had led to serious discrimination against people engaging in homosexual acts, who were subjected to frequent beatings and blackmail attempts by police, who used the threat of prosecution against them. NGOs working with sexual minorities have also been harassed and sometimes charged under Section 377. By stigmatising homosexuality and threatening gay men with prison, the law is also likely to have impeded the battle against HIV. The provision was read down in July 2009 after an innovative, sustained, mass media campaign by activists. The Voices Against 377 coalition brought together sexuality and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) organisations, who were previously marginalised, with groups working in areas such as children's rights and feminist groups, showing that support for non-discrimination towards sexual minorities was broad-based. Further legal and social changes are needed for LGBT individuals to gain full acceptance and equality within Indian society. However, the judgement transcended the LGBT issue with the implication of protection for all minorities and introduced for the first time in South Asia the idea of sexual citizenship.

  19. Decriminalising homosexuality in India.

    PubMed

    Misra, Geetanjali

    2009-11-01

    This paper examines the successful fight against the provision in Section 377 of the Penal Code of India that criminalised private consensual sex between adults of the same sex. This law had led to serious discrimination against people engaging in homosexual acts, who were subjected to frequent beatings and blackmail attempts by police, who used the threat of prosecution against them. NGOs working with sexual minorities have also been harassed and sometimes charged under Section 377. By stigmatising homosexuality and threatening gay men with prison, the law is also likely to have impeded the battle against HIV. The provision was read down in July 2009 after an innovative, sustained, mass media campaign by activists. The Voices Against 377 coalition brought together sexuality and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) organisations, who were previously marginalised, with groups working in areas such as children's rights and feminist groups, showing that support for non-discrimination towards sexual minorities was broad-based. Further legal and social changes are needed for LGBT individuals to gain full acceptance and equality within Indian society. However, the judgement transcended the LGBT issue with the implication of protection for all minorities and introduced for the first time in South Asia the idea of sexual citizenship. PMID:19962634

  20. Incredible India: the inconvenient truth.

    PubMed

    Mundkur, Bal

    2011-01-01

    The author's objective is to correct many of the misconceptions about India and to combat mistaken analysis. He highlights the hundreds of millions who live in poverty, the rampant corruption and the incompetence of the administration. He asserts that comparisons with China are always to the disadvantage of India, except in the field of democracy, and suggests that the Indian Space Programme is symptomatic of a wide-spread misallocation of resources. And to suggest that the traffic problems in Delhi and Mumbai are being caused by more motor vehicles is a misdiagnosis. The real cause is an increase in the number of bullock carts. PMID:21305798

  1. Human Milk Fortification in India.

    PubMed

    Kler, Neelam; Thakur, Anup; Modi, Manoj; Kaur, Avneet; Garg, Pankaj; Soni, Arun; Saluja, Satish

    2015-01-01

    Human milk fortification in preterm babies has become a standard of care in developed countries. Use of human milk fortifier (HMF) in very-low-birthweight infants is not a routine practice in India. There are concerns about high osmolality, feed intolerance, necrotizing enterocolitis, risk of contamination and added cost associated with use of HMF. There are limited data from India which address the issue of safety and short-term benefits of human milk fortification. This chapter highlights the issues related to human milk fortification in our country.

  2. Incredible India: the inconvenient truth.

    PubMed

    Mundkur, Bal

    2011-01-01

    The author's objective is to correct many of the misconceptions about India and to combat mistaken analysis. He highlights the hundreds of millions who live in poverty, the rampant corruption and the incompetence of the administration. He asserts that comparisons with China are always to the disadvantage of India, except in the field of democracy, and suggests that the Indian Space Programme is symptomatic of a wide-spread misallocation of resources. And to suggest that the traffic problems in Delhi and Mumbai are being caused by more motor vehicles is a misdiagnosis. The real cause is an increase in the number of bullock carts.

  3. HIV in India: the Jogini culture

    PubMed Central

    Borick, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Jogini is the name for a female sexually exploited temple attendant and is used interchangeably with Devadasi in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Jogini are twice more likely than other women who are used for sexual intercourse in India to be HIV positive, and their rate of mortality from HIV is 10 times the total mortality rate for all women in India. The four states in India with the most Jogini also have the highest prevalence of HIV. The following case is unfortunately typical of the Jogini and sheds light on a potentially disastrous public health problem in rural South India. PMID:25015167

  4. Cholera outbreaks in India.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Sharma, Naresh C

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is a global health problem as several thousands of cases and deaths occur each year. The unique epidemiologic attribute of the disease is its propensity to occur as outbreaks that may flare-up into epidemics, if not controlled. The causative bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae prevails in the environment and infects humans whenever there is a breakdown in the public health component. The Indian subcontinent is vulnerable to this disease due its vast coastlines with areas of poor sanitation, unsafe drinking water, and overcrowding. Recently, it was shown that climatic conditions also play a major role in the persistence and spread of cholera. Constant change in the biotypes and serotypes of V. cholerae are also important aspects that changes virulence and survival of the pathogen. Such continuous changes increase the infection ability of the pathogen affecting the susceptible population including the children. The short-term carrier status of V. cholerae has been studied well at community level and this facet significantly contributes to the recurrence of cholera. Several molecular tools recognized altering clonality of V. cholerae in relation with the advent of a serogroup or serotype. Rapid identification systems were formulated for the timely detection of the pathogen so as to identify and control the outbreak and institute proper treatment of the patients. The antimicrobials used in the past are no longer useful in the treatment of cholera as V. cholerae has acquired several mechanisms for multiple antimicrobial resistance. This upsurge in antimicrobial resistance directly influences the management of the disease. This chapter provides an overview of cholera prevalence in India, possible sources of infection, and molecular epidemiology along with antimicrobial resistance of V. cholerae.

  5. Girl prostitution in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute. PMID:12158002

  6. Girl prostitution in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.

  7. India - Mahabharata. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Carole; DeVito, Pasquale

    This lecture is accompanied by slides of India. The lecture is used an introduction to the first of the three videotapes of Peter Brook's "Mahabharata," providing students with preliminary background on Hinduism and on the Hindu epic. The objective is also to have students think about the basic values of ancient and modern Hindus. (EH)

  8. Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis India 2014 conference report.

    PubMed

    Kole, Prashant; Barot, Deepak; Kotecha, Jignesh; Raina, Vijay; Rao, Mukkavilli; Yadav, Manish

    2014-01-01

    Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis (APA) India 23-26 February 2014, Ahmedabad, India The fifth Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis (APA) India meeting was held in February 2014 at Hyatt Ahmedabad, India. With the theme of 'The Science of Measurement: Current status and Future trends in Bioanalysis, Biotransformation and Drug Discovery Platforms', the conference was attended by over 160 delegates. The agenda comprised advanced and relevant research topics in the key areas of bioanalysis and drug metabolism. APA India 2014 provided a unique platform for networking and professional linking to participants, innovators and policy-makers. As part of the global research community, APA India continues to grow and receive considerable attention from the drug discovery and development community of India.

  9. Chikungunya Outbreak, South India, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Prabhdeep; Ponniah, Manickam; Murhekar, Manoj V.; Ramachandran, Vidya; Ramachandran, Ramakrishnan; Raju, Hari Kishan; Perumal, Vanamail; Mishra, Akhilesh C.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated chikungunya outbreaks in South India and observed a high attack rate, particularly among adults and women. Transmission was facilitated by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in peridomestic water containers, as indicated by a high Breteau index. We recommended vector control measures and health education to promote safe water storage practices. PMID:18826830

  10. International Nurse Recruitment in India

    PubMed Central

    Khadria, Binod

    2007-01-01

    Objective This paper describes the practice of international recruitment of Indian nurses in the model of a “business process outsourcing” of comprehensive training-cum-recruitment-cum-placement for popular destinations like the United Kingdom and United States through an agency system that has acquired growing intensity in India. Findings Despite the extremely low nurse to population ratio in India, hospital managers in India are not concerned about the growing exodus of nurses to other countries. In fact, they are actively joining forces with profitable commercial ventures that operate as both training and recruiting agencies. Most of this activity is concentrated in Delhi, Bangalore, and Kochi. Conclusions Gaps in data on nursing education, employment, and migration, as well as nonstandardization of definitions of “registered nurse,” impair the analysis of international migration of nurses from India, making it difficult to assess the impact of migration on vacancy rates. One thing is clear, however, the chain of commercial interests that facilitate nurse migration is increasingly well organized and profitable, making the future growth of this business a certainty. PMID:17489924

  11. Tanjore: Mystical Painting of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    Tanjore (or Thanjavur or Thanlavoor) paintings are one of the most popular traditional art forms in Southern India. These ornate religious paintings involve Hindu mythology. The paintings are noted for their adornment of gold and semiprecious stones such as rubies, emeralds, and pearls. Currently, the semiprecious stones are often substituted…

  12. Drinking habits in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, Ottilingam; Raghavan, D. Vijaya; Murthy, A. G. Tejus

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of one or other form of intoxicating substances has been present throughout the history of the world. This article traces such use in the Indian subcontinent, both in North and South India. References to the use of intoxicants are to be found in the Vedas, the Great Epics, and the ancient Tamil literature. PMID:26985113

  13. Understanding Child Rights in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grewal, Imandeep Kaur; Singh, Nandita Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This article traces the status of child rights in India, with special attention to traditional beliefs that have shaped and sustain gender discrimination. The article examines the possibilities and limitations of the newly implemented Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act of 2009 for operating as an equalizing…

  14. History of Cardiology in India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Mrinal Kanti; Kumar, Soumitra; Deb, Pradip Kumar; Mishra, Sundeep

    2015-01-01

    History as a science revolves around memories, travellers' tales, fables and chroniclers' stories, gossip and trans-telephonic conversations. Medicine itself as per the puritan's definition is a non-exact science because of the probability-predictability-sensitivity-specificity factors. Howsoever, the chronicles of Cardiology in India is quite interesting and intriguing. Heart and circulation was known to humankind from pre-Vedic era. Various therapeutics measures including the role of Yoga and transcendental meditation in curing cardiovascular diseases were known in India. Only recently there has been resurgence of the same globally. There have been very few innovations in Cardiology in India. The cause of this paucity possibly lie in the limited resources. This has a vicious effect on the research mentality of the population who are busy in meeting their daily requirements. This socio-scientific aspect needs a thorough study and is beyond the scope of the present documentation. Present is the future of past and so one must not forget the history which is essentially past that give the present generation the necessary fulcrum to stand in good stead. The present article essentially aims to pay tribute to all the workers and pioneers in the field of Cardiology in India, who in spite of limited resources ventured in an unchartered arena. PMID:26071301

  15. History of Cardiology in India.

    PubMed

    Das, Mrinal Kanti; Kumar, Soumitra; Deb, Pradip Kumar; Mishra, Sundeep

    2015-01-01

    History as a science revolves around memories, travellers' tales, fables and chroniclers' stories, gossip and trans-telephonic conversations. Medicine itself as per the puritan's definition is a non-exact science because of the probability-predictability-sensitivity-specificity factors. Howsoever, the chronicles of Cardiology in India is quite interesting and intriguing. Heart and circulation was known to humankind from pre-Vedic era. Various therapeutics measures including the role of Yoga and transcendental meditation in curing cardiovascular diseases were known in India. Only recently there has been resurgence of the same globally. There have been very few innovations in Cardiology in India. The cause of this paucity possibly lie in the limited resources. This has a vicious effect on the research mentality of the population who are busy in meeting their daily requirements. This socio-scientific aspect needs a thorough study and is beyond the scope of the present documentation. Present is the future of past and so one must not forget the history which is essentially past that give the present generation the necessary fulcrum to stand in good stead. The present article essentially aims to pay tribute to all the workers and pioneers in the field of Cardiology in India, who in spite of limited resources ventured in an unchartered arena. PMID:26071301

  16. Poverty among Elderly in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2012-01-01

    Using consumption expenditure data of the National Sample Survey 2004-2005, this paper estimates the size of elderly poor and tests the hypotheses that elderly households are not economically better-off compared to non-elderly households in India. Poverty estimates are derived under three scenarios--by applying the official cut-off point of the…

  17. Landscaping biostatistics education in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranjana; Zodpey, Sanjay P; Sharma, Kavya; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Ughade, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Biostatistics plays an important role in measuring, understanding, and describing the overall health and well-being of a population. Biostatistics as a subject evolved from the application of statistics in various research aspects of biology, biomedical care, and public health. However, with a recent increase in number of health and pharmacy related research, the demand for trained biostatisticians is also increasing. The present paper is an attempt to undertake a situational analysis of biostatistics education in India. A systematic, predefined approach, with three parallel strategies was used to collect and assemble the data regarding training in biostatistics in India. Our study results show that there is paucity of programs providing specialized training in biostatistics in India. Only about 19 institutions in India are offering various courses in biostatistics/medical statistics/health statistics/biometry. It is important to look into the current capacity building initiatives in this domain. Some other means for giving importance to biostatistics could be by making it a separate branch/specialization in a majority of the institutions, particularly in medical colleges.

  18. Education and Caste in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauhan, Chandra Pal Singh

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the policy of reservation for lower castes in India. This policy is similar to that of affirmative action in the United States. The paper provides a brief overview of the caste system and discusses the types of groups that are eligible for reservation, based on data from government reports. The stance of this paper is that…

  19. Climate change, zoonoses and India.

    PubMed

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S; Aulakh, R S; Banga, H S

    2011-12-01

    Economic trends have shaped our growth and the growth of the livestock sector, but atthe expense of altering natural resources and systems in ways that are not always obvious. Now, however, the reverse is beginning to happen, i.e. environmental trends are beginning to shape our economy and health status. In addition to water, air and food, animals and birds play a pivotal role in the maintenance and transmission of important zoonotic diseases in nature. It is generally considered that the prevalence of vector-borne and waterborne zoonoses is likely to increase in the coming years due to the effects of global warming in India. In recent years, vector-borne diseases have emerged as a serious public health problem in countries of the South-East Asia region, including India. Vector-borne zoonoses now occur in epidemic form almost on an annual basis, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. New reservoir areas of cutaneous leishmaniosis in South India have been recognised, and the role of climate change in its re-emergence warrants further research, as does the role of climate change in the ascendancy of waterborne and foodborne illness. Similarly, climate change that leads to warmer and more humid conditions may increase the risk of transmission of airborne zoonoses, and hot and drier conditions may lead to a decline in the incidence of disease(s). The prevalence of these zoonotic diseases and their vectors and the effect of climate change on important zoonoses in India are discussed in this review.

  20. Designing Citizens in Transnational India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irani, Lilly Christine

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the politics of design practice in urban India through an ethnography of a Delhi-based design and innovation studio. The dissertation focuses on the ideological continuities between the profession of design and middle class Indian citizenship post-liberalization, twinning arts of governance through the shaping of the…

  1. India: From SITE to INSAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhri, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    Identifies core of India's illiteracy problem and describes use of educational technology to educate rural children. Highlights include descriptions of the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) project; motivation behind low-cost educational aids development in rural areas; an educational radio pilot project; and development and…

  2. [Women's organizations in India].

    PubMed

    Patel, V

    1985-01-01

    Community development projects in India during the 1950s and 60s viewed women as beneficiaries, but in fact few women benefitted measurably. The realization among field motivators of the necessity of improving the status of women prompted formation of women's organizations based on the participation of women in development. Non-government organizations and militant organizations have had greater success than government sponsored organizations in creation of employment for women. Some employment-generating organizations directed by high caste women or by men merely continue the oppression of poor women, providing abysmal pay for long hours, but a women's cooperative serving textile workers in Bombay has been successful because of the large number of unaccompanied males migrating to the city who desire reasonably priced home-cooked food. Other organizations have attempted to mobilize women to allow them to benefit from development. Struggles of women in the electronics, pharmaceutical, textile, mining, clothing, and other small scale industries have been supported by women's organizatinns. Rural women's organizations have forced village authorities to provide drinkig water and have demanded creation of employment for unemployed rural workers. The "Self-Employed Women's Association" supports negotiations of such women in their respective professions, and others struggling for women's rights have also undertaken development projects in health, education, and employment with a view to increasing women's independence. Some organizations provide child care services and others assist women in obtaining credit. Numerous cooperatives for food and housework have been formed but their ultimate effect on the distribution of power between castes and classes remains uncertain. Government sponsored cooperatives and women's organizations have benefitted mainly the intermediaries and have tended to use women as a source of cheap labor. A strategic plan for the emancipation of women

  3. Epidemiology of Bluetongue in India.

    PubMed

    Rao, P P; Hegde, N R; Reddy, Y N; Krishnajyothi, Y; Reddy, Y V; Susmitha, B; Gollapalli, S R; Putty, K; Reddy, G H

    2016-04-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is an insectborne endemic disease in India. Although infections are observed in domestic and wild ruminants, the clinical disease and mortality are observed only in sheep, especially in the southern states of the country. The difference in disease patterns in different parts of the country could be due to varied climatic conditions, sheep population density and susceptibility of the sheep breeds to BT. Over the five decades after the first report of BT in 1964, most of the known serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) have been reported from India either by virus isolation or by detection of serotype-specific antibodies. There have been no structured longitudinal studies to identify the circulating serotypes throughout the country. At least ten serotypes were isolated between 1967 and 2000 (BTV-1-4, 6, 9, 16-18, 23). Since 2001, the All-India Network Programme on Bluetongue and other laboratories have isolated eight different serotypes (BTV-1-3, 9, 10, 12, 16, 21). Genetic analysis of these viruses has revealed that some of them vary substantially from reference viruses, and some show high sequence identity with modified live virus vaccines used in different parts of the world. These observations have highlighted the need to develop diagnostic capabilities, especially as BT outbreaks are still declared based on clinical signs. Although virus isolation and serotyping are the gold standards, rapid methods based on the detection of viral nucleic acid may be more suitable for India. The epidemiological investigations also have implications for vaccine design. Although only a handful serotypes may be involved in causing outbreaks every year, the combination of serotypes may change from year to year. For effective control of BT in India, it may be pertinent to introduce sentinel and vector traps systems for identification of the circulating serotypes and to evaluate herd immunity against different serotypes, so that relevant strains can be included in vaccine

  4. Epidemiology of Bluetongue in India.

    PubMed

    Rao, P P; Hegde, N R; Reddy, Y N; Krishnajyothi, Y; Reddy, Y V; Susmitha, B; Gollapalli, S R; Putty, K; Reddy, G H

    2016-04-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is an insectborne endemic disease in India. Although infections are observed in domestic and wild ruminants, the clinical disease and mortality are observed only in sheep, especially in the southern states of the country. The difference in disease patterns in different parts of the country could be due to varied climatic conditions, sheep population density and susceptibility of the sheep breeds to BT. Over the five decades after the first report of BT in 1964, most of the known serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) have been reported from India either by virus isolation or by detection of serotype-specific antibodies. There have been no structured longitudinal studies to identify the circulating serotypes throughout the country. At least ten serotypes were isolated between 1967 and 2000 (BTV-1-4, 6, 9, 16-18, 23). Since 2001, the All-India Network Programme on Bluetongue and other laboratories have isolated eight different serotypes (BTV-1-3, 9, 10, 12, 16, 21). Genetic analysis of these viruses has revealed that some of them vary substantially from reference viruses, and some show high sequence identity with modified live virus vaccines used in different parts of the world. These observations have highlighted the need to develop diagnostic capabilities, especially as BT outbreaks are still declared based on clinical signs. Although virus isolation and serotyping are the gold standards, rapid methods based on the detection of viral nucleic acid may be more suitable for India. The epidemiological investigations also have implications for vaccine design. Although only a handful serotypes may be involved in causing outbreaks every year, the combination of serotypes may change from year to year. For effective control of BT in India, it may be pertinent to introduce sentinel and vector traps systems for identification of the circulating serotypes and to evaluate herd immunity against different serotypes, so that relevant strains can be included in vaccine

  5. Impact of Private Secondary Schooling on Cognitive Skills: Evidence from India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azam, Mehtabul; Kingdon, Geeta; Wu, Kin Bing

    2016-01-01

    We examine the effect of attending private secondary school on educational achievement, as measured by students' scores in a comprehensive standardized math test, in two Indian states: Orissa and Rajasthan. We use propensity score matching (PSM) to control for any systematic differences between students attending private secondary schools and…

  6. Remedial Measures for Counterbalancing the After Effects of Green Revolution on the Georesources of Groundwater, Land and Soil in Haryana, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A.; Lunkad, S. K.

    2008-05-01

    In Haryana, one of the wheat granaries of India where water resources have depleted to a critical level (1050 m3 /year/person), groundwater alone has 53% share in the irrigation, the remaining 47% comes from canal system of glacier-fed rivers, viz., Yamuna and Satluj originating from Himalayas. The Green Revolution (1971-1990, intensive phase) enabled this small state to become an agro-economic state in northern alluvial plains of India. Though occupying 1.3 % geographical area and containing 2% of the population of India, it produces country's 13% wheat and about 3% quality rice besides other cereals, oil seeds, sugarcane and cotton. However, Haryana paid a heavy price for the impressive agricultural development- one-third of the irrigated land is salinity affected, water level declined by 3-12 m in twelve of its nineteen districts and excessive nitrate levels in the groundwater (114-1800 mg/l) have rendered the groundwater non-potable in many areas. Groundwater in the arid western Haryana is mostly saline (TDS > 4000 mg/l) and irrational canal irrigation has paradoxically raised the water-table by 3-9m in seven districts causing waterlogging over 2346 km2 land of which 251 km2 is fully waterlogged. In the land use pattern 131,000 ha prime cultivable land (about 3% of the total) has been lost to urbanization jeopardizing the FOOD SECURITY. One possible way to arrest the degradation of groundwater and soil, is to switch to dryland farming. This would involve change in the irrigation method as well as proper selection and rotation of food crops like barley, sorghum, maize, different types of beans (pulses) and oil seeds like groundnut, sunflower, mustard, etc. and restricted use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Dryland farming could go hand in hand with the plantation of fruit trees, grasses and medicinal plants suitable to this agro-climatic zone, and animal husbandry. The same considerations also hold good to the adjoining eastern Rajasthan.

