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Sample records for roja bovina por

  1. [Nicanor Rojas, dean of the School of Medicine during Balmaceda's dictatorship].

    PubMed

    Costa-Casaretto, C

    1995-07-01

    The Chilean President José Manuel Balmaceda (1886-1891) had a constitutional conflict with the parliament. This conflict lead to a revolution that ended with the President's suicide, when he was refuged at the Argentinian Embassy in September 1891. President Balmaceda conducted an authoritarian government during several months. A decree from February, 1897, disposed the reorganization of the Medical School, dismissed and imprisoned the Dean, Dr Barros-Borgoño and nominated new Professors. Dr Nicanor Rojas, Professor of Gynecology was assigned as Dean and Dr Carlos Sazié as secretary. During the During the war against Perú and Bolivia, Dr. Rojas worked gratuitously and became prominent, being named Chief Surgeon of the Chilean Army. After the triumph of the revolution against President Balmaceda, Dr Rojas was discharged, and died in 1892. PMID:8560126

  2. Velocidades radiales de estrellas gigantes rojas y blue stragglers en cúmulos abiertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.

    Se presentan mediciones de las estrellas más brillantes en los campos de los cúmulos abiertos NGC 6530, NGC 2516, NGC 3114, Cr 223 y NGC 2437. Mediante correlaciones cruzadas se obtiene la velocidad de unas 25 gigantes rojas con el objeto de derivar la velocidad media de cada asociación. En base a los espectros obtenidos de los blue stragglers se discuten sus principales características y su probabilidad de pertenencia. Finalmente, se presentan las observaciones para cinco nuevas binarias espectroscópicas detectadas.

  3. The Rise and Development of Physics in Cuba: An Interview with Hugo Pérez Rojas in May 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baracca, Angelo

    Hugo Celso Pérez Rojas was born in 1938, and works as a senior researcher at the Institute of Cybernetics, Mathematics and Physics, at the Ministry of Science and Technology, Cuba. Pérez Rojas is emeritus member of the Academy of Sciences of Cuba, member of the Latin American Academy of Sciences and Fellow TWAS since 1994. He was one of the founders of the School of Physics in the University of Havana in 1962, and moved in 1971 to the Cuban Academy of Sciences. His national awards include the Rafael Maria Mendive and Carlos J. Finlay Medals. He was awarded in 2011 the National Prize in Physics from the Cuban Physical Society. His interests include quantum field theory and its applications to finite temperature problems in high-energy physics and condensed matter. Among these, Pérez Rojas has devoted special attention to quantum electrodynamics in matter and in vacuum in the presence of external fields, phase transitions in electroweak theory, relativistic quantum Hall effect, Bose-Einstein condensation in magnetic fields, and applications of physics to social sciences. He is interviewed here by Angelo Baracca in May 2009.

  4. The tadpole of Amazophrynella manaos Rojas, Carvalho, Gordo, Ávila, Farias and Hrbek, 2014 (Anura, Bufonidae) from the type locality and adjacent regions at Central Amazonia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Menin, Marcelo; Pegorini, Reysi Jhayne; De Carvalho, Vinicius Tadeu; Rojas, Rommel Roberto; Gordo, Marcelo

    2014-06-30

    The genus Amazophrynella, as currently recognized (Fouquet et al. 2012a, b), is represented by four nominal species (Frost 2014; Rojas et al. 2014) but the tadpoles of only one species, Amazophrynella minuta (Melin) from Ecuador, have been described (Duellman & Lynch 1969; Duellman 1978). Amazophrynella manaos Rojas, Carvalho, Gordo, Ávila, Farias and Hrbek, 2014 occurs in the leaf litter of terra firme forest in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Guiana region (Rojas et al. 2014). The tadpole of this species was briefly described in diagrammatic drawings by Hero (1990) as Dendrophryniscus minutus. Herein, we provide a detailed description of this tadpole based on individuals at 12 stages of development collected in five different sites, including the type locality, at Central Amazonia, Brazil.

  5. [Juan Marin Rojas M.D., First Professor of History of Medicine at Universidad de Chile and his "Essay about the origin of syphilis"].

    PubMed

    Laval, Enrique

    2014-06-01

    Dr. Juan Marín Rojas, M.D., was the first Professor of History of Medicine at Universidad de Chile, navy doctor, diplomat, writer and literary critic. Member of the International Society of History of Medicine, and Correspondent Member for Chile of the "Office de Documentation de Médecine et Pharmacie Militaire", Liege, Belgium, from which his "Essay about the origin of syphilis" is transcribed with interesting historical facts and little known arguments that affirm the non-american origin of syphilis, but "aspire to leave a doubt, given not a contrary conviction".

  6. Activity of ancient RTE retroposons during the evolution of cows, spiral-horned antelopes, and Nilgais (Bovinae).

    PubMed

    Nilsson, M A; Klassert, D; Bertelsen, M F; Hallström, B M; Janke, A

    2012-10-01

    In the genome of Artiodactyla (cow, sheep, pigs, camels, and whales), a major retroposon group originated from a presumable horizontal transfer of BovB, a retrotransposon-like element retroposon, between 52 and 70 million years ago. Since then, BovB retroposons have proliferated and today occupy a quarter of the cow's genome sequence. The BovB-related short interspersed elements (SINEs) were used for resolving the phylogeny of Bovinae (cows, spiral-horned antelopes, and nilgais) and their relatives. In silico screening of 55,000 intronic retroposon insertions in the cow genome and experimental validation of 126 introns resulted in 29 informative retroposon markers for resolving bovine evolutionary relationships. A transposition-in-transposition analysis identifies three different phases of SINE activity and show how BovB elements have expanded in the cattle genome.

  7. Molecular phylogeny of the tribe Bovini (Bovidae, Bovinae) and the taxonomic status of the Kouprey, Bos sauveli Urbain 1937.

    PubMed

    Hassanin, Alexandre; Ropiquet, Anne

    2004-12-01

    The kouprey is a very rare bovid species of the Indochinese peninsula, and no living specimen has been described for a long time, suggesting that it is possibly extinct. Its systematic position within the tribe Bovini remains confused since the analyses of morphological characters have led to several conflicting hypotheses. Some authors have also suggested that it could be a hybrid species produced by the crossing of the banteng with gaur, zebu, or water buffalo. Here we performed a molecular phylogeny of the tribe Bovini to determine the taxonomic status of the kouprey. DNA was extracted from the holotype specimen preserved in the MNHN collections. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out on a matrix including all the taxonomic diversity described in the tribe Bovini, and 2065 nucleotide characters, representing three different markers, i.e., the promotor of the lactoferrin and two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and subunit II of the cytochrome c oxidase). The results show that the kouprey belongs to the subtribe Bovina, and that three different clades can be evidenced into this group: the first includes the domestic ox, zebu, and European bison; the second incorporates the yak and American bison; and the third contains the kouprey, banteng and gaur. All hypotheses involving hybridization for the origin of the kouprey can be rejected, confirming that it is a real wild species. Molecular datings and biogeographic inferences suggest that the kouprey diverged from banteng and gaur during the Plio-Pleistocene of Asia. In addition, several molecular signatures were detected in the cytochrome b gene, permitting a molecular identification of the kouprey. We propose a conservation project based on a molecular taxonomy approach for tracking the kouprey in Indochina in order to determine whether some populations still survive in the wild.

  8. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  9. Portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This document provides storage requirements for 1,000 CFM portable exhausters POR-O07/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F. These requirements are presented in three parts: preparation for storage, storage maintenance and testing, and retrieval from storage. The exhauster component identification numbers listed in this document contain the prefix POR-007 or POR-008 depending on which exhauster is being used.

  10. A bill for the relief of Jorge Rojas Gutierrez, Olivia Gonzalez Gonzalez, and Jorge Rojas Gonzalez.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Feinstein, Dianne [D-CA

    2013-03-18

    03/18/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S1894-1895) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. A bill for the relief of Jorge Rojas Gutierrez, Olivia Gonzalez Gonzalez, and Jorge Rojas Gonzalez.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Feinstein, Dianne [D-CA

    2011-03-02

    03/02/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S1134) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Walter L.; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ~40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ~60%, is found on ~28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (~8% of Asians and ~13% of Caucasians) at −152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ~30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically-relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  13. Desigualdades por cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Información básica de las desigualdades en salud por cáncer en EE. UU., factores que contribuyen a la carga desproporcionada del cáncer en algunos grupos y ejemplos de desigualdades en incidencia y mortalidad entre ciertos grupos de la población.

  14. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Gorasia, Dhana G.; Veith, Paul D.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Glew, Michelle D.; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32–36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  15. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  16. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component.

  17. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS. PMID:27630829

  18. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Maxence S; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS. PMID:27630829

  19. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Maxence S; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  20. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  1. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  2. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion. PMID:23075153

  3. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion.

  4. Disminuyen en los Estados Unidos las infecciones por VPH.

    Cancer.gov

    La infección por los tipos del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) en el blanco de la vacuna cuadrivalente se redujo en casi dos tercios en las adolescentes desde que se recomendó la vacunación en los Estados Unidos.

  5. Centros oncológicos designados por el NCI

    Cancer.gov

    El programa de centros oncológicos designados por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) reconoce a los centros de todo el país que cumplen con rigurosos criterios para participar en proyectos avanzados de primer nivel para la investigación multidisciplinaria del cáncer.

  6. Se evitaron casi 800 000 muertes por descenso del tabaquismo

    Cancer.gov

    Programas y estrategias de control del tabaco del siglo XX fueron responsables de la prevención de más de 795 000 muertes por cáncer de pulmón en Estados Unidos de 1975 al 2000. Si todo el tabaquismo en este país hubiera cesado después de la publicación d

  7. Neisseria meningitidis Lacking the Major Porins PorA and PorB Is Viable and Modulates Apoptosis and the Oxidative Burst of Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Peak, Ian R; Chen, Adrienne; Jen, Freda E-C; Jennings, Courtney; Schulz, Benjamin L; Saunders, Nigel J; Khan, Arshad; Seifert, H Steven; Jennings, Michael P

    2016-08-01

    The bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis expresses two major outer-membrane porins. PorA expression is subject to phase-variation (high frequency, random, on-off switching), and both PorA and PorB are antigenically variable between strains. PorA expression is variable and not correlated with meningococcal colonisation or invasive disease, whereas all naturally-occurring strains express PorB suggesting strong selection for expression. We have generated N. meningitidis strains lacking expression of both major porins, demonstrating that they are dispensable for bacterial growth in vitro. The porAB mutant strain has an exponential growth rate similar to the parental strain, as do the single porA or porB mutants, but the porAB mutant strain does not reach the same cell density in stationary phase. Proteomic analysis suggests that the double mutant strain exhibits compensatory expression changes in proteins associated with cellular redox state, energy/nutrient metabolism, and membrane stability. On solid media, there is obvious growth impairment that is rescued by addition of blood or serum from mammalian species, particularly heme. These porin mutants are not impaired in their capacity to inhibit both staurosporine-induced apoptosis and a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced oxidative burst in human neutrophils suggesting that the porins are not the only bacterial factors that can modulate these processes in host cells.

  8. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  9. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    This document describes Acceptance Testing performed on Portable Exhauster POR-007/Skid E. It includes measurements of bearing vibration levels, pressure decay testing, programmable logic controller interlocks, high vacuum, flow and pressure control functional testing. The purpose of Acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-0490, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  10. Typing and surface charges of the variable loop regions of PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Paola; Neri, Arianna; Tanabe, Mikio; Fazio, Cecilia; Massari, Paola

    2016-06-01

    PorB is a pan-Neisserial major outer membrane protein with a trimeric β-barrel structure. Each monomer presents eight periplasmic turns and eight surface exposed loop regions with sequence variability. PorB induces activation of host cell responses via a TLR2-dependent mechanism likely mediated by electrostatic interactions between TLR2 and PorB surface exposed loops. Variability in the loop amino acid sequence is known to influence cell responses to PorB in vitro, particularly for the residues in L5 and L7. In this work, the sequence of the porB gene and the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from 35 invasive meningococcal isolates belonging to the main clonal complexes identified in Italy and from five carriage genomes available on the website http://pubmlst.org/neisseria/ were examined. Analysis of the porB encoding regions from the invasive meningococci has identified four new alleles and a potential association between porB alleles, serogroup, and clonal complexes. Through computer-based modeling and analysis of the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from these strains, loop charge segregation between PorB from invasive serogroups B and C was observed. Specifically, loops 1, 4, and 7 were negatively charged and L2 and L8 were mostly neutral in serogroup B isolates, while an overall homogeneous positive surface charge was present in PorB from invasive serogroup C strains. A higher PorB sequence variability was observed among carriage genomes, and a general prevalence of negative loop surface charges. The surface charge differences in PorB from serogroups B and C invasive and carriage strains may, in part, influence the outcomes of Neisseriae interactions with host cells. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(6):488-495, 2016. PMID:27156582

  11. Typing and surface charges of the variable loop regions of PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Paola; Neri, Arianna; Tanabe, Mikio; Fazio, Cecilia; Massari, Paola

    2016-06-01

    PorB is a pan-Neisserial major outer membrane protein with a trimeric β-barrel structure. Each monomer presents eight periplasmic turns and eight surface exposed loop regions with sequence variability. PorB induces activation of host cell responses via a TLR2-dependent mechanism likely mediated by electrostatic interactions between TLR2 and PorB surface exposed loops. Variability in the loop amino acid sequence is known to influence cell responses to PorB in vitro, particularly for the residues in L5 and L7. In this work, the sequence of the porB gene and the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from 35 invasive meningococcal isolates belonging to the main clonal complexes identified in Italy and from five carriage genomes available on the website http://pubmlst.org/neisseria/ were examined. Analysis of the porB encoding regions from the invasive meningococci has identified four new alleles and a potential association between porB alleles, serogroup, and clonal complexes. Through computer-based modeling and analysis of the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from these strains, loop charge segregation between PorB from invasive serogroups B and C was observed. Specifically, loops 1, 4, and 7 were negatively charged and L2 and L8 were mostly neutral in serogroup B isolates, while an overall homogeneous positive surface charge was present in PorB from invasive serogroup C strains. A higher PorB sequence variability was observed among carriage genomes, and a general prevalence of negative loop surface charges. The surface charge differences in PorB from serogroups B and C invasive and carriage strains may, in part, influence the outcomes of Neisseriae interactions with host cells. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(6):488-495, 2016.

  12. VDAC and the bacterial porin PorB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae share mitochondrial import pathways.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anne; Rassow, Joachim; Grimm, Jan; Machuy, Nikolaus; Meyer, Thomas F; Rudel, Thomas

    2002-04-15

    The human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae induces host cell apoptosis during infection by delivering the outer membrane protein PorB to the host cell's mitochondria. PorB is a pore-forming beta-barrel protein sharing several features with the mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), which is involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Here we show that PorB of pathogenic Neisseria species produced by host cells is efficiently targeted to mitochondria. Imported PorB resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane and forms multimers with similar sizes as in the outer bacterial membrane. The mitochondria completely lose their membrane potential, a characteristic previously observed in cells infected with gonococci or treated with purified PorB. Closely related bacterial porins of non-pathogenic Neisseria mucosa or Escherichia coli remain in the cytosol. Import of PorB into mitochondria in vivo is independent of a linear signal sequence. Insertion of PorB into the mitochondrial outer membrane in vitro depends on the activity of Tom5, Tom20 and Tom40, but is independent of Tom70. Our data show that human VDAC and bacterial PorB are imported into mitochondria by a similar mechanism. PMID:11953311

  13. P450 (Cytochrome) Oxidoreductase Gene (POR) Common Variant (POR*28) Significantly Alters CYP2C9 Activity in Swedish, But Not in Korean Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Fazleen H M; Aklillu, Eleni

    2015-12-01

    CYP2C9 enzyme contributes to the metabolism of several pharmaceuticals and xenobiotics and yet displays large person-to-person and interethnic variation. Understanding the mechanisms of CYP2C9 variation is thus of immense importance for personalized medicine and rational therapeutics. A genetic variant of P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase (POR), a CYP450 redox partner, is reported to influence CYP2C9 metabolic activity in vitro. We investigated the impact of a common variant, POR*28, on CYP2C9 metabolic activity in humans. 148 healthy Swedish and 146 healthy Korean volunteers were genotyped for known CYP2C9 defective variant alleles (CYP2C9*2, *3). The CYP2C9 phenotype was determined using a single oral dose of 50 mg losartan. Excluding oral contraceptive (OC) users and carriers of 2C9*2 and *3 alleles, 117 Korean and 65 Swedish were genotyped for POR*5, *13 and *28 using Taqman assays. The urinary losartan to its metabolite E-3174 metabolic ratio (MR) was used as an index of CYP2C9 metabolic activity. The allele frequency of the POR*28 variant allele in Swedes and Koreans was 29% and 44%, respectively. POR*5 and *13 were absent in both study populations. Considering the CYP2C9*1/*1 genotypes only, the CYP2C9 metabolic activity was 1.40-fold higher in carriers of POR*28 allele than non-carriers among Swedes (p = 0.02). By contrast, no influence of the POR*28 on CYP2C9 activity was found in Koreans (p = 0.68). The multivariate analysis showed that ethnicity, POR genotype, and smoking were strong predictors of CYP2C9 MR (p < 0.05). This is the first report to implicate the importance of POR*28 genetic variation for CYP2C9 metabolic activity in humans. These findings contribute to current efforts for global personalized medicine and using medicines by taking into account pharmacogenetic and phenotypic variations. PMID:26669712

  14. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Zoe A.; Seviour, Robert J.; Tucci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  15. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Zoe A; Seviour, Robert J; Tucci, Joseph; Petrovski, Steve

    2016-06-16

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA.

  16. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Zoe A; Seviour, Robert J; Tucci, Joseph; Petrovski, Steve

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  17. An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of PORS 15 and 16 Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kaelynn

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (PORS) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. PORS 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult PORS problems and PORS 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of PORS problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in PORS 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.

  18. Crystallographic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis PorB extracellular loops potentially implicated in TLR2 recognition.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Christof; Toussi, Deana N; Zaucha, Jan; Wetzler, Lee M; Rüppel, Nadine; Zachariae, Ulrich; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2014-03-01

    Among all Neisseriae species, Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the only human pathogens, causative agents of bacterial meningitis and gonorrhoea, respectively. PorB, a pan-Neisseriae trimeric porin that mediates diffusive transport of essential molecules across the bacterial outer membrane, is also known to activate host innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated signaling. The molecular mechanism of PorB binding to TLR2 is not known, but it has been hypothesized that electrostatic interactions contribute to ligand/receptor binding. Strain-specific sequence variability in the surface-exposed loops of PorB which are potentially implicated in TLR2 binding, may explain the difference in TLR2-mediated cell activation in vitro by PorB homologs from the commensal Neisseriae lactamica and the pathogen N. meningitidis. Here, we report a comparative structural analysis of PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup B strain 8765 (63% sequence homology with PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup W135) and a mutant in which amino acid substitutions in the extracellular loop 7 lead to significantly reduced TLR2-dependent activity in vitro. We observe that this mutation both alters the loop conformation and causes dramatic changes of electrostatic surface charge, both of which may affect TLR2 recognition and signaling. PMID:24361688

  19. Structural basis for solute transport, nucleotide regulation, and immunological recognition of Neisseria meningitidis PorB

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Mikio; Nimigean, Crina M.; Iverson, T.M.

    2010-06-25

    PorB is the second most prevalent outer membrane protein in Neisseria meningitidis. PorB is required for neisserial pathogenesis and can elicit a Toll-like receptor mediated host immune response. Here, the x-ray crystal structure of PorB has been determined to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. Structural analysis and cocrystallization studies identify three putative solute translocation pathways through the channel pore: One pathway transports anions nonselectively, one transports cations nonselectively, and one facilitates the specific uptake of sugars. During infection, PorB likely binds host mitochondrial ATP, and cocrystallization with the ATP analog AMP-PNP suggests that binding of nucleotides regulates these translocation pathways both by partial occlusion of the pore and by restricting the motion of a putative voltage gating loop. PorB is located on the surface of N. meningitidis and can be recognized by receptors of the host innate immune system. Features of PorB suggest that Toll-like receptor mediated recognition outer membrane proteins may be initiated with a nonspecific electrostatic attraction.

  20. New taxa, new records and redefined concepts in the Elaphoglossum sect. Elaphoglossum subsec. Pachyglossa (Lomariopsidaceae) from Mexico and Central America.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Alvarado, Alexander Francisco

    2003-03-01

    Twelve new species are described in the taxonomically difficult Elaphoglossum (sect. Elaphoglossum): Elaphoglossum angustifrons A. Rojas, E. delgadilloanum A. Rojas, E. ellipticifolium A. Rojas, E. incognitum A. Rojas, E. mesoamericanum A. Rojas, E. nicaraguese A. Rojas, E. polypodium A. Rojas, E. tejeroanum A. Rojas, E. reptans A. Rojas, E. terrestre A. Rojas, E. variabile A. Rojas and E. zavale A. Rojas. Also, E. latifolium (Sw.) J. Sm., E. sartorii (Liebm.) Mickel and E. viride (E. Fourn.) C. Chr. are amended, E. andicola (Fée) T. Moore and E. sporadolepis (Kunze ex Kuhn) T. Moore are reported. PMID:15162678

  1. For the relief of Maria Carmen Castro Ramirez and J. Refugio Carreno Rojas.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Pelosi, Nancy [D-CA-8

    2011-02-18

    12/05/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Por Secretion System-Dependent Secretion and Glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemin-Binding Protein 35

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Mikio; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Kondo, Yoshio; Narita, Yuka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the Por secretion system (PorSS), which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps) and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35), which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the PorSS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in PorSS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the PorSS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study. PMID:21731719

  3. Molecular characterisation of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates from different outbreaks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Rivera-Benítez, J F; Blomström, A-L; Ramliden, M; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Berg, M

    2016-02-01

    Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised. To investigate the overall genetic variation, full-length gene nucleotide sequences of current PorPV isolates were obtained from different clinical cases of infected swine. Genome organisation and sequence analysis of the encoded proteins (NP, P, F, M, HN and L) revealed high sequence conservation of the NP protein and the expression of the P and V proteins in all PorPV isolates. The V protein of one isolate displayed a mutation that has been implicated to antagonise the antiviral immune responses of the host. The M protein indicated a variation in a short region that could affect the electrostatic charge and the interaction with the membrane. One PorPV isolate recovered from the lungs showed a mutation at the cleavage site (HRKKR) of the F protein that could represent an important factor to determine the tissue tropism and pathogenicity of this virus. The HN protein showed high sequence identity through the years (up to 2013). Additionally, a number of sequence motifs of very high amino acid conservation among the PorPV isolates important for polymerase activity of the L protein have been identified. In summary, genetic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that three different genetic variants of PorPV are currently spreading within the swine population, and a new generation of circulating virus with different characteristics has begun to emerge.

  4. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  5. Informe a la Nación de mortalidad por cáncer sigue bajando

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, de 1975 a 2009, indica que los índices generales de mortalidad por cáncer siguen bajando en los Estados Unidos en hombres y mujeres, entre todos los grupos raciales y étnicos principales y para todo

  6. Structure and function of the PorB porin from disseminating Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Zeth, Kornelius; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Faulstich, Michaela; Fraunholz, Martin; Hurwitz, Robert; Kepp, Oliver; Rudel, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria contains a large number of channel-forming proteins, porins, for the uptake of small nutrient molecules. Neisseria gonorrhoeae PorBIA (PorB of serotype A) are associated with disseminating diseases and mediate a rapid bacterial invasion into host cells in a phosphate-sensitive manner. To gain insights into this structure-function relationship we analysed PorBIA by X-ray crystallography in the presence of phosphate and ATP. The structure of PorBIA in the complex solved at a resolution of 3.3 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) displays a surplus of positive charges inside the channel. ATP ligand-binding in the channel is co-ordinated by the positively charged residues of the channel interior. These residues ligate the aromatic, sugar and pyrophosphate moieties of the ligand. Two phosphate ions were observed in the structure, one of which clamped by two arginine residues (Arg92 and Arg124) localized at the extraplasmic channel exit. A short β-bulge in β2-strand together with the long L3 loop narrow the barrel diameter significantly and further support substrate specificity through hydrogen bond interactions. Interestingly the structure also comprised a small peptide as a remnant of a periplasmic protein which physically links porin molecules to the peptidoglycan network. To test the importance of Arg92 on bacterial invasion the residue was mutated. In vivo assays of bacteria carrying a R92S mutation confirmed the importance of this residue for host-cell invasion. Furthermore systematic sequence and structure comparisons of PorBIA from Neisseriaceae indicated Arg92 to be unique in disseminating N. gonorrhoeae thereby possibly distinguishing invasion-promoting porins from other neisserial porins.

  7. Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

  8. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-06-27

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-005 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  9. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-006 skid D

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-07-29

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-006 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  10. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-004 skid B

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-05-06

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-004 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  11. Expression, purification and preliminary X-ray analysis of the Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorB

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Mikio; Iverson, Tina M.

    2010-01-28

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorB was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified from inclusion bodies by denaturation in urea followed by refolding in buffered LDAO on a size-exclusion column. PorB has been crystallized in three different crystal forms: C222, R32 and P6{sub 3}. The C222 crystal form may contain either one or two PorB monomers in the asymmetric unit, while both the R32 and P6{sub 3} crystal forms contained one PorB monomer in the asymmetric unit. Of the three, the P6{sub 3} crystal form had the best diffraction quality, yielding data extending to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution.

  12. Effect of SPM-based cleaning POR on EUV mask performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaehyuck; Lee, Han-shin; Yoon, Jinsang; Shimomura, Takeya; Friz, Alex; Montgomery, Cecilia; Ma, Andy; Goodwin, Frank; Kang, Daehyuk; Chung, Paul; Shin, Inkyun; Cho, H.

    2011-11-01

    EUV masks include many different layers of various materials rarely used in optical masks, and each layer of material has a particular role in enhancing the performance of EUV lithography. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the mask quality and patterning performance can change during mask fabrication, EUV exposure, maintenance cleaning, shipping, or storage. The fact that a pellicle is not used to protect the mask surface in EUV lithography suggests that EUV masks may have to undergo more cleaning cycles during their lifetime. More frequent cleaning, combined with the adoption of new materials for EUV masks, necessitates that mask manufacturers closely examine the performance change of EUV masks during cleaning process. We have investigated EUV mask quality and patterning performance during 30 cycles of Samsung's EUV mask SPM-based cleaning and 20 cycles of SEMATECH ADT exposure. We have observed that the quality and patterning performance of EUV masks does not significantly change during these processes except mask pattern CD change. To resolve this issue, we have developed an acid-free cleaning POR and substantially improved EUV mask film loss compared to the SPM-based cleaning POR.

  13. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  14. Substrate-specific modulation of CYP3A4 activity by genetic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR)

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Vishal; Choi, Ji Ha; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Miller, Walter L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives CYP3A4 receives electrons from P450 oxidoreductase (POR) to metabolize about 50% of clinically used drugs. There is substantial inter-individual variation in CYP3A4 catalytic activity that is not explained by CYP3A4 genetic variants. CYP3A4 is flexible and distensible, permitting it to accommodate substrates varying in shape and size. To elucidate mechanisms of variability in CYP3A4 catalysis, we examined the effects of genetic variants of POR, and explored the possibility that substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4 differentially affect the ability of POR variants to support catalysis. Methods We expressed human CYP3A4 and four POR variants (Q153R, A287P, R457H, A503V) in bacteria, reconstituted them in vitro and measured the Michaelis constant and maximum velocity with testosterone, midazolam, quinidine and erythromycin as substrates. Results POR A287P and R457H had low activity with all substrates; Q153R had 76–94% of wild type (WT) activity with midazolam and erythromycin, but 129–150% activity with testosterone and quinidine. The A503V polymorphism reduced CYP3A4 activity to 61–77% of wild type with testosterone and midazolam, but had nearly wild type activity with quinidine and erythromycin. Conclusion POR variants affect CYP3A4 activities. The impact of a POR variant on catalysis by CYP3A4 is substrate-specific, probably due to substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4. PMID:20697309

  15. Reconstrução tridimensional de arcos magnéticos por tomografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, P. J. A.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação súbita do brilho que ocorre nas regiões ativas da atmosfera solar. Estas regiões são constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética e em cenários bem complexos como visto recentemente através de experimentos embarcados em satélites operando instrumentos em raios X moles e ultra-violeta distante. A energia magnética, que pode ser armazenada por um período de horas até dias em configurações magnéticas estressadas, é subitamente lançada na atmosfera solar e transferida para partículas como elétrons, prótons e núcleos pesados, que são acelerados e/ou aquecidos, produzindo radiação eletromagnética. A proposta final deste projeto é determinar as características espaciais de alta resolução da emissão e polarização girossincrotrônica de explosões solares em ambientes complexos de campos magnéticos. Os recentes resultados da emissão difusa em EUV apresentado pelos satélites TRACE e SOHO dos arcos magnéticos conectando as diferentes polaridades magnéticas sobre as regiões ativas possibilitam novas abordagens sobre o papel do campo magnético na emissão em rádio. Nesta etapa apresentamos os resultados da reconstrução da geometria tridimensional das linhas de força destes arcos utilizando técnicas tomográficas, a partir de imagens de alta resolução espacial obtidas pelo instrumento EIT (Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope), além da modelagem das induções magnéticas por um campo dipolar e as densidades de partículas aceleradas. Utilizamos para a reconstrução geométrica, imagens tomadas em vários ângulos dos arcos devido à rotacão solar. Com estes resultados, daremos continuidade ao projeto, com os cálculos da transferência radiativa nos modos ordinário e extraordinário de propagação da radiação girossincrotrônica de explosões solares.

  16. Using the PORS Problems to Examine Evolutionary Optimization of Multiscale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, Zachary; Molian, Vaelan; Bryden, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all systems of practical interest are composed of parts assembled across multiple scales. For example, an agrodynamic system is composed of flora and fauna on one scale; soil types, slope, and water runoff on another scale; and management practice and yield on another scale. Or consider an advanced coal-fired power plant: combustion and pollutant formation occurs on one scale, the plant components on another scale, and the overall performance of the power system is measured on another. In spite of this, there are few practical tools for the optimization of multiscale systems. This paper examines multiscale optimization of systems composed of discrete elements using the plus-one-recall-store (PORS) problem as a test case or study problem for multiscale systems. From this study, it is found that by recognizing the constraints and patterns present in discrete multiscale systems, the solution time can be significantly reduced and much more complex problems can be optimized.

  17. Rescue of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por) mouse mutants reveals functions in vasculogenesis, brain and limb patterning linked to retinoic acid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ribes, Vanessa; Otto, Diana M E; Dickmann, Leslie; Schmidt, Katy; Schuhbaur, Brigitte; Henderson, Colin; Blomhoff, Rune; Wolf, C Roland; Tickle, Cheryll; Dollé, Pascal

    2007-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) acts as an electron donor for all cytochrome P450 enzymes. Knockout mouse Por(-/-) mutants, which are early embryonic (E9.5) lethal, have been found to have overall elevated retinoic acid (RA) levels, leading to the idea that POR early developmental function is mainly linked to the activity of the CYP26 RA-metabolizing enzymes (Otto et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 23, 6103-6116). By crossing Por mutants with a RA-reporter lacZ transgene, we show that Por(-/-) embryos exhibit both elevated and ectopic RA signaling activity e.g. in cephalic and caudal tissues. Two strategies were used to functionally demonstrate that decreasing retinoid levels can reverse Por(-/-) phenotypic defects, (i) by culturing Por(-/-) embryos in defined serum-free medium, and (ii) by generating compound mutants defective in RA synthesis due to haploinsufficiency of the retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Raldh2) gene. Both approaches clearly improved the Por(-/-) early phenotype, the latter allowing mutants to be recovered up until E13.5. Abnormal brain patterning, with posteriorization of hindbrain cell fates and defective mid- and forebrain development and vascular defects were rescued in E9.5 Por(-/-) embryos. E13.5 Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) embryos exhibited abdominal/caudal and limb defects that strikingly phenocopy those of Cyp26a1(-/-) and Cyp26b1(-/-) mutants, respectively. Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) limb buds were truncated and proximalized and the anterior-posterior patterning system was not established. Thus, POR function is indispensable for the proper regulation of RA levels and tissue distribution not only during early embryonic development but also in later morphogenesis and molecular patterning of the brain, abdominal/caudal region and limbs. PMID:17126317

  18. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

  19. [Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD, students at Budapest and Prague Faculties of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Mydlík, M; Derzsiová, K

    2010-11-01

    Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD were contemporaries, both born in 1899, one in Zvolen, the other in Dombovar, at the time of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Prof. Por attended the Faculty of Medicine in Budapest from 1918 to 1920, and Prof. Klopstock studied at the same place between 1917 and 1919. From 1920 until graduation on 6th February 1926, Prof. Por continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. Prof. Klopstock had to interrupt his studies in Budapest due to pulmonary tuberculosis; he received treatment at Tatranske Matliare where he befriended Franz Kafka. Later, upon Kafka's encouragement, he changed institutions and continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, where he graduated the first great go. It is very likely that, during their studies in Budapest and Prague, both professors met repeatedly, even though their life paths later separated. Following his graduation, Prof. Por practiced as an internist in Prague, later in Slovakia, and from 1945 in Kosice. In 1961, he was awarded the title of university professor of internal medicine at the Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, where he practiced until his death in 1980. Prof. Klopstock continued his studies in Kiel and Berlin. After his graduation in 1933, he practiced in Berlin as a surgeon and in 1938 left for USA. In 1962, he was awarded the title of university professor of pulmonary surgery in NewYork, where he died in 1972.

  20. Sequence evolution of the porB gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis: evidence of positive Darwinian selection.

    PubMed

    Smith, N H; Maynard Smith, J; Spratt, B G

    1995-05-01

    Protein 1 (PI) is a major porin of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis and is encoded by a single locus, porB. Alleles of the porB locus of N. gonorrhoeae are assigned to two homology groups, PI(A) and PI(B), on the basis of immunological and structural similarity. In a like manner, alleles of the porB locus of the closely related bacterium, N. meningitidis, are allocated into class 2 and class 3 homology groups. An individual strain of N. gonorrhoeae or N. meningitidis expresses either one or other of these porin homology groups but never both, and the antigenic reactions of these highly diverse outer membrane proteins form part of the N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis serotyping schemes. A comparison of the number of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions per site between the two most divergent alleles of each of these four groups of porB alleles shows that PI(A) alleles have accumulated significantly more nonsynonymous substitutions per site than synonymous substitutions. In contrast the distribution of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions between alleles of class 2 and class 3 porins are not significantly different from random. We localize the regions of the PI(A) alleles with an excess of amino acid changes to the surface-exposed loops of these outer membrane proteins and suggest that positive Darwinian selection for diversity, driven by the human immune system, can most easily explain the allelic polymorphism and the pattern of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions.

  1. Functional Expression of the PorAH Channel from Corynebacterium glutamicum in Cell-free Expression Systems

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Parthasarathi; Demange, Pascal; Saurel, Olivier; Tropis, Marielle; Daffé, Mamadou; Dötsch, Volker; Ghazi, Alexandre; Bernhard, Frank; Milon, Alain

    2011-01-01

    PorA and PorH are two small membrane proteins from the outer membrane of Corynebacterium glutamicum, which have been shown to form heteromeric ion channels and to be post-translationally modified by mycolic acids. Any structural details of the channel could not be analyzed so far due to tremendous difficulties in the production of sufficient amounts of protein samples. Cell-free (CF) expression is a new and remarkably successful strategy for the production of membrane proteins for which toxicity, membrane targeting, and degradation are key issues. In addition, reaction conditions can easily be modified to modulate the quality of synthesized protein samples. We developed an efficient CF expression strategy to produce the channel subunits devoid of post-translational modifications. 15N-labeled PorA and PorH samples were furthermore characterized by NMR and gave well resolved spectra, opening the way for structural studies. The comparison of ion channel activities of CF-expressed proteins with channels isolated from C. glutamicum gave clear insights on the influence of the mycolic acid modification of the two subunits on their functional properties. PMID:21799011

  2. jPOR: An ImageJ macro to quantify total optical porosity from blue-stained thin sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Clayton; Jerram, Dougal A.

    2011-11-01

    A fast and effective method has been developed to measure total optical porosity (TOP) of blue resin-impregnated thin sections. This utilises a macro file (jPOR.txt) for ImageJ, which can be used on digital photomicrographs of thin sections. The method requires no specialised scientific equipment and can be run entirely using free to download software. Digital images are acquired from blue resin-impregnated thin sections using a conventional film scanner in the present study, though the technique can be applied to any high resolution colour digital acquired by different means (e.g., flat bed scanning, digital capture). Images are preprocessed using a newly developed custom 8-bit palette and analysed for porosity in ImageJ using the simple to use jPOR macro. Our method rapidly calculates TOP for batches of images with or without the option of user adjustment. Results are compared with conventional methods (e.g., to point counting), and tested with several users to estimate any user variability. jPOR provided comparable results to more time-consuming point counting, but with significantly less "counting error" and less interoperator variability than published point counting studies. The jPOR macro has been integrated into a macro tool set that can be configured to be run on ImageJ start up.

  3. Functional POR A503V is associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xue; Ma, Gaoxiang; Li, Shushu; Wang, Meilin; Liu, Nian; Ma, Lan; Zhang, Zhan; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) plays important roles in the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous sterol hormones. However, few studies have explored the association between POR variants and the risk of bladder cancer. In this study, we first sequenced all 16 POR exons among 50 randomly selected controls, and found three variants, rs1135612, rs1057868 (A503V) and rs2228104, which were then assessed the relation to risk of bladder cancer in a case-control study of 1,050 bladder cancer cases and 1,404 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. People with A503V TT genotype have a decreased risk of bladder cancer in a recessive model (TT vs. CC/CT, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.57–0.93), which was more pronounced among elderly male, non-smoking, subjects. Especially, A503V TT genotype showed a protective effect in the invasive tumor stage. Functional analysis revealed that A503V activity decreased in cytochrome c reduction (50.5 units/mg vs. 135.4 units/mg), mitomycin C clearance (38.3% vs. 96.8%), and mitomycin C-induced colony formation (78.0 vs 34.3 colonies per dish). The results suggested that POR A503V might decrease the risk of bladder cancer by reducing its metabolic activity, and should be a potential biomarker for predicting the susceptibility to human bladder cancer. PMID:26123203

  4. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la

  5. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  6. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  7. The POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype is associated with high tacrolimus concentrations in early post-renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shu; Chen, Rong-xin; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xue-ding; Fu, Qian; Chen, Ling-yan; Liu, Xiao-man; Huang, Hong-bing; Huang, Min; Wang, Chang-xi; Li, Jia-li

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the only flavoprotein that donates electrons to all microsomal P450 enzymes (CYP), and several POR SNPs have been shown to be important contributors to altered CYP activity or CYP-mediated drug metabolism. In this study we examined the association between 6 POR SNPs and tacrolimus concentrations in Chinese renal transplant recipients. Methods: A total of 154 renal transplant recipients were enrolled. Genotyping of CYP3A5*3 and 6 POR SNPs was performed. All patients received a triple immunosuppressive regimen comprising tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone. Dose-adjusted tacrolimus trough concentrations were obtained on d 7 (C0D7/D) after transplantation when steady-state concentration of tacrolimus was achieved (dosage had been unchanged for more than 3 d). Results: Tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype carriers was 1.62- and 2.72-fold higher than those in CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype non-carriers and CYP3A5*1 carriers (220.17±48.09 vs 135.69±6.86 and 80.84±5.27 ng/mL/mg/kg, respectively, P<0.0001). Of CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868-rs2868177GC-GT diplotype carriers, 85.71% exceeded the upper limit of the target range (8 ng/mL), which was also significantly higher compared with the latter two groups (14.29% and 0.00%, respectively, P<0.0001). The CYP3A5*3 and POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype explained 31.7% and 5.7%, respectively, of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D, whereas the POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype could explain 10.9% of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5 non-expressers. Conclusion: The CYP3A5*3 and POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype accounted for the inter-individual variation of tacrolimus C0D7/D. Genotyping of POR rs1057868–rs2868177 diplotypes would help to differentiate initial tacrolimus dose requirements and to achieve early target C0 ranges in Chinese

  8. Targeting of Neisserial PorB to the mitochondrial outer membrane: an insight on the evolution of β-barrel protein assembly machines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jhih-Hang; Davies, John K; Lithgow, Trevor; Strugnell, Richard A; Gabriel, Kipros

    2011-11-01

    Mitochondria originated from Gram-negative bacteria through endosymbiosis. In modern day mitochondria, the Sorting and Assembly Machinery (SAM) is responsible for eukaryotic β-barrel protein assembly in the mitochondrial outer membrane. The SAM is the functional equivalent of the β-barrel assembly machinery found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. In this study we examined the import pathway of a pathogenic bacterial protein, PorB, which is targeted from pathogenic Neisseria to the host mitochondria. We have developed a new method for measurement of PorB assembly into mitochondria that relies on the mobility shift exhibited by bacterial β-barrel proteins once folded and separated under semi-native electrophoretic conditions. We show that PorB is targeted to the outer mitochondrial membrane with a dependence on the intermembrane space shuttling chaperones and the core component of the SAM, Sam50, which is a functional homologue of BamA that is required for PorB assembly in bacteria. The peripheral subunits of the SAM, Sam35 and Sam37, which are essential for eukaryotic β-barrel protein assembly but do not have distinguishable functional homologues in bacteria, are not required for PorB assembly in eukaryotes. This shows that PorB uses an evolutionary conserved 'bacterial like' mechanism to infiltrate the host mitochondrial outer membrane. PMID:22032638

  9. Influence of Various Polymorphic Variants of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) on Drug Metabolic Activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6

    PubMed Central

    Naranmandura, Hua; Zeng, Su; Chen, Shu Qing

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is known as the sole electron donor in the metabolism of drugs by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human. However, little is known about the effect of polymorphic variants of POR on drug metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. In order to better understand the mechanism of the activity of CYPs affected by polymorphic variants of POR, six full-length mutants of POR (e.g., Y181D, A287P, K49N, A115V, S244C and G413S) were designed and then co-expressed with CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cells to determine their kinetic parameters. Surprisingly, both mutants, Y181D and A287P in POR completely inhibited the CYP3A4 activity with testosterone, while the catalytic activity of CYP2B6 with bupropion was reduced to approximately ∼70% of wild-type activity by Y181D and A287P mutations. In addition, the mutant K49N of POR increased the CLint (Vmax/Km) of CYP3A4 up to more than 31% of wild-type, while it reduced the catalytic efficiency of CYP2B6 to 74% of wild-type. Moreover, CLint values of CYP3A4-POR (A115V, G413S) were increased up to 36% and 65% of wild-type respectively. However, there were no appreciable effects observed by the remaining two mutants of POR (i.e., A115V and G413S) on activities of CYP2B6. In conclusion, the extent to which the catalytic activities of CYP were altered did not only depend on the specific POR mutations but also on the isoforms of different CYP redox partners. Thereby, we proposed that the POR-mutant patients should be carefully monitored for the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 on the prescribed medication. PMID:22719896

  10. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  11. Population genetics of the porB gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: different dynamics in different homology groups.

    PubMed

    Posada, D; Crandall, K A; Nguyen, M; Demma, J C; Viscidi, R P

    2000-03-01

    The porB locus codes for the major outer membrane protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Alleles of this locus have been assigned to two homology groups based on close sequence and immunological relationships and are designated as either PIA or PIB. Several population parameters were estimated and compared among these two groups using a data set of 22 PIA sequences and 91 PIB sequences obtained from diverse geographic localities and from time periods spanning approximately 50 years. Recombination appears to be extensive in the porB gene. While the recombination rates are similar for the PIA and PIB sequences, the relative contribution of recombination to genetic diversity is higher for the PIA sequences. Alleles belonging to the PIB group show greater genetic diversity than do those in the PIA group. Although phylogenetic analysis did not reveal temporal or geographic clustering of sequences, estimates of gene flow and the fixation index suggested that PIB sequences exhibit population substructure based on geographic locality. Selection acts in these homology groups in a different way. While positive Darwinian selection is the dominant force driving the evolution of the PIA sequences, purifying selection operates also on the PIB sequences. These differences may be attributable to the greater propensity of PIA strains, as compared with PIB strains, to cause disseminated gonococcal infection, which would expose the former to intense selection pressure from the host immune system. The molecular evolution of Neisseria gonorrhoeae seems to be driven by the simultaneous action of selection and recombination, but under different rates and selection pressures for the PIA and PIB homology groups.

  12. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity in UK infants of a novel meningococcal vesicle vaccine containing multiple class 1 (PorA) outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, K; Morris, R; Rümke, H; Fox, A; Borrow, R; Begg, N; Richmond, P; Poolman, J

    1999-06-01

    The development of effective vaccines against serogroup B meningococci is of great public health importance. We assessed a novel genetically engineered vaccine containing six meningococcal class 1 (PorA) outer membrane proteins representing 80% of prevalent strains in the UK. 103 infants were given the meningococcal vaccine at ages 2, 3 and 4 months with routine infant immunisations, with a fourth dose at 12-18 months. The vaccine was well tolerated. Three doses evoked good immune responses to two of six meningococcal strains expressing PorA proteins contained in the vaccine. Following a fourth dose, larger bactericidal responses to all six strains were observed, suggesting that the initial course had primed memory lymphocytes and revaccination stimulated a booster response. This hexavalent PorA meningococcal vaccine was safe and evoked encouraging immune responses in infants. Vaccines of this type warrant further development and evaluation. PMID:10418910

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal fragment of PorM, a subunit of the Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system.

    PubMed

    Stathopulos, Julien; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Roussel, Alain; Leone, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    PorM is a membrane protein involved in the assembly of the type IX secretion system (T9SS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major bacterial pathogen responsible for periodontal disease in humans. The periplasmic domain of PorM was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. A fragment of the purified protein was obtained by limited proteolysis. Crystals of this fragment belonged to the tetragonal space group P4(3)2(1)2. Native and MAD data sets were recorded to 2.85 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. PMID:25615973

  14. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    Mould materials for injection moulding of polymers and polymer-matrix composites represent a relevant industrial economic sector due to the large quantity of pieces and components processed. The material selection for mould manufacturing, its composition and heat treatment, the hardening procedures and machining and finishing processes determine the service performance and life of the mould. In the first part of the present study, the relationship between the hardness and microstructure and the wear resistance of mould steels from large blocks has been studied by pin-on-disc tests, studying the main wear mechanisms. In order to determine the surface damage on mould steels under real injection conditions, different commercial steels have been studied by measuring the variation of surface roughness with the number of injected pieces with different reinforcement percentages and different mould geometries, by using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy techniques. It was important to determine the variation of surface roughness of the moulded pieces with the number of injection operations. The materials used were polybutyleneterephthalate pure and reinforced with either 20% or 50% glass fibre. For the different mould designs, the evolution of the glass fibre orientation with injection flow has been determined by image analysis and related to roughness changes and surface damage, both of the composite parts and of the mould steel surface. Finally, the abrasion resistance of the composite parts has been studied by scratch tests as a function of the number of injected parts and of the scratch direction with respect to injection flow and glass fibre orientation. Los materiales para moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos representan un sector economicamente muy relevante debido al gran aumento del numero de componentes fabricados a partir de materiales polimericos obtenidos mediante moldeo por inyeccion. La seleccion del material para la

  15. Palivizumab outcomes registry data from Spain: Infección Respiratoria Infantil por Virus Respiratorio Sincitial (IRIS) Study Group.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier

    2003-02-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory illness in children <2 years of age. Severe RSV infection requiring hospitalization is linked to gestational age, chronic cardiopulmonary conditions and immunosuppression. The Infección Respiratoria Infantil por Virus Respiratorio Sincitial (IRIS) Study group in Spain conducted two pivotal epidemiologic studies establishing that serious RSV illness among premature infants was responsible for high rehospitalization rates (approximately 13%). RSV lower respiratory tract illness also correlated with prolonged hospital stay and more intensive care unit admissions. In Europe recent availability of palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody to RSV, is a major therapeutic advancement directed against prevention of lower respiratory tract infection secondary to this viral pathogen. To ensure proper and optimal usage of palivizumab, the IRIS group, in conjunction with the Spanish Neonatology Group, developed prophylaxis guidelines for neonates. Palivizumab prophylaxis is strongly recommended in premature infants < or =28 weeks gestation or those affected with chronic lung disease. Additionally, palivizumab is recommended for infants with a gestational age of 29 to 32 weeks, without evidence of chronic lung disease and who are <6 months old at the onset of the RSV season. It was thought that slightly older premature infants (33 to 35 weeks gestational age) should be assessed on an individual basis to determine whether prophylaxis is warranted. The IRIS Study Group is currently determining the effectiveness of these recommendations by measuring the incidence of RSV-related hospital admissions in infants born at < or =32 weeks gestational age who are receiving palivizumab prophylaxis.

  16. Double-locus sequence typing using porA and peb1A for epidemiological studies of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Monir U; Dunn, Louise; Valcanis, Mary; Hogg, Geoff; Ivanova, Elena P

    2014-03-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Bacterial typing schemes play an important role in epidemiological investigations to trace the source and route of transmission of the infectious agent by identifying outbreak and differentiating among sporadic infections. In this study, a double-locus sequence typing (DLST) scheme for C. jejuni based on concatenated partial sequences of porA and peb1A genes is proposed. The DLST scheme was validated using 50 clinical and environmental C. jejuni strains isolated from human (C5, H, H15-H19), chicken (CH1-CH15), water (W2-W17), and ovine samples (OV1-OV6). The scheme was found to be highly discriminatory (discrimination index [DI]=0.964) and epidemiologically concordant based on C. jejuni strains studied. The DLST showed discriminatory power above 0.95 and excellent congruence to multilocus sequence typing and can be recommended as a rapid and low-cost typing scheme for epidemiological investigation of C. jejuni. It is suggested that the DLST scheme is suitable for identification of outbreak strains and differentiation of the sporadic infection strains.

  17. Saturating mutagenesis of an essential gene: a majority of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae major outer membrane porin (PorB) is mutable.

    PubMed

    Chen, Adrienne; Seifert, H Steven

    2014-02-01

    The major outer membrane porin (PorB) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an essential protein that mediates ion exchange between the organism and its environment and also plays multiple roles in human host pathogenesis. To facilitate structure-function studies of porin's multiple roles, we performed saturating mutagenesis at the porB locus and used deep sequencing to identify essential versus mutable residues. Random mutations in porB were generated in a plasmid vector, and mutant gene pools were transformed into N. gonorrhoeae to select for alleles that maintained bacterial viability. Deep sequencing of the input plasmid pools and the output N. gonorrhoeae genomic DNA pools identified mutations present in each, and the mutations in both pools were compared to determine which changes could be tolerated by the organism. We examined the mutability of 328 amino acids in the mature PorB protein and found that 308 of them were likely to be mutable and that 20 amino acids were likely to be nonmutable. A subset of these predictions was validated experimentally. This approach to identifying essential amino acids in a protein of interest introduces an additional application for next-generation sequencing technology and provides a template for future studies of both porin and other essential bacterial genes.

  18. Informe a la nación indica que los índices de muertes por cáncer siguen bajando

    Cancer.gov

    Los índices de mortalidad por todos los cánceres combinados para hombres, mujeres y niños siguieron bajando en Estados Unidos entre 2004 y 2008, según el Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer de 1975 a 2008. El índice general de diagnóstico

  19. El proceso hacia la integracion de la equidad por genero al curriculo.(The Process of the Integration of Gender Equity in the Curriculum.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Bermudez, Carmen D.

    "El Proyecto Colaborativo de Equidad por Genero en la Educacion," or the Collaborative Project for Gender Equity in Education, was undertaken in Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1992 to study how to facilitate the integration of gender equity themes in the curriculum through the direct action of participating teachers. A study examined the attitudes…

  20. Cell Growth Defect Factor1/CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 Plays a Role in Stabilization of Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Yong; Lee, Ho-Seok; Song, Ji-Young; Jung, Young Jun; Reinbothe, Steffen; Park, Youn-Il; Lee, Sang Yeol; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Angiosperms require light for chlorophyll biosynthesis because one reaction in the pathway, the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide, is catalyzed by the light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). Here, we report that Cell growth defect factor1 (Cdf1), renamed here as CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 (CPP1), an essential protein for chloroplast development, plays a role in the regulation of POR stability and function. Cdf1/CPP1 contains a J-like domain and three transmembrane domains, is localized in the thylakoid and envelope membranes, and interacts with POR isoforms in chloroplasts. CPP1 can stabilize POR proteins with its holdase chaperone activity. CPP1 deficiency results in diminished POR protein accumulation and defective chlorophyll synthesis, leading to photobleaching and growth inhibition of plants under light conditions. CPP1 depletion also causes reduced POR accumulation in etioplasts of dark-grown plants and as a result impairs the formation of prolamellar bodies, which subsequently affects chloroplast biogenesis upon illumination. Furthermore, in cyanobacteria, the CPP1 homolog critically regulates POR accumulation and chlorophyll synthesis under high-light conditions, in which the dark-operative Pchlide oxidoreductase is repressed by its oxygen sensitivity. These findings and the ubiquitous presence of CPP1 in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms suggest the conserved nature of CPP1 function in the regulation of POR. PMID:24151298

  1. Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH por Género y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, México: 2006

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 años de edad en Tijuana, México - en la población general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demográficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construyó un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la población general y de acuerdo al género. El análisis de sensibilidad consistió en estimar errores estándar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada parámetro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%–0.86%, (N = 1,750–6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%–1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%–0.40%) de las mujeres podrían ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones más elevadas de personas infectadas por el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El número de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la población de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevención en sus necesidades específicas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podrían ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824

  2. What Peer Mentoring Adds to Already Good Patient Care: Implementing the Carpeta Roja Peer Mentoring Program in a Well-Resourced Health Care System

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Lyndee; Huff, Jessica; Graham, Deborah; Henry, Michelle; Bracho, America; Henderson, Cynthia; Emsermann, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a peer support program on the health outcomes of patients already receiving well-organized, comprehensive diabetes care. METHODS We used a mixed-methods, nonrandomized, control-group design to evaluate the impact of a peer-mentoring program on the health outcomes and self-management behaviors of adults with type 2 diabetes in 15 primary care practices in San Antonio. Propensity score analysis, t-tests, and multivariable repeated analyses were used to evaluate impact. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 participants in the intervention group and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. RESULTS Both intervention and control groups showed significant improvement on all health indicators from baseline to 6-month follow-up (P<.001). Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) decreased slightly faster for patients in the intervention group (P=.04). Self-management behaviors improved significantly from baseline to 6-month follow-up for the intervention group. Interviewed participants also reported reductions in social isolation and extension of impact of health behavior changes to multiple generations of family members. CONCLUSIONS The addition of peer mentoring to already well-organized comprehensive diabetes care does not improve outcomes. However, findings suggest that the impact of the program extends to members of the participants’ families, which is an intriguing finding that deserves further study. PMID:26304973

  3. Los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón siguen en descenso y contribuyen a la continua reducc

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975 a 2010), mostró un descenso más acelerado que en años anteriores de los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón. También contiene una sección especial que destaca los efectos significativos

  4. La doctora Amelie Ramírez y la investigación de desigualdades de salud por cáncer en la comunidad la

    Cancer.gov

    La doctora Ramírez es la investigadora principal de Redes en Acción, un centro del programa de redes comunitarias subvencionado por el NCI que se propone reducir la incidencia del cáncer en la comunidad latina a través de una red nacional de grupos comunitarios, investigadores, agencias de salud gubernamentales y la población en general.