  7. Nehruvian science and postcolonial India.

    PubMed

    Arnold, David

    2013-06-01

    This essay uses the seminal figure of Jawaharlal Nehru to interrogate the nature and representation of science in modern India. The problem posed by Nehruvian science--the conflict between (yet simultaneity of) science as both universal phenomenon and local effect--lies at the heart of current debates about what science means for the non-West. The problematic of Nehruvian science can be accessed through Nehru's own speeches and writings, but also through the wider project of science with which he identified--critiquing colonialism, forging India's place in the modern world, marrying intellectual endeavor with practical nation building. The essay makes a case for looking at Nehruvian science as a way of structuring the problem of postcolonial science, particularly in relation to understanding the authority of science and its evaluation in terms of its capacity to deliver socioeconomic change.

  8. Nehruvian science and postcolonial India.

    PubMed

    Arnold, David

    2013-06-01

    This essay uses the seminal figure of Jawaharlal Nehru to interrogate the nature and representation of science in modern India. The problem posed by Nehruvian science--the conflict between (yet simultaneity of) science as both universal phenomenon and local effect--lies at the heart of current debates about what science means for the non-West. The problematic of Nehruvian science can be accessed through Nehru's own speeches and writings, but also through the wider project of science with which he identified--critiquing colonialism, forging India's place in the modern world, marrying intellectual endeavor with practical nation building. The essay makes a case for looking at Nehruvian science as a way of structuring the problem of postcolonial science, particularly in relation to understanding the authority of science and its evaluation in terms of its capacity to deliver socioeconomic change. PMID:23961694

  9. The practice of telepathology in India.

    PubMed

    Baruah, M K

    2005-01-01

    Telepathology in India is still in the evolving stages. Although, much progress has been made around the world specially in the field of digital imaging and virtual slides, the practice of telepathology in India still revolves around static telepathology, be it in telelearning or distance learning, or in remote diagnosis. Websites such as telepathology.org.in have been very successful in popularizing telepathology through quizzes of interesting and rare cases. The only study of teleconsultation from India, has shown that a good concordance with glass slide and static telepathology images. The reasons for the relative delay in acceptance of telepathology in India are manifold. PMID:16388176

  10. Rapid DOTS expansion in India.

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, G. R.; Frieden, Thomas R.

    2002-01-01

    Since late 1998 the coverage of the DOTS strategy in India has been expanded rapidly. In both 2000 and 2001 the country probably accounted for more than half the global increase in the number of patients treated under DOTS and by early 2002 more than a million patients were being treated in this way in India. As a result, nearly 200 000 lives were saved. The lessons learnt relate to the importance of the following elements of the programme: (1) getting the science right and ensuring technical excellence; (2) building commitment and ensuring the provision of funds and flexibility in their utilization; (3) maintaining focus and priorities; (4) systematically appraising each area before starting service delivery; (5) ensuring an uninterrupted drug supply; (6) strengthening the established infrastructure and providing support for staff; (7) supporting the infrastructure required in urban areas; (8) ensuring full-time independent technical support and supervision, particularly during the initial phases of implementation; (9) monitoring intensively and giving timely feedback; and (10) continuous supervision. Tuberculosis (TB) control still faces major challenges in India. To reach its potential, the control programme needs to: continue to expand so as to cover the remaining half of the country, much of which has a weaker health infrastructure than the areas already covered; increase its reach in the areas already covered so that a greater proportion of patients is treated; ensure sustainability; improve the patient-friendliness of services; confront TB associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is expected that HIV will increase the number of TB cases by at least 10% and by a considerably higher percentage if HIV becomes much more widespread. India's experience shows that DOTS can achieve high case-detection and cure rates even with imperfect technology and often with an inadequate public health infrastructure. However, this can only happen if the

  11. AIDS in India: constructive chaos?

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A

    1991-08-01

    Until recently, the only sustained AIDS activity in India has been alarmist media attention complemented by occasional messages calling for comfort and dignity. Public perception of the AIDS epidemic in India has been effectively shaped by mass media. Press reports have, however, bolstered awareness of the problem among literate elements of urban populations. In the absence of sustained guidance in the campaign against AIDS, responsibility has fallen to voluntary health activists who have become catalysts for community awareness and participation. This voluntary initiative, in effect, seems to be the only immediate avenue for constructive public action, and signals the gradual development of an AIDS network in India. Proceedings from a seminar in Ahmedabad are discussed, and include plans for an information and education program targeting sex workers, health and communication programs for 150 commercial blood donors and their agents, surveillance and awareness programs for safer blood and blood products, and dialogue with the business community and trade unions. Despite the lack of coordination among volunteers and activists, every major city in India now has an AIDS group. A controversial bill on AIDS has ben circulating through government ministries and committees since mid-1989, a national AIDS committee exists with the Secretary of Health as its director, and a 3-year medium-term national plan exists for the reduction of AIDS and HIV infection and morbidity. UNICEF programs target mothers and children for AIDS awareness, and blood testing facilities are expected to be expanded. The article considers the present chaos effectively productive in forcing the Indian population to face up to previously taboo issued of sexuality, sex education, and sexually transmitted disease.

  12. India in the demographic trap.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P H

    1989-12-01

    Since 1980, India has experienced no further declines in the birth rate while mortality continues to drop. The birth rate has remained constant at 32-33/1000 despite dramatic increases in the proportion of couples protected from unwanted pregnancy from 24% in 1980-81 to 41% in 1986-87. Without a national family planning program, India's birth rate certainly would have increased substantially during this period. Among the social factors that appear to have undone the effects of rising contraceptive prevalence are increases in the proportion of women in the 15-29 year age group, improved maternal nutritional and health status so that fecundability is increasing, and the erosion of traditional customs such as prolonged breastfeeding and remarriage by widows. In terms of economic conditions, there have been no improvements in the 1980s in per capita income that would push India into the 3rd stage of the demographic transition. Of concern is the theory that, when societies become trapped too long in this 2nd stage, economic decline and ecological deterioration occur. At present, foodgrain production has been able to keep pace with population increases, but such production cannot increase indefinitely without soil erosion, deforestation, and other environmental degradations. Moreover, when no more grasslands and forests are available for conversion to cropland, the number of landless households will increase. In fact, the number of landless households has already grown from 15 million in 1961 to 26 million in 1981 and is projected to reach 44 million by the year 2000. Among the implications of landlessless are agrarian conflicts, rural political unrest, low life expectancy, malnutrition, and illiteracy. To avoid the consequences of stagnation in the rate of fertility decline, the Government of India is urged to adopt an aggressive population control effort.

  13. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India*

    PubMed Central

    Abhyankar, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry. PMID:25838724

  14. Open pit blasting in India

    SciTech Connect

    Wasson, D.A.; Garg, D.D.

    1995-12-31

    Open pit blasting in India uses two types of explosives. First there are bulk explosives for wet and dry holes, and there are packaged explosives. The Indian open pit coal mining is projected to use 190 thousand metric tons of explosives in 1995. This volume is projected to grow for the next ten years, whereas the underground coal mining will hold fairly constant. Bulk explosives started in about 1977 with watergels. In the late 1980s, bulk emulsions and heavy ANFOs were introduced. This system is still being expanded and is replacing packaged products in the larger mines. Packaged products are still popular where the annual consumption is less than 2,000 metric tons per year. Also, packaged products are used in small wet shots. Porous ammonium nitrate prill have recently become available but ANFO is not very common because of the high cost of the prill and the wet blasting conditions. As the market expands there will be a continuing demand for packaged products but an increasing demand for bulk waterproof products, particularly in the larger operations. Dynamites are produced at four plants in India. The annual production of about 45,000 metric tons per year is holding fairly constant, but is likely to decrease in the future. The future blasting in India will primarily use pumped emulsions and heavy ANFO on an increasing basis, but the packaged products will maintain their position.

  15. Estimating aquifer recharge in fractured hard rock: analysis of the methodological challenges and application to obtain a water balance (Jaisamand Lake Basin, India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Melissa M.; Edmunds, W. Mike; Freyberg, David; Sharma, Om Prakash; Sharma, Anupma

    2015-11-01

    Groundwater recharge is an important metric for sustainable water management, particularly in semi-arid regions. Hard-rock aquifers underlie two-thirds of India and appropriate techniques for estimating groundwater recharge are needed, but the accuracy of such values is highly uncertain. The chloride mass balance (CMB) method was employed to estimate annual groundwater recharge rates in a monsoon-dependent area of Jaisamand Lake basin in Rajasthan, which contains the Gangeshwar watershed. A monitoring program was established within the watershed during summer 2009, with local participation for the collection of rainfall and groundwater samples. Groundwater recharge was estimated spatially over a 3-year period with pre-monsoon and post-monsoon datasets. Recharge rates estimated using the CMB method were then compared to those estimated using the water-table fluctuation (WTF) method. Specific yield was 0.63 % and assumed to be homogenous across the watershed. The average recharge rate derived from the WTF method (31 mm/year) was higher than that derived from the CMB method (24.3 mm/year). CMB recharge rates were also applied to obtain a water balance for the watershed. CMB recharge rates were used to estimate annual groundwater replenishment and were compared with estimates of groundwater withdrawal using Landsat imagery. Over the 2009-2011 study period, groundwater demand was about seven times greater than the estimated groundwater renewal of 5.6 million cubic meters. This analysis highlights the challenges associated with estimating groundwater recharge in fractured hard-rock aquifers, and how renewable groundwater-resource estimates can be used as a metric to promote sustainable water use.

  16. India's "nowhere" girls. Voices of girls 1: India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, S

    1998-01-01

    In India, a 12-year-old girl rises before dawn to complete household chores before heading off to work in the fields herding animals or plucking weeds. When this work is unavailable, she migrates to quarries or brick kilns with her landless parents. This scenario is not unusual, as millions of Indian girls are denied schooling so they can contribute to their family's income. Child agricultural laborers are invisible in official statistics, and girls have a harder life than their brothers who have no household duties and are given more to eat. A large number of girls work in factories or homes producing matches, incense, cigarettes, locks, or brassware or polishing gems. There are no statistics describing how many girls are domestic servants in Bombay or rag-pickers, fish-cleaners, or beggars, but an estimated 500,000 girls under age 15 work as prostitutes. Child labor is defined as work that is detrimental to a child's growth and development, and there are 20-100 million child laborers in India. In Bombay, most girl laborers live and work in conditions that threaten their health, and they experience malnutrition and its attendant diseases as well as occupational hazards. Girls also suffer from the son preference that reduces the amount of time girls are breast fed, the amount of health care they receive, their access to education, and their marriage age. Legislation against child labor has proved ineffectual and will continue to be useless until poverty is reduced in India, educational statutes are enforced, and other policy issues are addressed.

  17. Teaching India. Footnotes. Volume 11, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehner, Trudy

    2006-01-01

    On March 11-12, 2006 the FPRI's Marvin Wachman Fund for International Education hosted 44 teachers from 16 states across the country for a weekend of discussion on teaching about India. Sessions included: (1) Why It's Important to Know about India (Ainslie T. Embree); (2) Early Indian History (Richard H. Davis); (3) Modern Indian History (Marc…

  18. Powering the people: India's capacity expansion plans

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, S.

    2009-05-15

    India has become a global business power even though hundreds of millions of its citizens still live in poverty. To sustain economic growth and lift its people out of poverty, India needs more and more reliable power. Details of government plans for achieving those goals demonstrate that pragmatism may be in shorter supply than ambition and political will. 1 ref., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Reimbursement for critical care services in India

    PubMed Central

    Jayaram, Raja; Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan

    2013-01-01

    There are significant variations in critical care practices, costs, and reimbursements in various countries. Of note, there is a paucity of reliable information on remuneration and reimbursement models for intensivists in India. This review article aims to analyze the existing reimbursement models in United States and United Kingdom and propose a frame-work model that may be applicable in India. PMID:23833469

  20. India's Higher Education Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream…

  1. India's growing participation in global clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Yogendra K; Padhy, Biswa M

    2011-06-01

    Lower operational costs, recent regulatory reforms and several logistic advantages make India an attractive destination for conducting clinical trials. Efforts for maintaining stringent ethical standards and the launch of Pharmacovigilance Program of India are expected to maximize the potential of the country for clinical research.

  2. Higher Education in India: A Comprehensive Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raza, Moonis; Malhotra, Nirmal

    This book provides a comprehensive bibliography of higher education in India. It constitutes a resource for scholars, policymakers, planners, and administrators concerned with higher education in India. The book contains 2,485 entries arranged under 50 themes. Each theme is classified into four types of material: books; articles; annotated…

  3. PVWatts (R) Calculator India (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-01-01

    The PVWatts (R) Calculator for India was released by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in 2013. The online tool estimates electricity production and the monetary value of that production of grid-connected roof- or ground-mounted crystalline silicon photovoltaics systems based on a few simple inputs. This factsheet provides a broad overview of the PVWatts (R) Calculator for India.

  4. English in India: Need for a Reappraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayal, P. P.

    The English spoken in India is too close to standard English to be characterized as a separate variety. Although phonological variations give English in India some regional flavors, they do not have any structural or semantic base and do not constitute a new language. Cultural differences have not caused English-language literature written in…

  5. India's growing participation in global clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Yogendra K; Padhy, Biswa M

    2011-06-01

    Lower operational costs, recent regulatory reforms and several logistic advantages make India an attractive destination for conducting clinical trials. Efforts for maintaining stringent ethical standards and the launch of Pharmacovigilance Program of India are expected to maximize the potential of the country for clinical research. PMID:21489644

  6. Coalbed methane could cut India`s energy deficit

    SciTech Connect

    Kelafant, J.; Stern, M.

    1998-05-25

    Foreign interest in upcoming Indian coalbed methane (CBM) concession rounds will depend on prospect quality, fiscal regime attractiveness, and perceptions interested parties will have concerning the government`s willingness to promote development. The more liberal tax and royalty provisions for foreign producers announced by the ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas indicate that India is interested in attracting international CBM investments. This article examines the potential for developing the country`s large CBM resource base, estimated between 30 tcf (250 billion cu m) and 144 tcf (4 trillion cu m) of gas. It also provides an overview of the current contractual and regulatory framework governing CBM development.

  7. Rheumatology in India--quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Handa, Rohini

    2015-03-01

    Rheumatology has been a neglected subspecialty in India. A staggering patient load, a severely inadequate number of trained rheumatology specialists, therapeutic nihilism and limited advocacy are some of the critical challenges that confront rheumatology care, and possibly explain the high rates of reliance on complementary and alternative medicines in India. Disease spectrum and treatment patterns are not remarkably different from those in other countries, but biologic agents have limited use and are administered for short periods only. Consequently, outcomes in India do not yet match those reported in developed countries. Furthermore, the high prevalence of infectious diseases continues to be a major contributor to mortality in patients with rheumatic disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Several tropical diseases with rheumatic manifestations are relevant in India, including chikungunya, brucellosis, leptospirosis, dengue and melioidosis. To address the many problems with rheumatology care in India, curricular reforms, capacity building, patient education and political support are sorely needed.

  8. Present and Future Energy Scenario in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Gupta, V. K.

    2014-09-01

    India's energy sector is one of the most critical components of an infrastructure that affects India's economic growth and therefore is also one of the largest industries in India. India has the 5th largest electricity generating capacity and is the 6th largest energy consumer amounting for around 3.4 % of global energy consumption. India's energy demand has grown at 3.6 % pa over the past 30 years. The consumption of the energy is directly proportional to the progress of manpower with ever growing population, improvement in the living standard of the humanity and industrialization of the developing countries. Very recently smart grid technology can attribute important role in energy scenario. Smart grid refers to electric power system that enhances grid reliability and efficiency by automatically responding to system disturbances. This paper discusses the new communication infrastructure and scheme designed to integrate data.

  9. Worksite health and wellness programs in India.

    PubMed

    Babu, Abraham Samuel; Madan, Kushal; Veluswamy, Sundar Kumar; Mehra, Rahul; Maiya, Arun G

    2014-01-01

    Worksite health and wellness (WH&W) are gaining popularity in targeting cardiovascular (CV) risk factors among various industries. India is a large country with a larger workforce in the unorganized sector than the organized sector. This imbalance creates numerous challenges and barriers to implementation of WH&W programs in India. Large scale surveys have identified various CV risk factors across various industries. However, there is scarcity of published studies focusing on the effects of WH&W programs in India. This paper will highlight: 1) the current trend of CV risk factors across the industrial community, 2) the existing models of delivery for WH&W in India and their barriers, and 3) a concise evidence based review of various WH&W interventions in India.

  10. Adolescent health in Asia: insights from India.

    PubMed

    Basker, Mona M

    2016-08-01

    Adolescents living in the Indian subcontinent form a significant proportion of the general population. India is home to 236 million adolescents, who make up one-fifth of the total population of India. Adolescent health is gradually considered an important issue by the government of India. Awareness is increasing about adolescent needs. Health care professionals in particular are becoming more interested in the specific needs of adolescent age. Adolescent medicine as a subspecialty of pediatrics has also gained importance gradually over the last decade. In a hospital setting, adolescent-specific needs are met, albeit not in a uniform manner in all the health centers. After having been trained in adolescent medicine in India and abroad, I present this paper as a bird's eye view of the practice of adolescent health and medicine in India. PMID:27447203

  11. Rheumatology in India--quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Handa, Rohini

    2015-03-01

    Rheumatology has been a neglected subspecialty in India. A staggering patient load, a severely inadequate number of trained rheumatology specialists, therapeutic nihilism and limited advocacy are some of the critical challenges that confront rheumatology care, and possibly explain the high rates of reliance on complementary and alternative medicines in India. Disease spectrum and treatment patterns are not remarkably different from those in other countries, but biologic agents have limited use and are administered for short periods only. Consequently, outcomes in India do not yet match those reported in developed countries. Furthermore, the high prevalence of infectious diseases continues to be a major contributor to mortality in patients with rheumatic disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Several tropical diseases with rheumatic manifestations are relevant in India, including chikungunya, brucellosis, leptospirosis, dengue and melioidosis. To address the many problems with rheumatology care in India, curricular reforms, capacity building, patient education and political support are sorely needed. PMID:25366186

  12. The collision of India with Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, L. T.; Lister, G. S.

    2012-05-01

    We review the relative motion of India and Asia for the last 100 million years and present a revised reconstruction for the India-Antarctica-Africa-North America-Eurasia plate circuit based on published motion histories. Deformation of these continental masses during this time introduces uncertainties, as does error in oceanic isochron age and location. Neglecting these factors, the data ipso facto allow the inference that the motion of India relative to Eurasia was distinctly episodic. Although motion is likely to have varied more smoothly than these results would allow, the geological record also suggests a sequence of distinct episodes, at about the same times. Hence we suggest that no single event should be regarded as the collision of India with Asia. The deceleration of the Indian plate commencing at ˜65 Ma is matched by an equally significant prior acceleration and this aspect must be taken into account in geodynamic scenarios proposed to explain the collision of India with Asia.

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mangoes from India. 319.56-46 Section 319.56-46... from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the continental United States from India only under the following conditions: (a) The mangoes must be treated in India with irradiation...

  14. 76 FR 18248 - Sulfanilic Acid From China and India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... countervailing duty orders on imports of sulfanilic acid from India (57 FR 12025 ] and 12026). Following five... sulfanilic acid from China and India (65 FR 36404). Following second five-year reviews by Commerce and the... sulfanilic acid from India and the antidumping duty orders on sulfanilic acid from China and India (71...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mangoes from India. 319.56-46 Section 319.56-46... from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the continental United States from India only under the following conditions: (a) The mangoes must be treated in India with irradiation...

  16. Girl child in rural India.

    PubMed

    Devendra, K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the status of the girl child in rural India. Rural children lack the advantages of modern amenities and facilities, such as transportation, electricity, media, hygiene, health care, and access to education. A young girl's status is related to her mother's status. Women are valued the most when a son is born. Girl children are considered an economic liability in child care costs, dowry costs, and marriage support. Since the 1970s, dowry demands have increased. Daughters must meet the demands of prospective in-law for education and dowry even after marriage. The attitudes of parents, families, and society encourage sex-selective abortion, infanticide, abuse in childhood, and domestic violence in adulthood. It was reported in 1994 that a woman is molested every 26 minutes and raped every 52 minutes. The government of India developed an action plan in 1992 for developing the girl child. Rural girl children spend their time cooking, cleaning, fetching wood and water, caring for children, and working in the fields sowing, transplanting, and weeding. Girl children contribute over 20% of total work at home. The only advantage a girl child has in rural areas is visibility. The greatest disadvantage is that her mother, who faced neglect herself, discriminates against her. Increasingly girl children contribute income to their household from Beedi making, gem polishing, embroidering, or paper bag making. Sometimes girls and boys work in hazardous occupations. Gender disparity is evident in school enrollment, drop out rates, literacy, and employment. In 1994, India passed a universal female education bill that offers parents incentives for access and punishment for keeping a girl out of school. Communities need to create a demand for rural girl children's education.

  17. Girl child in rural India.

    PubMed

    Devendra, K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the status of the girl child in rural India. Rural children lack the advantages of modern amenities and facilities, such as transportation, electricity, media, hygiene, health care, and access to education. A young girl's status is related to her mother's status. Women are valued the most when a son is born. Girl children are considered an economic liability in child care costs, dowry costs, and marriage support. Since the 1970s, dowry demands have increased. Daughters must meet the demands of prospective in-law for education and dowry even after marriage. The attitudes of parents, families, and society encourage sex-selective abortion, infanticide, abuse in childhood, and domestic violence in adulthood. It was reported in 1994 that a woman is molested every 26 minutes and raped every 52 minutes. The government of India developed an action plan in 1992 for developing the girl child. Rural girl children spend their time cooking, cleaning, fetching wood and water, caring for children, and working in the fields sowing, transplanting, and weeding. Girl children contribute over 20% of total work at home. The only advantage a girl child has in rural areas is visibility. The greatest disadvantage is that her mother, who faced neglect herself, discriminates against her. Increasingly girl children contribute income to their household from Beedi making, gem polishing, embroidering, or paper bag making. Sometimes girls and boys work in hazardous occupations. Gender disparity is evident in school enrollment, drop out rates, literacy, and employment. In 1994, India passed a universal female education bill that offers parents incentives for access and punishment for keeping a girl out of school. Communities need to create a demand for rural girl children's education. PMID:12158006

  18. India Energy Outlook: End Use Demand in India to 2020

    SciTech Connect

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; McNeil, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-03-30

    Integrated economic models have been used to project both baseline and mitigation greenhouse gas emissions scenarios at the country and the global level. Results of these scenarios are typically presented at the sectoral level such as industry, transport, and buildings without further disaggregation. Recently, a keen interest has emerged on constructing bottom up scenarios where technical energy saving potentials can be displayed in detail (IEA, 2006b; IPCC, 2007; McKinsey, 2007). Analysts interested in particular technologies and policies, require detailed information to understand specific mitigation options in relation to business-as-usual trends. However, the limit of information available for developing countries often poses a problem. In this report, we have focus on analyzing energy use in India in greater detail. Results shown for the residential and transport sectors are taken from a previous report (de la Rue du Can, 2008). A complete picture of energy use with disaggregated levels is drawn to understand how energy is used in India and to offer the possibility to put in perspective the different sources of end use energy consumption. For each sector, drivers of energy and technology are indentified. Trends are then analyzed and used to project future growth. Results of this report provide valuable inputs to the elaboration of realistic energy efficiency scenarios.