  5. Binding of complement factor H to PorB3 and NspA enhances resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to anti-factor H binding protein bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Serena; Pajon, Rolando; Ram, Sanjay; Granoff, Dan M

    2015-04-01

    Among 25 serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis clinical isolates, we identified four (16%) with high factor H binding protein (FHbp) expression that were resistant to complement-mediated bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with recombinant FHbp vaccines. Two of the four isolates had evidence of human FH-dependent complement downregulation independent of FHbp. Since alternative complement pathway recruitment is critical for anti-FHbp bactericidal activity, we hypothesized that in these two isolates binding of FH to ligands other than FHbp contributes to anti-FHbp bactericidal resistance. Knocking out NspA, a known meningococcal FH ligand, converted both resistant isolates to anti-FHbp susceptible isolates. The addition of a nonbactericidal anti-NspA monoclonal antibody to the bactericidal reaction also increased anti-FHbp bactericidal activity. To identify a role for FH ligands other than NspA or FHbp in resistance, we created double NspA/FHbp knockout mutants. Mutants from both resistant isolates bound 10-fold more recombinant human FH domains 6 and 7 fused to Fc than double knockout mutants prepared from two sensitive meningococcal isolates. In light of recent studies showing functional FH-PorB2 interactions, we hypothesized that PorB3 from the resistant isolates recruited FH. Allelic exchange of porB3 from a resistant isolate to a sensitive isolate increased resistance of the sensitive isolate to anti-FHbp bactericidal activity (and vice versa). Thus, some PorB3 variants functionally bind human FH, which in the presence of NspA enhances anti-FHbp resistance. Combining anti-NspA antibodies with anti-FHbp antibodies can overcome resistance. Meningococcal vaccines that target both NspA and FHbp are likely to confer greater protection than either antigen alone.

  6. Obtención de la curva de luz en la ocultación de 35 Sgr por Júpiter el 6 de marzo de 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolantonio, S.; Duffard, R.; Carranza, G.

    La ocultación de la estrella de quinta magnitud 35 Sgr por Júpiter, se produjo el 6 de Marzo de 1996 a las 13 hs. TU. El objetivo era medir el cambio del flujo de la estrella en el ingreso y egreso por el limbo del planeta. Con estos datos se pueden determinar parámetros físicos del planeta (radio, eccentricidad) y de su atmósfera (escala de altura, temperatura, densidad, presión) Para lograr ésto se programó la cámara CCD TH 7896 1024 x 1025 instalada en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre con el objetivo de lograr 2 imágenes por segundo. De esta forma se obtuvieron 2100 imágenes de la inmersión y otras tantas de la emersión. Hubo que tener grandes precauciones para evitar la saturación del CCD ya que la observación se realizó de día. En este momento las imágenes se encuentran en el Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, para su reducción.

  7. Immunogenicity studies with a genetically engineered hexavalent PorA and a wild-type meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine in infant cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rouppe van der Voort, E; Schuller, M; Holst, J; de Vries, P; van der Ley, P; van den Dobbelsteen, G; Poolman, J

    2000-01-31

    The immunogenicity of two meningococcal outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines, namely the Norwegian wild-type OMV vaccine and the Dutch hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine, were examined in infant cynomolgus monkeys. For the first time, a wild-type- and a recombinant OMV vaccine were compared. Furthermore, the induction of memory and the persistence of circulating antibodies were measured. The Norwegian vaccine contained all four classes of major outer membrane proteins (OMP) and wild-type L3/L8 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The Dutch vaccine consisted for 90% of class 1 OMPs, had low expression of class 4 and 5 OMP, and GalE LPS. Three infant monkeys were immunised with a human dose at the age of 1.5, 2.5 and 4.5 months. Two monkeys of each group received a fourth dose at the age of 11 months. In ELISA, both OMV vaccines were immunogenic and induced booster responses, particularly after the fourth immunisation. The Norwegian vaccine mostly induced sero-subtype P1.7,16 specific serum bactericidal antibodies (SBA), although some other SBA were induced as well. The antibody responses against P1.7,16, induced by the Norwegian vaccine, were generally higher than for the Dutch vaccine. However, the Dutch vaccine induced PorA specific SBA against all six sero-subtypes included in the vaccine showing differences in the magnitude of SBA responses to the various PorAs. PMID:10618530

  8. Astronomy in the Classroom: Why? (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Clase: ¿Por Qué?) Astronomia na Sala de Aula: Por Quê?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daros Gama, Leandro; Bagdonas Henrique, Alexandre

    2010-07-01

    There are many discussions about the relevance of the topics covered in classes. One subject in particular is the focus of this essay: astronomy. In what sense and to what extent it would be worth to teach it in science or other kind of classes? In this paper we discuss some aspects of the advantages of dealing with this area of knowledge in schools, taking into account the epistemological and axiological dimensions of astronomy, in light of the vision of science as an intelligent dialogue with the world (Bachelard), in addition to the "problematization" knowledge of Paulo Freire. We propose that in fact the Astronomy does not need to be seen as just a new set of contents to be taught, but appears as a set of motivational contents for historical-philosophical discussions, and permit the discussion of concepts of other disciplines. Numerosas discusiones se están llevando a cabo acerca de la pertinencia de los temas tradicionalmente tratados en las clases. Uno de los temas, en particular, es el foco de este ensayo: la astronomía. ¿En qué sentido y en qué medida sería conveniente tratarla en clase, ya sea en clases de ciencias naturales, específicamente en las de astronomía o asignaturas afines? Elaboramos en este artículo algunos aspectos de las ventajas de tratar esta área del conocimiento en las escuelas, teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones epistemológica y axiológica de la astronomía, a la luz de la visión de la ciencia como un diálogo inteligente con el mundo (Bachelard), además de la propuesta del conocimiento "problematizador" de Paulo Freire. Proponemos que en realidad la astronomía no tiene por qué ser vista sólo como un nuevo conjunto de contenidos que se enseñan, sino que aparece como un conjunto de temas de motivación para el debate histórico-filosófico y para permitir la discusión de los conceptos típicos de otras disciplinas. Muitas discussões vêm acontecendo sobre a relevância dos temas abordados em sala de aula. Um tema, em

  9. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin

  10. RED MEAT, MICRONUTRIENTS AND ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF ARGENTINE ADULT PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Secchi, Dante Gustavo; Aballay, Laura Rosana; Galíndez, María Fernanda; Piccini, Daniel; Lanfranchi, Héctor; Brunotto, Mabel

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: la detección de grupos de riesgo de cáncer oral permite reducir las tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad típicas de esta patología. Objetivo: se analizó el rol de carnes rojas, macronutrientes y micronutrientes en pacientes con carcinoma oral de células escamosas (COCE) en un estudio de casos y controles llevado a cabo en Córdoba, Argentina. Métodos: estudio de casos y controles 3:1, ambos sexos, con edades comprendidas entre 24-80 años. La información sobre la dieta fue recogida mediante un cuestionario de frecuencia de alimentos cuali-cuantitativo. La regresión logística se aplicó para evaluar la asociación entre el estado caso/control y la ingesta diaria de carne roja/ macronutrientes/micronutrientes/energía. Resultados: los micronutrientes y minerales de la dieta que mostraron valores medios significativos de consumo común en los casos relativos a los controles eran hierro, fósforo, vitaminas B1, B5, B6, E y K y selenio. La medición de la asociación estimada por regresión logística mostró una asociación significativa entre carne roja, grasas, energía diaria, fósforo, vitamina B5, vitamina E, ingesta de selenio y presencia de COCE. Conclusión: un alto consumo de grasas, fósforo, vitamina B5, vitamina E, selenio y carne roja parece estar relacionado con la presencia de COCE en Córdoba, Argentina. En relación con el consumo de carne roja y el riesgo de COCE, la investigación futura debería centrar su atención en la reducción de la complejidad de las relaciones de la dieta y la enfermedad, así como en reducir la variabilidad de los datos de ingesta mediante la estandarización de los criterios de admisión a fin de aplicar estrategias sencillas en salud pública para el reconocimiento de grupos de riesgo de COCE.

  11. [Prevalence of allergic sensitization to bee, mosquito and red ant in children with allergic disease].

    PubMed

    Flores-Ruiz, Leobardo Francisco; Valdez-López, Francisco; Bedolla-Barajas, Martín

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: en población pediátrica, pocas veces se busca la sensibilización alérgica a insectos de los órdenes Hymenoptera y Culicidae. Objetivo: establecer la prevalencia de sensibilización a abeja, mosco y hormiga roja en niños con enfermedades alérgicas. Material y método: estudio retrolectivo y descriptivo, en el que se revisaron los registros de la reactividad cutánea a alergenos de abeja, mosco y hormiga en un servicio de Alergia Pediátrica de enero de 2009 a diciembre de 2011. Se estimó la frecuencia de sensibilización y sus respectivos intervalos de confianza de 95% (IC95%). Resultados: se incluyeron 613 pacientes, 41% era del sexo femenino; la edad media del grupo fue de 6.2±3.7 años. La sensibilización alérgica al mosco fue de 15% (IC95%: 12.4 a 18.1), a abeja de 14% (IC95%: 11.4 a 16.9) y a hormiga roja de 6% (IC95%: 6.0 a 6.8); por sexo, la frecuencia no difirió significativamente. Los niños sensibles a las abejas o a las hormigas rojas tuvieron mayor edad que los no sensibilizados: 7.1 vs 6.0 años (p=0.011) y 7.4 vs 6.1 años (p=0.042), respectivamente. Durante las estaciones de otoño e invierno predominó la sensibilización a la hormiga roja. Conclusiones: hasta nuestro conocimiento, éste es el primer informe en México relacionado con la frecuencia de sensibilización a abejas, moscos y hormigas rojas realizado en niños. Además, nuestros resultados sugieren que se debe identificar de manera habitual la sensibilidad a estos insectos.

  12. A Fast Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for Sensitive and Specific Detection of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae porA Pseudogene

    PubMed Central

    Hjelmevoll, Stig Ove; Olsen, Merethe Elise; Sollid, Johanna U. Ericson; Haaheim, Håkon; Unemo, Magnus; Skogen, Vegard

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the advent of molecular methods, the diagnostics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been troubled by false negative and false positive results compared with culture. Commensal Neisseria species and Neisseria meningitidis are closely related to N. gonorrhoeae and may cross-react when using molecular tests comprising too-low specificity. We have devised a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), including an internal amplification control, that targets the N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene. DNA was automatically isolated on a BioRobot M48. Our subsequent PCR method amplified all of the different N. gonorrhoeae international reference strains (n = 34) and N. gonorrhoeae clinical isolates (n = 176) but not isolates of the 13 different nongonococcal Neisseria species (n = 68) that we tested. Furthermore, a panel of gram-negative bacterial (n = 18), gram-positive bacterial (n = 23), fungal (n = 1), and viral (n = 4) as well as human DNA did not amplify. The limit of detection was determined to be less than 7.5 genome equivalents/PCR reaction. In conclusion, the N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene real-time PCR developed in the present study is highly sensitive, specific, robust, rapid and reproducible, making it suitable for diagnosis of N. gonorrhoeae infection. PMID:17065426

  13. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo para infecciones del tracto urinario de inicio en la comunidad causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Victor M.; Maya, Juan J.; Correa, Adriana; Perenguez, Marcela; Muñoz, Juan S.; Motoa, Gabriel; Pallares, Christian J.; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Celis, Yamile; Garzon, Martha; Villegas, y María V.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) son frecuentes en la comunidad. Sin embargo, la información de aislamientos resistentes en este contexto es limitada en Latinoamérica. Este estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo asociados con ITU de inicio en la comunidad (ITU-IC) causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en Colombia. Materiales y métodos Entre agosto y diciembre de 2011 se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en 3 instituciones de salud de tercer nivel en Colombia. Se invitó a participar a todos los pacientes admitidos a urgencias con diagnóstico probable de ITU-IC, y se les pidió una muestra de orina. En los aislamien-tos de E. coli se realizaron pruebas confirmatorias para BLEE, susceptibilidad antibiótica, caracterización molecular (PCR en tiempo real para genes bla, repetitive element palindromic PCR [rep-PCR], multilocus sequence typing [MLST] y factores de virulencia por PCR). Se obtuvo información clínica y epidemiológica, y posteriormente se realizó el análisis estadístico. Resultados De los 2.124 pacientes seleccionados, 629 tuvieron un urocultivo positivo, en 431 de estos se aisló E. coli, 54 fueron positivos para BLEE y 29 correspondieron a CTX-M-15. La mayoría de los aislamientos de E. coli productor de BLEE fueron sensibles a ertapenem, fosfomicina y amikacina. La ITU complicada se asoció fuertemente con infecciones por E. coli productor de BLEE (OR = 3,89; IC 95%: 1,10–13,89; p = 0,03). E. coli productor de CTX-M-15 mostró 10 electroferotipos diferentes; de estos, el 65% correspondieron al ST131. La mayoría de estos aislamientos tuvieron 8 de los 9 factores de virulencia analizados. Discusión E. coli portador del gen blaCTX-M-15 asociado al ST131 sigue siendo frecuente en Colombia. La presencia de ITU-IC complicada aumenta el riesgo de tener E. coli productor de BLEE, lo cual debe tenerse en cuenta para ofrecer

  14. Neisserial porin (PorB) causes rapid calcium influx in target cells and induces apoptosis by the activation of cysteine proteases.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, A; Günther, D; Düx, F; Naumann, M; Meyer, T F; Rudel, T

    1999-01-01

    The porin (PorB) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an intriguing bacterial factor owing to its ability to translocate from the outer bacterial membrane into host cell membranes where it modulates the infection process. Here we report on the induction of programmed cell death after prolonged infection of epithelial cells with pathogenic Neisseria species. The underlying mechanism we propose includes translocation of the porin, a transient increase in cytosolic Ca2+ and subsequent activation of the Ca2+ dependent protease calpain as well as proteases of the caspase family. Blocking the porin channel by ATP eliminates the Ca2+ signal and also abolishes its pro-apoptotic function. The neisserial porins share structural and functional homologies with the mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC). The neisserial porin may be an analogue or precursor of the ancient permeability transition pore, the putative central regulator of apoptosis. PMID:9889191

  15. Four-month outbreak of invasive meningococcal disease caused by a rare serogroup B strain, identified through the use of molecular PorA subtyping, England, 2013.

    PubMed

    Chatt, C; Gajraj, R; Hawker, J; Neal, K; Tahir, M; Lawrence, M; Gray, S J; Lucidarme, J; Carr, A D; Clark, S A; Fowler, T

    2014-01-01

    Molecular PorA subtyping provides information that increasingly requires the adaptation of standard public health approaches to outbreak management. We report an outbreak of a rare subtype of meningococcal infection not previously identified in the United Kingdom (UK). The outbreak occurred in the Warwickshire area in England between February and June 2013. Molecular subtyping allowed the identification of additional cases, prompting an enhanced public health response that included efforts to identify potential social networks that might benefit from chemoprophylaxis. It also prompted swabbing to define nasopharyngeal carriage in the focal nursery and helped explain the unusual epidemiological pattern. Without subtyping to identify a link, the additional cases would have been managed as sporadic cases in accordance with current UK guidance. PMID:25394258

  16. Concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as de biologia y futuros maestros/as de Ciencia de escuela secundaria sobre la teoria de evolucion biologica por seleccion natural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Ramos, Egda M.

    La teoria de evolucion biologica (TEB) por seleccion natural es uno de los conceptos unificadores mas importantes del curriculo de Biologia. En Puerto Rico se han hecho pocas investigaciones que abunden sobre las concepciones y concepciones alternativas (CA) que tienen los estudiantes universitarios/as de Biologia y los maestros/as de Ciencia del nivel secundario sobre esta teoria. La politica publica educativa actual establece mediante documentos normativos como los Estandares de contenido y Expectativas de grado del Programa de Ciencias [Puerto Rico Core Standards] la ensenanza de esta teoria. Sin embargo, no se encontraron preguntas sobre la seleccion natural en los ejercicios de practica provistos por el Departamento de Educacion para las pruebas estandarizadas lo cual puede influir para que no se ensene adecuadamente. Las preguntas de investigacion fueron 1. ¿Cuales son las concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as y de los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB? 2. ¿Cuales conceptos que seleccionan los estudiantes universitarios/as y los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB coinciden con lo aceptado como valido por la comunidad cientifica? y 3. ¿Como comparan las respuestas de la prueba original. v. Entendiendo el cambio biologico que mide concepciones y CA sobre la TEB por seleccion natural, con las de la traducida al idioma espanol? Se utilizo el metodo cuantitativo con un diseno de investigacion transversal por encuesta. La tecnica principal para recopilar los datos fue una prueba con doce items, que formo parte de un instrumento para el cual se recopilaron diversas fuentes de evidencia acerca de su validez. Las muestras estuvieron formadas por 69 estudiantes de Ciencias Naturales y por 16 estudiantes futuros maestros y maestras del nivel secundario de la UPR-RP. Se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas, analisis de Ji cuadrado y se calcularon los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach y de Spearman

  17. Population genetics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a high-prevalence community using a hypervariable outer membrane porB and 13 slowly evolving housekeeping genes.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Viscidi, Raphael P; Demma, James C; Zenilman, Jonathan; Crandall, Keith A

    2005-09-01

    Baltimore, Md., is an urban community with a high prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Due to partially protective immune responses, introduction of new strains from other host populations, and exposure of N. gonorrhoeae to antibiotics, the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the circulating strains can fluctuate over time. Understanding the overall genetic diversity and population structure of N. gonorrhoeae is essential for informing public health interventions to eliminate this pathogen. We studied gonococci population genetics in Baltimore by analyzing a hypervariable and strongly selected outer membrane porB gene and 13 slowly evolving and presumably neutral housekeeping genes (abcZ, adk, aroE, fumC, gdh, glnA, gnd, pdhC, pgm, pilA, ppk, pyrD, and serC) in 204 isolates collected in 1991, 1996, and 2001 from male and female patients of two public sexually transmitted diseases clinics. Genetic diversity (), recombination (C), growth (g), population structure, and adaptive selection under codon-substitution and amino acid property models were estimated and compared between these two gene classes. Estimates of the F(ST) fixation index and the chi(2) test of sequence absolute frequencies revealed significant temporal substructuring for both gene types. Baltimore's N. gonorrhoeae populations have increased since 1991 as indicated by consistent positive values of g. Female patients showed similar or lower levels of and C than male patients. Within the MLST housekeeping genes, levels of and C ranged from 0.001-0.013 and 0.000-0.018, respectively. Overall recombination seems to be the dominant force driving evolution in these populations. All loci showed amino acid sites and physicochemical properties under adaptive (or positive-destabilizing) selection, rejecting the generally assumed hypothesis of stabilizing selection for these MLST genes. Within the porB gene, protein I B showed higher and C values than protein I A. Directional positive selection possibly

  18. Bifurcación de las soluciones de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas Be: formación de líneas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curé, M.; Rial, D.; Cidale, L.; Venero, R.

    Se ha estudiado la topología de la ecuación hidrodinámica no-lineal que describe el perfil de velocidades de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas tempranas. Al aplicar este modelo a estrellas Be se encuentra que existen dos tipos De soluciones: la estándar, que describe el viento polar, y una nueva, que describe un viento más denso y lento y que explicaría el disco que se encuentra alrededor de estos objetos. Existe una región de transición en donde ambas soluciones coexisten (bifurcación}). Ambas soluciones satisfacen en esta región las mismas condiciones de borde. Para estas dos soluciones se han obtenido los perfiles de líneas de hidrógeno del visible y del IR, resolviendo el transporte de radiación en el ``comoving frame". Para la solución estándar, se obtienen perfiles con componentes en emisión, mientras que para la nueva solución se obtienen perfiles en absorción. Se comparan cualitativamente los resultados con las observaciones.

  19. Relación masa-radio para estrellas enanas blancas y la interpretación de recientes mediciones hechas por Hipparcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panei, J. A.; Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Recientes mediciones de la masa y el radio hechas por Hipparcos de las estrellas enanas blancas 40 Eri B y Procyon B (Shipman, H. & Provencal, J. - ApJ. 1998, 494, 759), sugieren un núcleo compuesto de hierro para dichas estrellas, en lugar de carbono y oxígeno como predice la teoría standard de evolución estelar. Para interpretar estas observaciones, presentamos aquí, relaciones masa-radio para configuraciones degeneradas a temperatura finita para distintas composiciones químicas centrales. Para tal fin hemos calculado secuencias evolutivas de enanas blancas utilizando el código de evolución estelar, desarrollado en el Observatorio de La Plata. Dicho código resuelve las ecuaciones de estructura y evolución estelar mediante la técnica de relajación de Henyey, y esta basado en una descripción física muy detallada y actualizada.

  20. Population pharmacokinetic approach to evaluate the effect of CYP2D6, CYP3A, ABCB1, POR and NR1I2 genotypes on donepezil clearance

    PubMed Central

    Noetzli, Muriel; Guidi, Monia; Ebbing, Karsten; Eyer, Stephan; Wilhelm, Laurence; Michon, Agnès; Thomazic, Valérie; Stancu, Ioana; Alnawaqil, Abdel-Messieh; Bula, Christophe; Zumbach, Serge; Gaillard, Michel; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; von Gunten, Armin; Csajka, Chantal; Eap, Chin B

    2014-01-01

    Aims A large interindividual variability in plasma concentrations has been reported in patients treated with donepezil, the most frequently prescribed antidementia drug. We aimed to evaluate clinical and genetic factors influencing donepezil disposition in a patient population recruited from a naturalistic setting. Methods A population pharmacokinetic study was performed including data from 129 older patients treated with donepezil. The patients were genotyped for common polymorphisms in the metabolic enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A, in the electron transferring protein POR and the nuclear factor NR1I2 involved in CYP activity and expression, and in the drug transporter ABCB1. Results The average donepezil clearance was 7.3 l h−1 with a 30% interindividual variability. Gender markedly influenced donepezil clearance (P < 0.01). Functional alleles of CYP2D6 were identified as unique significant genetic covariate for donepezil clearance (P < 0.01), with poor metabolizers and ultrarapid metabolizers demonstrating, respectively, a 32% slower and a 67% faster donepezil elimination compared with extensive metabolizers. Conclusion The pharmacokinetic parameters of donepezil were well described by the developed population model. Functional alleles of CYP2D6 significantly contributed to the variability in donepezil disposition in the patient population and should be further investigated in the context of individual dose optimization to improve clinical outcome and tolerability of the treatment. PMID:24433464

  1. Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with reduced susceptibility to cefixime and ceftriaxone: association with genetic polymorphisms in penA, mtrR, porB1b, and ponA.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Robert; Fredlund, Hans; Nicholas, Robert; Unemo, Magnus

    2007-06-01

    The recent emergence and transmission of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with reduced susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins such as cefixime and ceftriaxone have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of different polymorphisms in the penA, mtrR, porB1b (penB), and ponA genes of N. gonorrhoeae with reduced susceptibility to cefixime and ceftriaxone. Eighteen gonococcal isolates with reduced cefixime and ceftriaxone susceptibility (Cef(i)) and two susceptible isolates were characterized using serovar determination, antibiograms, N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST), and sequencing of penA, mtrR, porB1b, and ponA alleles. For the Cef(i) isolates (n = 18), the MICs of cefixime and ceftriaxone ranged between 0.032 to 0.38 mug/ml and 0.064 to 0.125 mug/ml, respectively. These isolates were assigned five different serovars and six divergent NG-MAST sequence types. Eleven isolates (61%) with higher MICs of cefixime and ceftriaxone contained a nearly identical penA mosaic allele and previously described polymorphisms in mtrR (a single nucleotide [A] deletion in the promoter), penB (mutations in porB1b encoding loop 3 of PorB1b), and ponA (ponA1 polymorphism). The remaining seven Cef(i) isolates (39%), which had somewhat lower MICs of cefixime and ceftriaxone, contained an aspartic acid insertion (Asp-345a) in PBP 2 in conjunction with alterations of 4 to 10 amino acid residues in the C-terminal region of the transpeptidase domain of penA. In conclusion, an unambiguous association between penA mosaic alleles, in conjunction with genetic polymorphisms in mtrR, porB1b, and ponA, and greater reduced susceptibility to cefixime and ceftriaxone was identified.

  2. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las

  3. Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.

    Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

  4. The residual and direct effects of reduced-risk and conventional miticides on twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Liburd, O.E.; White, J.C.; Rhodes, E.M.; Browdy, A.A.

    2007-03-15

    Neoseiulus californicus McGregor y Phytoseilus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) causados por varios acaricidas convencionales y de riesgo-reducido fueron evaluados en fresas (Fragaria x ananassa Duchense). Los experimentos fueron realizados en laboratorio e invernadero. Los experimentos en el invernadero evaluaron tambien el efecto directo de los acaricidas en la 'arana roja'. La eficacia para controlar la 'arana roja' de los acaricidas convencionales y de riesgo-reducido fue evaluada en discos de las hojas y en plantas de fresa, y los efectos residuales de los acaricidas en los acaros predadores fueron evaluados en plantas completas. Para la 'arana roja' se evaluaron cinco tratamientos: el acaricida convencional fenbutatin-oxido (Vendex[reg]), 3 acaricidas de riesgo-reducido binfenazate (Acaramite 50WP[reg]), extracto de ajo activado (Repel[reg]), aceite de semillas de ajonjoli y ricino (Wipeout[reg]) y un control tratado con agua. Para los acaros predadores solamente los efectos de Acaramite[reg] y Vendex[reg] fueron evaluados. Acaramite[reg] fue el tratamiento mas efectivo para la 'arana roja' en el laboratorio y el invernadero. Vendex[reg] y Wipeout[reg] fueron tambien efectivos en el laboratorio, pero no causaron una reduccion significativa de 'aranas rojas' en el invernadero. Repel[reg] fue el tratamiento evaluado menos eficaz. Ni Acaramite[reg] ni Vendex[reg] redujeron significativamente las poblaciones de acaros predadores. Sin embargo, aparentemente hay mas acaros predadores en Vendex[reg] que en Acaramite[reg]. Tambien se encontraron significativamente mas acaros predadores en plantas inoculadas que en plantas no inoculadas. (author)

  5. Long-term RNA persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) after an outbreak of a natural infection: the detection of viral mRNA in sentinel pigs suggests viral transmission.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Kennedy, S; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Berg, M; Moreno-López, J

    2014-08-01

    The persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) in five pigs that had survived an outbreak of a natural infection was determined. After the resolution of the outbreak, each animal was housed in an isolation pen together with one sentinel pig. Approximately every 2 months thereafter one group of animals was euthanized and tissue samples taken for virological and serological analysis. Infectious virus was not isolated from any samples; antibodies to PorPV-LPMV were detected in convalescent pigs by virus neutralisation test and blocking ELISA but not in sentinel pigs. PorPV-LPMV mRNA of the nucleoprotein (NP) and phosphoprotein (P) genes was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) in samples of trigeminal and optic nerves, cervical spinal cord, tonsils, salivary gland, lung and pancreas from convalescent pigs. mRNA was also detected in the midbrain, corpus callosum, or olfactory bulb in four out of five pigs by nRT-PCR, this result was confirmed by the sequencing of a 260bp PCR product of P gene region. The highest average viral copies/μg of total RNA occurred in the olfactory bulb and pancreas tissues of convalescent pigs and midbrain, tonsil and pancreas of sentinel pigs housed with the convalescent pigs. Satellitosis and gliosis of the midbrain, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, medulla oblongata or choroid plexus were microscopically observed in four convalescent pigs. The control pig remained negative in all tests. The results indicate that PorPV-LPMV mRNA persists and induces a durable humoral immune response in pigs that have recovered from a natural infection. After a possible reactivation of the virus, it was transmitted to sentinel pigs in contact with the convalescent pigs.