  19. Tropical sprue in southern India.

    PubMed

    Mathan, V I

    1988-01-01

    Tropical sprue, a primary malabsorption syndrome affecting residents and visitors to several tropical regions, occurs in southern India in endemic and epidemic forms. The stomach, the small intestine and colon are affected and malabsorption results in nutrient deficiency. Enterocyte damage, the primary lesion in southern Indian tropical sprue, is the result of a persistent lesion of the stem cell compartment. This lesion occurs on a background of tropical enteropathy and the available evidence suggests that an immunity conferring agent may be responsible for initiating the damage.

  20. History of psychiatry in India

    PubMed Central

    Nizamie, S. Haque; Goyal, Nishant

    2010-01-01

    History is a screen through which the past lightens the present and the present brightens the future. Psychiatry by virtue of its ability to deal with human thoughts and emotions and provide a pathway for healthy minds provides an important platform towards being a mentally sound human being and largely the society. This review takes a sneak peek into the foundations of modern psychiatry in India. The description is largely based on the time frame, which provides a better understanding of the factual information in each period starting from the Vedic era and culminating in the post independence period. PMID:21836719

  1. Maternal mortality in southern India.

    PubMed

    Rao, P S; Amalraj, A

    1994-01-01

    In a 4 year prospective community survey of 20,000 women randomly selected in North Arcot District of Tamil Nadu State in South India, the maternal mortality rates per 1,000 liveborn were estimated to be 17.4 and 16.6 for rural and semi-urban areas, respectively. The rates based only on direct causes were 11.9 in rural and 14.4 in semi-urban areas. As expected, these figures are considerably higher than those based on official or hospital statistics. Factors associated with such high mortality and the implications for programme planning and implementation are discussed. PMID:7855917

  2. Research on antipsychotics in India

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Aggarwal, Munish; Grover, Sandeep; Khan, Mohd Khalid Rasheed

    2010-01-01

    Antipsychotic as a class of medications became available for treatment of various psychiatric disorders in the early 1950’s. Over the last 60 years many antipsychotics have become available. In line with the west, Indian researchers have evaluated the efficacy of antipsychotics in various conditions. Additionally, researchers have also evaluated the important safety and tolerability issues. Here, we review data originating from India in the form of drug trials, effectiveness, usefulness, safety and tolerability of antipsychotics. Additionally, data with respect to other important treatment related issues is discussed. PMID:21836703

  3. Supporting rabies control in India.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Karen L; Banyard, Ashley C; Fooks, Anthony R; Franka, Richard; Isloor, Shrikrishna; Rahman, Abdul

    2016-09-24

    Earlier this year, Tony Fooks and colleagues described how, under a laboratory twinning project run by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the UK's OIE Reference Laboratory for rabies, based at the APHA in Weybridge, had been working with the Changchun Veterinary Research Institute in the People's Republic of China to help the institute develop into an OIE Reference Laboratory itself (VR, March 5, 2016, vol 178, pp 231-232). Now, the APHA is taking part in a further three-year project to build rabies diagnosis capability in Bangalore, India, as he and his colleagues explain below. PMID:27660350

  4. Globalisation and women in India.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, M

    1999-11-01

    Globalization arrived in India through an external and internal alignment of political and economic forces that led to the opening of the country to the outside world. The five processes under globalization are: 1) commercialism wherein more services become monetized and incomes are received in money rather than in kind; 2) more capitalization; 3) foreign trade becomes important for the production and distribution process; 4) greater financialization develops; and 5) international capital moves freely. These changes affect women more than men in different ways. Capitalization results in more self-employed marginal farmers becoming wage workers, making it less possible for women to manage domestic duties alongside their productive work. In general, macro-economic policies affect women through the household, market, and gender relations. In countries like India where women suffer from serious discrimination, whatever affects the household will worsen women's position. Thus, the process of liberalization, privatization, and globalization will put the clock back for women and for the poor in general. PMID:12349429

  5. The consumer movement in India.

    PubMed

    Girimaji, P

    1993-10-01

    It was thought that passage of the Consumer Protection Act in India in 1986 would encourage consumers to stand up for their rights and lead to an overwhelming number of disputes in consumer courts. Although a consumer movement has yet to get going in India, existence of the act has stimulated the creation of many consumer organizations across the country. The number has such organizations has more the doubled in the last few years so that there are now 600-800 organizations in the voluntary sector. The movement has not blossomed because not all of the organizations are active enough to make an impact, there has hardly been any unified action which would demonstrate their strength, and there has been no active consumer participation in the movements. Consumers claim that the lack of consumer education makes them passive and apathetic, and blame consumer organizations. The majority of consumers in the country are even unaware of the existence of consumer courts to which they make take their grievances. Consumer rights organizations, however, counter that they lack sufficient funds and blame the government for their inaction. The author acknowledges criticism that the Indian consumer movement is elitist and considers the need to focus upon rural consumers, the significant contributions that organizations have made in laying the foundations for change, the need for consumer education, the need for specialists, the particular need for consumer protection with regard to health-related products, and support by voluntary health groups.

  6. Globalisation and women in India.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, M

    1999-11-01

    Globalization arrived in India through an external and internal alignment of political and economic forces that led to the opening of the country to the outside world. The five processes under globalization are: 1) commercialism wherein more services become monetized and incomes are received in money rather than in kind; 2) more capitalization; 3) foreign trade becomes important for the production and distribution process; 4) greater financialization develops; and 5) international capital moves freely. These changes affect women more than men in different ways. Capitalization results in more self-employed marginal farmers becoming wage workers, making it less possible for women to manage domestic duties alongside their productive work. In general, macro-economic policies affect women through the household, market, and gender relations. In countries like India where women suffer from serious discrimination, whatever affects the household will worsen women's position. Thus, the process of liberalization, privatization, and globalization will put the clock back for women and for the poor in general.

  7. Veterinary herbal medicines in India

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Shruti; Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Prakash, Jai; Sharma, Alok; Singh, Gyanendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    India has a rich and diversified flora. It is seen that synthetic drugs could pose serious problems, are toxic and costly. In contrast to this, herbal medicines are relatively nontoxic, cheaper and are eco-friendly. Moreover, the people have used them for generations. They have also been used in day-to-day problems of healthcare in animals. 25% of the drugs prescribed worldwide come from plants. Almost 75% of the medicinal plants grow naturally in different states of India. These plants are known to cure many ailments in animals like poisoning, cough, constipation, foot and mouth disease, dermatitis, cataract, burning, pneumonia, bone fractures, snake bites, abdominal pains, skin diseases etc. There is scarce review of such information (veterinary herbals) in the literature. The electronic and manual search was made using various key words such as veterinary herbal, ethno-veterinary medicines etc. and the content systematically arranged. This article deals with the comprehensive review of 45 medicinal plant species that are official in Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP) 2014. The botanical names, family, habitat, plant part used and pharmacological actions, status in British Pharmacopoeia 2014, USP 36 are mentioned. Also, a relationship between animal and human dose, standardization and regulatory aspects of these selected veterinary herbals are provided. PMID:26392714

  8. Protein malnutrition in South India

    PubMed Central

    Rao, K. Someswara; Swaminathan, M. C.; Swarup, S.; Patwardhan, V. N.

    1959-01-01

    A protein malnutrition survey was carried out in ten areas of four States of South India among children under 5 years of age in families with a monthly income of less than Rs 100, estimated to constitute 85% of the population. The agricultural situation and socio-economic conditions are described. The diets investigated consisted largely of cereals, with small quantities of pulses and green vegetables; milk, meat and eggs were little eaten. The survey covered investigation of infant care, feeding and weaning practices, clinical examinations, anthropometric measurements, determinations of haemoglobin and serum protein, and analysis of hospital records. Although infants were usually breast-fed for a long time, the quantity of breast milk was found to be low after 6 months, at which time supplementary foods were introduced, but these were usually inadequate. Extreme growth retardation was seen after weaning. Diarrhoea was complained of in some 20% of children. Such deficiency signs as dyschromotrichia, hepatomegaly, moon face, angular stomatitis and xerophthalmia were frequently seen. Frank cases of kwashiorkor and marasmus were observed in 1% and 1.7% respectively of children at home. These findings and others clearly show protein malnutrition to be a problem of very considerable magnitude in the poorer communities of South India. A comparison is made with the results of surveys conducted in Africa and in Central America. ImagesFIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 2 PMID:14436226

  9. The issue that inflamed India.

    PubMed

    1977-04-01

    The 1 issue, more than anything else, that cost Indira Gandhi the election in India was her mass sterilization campaign. Although no one questions India's need for an effective family planning program, the government's program to vasectomize millions of Indian men who had fathered 2 or more children was ruthlessly and often illegally applied and came to symbolize the dangers of authoritarian rule. The program's target was 4.3 million sterilizations; the campaign produced 7.8 million between April 1976 and January 1977. In an effort to ensure the program's success, the government censors prohibited newspapers from publishing any criticism of family planning. 6 months ago the Family Planning Council claimed that "a most favorable climate" has been created for the voluntary acceptance of sterilization. In a recent tour of the Indian countryside this claim was found to be untrue. None of the villagers this writer spoke to had been offered any guidance by a family planning worker. There had been no explanation, for example, that sterilization is not responsible for impotence. By last week when the votes were counted, the pattern was clear. In states where the sterilization program had been pursued with the most zeal but the least preparation, the defection from the Congress Party was the most severe. PMID:11662377

  10. Health care utilisation in India.

    PubMed

    Duggal, R

    1994-02-01

    India has a plurality of health care systems as well as different systems of medicine. The government and local administrations provide public health care in hospitals and clinics. Public health care in rural areas is concentrated on prevention and promotion services to the detriment of curative services. The rural primary health centers are woefully underutilized because they fail to provide their clients with the desired amount of attention and medication and because they have inconvenient locations and long waiting times. Public hospitals provide 60% of all hospitalizations, while the private sector provides 75% of all routine care. The private sector is composed of an equal number of qualified doctors and unqualified practitioners, with a greater ratio of unqualified to qualified existing in less developed states. In rural areas, qualified doctors are clustered in areas where government services are available. With a population barely able to meet its nutritional needs, India needs universalization of health care provision to assure equity in health care access and availability instead of a large number of doctors who are profiting from the sicknesses of the poor. PMID:12288588

  11. History of rocketry in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasant, Gowarikar; Suresh, B. N.

    2009-12-01

    The Indian Space programme took birth on November 21, 1963, with the launch of Nike-Apache, an American sounding rocket from the shores of Thumba near Thiruvananthapuram on the west coast of India. From a family of operational sounding rockets known as the Rohini Sounding Rockets, India's launch vehicles have now grown up through SLV-3 and Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV) to the current gigantic satellite launchers, PSLV and Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV). Though we had failures in the initial launches of SLV-3, ASLV and PSLV, these failures gave Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) a thorough and in depth understanding of the nuances of launch vehicle technology that later led to successful missions. An entirely new dimension was added to the Indian space programme when a space capsule was recovered very precisely after it had orbited the Earth for 12 days. The future for launch vehicles in ISRO looks bright with the GSLV MKIII, which is currently under development and the pursuit of cutting edge technologies such as reusable launch vehicles and air-breathing propulsion.

  12. Clinical laboratory accreditation in India.

    PubMed

    Handoo, Anil; Sood, Swaroop Krishan

    2012-06-01

    Test results from clinical laboratories must ensure accuracy, as these are crucial in several areas of health care. It is necessary that the laboratory implements quality assurance to achieve this goal. The implementation of quality should be audited by independent bodies,referred to as accreditation bodies. Accreditation is a third-party attestation by an authoritative body, which certifies that the applicant laboratory meets quality requirements of accreditation body and has demonstrated its competence to carry out specific tasks. Although in most of the countries,accreditation is mandatory, in India it is voluntary. The quality requirements are described in standards developed by many accreditation organizations. The internationally acceptable standard for clinical laboratories is ISO15189, which is based on ISO/IEC standard 17025. The accreditation body in India is the National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories, which has signed Mutual Recognition Agreement with the regional cooperation the Asia Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation and with the apex cooperation the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation. PMID:22727005

  13. Tethyan subducted slabs under India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Voo, Rob; Spakman, Wim; Bijwaard, Harmen

    1999-08-01

    Tomographic imaging of the mantle under Tibet, India and the adjacent Indian Ocean reveals several zones of relatively high P-wave velocities at various depths. Under the Hindu Kush region in northeastern Afghanistan and southern Tajikistan, a regional northward-dipping slab is seen in the entire upper 600 km of the mantle and is apparently still attached to the lithosphere of the Indian plate. Under northern Pakistan this same slab shows a roll-over structure with the deeper portion overturned and dipping southward, as can also be seen in the distribution of earthquake hypocenters. Farther east-southeast (e.g., in the vicinity of Nepal), a well-resolved anomaly below 450 km depth is connected to the slab under the Hindu Kush, but seems to be separated from the lithosphere above 350 km. These upper-mantle anomalies are interpreted as the remnants of delaminated sub-continental lithosphere that went down when Greater India continued to converge northward with Asia after ˜45 Ma. The deeper high-velocity anomalies under the Indian sub-continent appear clearly separated from the shallower ones as well as from each other, and are inferred to represent remnants of oceanic lithospheric slabs that have sunk into the lower mantle and were subsequently overridden by the Indian plate. They occur at depths between 1000 and 2300 km and occasionally descend down to the core-mantle boundary. The anomalies form three parallel WNW-ESE striking zones. We interpret the two southern zones as remnants of oceanic lithosphere that was subducted when the Neo-Tethys Ocean closed between India and Tibet in the Cretaceous and earliest Tertiary. The northern deep-mantle zone under northern Afghanistan, the Himalayas and the Lhasa block in southern Tibet may represent the last-subducted remnant of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean, which is thought to have closed before the Hauterivian stage of the Early Cretaceous. The middle zone continues southeastward as a rather straight high-velocity zone towards

  14. India's Computational Biology Growth and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2016-09-01

    India's computational science is growing swiftly due to the outburst of internet and information technology services. The bioinformatics sector of India has been transforming rapidly by creating a competitive position in global bioinformatics market. Bioinformatics is widely used across India to address a wide range of biological issues. Recently, computational researchers and biologists are collaborating in projects such as database development, sequence analysis, genomic prospects and algorithm generations. In this paper, we have presented the Indian computational biology scenario highlighting bioinformatics-related educational activities, manpower development, internet boom, service industry, research activities, conferences and trainings undertaken by the corporate and government sectors. Nonetheless, this new field of science faces lots of challenges.

  15. Entering the contract research industry in India.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jamila

    2008-05-01

    India is getting to be known as a hot destination for executing clinical trials. It is witnessing the frenzied entry of pharma sponsor companies and contract research organizations and the movement of Indian non-healthcare groups into clinical research. In this mad melee, what are the determinants of success? How real is the promise of clinical research in India and what will make or break a new entrant in this business? This article attempts to describe these challenges and focuses on the resilient success criteria that the contract clinical research industry in India has tested every newcomer against.

  16. Entering the contract research industry in India.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jamila

    2008-05-01

    India is getting to be known as a hot destination for executing clinical trials. It is witnessing the frenzied entry of pharma sponsor companies and contract research organizations and the movement of Indian non-healthcare groups into clinical research. In this mad melee, what are the determinants of success? How real is the promise of clinical research in India and what will make or break a new entrant in this business? This article attempts to describe these challenges and focuses on the resilient success criteria that the contract clinical research industry in India has tested every newcomer against. PMID:18053773

  17. TB control: challenges and opportunities for India.

    PubMed

    Pai, Madhukar; Daftary, Amrita; Satyanarayana, Srinath

    2016-03-01

    India's TB control programme has treated over 19 million patients, but the incidence of TB continues to be high. TB is a major killer and drug-resistant TB is a growing threat. There are several likely reasons, including social conditions and co-morbidities that fuel the TB epidemic: under-investment by the government, weak programme implementation and management, suboptimal quality of care in the private sector, and insufficient advocacy around TB. Fortunately, India possesses the technical know-how, competence and resources to address these challenges. The End TB Strategy by WHO offers India an excellent blueprint to advance the agenda of TB control.

  18. Improving immunisation coverage in rural India: clustered randomised controlled evaluation of immunisation campaigns with and without incentives

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Abhijit Vinayak; Glennerster, Rachel; Kothari, Dhruva

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of modest non-financial incentives on immunisation rates in children aged 1-3 and to compare it with the effect of only improving the reliability of the supply of services. Design Clustered randomised controlled study. Setting Rural Rajasthan, India. Participants 1640 children aged 1-3 at end point. Interventions 134 villages were randomised to one of three groups: a once monthly reliable immunisation camp (intervention A; 379 children from 30 villages); a once monthly reliable immunisation camp with small incentives (raw lentils and metal plates for completed immunisation; intervention B; 382 children from 30 villages), or control (no intervention, 860 children in 74 villages). Surveys were undertaken in randomly selected households at baseline and about 18 months after the interventions started (end point). Main outcome measures Proportion of children aged 1-3 at the end point who were partially or fully immunised. Results Among children aged 1-3 in the end point survey, rates of full immunisation were 39% (148/382, 95% confidence interval 30% to 47%) for intervention B villages (reliable immunisation with incentives), 18% (68/379, 11% to 23%) for intervention A villages (reliable immunisation without incentives), and 6% (50/860, 3% to 9%) for control villages. The relative risk of complete immunisation for intervention B versus control was 6.7 (4.5 to 8.8) and for intervention B versus intervention A was 2.2 (1.5 to 2.8). Children in areas neighbouring intervention B villages were also more likely to be fully immunised than those from areas neighbouring intervention A villages (1.9, 1.1 to 2.8). The average cost per immunisation was $28 (1102 rupees, about £16 or €19) in intervention A and $56 (2202 rupees) in intervention B. Conclusions Improving reliability of services improves immunisation rates, but the effect remains modest. Small incentives have large positive impacts on the uptake of immunisation services in resource

  19. An alternative to India ink stain.

    PubMed

    Ibembe, Isaac Nicholas; Wiggin, Timothy Roger

    2015-07-01

    Accessing India ink in rural Uganda is difficult and costly. An alternative stain was sought to assist in microbiological diagnoses of cryptococcal infections in immunosuppressed patients with meningitis. Mascara proved to be an excellent and cheap alternative.

  20. Aspects of prehistoric astronomy in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. Kameswara

    2005-12-01

    Some archeoastronomical aspects regarding the development of observational astronomy in India during prehistoric times are described. A plea is made for the preservation of megalithic monuments of possible astronomical significance.

  1. An alternative to India ink stain.

    PubMed

    Ibembe, Isaac Nicholas; Wiggin, Timothy Roger

    2015-07-01

    Accessing India ink in rural Uganda is difficult and costly. An alternative stain was sought to assist in microbiological diagnoses of cryptococcal infections in immunosuppressed patients with meningitis. Mascara proved to be an excellent and cheap alternative. PMID:25999353

  2. Cataloging Practices in India: Efforts for Standardization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikku, Upinder Kumar

    1984-01-01

    Surveys current cataloging practices in Indian libraries and discusses standardization in cataloging, types of catalogs, cataloging codes (Anglo-American and Ranganathan), subject headings, descriptive cataloging, and standardization efforts (international, United States, USSR, Great Britain, India). Footnotes are included. (EJS)

  3. Groundwater Depletion in India Revealed by GRACE

    NASA Video Gallery

    Scientists using data from NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) have found that the groundwater beneath Northern India has been receding by as much as one foot per year over the p...

  4. Rotavirus in India: Forty Years of Research.

    PubMed

    Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-07-01

    Rotavirus was first identified as a human pathogen just over 40 years ago, and work on this pathogen in India started shortly thereafter. Subsequent studies have confirmed its pre-eminent role in gastroenteritis in children in India. Standardized surveillance has enabled the documentation of the high burden of disease, and has demonstrated that there is considerable geographic and temporal variation in strain circulation. Internationally licensed vaccines, vaccine candidates based on indigenous strains and out-licensed strains have been tested for safety, immunogenicity and efficacy; three vaccines are now licensed in India and are used in the private sector. Public sector vaccination has begun, and it will be path-breaking for Indian vaccinologists to measure impact of vaccine introduction in terms of safety and effectiveness. So far, India has kept pace with international epidemiologic and vaccine research on rotavirus, and these efforts should continue. PMID:27508532

  5. Social marketing of condoms in India.

    PubMed

    Thapa, S; Prasad, C V; Rao, P H; Severy, L J; Rao, S R

    1994-01-01

    Contraceptive social marketing is a way of supplying contraceptives to consumers who cannot afford to buy them at full market price, yet are not reached by the free public distribution program. The process involves supplying a subsidized product through existing commercial distribution networks, using the mass media and other retail marketing techniques to commercially advertise the products. India was the first country to introduce this concept to its family planning program. India's social marketing program is also the largest in the world. Over the past 25 years, total condom sales in India have expanded under the program from less than 10 million per year to more than one billion. The authors present an overview of India's social marketing initiative, describe the firms participating in the program, and summarize the lessons learned from the social marketing experience. Problems and prospects, and experiences and implications are discussed. PMID:12159235

  6. Energy use in rural India.

    PubMed

    Revelle, R

    1976-06-01

    An old saying has it, "slavery will persist until the loom weaves itself." All ancient civilizations, no matter how enlightened or creative, rested on slavery and on grinding human labor, because human and animal muscle power were the principal forms of energy available for mechanical work. The discovery of ways to use less expensive sources of energy than human muscles made it possible for men to be free. The men and women of rural India are tied to poverty and misery because they use too little energy and use it inefficiently, and nearly all they use is secured by their own physical efforts. A transformation of rural Indian society could be brought about by increasing the quantity and improving the technology of energy use. PMID:17730043

  7. Prehistoric human colonization of India.

    PubMed

    Misra, V N

    2001-11-01

    Human colonization in India encompasses a span of at least half-a-million years and is divided into two broad periods, namely the prehistoric (before the emergence of writing) and the historic (after writing). The prehistoric period is divided into stone, bronze and iron ages. The stone age is further divided into palaeolithic, mesolithic and neolithic periods. As the name suggests, the technology in these periods was primarily based on stone. Economically, the palaeolithic and mesolithic periods represented a nomadic, hunting-gathering way of life, while the neolithic period represented a settled, food-producing way of life. Subsequently copper was introduced as a new material and this period was designated as the chalcolithic period. The invention of agriculture, which took place about 8000 years ago, brought about dramatic changes in the economy, technology and demography of human societies. Human habitat in the hunting-gathering stage was essentially on hilly, rocky and forested regions, which had ample wild plant and animal food resources. The introduction of agriculture saw it shifting to the alluvial plains which had fertile soil and perennial availability of water. Hills and forests, which had so far been areas of attraction, now turned into areas of isolation. Agriculture led to the emergence of villages and towns and brought with it the division of society into occupational groups. The first urbanization took place during the bronze age in the arid and semi-arid region of northwest India in the valleys of the Indus and the Saraswati rivers, the latter represented by the now dry Ghaggar-Hakra bed. This urbanization is known as the Indus or Harappan civilization which flourished during 3500-1500 B.C. The rest of India during this period was inhabited by neolithic and chalcolithic farmers and mesolithic hunter-gatherers. With the introduction of iron technology about 3000 years ago, the focus of development shifted eastward into the Indo-Gangetic divide and

  8. Valley of the Brahmaputra, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this true-color MODIS image from October 23, 2001, the semi-arid Tibetan Plateau (upper left) meets up with the Himalayas to the south. From the heights of the Himalayas, snow-covered on their northern flanks, and lush with vegetation to the south, numerous rivers, brown with churned up sediment, flow into the valley of the Brahmaputra River in Assam, India. The Brahmaputra turns southward at the border of Bangladesh and is soon joined by the Ganges River, flowing in from image left. The mighty river splits into numerous channels as it runs out toward the Bay of Bengal, giving the region the name 'Mouths of the Ganges.' Vast amounts of sediment are being emptied into the Bay by the river, and greenish blue swirls could be a mixture of sediment and phytoplankton. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  9. AIDS activists arrested in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R

    2000-05-27

    Health activists in India are outraged over the arrests of 11 AIDS activists belonging to the nongovernmental organization (NGO) Sahyog. These AIDS activists were charged with obscenity and rioting. Rioting broke out when the local print media published details of a report entitled ¿AIDS and Us¿ that was produced by Sahyog in Hindi. The report tackled prevalent sexual practices, very low level of awareness, and other risk factors related to contracting HIV infection or developing AIDS in the rural areas of the Almora district. Critics charged the activists with destroying the image of the people of the region, portraying them as promiscuous and practicing high-risk sexual behavior. Consequently, Sahyog issued a statement of apology and promised to withdraw the report, but the district administration still banned their work in the area. Several NGOs also feel that the presentation of the report should have been more cautious.

  10. Prehistoric human colonization of India.

    PubMed

    Misra, V N

    2001-11-01

    Human colonization in India encompasses a span of at least half-a-million years and is divided into two broad periods, namely the prehistoric (before the emergence of writing) and the historic (after writing). The prehistoric period is divided into stone, bronze and iron ages. The stone age is further divided into palaeolithic, mesolithic and neolithic periods. As the name suggests, the technology in these periods was primarily based on stone. Economically, the palaeolithic and mesolithic periods represented a nomadic, hunting-gathering way of life, while the neolithic period represented a settled, food-producing way of life. Subsequently copper was introduced as a new material and this period was designated as the chalcolithic period. The invention of agriculture, which took place about 8000 years ago, brought about dramatic changes in the economy, technology and demography of human societies. Human habitat in the hunting-gathering stage was essentially on hilly, rocky and forested regions, which had ample wild plant and animal food resources. The introduction of agriculture saw it shifting to the alluvial plains which had fertile soil and perennial availability of water. Hills and forests, which had so far been areas of attraction, now turned into areas of isolation. Agriculture led to the emergence of villages and towns and brought with it the division of society into occupational groups. The first urbanization took place during the bronze age in the arid and semi-arid region of northwest India in the valleys of the Indus and the Saraswati rivers, the latter represented by the now dry Ghaggar-Hakra bed. This urbanization is known as the Indus or Harappan civilization which flourished during 3500-1500 B.C. The rest of India during this period was inhabited by neolithic and chalcolithic farmers and mesolithic hunter-gatherers. With the introduction of iron technology about 3000 years ago, the focus of development shifted eastward into the Indo-Gangetic divide and

  11. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachariah, Mathew

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the historical background of the 1985 protests in the Indian State Gujerat. Discusses the major issues in promoting the policy of "compensatory discrimination," directed toward the (1) Scheduled Castes, (2) Scheduled Tribes, and (3) Other Backward Classes. Compares casteism to racism and offers suggestions for dismantling compensatory…

  12. India

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... appear in dramatic contrast with the relatively pristine air of the high-altitude Tibetan Plateau. This contrast is illustrated in these ... 1600 kilometers. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission ...

  13. Lesbian studies and activism in India.

    PubMed

    Vanita, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    This essay surveys public debates and writings about lesbianism and the history of activism around lesbian issues in twentieth-century India. Weddings between women and joint suicides by female couples over the last twenty-five years are among the under-researched, but increasingly reported, phenomena that suggest future directions that activism and the study of lesbianism in India may take. PMID:17954460

  14. Improved Gridded Aerosol Data for India

    SciTech Connect

    Gueymard, C.; Sengupta, M.

    2013-11-01

    Using point data from ground sites in and around India equipped with multiwavelength sunphotometers, as well as gridded data from space measurements or from existing aerosol climatologies, an improved gridded database providing the monthly aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD550) and Angstrom exponent (AE) over India is produced. Data from 83 sunphotometer sites are used here as ground truth tocalibrate, optimally combine, and validate monthly gridded data during the period from 2000 to 2012.

  15. Branding to treat jaundice in India.

    PubMed

    John, Selva Inita; Balekuduru, Ainash; Zachariah, Uday; Eapen, C E; Chandy, George

    2009-01-01

    Jaundice is regarded as a mysterious disease rather than a symptom of disease in several parts of India. We describe 8 cases that underwent branding to treat jaundice and subsequently presented to our centre. The causes for jaundice in these patients included a variety of benign and malignant disorders. Our report suggests that despite being literate, strong cultural beliefs lead people to seek potentially harmful procedures like branding to treat jaundice in parts of India.

  16. The epidemiology of HIV in India.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, U; Maniar, J K; Rübsamen-Waigmann, H

    1995-01-01

    India is the first country outside Africa where an HIV-2 epidemic is running in parallel to an HIV-1 epidemic, resulting in a significant proportion of double infections. HIV is spreading rapidly, mainly by heterosexual contact, but also among intravenous drug users. Genetic analyses of the HIV variants circulating in India point towards HIV-1 and HIV-2 having been introduced into the country recently.

  17. Antimalarial plants of northeast India: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Rama; Deb, Sourabh; Sharma, B K

    2012-01-01

    The need for an alternative drug for malaria initiated intensive efforts for developing new antimalarials from indigenous plants. The information from different tribal communities of northeast India along with research papers, including books, journals and documents of different universities and institutes of northeast India was collected for information on botanical therapies and plant species used for malaria. Sixty-eight plant species belonging to 33 families are used by the people of northeast India for the treatment of malaria. Six plant species, namely, Alstonia scholaris, Coptis teeta, Crotolaria occulta, Ocimum sanctum, Polygala persicariaefolia, Vitex peduncularis, have been reported by more than one worker from different parts of northeast India. The species reported to be used for the treatment of malaria were either found around the vicinity of their habitation or in the forest area of northeast India. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (33%), roots (31%), and bark and whole plant (12%). The present study has compiled and enlisted the antimalarial plants of northeast India, which would help future workers to find out the suitable antimalarial plants by thorough study. PMID:22529674

  18. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-01

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  19. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-09

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  20. Adult immunization in India: Importance and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is recommended throughout life to prevent infectious diseases and their sequelae. Vaccines are crucial to prevent mortality in that >25% of deaths are due to infections. Vaccines are recommended for adults on the basis of a range of factors. Substantial improvement and increases in adult vaccination are needed to reduce the health consequences of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Incomplete and inadequate immunization in India against these communicable diseases results in substantial and unnecessary costs both in terms of hospitalization and treatment. The government of India as well as the World Health Organization (WHO) consider childhood vaccination as the first priority, but there is not yet focus on adult immunization. Adult immunization in India is the most ignored part of heath care services. The Expert Group recommended that data on infectious diseases in India should be updated, refined, and reviewed periodically and published regularly. This group suggested that the consensus guidelines about adult immunization should be reviewed every 3 years to incorporate new strategies from any emerging research from India. There is an immediate need to address the problem of adult immunization in India. Although many issues revolving around efficacy, safety, and cost of introducing vaccines for adults at the national level are yet to be resolved, there is an urgent need to sensitize the health planners as well as health care providers regarding this pertinent issue.

  1. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India

    PubMed Central

    Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Rijuta; Karmarkar, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a “mission approach” with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India. PMID:24135192

  2. AIDS in India: emerging from initial chaos.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A

    1991-01-01

    India's response to AIDS has ranged from a 3-phase official surveillance program begun by the India Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in 1985, to legislation criticized as "bigoted and superficial", to conflicting messages, panic and confusion. The ICMR has determined that HIV is transmitted mainly by heterosexual contacts in India. In the media the Director-General of the ICMR was cited as recommending that sex with foreign visitors be banned, as a way to contain the HIV epidemic. Media also reported that defective ELISA screening kits were imported into India that infection control in some hospitals is sub-optimal, that the blood and blood products supply is grossly contaminated with HIV and that certain commercial blood donors were infected from giving blood. All foreign students currently must be HIV-negative to get a visa. It is a major problem to plan an AIDS education campaign with India's large illiterate population and dozens of languages. An AIDS network is emerging incorporating ICMR, the All India Institute of Medical Science, the Central Health Education Bureau, Mother Teresa's order, and a newly formed gay awareness group with the newsletter "Bombay Dost."

  3. Malaria elimination in India and regional implications.

    PubMed

    Wangdi, Kinley; Gatton, Michelle L; Kelly, Gerard C; Banwell, Cathy; Dev, Vas; Clements, Archie C A

    2016-10-01

    The malaria situation in India is complex as a result of diverse socio-environmental conditions. India contributes a substantial burden of malaria outside sub-Saharan Africa, with the third highest Plasmodium vivax prevalence in the world. Successful malaria control in India is likely to enhance malaria elimination efforts in the region. Despite modest gains, there are many challenges for malaria elimination in India, including: varied patterns of malaria transmission in different parts of the country demanding area-specific control measures; intense malaria transmission fuelled by favourable climatic and environment factors; varying degrees of insecticide resistance of vectors; antimalarial drug resistance; a weak surveillance system; and poor national coordination of state programmes. Prevention and protection against malaria are low as a result of a weak health-care system, as well as financial and socioeconomic constraints. Additionally, the open borders of India provide a potential route of entry for artesunate-resistant parasites from southeast Asia. This situation calls for urgent dialogue around tackling malaria across borders-between India's states and neighbouring countries-through sharing of information and coordinated control and preventive measures, if we are to achieve the aim of malaria elimination in the region. PMID:27527748

  4. Curriculum Project on India. Fulbright Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1995 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curnow, Richard T.

    The two lesson plans presented here are designed to be used as teaching resources in presenting India to high school students. Lesson one focuses on "India and Cartoons" and uses contemporary Indian political and social cartoons for student analyses of social commentary. Lesson two examines "British Architecture during the Raj" with readings,…

  5. Elementary Education in Rural India: A Grassroots View. Strategies for Human Development in India, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidyanathan, A., Ed.; Nair, P. R. Gopinathan, Ed.

    There are wide variations in educational attainment and literacy rates across the regions and social classes of India. A national project examined participation in and the quality of elementary education in nine states of India, focusing on rural areas and the situation of disadvantaged persons, especially girls and the scheduled castes and…

  6. Selections from a Humanities Unit on India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad 1998 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makin, Marion A.

    Intended for high school students, two humanities lessons on India approach India from a "world cultures" perspective. In the first lesson, "Story Scrolls," pairs of students create and present stories from Hindu mythology using traditional methods. The lesson gives content objectives, skills objectives, and evaluation/assessment criteria, as well…

  7. Women's Life Experiences in Contemporary India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipkin, Ruthanne

    This unit, intended for high school use, examines the role of women in India as portrayed in selected literature. The books used include: (1) "Women in India: Two Perspectives" (Doranne Jacobson; Susan S. Wadley); (2) "Through Indian Eyes, Volume l. The Wheel of Life" (Donald J. Johnson, Ed.; Jean E. Johnson, Ed.); (3) "Nectar in a Sieve" (Kamala…

  8. Textile Arts of India, Curriculum Project. Fulbright Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1995 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Barbara

    This interdisciplinary unit focuses on five techniques found in the textile arts of India: tie-dye, embroidery, applique, block printing, and weaving. The unit is designed for students in third through sixth grades but could be adapted to other levels. This unit could be incorporated with a study of India's land, history, and geography. The…

  9. Hinduism and the Culture of India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winikur, Ilene

    This packet contains sixth and seventh grade level interdisciplinary lesson outlines about India. Concepts to be developed include: (1) "Geography and Its Impact upon the Development of India's Different Cultures"; (2) "Religion and Philosophy Focusing on Hinduism and Festivals"; (3) "Literature using the Ramayana and Mahabarata"; (4) "Art and…

  10. Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in India.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Subrat K

    2014-08-01

    Indian data on epidemiology of HCC is not available. Cancer is not a reportable disease in India and the cancer registries in India are mostly urban. National cancer registry program of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has been recently expanded to include 21 population based and 6 hospital based cancer registries. The last published registry data by ICMR available in the cancer registry website (www.ncrpindia.org) was in 2008 which provides information on various cancers from 2006 to 2008. The other source of information was the report published by International Agency for Research on Cancer (WHO). According to these available data the age adjusted incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in India for men ranges from 0.7 to 7.5 and for women 0.2 to 2.2 per 100,000 population per year. The male:female ratio for HCC in India is 4:1. The age of presentation varies from 40 to 70 years. According to a study conducted by verbal autopsy in 1.1 million homes representing the whole country, the age standardized mortality rate for HCC in India for men is 6.8/100,000 and for women is 5.1/100,000. According to another study the incidence of HCC in cirrhotics in India is 1.6% per year. The unpublished data from various tertiary care centers suggest that the incidence of HCC is increasing in India. There is a need for a multi-centric HCC registry under the aegis of INASL. PMID:25755607

  11. Assuring health coverage for all in India.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vikram; Parikh, Rachana; Nandraj, Sunil; Balasubramaniam, Priya; Narayan, Kavita; Paul, Vinod K; Kumar, A K Shiva; Chatterjee, Mirai; Reddy, K Srinath

    2015-12-12

    Successive Governments of India have promised to transform India's unsatisfactory health-care system, culminating in the present government's promise to expand health assurance for all. Despite substantial improvements in some health indicators in the past decade, India contributes disproportionately to the global burden of disease, with health indicators that compare unfavourably with other middle-income countries and India's regional neighbours. Large health disparities between states, between rural and urban populations, and across social classes persist. A large proportion of the population is impoverished because of high out-of-pocket health-care expenditures and suffers the adverse consequences of poor quality of care. Here we make the case not only for more resources but for a radically new architecture for India's health-care system. India needs to adopt an integrated national health-care system built around a strong public primary care system with a clearly articulated supportive role for the private and indigenous sectors. This system must address acute as well as chronic health-care needs, offer choice of care that is rational, accessible, and of good quality, support cashless service at point of delivery, and ensure accountability through governance by a robust regulatory framework. In the process, several major challenges will need to be confronted, most notably the very low levels of public expenditure; the poor regulation, rapid commercialisation of and corruption in health care; and the fragmentation of governance of health care. Most importantly, assuring universal health coverage will require the explicit acknowledgment, by government and civil society, of health care as a public good on par with education. Only a radical restructuring of the health-care system that promotes health equity and eliminates impoverishment due to out-of-pocket expenditures will assure health for all Indians by 2022--a fitting way to mark the 75th year of India

  12. Assuring health coverage for all in India.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vikram; Parikh, Rachana; Nandraj, Sunil; Balasubramaniam, Priya; Narayan, Kavita; Paul, Vinod K; Kumar, A K Shiva; Chatterjee, Mirai; Reddy, K Srinath

    2015-12-12

    Successive Governments of India have promised to transform India's unsatisfactory health-care system, culminating in the present government's promise to expand health assurance for all. Despite substantial improvements in some health indicators in the past decade, India contributes disproportionately to the global burden of disease, with health indicators that compare unfavourably with other middle-income countries and India's regional neighbours. Large health disparities between states, between rural and urban populations, and across social classes persist. A large proportion of the population is impoverished because of high out-of-pocket health-care expenditures and suffers the adverse consequences of poor quality of care. Here we make the case not only for more resources but for a radically new architecture for India's health-care system. India needs to adopt an integrated national health-care system built around a strong public primary care system with a clearly articulated supportive role for the private and indigenous sectors. This system must address acute as well as chronic health-care needs, offer choice of care that is rational, accessible, and of good quality, support cashless service at point of delivery, and ensure accountability through governance by a robust regulatory framework. In the process, several major challenges will need to be confronted, most notably the very low levels of public expenditure; the poor regulation, rapid commercialisation of and corruption in health care; and the fragmentation of governance of health care. Most importantly, assuring universal health coverage will require the explicit acknowledgment, by government and civil society, of health care as a public good on par with education. Only a radical restructuring of the health-care system that promotes health equity and eliminates impoverishment due to out-of-pocket expenditures will assure health for all Indians by 2022--a fitting way to mark the 75th year of India

  13. Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in India.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Subrat K

    2014-08-01

    Indian data on epidemiology of HCC is not available. Cancer is not a reportable disease in India and the cancer registries in India are mostly urban. National cancer registry program of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has been recently expanded to include 21 population based and 6 hospital based cancer registries. The last published registry data by ICMR available in the cancer registry website (www.ncrpindia.org) was in 2008 which provides information on various cancers from 2006 to 2008. The other source of information was the report published by International Agency for Research on Cancer (WHO). According to these available data the age adjusted incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in India for men ranges from 0.7 to 7.5 and for women 0.2 to 2.2 per 100,000 population per year. The male:female ratio for HCC in India is 4:1. The age of presentation varies from 40 to 70 years. According to a study conducted by verbal autopsy in 1.1 million homes representing the whole country, the age standardized mortality rate for HCC in India for men is 6.8/100,000 and for women is 5.1/100,000. According to another study the incidence of HCC in cirrhotics in India is 1.6% per year. The unpublished data from various tertiary care centers suggest that the incidence of HCC is increasing in India. There is a need for a multi-centric HCC registry under the aegis of INASL.

  14. Epidemiology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in India

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Subrat K.

    2014-01-01

    Indian data on epidemiology of HCC is not available. Cancer is not a reportable disease in India and the cancer registries in India are mostly urban. National cancer registry program of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has been recently expanded to include 21 population based and 6 hospital based cancer registries. The last published registry data by ICMR available in the cancer registry website (www.ncrpindia.org) was in 2008 which provides information on various cancers from 2006 to 2008. The other source of information was the report published by International Agency for Research on Cancer (WHO). According to these available data the age adjusted incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in India for men ranges from 0.7 to 7.5 and for women 0.2 to 2.2 per 100,000 population per year. The male:female ratio for HCC in India is 4:1. The age of presentation varies from 40 to 70 years. According to a study conducted by verbal autopsy in 1.1 million homes representing the whole country, the age standardized mortality rate for HCC in India for men is 6.8/100,000 and for women is 5.1/100,000. According to another study the incidence of HCC in cirrhotics in India is 1.6% per year. The unpublished data from various tertiary care centers suggest that the incidence of HCC is increasing in India. There is a need for a multi-centric HCC registry under the aegis of INASL. PMID:25755607

  15. Deteriorating food security in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milesi, C.; Samanta, A.; Hashimoto, H.; Kumar, K.; Ganguly, S.; Thenkabail, P. S.; Srivastava, A. N.; Nemani, R. R.; Myneni, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    One of the major challenges we face on our planet is increasing agricultural production to meet the dietary requirements of an additional 2.5 billion people by the mid of the century while limiting cropland expansion and other damages to natural resources. This problem is even more so challenging given that nearly all the population growth will take place where the majority of the hungry live today and where ongoing and future climate changes are projected to most negatively impact agricultural production, the semi-arid tropics (SAT). The SAT contain 40% of the global irrigated and rainfed croplands in over 50 developing countries and a growing population of over a billion and half people, many of which live in absolute poverty and strongly depend on agriculture that is constrained by chronic water shortages. Rates of food grain production in many of the countries of the SAT have progressively increased since the mid 1960s aided by the Green Revolution and relatively favourable climatic conditions. However, aggregated agricultural production statistics indicate that the rate of food grain production has recently stalled or declined in several of the countries in this region, escalating the concerns over matters of food security, that is availability of food and one’s access to it, in a region where many people live in extreme poverty, depend on an agrarian economy and are expected to face increasingly worse climatic conditions in the near future. In this paper we analyze the agricultural deceleration and its drivers over the country of India, which faces the daunting challenge of needing a 50-100% increase in yields of major crops by the middle to the 21st century to feed its growing population. We analyze the long term (1982-2006) record of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA/AVHRR) together with climate, land use, and crop production

  16. India gears up to host aLIGO lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padma, T. V.

    2016-05-01

    India is on track to build an Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (aLIGO), with discussions under way to select a site from a shortlist of two options in western and north-western India.