  6. Comparación de resultados del método de clasificación de órbitas por análisis de frecuencias con el método de exponentes de Lyapunov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Wachlin, F. C.

    Hemos realizado extensas comparaciones del método de análisis de frecuencias con el de exponentes de Lyapunov. El primero resulta claramente superior por las siguientes razones: 1) permite distinguir distintos tipos de órbitas y no sólo si son regulares o caóticas 2) es mucho más veloz requiriendo mucho menos tiempo de cómputo. La concordancia de resultados es, en general, buena y se discuten algunas discrepancias.

  7. HRM confirmation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in clinical specimens by G→A (position 857) mutation detection in the 16S rRNA gene before sequencing and after porA confirmation.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Volker; Mayall, Barrie C; Wang, Jenny

    2012-05-01

    A total of 2273 specimens submitted to the Austin Hospital Pathology Service for Neisseria gonorrhoeae screening between September 1, 2009 and May 11, 2011 were used in this study. Specimens were simultaneously screened and confirmed with a previously published real time PCR assay for the opa gene (extra primers were included to increase sensitivity) and the porA gene respectively. The opa gene screen and initial porA gene confirmation yielded an N. gonorrhoeae positivity rate of 0.88% (20/2273) and 0.49% (11/2191) for specimens and patients respectively. A 16S rDNA High Resolution Melt confirmatory PCR was developed subsequently; this reduced the N. gonorrhoeae positivity rate to 0.35% (8/2273) and 0.27% (6/2191) for specimens and patients respectively (not altered by 16S sequencing). The higher rate of secondary confirmation (16S HRM) in patients compared with samples was due to the detection of species other than N. gonorrhoeae detected by the initial screening and confirmation test. This underlines the importance of performing the secondary confirmatory test that has been developed in this study.

  8. La inserción en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en España y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por país de origen y estatus legal

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo compara los resultados económicos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selección por el que la mayoría de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España proceden de Sudamérica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayoría de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selección explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los orígenes y las características de los latinoamericanos en ambos países, los factores demográficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos países; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acentúan más entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

  9. Aquisição fonológica do português brasileiro por crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e surdas usuárias de implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carina Rebello; Finger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumo O presente estudo investiga a aquisição fonológica do Português Brasileiro (PB) por 24 crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais, com acesso irrestrito à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), e por 6 crianças surdas que utilizam implante coclear (IC), com acesso restrito ou irrestrito à Libras. Para a avaliação do sistema fonológico das crianças em PB, foi utilizada a Parte A, Prova de Nomeação, do ABFW – Teste de Linguagem Infantil (ANDRADE et al. 2004). Os resultados revelaram que as crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e a criança surda usuária de IC com acesso irrestrito à Libras apresentaram processo de aquisição fonológica esperada (normal) para a sua faixa etária. Considera-se que a aquisição precoce e o acesso irrestrito à Libras podem ter sido determinantes para o desempenho dessas crianças no teste oral utilizado. PMID:25506105

  10. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el

  11. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el

  12. Análisis del espectro infrarrojo del polvo interestelar asociado con cúmulos globulares y de su evolución temporal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizza, L. J.; Forte, J. C.; Carpintero, D.

    El trabajo que se presenta investiga la dinámica de las partículas de polvo interestelar eyectadas por estrellas gigantes rojas en un cúmulo globular utilizando simulaciones numéricas de su interacción con el campo gravitatorio y con la radiación electromagnética de las estrellas. Se pretende con ello determinar la distribución espacial de ese material como una función del tiempo en un sistema similar a NGC 104 (47 Tuc). A partir de la distribución espacial resultante se obtuvo el espectro infrarrojo integrado el cual sugiere que el máximo contraste con la radiación estelar ocurre en longitudes de onda cercanas a 300 μm y que decrece rápidamente hacia longitudes de onda menores, en las que suelen realizarse las observaciones.

  13. One-step purification and porin transport activity of the major outer membrane proteins P2 from Haemophilus influenzae, FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum and PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Christof; Pfennig, Sabrina; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial porins are major outer membrane proteins that function as essential solute transporters between the bacteria and the extracellular environment. Structural features of porins are also recognized by eukaryotic cell receptors involved in innate and adaptive immunity. To better investigate the function of porins, proper refolding is necessary following purification from inclusion bodies [1, 2]. Using a single-step size exclusion chromatographic method, we have purified three major porins from pathogenic bacteria, the OmpP2 (P2) from Haemophilus influenzae, FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum and PorB from Neisseria meningitidis, at high yield and report their unique solute transport activity with size exclusion limit. Furthermore, we have optimized their purification method and achieved improvement of their thermostability for facilitating functional and structural analyses.

  14. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, sequence type (ST), and genomic presence of IS1301 in group B meningococcal ST269 clonal complex isolates from England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Guiver, Malcolm; Kugelberg, Elisabeth; Vallely, Pamela J; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Tang, Christoph M; Borrow, Ray

    2009-11-01

    Highly effective glycoconjugate vaccines exist against four of the five major pathogenic groups of meningococci: A, C, W-135, and Y. An equivalent vaccine against group B meningococci (menB) has remained elusive due to the poorly immunogenic capsular polysaccharide. A promising alternative, the investigational recombinant menB (rMenB)- outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine, contains fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), NadA, and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for 90% of meningococcal disease in England and Wales, where the multilocus sequence type (ST) 269 (ST269) clonal complex (cc269) has recently expanded to account for a third of menB cases. To assess the potential cc269 coverage of the rMenB-OMV vaccine, English and Welsh cc269 isolates from the past decade were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, and NadA. All of the isolates harbored fHbp and nhba alleles, while 98% of the cc269 isolates were devoid of nadA. Subvariant profiling of fHbp, nhba, and porA against STs revealed the presence of two broadly distinct and well-defined clusters of isolates, centered around ST269 and ST275, respectively. An additional molecular marker, insertion sequence IS1301, was found to be present in 100% and <2% of isolates of the respective clusters. On the basis of the genetic data, the potential rMenB-OMV coverage of cc269 in England and Wales is high (up to 100%) within both clusters. Expression studies and serum bactericidal antibody assays will serve to enhance predictions of coverage and will augment ongoing studies regarding the significance of IS1301 within the ST269 cluster.

  15. Eficacia de la detección sistemática de la gripe en las fronteras en los viajeros que llegan por vía aérea*

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Patricia C.; Jennings, Lance C.; Duncan, Alasdair R.; Brunton, Cheryl R.; Baker, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Se midieron los síntomas y la prevalencia de la gripe (también llamada influenza), así como la eficacia del mecanismo de detección sistemática basado en los síntomas y la temperatura para diagnosticar la gripe en viajeros internacionales que llegaban por vía aérea. Métodos. El presente estudio transversal recopiló datos de viajeros que llegaron al aeropuerto internacional de Christchurch (Nueva Zelandia) en el invierno del 2008 mediante un cuestionario de salud, medición de la temperatura y toma de muestras de las vías respiratorias. Resultados. De los viajeros, 15 976 (68%) entregaron los formularios completos. De ellos, 17% notificaron al menos un síntoma de gripe; los síntomas más comunes fueron rinorrea o congestión nasal (10%) y tos (8%). Se tomaron muestras de las vías respiratorias de 3 769 viajeros. La prevalencia estimada de la gripe fue de 1,1% (4% en las personas sintomáticas, 0,2% en las asintomáticas). La sensibilidad de los criterios de detección varió de 84% para “cualquier síntoma” a 3% para la fiebre de 37,8 °C o mayor. El valor predictivo positivo fue bajo para todos los criterios. Conclusiones. El método de detección sistemática en las fronteras mediante la autonotificación de síntomas y la toma de la temperatura presenta limitaciones para impedir que una gripe pandémica entre en un país. Basarse en criterios como “cualquier síntoma” o la tos haría que se investigara a varias personas no infectadas, mientras que algunas personas infectadas pasarían inadvertidas. Si se usaran criterios más específicos como la fiebre, la mayoría de las personas infectadas entrarían en el país a pesar del mecanismo de detección.

  16. Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility in Barcelona: penA, ponA, mtrR, and porB mutations and NG-MAST sequence types associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Serra-Pladevall, J; Barberá, M J; Rodriguez, S; Bartolomé-Comas, R; Roig, G; Juvé, R; Andreu, A

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in our area, to analyze the molecular mechanisms involved in cephalosporins resistance, and to undertake molecular typing of our NG strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the Etest. The genes penA, mtrR, penB, and ponA were studied. Molecular typing was performed by N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing. Of 329 strains analyzed in 2013, none showed high-level cephalosporin resistance, but 8.2 % had resistance to cefixime [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 0.125 μg/mL] and 0.6 % to ceftriaxone (MIC > 0.125 μg/mL). Azithromycin resistance was documented in 4.3 % and ciprofloxacin resistance in 49.2 %. Among 48 strains with an MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL to cefixime, 58.3 % showed the penA mosaic pattern XXXIV, 98 % a Leu → Pro substitution at position 421 of the ponA gene, 100 % amino acid changes at positions 101 and 102 of the PorB1b porin, and 87.5 % of strains an adenine deletion in the promoter region of the MtrC-D-E efflux pump. A significant difference between strains with and without decreased cephalosporin susceptibility (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL) was observed for these four genes. Of the 48 strains with an MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL to cefixime, 43.8 % belonged to the genogroup G1407 and 27.1 % belonged to the genogroup G2400. A significant association of G1407 with decreased susceptibility (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL) and G2992 with susceptibility was found, and also between G1407 and mosaic pattern XXXIV and between G2400 and A501T substitution in penA. The NG resistance rate in our area is higher than the median of Europe. We have detected the emergence of G2400, which may be a source of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27255221

  17. Construction and Functional Activities of Chimeric Mouse-Human Immunoglobulin G and Immunoglobulin M Antibodies against the Neisseria meningitidis PorA P1.7 and P1.16 Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Michaelsen, Terje E.; Ihle, Øistein; Beckstrøm, Karen Johanne; Herstad, Tove K.; Kolberg, Jan; Høiby, E. Arne; Aase, Audun

    2003-01-01

    We studied the in vitro protective activities of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG3, and IgM antibodies against group B meningococci by constructing sets of chimeric mouse-human antibodies (chIgG1, chIgG3, and chIgM, respectively) with identical binding regions against the P1.7 and P1.16 epitopes on PorA. This was done by cloning the V genes of three mouse hybridoma antibodies and subsequently transfecting vectors containing the homologous heavy- and light-chain genes into NSO cells. Cell clones secreting intact human chIgG1, chIgG3, or chIgM antibodies originating from three parent mouse antibodies were isolated. The functional affinities appeared to be similar for all human isotypes and surprisingly also for the pentameric chIgM antibody. chIgG1 exhibited greater serum bactericidal activity (SBA) than chIgG3, while chIgG3 was more efficient in inducing a respiratory burst (RB) associated with opsonophagocytosis than chIgG1 was. On the other hand, chIgM exhibited SBA similar to that of chIgG1, but it exhibited much higher RB activity than chIgG3 and chIgG1 exhibited. The antibodies against the P1.16 epitope were more efficient in terms of SBA than the antibodies against the P1.7 epitope were; thus, 10- to 40-fold-lower concentrations of antibodies against P1.16 than of antibodies against P1.7 were needed to induce SBA. On the other hand, antibodies against these epitopes were equally effective in inducing RB. Our results revealed differences in the functional activities of human chIgG1, chIgG3, and chIgM antibodies against meningococci, which might influence their protective effects against meningococcal disease. PMID:14500492

  18. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, and sequence type in group B meningococcal case isolates collected in England and Wales during January 2008 and potential coverage of an investigational group B meningococcal vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Guiver, Malcolm; Vallely, Pamela J; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Borrow, Ray

    2010-06-01

    Invasive disease caused by meningococcal capsular groups A, C, W-135, and Y is now preventable by means of glycoconjugate vaccines that target their respective polysaccharide capsules. The capsule of group B meningococci (MenB) is poorly immunogenic and may induce autoimmunity. Vaccines based on the major immunodominant surface porin, PorA, are effective against clonal epidemics but, thus far, have a limited scope of coverage against the wider MenB population at large. In an alternative approach, the first-generation, investigational, recombinant MenB (rMenB) plus outer membrane vesicle (OMV) (rMenB-OMV) vaccine contains a number of relatively conserved surface proteins, fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), and NadA, alongside PorA P1.4-containing OMVs from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for approximately 90% of cases of meningococcal disease in England and Wales. To assess potential rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage of pathogenic MenB isolates within this region, all English and Welsh MenB case isolates from January 2008 (n = 87) were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, NadA, and PorA. Alleles for fHbp, nhba, and porA were identified in all of the isolates, of which 22% were also found to harbor nadA alleles. On the basis of genotypic data and predicted immunological cross-reactivity, the potential level of rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage in England and Wales ranges from 66% to 100%.

  19. Beyond Delinquent Citizenships: Immigrant Youth's (Re)Visions of Citizenship and Belonging in a Globalized World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rios-Rojas, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Using ethnographic fieldwork conducted in a public high school located in the greater Barcelona area, Anne Rios-Rojas focuses on the experiences of immigrant youth as they negotiate a sense of belonging in an ever more globalized society. Rios-Rojas pays particular attention to the multiple and at times contradictory ways in which youth maneuver…

  20. Protegiendo a su familia de los terremotos-Los siete pasos a la seguridad para prepararse en caso de un terremoto (en espa?ol y en ingles)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Desarrollado por American Red Cross, Asian Pacific Fund

    2007-01-01

    Les escribimos esta carta para comunicarle un mensaje sumamente importante sobre las preparaciones de emergencia. Historicamente, hemos sufrido terremotos aqui en el Area de la Bahia de San Francisco que han causado graves privaciones para los residentes de la comunidad y da?os increibles a nuestras ciudades. Es probable que suframos un terremoto de gran magnitud en los proximos 30 a?os. Muchos de nosotros venimos de otros paises donde hemos pasado por terremotos y por eso creemos entenderlos. Sin embargo, la manera que nos preparamos para terremotos en nuestros paises de origen puede ser distinta a la que empleamos aca en los Estados Unidos. Muy pocas personas mueren a causa de los derrumbes de los edificios en el Area de la Bahia porque la mayoria de los edificios son construidos para resistir el sacudimiento de la tierra. Pero es muy probable que su familia no tenga atencion medica, alimentos o que esten separados del uno al otro por dias o semanas. Finalmente depende de usted mantener a su familia a salvo hasta que llegue asistencia, por eso les pedimos que nos unamos para aprender a cuidar a su familia antes, durante, y despues de un terremoto. El primer paso es leer este libro. Cada uno de su familia, ni?os y adultos, pueden aprender como prepararse para un terremoto. Haga participar e incluya sus ni?os; pueden ayudarle a prepararse. Aproveche las clases ofrecidas en su comunidad sobre las preparaciones de terremotos por la Cruz Roja Estadounidense (American Red Cross). Estos cursos de preparacion son gratis y disponibles en espa?ol para todos en la comunidad sin tomar en cuenta la historia de la familia, estado legal, genero o edad. Les recomendamos que tome ventaja de estas clases gratuitas. Para mas informacion consulte la ultima pagina de este libro. Recuerde que un terremoto puede ocurrir sin aviso y la unica manera de reducir el da?o de terremotos es estar preparados. !Preparese!

  1. [Dietary factors associated with stroke: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Lopez-Romero, L; Silva-Sieger, F; Gamboa-Delgado, E

    2016-09-01

    Introduccion. El ictus es una condicion cronica no transmisible de alto impacto, producida por diferentes factores, entre los que estan los relacionados con el estilo de vida, de los cuales forman parte los factores dieteticos. Objetivo. Revisar la evidencia existente con relacion a los factores dieteticos asociados al ictus. Desarrollo. Se realizo una revision de la bibliografia de los factores dieteticos y el ictus. Los estudios revisados describen una disminucion del riesgo de ictus, segun el consumo recomendado, hasta del 39% para la dieta mediterranea, el 19% para la dieta DASH, el 10% para las nueces, el 26% para las frutas y verduras, el 31% para el pescado, el 26% para la proteina total, el 9% para los lacteos bajos en grasa y el 18% para el calcio. Por el contrario, describen un aumento del riesgo hasta del 58% para la dieta occidental, el 13% para la carne procesada y el 23% para la sal. En relacion con el consumo de legumbres, huevos y leche entera, los resultados son heterogeneos. Conclusiones. El consumo de nueces, frutas y verduras, pescado, proteina total, lacteos bajos en grasa, calcio y la alta adhesion a las dietas DASH y mediterranea podrian tener efectos protectores para el ictus. Mientras que el alto consumo de carnes rojas y procesadas, sal y la dieta occidental podrian constituir un factor de riesgo. Asimismo, es necesaria una mayor investigacion en relacion con el consumo de legumbres, huevos, leche entera, arroz, patatas y bebidas azucaradas.

  2. New halide-centered discrete Ag(I)(8) cubic clusters containing diselenophosphate ligands, [Ag(8)(X)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)](PF(6)) (X = Cl, Br; R = Et, Pr, (i)Pr): syntheses, structures, and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Liu, C W; Haia, Hsien-Chung; Hung, Chiu-Mine; Santra, Bidyut Kumar; Liaw, Ben-Jie; Lin, Zhenyang; Wang, Ju-Chun

    2004-07-12

    Six clusters Ag(8)(micro(8)-X)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)(PF(6)) (R = Et, X = Cl, 1a, X = Br, 1b; R = Pr, X = Cl, 2a, X = Br, 2b; R = (i)Pr, X = Cl, 3a, X = Br, 3b) were isolated from the reaction of [Ag(CH(3)CN)(4)](PF(6)), NH(4)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)], and Bu(4)NX in a molar ratio of 4:3:1 in CH(2)X(2). Positive FAB mass spectra show m/z peaks at 2573.2 for 1a, 2617.3 for 1b, 2740.9 for 2a, 2786.9 for 2b, 2742.3 for 3a, and 2787.0 for 3b due to respective molecular cation, (M - PF(6))(+). (31)P NMR spectra of 1a-3b display a singlet at delta 82.3, 81.5, 82.9, 81.7, 76.3, and 75.8 ppm with a set of satellites (J(PSe) = 661, 664, 652, 652, 656, and 656 Hz, respectively). The X-ray structure (1a-2b) consists of a discrete cationic cluster in which eight silver ions are linked by six diselenophosphate ligands and a central micro(8)-Cl or micro(8)-Br ion with a noncoordinating PF(6)(-) anion. The shape of the molecule is a halide-centered distorted Ag(8) cubic cluster. The dsep ligand exhibits a tetrametallic tetraconnective (micro(2), micro(2)) coordination pattern, and each caps on a square face of the cube. Each silver atom of the cube is coordinated by three selenium atoms and the central chloride or bromide ion. Additionally, molecular orbital calculations at the B3LYP level of the density functional theory have been carried out to study the Ag-micro(8)-X (X = Cl, Br) interactions for cluster cations [Ag(8)(micro(8)-X)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)](+). Calculations show very weak bonding interactions exist between micro(8)-X and Ag atoms of the cube. PMID:15236560

  3. El espectro de KX TrA entre 1990 y 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandi, E.; García, L.; Ferrer, O.; Barbá, R.

    La estrella simbiótica KX TrA = He2-177 fue observada espectroscópicamente con el telescopio de 2.15 m del CASLEO entre los años 1990 y 1996, utilizándose resoluciones intermedia y alta. El rango espectral estudiado se extiende desde 4400 Åa 7200 Å. La historia fotométrica de KX TrA presenta explosiones del mismo tipo que las mostradas por la nova lenta RR Tel y su espectro de alta excitación, muy rico en líneas de emisión, es también similar al de RR Tel. Por lo tanto, es importante analizar la evolución espectral de KX TrA en el tiempo, prestando especial atención a los posibles cambios en los niveles de excitación. Las emisiones presentes corresponden a transiciones permitidas y prohibidas con un amplio rango de ionización, incluyéndose las anchas e intensas líneas originadas por scattering Raman de O VI en λλ 6825 y 7082 Å. En el período cubierto por nuestras observaciones se estudia la variación de la intensidad relativa de las emisiones, el comportamiento de las velocidades radiales y los cambios de perfiles de las líneas, especialmente en Hα y Hβ. El contínuo de la región roja observada indica un tipo espectral no más tardío que M3 para la componente gigante fría del sistema.

  4. Theme: The Technology Explosion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykman, Ann; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "Ready for the Techno World?" (Dykman); "Getting Computers to Think" (Ross); "Industrial Technology Class Welcomes the World" (Suba); "Distance Learning Combats Nursing Shortage in Texas" (Rojas, Anderson); and "Fantasy as an Educational Tool." (JOW)

  5. 77 FR 33561 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    .... 1701-1706) (``IEEPA''), issued Executive Order 12978 (60 FR 54579, October 24, 1995) (the ``Order... interests in property were blocked pursuant to the Order: Individuals 1. AGUILAR ROJAS, Luz Elena,...

  6. Actividad en la superficie lunar: fenómenos lunares transitorios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roa, A. F. C.

    Los fenómenos lunares transitorios que se presentan en la superficie de la Luna son raros, poco frecuentes y de corta duración, lo que origina que exista poca información al respecto. Esto hace evidente la importancia de estudiarlos con detalle. Han sido registrados como nubes muy brillantes a base de gases residuales de la pasada actividad geológica lunar, de diferentes colores (amarillas, anaranjadas, rojas), de acuerdo con el tiempo de duración cambian su color, con tamaños de pocos kilómetros hasta de centenares de kilómetros. Por lo general, se presentan en ciertos lugares, como cráteres (Aristarco, Plato, Kepler, etc.), y en los bordes de los mares lunares (mar de la Fecundidad, zona de los montes Alpes, etc.).Variando su tiempo de exposición puede ser de unos pocos segundos hasta un poco más de una hora.

  7. La busqueda textual por computadora (Textual Search by Computer)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Ned J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of the computer program EDIT for textual searches to locate a certain programmed word or word root. In the examples explained here, the vocabulary search is performed on poetry and allows examination of the metaphorical and conceptual poetic atmosphere achieved through word use. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  8. [Food habits and health-related behaviors in a university population].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Socarrás, Violeida; Aguilar Martínez, Alicia

    2014-09-18

    Introducción: La población universitaria se considera un colectivo especialmente vulnerable desde el punto de vista nutricional ya que comienza a responsabilizarse de su alimentación y atraviesa un período crítico en la consolidación de hábitos y conductas alimentarias. Estudios previos ponen en evidencia el alejamiento de patrones alimentarios saludables y la necesidad de desarrollar acciones de educación e intervención nutricional. Objetivos: Analizar hábitos y conductas relacionadas con la alimentación en una población universitaria en Cataluña como punto de partida para desarrollar estrategias efectivas en la promoción de la salud. Metodología: Estudio observacional transversal descriptivo de hábitos alimentarios y conductas relacionadas con la alimentación (consumo de alcohol, tabaco y actividad física) en estudiantes universitarios de Cataluña. Resultados: La comida y la cena en casa resultaron las comidas imprescindibles de los estudiantes encuestados mientras el desayuno y la merienda se omitían aproximadamente en un 20% de los casos. El patrón dietético obtenido se caracterizó por un consumo excesivo de carnes rojas (84%) y un consumo deficiente o muy deficiente de verduras (39,8%), cereales (92,6%) y frutas (73,9%). El consumo de alcohol en general resultó escaso, siendo la cerveza la bebida más consumida y la mayor parte afirmaron también no ser fumadores habituales. Entre los fumadores habituales predominaron las mujeres. Un número considerable de estudiantes acostumbraban a realizar actividad física moderada o intensa tres o más veces a la semana, a pesar de que una proporción similar no suele realizar ningún tipo de actividad física de manera habitual. Discusión y conclusiones: En la población estudiada se detectan conductas alimentarias que se alejan de las recomendaciones de la Dieta Mediterránea: un escaso consumo de frutas y verduras, un aumento en el consumo de productos lácteos y un predominio en el consumo de

  9. Síndrome del Outlet Torácico: ¿Una Patología Siempre Quirúrgica? Análisis de una Serie de 31 Cirugías Realizadas por Vía Supraclavicular Serie clínica

    PubMed Central

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Binaghi, Daniela; Campero, Álvaro; Páez, Miguel Domínguez; Dubrovsky, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de outlet torácico es una compresión del plexo braquial que suscita polémica. Se clasifica en Outlet Torácico Verdadero o neurogénico (OTV) y Outlet Torácico Disputado o no neurogénico (OTD). El primero presenta síntomas motores en la mano, mientras que el segundo sólo síntomas sensitivos en el miembro superior. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados obtenidos en una serie de 31 cirugías. Métodos: Se analizaron las cirugías de nervios efectuadas entre 2003-2012, tomando los diagnósticos de outlet torácico cuyo período de seguimiento post-operatorio mínimo fuera de 6 meses. Se buscaron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, presencia de síntomas sensitivos y/o motores, clasificación, resultado de los estudios neurofisiológicos y de imágenes, resultado de la cirugía, complicaciones post-operatorias y recidivas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 cirugías realizadas en 30 pacientes, 9 OTV (8 mujeres) de 24.3 años, y 21 con OTD (18 mujeres) de 37.4 años de edad en promedio. Un 90% presentaron alteraciones neurofisiológicas preoperatorias, y 66,6% imagenológicas. En el intraoperatorio, el 100% de los OTV presentó una alteración anatómica relacionada con la sintomatología, hecho observado sólo en el 36.7% de los OTD operados. El 87,5% de los OTV mejoraron sensitivamente, mientras que 77,7% mejoraron la atrofia. Por el contrario, 45.4% de los OTD mejoraron permanentemente, 36.3% no tuvieron cambios, 13.6% mejoraron transitoriamente y 4.5% (un caso) empeoró. Las complicaciones post-operatorias fueron más frecuentes aunque transitorias en el grupo de OTV (3 casos sobre 9 operados, 33.3%) que en los OTD (3 casos sobre 22, un 13.6%). Conclusión: El OTV suele mayormente mejorar luego de la cirugía, igual que el OTD aunque en una proporción mucho menor. Estos hallazgos coinciden con otros reportes recientes de esta patología. PMID:25165614

  10. [Hematological changes induced by erythrocytapheresis].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Morales, Sindy Karina Ibeth; Moreno-López, Luis Carlos; Gallardo, Juan Manuel; Paniagua, José Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: El efecto del procedimiento en los índices hematológicos del donador rara vez se determina al finalizar una sesión de donación. El propósito de este estudio es identificar las posibles alteraciones hematológicas en los donadores sometidos a eritroféresis. Métodos: Se evaluaron 30 donadores adultos, aparentemente sanos. El procedimiento de eritroféresis se realizó utilizando un equipo automatizado. Las mediciones hematológicas (hemoglobina, hematocrito, células blancas y plaquetas) se realizaron antes y después de la eritroféresis. Resultados: Existe disminución significativa en hemoglobina (p < 0.0001), hematocrito (p < 0.0001), leucocitos totales (p < 0.0001), linfocitos (p = 0.0267), y plaquetas (p < 0.0001) tras el procedimiento de donación. Por otro lado, los segmentados tienen un ligero aumento. No se encontraron cambios en monocitos, eosinófilos ni en basófilos poseritroféresis. Conclusiones: durante el procedimiento de donación sanguínea mediante eritroféresis se producen cambios hematológicos tanto en la formula roja como blanca en los donadores estudiados, a pesar de ello, ninguno de los donadores manifestaron signos de trombocitopenia o anemia. Este trabajo demuestra que existen cambios hematológicos postdonación y por ello se requiere de estudios amplios y multicéntricos, con el fin de establecer directrices para establecer un procedimiento seguro para el donador y mejorar la evaluación de idoneidad de los donadores.