  17. Ancient wolf lineages in India.

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Dinesh K; Maldonado, Jesus E; Jhala, Yadrendradev V; Fleischer, Robert C

    2004-01-01

    All previously obtained wolf (Canis lupus) and dog (Canis familiaris) mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequences fall within an intertwined and shallow clade (the 'wolf-dog' clade). We sequenced mtDNA of recent and historical samples from 45 wolves from throughout lowland peninsular India and 23 wolves from the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau and compared these sequences with all available wolf and dog sequences. All 45 lowland Indian wolves have one of four closely related haplotypes that form a well-supported, divergent sister lineage to the wolf-dog clade. This unique lineage may have been independent for more than 400,000 years. Although seven Himalayan wolves from western and central Kashmir fall within the widespread wolf-dog clade, one from Ladakh in eastern Kashmir, nine from Himachal Pradesh, four from Nepal and two from Tibet form a very different basal clade. This lineage contains five related haplotypes that probably diverged from other canids more than 800,000 years ago, but we find no evidence of current barriers to admixture. Thus, the Indian subcontinent has three divergent, ancient and apparently parapatric mtDNA lineages within the morphologically delineated wolf. No haplotypes of either novel lineage are found within a sample of 37 Indian (or other) dogs. Thus, we find no evidence that these two taxa played a part in the domestication of canids. PMID:15101402

  18. Extreme events in Uttarakhand, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimri, V. P.

    2013-12-01

    Uttarakhand in NW Himalaya, India is prone to various disasters, which include earthquakes, cloud bursts, landslides, floods etc. These disasters have a cascading effect. The cloud burst results in flooding of rivers and landslides. The earthquakes shake the ground causing landslides, which sometimes block the natural path of river making artificial dams. These artificial dams can cause river flooding. The situation becomes more devastating, if heavy rainfall occurs. Such disasters are increasing in recent times. There could be several reasons for the rise in frequency of these disasters because of global and local environment changes. The global changes such as rise of global temperatures due to increase in CO2 concentration in the atmosphere can be responsible for melting of Himalayan Glaciers and changes in precipitation/ rainfall patterns etc. Anthropogenic causes such as deforestation, establishment of new townships, new hydro-power projects, mining activities etc are also making the condition more vulnerable by changing the course of river channels. A case study of such extreme event is presented. The region is affected by changes of both global and local origin, tectonically as well as climatologically.

  19. AIDS in position to ravage India.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, K S

    1996-09-01

    The Joint UN Program on AIDS reports that India has more than 3 million adults infected with HIV, more HIV-infected adults than any other country in the world. By the year 2005, India will have more people infected with HIV than does Africa. Having sex with a Bombay housewife today is at least twice as risky as it was to have sex with a prostitute in the city's red light district in 1988. 2-3% of all women in the city are infected with HIV. There is ignorance, apathy, corruption, and lack of commitment at all levels with regard to HIV/AIDS. Accordingly, India's lackluster campaign against AIDS launched 10 years ago has lost momentum just as the epidemic is exploding and at a time when traditional beliefs about cultural barriers and the sexual behavior of Indian males are being called into question. Considerable homosexual behavior occurs in India. However, the most important factor contributing to the spread of HIV throughout India is the virus' spread from urban areas into small villages, often through migrant laborers. Ignorance, illiteracy, and poverty in villages will make AIDS prevention especially difficult. Indian government policy forbidding the distribution of condoms in prisons, needles to injectable-drug users, and free drugs to AIDS patients further contributes to the spread of HIV.

  20. Traditional zootherapeutic studies in India: a review

    PubMed Central

    Mahawar, Madan Mohan; Jaroli, DP

    2008-01-01

    The present study aims to review the zootherapeutic practices of the different ethnic communities of India. This work is also an attempt to present a list of animals' use for medicinal purposes by different communities of India. Data were gathered from 15 published research papers of various authors on zootherapeutic studies in India from 2000 to 2007. Approximately 109 animals and their 270 uses are reported in traditional medicine in different parts of India. Of these, the highest numbers of animal species (42, 38.5%) with 50 (18.5%) uses have been reported for the treatment of Respiratory system related problems. Rheumatic and other pains are treated with 32 species (29.4%) in 34 (12.9%) uses. Gastric problems are reported to be treated with 22 (20.2%) species in 26 (9.9%) uses. The mammals constitute the highest number of animals used for medicinal purposes. 44 (40%) mammals, 24 (22%) invertebrates, 18 (17%) birds, 12 (11%) reptiles, nine (8%) fishes and two (2%) amphibians have been reported for medicinal purposes. Of the total 109 animal species reported, 76(70%) are included in IUCN red data list and 36 (33%) animal species are listed in CITES appendix I, II, and III. This work will be helpful in biodiversity conservation in India and also give a clue to investigate bio-active compound in these animal raw materials. PMID:18634551

  1. Canada-India Institutional Cooperation Project: International Partnerships in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yule, Alix

    The Canada-India Institutional Cooperation Project (CIICP) is a joint venture by the Association of Canadian Community Colleges and the governments of India and Canada designed to contribute to human resource development in India's polytechnic system. Specifically, the project seeks to develop replicable models of institutional development in 13…

  2. 75 FR 21595 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore), November 15-19, 2010. Led... Indian market. The cosmetics/ beauty industry is one of the booming retail sectors in India with...

  3. 75 FR 33763 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore), November 15-19, 2010. Led.... The cosmetics/beauty industry is one of the booming retail sectors in India with very strong...

  4. Human Capital, HRD and VET: The Case of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomé, Eduardo; Goyal, Apoorva

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyze the role of human capital (HC), human resource development (HRD) and vocational educational and training (VET) in the emerging Indian economy. How may we define the HC, HRD and VET in India? To what extent and how as HRD investments in India contributed to India's recent economic development? What were the…

  5. 76 FR 17622 - U.S. Education Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Education Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade Administration... India (New Delhi, Chennai, and Mumbai) from October 10-15, 2011. This mission will include... education consultants in India. The mission will include one-on-one appointments with potential...

  6. The Impact of Aid on Education Policy in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colclough, Christopher; De, Anuradha

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1990s, large numbers of children in India remained out of school. International commitments to achieve education for all (EFA) globally meant that India was an important case for donors. India was pressed to accept aid for primary education, and agreed with some reluctance. Although subsequent donor involvement was substantial and…

  7. Adaptation and Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in India (NEWS-India)

    PubMed Central

    Adlakha, Deepti; Hipp, J. Aaron; Brownson, Ross C.

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2%) from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2%) with a gap of 2–3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48–0.99). The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India. PMID:27049394

  8. Adaptation and Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in India (NEWS-India).

    PubMed

    Adlakha, Deepti; Hipp, J Aaron; Brownson, Ross C

    2016-04-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2%) from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2%) with a gap of 2-3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48-0.99). The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India. PMID:27049394

  9. Youth development in India: does poverty matter?

    PubMed

    Malik, Bijaya Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the differentials in youth development patterns determined by the economic condition of the household in India. The wealth index is used to glean youth development differentials in the different economic categories of the household. The findings suggest that youth from the bottom 20 per cent (poorest) of households are deprived in education, employment, labour force and are not working currently compared to youth from the middle and rich households. The states differ in youth development patterns (employment, appropriate education, skill development and awareness about health). There are more working youth among poor households than among rich households in India. Female youth are more disadvantaged compared to male youth and it is the same with the rural-urban distribution of youth. This paper concludes that the various economic categories/wealth index (poorest, poorer, middle, richer and richest) directly determine the pattern of youth development in India. PMID:26543748

  10. Genomic view on the peopling of India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    India is known for its vast human diversity, consisting of more than four and a half thousand anthropologically well-defined populations. Each population differs in terms of language, culture, physical features and, most importantly, genetic architecture. The size of populations varies from a few hundred to millions. Based on the social structure, Indians are classified into various caste, tribe and religious groups. These social classifications are very rigid and have remained undisturbed by emerging urbanisation and cultural changes. The variable social customs, strict endogamy marriage practices, long-term isolation and evolutionary forces have added immensely to the diversification of the Indian populations. These factors have also led to these populations acquiring a set of Indian-specific genetic variations responsible for various diseases in India. Interestingly, most of these variations are absent outside the Indian subcontinent. Thus, this review is focused on the peopling of India, the caste system, marriage practice and the resulting health and forensic implications. PMID:23020857

  11. Youth development in India: does poverty matter?

    PubMed

    Malik, Bijaya Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the differentials in youth development patterns determined by the economic condition of the household in India. The wealth index is used to glean youth development differentials in the different economic categories of the household. The findings suggest that youth from the bottom 20 per cent (poorest) of households are deprived in education, employment, labour force and are not working currently compared to youth from the middle and rich households. The states differ in youth development patterns (employment, appropriate education, skill development and awareness about health). There are more working youth among poor households than among rich households in India. Female youth are more disadvantaged compared to male youth and it is the same with the rural-urban distribution of youth. This paper concludes that the various economic categories/wealth index (poorest, poorer, middle, richer and richest) directly determine the pattern of youth development in India.

  12. Meeting the challenges of stroke in India.

    PubMed

    Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Singhal, Aneesh B; Chaturvedi, Seemant; Sivakumar, M R; Moonis, Majaz

    2013-06-11

    Worldwide, cerebrovascular diseases are responsible for 6.15 million deaths (10.8% of all deaths)(1) and are the second most common cause of mortality; 87% of stroke deaths occur in low or middle income countries.(2) With the world's second largest population, India is witnessing several adverse trends for the cardiovascular health of its population, including a rapid rise in the proportion of patients with diabetes and dyslipidemia, and the relative lack of exercise among the general population. India has the world's largest population of patients with diabetes, with over 62 million people with diabetes in 2011.(3) At the current time, the population in India is projected to have over 1 million strokes per year. This figure will surely rise in the coming decades due to longer life expectancy and the downstream influence of risk factors such as diabetes. PMID:23751917

  13. India' energy scene: Options for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This book provides a concise yet thorough and up-to-date survey of the Indian energy scene, focusing on its major features, current problems, and future prospects. India's renewable and nonrenewable energy reserves are described and compared with those of a number of other countries. Trends in energy consumption and production over the 1970-1985 period are examined. Energy conservation methods are discussed. A detailed review is given on the renewable energy resources. Indias nuclear resourecs are assessed and it is recommended that nuclear energy be emphasized because of the nations ample thorium ores. How R and D can help alleviate Indias energy problems is discussed and specific recommendations are made on which a national agenda for action can be based. Information is provided on the contribution of nuclear power to electricity production in developing industrialized countries.

  14. Transport and urban air pollution in India.

    PubMed

    Badami, Madhav G

    2005-08-01

    The rapid growth in motor vehicle activity in India and other rapidly industrializing low-income countries is contributing to high levels of urban air pollution, among other adverse socioeconomic, environmental, health, and welfare impacts. This paper first discusses the local, regional, and global impacts associated with air pollutant emissions resulting from motor vehicle activity, and the technological, behavioral, and institutional factors that have contributed to these emissions, in India. The paper then discusses some implementation issues related to various policy measures that have been undertaken, and the challenges of the policy context. Finally, the paper presents insights and lessons based on the recent Indian experience, for better understanding and more effectively addressing the transport air pollution problem in India and similar countries, in a way that is sensitive to their needs, capabilities, and constraints.

  15. India's Computational Biology Growth and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2016-09-01

    India's computational science is growing swiftly due to the outburst of internet and information technology services. The bioinformatics sector of India has been transforming rapidly by creating a competitive position in global bioinformatics market. Bioinformatics is widely used across India to address a wide range of biological issues. Recently, computational researchers and biologists are collaborating in projects such as database development, sequence analysis, genomic prospects and algorithm generations. In this paper, we have presented the Indian computational biology scenario highlighting bioinformatics-related educational activities, manpower development, internet boom, service industry, research activities, conferences and trainings undertaken by the corporate and government sectors. Nonetheless, this new field of science faces lots of challenges. PMID:27465042

  16. Pneumococcal Vaccine in Diabetes: Relevance in India.

    PubMed

    Shashank, R Joshi; Samika, S Joshi; Siddharth, N Shah

    2015-04-01

    Currently we have more than 65 million Diabetes patients in India with estimated 80 million prediabetics. Diabetes is a immunologically vulnerable population to develop all types of microbial infections. Pneumoccocal infections do have a substantial morbidity and mortality burden in the community. India has a large geriatric pool now which has substantially increased pneumococcal disease burden. Diabetes is a well-known risk factor for pneumococcal infection and predisposes individuals to nasopharyngeal colonization with the pneumococcus which is associated with invasive infection. In diabetics who are elderly, with chronic kidney or pulmonary disease and long standing duration of the disease with poor glycemic control are the highest risk group susceptible to invasive pneumococcal disease. With now availibilty of Pneumoccal vaccine in India, now it may be an preventive option which can be offered. Most global organisations recommend pneumococcal vaccination to diabetics. PMID:26562963

  17. India: General Survey Unit for World Civilization Course Curriculum Project. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinton, Victoria

    This unit is intended to provide high school students with a general knowledge of the history and culture of India. Lessons include: (1) "Early India"; (2) "Indian Civilization 1500 BC - 500 AD: Hinduism"; (3) "Buddhism"; (4) "Indian Empires"; (5) "Indian Empires, Continued"; (6) "Imperialism"; and (7) "Independence and Modern India." Suggestions…

  18. 77 FR 31581 - U.S. Architecture Services Trade Mission to India; Chennai, Kolkata and Bangalore, India; October...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Architecture Services Trade Mission to India; Chennai, Kolkata and Bangalore, India; October 15-19, 2012 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce... Architects ( http://www.aia.org/ ), is organizing an Architecture Services Trade Mission to India...

  19. Risk Factors for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in India

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Premashis

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important cause of death all over the world, more so in Asia and Africa. The representative data on epidemiology of HCC in India is very scanty and cancer is not a reportable disease in India and the cancer registries in India are mostly urban. 45 million people who are suffering from chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and approximately 15 million people who are afflicted with chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in India. HBV and HCV infection is considered an important etiologic factor in HCC. Positive association between HCC and consumption of alcohol where alcohol contribute as a cofactor for hepatotoxins and hepatitis viruses. Aflatoxin contamination in the diets, Hepatitis B virus infection and liver cirrhosis in Andhra Pradesh, India and direct chronic exposure to aflatoxins was shown to cause liver cirrhosis. Cirrhosis of liver of any cause lead to develop about 70%–90% of HCC. Aflatoxin interact synergistically with Hepatitis B virus (HBV)/Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection which increase the risk of HCC. HBV infection, HBV infection with Aflatoxin exposure, viral infection and alcohol consumption leading to overt cirrhosis of the liver, alcohol consumption leading to cirrhosis of the liver with viral infection are the predominant risk factor for the development of HCC. HCV and alcohol are also associated with HCC in India. Indians develop diabetes at younger age, Asians have strong genetic susceptibility for type II diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is identified as a risk factor for HCC. Prevention of viral infection by universal vaccination against hepatitis virus, HCC surveillance program, preventing alcoholic liver diseases, fungal contamination of grains and ground crops to prevent basically Aflatoxin exposure are important measures to prevent liver diseases and HCC among those at risk. PMID:25755609

  20. Himalayan Mountain Range, India/China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The frontier between India (Kashmir) and China (Tibet) (33.5N, 79.5E) lies across the narrow land bridge between the two lakes near the center of this photo. Many of the peaks in this region of the Karakoram and Latakh ranges of the Himalayan Mountains, exceed 20,000 ft. making it one of the most remote regions of the Earth. The large end lake is the Kako in China and the long narrow lake is the Pangong in India.

  1. Epidemiological studies of plague in India

    PubMed Central

    Seal, S. C.

    1960-01-01

    Plague is apparently receding from India, but whether this recession heralds its final disappearance from the subcontinent or is merely a phase in its secular trend or is perhaps due to the effect of control measures is a matter for consideration. On the correct assessment of the present position will depend the nature of the steps to be taken now or in the future. Among the factors considered in this assessment are the possible existence of endemic plague foci in India, the clinical forms of the disease encountered, the relative frequency and epidemiology of urban and rural plague, seasonal variations in prevalence, and the likelihood of resistance of fleas to insecticides. PMID:14444324

  2. Current emerging situation of dengue in India.

    PubMed

    Mariappan, Thiruppathi

    2013-07-01

    Outbreaks of dengue fever (DF) have been reported from various countries. Although DF has been endemic in India from the nineteenth century, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) was first reported in 1987. The first major widespread epidemic of DHF and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) was reported in 1996 with four serotypes reported to be in co-circulation. In 2012 an outbreak occurred in India during which a total of 47,029 DF cases and 242 deaths were reported - three times higher than the previous year. Twelve states reported a large number of cases, including Tamil Nadu which recorded 12,264 from various districts. We discuss methods of prevention and control.

  3. COPD in India: Iceberg or volcano?

    PubMed

    Bhome, Arvind B

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the epidemiology of COPD in India which is one of the most affected countries in the world and contributes significantly to the mortality and morbidity of this disease; to provide insights into the etiological determinants of COPD in India; comment on treatment aspects including drug treatment, adherence to guidelines, treatment of exacerbations and to try to comment on whether it differs significantly from rest of the world. The article reviews published literature on COPD in India; provides insight into comparative methodologies involved; comments on gaps in knowledge and suggests areas of further research such as Prescription Audit. India contributes very significantly to mortality from COPD 102.3/100,000 and 6,740,000 DALYs out of world total of 27,756,000 DALYs; thus significantly affecting health related Quality of Life in the country. COPD is surpassing Malaria, TB even today and the gap would get wider with time in near future. The lack of robust real time nation-wide data does plague India as well, however multiple studies from 1994 to 2010 show increasing trends of COPD morbidity and mortality. Since most inhalational drugs are available in the country there is no reason why mortality should not be comparable to rest of the world but there is poor adherence to treatment guidelines, both national and international. Urban centers in India are comparable to their global counterparts in terms of service quality and facilities and this is also work in progress. However, the rural hinterland is poorly serviced; national GDP spending on health is remarkably low. Some innovation is emerging and that could be the harbinger of a new future if properly nurtured. The article is an overview of COPD in India with emphasis on understanding the multi-dimensional nature of the problem and an attempt of providing insight into possible de-bottlenecking to reduce the pain and suffering of millions of COPD patients in

  4. COPD in India: Iceberg or volcano?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the epidemiology of COPD in India which is one of the most affected countries in the world and contributes significantly to the mortality and morbidity of this disease; to provide insights into the etiological determinants of COPD in India; comment on treatment aspects including drug treatment, adherence to guidelines, treatment of exacerbations and to try to comment on whether it differs significantly from rest of the world. The article reviews published literature on COPD in India; provides insight into comparative methodologies involved; comments on gaps in knowledge and suggests areas of further research such as Prescription Audit. India contributes very significantly to mortality from COPD 102.3/100,000 and 6,740,000 DALYs out of world total of 27,756,000 DALYs; thus significantly affecting health related Quality of Life in the country. COPD is surpassing Malaria, TB even today and the gap would get wider with time in near future. The lack of robust real time nation-wide data does plague India as well, however multiple studies from 1994 to 2010 show increasing trends of COPD morbidity and mortality. Since most inhalational drugs are available in the country there is no reason why mortality should not be comparable to rest of the world but there is poor adherence to treatment guidelines, both national and international. Urban centers in India are comparable to their global counterparts in terms of service quality and facilities and this is also work in progress. However, the rural hinterland is poorly serviced; national GDP spending on health is remarkably low. Some innovation is emerging and that could be the harbinger of a new future if properly nurtured. The article is an overview of COPD in India with emphasis on understanding the multi-dimensional nature of the problem and an attempt of providing insight into possible de-bottlenecking to reduce the pain and suffering of millions of COPD patients in

  5. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, H. M.; Santosh, M.

    2004-12-01

    Large charnockite massifs cover a substantial portion of the southern Indian granulite terrain. The older (late Archaean to early Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the northern part and the younger (late Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the southern part of this high-grade terrain. Among these, the older Biligirirangan hill, Shevroy hill and Nilgiri hill massifs are intermediate charnockites, with Pallavaram massif consisting dominantly of felsic charnockites. The charnockite massifs from northern Kerala and Cardamom hill show spatial association of intermediate and felsic charnockites, with the youngest Nagercoil massif consisting of felsic charnockites. Their igneous parentage is evident from a combination of features including field relations, mineralogy, petrography, thermobarometry, as well as distinct chemical features. The southern Indian charnockite massifs show similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids, with the tonalitic intermediate charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with low K2O/Na2O ratios, and the felsic charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with high K2O/Na2O ratios. A two-stage model is suggested for the formation of these charnockites. During the first stage there was a period of basalt underplating, with the ponding of alkaline mafic magmas. Partial melting of this mafic lower crust formed the charnockitic magmas. Here emplacement of basalt with low water content would lead to dehydration melting of the lower crust forming intermediate charnockites. Conversely, emplacement of hydrous basalt would result in melting at higher {ie565-01} favoring production of more siliceous felsic charnockites. This model is correlated with two crustal thickening phases in southern India, one related to the accretion of the older crustal blocks on to the Archaean craton to the north and the other probably related to the collision between crustal fragments of East and West Gondwana in a supercontinent framework.

  6. India's National Large Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    India's 2-m National Large Solar Telescope (NLST) is aimed primarily at carrying out observations of the solar atmosphere with high spatial and spectral resolution. A comprehensive site characterization program, that commenced in 2007, has identified two superb sites in the Himalayan region at altitudes greater than 4000-m that have extremely low water vapor content and are unaffected by monsoons. With an innovative optical design, the NLST is an on-axis Gregorian telescope with a low number of optical elements to reduce the number of reflections and yield a high throughput with low polarization. In addition, it is equipped with a high-order adaptive optics to produce close to diffraction limited performance. To control atmospheric and thermal perturbations of the observations, the telescope will function with a fully open dome, to achieve its full potential atop a 25 m tower. Given its design, NLST can also operate at night, without compromising its solar performance. The post-focus instruments include broad-band and tunable Fabry-Pérot narrow-band imaging instruments; a high resolution spectropolarimeter and an Echelle spectrograph for night time astronomy. This project is led by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics and has national and international partners. Its geographical location will fill the longitudinal gap between Japan and Europe and is expected to be the largest solar telescope with an aperture larger than 1.5 m till the ATST and EST come into operation. An international consortium has been identified to build the NLST. The facility is expected to be commissioned by 2016.

  7. Chikungunya Outbreaks Caused by African Genotype, India

    PubMed Central

    Yergolkar, Prasanna N.; Tandale, Babasaheb V.; Arankalle, Vidya A.; Sathe, Padmakar S.; Gandhe, Swati S.; Gokhle, Mangesh D.; Jacob, George P.; Hundekar, Supriya L.