  11. A Comparison Between PSRK and GERG-2004 Equation of State for Simulation of Non-Isothermal Compressible Natural Gases Mixed with Hydrogen in Pipelines / Porównanie równań stanu opracowanych według metody PSRK oraz GERG-2004 wykorzystanych do symulacji zachowania ściśliwych mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach, w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uilhoorn, Frits E.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the GERG-2004 equation of state based on a multi-fluid approximation explicit in the reduced Helmholtz energy is compared with the predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong group contribution method. In the analysis, both equations of state are compared by simulating a non-isothermal transient flow of natural gas and mixed hydrogen-natural gas in pipelines. Besides the flow conditions also linepack-energy and energy consumption of the compressor station are computed. The gas flow is described by a set of partial differential equations resulting from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. A pipeline section of the Yamal-Europe gas pipeline on Polish territory has been selected for the case study. W artykule dokonano porównania wyników uzyskanych przy wykorzystaniu równania stanu GERG- 2004 opartego na jawnym przybliżeniu wyników dla wielu cieczy w oparciu o zredukowaną energię Helmhotza oraz wyników uzyskanych w oparciu o metodę Soave-Redlich Kwonga. Obydwa równania stanu porównano poprzez przeprowadzenie symulacji stanów przejściowych przepływów gazu ziemnego oraz mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych. Oprócz warunków przepływu, określono energię w napełnionym układzie oraz zużycie energii przez stację kompresora. Przepływ gazu opisano zbiorem równań różniczkowych cząstkowych, wyprowadzonych w oparciu o prawa zachowania masy, pędu i energii. Jako studium przypadku wybrano fragment rurociągu jamalskiego (Yamal- Europa) przebiegającego przez terytorium Polski.

  12. NOVEL INSIGHTS ON INTAKE OF MEAT AND PREVENTION OF SARCOPENIA: ALL REASONS FOR AN ADEQUATE CONSUMPTION.

    PubMed

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Perna, Simone; Faliva, Milena Anna; Peroni, Gabriella; Infantino, Vittoria; Pozzi, Raffaella

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: la sarcopenia se define como un síndrome caracterizado por la pérdida progresiva y generalizada de la masa muscular y de la fuerza. La principal causa de la sarcopenia es la alteración del metabolismo de las proteínas, en la que los procesos proteolíticos no van acompañados de una síntesis de proteínas y células musculares adecuadas, con lo que se pierde progresivamente la sensibilidad al estímulo anabólico. El enfoque más racional para retrasar la progresión de la sarcopenia y contrarrestar la resistencia anabólica es una nutrición adecuada. La carne contiene compuestos biológicamente activos, tales como creatina, carnitina y ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA) que tienen impactos significativos sobre el metabolismo de la proteína humana. Métodos: se realizó una revisión de la literatura narrativa para evaluar la evidencia hasta ahora, en relación con: 1. ingesta adecuada de carne en ancianos como prevención de la sarcopenia; 2. la ingesta correcta de compuestos biológicamente activos que contiene la carne, que tienen impactos significativos sobre el metabolismo de la proteína humana y para así obtener efectos beneficiosos en la prevención de la sarcopenia. Esta revisión incluyó 62 estudios elegibles. Resultados: los resultados demostraron que en personas de edad avanzada la terapia óptima con dieta para la prevención y tratamiento de la sarcopenia, que debe apuntar al logro de los objetivos metabólicos específicos, debe recomendar el consumo de 113 g de carne (220 kcal; 30 g de proteínas) cinco veces a la semana. Conclusión: en una dieta variada y equilibrada, para prevenir la sarcopenia, se recomienda consumir la carne 4-5 veces a la semana (carne blanca 2 veces por semana, carne roja magra menos de 2 veces por semana, carne procesada menos de 1 vez por semana), como se sugiere en la pirámide de la dieta para personas mayores.

  13. Estudio del sistema simbiótico AR Pavonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiroga, C.; Brandi, E.; Ferrer, O.; García, L.; Barbá, R.

    Se presenta un estudio espectroscópico y polarimétrico de la binaria eclipsante AR Pavonis a partir de observaciones obtenidas con el telescopio de 2.15 m. del CASLEO (San Juan). El estudio de la naturaleza del sistema se realizó a través del análisis de algunos espectros reunidos entre los años 1990 y 1995 y de datos polarimétricos correspondientes al intervalo 1995 y 1997. El análisis espectroscópico indica que AR Pav está compuesta por una gigante roja M3.7 y una componente caliente compacta, con una temperatura mayor a 90000 K y una luminosidad del orden de 500Lsolar. A lo largo del período orbital, las variaciones observadas en flujo y en velocidades radiales, reflejan que las emisiones permitidas se forman en una región que rodea la componente caliente. El estudio de la polarización lineal de AR Pav indica que además de una componente interestelar, existe una componente intrínseca del sistema que varía temporalmente y con la longitud de onda de la luz polarizada. El distinto comportamiento del grado de polarización y del ángulo de posición observado en fases diferentes, sugiere que distintos mecanismos pueden estar actuando, dependiendo de la región de scattering observado a lo largo de la línea de la visual.

  14. [Eating habits and attitudes towards change in Spanish university students and workers].

    PubMed

    Zazpe, Itziar; Marqués, María; Sánchez-Tainta, Ana; Rodríguez-Mourille, Ana; Beunza, Juan-José; Santiago, Susana; Fernández-Montero, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El entorno educativo y laboral ha adquirido protagonismo como ámbito prometedor para llevar a cabo intervenciones nutricionales en población adulta. Objetivos: El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar los hábitos alimentarios y actitudes hacia el cambio en trabajadores y alumnos universitarios con distinto perfil académico. Métodos: Estudio epidemiológico descriptivo de tipo transversal en población universitaria española de 1.429 sujetos. Se analizaron los hábitos alimentarios y las actitudes hacia el cambio de hábitos. Resultados: La edad media de los trabajadores fue de 37 años y en los estudiantes de 23 años. En ambos grupos el fraccionamiento de la ingesta más frecuente fue de cuatro tomas al día. En los alumnos se observó menor frecuencia de consumo de verdura, vino, pescado y frutos secos y mayor de bebidas carbonatadas, repostería comercial, fast-food y carnes rojas. Por otro lado, en general los hábitos alimentarios de los estudiantes de ciencias fueron más saludables que los de letras. Aunque no se observaron diferencias significativas en las actitudes hacia el cambio entre estudiantes y trabajadores, el 32% de los empleados y el 39% de los estudiantes afirmaron estar planteándose seriamente cambiar sus costumbres. Conclusiones: El patrón alimentario fue más saludable entre los trabajadores que entre los alumnos, especialmente en aquellos que cursan grados de letras, que constituyen el grupo más vulnerable desde el punto de vista nutricional. Además, aproximadamente un tercio de los trabajadores y alumnos se planteaba modificar sus hábitos.

  15. Aspilota-group (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) diversity in Mediterranean Natural Parks of Spain

    PubMed Central

    Belokobylskij, Sergey A; Falcó-Garí, Jose Vicente; Jiménez-Peydró, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This work analyses the biodiversity of the Aspilota-group (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) in three Mediterranean Natural parks: Natural Park of La Font Roja, Natural Park of Las Lagunas de la Mata-Torrevieja and Natural Park of La Tinença de Benifassà. Samples were carried out from April 2004 to December 2007. In total, 822 specimens, belonging to 52 species, were collected. Alpha, beta and gamma diversities were analysed, and the Tinença Park was proven to have higher diversity than the Font Roja and Torrevieja. Also, the structure of the Aspilota-group community was analysed. PMID:25197232

  16. See the World on the Internet: Tips for Parents of Young Readers--and "Surfers" = Vea el mundo por Internet: Ideas por padres de jovenes lectores y exploradores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jeanette

    Regardless of whether a parent has Internet access at home, it is essential that parents learn with their children and be aware of where their travels on the Internet are taking them. Many libraries have Internet workshops for parents or children or both. In the excitement of looking at sites, children may not even realize they are reading. Many…

  17. Verification and validation interim report for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This Verification and Validation (V/V) interim report summarizes to date the results of the V/V tasks performed in each of the following life cycle phases: concept, requirements, design, implementation, test, installation and checkout, and operation and maintenance. At the end of the installation and checkout phase, the V/V final report will be issued. This interim report contains or references the following for each phase: Description of V/V tasks performed; Summary of task results; Summary of anomalies and resolution; Assessment of system quality; Recommendations.

  18. Usual dietary glycemic load is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in physically active Brazilian middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Cocate, Paula G; Natali, Antônio J; de Oliveira, Alessandro; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G; Longo, Giana Z; Buthers, Jéssica M; dos Santos, Eliziária C; de Oliveira, Leandro L; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia G

    2014-02-01

    Introducción: Los efectos de la carga glucémica (CG) de la dieta sobre los factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en sujetos físicamente activos no están establecidos por completo. Objetivo: Este estudio transversal evaluó la asociación entre la CG de la dieta habitual y los factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en hombres brasileños de mediana edad físicamente activos. Métodos: Ciento setenta y seis sujetos (índice de masa corporal: 25,5 ± 3,6 kg/m2; edad: 50,6 ± 5,0 años) fueron evaluados. Antropometría, características del estilo de vida, la resistencia a la insulina, biomarcadores del estrés oxidativo (8-iso-prostaglandina F2, 8-iso-PGF2y 8 hidroxideoxiguanosina, 8-OHdG) y el perfil lipídico fueron evaluados. La ingesta dietética se estimó por medio de un cuestionario cuantitativo de frecuencia de consumo. Resultados: La CG de la dieta se asoció positivamente con las concentraciones de ácidos grasos libres (= 0,311, r2 = 0,13, P = 0,034) y la razón triglicéridos/colesterol HDL (= 0,598, r2 = 0,19, P = 0,028), independientemente de los factores de confusión (obesidad central, consumo de carne roja, edad e ingesta calórica). El biomarcador del estrés oxidativo, 8-OHdG, también se asoció con CG de la dieta habitual (= 0,432, r2 = 0,11, P = 0,004), independientemente de los factores de confusión anteriores más el consumo excesivo de alcohol, la ingesta de hierro y tabaquismo actual. Conclusiones: La CG de la dieta se asoció positivamente con el perfil lipídico (concentraciones de ácidos grasos libres y razón triglicéridos/HDL colesterol) y el biomarcador de estrés oxidativo 8-OHdG. Estos resultados indican el potencial de nocividad de una dieta con mayor CG respecto a los factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en hombres de mediana edad, incluso en aquellos físicamente activos.

  19. Real-Time Assessment of the 16 September 2015 Chile Tsunami and Implications for Near-Field Forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Liujuan; Titov, Vasily V.; Moore, Christopher; Wei, Yong

    2016-02-01

    The magnitude 8.3 earthquake in central Chile on 16 September 2015 and the resulting tsunami severely affected the region, with 15 deaths ( Onemi in Monitoreo por sismo de mayor intensidad. (In Spanish) [Available at: http://www.onemi.cl/alerta/se-declara-alerta-roja-por-sismo-de-mayor-intensidad-y-alarma-de-tsunami/], 2015), over one million evacuated, and flooding in nearby coastal cities. We present our real-time assessment of the 2015 Chile tsunami using the Short-term Inundation Forecasting for Tsunamis system, and post-event analyses with local community models in Chile. We evaluate three real-time tsunami sources, which were inverted at the time that the first quarter-, half-, and full-wave passed the first tsunameter (DART 32402, located approximately 580 km north-northwest of the epicenter), respectively. Measurement comparisons from 26 deep-ocean tsunameters and 38 coastal tide stations show that good model accuracies are achieved for all three sources, particularly for the local sites that recorded the most destructive waves. The study highlights the forecast speed, time and accuracy dependence, and their implications for the local forecast capability. Our analyses suggest that the tsunami's main origination area is about 100-200 km long and 100 km wide, to the north of the earthquake epicenter along the trench and the total estimated tsunami wave energy is 7.9 × 1013 J (with 13 % uncertainty). The study provides important guidelines for the earliest reliable estimate of tsunami energy and local forecasts. They can be obtained with the first quarter-wave of tsunameter recording. These results are also confirmed by a forecast analysis of the 2011 Japan tsunami. Furthermore, we find that the first half-wave tsunameter data are sufficient to accurately forecast the 2015 Chile tsunami, due to the specific orientation between the nearest tsunameter and the source. The study also suggests expanding the operational use of the local community models in real

  20. The Achievement Gap between White and Non-White Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas-LeBouef, Ana; Slate, John R.

    2012-01-01

    This Collection contains three seminal modules by Authors Ana Rojas-LeBouef and John R. Slate, professors and researchers from Sam Houston State University in Texas. They are nationally recognized scholars in the area of the academic inequity between White and Non-White students. This paper is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1--The…

  1. Eventos de Mayo (May Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Pla, Myrna

    Designed as a resource for teachers, this booklet, written in Spanish, contains brief information on seven May events: La Semana de la Educacion (first Friday in May), Harry S. Truman (May 8), Dia de las Madres (second Sunday in May), Luis Llorens Torres (May 14), La Cruz Roja (May 21), John F. Kennedy (May 29), and El Dia De Conmemoracion (May…

  2. BIFF AND TIFF. MIAMI LINGUISTIC READERS, INTRODUCTORY UNIT AND LEVEL ONE-A. TEACHERS MANUAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROBINETT, RALPH F.; AND OTHERS

    THIS TWO-YEAR BEGINNING READING SERIES WAS PREPARED BY A GROUP OF LINGUISTS WHICH INCLUDED RALPH F. ROBINETT, PAULINE M. ROJAS, AND PAUL W. BELL, IN COOPERATION WITH THE DADE COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS, FLORIDA. (SEE RELATED DOCUMENTS ED 001 693, ED 001 694, ED 001 695, AND ED 001 696.) THIS REVISED EXPERIMENTAL EDITION COMPRISES 10 PRE-PRIMERS,…

  3. El Titulo IX y La Discriminacion por Sexo (Title IX and Sex Discrimination).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…

  4. Looking for a Job: Step by Step = Buscando Trabajo: Paso por Paso.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Patricia

    This bilingual document provides guidelines and learning activities to assist migrant workers in looking for a job. The document covers the following areas: (1) a checklist providing an overview of job search skills; (2) developing a fact sheet of personal information; (3) listing good work qualities; (4) identifying references and securing…

  5. Luchando por una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Elvia Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate…

  6. Enfermedad diarreica aguda por Escherichia coli patógenas en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Las cepas de E. coli patógenas intestinales son causas importantes de la enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) en niños menores de 5 años en América Latina, África y Asia y están asociadas a alta mortalidad en niños en las comunidades más pobres de África y el Sudeste Asiático. Estudios sobre el papel de las E. coli patógenas intestinales en la EDA infantil en Colombia y otros países de América Latina son limitados debido a la carencia de ensayos para detección de estos patógenos en los laboratorios clínicos de centros de salud. Estudios recientes han reportado la detección de E. coli patógenas intestinales en Colombia, siendo la E. coli enterotoxigénica la cepa más frecuentemente asociada a diarrea en niños menores de 5 años. Otros patógenos detectados en estos pacientes incluyen las E. coli enteroagregativa, enteropatógena, productora de toxina Shiga, y de adherencia difusa. Con base en estudios que reportan la presencia de E. coli productora de toxina Shiga y E. coli enteroagregativa en carnes y vegetales en supermercados, se cree que productos alimentarios contaminados contribuyen a la transmisión de estos patógenos y a la infección del huésped susceptible. Más estudios son necesarios para evaluar los mecanismos de transmisión, el impacto en la epidemiologia de la EDA, y las pautas de manejo y prevención de estos patógenos que afectan la población pediátrica en Colombia. PMID:25491457

  7. Producao d Dijatos por Dupla Troca de Pomeron Exclusiva no Experimento D0

    SciTech Connect

    Murilo Santana Rangel

    2008-01-01

    The first search for exclusive diffractive dijet production with invariant mass ≳ 100 GeV in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is performed. The set of data used is the Run IIa, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30 pb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV taken with the D0 detector. At 95% CL, an upper limit for the ratio between the number of diffractive exclusive events and the number of non diffractive events is set to be 7.5 x 10-6, excluding two of the three models proposed to explain this production.

  8. Renovando la Esperanza por una Educacion sin Exclusiones (Rekindling the Hope for an Education without Exclusion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Articles in this issue, written in Spanish, focus on the following: current status and outlook of youth and adult education; opening statement of the 50th anniversary commemoration; regional framework for the education of youth and adults in Latin America and the Caribbean; interculturalism and the education of youth and adults; participation of…

  9. Incorporating the viewer's point of regard (POR) in gaze-contingent virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    1998-04-01

    Awareness of the viewer's gaze position in a virtual environment can lead to significant savings in scene processing if fine detail information is presented `just in time' only at locations corresponding to the participant's gaze, i.e., in a gaze-contingent manner. This paper describes the evolution of a gaze-contingent video display system, `gcv'. Gcv is a multithreaded, real-time program which displays digital video and simultaneously tracks a subject's eye movements. Treating the eye tracker as an ordinary positional sensor, gcv's architecture shares many similarities with contemporary virtual environment system designs. Performance of the present system is evaluated in terms of (1) eye tracker sampling latency and video transfer rates, and (2) measured eye tracker accuracy and slippage. The programming strategies developed for incorporating the viewer's point-of-regard are independent of proprietary eye tracking equipment and are applicable to general gaze- contingent virtual environment designs.

  10. Phantom of RAMSES (POR): A new Milgromian dynamicsN-body code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüghausen, Fabian; Famaey, Benoit; Kroupa, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    Since its first formulation in 1983, Milgromian dynamics (MOND) has been very successful in predicting the gravitational potential of galaxies from the distribution of baryons alone, including general scaling relations and detailed rotation curves of large statistical samples of individual galaxies covering a large range of masses and sizes. Most predictions however rely on static models, and only a handful of N-body codes have been developed over the years to investigate the consequences of the Milgromian framework for the dynamics of complex evolving dynamical systems. In this work, we present a new Milgromian N-body code, which is a customized version of the RAMSES code (Teyssier 2002) and thus comes with all its features: it includes particles and gas dynamics, and importantly allows for high spatial resolution of complex systems due to the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique. It further allows the direct comparison between Milgromian simulations and standard Newtonian simulations with dark matter particles. We provide basic tests of this customized code and demonstrate its performance by presenting N-body computations of dark-matter-free spherical equilibrium models as well as dark-matter-free disk galaxies in Milgromian dynamics.

  11. Pulsaciones excitadas por la quema de hidrógeno en enanas blancas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camisassa, M. E.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.

    2016-08-01

    Recent works show that low-mass white dwarfs derived from low-metallicity progenitors, in the absence of third dredge-up episodes during the asymptotic giant branch, are born with a hydrogen envelope thick enough to make stable hydrogen shell burning the most important energy source even at low luminosities. This extra source of energy delays the cooling times of these white dwarfs. Furthermore, in this type of stars some pulsational -modes could be excited by the epsilon mechanism due to the hydrogen shell burning. Motivated by these results, we decided to explore the pulsational properties of this type of stars, aimed at constraining hydrogen shell burning and the occurrence of third dredge-up during the AGB evolution of the progenitor stars. For this purpose, we have constructed nonadiabatic pulsation models of white dwarfs from low-metallicity progenitors with . Our calculations show that some modes are excited due to hydrogen shell burning.

  12. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

  13. Language and La Academia, If English Works, Por Que Se Emplea Espanol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonz, Jon G.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamics of Mexican American nationalism reflected in the publications of the Academia de la Nueva Raza and in a 1971 work by Ricardo Sanchez are examined in this article. The connection between language and ideology is discussed in the context of Chicano nationalist writing. (GC)

  14. PREJUICIO Y DISTANCIA SOCIAL HACIA PERSONAS HOMOSEXUALES POR PARTE DE JÓVENES UNIVERSITARIOS

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Rodríguez, María del C.; Squiabro, José Calderón

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con el propósito de explorar actitudes de rechazo y distancia social hacia las personas gays y lesbianas (GL) en 565 universitarios. Se utilizó una escala para medir Prejuicio y otra escala para medir Distancia Social. Los participantes reflejaron niveles moderados de prejuicio y distancia social (DS) hacia las personas gays y lesbianas. Los varones (M=104.5, DT= 27.47) mostraron significativamente más prejuicio que las mujeres (M=98.8, DT= 23.41). Los hombres (M=22.7, DT= 7.00) mostraron significativamente mayor DS que las mujeres (M=21.1, DT= 5.41). Las personas que asisten con regularidad a la iglesia mostraron más prejuicio y DS que los que no asisten. Se analiza importancia de incluir el tema de la diversidad sexual a través del currículo para desmontar prejuicios hacia la comunidad homosexual. PMID:25606066

  15. Evolución de una protuberancia observada por el HASTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luoni, M. L.; Francile, C.

    Prominence eruptions are one of the most spectacular manifestations of solar activity; in addition to flares and coronal mass ejections. Both filaments and prominences are chromospheric material suspended in the corona by the magnetic field. Hence their importance as tracers of field ejections. Some parts of their magnetic structure are not well understood; especially with regard to the loss of stability. On 06 December 2010 the H-Alpha Telescope for Argentina (HASTA) observed a prominence in the eastern solar limb including when part of it was ejected. In this paper the evolution of the filament is analyzed; its structure before and after the eruption; determining parameters that characterize it from HASTA data. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  16. El Libro de la Escritura por Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.…

  17. Teaching Probability for Conceptual Change (La Ensenanza de la Probabilidad por Cambio Conceptual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Cesar Saenz

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical proposal of a methodology for the teaching of probability theory. Discusses the importance of the epistemological approach of Lakatos and the perspective of the conceptual change. Discusses research using a proposed didactic method with Spanish high school students (N=6). Concludes that significant differences on all…

  18. Master equipment list 500 CFM portable exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    KRISKOVICH, J.R.

    1999-07-08

    The Master Equipment List (MEL) lists all the major components of the 500 cfm exhauster PORO5. The purpose of this Master Equipment List is to provide basic information and references to other documents for the listed components.

  19. "Por Los Ojos De Madres": Latina Mothers' Understandings of College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Laura Jean; Martinez, Melissa Ann; Sáenz, Victor B.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, data from six focus groups with 30 Latina mothers in South Texas were analyzed utilizing a "funds of knowledge" approach to uncover their understandings of college readiness and their role in ensuring their children are college ready. Findings indicate that Latina mothers perceived college readiness in a holistic fashion,…

  20. Neuropatía periférica inducida por quimioterapia

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre un efecto secundario de la quimioterapia que causa dolor y malestar en las manos y los pies. También incluye información sobre los esfuerzos para mejorar las opciones de detección, tratamiento y prevención.

  1. Ensenando El Espanol por Medio de Accion (Teaching Spanish through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level Spanish lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, individual…

  2. [Mediterranean and Western dietary patterns in adult population of a Mediterranean area; a cluster analysis].

    PubMed

    Ciprián, Daniel; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Ma; Garcia de la Hera, Manuela; Giménez-Monzo, Daniel; González-Palacios, Sandra; Quiles, Joan; Vioque, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes/objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio ha sido identificar patrones dietéticos a partir de los datos recogidos en la Encuesta de Nutrición y Salud de la Comunidad Valenciana realizada sobre una muestra representativa de población adulta y explorar los posibles factores asociados a los patrones identificados. Metodología: Un total de 1.803 individuos adultos (973 mujeres) participaron en la encuesta de Nutrición y Salud realizada en 1994 en la Comunidad Valenciana. La dieta fue evaluada mediante cuestionario de frecuencia alimentaria (CFA) validado de 93 ítems alimentarios. Las ingestas de alimentos se ajustaron por mil calorías y se crearon 26 grupos de alimentos usando valores estandarizados (z-scores) para la identificación de patrones dietéticos por el método análisis de k-medias prefijando 3 clúster. Se usó regresión logística multinomial múltiple para explorar la asociación entre patrones y variables sociodemográficas, antropométricas y de estilos de vida. Resultados: Se identificaron tres patrones dietéticos denominados como Prudente, Mediterráneo y Occidental. El patrón Prudente (57,2%) se caracterizó por un consumo intermedio de los principales grupos de alimentos; el Mediterráneo (29,1%) destacó por un elevado consumo de frutas, verduras y pescado; y el Occidental (13,7%) por un alto consumo de carnes rojas, embutidos, platos preparados, croquetas, bebidas azucaradas, dulces, chocolates y bebidas alcohólicas. El patrón Mediterráneo presentó las mayores puntuaciones para varios índices de calidad alimentaria analizados y definidos a priori en la literatura. Usando como referencia el patrón Mediterráneo, los que seguían un patrón Occidental fueron significativamente más jóvenes, un mayor número de hombres y fumadores; los que seguían un patrón Prudente presentaron un mayor número de hombres, no practicaban actividad física regular y menor consumo de alcohol. Conclusión: De los tres patrones diet

  3. Review of complementary feeding practices in Mexican children.

    PubMed

    Pantoja-Mendoza, Itzayana Y; Meléndez, Guillermo; Guevara-Cruz, Martha; Serralde-Zúñiga, Aurora E

    2014-10-19

    Antecedentes: El inicio de la alimentación complementaria temprana coincide con un aumento significativo en la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad especialmente en los niños, lo cual se debe entre otras causas a los cambios en los patrones de alimentación que se han experimentado. El objetivo del estudio fue describir las prácticas de alimentación complementaria en niños mexicanos. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda de los estudios que evaluaron las prácticas alimentarias en menores de 2 años en México en Medline, Lilacs y de forma manual con los siguientes términos: alimentación complementaria, alimentación suplementaria, México, ablactación y destete. Se recabó la edad de inicio de la alimentación complementaria, tipo de alimento consumido, frecuencia de consumo de los alimentos y motivo por el que iniciaban la alimentación complementaria. Se realizó un análisis cualitativo de la información recolectada y los datos en las gráficas son mostrados como proporciones. Resultados: Se incluyeron 7 estudios que mostraron que los niños inician la alimentación complementaria antes de los 6 meses predominantemente con frutas, aunque también consumieron jugos industrializados, refrescos y frituras. El consumo de estos productos aumenta con el crecimiento de los niños, aunado a un bajo consumo de alimentos con proteína de alto valor biológico, especialmente las carnes rojas. Conclusiones: Los resultados de los estudios incluidos mostraron que los menores reciben alimentos con alta densidad energética, mientras que es bajo el consumo de aquellos que aportan proteína animal y hierro en particular, lo que puede contribuir a problemas de salud como sobrepeso, obesidad, desnutrición y anemia.

  4. Prion protein gene (PRNP) variants and evidence for strong purifying selection in functionally important regions of bovine exon 3

    PubMed Central

    Seabury, Christopher M.; Honeycutt, Rodney L.; Rooney, Alejandro P.; Halbert, Natalie D.; Derr, James N.

    2004-01-01

    Amino acid replacements encoded by the prion protein gene (PRNP) have been associated with transmissible and hereditary spongiform encephalopathies in mammalian species. However, an association between bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and bovine PRNP exon 3 has not been detected. Moreover, little is currently known regarding the mechanisms of evolution influencing the bovine PRNP gene. Therefore, in this study we evaluated the patterns of nucleotide variation associated with PRNP exon 3 for 36 breeds of domestic cattle and representative samples for 10 additional species of Bovinae. The results of our study indicate that strong purifying selection has intensely constrained PRNP over the long-term evolutionary history of the subfamily Bovinae, especially in regions considered to be of functional, structural, and pathogenic importance in humans as well as other mammals. The driving force behind this intense level of purifying selection remains to be explained. PMID:15477588

  5. Primary structures of pancreatic ribonucleases from Bovidae. Impala, Thomson's gazelle, nilgai and water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Beintema, J J

    1980-01-24

    The amino acid sequences of the pancreatic ribonucleases from impala Thomson's gazelle, nilgai and two types of water buffalo were studied from several enzymic digests. Peptides were positioned by homology with other ribonucleases of known sequence. Only peptides that differ in amino acid composition from the corresponding peptides of ox and goat ribonuclease were sequenced. The primary structures of pancreatic ribonucleases from 11 species of the Bovidae family are known to date. The evolutionary rate of bovid ribonucleases is 2--3 times lower than the average rate observed in all mammals. A possible explanation is that the presence of a stable symbiotic system in the rumen of grass-eating ruminants has caused a slowing down of the evolutionary rate of pancreatic ribonuclease in this taxon. The subfamily of the Bovinae (five species) exhibits a slightly higher evolutionary rate; most replacements in the Bovinae occur near residues 34--36, the most commonly observed carbohydrate attachment site in ribonucleases.

  6. On Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. Series II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreidler, Carol J., Ed.

    The papers in this volume, read at the second national TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) conference, are grouped by general subject as follows: (1) TESOL as a Professional Field--C.H. Prator, J.M. Cowan, T.W. Russell, J.E. Alatis; (2) Reports on Special Programs--H. Thompson, A.D. Nance, D. Pantell, P. Rojas, R.F. Robinett,…

  7. La trama celeste: por qué educar en astronomía. Una oportunidad de aprendizajes múltiples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, B.

    2016-08-01

    Astronomy education at all levels has been an issue addressed by the International Astronomical Union as part of its 2010--2020 plan. The content on astronomical topics are in the curriculum at primary and secondary levels worldwide. Being a cross-discipline, astronomy is also a science that allows to introduce students to the study of the nature in a non-confrontational way: no one is indifferent to their concepts and discoveries. The International Astronomical Union, through its Commission on Education and Development of Astronomy, has implemented, sponsored and carried out over the past five years two special programs, one about didactics of astronomy for teachers of middle level and another one for the transmission of astronomical topics for the disabled. In this presentation, achievements and impact of these programs are shared.

  8. Distribución superficial de impactos en Iapetus originada por el remanente de una colisión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppetti, F. A.; Leiva, A. M.; Briozzo, C. B.

    2015-08-01

    By means of Circular Restricted Three Body Problem Saturn--Iapetus, we analize potential impact distributions on the surface of Iapetus, originated from considering a low-energy population generated as remnants of a collisional event occurred in the past on the surface of this satellite. The results are analized in order to offer a new approach to explain the origin of the albedo dichotomy observed on Iapetus.

  9. Como ayudar a los padres a prevenir el envenenamiento por plomo (Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. This Spanish-language Digest summarizes some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies…

  10. Reconnaissance evaluation of Honduran geothermal sites. Una evaluacion por medio de reconocimiento de seis areas geotermicas en Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.; Fakundiny, R.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-12-01

    Six geothermal spring sites were selected on the basis of preliminary investigations conducted in Honduras over the last decade and were evaluated in terms of their development potential. Of the six, the Platanares and San Ignacio sites have high base temperatures and high surface fluid discharge rates and appear to have the best potential for further development as sources of electrical power. A third site, Azacualpa, has a high enough base temperature and discharge rate to be considered as a back-up, but the logistical problems involved in geophysical surveys make it less attractive than the two primary sites. Of the remaining three sites, Pavana may be a source of direct-use heat for local agricultural processing. Sambo Creek and El Olivar have either severe logistical problems that would impede further investigation and development or base temperatures and flow rates that are too low to warrant detailed investigation at this time.

  11. En otras palabras: Perfeccionamiento del espanol por medio de la traduccion (In Other Words: Perfecting Spanish Language Skills through Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Patricia V.; Lunsford, Ernest J.

    This publication, written primarily in Spanish, is an activity book designed to teach Spanish through translation based on the theory that, in order to produce an acceptable translation, students must focus their attention on lexical and grammatical detail. The book combines incisive grammar explanations, relevant lexical information, and a wide…

  12. Monitoreo óptico de eta-Carina durante el pasaje por el periastro en 2014.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Lajús, E.; Salerno, N. E.; Scalia, M. C.; Ramos, X. S.; Giudici, F. N.; Gamen, R. C.

    2015-08-01

    We present the H light curves resulting from the 2013 and 2014 observing seasons of Car as well as its spectral evolution, including the latest ``event'' occurred in mid-2014. The direct CCD observations were made with the telescope ``VS Niemela'' the Observatory of La Plata, and spectroscopic observations were made with the telescope ``J. Sahade'' of Casleo, Argentina.

  13. Survey of carnitine content of human semen using a semiquantitative auxanographic method: decreased semen total carnitine concentration in patients with azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Soffer, Y; Shalev, D P; Weissenberg, R; Orenstein, H; Nebel, L; Lewin, L M

    1981-01-01

    A microbiological method, using the carnitine-requiring yeast, Torulopsis bovina ATCC 26014, was developed to identify samples of human semen which contained low levels (less than 250 micron M) of total carnitine. Of 399 semen samples from a male infertility clinic which were tested, 30 (7.5%) were low in carnitine. Of these, 14 were azoospermic and 16 were severely oligozoospermic. Some azoospermic samples (19 = 58%) and severely oligozoospermic samples (51 = 79%) did not give evidence of low carnitine concentrations. These results indicate that decreased total carnitine concentration in semen occurs in certain classes of azoospermic and severely oligozoospermic patients.

  14. Serotypes in Saccharomyces telluris: Their relation to source of isolation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hasenclever, H.F.; Kocan, R.M.

    1973-01-01

    Three serotypes have been characterized with three reference strains of Saccharomyces telluris and designated as A, B, and C. One reference strain of Torpulopsis bovina, the imperfect form of S. telluris, belonged to serotype B. Strains of S. telluris isolated from four columbid species were serotyped. All 98 strains of this yeast isolated from Columba livia belonged to serotype B. Three other columbid species, C. leucocephala, C. fasciata, and Zenaidura macroura harbored strains of serotype C only. Serotype A was not isolated from any of the avian species.

  15. Computation of the power spectrum in chaotic ¼λφ{sup 4} inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, Clara; Villalba, Víctor M. E-mail: Victor.Villalba@monash.edu

    2012-01-01

    The phase-integral approximation devised by Fröman and Fröman, is used for computing cosmological perturbations in the quartic chaotic inflationary model. The phase-integral formulas for the scalar power spectrum are explicitly obtained up to fifth order of the phase-integral approximation. As in previous reports (Rojas 2007b, 2007c and 2009), we point out that the accuracy of the phase-integral approximation compares favorably with the numerical results and those obtained using the slow-roll and uniform approximation methods.

  16. Modelling soil organic carbon stocks along topographic transects under climate change scenarios using CarboSOIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotb Abd-Elmabod, Sameh; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Jordán, Antonio; Anaya-Romero, María; de la Rosa, Diego

    2014-05-01

    CarboSOIL is a land evaluation model for soil organic carbon (SOC) accounting under global change scenarios (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2013a; 2013b) and is a new component of the MicroLEIS Decision Support System. MicroLEIS is a tool for decision-makers dealing with specific agro-ecological problems as, for example, soil contamination risks (Abd-Elmabod et al., 2010; Abd-Elmabod et al., 2012)which has been designed as a knowledge-based approach incorporating a set of interlinked data bases. Global change and land use changes in recent decades have caused relevant impacts in vegetation carbon stocks (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2011) and soil organic carbon stocks, especially in sensible areas as the Mediterranean region (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2012a; 2012b). This study aims to investigate the influence of topography, climate, land use and soil factors on SOC stocks by the application of CarboSOIL in a representative area of the Mediterranean region (Seville, Spain). Two topographic transects (S-N and W-E oriented) were considered, including 63 points separated 4 km each. These points are associated to 41 soil profiles extracted from the SDBm soil data base (De la Rosa et al., 2001) and climatic information (average minimum temperature, average maximum temperature and average rainfall per month) extracted from raster data bases (Andalusian Environmental Information Network, REDIAM). CarboSOIL has been applied along topographic transects at different soil depths and under different climate change scenarios. Climate scenarios have been calculated according to the global climate model (CNRMCM3) by extracting spatial climate data under IPCC A1B scenario for the current period (average data from 1960-2000), 2040, 2070 and 2100. In the current scenario, results show that the highest SOC stock values located on Typic Haploxeralfs under olive groves for soil sections 0-25 cm and for 25-50 cm, but the highest values were determined on fruit-cropped Rendolic Xerothent in the 50-75cm

  17. "Pig in a poke (gato por liebre)": the "mota" (Calophysus macropterus) fishery, molecular evidence of commercialization in Colombia and toxicological analyses.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Cristian; Cubillos, Juan Camilo; Gómez, Rigoberto; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Overfishing has affected the population abundance trends of many commercial fish species. In the Amazon, the fishery of a catfish commonly known as "mota" or "piracatinga" (Calophysus macropterus) has become an important economic activity in the region as this species has replaced a number of other overexploited great catfish species in the markets. Due to this high exploitation, ways in which to increase captures have been identified. One strategy is to use decomposing animal carcasses as bait. Such strategy has increased the hunting pressure on endangered species such as caimans and river dolphins. We investigated which catfish species are currently commercialized in Colombian fish markets using DNA barcoding, and measured mercury concentration in the tissues of fish molecularly identified as C. macropterus. We collected 86 fish samples in markets of four Colombian cities. Sixty-eight of these were identified molecularly as C.macropterus. The mercury concentration of 29 such samples was analyzed. Samples presented total Hg concentrations higher than the limit for human consumption established by the WHO (0.5 μg/g). These results are worrisome and suggest that (1) C. macropterus is a widely used fish species for human consumption in Colombia and (2) C. macropterus has high concentrations of total Hg, making its consumption a public health risk. Results presented here suggest that C. macropterus has replaced capaz in most Colombian markets. This fishery threatens wild species of river dolphins and caimans, and is also a public health risk given the high mercury levels we found in a subsample of these fishes. PMID:24419666

  18. Comparacion de Modelos de Educacion Sexual en El Conocimiento y Cambio de Actitudes en Practicas Sexuales por Alumnos de Nivel Superior en La Region De Caguas, Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    2012-01-01

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of…

  19. Realidades Suburbanas: Latinos en el Condado de Dakota. Una Investigacion Dirigida por HACER = Suburban Realities: Latinos in Dakota County. A Study Conducted by HACER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HACER: Hispanic Advocacy and Community Empowerment through Research, Minneapolis, MN.

    A research project was conducted between April and December of 1998 to learn about the experiences of the sizable numbers of Latinos who live in Dakota County (Minnesota). This diverse group was studied through examining existing demographic information, conducting interviews with 45 Latino and Anglo individuals, and conducting several focus…

  20. Vientos impulsados por radiación en supergigantes B en rotación: análisis de los regímenes de soluciones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venero, R. O. J.; Curé, M.; Cidale, L.

    2016-08-01

    The theory of radiation driven winds for rotating early-type stars gives three classes of hydrodynamic solutions. These are: the classical m-CAK solution or fast solution, the solution for fast rotators, and the solution for special ionization conditions along the wind structure. In this work we study the domains of every kind of solution in the and parameter space, where is the equatorial rotation speed in terms of the critical rotation velocity, and is the radiation force parameter that determines the ionization structure of the wind. This analysis is performed for different values of effective temperature corresponding to the spectral subtypes among B supergiants. We propose that the winds of B-type supergiants could change between the different velocity regimes, if small variations in the plasma ionization conditions take place. These variations could happen between two consecutive evolutionary stages of B supergiants or, in a short term, explaining the variability observed in the spectra of these stars.

  1. Comienza la construcción de instalación patrocinada por el NCI en Puerto Rico para realizar estudios

    Cancer.gov

    El gobierno de Puerto Rico ha destinado $196 millones de dólares para construir un hospital oncológico de 287 000 pies cuadrados en San Juan, que contará con 96 camas. El nuevo hospital es el primero en su clase en la región caribeña y en él se llevarán a

  2. Adolescentes que no habrían fumado pueden ser atraídos por los cigarrillos electrónicos

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo del blog Temas y relatos sobre un estudio reciente que sugiere que los adolescentes están usando cigarrillos electrónicos no solo como sustituto de cigarrillos convencionales sino cigarrillos electrónicos están atrayendo nuevos usuarios de tabaco

  3. The HoMBReS and HoMBReS Por un Cambio Interventions to Reduce HIV Disparities Among Immigrant Hispanic/Latino Men.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Leichliter, Jami S; Sun, Christina J; Bloom, Fred R

    2016-02-12

    Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, few effective evidence-based prevention interventions for this population exist. This report describes the Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) (HoMBReS) intervention, which was developed by a community-based, participatory research partnership in North Carolina and initially implemented during 2005-2009. HoMBReS is an example of an effective intervention that uses lay health advisors (known as Navegantes [navigators]) in the context of existing social networks (i.e., recreational soccer teams) to promote consistent condom use and HIV and STD testing among Hispanic/Latino men. In 2012, HoMBReS was classified as a best-evidence community-level HIV prevention intervention (CDC. Compendium of evidence-based behavioral interventions and best practices for HIV prevention. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015). The intervention has been implemented elsewhere, enhanced, and further evaluated in longitudinal intervention and implementation studies. HoMBReS has been adapted for other populations, including men who have sex with men and transgender persons. Additional evaluation has found that Navegantes continue in their roles as health advisors, opinion leaders, and community advocates after study support ends. Hispanic/Latino men's social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community by decreasing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States.

  4. "Pig in a poke (gato por liebre)": the "mota" (Calophysus macropterus) fishery, molecular evidence of commercialization in Colombia and toxicological analyses.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Cristian; Cubillos, Juan Camilo; Gómez, Rigoberto; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Overfishing has affected the population abundance trends of many commercial fish species. In the Amazon, the fishery of a catfish commonly known as "mota" or "piracatinga" (Calophysus macropterus) has become an important economic activity in the region as this species has replaced a number of other overexploited great catfish species in the markets. Due to this high exploitation, ways in which to increase captures have been identified. One strategy is to use decomposing animal carcasses as bait. Such strategy has increased the hunting pressure on endangered species such as caimans and river dolphins. We investigated which catfish species are currently commercialized in Colombian fish markets using DNA barcoding, and measured mercury concentration in the tissues of fish molecularly identified as C. macropterus. We collected 86 fish samples in markets of four Colombian cities. Sixty-eight of these were identified molecularly as C.macropterus. The mercury concentration of 29 such samples was analyzed. Samples presented total Hg concentrations higher than the limit for human consumption established by the WHO (0.5 μg/g). These results are worrisome and suggest that (1) C. macropterus is a widely used fish species for human consumption in Colombia and (2) C. macropterus has high concentrations of total Hg, making its consumption a public health risk. Results presented here suggest that C. macropterus has replaced capaz in most Colombian markets. This fishery threatens wild species of river dolphins and caimans, and is also a public health risk given the high mercury levels we found in a subsample of these fishes.

  5. Efectos de Campos Magnéticos en las Tasas de Consumo de Madera por Coptotermes formosanus, la Termita Subterránea de Formosa.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty groups of 500 workers and 50 soldiers of Coptotermes formosanus were maintained in costume designed containers and fed with a piece of red oak wood (Quercus rubra). Twenty of these groups were exposed to permanent magnets with a flux of 800 G. Another 20 groups were exposed to a permanent mag...

  6. Communicating with Mexican Americans: Por Su Buena Salud = Communicando Con Mexico Americanos: For Their Good Health. Proceedings of the Conference (Houston, TX, September 13-14, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas J., Ed.; And Others

    The conference focused on the role of the Mexican American's cultural language, tradition, life style, health practices, and media utilization in the design of effective health education and information programs. Representing various local, state, and national health, education, and media organizations, the 108 participants attended sessions on…

  7. Beneficios y riesgos de la terapia estrogénica en la menopausia varían por edad, de acuerdo con el e

    Cancer.gov

    Los datos de seguimiento a largo plazo del estudio Iniciativa para la Salud de la Mujer (WHI) proporcionan información nueva e importante sobre los posibles riesgos y beneficios de la terapia hormonal para tratar síntomas relacionadas con la menopausia.

  8. Unanswered Questions in Colombia's Foreign Language Education Policy (Preguntas por responder en la política educativa de lenguas extranjeras en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla Carvajal, Camilo Andrés; Tejada-Sánchez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its…

  9. Comparacion de modelos de Educacion Sexual en el conocimiento y cambio de actitudes en practicas sexuales por alumnos de nivel superior en la region de Caguas, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of the Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD). In addition, it provides activities to increase the self-esteem, the communication and the decision making. This investigation had the intention to compare the SETM and the HBM in the increase of knowledge and change of attitudes of high risk of propagation of the STD using a validated questionnaire (Agency of the United States for the International-USAID Development), named "Endesa 2007" and, adapted to Puerto Rico by the Dra.Marta Collazo to a sample of students between the 17 and 19 years of 2 state schools of San Lorenzo, as a pretest, and, selected by convenience. Then, a 10 hours training was administered to half of the students using the SETM to STD and condom use lessons. The other half of the students received additional lessons using the HBM. Finally, both groups took the questionnaire again as a posttest. The sample of students, in average, did not reach the knowledge and basic levels of attitudes towards the STD in the pretest. This reflected 2 possible implications on the SETM. In first place, that the way in which the STD is implemented as part of the Sexual Education curriculum is inefficient. Secondly, the possibility that the acquired information or attitudes does not have permanence. Culminated the questionnaire, the HBM increase the knowledge of the STD in 0.41 points (average) over the SETM. There was not a significant difference between both models, in attitudes, implying that both models are equally effective. The findings suggests that the HBM is more effective increasing the knowledge on the STD, but equally effective than the SETM in attitude change for the Puerto Rican youth.

  10. Ameiridae Boeck and Argestidae Por revisited, with establishment of Parameiropsidae, a new family of Harpacticoida (Crustacea, Copepoda) from deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corgosinho, P. H. C.; Martínez Arbizu, P.

    2010-09-01

    Four new species of Parameiropsis are described from Angola and Guinea Basins and the Arctic Laptev Sea. The male of Parameiropsis poseidonicus sp. n. differs from that of P. neptuni sp. n. and P. senckenbergi sp. n. in antennule segmentation, length of the proximal aesthetasc, length of the outermost seta of the antennary endopod, degree of reduction of the mouthparts, relative length of the inner spine of the basis of thoracopod 1, shape of the furca and body length. The female of P. amphitriteae sp. n. differs from previously described females of other species in the smaller exopod and endpod of thoracopod 1, reduced armature of thoracopods 1-6, length of the outer setae of exopods and endopods of thoracopods 2-4, and mandible exopod weakly developed and fused to the basis. Parameiropsis is redefined by the following autapomorphies: presence of aesthetasc on 3rd segment of female antennule; antenna strong, with endopod curved upwardly, and shape of the outermost (strongly ornamented) spine; triangular labrum; elongated corpus mandibularis, gnathobasis very long; basis of mandibular palp unarmed; elongated maxillule, with long and flexible setae on praecoxal arthrite; basis of the maxilla with strongly modified claw. To discuss the phylogenetic position of Parameiropsis, we revaluated the subfamilies of Ameiridae (viz. Ameirinae and Stenocopiinae) and the family Argestidae. Anoplosomella and Malacopsyllus revealed to be not closely related to Ameiridae and are transferred to Argestidae, sharing with other members of this family the morphology of the mandible gnathobasis, armature of maxilla and armature and length of the first segment of the antennule. Argestoides prehensilis does not show any of the characters that we consider autapomorphic for Argestidae. Instead, it shows many characters in common with several Ameiridae species. Parameiropsis does not have any character that could justify its inclusion within Ameiridae or even within Podogennonta. It also cannot be included satisfactorily within Argestidae nor Exanechentera. Therefore, we here propose a new family for Parameiropsis, with unclear relationships within Harpacticoida. After these taxonomic rearrangements, Ameiridae and Argestidae are considered monophyletic based on certain maxilla characters that we consider autapomorphic for each group. A key to the identification of the known species of Parameiropsis is added at the end.

  11. The HoMBReS and HoMBReS Por un Cambio Interventions to Reduce HIV Disparities Among Immigrant Hispanic/Latino Men.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Leichliter, Jami S; Sun, Christina J; Bloom, Fred R

    2016-02-12

    Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, few effective evidence-based prevention interventions for this population exist. This report describes the Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) (HoMBReS) intervention, which was developed by a community-based, participatory research partnership in North Carolina and initially implemented during 2005-2009. HoMBReS is an example of an effective intervention that uses lay health advisors (known as Navegantes [navigators]) in the context of existing social networks (i.e., recreational soccer teams) to promote consistent condom use and HIV and STD testing among Hispanic/Latino men. In 2012, HoMBReS was classified as a best-evidence community-level HIV prevention intervention (CDC. Compendium of evidence-based behavioral interventions and best practices for HIV prevention. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015). The intervention has been implemented elsewhere, enhanced, and further evaluated in longitudinal intervention and implementation studies. HoMBReS has been adapted for other populations, including men who have sex with men and transgender persons. Additional evaluation has found that Navegantes continue in their roles as health advisors, opinion leaders, and community advocates after study support ends. Hispanic/Latino men's social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community by decreasing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. PMID:26916740

  12. The effects of the porous buffer layer and doping with dysprosium on internal stresses in the GaInP:Dy/por-GaAs/GaAs(100) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Seredin, P. V.; Gordienko, N. N.; Glotov, A. V.; Zhurbina, I. A.; Domashevskaya, E. P.; Arsent'ev, I. N. Shishkov, M. V.

    2009-08-15

    In structures with a porous buffer layer, residual internal stresses caused by a mismatch between the crystal-lattice parameters of the epitaxial GaInP alloy and the GaAs substrate are redistributed to the porous layer that acts as a buffer and is conducive to disappearance of internal stresses. Doping of the epitaxial layer with dysprosium exerts a similar effect on the internal stresses in the film-substrate structure.

  13. "¿Por qué leemos esto en la clase de español?": The Politics of Teaching Literature in Spanglish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postma, Regan L.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses what is at stake in teaching works written in "Spanglish" in Spanish departments and what teaching such works might mean for students and the scholarly community at large. This article primarily comes out of the author's experiences teaching "Spanglish" works in Spanish courses at a major research…

  14. Library Safari: Tips for Parents of Young Readers and Explorers = De safari por la biblioteca: Consejos para padres de lectores y exploradores jovenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Aedin

    Visiting the library is a great way for parents to encourage their child's imagination and learning. It gives parents the opportunity to model good reading behavior and to show their child that they value books and reading. No matter how young the child is, a trip to the library can be an enjoyable outing for parents and their children. Most…

  15. Origins and function of 3-ribosylurate in bovid erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Davids, V; Blackhurst, D M; Katz, A A; Harley, E H

    2012-06-01

    3-Ribosylurate is a dominant feature on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profiles of acid extracts of erythrocytes from cows and buffalo, but is HPLC-undetectable in acid extracts of erythrocytes from all other species examined to date. Various aspects of this unique low molecular weight substance remain unexplored since it was first identified. In this study, the mutation(s) responsible for the appearance of ribosylurate in these cells is shown to be specific to members of both tribes of the Bovinae subfamily (Bovidae family), being detectable in the erythrocytes of both the cow and the buffalo (Bovini tribe) as well as in the kudu (Strepsicerotini tribe), but not in representative species from the other subfamilies of the Bovidae family. More specifically, expression of the mutation(s) seems to be restricted to the erythrocyte lineage of these species, ribosylurate being undetectable in cow white blood cells and primary cultures of fibroblasts. Novel evidence is presented that ribosylurate has antioxidant activity. Accumulation of high levels specifically within the haemoglobin-rich milieu of circulating erythrocytes may serve to protect perfused tissues by removing pathophysiological levels of hydrogen peroxide from plasma. Maintenance of ribosylurate levels may be important in conditions associated with oxidative stress in Bovinae.

  16. Malignant Catarrhal Fever: An Emerging Disease in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Pfitzer, S; Last, R; Espie, I; van Vuuren, M

    2015-06-01

    Within the tribe Bovini in the subfamily Bovinae, the water buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis), American bison (Bison bison), European bison (Bubalus bonasus) and yak (Bos grunniens) are recognized as species highly susceptible to malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). In contrast, the lack of reports describing clinical MCF in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) whether free ranging or captive has led to a perception that African buffaloes are resistant to MCF. During the last decade, several cases of MCF in African buffaloes were confirmed in South Africa and experience with seven of these cases is described in this report. Detection of viral nucleic acid in blood or tissues was successful in six African buffaloes that suffered from clinical signs compatible with MCF. Four were positive for infection with ovine herpesvirus type 2 (the causative virus of sheep-associated MCF), and two were positive for alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1 (causative virus of wildebeest-associated MCF). Histopathological examination of tissue samples from all the animals yielded typical lesions that were consistent with those described for MCF in domestic cattle. Developments in the management of African buffaloes translocated from their traditional habitats have likely contributed to the identification of another susceptible host in the subfamily Bovinae.

  17. [Cloning and analysis of highly repetitive sequence fragments from takin (Budorcas taxicolor)].

    PubMed

    Qian, Min; Dou, Zhen; Gu, Yong Xi; Zhang, Qin; Lu, Run Long; Zhu, Xue Liang

    2002-03-01

    Takin (Budorcas taxicolor) is a large animal living in China and other adjacent countries, which belongs to Bovidae of Artiodactyla. The anatomy, morphology and behavior of takin are between species of the subfamily Bovinae and Caprinae. It is now in a separated genus or in the same genus with muskox (Ovibos moschatus). To gain insight into the evolution of takin, we purified and cloned its highly repetitive BamHI fragments from the genomic DNA. The sequences of three fragments were highly homologous, indicative of units of a large repetitive DNA arrays. Southern hybridization using these fragments as probes showed identical patterns among individuals in both the same and different subspecies, implying conserved sequences and distributions of the BamHI clusters in takin genome. Sequence comparison with 1.714 and 1.715 satellite DNA of other species in Bovidae supports that takin has a closer relationship with the subfamily Caprinae than with Bovinae. It also suggests that these BamHI fragments may represent repeat units of the centromeric satellite DNA of takin. PMID:15344315

  18. The HK/LK polymorphism of erythrocyte cation content in two wild species of east African bovids: demonstrated in wildebeest but not in African buffalo.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, N; Dunham, P B

    1990-01-01

    Concentrations of K and Na were determined in erythrocytes from wildebeest and African buffalo resident in Tanzania. The object was to determine if these species possess the HK/LK polymorphism which is typical of other bovid species, but not of other mammals. The polymorphism is characterized by individuals that are either of the HK phenotype (high K and low Na concentrations in red cells) or LK phenotype (low K and high Na concentrations in red cells). Wildebeest were shown to be polymorphic, with the distribution of phenotypes resembling that in domestic cattle. By contrast the polymorphism was not found in the African buffalo; all 59 individuals examined exhibited the HK phenotype. This was unexpected, since the polymorphism has been observed in five divergent bovid species, including two species (water buffalo and domestic cow) that are closely related to the African buffalo, and classified in the same subfamily (Bovinae). The most parsimonious interpretation of this pattern is that the trait was lost from the African buffalo after species in the Bovinae diverged. The biological significance of the HK/LK polymorphism, and reasons for its presence or absence among species in the Bovidae, remain obscure.

  19. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology.

  20. Composición química de cúmulos globulares galácticos: metalicidades derivadas a partir de fotometría de Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, M. C.; Clariá, J. J.

    Se presentan temperaturas efectivas y abundancias de 183 gigantes rojas en 7 cúmulos globulares galácticos, derivadas a partir de fotometría de Washington realizada en Cerro Tololo. Las metalicidades provienen de una calibración que tiene en cuenta la disminución de sensibilidad de algunos índices con la temperatura. Los valores medios de [Fe/H] obtenidos oscilan entre -1.2 y -2.15, con errores típicos del orden de 0.2 salvo un par de excepciones. Teniendo en cuenta que el índice (C-T1) es significativamente más sensible a la metalicidad que (V-I), se presenta una calibración de abundancia basada en el color (C-T1)o de la rama gigante roja para una determinada magnitud absoluta M(T1). Las abundancias derivadas confirman en general la escala de Zinn (1985, ApJ, 293, 424).