    2006-01-01

    Chikungunya fever is reported in India after 32 years. Immunoglobulin M antibodies and virus isolation confirmed the cause. Phylogenic analysis based on partial sequences of NS4 and E1 genes showed that all earlier isolates (1963–1973) were Asian genotype, whereas the current and Yawat (2000) isolates were African genotype. PMID:17176577

  8. The enchantment of science in India.

    PubMed

    Kapila, Shruti

    2010-03-01

    In critiquing methodologies of the "global" as a spatial unit of analysis or a receptacle for influence across the planet, this essay positions India so as to assess the role and forms of science in the modern world. By taking the mid-nineteenth century as a moment of departure, it asks why, under what conditions, and to what effects Indians accepted science, but not biomedicine, in the high noon of colonialism. Existing imperial histories of science that are primarily fixated on the eighteenth century cast science as a site of exchange and dialogue, thus replicating the narrative of European expansion overseas. Instead, the power of science is here understood in the context of the politics of religion and rationality. In a synoptic overview, the essay assesses the archaeology of science and the blurred practices between religion and science, described here as "insurgent." It argues that science in India was a form of enchantment, while religion had become a form of disenchanted but rational knowledge. Unlike in Europe, and contrary to orientalist positions, science in India neither declared the death of God nor became "spiritualized" via religion. Instead, science inflected religion; and religion, in turn, facilitated a rational mediation between science and man. This specific relationship accounts for the "soft landing" of science in India and its usurpation in the service of an unapologetic national modernity.

  9. Magmatic record of India-Asia collision.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Di-Cheng; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Chung, Sun-Lin; Cawood, Peter A; Niu, Yaoling; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Mo, Xuan-Xue

    2015-01-01

    New geochronological and geochemical data on magmatic activity from the India-Asia collision zone enables recognition of a distinct magmatic flare-up event that we ascribe to slab breakoff. This tie-point in the collisional record can be used to back-date to the time of initial impingement of the Indian continent with the Asian margin. Continental arc magmatism in southern Tibet during 80-40 Ma migrated from south to north and then back to south with significant mantle input at 70-43 Ma. A pronounced flare up in magmatic intensity (including ignimbrite and mafic rock) at ca. 52-51 Ma corresponds to a sudden decrease in the India-Asia convergence rate. Geological and geochemical data are consistent with mantle input controlled by slab rollback from ca. 70 Ma and slab breakoff at ca. 53 Ma. We propose that the slowdown of the Indian plate at ca. 51 Ma is largely the consequence of slab breakoff of the subducting Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere, rather than the onset of the India-Asia collision as traditionally interpreted, implying that the initial India-Asia collision commenced earlier, likely at ca. 55 Ma. PMID:26395973

  10. Spotlight: India (Part 2 of 2).

    PubMed

    Zheng, J

    1991-10-01

    Population growth and fertility trends in India are presented with speculation for the future. Overall, fertility in India declined for the period 1970-97. Population growth, however, continues now at the annual rate of 2%, fueled by the country's sheer size and the large proportion of women childbearing age. The population increased by 161 millions for the period 1981-1991, representing an increase of 23.5%, less than the growth of 25% over the period 1961-71. The crude birth rate declined 25% over the period 1961-86, while the total fertility rate fell from 5.8 to 4.2. A national family planning (FP) program supported by an increased proportion of the national budget played a role in these trends. The crude birth rate, however, remains above 30/1,000 even though use of FP services and marriage age have increased. March, 1987, estimates indicate that 40% of married women age 15-44 employed modern methods of contraception. Fertility must decline further in India. Were fertility to reach replacement level by 2015, the World Bank predicts the population to still climb to 1.9 billion. With 36% of the population under 15 years old, high rates of marriage, and social and cultural norms which encourage large families, accelerated FP programs targeting young couples will play important roles in reducing fertility in India

  11. The Classical Performing Arts of India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtiss, Marie Joy

    A monograph of the numerous activities that have contributed to the current renaissance of India's classical performing arts covers the theoretical aspects, musical instruments, the main schools of classical dance, and drama. Besides the basic research described, the total project produced a set of 300 slides with annotated listing, picturing the…

  12. Rhetoric of India: A Selected, Interdisciplinary Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Daniel Ross

    This 98-item bibliography lists works pertaining to the philosophical and religious literature of India, a literature which has long earned the respect of distinguished Western scholars. Included are: foundational works of Indian culture, such as the Bhagavad-Gita, the Holy Vedas, and the Upanishads; works on the rhetorical tradition and…

  13. Oman-India pipeline route survey

    SciTech Connect

    Mullee, J.E.

    1995-12-01

    Paper describes the geological setting in the Arabian Sea for a proposed 28-inch gas pipeline from Oman to India reaching 3,500-m water depths. Covers planning, execution, quality control and results of geophysical, geotechnical and oceanographic surveys. Outlines theory and application of pipeline stress analysis on board survey vessel for feasibility assessment, and specifies equipment used.

  14. Reclamation of abandoned mined lands in India

    SciTech Connect

    Aufmuth, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    An international approach to developing a conceptual environmental management plan for the reclamation of abandoned coal mined lands in India will be discussed. This plan will be aimed at reclamation of a coal field which has been mined for almost 100 years with no reclamation of any kind.

  15. Higher Education in India. A Dimensional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azad, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Examines critically the growth of higher education in India in the post-independence period in order to: (1) analyze the structure of the university system, and (2) study the trends of the development of higher education in quantitative and qualitative terms. (Author/PG)

  16. Basic Skills in Asian Studies: India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    Designed for an Asian studies program at the secondary level and using learning activities centering on India, the guide develops four basic skills: reading, applying critical thinking, interpreting the geography, and understanding history. Five learning activities are provided for each basic skill and each unit is introduced with a description…

  17. Rhetoric of India: A Selected, Interdisciplinary Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Daniel Ross

    Focusing on the philosophical and religious literature of India, this updated annotated bibliography discusses 33 books published between 1961 and 1993. Books annotated in the bibliography discuss: the foundations of Indian culture, the rhetorical tradition, Indian literary traditions, the historical-cultural context, toward a rhetorical-cultural…

  18. Rural Education in India: Unity Through Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Donald E.

    A discussion of rural education in India presents an overview of the subcontinent's geography, history, philosophy, economy, rural environment, and population and relates these factors to problems and changes in rural educational practices and conditions. The paper points out increases in school and college enrollment, education of more females,…

  19. Magmatic record of India-Asia collision

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Di-Cheng; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Chung, Sun-Lin; Cawood, Peter A.; Niu, Yaoling; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Mo, Xuan-Xue

    2015-01-01

    New geochronological and geochemical data on magmatic activity from the India-Asia collision zone enables recognition of a distinct magmatic flare-up event that we ascribe to slab breakoff. This tie-point in the collisional record can be used to back-date to the time of initial impingement of the Indian continent with the Asian margin. Continental arc magmatism in southern Tibet during 80–40 Ma migrated from south to north and then back to south with significant mantle input at 70–43 Ma. A pronounced flare up in magmatic intensity (including ignimbrite and mafic rock) at ca. 52–51 Ma corresponds to a sudden decrease in the India-Asia convergence rate. Geological and geochemical data are consistent with mantle input controlled by slab rollback from ca. 70 Ma and slab breakoff at ca. 53 Ma. We propose that the slowdown of the Indian plate at ca. 51 Ma is largely the consequence of slab breakoff of the subducting Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere, rather than the onset of the India-Asia collision as traditionally interpreted, implying that the initial India-Asia collision commenced earlier, likely at ca. 55 Ma. PMID:26395973

  20. Foreign Area Studies: India. A Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Emily C., Ed.

    Developed for a one-semester college credit course, this syllabus encourages a cross-cultural approach to the study of Indian society. The objective is to provide students with not only a balanced view of India but also with an idea of dynamics of change. Emphasis is upon paralleling social and political issues in the United States with those of…

  1. Unlocking the Creative Potential of Rural India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghavan, Ramji

    2007-01-01

    "Rural education": the phrase conjures up unflattering images of broken blackboards and slates, lackadaisical teachers and students, rote learning and of outdated teaching techniques and suppressed creativity. Yet, these images are completely out of consonance with modern India and a knowledge-based society. This article describes a new model for…

  2. The enchantment of science in India.

    PubMed

    Kapila, Shruti

    2010-03-01

    In critiquing methodologies of the "global" as a spatial unit of analysis or a receptacle for influence across the planet, this essay positions India so as to assess the role and forms of science in the modern world. By taking the mid-nineteenth century as a moment of departure, it asks why, under what conditions, and to what effects Indians accepted science, but not biomedicine, in the high noon of colonialism. Existing imperial histories of science that are primarily fixated on the eighteenth century cast science as a site of exchange and dialogue, thus replicating the narrative of European expansion overseas. Instead, the power of science is here understood in the context of the politics of religion and rationality. In a synoptic overview, the essay assesses the archaeology of science and the blurred practices between religion and science, described here as "insurgent." It argues that science in India was a form of enchantment, while religion had become a form of disenchanted but rational knowledge. Unlike in Europe, and contrary to orientalist positions, science in India neither declared the death of God nor became "spiritualized" via religion. Instead, science inflected religion; and religion, in turn, facilitated a rational mediation between science and man. This specific relationship accounts for the "soft landing" of science in India and its usurpation in the service of an unapologetic national modernity. PMID:20575494

  3. Magmatic record of India-Asia collision.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Di-Cheng; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Chung, Sun-Lin; Cawood, Peter A; Niu, Yaoling; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Mo, Xuan-Xue

    2015-09-23

    New geochronological and geochemical data on magmatic activity from the India-Asia collision zone enables recognition of a distinct magmatic flare-up event that we ascribe to slab breakoff. This tie-point in the collisional record can be used to back-date to the time of initial impingement of the Indian continent with the Asian margin. Continental arc magmatism in southern Tibet during 80-40 Ma migrated from south to north and then back to south with significant mantle input at 70-43 Ma. A pronounced flare up in magmatic intensity (including ignimbrite and mafic rock) at ca. 52-51 Ma corresponds to a sudden decrease in the India-Asia convergence rate. Geological and geochemical data are consistent with mantle input controlled by slab rollback from ca. 70 Ma and slab breakoff at ca. 53 Ma. We propose that the slowdown of the Indian plate at ca. 51 Ma is largely the consequence of slab breakoff of the subducting Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere, rather than the onset of the India-Asia collision as traditionally interpreted, implying that the initial India-Asia collision commenced earlier, likely at ca. 55 Ma.

  4. Student Unrest in India. A Select Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jafar, S. M.

    Responding to the problem of student unrest in India, this bibliography offers 1,415 articles from periodicals and books examining the nature, causes, and remedies of student unrest. A brief survey of the historical background of student involvement in Indian society traces the student movement from its earlier purpose to help the Indian National…

  5. Manpower Aspects of Higher Education in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Qamar Uddin

    Using data from various published sources, this report reviews the growth of higher education in India over the last 30 years, analyzes employers' needs for higher education graduates since 1950, and suggests guidelines for involving educational planning with manpower planning. The author describes the growth of Indian higher education in the…

  6. Education and Economic Growth in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goel, S. C.

    1974-01-01

    Article focused on the relationship between the levels of educational development at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels, on the one hand, and economic development, as measured by the per capita income at current prices on the other, in India during the period 1950-51 to 1970-71. (Author/RK)

  7. Innovative Child Care Programmes in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaminathan, Mina

    1996-01-01

    Describes the history of early childhood education in India from the 1890s to the present. Presents current programs ranging from Integrated Child Development Services serving over 10 million children to small, innovative programs in local communities, noted for flexibility and responsiveness to local needs. Examines findings from innovative…

  8. ICT Usage by Distance Learners in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awadhiya, Ashish Kumar; Gowthaman, K.

    2014-01-01

    Open Universities across the world are embracing ICT based teaching and learning process to disseminate quality education to their learners spread across the globe. In India availability and access of ICT and learner characteristics are uneven and vary from state to state. Hence it is important to establish the facts about ICT access among…

  9. Molecular profiling of silkworm biodiversity in India.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, S N; Tanushree, T

    2004-12-01

    Molecular tools opened a new vista to understand nature's bio-diversity and its relevance and the same approach was availed of to build-up the foundation work on the bio-diversity of silkworm spp in India. It is well established that the heritage of usage of silk for dress materials in India, Russia and China dates back to premedieval period and in spite of industrial development resulting to de-forestation, India still can claim as the owner of wide bio-diversity, espicially in northern India for silkworm spp. The molecular diversity was assessed among Antheraea mylitta, A. assama, A. pernyi, A. provlei, A. roylei and Philcosomia cynthia wiht 11 ISSR and 8 non-random primers on agarose gel. Nei's statistics as also Euclidean distance matrix was applied to find the genetic diversity between the six species, wherein the closest relationship between A. pernyi and A. proylei is established. With the help of POPGEN statistics, the average genetic heterozygosity appeared as 0.271 while Shanon's index is 0.4312 and alleles with segregation ratios of 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 9:1 (generated with ISSR primers) were identified which can be utilized for future molecular breeding porgram. Further, and attempt was made to isolate a number of bands generated with 3 ISSR and six non-random primers, specific for different species and 22 such markers have been characterized through sequencing which will be made available through international public domain database.

  10. Information Policy in India and China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baark, Erik

    1985-01-01

    Presents comparative survey of development of national information infrastructures and formulation of national information policy in India and China. Highlights include influence of foreign models, library and information work traditions, indigenous development, existing organizational structures for scientific and technological information, and…

  11. Epidemiology & social costs of haemophilia in India

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Anita; Phadnis, Supriya; Dharmarajan, Sumedha; Nakade, Juhi

    2014-01-01

    India lacks a national policy on the prevention and control of genetic disorders. Although the haemoglobinopathies have received some attention, there are scarce data on the epidemiology of other genetic disorders in India. Haemophilia, an inherited single gene disorder with an incidence of 1 per 10,000 births, manifests as spontaneous or trauma-induced haemorrhagic episodes in patients, progressing to chronic disability and premature mortality in untreated patients or patients with sub-optimal treatment. Although the genetic basis of this disorder has been well studied in India, data on the number of patients, trends of the disorder in India, social costs of the condition and opportunities and competencies for offering genetic counselling through a public health programme have not been reported. This review article summarizes the available Indian data, which show that the country harbours the second highest number of global patients with haemophilia A. The reported number of patients with haemophilia A is 11,586 while the estimated prevalence could be around 50,000 patients. This review also identifies the need to immediately initiate a national programme for haemophilia, with components of prevention, care for patients, surveillance and education and support for families. PMID:25222774

  12. Internationalizing Geography Education: A Focus on India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solem, Michael; Balachandran, Chandra Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    The Association of American Geographers (AAG), through its Center for Global Geography Education (CGGE) project, recently published a collection of online educational resources examining important geographic issues affecting people, places, and environments in India. The resources were created by a delegation of high school teachers and academic…

  13. Training for Community Development Personnel in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makhija, H. R.

    The book traces the development of training schemes in India for community development workers. It is divided into four parts which deal with: origin and growth of the Community Development Training Programme; problems encountered and the process of solutions through trial and error; major reorganization of the initial program and the research…

  14. National Policy on Public Libraries in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambhekar, Neeta

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the government policies in India, especially the five-year plans regarding finance, since its independence in 1947 and their impact on the establishment of the public library system. Highlights include model library systems, library development, national libraries, information services, and adult education and public libraries.…

  15. Functional Literacy in India: A Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhargava, Alka

    2008-01-01

    Literacy has been a priority for the leaders of India since before Independence. Since the independence of the country in 1947, eradication of illiteracy has been a major concern of the national Government. The nation's constitution includes specific articles and amendments to guarantee the advancement of education. During the country's first Five…

  16. Proteomics research in India: an update.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Panga Jaipal; Atak, Apurva; Ghantasala, Saicharan; Kumar, Saurabh; Gupta, Shabarni; Prasad, T S Keshava; Zingde, Surekha M; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2015-09-01

    After a successful completion of the Human Genome Project, deciphering the mystery surrounding the human proteome posed a major challenge. Despite not being largely involved in the Human Genome Project, the Indian scientific community contributed towards proteomic research along with the global community. Currently, more than 76 research/academic institutes and nearly 145 research labs are involved in core proteomic research across India. The Indian researchers have been major contributors in drafting the "human proteome map" along with international efforts. In addition to this, virtual proteomics labs, proteomics courses and remote triggered proteomics labs have helped to overcome the limitations of proteomics education posed due to expensive lab infrastructure. The establishment of Proteomics Society, India (PSI) has created a platform for the Indian proteomic researchers to share ideas, research collaborations and conduct annual conferences and workshops. Indian proteomic research is really moving forward with the global proteomics community in a quest to solve the mysteries of proteomics. A draft map of the human proteome enhances the enthusiasm among intellectuals to promote proteomic research in India to the world.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India.

  17. Health care and equity in India.

    PubMed

    Balarajan, Y; Selvaraj, S; Subramanian, S V

    2011-02-01

    In India, despite improvements in access to health care, inequalities are related to socioeconomic status, geography, and gender, and are compounded by high out-of-pocket expenditures, with more than three-quarters of the increasing financial burden of health care being met by households. Health-care expenditures exacerbate poverty, with about 39 million additional people falling into poverty every year as a result of such expenditures. We identify key challenges for the achievement of equity in service provision, and equity in financing and financial risk protection in India. These challenges include an imbalance in resource allocation, inadequate physical access to high-quality health services and human resources for health, high out-of-pocket health expenditures, inflation in health spending, and behavioural factors that affect the demand for appropriate health care. Use of equity metrics in monitoring, assessment, and strategic planning; investment in development of a rigorous knowledge base of health-systems research; development of a refined equity-focused process of deliberative decision making in health reform; and redefinition of the specific responsibilities and accountabilities of key actors are needed to try to achieve equity in health care in India. The implementation of these principles with strengthened public health and primary-care services will help to ensure a more equitable health care for India's population.

  18. K12 Inc. Scraps India Outsourcing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    A company that runs one of the nation's largest networks of online schools recently decided to discontinue a program that arranged for high school teachers in the United States to send their students' English essays to India for evaluations by reviewers there. The existence of the program by Herndon, Virginia-based K12 Inc. is an example of the…

  19. Educational Access in India. Country Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This Policy Brief describes and explains patterns of access to schools in India. It outlines policy and legislation on access to education and provides an analysis of access, vulnerability and exclusion. The quantitative data is supported by a review of research which explains the patterns of access and exclusion. It is based on findings from the…

  20. Special Education in India at the Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thirumurthy, Vidya; Jayaraman, Brinda

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors first discuss the multi-tiered Indian education system. Then, they examine the challenges for special education in India, including: (1) the issues surrounding appropriate assessment in a multilingual country, which is enhanced by marked differences in children's socioeconomic status; (2) social stigma of disabilities…

  1. Biotechnology Education in India: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Kirti; Mehra, Kavita; Govil, Suman; Singh, Nitu

    2013-01-01

    Among the developing countries, India is one of those that recognises the importance of biotechnology. The trajectory of different policies being formulated over time is proof that the government is progressing towards achieving self-sufficiency. However, to cater to the ever-growing biotech industry, skilled manpower is required. This article…

  2. Farmers' Functional Literacy Program in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauhan, Malikhan S.

    The Farmers' Functional Literacy Program has been conducted in conjunction with an intensive agricultural development program in the villages of India since 1968. A recent innovation of significance to developing countries, the program incorporates the concept of linking education to development. This joint venture of three governmental ministries…

  3. Proteomics research in India: an update.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Panga Jaipal; Atak, Apurva; Ghantasala, Saicharan; Kumar, Saurabh; Gupta, Shabarni; Prasad, T S Keshava; Zingde, Surekha M; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2015-09-01

    After a successful completion of the Human Genome Project, deciphering the mystery surrounding the human proteome posed a major challenge. Despite not being largely involved in the Human Genome Project, the Indian scientific community contributed towards proteomic research along with the global community. Currently, more than 76 research/academic institutes and nearly 145 research labs are involved in core proteomic research across India. The Indian researchers have been major contributors in drafting the "human proteome map" along with international efforts. In addition to this, virtual proteomics labs, proteomics courses and remote triggered proteomics labs have helped to overcome the limitations of proteomics education posed due to expensive lab infrastructure. The establishment of Proteomics Society, India (PSI) has created a platform for the Indian proteomic researchers to share ideas, research collaborations and conduct annual conferences and workshops. Indian proteomic research is really moving forward with the global proteomics community in a quest to solve the mysteries of proteomics. A draft map of the human proteome enhances the enthusiasm among intellectuals to promote proteomic research in India to the world.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India. PMID:25868663

  4. Botanical Literature in India 1973-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maheswarappa, B. S.; Nagaraju, A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study that used bibliometrics to examine botanical research activity in India. The findings discussed include the growth of botanical literature, authorship patterns and collaborative research, important research centers and their rankings, journals preferred by Indian botanists, subfields of research, and the applicability of…

  5. Open Educational Resources in India's National Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, M. S. Vijay

    2009-01-01

    As India marches rapidly towards an ambitious agenda of economic and social advancement, one of the greatest challenges it faces is to provide extensive access to quality higher education opportunities. An evident and expanding Open Education Resources movement offers great promise for meeting this challenge through initiatives that make quality…

  6. PC Kiosk Trends in Rural India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyama, Kentaro; Kiri, Karishma; Menon, Deepak; Sethi, Suneet; Pal, Joyojeet; Srinivasan, Janaki

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a series of preliminary, quantitative results on rural PC kiosks in India. An analysis of the data confirms many expected trends and correlations and shows that kiosks still face the challenge of sustainability as a business. This study is based on questionnaires presented to kiosk operators and customers of kiosks operated…

  7. Compassion's Echo: Experiential Learning about India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sider, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    A real-life experience is a "moving force" that can be part of the elementary social studies curriculum. This article discusses an experiential learning about India and describes how the author integrates the arts and service learning in his third grade classroom. It also describes class activities that enhance social studies curriculum and engage…

  8. Childhood Labor in India: Issues and Complexities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viruru, Radhika

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 12 million children in India under the age of 14 engage in paid labor at least part time, due mostly to economic reasons. Dominant discourses about childhood however conceptualize childhood labor not only as unethical but as exploitation. This article explored the tensions between Western notions of childhood…

  9. Educational Development in the Post-colonial Period in India: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kattackal, Joseph A.