  1. Modelling global change impacts on soil carbon contents of agro-silvo-pastoral Mediterranean systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2016-04-01

    To assess the impact of climate change on soil organic C (SOC) stocks in agro-silvo-pastoral environments, different models have been applied worldwide at local or regional scales, such as as RothC (Francaviglia et al., 2012) or CENTURY (Alvaro-Fuentes et al., 2012). However, some of these models may require a high number of input parameters or can underestimate the effect of soil depth. CarboSOIL (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2013) is an empirical model based on regression techniques and developed to predict SOC contents at standard soil depths (0-25, 25-50 and 50-75 cm) under a range of climate and/or land use change scenarios. CarboSOIL has been successfully applied in different Mediterranean areas ,e.g. Southern Spain (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2013; Abd-Elmabod et al., 2014), Northern Egypt (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2014) and Italy (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2015). In this study, CarboSOIL was applied in the Cardeña and Montoro mountain range Natural Park. This area covers 385 km2 and is located within Sierra Morena (Córdoba, South Spain) and has a semiarid Mediterranean climate. It is characterized by agro-silvo-pastoral systems. The Mediterranean evergreen oak woodland (MEOW-dehesa) is savanna-like open woodland ecosystem characterized by silvopastoral uses, being an ancient human modified Mediterranean landscape (Corral-Fernández et al., 2013; Lozano-García and Parras-Alcántara 2013). The most representative soils in the Cardeña and Montoro mountain range Natural Park are Cambisols, Regosols, Leptosols and Fluvisols. These soils are characterized by low fertility, poor physical conditions and marginal capacity for agricultural use, together with low organic matter (OM) content due to climate conditions (semiarid Mediterranean climate) and soil texture (sandy). The model was applied at different soil depths: 0-25, 25-50 and 50-75 cm (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015) considering land use and climate changes scenarios based on available global climate models (IPPC, 2007). A

  2. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology. PMID:27117799

  3. Geographic range size and extinction risk assessment in nomadic species

    PubMed Central

    Runge, Claire A; Tulloch, Ayesha; Hammill, Edd; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    planning. Tamaño de Extensión Geográfica y Evaluación de Riesgo de Extinción en Especies Nómadas Resumen El tamaño de extensión geográfica se conceptualiza frecuentemente como un atributo fijo de las especies y se trata como tal para los propósitos de cuantificación de riesgo de extinción; se asume que las especies que ocupan extensiones geográficas más pequeñas tienen un riesgo de extinción más alto, cuando todo lo demás es igual. Sin embargo, muchas especies son móviles y sus movimientos varían desde migraciones de ida y vuelta relativamente predecibles hasta movimientos irregulares complejos, como los que muestran las especies nómadas. Estos movimientos pueden llevar a expansiones sustanciales temporales y a una reducción de las extensiones geográficas, todo esto con el potencial de llegar a niveles que pueden presentar un riesgo de extinción. Al enlazar los datos de presencia con las condiciones ambientales al momento de la observación de las especies nómadas pudimos modelar las distribuciones dinámicas de 43 especies de aves de zonas áridas a lo largo de la isla de Australia durante cada mes a lo largo de once años y calculamos el tamaño de extensión mínima y el alcance de las fluctuaciones en el tamaño de extensión geográfica a partir de estos modelos. Hubo una enorme variabilidad en la distribución espacial pronosticada a lo largo del tiempo: diez especies variaron en el tamaño de extensión geográfica por más de una orden de magnitud y dos especies variaron por más de dos órdenes de magnitud. Durante situaciones de condiciones ambientales pobres, varias especies que actualmente no se encuentran clasificadas como amenazadas a nivel global redujeron sus extensiones a áreas muy pequeñas, esto a pesar de su gran tamaño de extensión geográfica normal. Este hallazgo genera preguntas sobre lo idóneo de las evaluaciones convencionales del riesgo de extinción con base en el tamaño estático de extensión geográfica (p. ej

  4. Myostatin rapid sequence evolution in ruminants predates domestication.

    PubMed

    Tellgren, Asa; Berglund, Ann-Charlotte; Savolainen, Peter; Janis, Christine M; Liberles, David A

    2004-12-01

    Myostatin (GDF-8) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development. This gene has previously been implicated in the double muscling phenotype in mice and cattle. A systematic analysis of myostatin sequence evolution in ruminants was performed in a phylogenetic context. The myostatin coding sequence was determined from duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia caffra), eland (Taurotragus derbianus), gaur (Bos gaurus), ibex (Capra ibex), impala (Aepyceros melampus rednilis), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), and tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus). Analysis of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rate ratios (Ka/Ks) indicates that positive selection may have been operating on this gene during the time of divergence of Bovinae and Antilopinae, starting from approximately 23 million years ago, a period that appears to account for most of the sequence difference between myostatin in these groups. These periods of positive selective pressure on myostatin may correlate with changes in skeletal muscle mass during the same period. PMID:15522803

  5. A long life among ruminants: giraffids and other special cases.

    PubMed

    Müller, D W H; Zerbe, P; Codron, D; Clauss, M; Hatt, J-M

    2011-11-01

    In order to investigate differences in the relative maximum longevity and other life history parameter between ruminant species, we collated data on mean body mass, maximum longevity, gestation period and newborn mass in wild ruminant and camelid species. Among ruminants, giraffids (giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis and okapi Okapia johnstoni) have particularly high longevities, long gestation periods, and low intrauterine growth rates. A particularly high absolute and relative longevity is also achieved by the anoa (Bubalus depressicornis), a member of the bovinae (cattle-type ruminants) and an insular dwarf (inhabiting the Indonesian island of Sulawesi). The fact that some (but not all) other small ruminants also achieve surprisingly high longevities leads to the hypothesis that extreme relative longevities in this group are an indication for secondary body size reduction.

  6. A long life among ruminants: giraffids and other special cases.

    PubMed

    Müller, D W H; Zerbe, P; Codron, D; Clauss, M; Hatt, J-M

    2011-11-01

    In order to investigate differences in the relative maximum longevity and other life history parameter between ruminant species, we collated data on mean body mass, maximum longevity, gestation period and newborn mass in wild ruminant and camelid species. Among ruminants, giraffids (giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis and okapi Okapia johnstoni) have particularly high longevities, long gestation periods, and low intrauterine growth rates. A particularly high absolute and relative longevity is also achieved by the anoa (Bubalus depressicornis), a member of the bovinae (cattle-type ruminants) and an insular dwarf (inhabiting the Indonesian island of Sulawesi). The fact that some (but not all) other small ruminants also achieve surprisingly high longevities leads to the hypothesis that extreme relative longevities in this group are an indication for secondary body size reduction. PMID:22045457

  7. Characterization of CTLA-4, PD-1 and PDL-1 of swamp and riverine type water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Mingala, Claro N; Konnai, Satoru; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of CTLA-4, PD-1 and PDL-1 genes from swamp and riverine type water buffaloes was done by molecular cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The cloned cDNA of CTLA-4, PD-1 and PDL-1 contained an open reading frame of 666, 849 and 870 nucleotides, encoding a polypeptide of 221, 282 and 298 amino acids, respectively. Nucleotide sequence homology of both CTLA-4 and PDL-1 had 99.8% in swamp and riverine type, which gives the identical polypeptide. Meanwhile, PD-1 genes of swamp and riverine type water buffaloes had 99.2% of homology in nucleotide sequence, which has substitution of two amino acid residues. The hexapeptide motif, phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase and potential glycosylation sites were conserved within the tribe Bovinae. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the degree of relationship between the bubaline species and justify the distinctness of each breeds by the bootstrap value generated.

  8. Inferring the Phylogeny of Bovidae Using Mitochondrial DNA Sequences: Resolving Power of Individual Genes Relative to Complete Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Arif, Ibrahim A.; Bakir, Mohammad A.; Khan, Haseeb A.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular techniques that assess biodiversity through the analysis of a small segment of mitochondrial genome have been getting wide attention for inferring the mammalian diversity. Due to their highly conserved nature, specific mitochondrial genes offer a promising tool for phylogenetic analysis. However, there is no established criteria for selecting the typical mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) segments to achieve a greater resolving power. We therefore chose the family Bovidae as a model and compared the tree-topologies resulting from the commonly used and phylogenetically-informative genes including 16S rRNA, 12S rRNA, COI, Cyt b and D-loop with respect to complete mitochondrial genome. The tree topologies from the whole mitochondrial genome of 12 species were not identical albeit similar with those resulting from the five individual genes mentioned above. High bootstrap values were observed for mtDNA compared with that of any single gene. The average pair-wise sequence divergence using different genetic modes was found to be: D-loop (0.229) > Cyt b (0.159) > COI or complete mtDNA (0.143) > 12S rRNA (0.094) > 16S rRNA (0.091). The tree resulting from complete mtDNA clearly separated the 12 taxa of Bovidae into 3 major clusters, one cluster each for subfamily Cervinae and Bovinae and the third cluster comprised the distinctive clades of Caprinae and Antilopinae. However, jumping clades of Antilopinae were observed while using the individual genes. This study showed that Bison bison and Bos Taurus have very close phylogenetic relationship compared to Bubalus bubalis (Bovinae), irrespective of the method used. Our findings suggest that complete mtDNA genome provides most reliable understanding of complex phylogenetic relationships while the reliability of individual gene trees should be verified with high bootstrap support. PMID:22399841

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Abundances in PNe. III: Se and Kr (Sterling+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterling, N. C.; Porter, R. L.; Dinerstein, H. L.

    2015-08-01

    We have selected 15 PNe that exhibit emission lines from multiple Kr ions in their optical and near-infrared spectra (Table 1). Ten of these objects were modeled in Paper I (Sterling et al., 2007ApJS..169...37S). We draw the other objects from optical spectra published since Paper I (Sharpee et al. 2007, J/ApJ/659/1265; Garcia-Rojas et al. 2012, J/A+A/538/A54), with the exception of NGC 5315 (Peimbert et al. 2004ApJS..150..431P). Intensities for the K-band emission lines from Paper II (Sterling+, 2008ApJS..174..158S) were determined using the extinction coefficients listed in Table 1 and the extinction law adopted by the optical data reference. See section 3 for the complete explanation. (6 data files).

  10. Time-course investigation of the gene expression profile during Fasciola hepatica infection: A microarray-based study

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Caraballo, Jose; López-Abán, Julio; Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Vicente, Belén; Collía, Francisco; Muro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Fasciolosis is listed as one of the most important neglected tropical diseases according with the World Health Organization and is also considered as a reemerging disease in the human beings. Despite there are several studies describing the immune response induced by Fasciola hepatica in the mammalian host, investigations aimed at identifying the expression profile of genes involved in inducing hepatic injury are currently scarce. Data presented here belong to a time-course investigation of the gene expression profile in the liver of BALB/c mice infected with F. hepatica metacercariae at 7 and 21 days after experimental infection. The data published here have been deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus and are accessible through GEO Series accession number GSE69588, previously published by Rojas-Caraballo et al. (2015) in PLoS One [1]. PMID:26697343

  11. Principal component analysis (PCA) of volatile terpene compounds dataset emitted by genetically modified sweet orange fruits and juices in which a D-limonene synthase was either up- or down-regulated vs. empty vector controls.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ana; Peris, Josep E; Redondo, Ana; Shimada, Takehiko; Peña, Leandro

    2016-12-01

    We have categorized the dataset from content and emission of terpene volatiles of peel and juice in both Navelina and Pineapple sweet orange cultivars in which D-limonene was either up- (S), down-regulated (AS) or non-altered (EV; control) ("Impact of D-limonene synthase up- or down-regulation on sweet orange fruit and juice odor perception"(A. Rodríguez, J.E. Peris, A. Redondo, T. Shimada, E. Costell, I. Carbonell, C. Rojas, L. Peña, (2016)) [1]). Data from volatile identification and quantification by HS-SPME and GC-MS were classified by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) individually or as chemical groups. AS juice was characterized by the higher influence of the oxygen fraction, and S juice by the major influence of ethyl esters. S juices emitted less linalool compared to AS and EV juices.

  12. Principal component analysis (PCA) of volatile terpene compounds dataset emitted by genetically modified sweet orange fruits and juices in which a D-limonene synthase was either up- or down-regulated vs. empty vector controls.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ana; Peris, Josep E; Redondo, Ana; Shimada, Takehiko; Peña, Leandro

    2016-12-01

    We have categorized the dataset from content and emission of terpene volatiles of peel and juice in both Navelina and Pineapple sweet orange cultivars in which D-limonene was either up- (S), down-regulated (AS) or non-altered (EV; control) ("Impact of D-limonene synthase up- or down-regulation on sweet orange fruit and juice odor perception"(A. Rodríguez, J.E. Peris, A. Redondo, T. Shimada, E. Costell, I. Carbonell, C. Rojas, L. Peña, (2016)) [1]). Data from volatile identification and quantification by HS-SPME and GC-MS were classified by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) individually or as chemical groups. AS juice was characterized by the higher influence of the oxygen fraction, and S juice by the major influence of ethyl esters. S juices emitted less linalool compared to AS and EV juices. PMID:27689126

  13. [The cultural psychiatry in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Villaseñor-Bayardo, Sergio J; Rojas-Malpica, Carlos; Aceves-Pulido, Martha P

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents only some of the most important contributions in the development of cultural psychiatry in Latin America. The continental efforts to understand the role that culture plays in the manifestation and treatment of mental disorders have been fruitful. The authors included are: Fernando Pagés of Argentina; Mario G. Hollweg of Bolivia; Rubim Alvaro de Pinho and Adalberto Barreto of Brazil; Carlos A. Leon and Carlos A. Uribe of Colombia; Antonio José A. Bustamante and Santa Cruz de Cuba, Carlos Leon Andrade of Ecuador, Guatemala Cristina Chavez; Sergio Villasenor J. Bayardo of Mexico; Carlos A. Seguin, Hermilio Valdizán and Javier Mariátegui in Peru; Y. Bespaldi of Consens of Uruguay; Rojas and Carlos Malpica and Jacqueline Briceño Clarac of Venezuela.

  14. The limitations of seedling growth and drought tolerance to novel soil substrates in arid systems: Implications for restoration success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, Amber; Lewandrowski, Wolfgang; Stevens, Jason; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam

    2016-04-01

    Introduction With the limited knowledge available regarding the impact of drought on seedling growth, an understanding of seedling tolerance to arid conditions is crucial for restoration success (James et al., 2013; Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2014). However, restoration in semi-arid areas faces the challenge of re-establishing plant communities on altered soil substrates (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2015). These substrates are a result of anthropogenic disturbances such as mining which have altered the plant-soil-water dynamics of the ecosystem (Machado et al., 2013). The aim of this study was to assess the impact of mining on the plant-soil-water dynamics of an arid ecosystem of Western Australia (Pilbara region, North Western Australia) and the implications these altered relationships have on seedling growth and their responses to drought. Methods Drought responses of native plant species were assessed through a series of glasshouse experiments. Firstly, 21 species dominant to the Pilbara region were subjected to drought in a topsoil growth media to assess variation in responses (leaf water potential at the time of stomatal closure) across species and identify traits associated with drought tolerance. Secondly, four species ranging in their drought tolerance identified previously, were grown to two leaf stages (second and fourth leaf stage) in three mining substrates (topsoil, a topsoil and waste mix and waste) to assess seedling drought responses to various potential restoration substrates and how that varied with plant development stage. Results and discussion Four morphological traits were found to be significantly associated with drought indicators (leaf mass ratio, stem area, stem length, stem weight), however, these were weak correlations. Waste substrate and its addition to topsoil reduced plant total biomass but did not alter species responses to drought. However, the soil physical properties of the waste reduced water retention and water availability for plant uptake

  15. Establishing IUCN Red List Criteria for Threatened Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Jon Paul; Rodríguez-Clark, Kathryn M; Baillie, Jonathan E M; Ash, Neville; Benson, John; Boucher, Timothy; Brown, Claire; Burgess, Neil D; Collen, Ben; Jennings, Michael; Keith, David A; Nicholson, Emily; Revenga, Carmen; Reyers, Belinda; Rouget, Mathieu; Smith, Tammy; Spalding, Mark; Taber, Andrew; Walpole, Matt; Zager, Irene; Zamin, Tara

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The potential for conservation of individual species has been greatly advanced by the International Union for Conservation of Nature's (IUCN) development of objective, repeatable, and transparent criteria for assessing extinction risk that explicitly separate risk assessment from priority setting. At the IV World Conservation Congress in 2008, the process began to develop and implement comparable global standards for ecosystems. A working group established by the IUCN has begun formulating a system of quantitative categories and criteria, analogous to those used for species, for assigning levels of threat to ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels. A final system will require definitions of ecosystems; quantification of ecosystem status; identification of the stages of degradation and loss of ecosystems; proxy measures of risk (criteria); classification thresholds for these criteria; and standardized methods for performing assessments. The system will need to reflect the degree and rate of change in an ecosystem's extent, composition, structure, and function, and have its conceptual roots in ecological theory and empirical research. On the basis of these requirements and the hypothesis that ecosystem risk is a function of the risk of its component species, we propose a set of four criteria: recent declines in distribution or ecological function, historical total loss in distribution or ecological function, small distribution combined with decline, or very small distribution. Most work has focused on terrestrial ecosystems, but comparable thresholds and criteria for freshwater and marine ecosystems are also needed. These are the first steps in an international consultation process that will lead to a unified proposal to be presented at the next World Conservation Congress in 2012. Establecimiento de Criterios para la Lista Roja de UICN de Ecosistemas Amenazados Resumen El potencial para la conservación de muchas especies ha avanzado enormemente

  16. Guiandose por la Intrincada Senda de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para Padres y Maestros. Tercera Edicion. (Negotiating the Special Education Maze: A Guide for Parents & Teachers. Third Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Winifred; Chitwood, Stephen; Hayden, Deidre

    Designed to assist Spanish-speaking parents and teachers in understanding special education procedures, this book describes the process for obtaining school services for children with disabilities. An introduction reviews six major provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that relate to children's rights to a free,…

  17. Viajando por la Carretera de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para los Padres para Tener un Viaje Feliz y Seguro (Traveling the Special Education Highway: A Parent's Guide to a Safe and Happy Journey).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Maria, Karen

    Designed for Spanish-speaking parents, this brochure, written in Spanish, uses a car-trip analogy to describe special education services for students with disabilities. It addresses: (1) child find; (2) initial evaluation and eligibility determination; (3) categories of students who receive special education services and related services; (4)…

  18. Less and Less for More and More. Economic Organization Booklet 1. Teacher's Edition=Menos y menos por mas y mas. Organizacion economica libro 1. Manual para El Maestro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    The booklet is part of a grade 10-12 social studies series produced for bilingual education. The series consists of six major thematic modules, with four to five booklets in each. The interdisciplinary modules are based on major ideas and are designed to help students understand some major human problems and make sound, responsive decisions to…

  19. Ingestion Reiterada de Cuerpos Extranos. Forma Inusual de Presentacion del Sindrome de Munchausen por Poderes (Reiterated Ingestion of Foreign Bodies. Unusual Form of Presentation of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terreros, I. Gomez de; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An unusual case of Munchausen syndrome by proxy is reported. A mother with a psychiatric record of behavior disorders and family dysfunction perpetrated the ingestion of foreign bodies (for example, earrings, a screw, sewing needles) on a 10-month-old infant with a history of prematurity, repeated visits to emergency rooms, and nonjustified…

  20. About to Graduate from High School? Consider Career Education Opportunities. EdSource Student/Parent Guide = Estas por graduarte de la escuela preparatoria? Considera oportunidades para seguir tu educacion de carrera. EdSource guia de estudiantes y padres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Getting a sound education is important to a student's ability to make a good living in a field they will enjoy. For many students graduating from high school, that includes high quality career technical (or vocational) education tailored to a specific job. In California, such programs are available in a wide range of fields, from healthcare to the…

  1. Por Que Mami No Puede Cambiar una Goma? Tercer Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental. (Why Can't Mommy Change a Flat Tire? Third Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide for teachers, in English and Spanish, examines the role parents play in the socialization of sex roles. A pre-test and post test are included to measure the user's awareness of sexual stereotyping. Five object lessons cover the following topics: (1) stereotypes which exist prior to a baby's birth; (2) behavioral standards on which…

  2. Por Que Rosa No Es Valiente? Cuarto Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental (Why Isn't Rosie Brave? Fourth Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide in English and Spanish provides teachers with methods for identifying textbook bias and stereotyping. A pre-test and post-test designed to measure awareness of textbook stereotypes are included. Four object lessons discuss the function of repetition, cumulative effect, omission, and distortion in reinforcing stereotypes, especially…

  3. Vistazos Intimos De Puebla; Una Compilacion De Informes Individuales Preparados Por Los Participantes Del Instituto De Verano (NDEA) (Close-ups on Puebla; A Compilation of Individual Reports Prepared by the Participants of the NDEA Summer Institute).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita State Univ., KS.

    The individual and committee reports on the sociology of Puebla, Mexico, which are collected here, were written by participants in an NDEA Summer Institute program of the University of Wichita, Kansas. The underlying motives of the program, described in the preface, were to provide participants with real language experience and a chance to…

  4. Fields without Borders: An Anthology of Documentary Writing and Photography by Student Action with Farmworkers' Interns = Campos sin Fronteras: Una Antologia de Obras Escritas y Fotografia por Estudiantes Internos de Accion Estudiantil con Trabajadores Agricolas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manly, Libby, Ed.; Okie, Alejandra, Ed.; Wiggins, Melinda, Ed.

    In this booklet, essays and poems, presented both in English and in Spanish, portray the feelings, conditions, and economic plight of migrant and seasonal farmworkers in North and South Carolina, often in their own words. A preface describes Student Action with Farmworkers summer internships in which college students spend 10 weeks working with…

  5. The Latinas' Guide to the Information Superhighway: A Bilingual Guide for Latinas by Latinas = Guia para Mujeres Latinas sobre la Supercarretera de la Informacion: Una Guia Bilingue para Latinas por medio de Latinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANA, A National Latina Organization, Washington, DC.

    This guide to the Internet is designed to give Latinas basic information on computers and the information superhighway. Written in both Spanish and English, the guide begins by defining the Internet and making some suggestions about acquiring access to a computer. Among the topics discussed are how to choose an Internet service provider, how to…

  6. TECNOLOGÍAS DE INFORMACIÓN Y COMUNICACIÓN PARA LA PREVENCIÓN Y CONTROL DE LA INFECCIÓN POR EL VIH Y OTRAS ITS*

    PubMed Central

    Curioso, Walter H.; Blas, Magaly M.; Kurth, Ann E.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Avances tecnológicos innovadores como Internet, computadoras personales de bolsillo, teléfonos celulares y otros equipos son un arsenal en crecimiento en el esfuerzo de impedir y controlar el VIH y otras infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS). A pesar que existe una diversidad de tecnologías de información y comunicación en diferentes etapas de desarrollo para la prevención del VIH e ITS, la investigación en esta área se encuentra aún en crecimiento, y el impacto en la incidencia de enfermedad, las evaluaciones con diseños rigurosos y los estudios económicos todavía son muy limitados. Sin embargo, algunas de estas evidencias son prometedoras y poseen un gran potencial para su uso en nuestro medio. En este artículo hemos realizado una revisión sistemática de la literatura relacionada con el uso de la tecnología aplicada a la prevención y control del VIH e ITS. De ser usada apropiadamente, esta tecnología podría mejorar la vigilancia del VIH y otras ITS, diagnóstico, notificación de parejas, prevención, manejo clínico, y capacitación de profesionales de la salud. PMID:26339254

  7. Engaging Foreign Language Learners in a Web 2.0-Mediated Collaborative Learning Process (Inclusión de estudiantes de lenguas extranjeras en procesos colaborativos de aprendizaje mediados por la web 2.0)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote Parra, Gabriel Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to explore the types of interactions that foreign language learners experience while using a wiki as a supporting tool for a face-to-face research course. This design allowed me to play a dual role: first, I studied my own classroom setting and students. Second, I implemented a pedagogical intervention based…

  8. Encouraging Students to Enhance Their Listening Performance (Cómo animar a los estudiantes para que mejoren su desempeño en comprensión oral por sí mismos)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández-Ocampo, Sonia Patricia; Vargas, Sonia Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Spanish-speaking students constantly complain about the difficulty they have comprehending spoken English. It seems teachers do not often provide them with strategies to alleviate that. This article reports on a pedagogical experience carried out at a Colombian university to help pre-service teachers at an intermediate level of English to improve…

  9. John Tracy Clinic: Programa de Ensenanza por Correspondencia para Los Padres de Ninos Sordo-Ciegos de Edad Preescolar (John Tracy Clinic Correspondence Learning Program for Parents of Preschool Deaf-Blind Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thielman, Virginia B.; And Others

    Written in Spanish, the document contains a correspondence learning program for parents of deaf blind preschoolers. An introductory section gives preliminary instructions, an introduction to sign language, and a list of resources for deaf blind children. Twelve lessons follow with information on: the parent's role in teaching the child, visual…

  10. VISIÓN GENERAL DE LA EVALUACIÓN DEL RIESGO EN SALUD INFANTIL EMPLEANDO UN ENFOQUE POR ETAPAS DE DESARROLLO (American translation is: Overview of a Life Stage Approach to Children's Health Risk Assessment)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  11. Crystal structure of bis-(4-nitro-aniline-κN (1))(5,10,15,20-tetra-phenyl-por-phy-rin-ato-κ(4) N)cobalt(III) chloride di-chloro-methane monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Belghith, Yassine; Mansour, Anissa; Nasri, Habib

    2014-09-01

    The reaction of [Co(III)(TPP)Cl] (TPP is the dianion of 5,10,15,20-tetra-phenyl-porphyrin) with an excess of 4-nitro-aniline in di-chloro-methane leads to the title compound, [Co(III)(C44H28N4)(C6H6N2O2)2]Cl·CH2Cl2. The Co(III) ion lies on an inversion centre and is octa-hedrally coordinated by two N atoms of the NH2 groups of the two 4-nitro-aniline trans-axial ligands and four pyrrole N atoms of the porphyrin. The asymmetric unit contains one half of the [Co(III)(TPP)(4-nitro-aniline)2](+) ion complex, one chloride counter-ion (lying on a twofold rotation axis) and one half di-chloro-methane solvent mol-ecule, where the C atom lies on a twofold rotation axis. The average equatorial Co-N(pyrrole) distance (Co-Np) is 1.982 (2) Å and the axial Co-N(4-nitro-aniline) bond length is 2.006 (2) Å. The crystal packing is stabilized by an N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bond between the N atom of the amino group of the 4-nitro-aniline axial ligand and the chloride counter-ion. The supra-molecular architecture is further stabilized by weak C-H⋯π inter-actions. PMID:25309176

  12. Trans --> cis isomerization of trans-[(dppm)2Ru(H)(L)][BF4] (L = P(OR)3) complexes: preparation of cis-[(dppm)2Ru(eta2-H2)(L)][BF4]2.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Nisha; Jagirdar, Balaji R; Ranganathan, Anupama

    2003-01-13

    A series of new dicationic dihydrogen complexes of ruthenium of the type cis-[(dppm)(2)Ru(eta(2)-H(2))(L)][BF(4)](2) (dppm = Ph(2)PCH(2)PPh(2); L = P(OMe)(3), P(OEt)(3), PF(O(i)Pr)(2)) have been prepared by protonating the precursor hydride complexes cis-[(dppm)(2)Ru(H)(L)][BF(4)] (L = P(OMe)(3), P(OEt)(3), P(O(i)Pr)(3)) using HBF(4).Et(2)O. The cis-[(dppm)(2)Ru(H)(L)][BF(4)] complexes were obtained from the trans hydrides via an isomerization reaction that is acid-accelerated. This isomerization reaction gives mixtures of cis and trans hydride complexes, the ratios of which depend on the cone angles of the phosphite ligands: the greater the cone angle, the greater is the amount of the cis isomer. The eta(2)-H(2) ligand in the dihydrogen complexes is labile, and the loss of H(2) was found to be reversible. The protonation reactions of the starting hydrides with trans PMe(3) or PMe(2)Ph yield mixtures of the cis and the trans hydride complexes; further addition of the acid, however, give trans-[(dppm)(2)Ru(BF(4))Cl]. The roles of the bite angles of the dppm ligand as well as the steric and the electronic properties of the monodentate phosphorus ligands in this series of complexes are discussed. X-ray crystal structures of trans-[(dppm)(2)Ru(H)(P(OMe)(3))][BF(4)], cis-[(dppm)(2)Ru(H)(P(OMe)(3))][BF(4)], and cis-[(dppm)(2)Ru(H)(P(O(i)Pr)(3))][BF(4)] complexes have been determined. PMID:12513094

  13. Comparisons of selected methods for the determination of kinetic parameters from electrothermal atomic absorption data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Rodney W.; Pfefferkorn, Lisa L.; Holcombe, James A.