    A problem-oriented history of education in postcolonial India is presented along with a forecast of India's educational future. The problems of providing quality education in India after 190 years of British rule, which left only l3 percent of the Indian population literate at the time of India's independence in 1947, are discussed. India's…

  10. 77 FR 33015 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding India-Measures Concerning the Importation of Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... Livestock Act, most recently S.O 1663(E), which was published in the Gazette of India on July 19, 2011, and... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding India--Measures Concerning the... the Government of India (``India'') concerning measures imposed by India on the importation of...

  11. Suicide in India: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    RANE, Anil; NADKARNI, Abhijit

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicide is an important cause of death in India but estimated suicide rates based on data from India’s National Crime Records Bureau are unreliable. Aim Systematically review existing literature on suicide and the factors associated with suicide in India. Methods PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Global Health, Google Scholar and IndMED were searched using appropriate search terms. The abstracts of relevant papers were independently examined by both authors for possible inclusion. A standardized set of data items were abstracted from the full text of the selected papers. Results Thirty-six papers met inclusion criteria for the analysis. The heterogeneity of sampling procedures and methods of the studies made meta-analysis of the results infeasible. Verbal autopsy studies in several rural locations in India report high suicide rates, from 82 to 95 per 100,000 population – up to 8-fold higher than the official national suicide rates. Suicide rates are highest in persons 20 to 29 years of age. Female suicide rates are higher than male rates in persons under 30 years of age but the opposite is true in those 30 years of age or older. Hanging and ingestion of organophosphate pesticides are the most common methods of suicide. Among women, self-immolation is also a relatively common method of suicide. Low socioeconomic status, mental illness (especially alcohol misuse) and inter-personal difficulties are the factors that are most closely associated with suicide. Conclusion The quality of the information about suicide in India is quite limited, but it is clearly an important and growing public health problem. Compared to suicides in high-income countries, suicide in India is more prevalent in women (particularly young women), is much more likely to involve ingestion of pesticides, is more closely associated with poverty, and is less closely associated with mental illness. PMID:25092952

  12. Transits of Venus and Colonial India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochhar, Rajesh

    2012-09-01

    Astronomical expeditions during the colonial period had a political and national significance also. Measuring the earth and mapping the sky were activities worthy of powerful and power- seeking nations. Such was the sanctity of global astronomical activity that many other agendas could be hidden under it. An early astronomy-related expedition turned out to be extremely beneficial, to botany. The expedition sent by the French Government in 1735 to South America under the leadership of Charles Marie de la Condamine (1701--1774) ostensibly for the measurement of an arc of the meridian at Quito in Ecuador surreptitiously collected data that enabled Linnaeus to describe the genus cinchona in 1742. When the pair of transits of Venus occurred in 1761 and 1769, France and England were engaged in a bitter rivalry for control of India. The observation of the transits became a part of the rivalry. A telescope presented by the British to a South Indian King as a decorative toy was borrowed back for actual use. Scientifically the transit observations were a wash out, but the exercise introduced Europe to details of living Indian tradition of eclipse calculations. More significantly, it led to the institutionalization of modern astronomy in India under the auspices of the English East India Company (1787). The transits of Venus of 1874 and 1882 were important not so much for the study of the events as for initiating systematic photography of the Sun. By this, Britain owned most of the world's sunshine, and was expected to help European solar physicists get data from its vast Empire on a regular basis. This and the then genuinely held belief that a study of the sun would help predict failure of monsoons led to the institutionalization of solar physics studies in India (1899). Of course, when the solar physicists learnt that solar activity did not quite determine rainfall in India, they forgot to inform the Government.

  13. An assessment of EIA system in India

    SciTech Connect

    Panigrahi, Jitendra K.; Amirapu, Susruta

    2012-07-15

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was first introduced in India based on the Environmental Protection Act (EPA), 1986. But formally it came in to effect, when Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) has passed a major legislative measure under EPA in January 1994 for Environmental Clearance (EC) known as EIA Notification, 1994. Subsequently, EIA processes have been strengthened by MoEF by a series of amendments. The current practice is adhering to EIA Notification, 2006 and its amendments. The pieces of evidence collected and analysis in the present assessment suggest that, despite a sound legislative, administrative and procedural set-up EIA has not yet evolved satisfactorily in India. An appraisal of the EIA system against systematic evaluation criteria, based on discussions with various stakeholders, EIA expert committee members, approval authorities, project proponents, NGOs and consulting professionals, reveals various drawbacks of the EIA system. These mainly include; inadequate capacity of EIA approval authorities, deficiencies in screening and scoping, poor quality EIA reports, inadequate public participation and weak monitoring. Overall, EIA is used presently as a project justification tool rather than as a project planning tool to contribute to achieving sustainable development. While shortcomings are challenging, Government of India is showing a high degree of commitment. The EIA system in the country is undergoing progressive refinements by steadily removing the constraints. The paper identifies opportunities for taking advantage of the current circumstances for strengthening the EIA process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An assessment has been carried out on Environmental Clearance under EIA Notification, 2006, MoEF, Government of India. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EIA system is appraised against systematic evaluation criteria proposed by Ahmad and Wood (2002), Wood (2003), Fuller (1999). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analysis

  14. Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia.

    PubMed

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe J J; Lippert, Peter C; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; McQuarrie, Nadine; Doubrovine, Pavel V; Spakman, Wim; Torsvik, Trond H

    2012-05-15

    Cenozoic convergence between the Indian and Asian plates produced the archetypical continental collision zone comprising the Himalaya mountain belt and the Tibetan Plateau. How and where India-Asia convergence was accommodated after collision at or before 52 Ma remains a long-standing controversy. Since 52 Ma, the two plates have converged up to 3,600 ± 35 km, yet the upper crustal shortening documented from the geological record of Asia and the Himalaya is up to approximately 2,350-km less. Here we show that the discrepancy between the convergence and the shortening can be explained by subduction of highly extended continental and oceanic Indian lithosphere within the Himalaya between approximately 50 and 25 Ma. Paleomagnetic data show that this extended continental and oceanic "Greater India" promontory resulted from 2,675 ± 700 km of North-South extension between 120 and 70 Ma, accommodated between the Tibetan Himalaya and cratonic India. We suggest that the approximately 50 Ma "India"-Asia collision was a collision of a Tibetan-Himalayan microcontinent with Asia, followed by subduction of the largely oceanic Greater India Basin along a subduction zone at the location of the Greater Himalaya. The "hard" India-Asia collision with thicker and contiguous Indian continental lithosphere occurred around 25-20 Ma. This hard collision is coincident with far-field deformation in central Asia and rapid exhumation of Greater Himalaya crystalline rocks, and may be linked to intensification of the Asian monsoon system. This two-stage collision between India and Asia is also reflected in the deep mantle remnants of subduction imaged with seismic tomography.

  15. Gastrointestinal endoscopy training in India.

    PubMed

    Saraswat, V A; Tandon, R K

    1999-01-01

    A structured endoscopy training program with clear goals for proper teaching and evaluation serves to alleviate apprehensions in the minds of trainees regarding this crucial area. It also ensures that training is acquired not in isolation but in the setting of ongoing patient care, so that the emphasis is on how the procedure fits into the overall management plan for the patient. By specifying the details of the endoscopy unit set-up, the qualifications of the trainer and the number of procedures to be performed by the trainee, it is hoped that uniformity will be produced in the quality of training imparted, whether it be in a teaching or a non-teaching hospital. The end-product of such training, through the DM/MCh or the DNB stream, is a gastroenterologist who is also a certified endoscopist, capable of performing all standard diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. A further period of focused training for 1 to 2 years is required to achieve the level of competence expected of an advanced therapeutic endoscopist. There is little room for short-term training courses in endoscopy for the basic training of an endoscopist, although such courses are useful as CME activities, for the maintenance and renewal of skills of the trained endoscopist, as well as providing him with exposure to new and evolving therapeutic techniques. Efforts at improving and standardizing the training and practice of GI endoscopy in India are likely to remain exercises in futility without the active and dynamic involvement of all the leading professional societies in the country. The need of the hour is the establishment of technical committees for laying down standards in training and practice of GI endoscopy that should be voluntarily approved by all these societies so that they may then be implemented by the State medical councils and the MCI. A move in this direction from within the profession is far more appropriate and is also likely to find greater acceptance than such moves imposed from

  16. 3 CFR - Certifications Pursuant to Section 104 of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and Nonproliferation Enhancement Act Regarding the Safeguards Agreement Between India and the International Atomic Energy Agency Presidential Documents Other Presidential... of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and Nonproliferation Enhancement...

  17. 77 FR 66580 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... India, 64 FR 8311 (February 19, 1999) (Mushroom Antidumping Duty Order), remains dispositive... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping... review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from India. The period...

  18. 77 FR 18296 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding India-Measures Concerning the Importation of Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding India--Measures Concerning the... India under the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization (``WTO Agreement'') concerning antidumping measures prohibitions imposed by India on the importation of various...

  19. Population control and the women of India.

    PubMed

    Batra, B K

    1973-01-01

    14% of the world's population, (547,000,000 people) live on 2.4% of its land in India. 18% of the population of India live in 2690 cities, the rest in rural villages, with roughly an average of 700 people per village. The woman's role in India was mainly to produce children, most importantly sons. In 1956 India began the program of planned parenthood at a governmental level, aiming at restricting births. This met with some negativism on the part of the older generation especially due to its depriving them of the privilege and benefits of large families, and the lesser guarantee of a male heir. But due to the effects of agricultural and industrial reforms, rapid urbanization has occurred bringing better communication and helping to spread the ideas and information about family planning to the village. Urbanization also brought about a crashing economic situation. Motivation for planned parenthood has its most persuasive impetus when social and economic pressures are at their peak. Thus the message that a "small family is a happy family" has from necessity become accepted. The poor housing conditions with a total lack of privacy has contributed to the inability of Indian women to use more sophisticated methods of contraception. The pill is too expensive for most Indian women. The IUD therefore was the most practical to start with in 1956 and thereafter has been freely available. India's national leadership is committed to the success of the planned parenthood program which aims at the adoption of the norm of a small family as a social and personal ideal. The 2 facets of the program have been to persuade people to accept the new norms and to provide contraceptive services within easy reach. If the birth rate declines from its present level of 39 to 30 per 1000 by 1986, the population will still reach 792,000,000 by 1991, and 941,000,000 by 2001. The reason for the past increase in growth has been due to the rapidly declining death rate. Legislation has been passed to

  20. Literary Vision of Symbolic India: Removing the Veil and Stepping into Spiritual India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad 1996 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Patricia

    This curriculum guide was developed to assist middle-school students in understanding the complexity of India. A slide presentation is used in combination with several activities for interdisciplinary study of India through literature and social studies. A comprehensive bibliography provides suggestions for further reading. Sections of the guide…

  1. Multinational Alcohol Market Development and Public Health: Diageo in India.

    PubMed

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2015-11-01

    Alcohol is a risk factor for communicable and noncommunicable diseases, and alcohol consumption is rising steadily in India. The growth of multinational alcohol corporations, such as Diageo, contributes to India's changing alcohol environment. We provide a brief history of India's alcohol regulation for context and examine Diageo's strategies for expansion in India in 2013 and 2014. Diageo is attracted to India's younger generation, women, and emerging middle class for growth opportunities. Components of Diageo's responsibility strategy conflict with evidence-based public health recommendations for reducing harmful alcohol consumption. Diageo's strategies for achieving market dominance in India are at odds with public health evidence. We conclude with recommendations for protecting public health in emerging markets.

  2. The first multituberculate mammal from India.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Varun; Prasad, Guntupalli V R; Kumar, Deepak

    2013-06-01

    Mesozoic deposits of the former Gondwanaland are depauperate in early mammals, in general, and multituberculate mammals, in particular. Until now, the oldest multituberculate mammals known from the Gondwanan continents come from the Early Cretaceous of Morocco, NW Africa. Here, we report the presence of a new multituberculate mammal, Indobaatar zofiae gen. et sp. nov., from the Lower/Middle Jurassic Kota Formation, Pranhita-Godavari valley in peninsular India. This is the first record of a multituberculate from the Mesozoic rocks of India and possibly predates the oldest known multituberculates from Gondwanan continents. The new specimen, representing an upper premolar (P(4)), compares well with the upper premolar morphology of Eobaatariinae multituberculates known from the Early Cretaceous of Mongolia, China, England, and Spain. Together with the recent findings of cimolodontan multituberculates from the Early Cretaceous of Australia and Late Cretaceous of South America, the new discovery indicates a wide temporal and spatial distribution for multituberculate mammals in the former Gondwanaland.

  3. Implementing telemedicine technology: lessons from India.

    PubMed

    Sood, Sanjay P

    2004-01-01

    Information and communications technologies have universally helped to bridge the digital divide. As an application of ICT, telemedicine is an efficient pathway for enabling health care delivery. Developing countries, too, have started reaping the benefits of this evolutionary technology, but realisation of such dreams has not been swift. The implementation of a pilot scheme in telemedicine in India has been confounded with challenges right from the very start. One of the prime lessons to be learnt from the implementation of a pilot project in a developing country is to keep the objectives of the project in small modules and to keep the deliverables within sight. An account of some of the challenges faced while developing telemedicine technology in India serves as a useful example for upcoming telemedicine programmes in Third World countries.

  4. Sociocultural perspective of substance use in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, H K

    1996-01-01

    The present communication focuses on a sociocultural perspective of substance use in a pluralistic and diverse culture. India has a history of use of plant products, viz., cannabis, opium, and home-brewed alcoholic beverages, within a defined sociocultural framework over five millennium. Cross sectional epidemiological studies in the field of substance use in different parts of India show that certain social groups are more "vulnerable" to substance use. Caste, religion, and local customs and traditions play a significant role in the choice of drugs, their consumption, and their control in rural/semiurban populations. The intercultural barriers are diminishing in urban populations, and even alien drugs like heroin have been introduced. The social and cultural implications of the traditional vis-a-vis the altering drug use scene are discussed at length. PMID:8908712

  5. Treating troubled families: therapeutic scenario in India.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Bino

    2012-04-01

    India, a country of diverse cultures, languages, life styles, and ethnicities, is becoming a land of economic change, political stability, technological advancement, and changing traditional structures of relationships as well as health consciousness. Being known for its ancient traditions, rituals, religious orientation, spiritual outlook and folk beliefs, Indian families attempt to continue certain healthy and traditional elements such as warmth, strong bond, hierarchy, extended support, cultural orientation, shared values and time, tolerance, respect for the aged and inculcation of religious teachings and traditions in families. These factors, or practices, in fact have strong therapeutic value in supplementing the growth and development of individuals in the family system in spite of its transitional position. This paper deals with the review of family-based mental health services and focuses on the changing trends of those practices in India and the advancement of Indian families in their engaging ability with mentally ill members as well as with the treating team. PMID:22515456

  6. Wind Resource Assessment of Gujarat (India)

    SciTech Connect

    Draxl, C.; Purkayastha, A.; Parker, Z.

    2014-07-01

    India is one of the largest wind energy markets in the world. In 1986 Gujarat was the first Indian state to install a wind power project. In February 2013, the installed wind capacity in Gujarat was 3,093 MW. Due to the uncertainty around existing wind energy assessments in India, this analysis uses the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the wind at current hub heights for one year to provide more precise estimates of wind resources in Gujarat. The WRF model allows for accurate simulations of winds near the surface and at heights important for wind energy purposes. While previous resource assessments published wind power density, we focus on average wind speeds, which can be converted to wind power densities by the user with methods of their choice. The wind resource estimates in this study show regions with average annual wind speeds of more than 8 m/s.

  7. Multiple sclerosis in India: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Bhim S.; Advani, Hemali

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is being increasingly diagnosed in India mainly due to increase in the number of practicing neurologists and easy and affordable availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The clinical features and course are largely similar to those seen in the West. The term optico-spinal MS (Asian MS) was coined in the pre-MRI days. Many such patients turn out to be cases of neuromyelitis optica — a distinct disorder and not a variant of MS. Others have shown the classical features of MS on MRI scan. Several of the disease-modifying agents, not all, are now available in India. Their use, however, has been limited in view of the high cost. PMID:26538844

  8. India: population: shocking results; monetary incentives.

    PubMed

    Addressing a conference of Parliament members on population and development in New Delhi, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was reported to have informed the gathering that results of India's latest census "shocked us." The census counted a total national population of 683 million. It was 11 million more than officially anticipated. In her speech, Mrs. Gandhi was also reported to have reiterated that her government is totally committed to "voluntary family planning" and "firmly against compulsion." J.R.D. Tata, chairman of the Family Planning Foundation of India, proposed that the government raise monetary incentives for citizens voluntarily opting for vasectomy and tubectomy. He suggested that the present Rs. 200 for vasectomy and tubectomy be upped to Rs. 5000. He made the proposal in a call to the government to increase its outlay for the family planning program. PMID:12337557

  9. Psychological Dimensions of Celiac Disease in India.

    PubMed

    Vohra, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    An epidemic of celiac disease is being witnessed in India as well as several other parts of the world. Awareness is important for early diagnosis and treatment so as to avoid long-term morbidity as well as irreversible complications. However, the key for resolution of the disease is good compliance to a gluten-free diet. Unfortunately, the current scenario in India is that either gluten free foods are not easily available or are expensive and often not tested. This is especially true in schools and colleges and smaller towns. In addition, the stigma attached to gluten-free food makes it socially undesirable, and this is made worse by the lack of knowledge among peers, family members, advisors, and even health care providers. We need to make a strong pitch to overcome the confusion regarding the disease as well as the diet to avoid psychological and medical complications. PMID:27335528

  10. Fifty years of stroke researches in India

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Tapas Kumar; Das, Shyamal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the stroke incidence in India is much higher than Western industrialized countries. Large vessel intracranial atherosclerosis is the commonest cause of ischemic stroke in India. The common risk factors, that is, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and dyslipidemia are quite prevalent and inadequately controlled; mainly because of poor public awareness and inadequate infrastructure. Only a small number of ischemic stroke cases are able to have the benefit of thrombolytic therapy. Benefits from stem cell therapy in established stroke cases are under evaluation. Presently, prevention of stroke is the best option considering the Indian scenario through control and/or avoiding risk factors of stroke. Interventional studies are an important need for this scenario. PMID:27011621

  11. Euthanasia: the perceptions of nurses in India.

    PubMed

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Nagarajaiah; Konduru, Reddemma; Math, Suresh Bada

    2013-04-01

    Euthanasia provokes controversies in various domains, such as the moral, ethical, legal, religious, scientific, and economic. India legalised passive euthanasia (withdrawal of life support) for patients with brain death or who are in a permanent vegetative state in 2011, but research on perceptions of euthanasia among people in India is limited. This study aimed to examine nurses' perceptions of the practice of euthanasia as well as factors influencing those perceptions. A non-probability quantitative, cross-sectional design was adopted for a sample of 214 nurses working at a tertiary care centre. Data was collected through self-reported questionnaires at the nurses workplace.The findings revealed mixed opinions on euthanasia among the nurses. However, the majority of the participants did not agree with the practice of euthanasia. Nonetheless, further research is needed on this issue across the country among various health professionals in the context of current legislation.

  12. Psychological Dimensions of Celiac Disease in India

    PubMed Central

    Vohra, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    An epidemic of celiac disease is being witnessed in India as well as several other parts of the world. Awareness is important for early diagnosis and treatment so as to avoid long-term morbidity as well as irreversible complications. However, the key for resolution of the disease is good compliance to a gluten-free diet. Unfortunately, the current scenario in India is that either gluten free foods are not easily available or are expensive and often not tested. This is especially true in schools and colleges and smaller towns. In addition, the stigma attached to gluten-free food makes it socially undesirable, and this is made worse by the lack of knowledge among peers, family members, advisors, and even health care providers. We need to make a strong pitch to overcome the confusion regarding the disease as well as the diet to avoid psychological and medical complications. PMID:27335528

  13. Treating troubled families: therapeutic scenario in India.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Bino

    2012-04-01

    India, a country of diverse cultures, languages, life styles, and ethnicities, is becoming a land of economic change, political stability, technological advancement, and changing traditional structures of relationships as well as health consciousness. Being known for its ancient traditions, rituals, religious orientation, spiritual outlook and folk beliefs, Indian families attempt to continue certain healthy and traditional elements such as warmth, strong bond, hierarchy, extended support, cultural orientation, shared values and time, tolerance, respect for the aged and inculcation of religious teachings and traditions in families. These factors, or practices, in fact have strong therapeutic value in supplementing the growth and development of individuals in the family system in spite of its transitional position. This paper deals with the review of family-based mental health services and focuses on the changing trends of those practices in India and the advancement of Indian families in their engaging ability with mentally ill members as well as with the treating team.

  14. Kinship Institutions and Sex Ratios in India

    PubMed Central

    CHAKRABORTY, TANIKA; KIM, SUKKOO

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between kinship institutions and sex ratios in India at the turn of the twentieth century. Because kinship rules vary by caste, language, religion, and region, we construct sex ratios by these categories at the district level by using data from the 1901 Census of India for Punjab (North), Bengal (East), and Madras (South). We find that the male-to-female sex ratio varied positively with caste rank, fell as one moved from the North to the East and then to the South, was higher for Hindus than for Muslims, and was higher for northern Indo-Aryan speakers than for the southern Dravidian-speaking people. We argue that these systematic patterns in the data are consistent with variations in the institution of family, kinship, and inheritance. PMID:21308567

  15. The first multituberculate mammal from India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Varun; Prasad, Guntupalli V. R.; Kumar, Deepak

    2013-06-01

    Mesozoic deposits of the former Gondwanaland are depauperate in early mammals, in general, and multituberculate mammals, in particular. Until now, the oldest multituberculate mammals known from the Gondwanan continents come from the Early Cretaceous of Morocco, NW Africa. Here, we report the presence of a new multituberculate mammal, Indobaatar zofiae gen. et sp. nov., from the Lower/Middle Jurassic Kota Formation, Pranhita-Godavari valley in peninsular India. This is the first record of a multituberculate from the Mesozoic rocks of India and possibly predates the oldest known multituberculates from Gondwanan continents. The new specimen, representing an upper premolar (P4), compares well with the upper premolar morphology of Eobaatariinae multituberculates known from the Early Cretaceous of Mongolia, China, England, and Spain. Together with the recent findings of cimolodontan multituberculates from the Early Cretaceous of Australia and Late Cretaceous of South America, the new discovery indicates a wide temporal and spatial distribution for multituberculate mammals in the former Gondwanaland.

  16. India's poliomyelitis eradication: a milestone in public health.

    PubMed

    Grover, Manoj; Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Sinha, Smita; Kaur, Ravneet

    2013-12-01

    India has recently completed 2 years without single case of poliomyelitis on 13 January 2013. This has brought South East Asian Region closer to eradication. Recently, India is being regarded as a role model for polio eradication efforts in other low-income endemic countries-Pakistan, Nigeria and Afghanistan. However, the near elimination of wild polio virus in India has set forth newer challenges. Stricter surveillance measures are now needed to check for importations spread of virus in migratory populations and rapid containment of newly found virus. India's battle against polio will soon be cited as biggest public health achievement or most expensive public health failure.

  17. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in India

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-07

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America. This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in India, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes in India, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial buildings in India.

  18. India's baseline plan for nuclear energy self-sufficiency.

    SciTech Connect

    Bucher, R .G.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-01-01

    India's nuclear energy strategy has traditionally strived for energy self-sufficiency, driven largely by necessity following trade restrictions imposed by the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) following India's 'peaceful nuclear explosion' of 1974. On September 6, 2008, the NSG agreed to create an exception opening nuclear trade with India, which may create opportunities for India to modify its baseline strategy. The purpose of this document is to describe India's 'baseline plan,' which was developed under constrained trade conditions, as a basis for understanding changes in India's path as a result of the opening of nuclear commerce. Note that this treatise is based upon publicly available information. No attempt is made to judge whether India can meet specified goals either in scope or schedule. In fact, the reader is warned a priori that India's delivery of stated goals has often fallen short or taken a significantly longer period to accomplish. It has been evident since the early days of nuclear power that India's natural resources would determine the direction of its civil nuclear power program. It's modest uranium but vast thorium reserves dictated that the country's primary objective would be thorium utilization. Estimates of India's natural deposits vary appreciably, but its uranium reserves are known to be extremely limited, totaling approximately 80,000 tons, on the order of 1% of the world's deposits; and nominally one-third of this ore is of very low uranium concentration. However, India's roughly 300,000 tons of thorium reserves account for approximately 30% of the world's total. Confronted with this reality, the future of India's nuclear power industry is strongly dependent on the development of a thorium-based nuclear fuel cycle as the only way to insure a stable, sustainable, and autonomous program. The path to India's nuclear energy self-sufficiency was first outlined in a seminal paper by Drs. H. J. Bhabha and N. B. Prasad presented at the Second

  19. Tuberculosis Risk among Medical Trainees, Pune, India.

    PubMed

    Basavaraj, Anita; Chandanwale, Ajay; Patil, Akhil; Kadam, Dileep; Joshi, Samir; Gupte, Nikhil; McIntire, Katie; Jain, Divyashri; Dalal, Hamza; Badave, Rohan; DeLuca, Andrea; Gupta, Amita; Bollinger, Robert; Mave, Vidya

    2016-03-01

    During 2012-2013, at a public hospital in Pune, India, 26 (3.9%) cases of tuberculosis were reported among 662 medical trainees, representing an estimated incidence of 3,279 cases/100,000 person-years. Three of these infections were isoniazid-resistant, 1 was multidrug-resistant, and 1 occurred in a trainee who had fulminant hepatitis after starting treatment for TB.

  20. Thoracic surgery in India: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    India has the dubitable honor of being ranked first in the world with regards to lung disease burden. A good proportion of this disease burden is amenable to surgical treatment. However, patients have limited access to quality thoracic surgical care due to a number of obstacles. This review article summarizes these obstacles and the implied opportunities that exist in this nascent surgical discipline in the world’s second most populous country.

  1. Promoting safe motherhood in rural India.

    PubMed

    Maclean, G

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies some activities performed to promote safe motherhood in rural India. Nurses from a voluntary organization in Hyderabad, India, trained women's groups from 32 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh state over 3 days in 1996 in maternal and child care, health and family welfare, gender issues, sanitation, leadership, literacy, negotiating skills, and health monitoring. The women were encouraged to perform health activities in their villages. In October 1996, a Conference of Women celebrated the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi, with women's groups reporting on health activities in specific villages. Each women's group had its own banner. Every woman wore a conference delegate badge. One woman's group was rewarded for making the most significant progress. Participants included women from 29 villages and auxiliary nurse-midwives. For some women, this was the first time away from home. Conference delegates toured the primary health center facilities at Shamirpet and met with staff. The aim was to reduce fear and reluctance to use the services and to promote awareness of available health care. Most villages in India rely on auxiliary nurse-midwives for maternal and child health care. Promotion of safe motherhood requires close cooperation between the auxiliary nurse-midwifes and women's groups. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of India is introducing in-service training to improve the clinical skills of auxiliary nurse-midwives in eight states. The nurse-midwives use adapted and new educational material from WHO's safe motherhood midwifery training modules. A workshop was used to introduce the new modules and to propose teaching methods for senior project staff. The five modules include a trainers' manual of educational methods. PMID:12321357

  2. Scientific Misconduct in India: Causes and Perpetuation.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Pratap R

    2016-08-01

    Along with economic strength, space technology and software expertise, India is also a leading nation in fraudulent scientific research. The problem is worsened by vested interests working in concert for their own benefits. These self-promoting cartels, together with biased evaluation methods and weak penal systems, combine to perpetuate scientific misconduct. Some of these issues are discussed in this commentary, with supporting examples and possible solutions.

  3. Widening economic & social disparities: implications for India.

    PubMed

    Kurian, N J

    2007-10-01

    India is often characterized as an emerging economic super power. The huge demographic dividend, the high quality engineering and management talent, the powerful Indian diaspora and the emerging Indian transnational--kneeling the optimism. In contrast, there is another profile of India which is rather gloomy. This is the country with the largest number of the poor, illiterates and unemployed in the world. High infant mortality, morbidity and widespread anaemia among women and children continue. India suffers from acute economic and social disparities. This article addresses four dimensions of such disparities, viz. regional, rural-urban, social, and gender. There is empirical evidence to indicate that during the last two decades all these disparities have been increasing. As a result of economic reforms, the southern and western States experienced accelerated economic and social development as compared to northern and eastern States. This has led to widening gap in income, poverty and other indicators of development between the two regions. Rural-urban divide also widened in the wake of reforms. While large and medium cities experience unprecedented economic prosperity, the rural areas experience economic stagnation. As a result, there is widespread agrarian distress which results in farmers' suicide and rural unrest. Socially backward sections, especially scheduled castes and tribes (SCs and STs) have gained little from the new prosperity which rewards disproportionately those with assets, skills and higher education. STs have often been victims of development as a result of displacement. The gender gap in social and economic status, traditionally more in India as compared to other societies; has further widened by the economic reforms and globalization. The approach paper to the Eleventh Plan stresses the importance of more inclusive economic growth. It emphasizes the need for bridging the divides discussed in this article. Unless these are achieved in a time

  4. Warburg micro syndrome in siblings from India

    PubMed Central

    Sekhon, Prabhjot Kaur; Premalatha, R.; Sabapathy, Sarala

    2016-01-01

    Warburg syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by microcephaly, microcornea, congenital cataract, developmental delay, and hypogonadism. Here, we report two siblings from India who presented with developmental delay, microcornea, microphthalmia, and bilateral congenital cataracts, born to the third-degree consanguineously married couple. Both children had hypoplasia of corpus callosum. In this report, we aim to highlight and compare clinical features of these two cases with previously reported cases. PMID:27195044

  5. Promoting safe motherhood in rural India.

    PubMed

    Maclean, G

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies some activities performed to promote safe motherhood in rural India. Nurses from a voluntary organization in Hyderabad, India, trained women's groups from 32 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh state over 3 days in 1996 in maternal and child care, health and family welfare, gender issues, sanitation, leadership, literacy, negotiating skills, and health monitoring. The women were encouraged to perform health activities in their villages. In October 1996, a Conference of Women celebrated the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi, with women's groups reporting on health activities in specific villages. Each women's group had its own banner. Every woman wore a conference delegate badge. One woman's group was rewarded for making the most significant progress. Participants included women from 29 villages and auxiliary nurse-midwives. For some women, this was the first time away from home. Conference delegates toured the primary health center facilities at Shamirpet and met with staff. The aim was to reduce fear and reluctance to use the services and to promote awareness of available health care. Most villages in India rely on auxiliary nurse-midwives for maternal and child health care. Promotion of safe motherhood requires close cooperation between the auxiliary nurse-midwifes and women's groups. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of India is introducing in-service training to improve the clinical skills of auxiliary nurse-midwives in eight states. The nurse-midwives use adapted and new educational material from WHO's safe motherhood midwifery training modules. A workshop was used to introduce the new modules and to propose teaching methods for senior project staff. The five modules include a trainers' manual of educational methods.

  6. Thoracic surgery in India: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    India has the dubitable honor of being ranked first in the world with regards to lung disease burden. A good proportion of this disease burden is amenable to surgical treatment. However, patients have limited access to quality thoracic surgical care due to a number of obstacles. This review article summarizes these obstacles and the implied opportunities that exist in this nascent surgical discipline in the world’s second most populous country. PMID:27651933

  7. Thoracic surgery in India: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Yendamuri, Sai

    2016-08-01

    India has the dubitable honor of being ranked first in the world with regards to lung disease burden. A good proportion of this disease burden is amenable to surgical treatment. However, patients have limited access to quality thoracic surgical care due to a number of obstacles. This review article summarizes these obstacles and the implied opportunities that exist in this nascent surgical discipline in the world's second most populous country.

  8. Thoracic surgery in India: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Yendamuri, Sai

    2016-08-01

    India has the dubitable honor of being ranked first in the world with regards to lung disease burden. A good proportion of this disease burden is amenable to surgical treatment. However, patients have limited access to quality thoracic surgical care due to a number of obstacles. This review article summarizes these obstacles and the implied opportunities that exist in this nascent surgical discipline in the world's second most populous country. PMID:27651933

  9. Training for biomedical engineering in India.

    PubMed

    Brown, B H

    1979-07-01

    There are biomedical engineers in India and a demand for their services, but there is an absence of trained technical staff to apply the subject within the hospitals. The current situation of the medical electronics aspect of biomedical engineering within Industry, the Hospitals and Educational Institutions is described and some of the problems identified. The particular problems of the growth of a complex technical subject within a developing country are also considered.

  10. Adolescent vaccines: Need special focus in India

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2015-01-01

    WHO defines adolescence age between 10 to 19 years. In India, there are 243 million adolescents which constitute 21 per cent of the total population. The global burden of disease in adolescents (2011) reports that the total number of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) worldwide among adolescents were 230 million which constitutes 15.5% of total DALYs. The immunization is one of the most important, most beneficial and cost-effective disease prevention measures that can be provided for adolescents. The adolescent vaccination protects most of the world's adolescents from a number of infectious diseases that previously claimed millions of lives each year. In India, thousands of adolescents die and thousands are hospitalized every year due to communicable diseases that could have been prevented by vaccination. Main aims of adolescent vaccinations are: to boost immunity status that is waning after completion of primary immunization or absence of “natural” boosting due exposure to the particular disease. The recommendations for the immunization of adolescents are to improve vaccination coverage among them. The adolescent vaccinations also help in accelerate disease control or elimination effort. Improvement in adolescent immunization coverage in India, will require strengthening of health care delivery system and also require significant improvements in the health care functionaries ability and willingness to provide and deliver vaccines to adolescents. PMID:25483670

  11. Does occupational health nursing exist in India?

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Rajnarayan R.; Sharma, Anjali; Zodpey, Sanjay P.; Khandare, Shobha M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Occupational health services are important to develop healthy and productive work forces, which should be delivered through occupational health team. Occupational health nurse (OHN) is an important member of this team and is required to apply nursing principles in conserving the health of workers in occupational settings. Purpose: This article attempts to map the occupational health nursing courses in India and design competencies and curriculum for such a course. Materials and Methods: Information through the Internet, printed journals, and perspectives of the key stakeholders were the principal sources of data. Discussion: In India, there is a need to initiate a course on occupational health nursing to provide occupational health services for the organized and unorganized sector workforce. A certificate course for occupational health nursing for 3–4 months duration offered through contact session mode can be an opportune beginning. However, to cater employed nurses an online course can be another effective alternative. The theoretical part should essentially include modules on occupational diseases, industrial hygiene, and occupational health legislation, whereas the modules on practical aspects can include visits to industries. Taking into account the existing norms of Indian Factories Act for hazardous units of organized sector an estimated 1,34,640 OHNs are required. Conclusion: There is a need–supply gap in the number of occupational health nursing manpower in India, which can be attributed to the absence of any course to train such manpower. PMID:25598615

  12. High-end physician migration from India

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Shah, Naseem; Mahal, Ajay

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the relation between the quality of physicians and migration among alumni of All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India over the period 1989–2000. Methods In a retrospective cohort study, data on graduates of AIIMS were collected from entrance exam qualifier lists, the AIIMS alumni directory, convocation records, the American Medical Association and informal alumni networks. The data were analysed by use of 2x2 contingency tables and logistic regression models. Findings Nearly 54% of AIIMS graduates during 1989–2000 now reside outside India. Students admitted under the general category are twice as likely to reside abroad (95% confidence interval: 1.53–2.99) as students admitted under the affirmative-action category. Recipients of multiple academic awards were 35% more likely to emigrate than non-recipients of awards (95% confidence interval: 1.04–1.76). Multivariate analyses do not change these basic conclusions. Conclusion Graduates from higher quality institutions account for a disproportionately large share of emigrating physicians. Even within high-end institutions, such as AIIMS, better physicians are more likely to emigrate. Interventions should focus on the highly trained individuals in the top institutions that contribute disproportionately to the loss of human resources for health. Our findings suggest that affirmative-action programmes may have an unintended benefit in that they may help retain a subset of such personnel. PMID:18235888

  13. About "Save the Children Committee (India)".

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the activity among charitable committees to provide education and shelter to orphans and homeless children in India. "Save The Children Committee" of the All India Women's Conference began operations during the Bengal famine of 1943 by providing shelter to children who were homeless or did not know where their parents were. The Bengal Relief Committee also provided shelters, which later became Children's Homes, which were operated by the Save The Children Committee. Funding support for the homes came from individual donors and organizations. The Bengal government provided Rs.25/month/child for 450 children. Children's homes were set up in Phola, Mymensingh, and Brahmanberia, in the present day Bangladesh, and in Bankura. The Committee took over homes in Mahishadal, Khagda, and Belbeni. After 1948, the Children's Homes in East Pakistan were transferred to India. In 1952, several Children's Committees merged. Funds were supplied by international organizations. Government support levels varied over time. Schools for orphans changed from an emphasis on self-reliance and work to ordinary schooling. Brief descriptions are provided for homes at Pifa, Mangalgunge in Bongaon Subdivision, Thakurpukur in 24-Parganas, and Khagda in Midnapore district. For example, the home at Khagda was begun by the Bengal Relief Committee at the time of the famine of 1944. Save The Children Committee took over its operations in 1946. It is now a home for 21 boys. The boys have access to a good high school, have achieved academically, and received respect from the community.

  14. India: environmental degradation, urban slums, political tension.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, R

    1985-09-01

    This article presents an overview of stresses facing Indian society, including population pressures on land and agriculture, topsoil erosion, deforestation, flooding, unemployment, urban slums, and political unrest. Over 60% of India's arable land is estimated to suffer from environmental degradation. This has been caused both by a rapidly growing poor population seeking subsistence and by the misappropriation of natural resources by the wealthy for luxury consumption. Although deforestation is officially cited at 0.37 million acres/year, more sensitive estimates put it at 2.5 million acres/year. Deforestation and massive soil erosion have further created silting, flooding, and pollution in the plains areas of the country. Moreover, the urban population of India is expected to double in the next 15 years to reach a level of 350-400 million. At present, 20-33% of the urban population lives in slums without basic facilities. The employment crisis precipitated by increasing urbanization and migration is expected to be a major problem in the decades ahead. By the year 2000, 7.5 million people will enter the labor force annually. Demographic tension has been a major factor in recent political unrest. Language differences, inequitable access to resources, and the lack of job opportunities have been central issues in these conflicts. Unless more effective means can be found to cope simultaneously with the need to speed up development and meet the needs of a rapidly expanding population, the social and environmental fabric of India is in danger of further erosion.

  15. Point of Connection Transmission Pricing in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soonee, S. K.; Barpanda, S. S.; Joshi, Mohit; Mishra, Nripen; Bhardwaj, Vaishally

    2013-05-01

    The National Electricity Policy (NEP) [1], issued by the Government of India, mandates transmission prices to be distance and direction sensitive and capture utilization of the network by each network user. In line with the mandate, the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) [2] has issued Sharing of Interstate Transmission Charges and Losses Regulations, 2010 [3], to introduce point of connection (PoC)-based transmission pricing methodology in India. The methodology under the above regulations introduces one of the major reforms of its kind in the Indian power sector and seeks to share the total transmission charges in proportion to respective utilization of the transmission system by different entities. In this paper, the authors have enumerated their experience gained from the implementation of PoC-based transmission pricing regime in India. Authors have also discussed various issues encountered in the process of implementation and the methodology adopted.

  16. VIOLENCE IN INDIA: A PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Intraspecific violence is now established as a biological phenomenon intrinsic to living nature. Ethologists maintain that culturally moulded programs of aggression which can be released by certain environmental triggers exist in the nervous system among higher animals. Evidence also suggests that there co-exists a biological capacity for morality and empathy. A child by the age of two is endowed with the capacity to refrain from hurting another person purely by identifying himself with the other. This moral faculty is strengthened by parental training, appropriate role models and a nurturing society. In India today, the weakening of cultural values due to rapid social change and the inability of elders and leadership to present a clear set of values which tliey themselves live by has induced a sense of alienation, powerlessness and meaninglessness among the youth. This makes them extremely susceptible to programs of aggression, all the while weakening their empathic and moral inclinations. The paper attempts an in-depth psychological examinations of these issues and also other factors responsible for violence in India. Psychologically rooted strategies to tackle the problem of violence in India are also discussed. PMID:21743695

  17. Adolescent vaccines: Need special focus in India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2015-01-01

    WHO defines adolescence age between 10 to 19 years. In India, there are 243 million adolescents which constitute 21 per cent of the total population. The global burden of disease in adolescents (2011) reports that the total number of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) worldwide among adolescents were 230 million which constitutes 15.5% of total DALYs. The immunization is one of the most important, most beneficial and cost-effective disease prevention measures that can be provided for adolescents. The adolescent vaccination protects most of the world's adolescents from a number of infectious diseases that previously claimed millions of lives each year. In India, thousands of adolescents die and thousands are hospitalized every year due to communicable diseases that could have been prevented by vaccination. Main aims of adolescent vaccinations are: to boost immunity status that is waning after completion of primary immunization or absence of "natural" boosting due exposure to the particular disease. The recommendations for the immunization of adolescents are to improve vaccination coverage among them. The adolescent vaccinations also help in accelerate disease control or elimination effort. Improvement in adolescent immunization coverage in India, will require strengthening of health care delivery system and also require significant improvements in the health care functionaries ability and willingness to provide and deliver vaccines to adolescents.

  18. Floods in Bangladesh and Northeast India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For the past month heavy monsoon rains have led to massive flooding in eastern India, Nepal, and Bangladesh, which have killed over 500 people and left millions homeless. This false-color image acquired on August 5, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft shows the extent of this flooding. In the upper right-hand corner of the image, the swollen Brahmaputra River runs east to west through the Indian state of Assam. Normally, the river and its tributaries would resemble a tangle of thin lines. Moving to the upper left-hand corner, flooding can be seen along the Ganges River in the state of Bihar, India. Both of these rivers flow into Bangladesh along with many others from India and Nepal. Heavy monsoon rains from all across the region have inundated the small country with water this year. Floodwaters have all but covered northeastern Bangladesh, which is usually dry. The Jamuna River, which runs down the center of the country off of the Brahmaputra River, now resembles a narrow lake. Millions of dollars in crops have been destroyed and thousands have been left stranded in their villages or on rafts. Forecasters are warning that flooding could get worse. In the false-color image, land is green, and water is black and dark brown. Clouds appear pink, red and white. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  19. Making medicine indigenous: homeopathy in South India.

    PubMed

    Hausman, Gary J

    2002-08-01

    Historical studies of homeopathy in Europe and the USA have focused on practitioners' attempts to emphasize 'modern' and 'scientific' approaches. Studies of homeopathy in India have focused on a process of Indianization. Arguing against such unilineal trajectories, this paper situates homeopathy in South India within the context of shifting relations between 'scientific' and 'indigenous' systems of medicine. Three time periods are considered. From 1924 through 1934, homeopathy was singled out by Government of Madras officials as 'scientific', as contrasted with the 'indigenous' Ayurvedic, Siddha, and Unani systems of medicine. From 1947 through 1960, both 'indigenous' and 'scientific' interpretations of homeopathy were put forward by different factions. An honorary director of homeopathy proposed the Indianization of homeopathy, and its reconciliation with Ayurveda; this view conflicted with the Madras government's policy of expanding the 'scientific' medical curriculum of the Government College of Indigenous Medicine. It was not until the early 1970s that homeopathy was officially recognized in Tamilnadu State. By then, both homeopathy and Ayurveda had become conceptualized as non-Tamil, in contrast with promotion of the Tamil Siddha system of 'indigenous' medicine. Thus, constructs of 'indigenous' and 'scientific' systems of medicine are quite malleable with respect to homeopathy in South India. PMID:12638553

  20. Urban health in India: who is responsible?

    PubMed

    Gupta, Indrani; Mondal, Swadhin

    2015-01-01

    Urban health has received relatively less focus compared with rural health in India, especially the health of the urban poor. Rapid urbanization in India has been accompanied by an increase in population in urban slums and shanty towns, which are also very inadequately covered by basic amenities, including health services. The paper presents existing and new evidence that shows that health inequities exist between the poor and the non-poor in urban areas, even in better-off states in India. The lack of evidence-based policies that cut across sectors continues to be a main feature of the urban health scenario. Although the problems of urban health are more complex than those of rural health, the paper argues that it is possible to make a beginning fairly quickly by (i) collecting more evidence of health status and inequities in urban areas and (ii) correcting major inadequacies in infrastructure-both health and non-health-without waiting for major policy overhauls.