    1994-12-01

    Three of the methods available for the determination of kinetic parameters for atom formation in ETAAS were compared. In the approach of mcnally and holcombe [ Anal. Chem. 59, 1015 (1987)], Arrhenius-type plots are used to extract activation energy values while an approximation of the order of release is obtained by studying the alignment of the absorption maxima at increasing analyte concentrations. In the method of rojas and olivares [ Spectrochim. Acta47B, 387 (1992)], plots are prepared for different orders of release, with the correct order yielding a longer linear region from whose slope the activation energy is calculated. The method of yan et al. [ Spectrochim. Acta48B, 605 (1993)] uses a single absorption profile for the calculations. Activation energy and the order of release are obtained from the slope and intercept, respectively, on their graph. All three methods assume linear heating rate, constant activation energies, and furnace isothermality. The methods were tested with the same experimental data sets for Cu, Au and Ni using a spatially isothermal cuvette. Since intensive mathematical treatments commonly have deleterious effects on the uncertainty of the final result, the methods were compared using both the original data and a smoothed version of it. In general, the three methods yielded comparable results for the metals studied. However, choosing the most linear plot to determine the correct order of release when using Rojas and Olivares' method was sometimes subjective, and McNally and Holcombe's method provided only estimates for the orders of release that were neither zero nor unity.

  14. “Over here, it’s just drugs, women and all the madness”: The HIV risk environment of clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Shira; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Gallardo, Manuel; Rhodes, Tim; Wagner, Karla D.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    HIV vulnerability depends upon social context. Based in broader debates in social epidemiology, political economy, and sociology of health, Rhodes’ (2002) “risk environment” framework provides one heuristic for understanding how contextual features influence HIV risk, through different types of environmental factors (social, economic, policy, and physical) which interact at different levels of influence (micro, macro). Few data are available on the “risk environment” of male clients of female sex workers (FSWs); such men represent a potential “bridge” for transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections from high- to low-prevalence populations. Using in-depth interviews (n=30), we describe the HIV risk environment of male clients in Tijuana, Mexico, where disproportionately high HIV prevalence has been reported among FSWs and their clients. A number of environmental themes influence risky sex with FSWs and the interplay between individual agency and structural forces: social isolation and the search for intimacy; meanings and identities ascribed to Tijuana’s Zona Roja (red light district) as a risky place; social relationships in the Zona Roja; and economic roles. Our findings suggest that clients’ behaviors are deeply embedded in the local context. Using the HIV “risk environment” as our analytic lens, we illustrate how clients’ HIV risks are shaped by physical, social, economic, and political factors. The linkages between these and the interplay between structural- and individual-level experiences support theories that view structure as both enabling as well as constraining. We discuss how the “embeddedness” of clients’ experiences warrants the use of environmental interventions that address the circumstances contributing to HIV risk at multiple levels. PMID:21414702

  15. The use of soil quality indicators to assess soil functionality in restored semi-arid ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Erickson, Todd E.; Dixon, Kingsley W.; Merritt, David J.

    2016-04-01

    Keywords: Pilbara, 1-day CO2 test, microbial activity, mine restoration, soil health, ecosystem services. Introduction Semi-arid and arid environments are highly vulnerable to land degradation and their restoration has commonly showed low rates of success (James et al., 2013). A systematic knowledge of soil functionality is critical to successful restoration of degraded ecosystems since approximately 80% of ecosystem services can be connected to soil functions. The assessment of soil functionality generally involves the evaluation of soil properties and processes as they relate to the ability of soil to function effectively as a component of a healthy ecosystem (Costantini et al., 2015) Using soil quality indicators may be a valuable approach to assess functionality of topsoil and novel substrates used in restoration (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2014; 2015). A key soil chemical indicator is soil organic C, that has been widely used as an attribute of soil quality because of the many functions that it provides and supports (Willaarts et al., 2015). However, microbial indicators can be more sensitive to disturbances and could be a valuable addition in soil assessment studies in restoration programs. Here, we propose a set of soil quality indicators to assess the soil status in restored soils (topsoil and waste material) of semi-arid environments. The study was conducted during March 2015 in the Pilbara biogeographical region (northwestern Australia) at an iron ore mine site rehabilitated in 2011. Methods Soil samples were collected from two sub-areas with different soil materials used as growth media: topsoil retrieved from nearby stockpiles and a lateritic waste material utilised for its erosive stability and physical competence. An undisturbed natural shrub-grassland ecosystem dominated by Triodia spp. and Acacia spp. representative of the restored area was selected as the analogue reference site. Soil physicochemical analysis were undertaken according to standard methods

  16. Understanding environmental drivers in the regulation of soil respiration dynamics after fire in semi-arid ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Lewandrowski, Wolfgang; Erickson, Todd E.; Dixon, Kingsley W.; Merritt, David J.

    2016-04-01

    Keywords: Pilbara, soil CO2 efflux, soil C, soil moisture, soil temperature Introduction Soil respiration (Rs) has become a major research focus given the increase in atmospheric CO2 emissions and the large contribution of these CO2 fluxes from soils (Van Groenigen et al., 2014). In addition to its importance in the global C cycle, Rs is a fundamental indicator of soil health and quality that reflects the level of microbial activity and provides an indication of the ability of soils to support plant growth (Oyonarte et al., 2012; Munoz-Rojas et al., 2015). Wildfires can have a significant impact on Rs rates, with the scale of the impact depending on environmental factors such as temperature and moisture, and organic C content in the soil. Vegetation cover can have a significant effect on regulating organic C contents; and while advances are made into understanding the effects of fire on organic C contents and CO2 fluxes (Granged et al., 2011; Willaarts et al., 2015; Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016), there is limited knowledge of the variability of Rs across ecosystem types, vegetation communities, and responses to fire. In this research we aimed to assess the impacts of a wildfire on the soil CO2 fluxes and soil respiration in a semi-arid ecosystem of Western Australia (Pilbara biogeographical region), and to understand the main environmental drivers controlling these fluxes in different vegetation types. The study has application for other arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Methods The study area was selected following a wildfire that affected 25 ha in February 2014. Twelve plots were established in the burnt site (B) within a 400 m2 area, and 12 plots in an adjacent unburnt control site. At each site, three plots were installed below the canopy of each of the most representative vegetation types of the areas: Eucalyptus trees, Acacia shrubs and Triodia grasses, and three on bare soil. Soil sampling and measurement of soil CO2 efflux, temperature and moisture were

  17. Potential soil organic carbon stocks in semi arid areas under climate change scenarios: an application of CarboSOIL model in northern Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Abd-Elmabod, Sameh K.; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Anaya-Romero, Maria; De la Rosa, Diego

    2014-05-01

    1. INTRODUCTION Climate change is predicted to have a large impact on semi arid areas which are often degraded and vulnerable to environmental changes (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2012a; 2012b; 2013). However, these areas might play a key role in mitigation of climate change effects through sequestration of carbon in soils (United Nations, 2011). At the same time, increasing organic carbon in these environments could be beneficial for soil erosion control, soil fertility and, ultimately, food production (Lal, 2004). Several approaches have been carried out to evaluate climate change impacts on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, but soil carbon models are amongst the most effective tools to assess C stocks, dynamics and distribution and to predict trends under climate change scenarios (Jones et al., 2005 ). CarboSOIL is an empirical model based on regression techniques and developed to predict SOC contents at standard soil depths of 0 to 25, 25 to 50 and 50-75 cm (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2013). CarboSOIL model has been designed as a GIS-integrated tool and is a new component of the agroecological decision support system for land evaluation MicroLEIS DSS (De la Rosa et al., 2004). 2. GENERAL METHODS In this research, CarboSOIL was applied in El-Fayoum depression, a semi arid region located in northern Egypt with a large potential for agriculture (Abd-Elmabod et al, 2012). The model was applied in a total of six soil-units classified according the USDA Soil Taxonomy system within the orders Entisols and Aridisols under different climate climate change scenarios. Global climate models based on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (Agrawala at al., 2004) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) were applied to predict short-, medium- and long-term trends (2030, 2050 and 2100) of SOC dynamics and sequestration at different soil depths (0-25, 25-50 and 50-75) and land use types (irrigated areas, olive groves, wheat, cotton and other annual

  18. Modelling global change impacts on soil carbon contents of agro-silvo-pastoral Mediterranean systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2016-04-01

    To assess the impact of climate change on soil organic C (SOC) stocks in agro-silvo-pastoral environments, different models have been applied worldwide at local or regional scales, such as as RothC (Francaviglia et al., 2012) or CENTURY (Alvaro-Fuentes et al., 2012). However, some of these models may require a high number of input parameters or can underestimate the effect of soil depth. CarboSOIL (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2013) is an empirical model based on regression techniques and developed to predict SOC contents at standard soil depths (0-25, 25-50 and 50-75 cm) under a range of climate and/or land use change scenarios. CarboSOIL has been successfully applied in different Mediterranean areas ,e.g. Southern Spain (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2013; Abd-Elmabod et al., 2014), Northern Egypt (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2014) and Italy (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2015). In this study, CarboSOIL was applied in the Cardeña and Montoro mountain range Natural Park. This area covers 385 km2 and is located within Sierra Morena (Córdoba, South Spain) and has a semiarid Mediterranean climate. It is characterized by agro-silvo-pastoral systems. The Mediterranean evergreen oak woodland (MEOW-dehesa) is savanna-like open woodland ecosystem characterized by silvopastoral uses, being an ancient human modified Mediterranean landscape (Corral-Fernández et al., 2013; Lozano-García and Parras-Alcántara 2013). The most representative soils in the Cardeña and Montoro mountain range Natural Park are Cambisols, Regosols, Leptosols and Fluvisols. These soils are characterized by low fertility, poor physical conditions and marginal capacity for agricultural use, together with low organic matter (OM) content due to climate conditions (semiarid Mediterranean climate) and soil texture (sandy). The model was applied at different soil depths: 0-25, 25-50 and 50-75 cm (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015) considering land use and climate changes scenarios based on available global climate models (IPPC, 2007). A

  19. A protein secretion system linked to bacteroidete gliding motility and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Naito, Mariko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shoji, Mikio; McBride, Mark J; Rhodes, Ryan G; Nakayama, Koji

    2010-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes strong proteases called gingipains that are implicated in periodontal pathogenesis. Protein secretion systems common to other Gram-negative bacteria are lacking in P. gingivalis, but several proteins, including PorT, have been linked to gingipain secretion. Comparative genome analysis and genetic experiments revealed 11 additional proteins involved in gingipain secretion. Six of these (PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorW, and Sov) were similar in sequence to Flavobacterium johnsoniae gliding motility proteins, and two others (PorX and PorY) were putative two-component system regulatory proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that porK, porL, porM, porN, porP, porT, and sov were down-regulated in P. gingivalis porX and porY mutants. Disruption of the F. johnsoniae porT ortholog resulted in defects in motility, chitinase secretion, and translocation of a gliding motility protein, SprB adhesin, to the cell surface, providing a link between a unique protein translocation system and a motility apparatus in members of the Bacteroidetes phylum. PMID:19966289

  20. A protein secretion system linked to bacteroidete gliding motility and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Keiko; Naito, Mariko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shoji, Mikio; McBride, Mark J.; Rhodes, Ryan G.; Nakayama, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes strong proteases called gingipains that are implicated in periodontal pathogenesis. Protein secretion systems common to other Gram-negative bacteria are lacking in P. gingivalis, but several proteins, including PorT, have been linked to gingipain secretion. Comparative genome analysis and genetic experiments revealed 11 additional proteins involved in gingipain secretion. Six of these (PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorW, and Sov) were similar in sequence to Flavobacterium johnsoniae gliding motility proteins, and two others (PorX and PorY) were putative two-component system regulatory proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that porK, porL, porM, porN, porP, porT, and sov were down-regulated in P. gingivalis porX and porY mutants. Disruption of the F. johnsoniae porT ortholog resulted in defects in motility, chitinase secretion, and translocation of a gliding motility protein, SprB adhesin, to the cell surface, providing a link between a unique protein translocation system and a motility apparatus in members of the Bacteroidetes phylum. PMID:19966289

  1. A protein secretion system linked to bacteroidete gliding motility and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Naito, Mariko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shoji, Mikio; McBride, Mark J; Rhodes, Ryan G; Nakayama, Koji

    2010-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes strong proteases called gingipains that are implicated in periodontal pathogenesis. Protein secretion systems common to other Gram-negative bacteria are lacking in P. gingivalis, but several proteins, including PorT, have been linked to gingipain secretion. Comparative genome analysis and genetic experiments revealed 11 additional proteins involved in gingipain secretion. Six of these (PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorW, and Sov) were similar in sequence to Flavobacterium johnsoniae gliding motility proteins, and two others (PorX and PorY) were putative two-component system regulatory proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that porK, porL, porM, porN, porP, porT, and sov were down-regulated in P. gingivalis porX and porY mutants. Disruption of the F. johnsoniae porT ortholog resulted in defects in motility, chitinase secretion, and translocation of a gliding motility protein, SprB adhesin, to the cell surface, providing a link between a unique protein translocation system and a motility apparatus in members of the Bacteroidetes phylum.

  2. Differential Regulation of Duplicate Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductases in the Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    PubMed Central

    Hunsperger, Heather M.; Cattolico, Rose Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background Diatoms (Bacilliariophyceae) encode two light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (POR1 and POR2) that catalyze the penultimate step of chlorophyll biosynthesis in the light. Algae live in dynamic environments whose changing light levels induce photoacclimative metabolic shifts, including altered cellular chlorophyll levels. We hypothesized that the two POR proteins may be differentially adaptive under varying light conditions. Using the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a test system, differences in POR protein abundance and por gene expression were examined when this organism was grown on an alternating light:dark cycles at different irradiances; exposed to continuous light; and challenged by a significant decrease in light availability. Results For cultures maintained on a 12h light: 12h dark photoperiod at 200μE m−2 s−1 (200L/D), both por genes were up-regulated during the light and down-regulated in the dark, though por1 transcript abundance rose and fell earlier than that of por2. Little concordance occurred between por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance. In contrast, por2 mRNA and POR2 protein abundances followed similar diurnal patterns. When 200L/D P. tricornutum cultures were transferred to continuous light (200L/L), the diurnal regulatory pattern of por1 mRNA abundance but not of por2 was disrupted, and POR1 but not POR2 protein abundance dropped steeply. Under 1200μE m−2 s−1 (1200L/D), both por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance displayed diurnal oscillations. A compromised diel por2 mRNA response under 1200L/D did not impact the oscillation in POR2 abundance. When cells grown at 1200L/D were then shifted to 50μE m−2 s−1 (50L/D), por1 and por2 mRNA levels decreased swiftly but briefly upon light reduction. Thereafter, POR1 but not POR2 protein levels rose significantly in response to this light stepdown. Conclusion Given the sensitivity of diatom por1/POR1 to real-time light cues and adherence of por2/POR2 regulation to

  3. A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF). This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2) sequence could be amplified from both samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated. PMID:22132808

  4. Molecular characterization of T-cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-3 and Galectin-9 genes of swamp- and riverine-type water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Duran, P L H; Padiernos, R B C; Abella, E A; Konnai, S; Mingala, C N

    2015-12-01

    Molecular characterization of T-cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-3 (TIM-3) and Galectin-9 (GAL-9) genes of swamp- and riverine-type water buffaloes was conducted to compare these genes with other species; determine the unique characteristic specific in water buffalo; and provide baseline information for the assessment of disease progression in buffalo species. TIM-3 and GAL-9 genes were amplified, purified, sequenced and characterized. The sequence result of TIM-3 in both types of water buffaloes contained 843 nucleotides encoding to 280 amino acids while GAL-9 of swamp-type and riverine-type water buffaloes contained 1023 and 972 nucleotides encoding to 340 and 323 amino acids, respectively. Meanwhile, the nucleotide and amino sequence of TIM-3 in water buffalo were 83-98% and 94-97% identical with other artiodactyl species, respectively. On the other hand, GAL-9 nucleotide and amino acid sequence in water buffalo were 85-98% and 76-96% identical with other artiodactyl species. The tyrosine-kinase phosphorylation motif and potential glycosylation sites were conserved within the tribe Bovinae. It is imperative to have further studies in the assessment of the role of these genes in disease progression in water buffalo during chronic infection. The study is the first report that describes the genetic characteristic of TIM-3 and GAL-9 genes in water buffalo. PMID:26441033

  5. Hunting the Extinct Steppe Bison (Bison priscus) Mitochondrial Genome in the Trois-Frères Paleolithic Painted Cave.

    PubMed

    Marsolier-Kergoat, Marie-Claude; Palacio, Pauline; Berthonaud, Véronique; Maksud, Frédéric; Stafford, Thomas; Bégouën, Robert; Elalouf, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Despite the abundance of fossil remains for the extinct steppe bison (Bison priscus), an animal that was painted and engraved in numerous European Paleolithic caves, a complete mitochondrial genome sequence has never been obtained for this species. In the present study we collected bone samples from a sector of the Trois-Frères Paleolithic cave (Ariège, France) that formerly functioned as a pitfall and was sealed before the end of the Pleistocene. Screening the DNA content of the samples collected from the ground surface revealed their contamination by Bos DNA. However, a 19,000-year-old rib collected on a rock apart the pathway delineated for modern visitors was devoid of such contaminants and reproducibly yielded Bison priscus DNA. High-throughput shotgun sequencing combined with conventional PCR analysis of the rib DNA extract enabled to reconstruct a complete mitochondrial genome sequence of 16,318 bp for the extinct steppe bison with a 10.4-fold coverage. Phylogenetic analyses robustly established the position of the Bison priscus mitochondrial genome as basal to the clade delineated by the genomes of the modern American Bison bison. The extinct steppe bison sequence, which exhibits 93 specific polymorphisms as compared to the published Bison bison mitochondrial genomes, provides an additional resource for the study of Bovinae specimens. Moreover this study of ancient DNA delineates a new research pathway for the analysis of the Magdalenian Trois-Frères cave. PMID:26083419

  6. Hunting the Extinct Steppe Bison (Bison priscus) Mitochondrial Genome in the Trois-Frères Paleolithic Painted Cave

    PubMed Central

    Marsolier-Kergoat, Marie-Claude; Palacio, Pauline; Berthonaud, Véronique; Maksud, Frédéric; Stafford, Thomas; Bégouën, Robert; Elalouf, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Despite the abundance of fossil remains for the extinct steppe bison (Bison priscus), an animal that was painted and engraved in numerous European Paleolithic caves, a complete mitochondrial genome sequence has never been obtained for this species. In the present study we collected bone samples from a sector of the Trois-Frères Paleolithic cave (Ariège, France) that formerly functioned as a pitfall and was sealed before the end of the Pleistocene. Screening the DNA content of the samples collected from the ground surface revealed their contamination by Bos DNA. However, a 19,000-year-old rib collected on a rock apart the pathway delineated for modern visitors was devoid of such contaminants and reproducibly yielded Bison priscus DNA. High-throughput shotgun sequencing combined with conventional PCR analysis of the rib DNA extract enabled to reconstruct a complete mitochondrial genome sequence of 16,318 bp for the extinct steppe bison with a 10.4-fold coverage. Phylogenetic analyses robustly established the position of the Bison priscus mitochondrial genome as basal to the clade delineated by the genomes of the modern American Bison bison. The extinct steppe bison sequence, which exhibits 93 specific polymorphisms as compared to the published Bison bison mitochondrial genomes, provides an additional resource for the study of Bovinae specimens. Moreover this study of ancient DNA delineates a new research pathway for the analysis of the Magdalenian Trois-Frères cave. PMID:26083419

  7. Hunting the Extinct Steppe Bison (Bison priscus) Mitochondrial Genome in the Trois-Frères Paleolithic Painted Cave.

    PubMed

    Marsolier-Kergoat, Marie-Claude; Palacio, Pauline; Berthonaud, Véronique; Maksud, Frédéric; Stafford, Thomas; Bégouën, Robert; Elalouf, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Despite the abundance of fossil remains for the extinct steppe bison (Bison priscus), an animal that was painted and engraved in numerous European Paleolithic caves, a complete mitochondrial genome sequence has never been obtained for this species. In the present study we collected bone samples from a sector of the Trois-Frères Paleolithic cave (Ariège, France) that formerly functioned as a pitfall and was sealed before the end of the Pleistocene. Screening the DNA content of the samples collected from the ground surface revealed their contamination by Bos DNA. However, a 19,000-year-old rib collected on a rock apart the pathway delineated for modern visitors was devoid of such contaminants and reproducibly yielded Bison priscus DNA. High-throughput shotgun sequencing combined with conventional PCR analysis of the rib DNA extract enabled to reconstruct a complete mitochondrial genome sequence of 16,318 bp for the extinct steppe bison with a 10.4-fold coverage. Phylogenetic analyses robustly established the position of the Bison priscus mitochondrial genome as basal to the clade delineated by the genomes of the modern American Bison bison. The extinct steppe bison sequence, which exhibits 93 specific polymorphisms as compared to the published Bison bison mitochondrial genomes, provides an additional resource for the study of Bovinae specimens. Moreover this study of ancient DNA delineates a new research pathway for the analysis of the Magdalenian Trois-Frères cave.

  8. Investigation of transferability of BovineSNP50 BeadChip from cattle to water buffalo for genome wide association study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun Jing; Song, Li Jun; Wu, Fang Jie; Liang, Xian Wei; Yang, Bing Zhuang; Wathes, D Claire; Pollott, Geoff E; Cheng, Zhangrui; Shi, De Shun; Liu, Qing You; Yang, Li Guo; Zhang, Shu Jun

    2013-02-01

    Cattle and water buffalo belong to the same subfamily Bovinae and share chromosome banding and gene order homology. In this study, we used genome-wide Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip to analyze 91 DNA samples from three breeds of water buffalo (Nili-Ravi, Murrah and their crossbred with local GuangXi buffalos in China), to demonstrate the genetic divergence between cattle and water buffalo through a large single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) transferability study at the whole genome level, and performed association analysis of functional traits in water buffalo as well. A total of 40,766 (75.5 %) bovine SNPs were found in the water buffalo genome, but 49,936 (92.5 %) were with only one allele, and finally 935 were identified to be polymorphic and useful for association analysis in water buffalo. Therefore, the genome sequences of water buffalo and cattle shared a high level of homology but the polymorphic status of the bovine SNPs varied between these two species. The different patterns of mutations between species may associate with their phenotypic divergence due to genome evolution. Among 935 bovine SNPs, we identified a total of 9 and 7 SNPs significantly associated to fertility and milk production traits in water buffalo, respectively. However, more works in larger sample size are needed in future to verify these candidate SNPs for water buffalo.

  9. Molecular characterization of T-cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-3 and Galectin-9 genes of swamp- and riverine-type water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Duran, P L H; Padiernos, R B C; Abella, E A; Konnai, S; Mingala, C N

    2015-12-01

    Molecular characterization of T-cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-3 (TIM-3) and Galectin-9 (GAL-9) genes of swamp- and riverine-type water buffaloes was conducted to compare these genes with other species; determine the unique characteristic specific in water buffalo; and provide baseline information for the assessment of disease progression in buffalo species. TIM-3 and GAL-9 genes were amplified, purified, sequenced and characterized. The sequence result of TIM-3 in both types of water buffaloes contained 843 nucleotides encoding to 280 amino acids while GAL-9 of swamp-type and riverine-type water buffaloes contained 1023 and 972 nucleotides encoding to 340 and 323 amino acids, respectively. Meanwhile, the nucleotide and amino sequence of TIM-3 in water buffalo were 83-98% and 94-97% identical with other artiodactyl species, respectively. On the other hand, GAL-9 nucleotide and amino acid sequence in water buffalo were 85-98% and 76-96% identical with other artiodactyl species. The tyrosine-kinase phosphorylation motif and potential glycosylation sites were conserved within the tribe Bovinae. It is imperative to have further studies in the assessment of the role of these genes in disease progression in water buffalo during chronic infection. The study is the first report that describes the genetic characteristic of TIM-3 and GAL-9 genes in water buffalo.

  10. A genome survey sequencing of the Java mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) adds new aspects to the evolution of lineage specific retrotransposons in Ruminantia (Cetartiodactyla).

    PubMed

    Gallus, S; Kumar, V; Bertelsen, M F; Janke, A; Nilsson, M A

    2015-10-25

    Ruminantia, the ruminating, hoofed mammals (cow, deer, giraffe and allies) are an unranked artiodactylan clade. Around 50-60 million years ago the BovB retrotransposon entered the ancestral ruminantian genome through horizontal gene transfer. A survey genome screen using 454-pyrosequencing of the Java mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) and the lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis) was done to investigate and to compare the landscape of transposable elements within Ruminantia. The family Tragulidae (mouse deer) is the only representative of Tragulina and phylogenetically important, because it represents the earliest divergence in Ruminantia. The data analyses show that, relative to other ruminantian species, the lesser kudu genome has seen an expansion of BovB Long INterspersed Elements (LINEs) and BovB related Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) like BOVA2. In comparison the genome of Java mouse deer has fewer BovB elements than other ruminants, especially Bovinae, and has in addition a novel CHR-3 SINE most likely propagated by LINE-1. By contrast the other ruminants have low amounts of CHR SINEs but high numbers of actively propagating BovB-derived and BovB-propagated SINEs. The survey sequencing data suggest that the transposable element landscape in mouse deer (Tragulina) is unique among Ruminantia, suggesting a lineage specific evolutionary trajectory that does not involve BovB mediated retrotransposition. This shows that the genomic landscape of mobile genetic elements can rapidly change in any lineage.

  11. A genome survey sequencing of the Java mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) adds new aspects to the evolution of lineage specific retrotransposons in Ruminantia (Cetartiodactyla).

    PubMed

    Gallus, S; Kumar, V; Bertelsen, M F; Janke, A; Nilsson, M A

    2015-10-25

    Ruminantia, the ruminating, hoofed mammals (cow, deer, giraffe and allies) are an unranked artiodactylan clade. Around 50-60 million years ago the BovB retrotransposon entered the ancestral ruminantian genome through horizontal gene transfer. A survey genome screen using 454-pyrosequencing of the Java mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) and the lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis) was done to investigate and to compare the landscape of transposable elements within Ruminantia. The family Tragulidae (mouse deer) is the only representative of Tragulina and phylogenetically important, because it represents the earliest divergence in Ruminantia. The data analyses show that, relative to other ruminantian species, the lesser kudu genome has seen an expansion of BovB Long INterspersed Elements (LINEs) and BovB related Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) like BOVA2. In comparison the genome of Java mouse deer has fewer BovB elements than other ruminants, especially Bovinae, and has in addition a novel CHR-3 SINE most likely propagated by LINE-1. By contrast the other ruminants have low amounts of CHR SINEs but high numbers of actively propagating BovB-derived and BovB-propagated SINEs. The survey sequencing data suggest that the transposable element landscape in mouse deer (Tragulina) is unique among Ruminantia, suggesting a lineage specific evolutionary trajectory that does not involve BovB mediated retrotransposition. This shows that the genomic landscape of mobile genetic elements can rapidly change in any lineage. PMID:26123917

  12. Serological survey of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in Namibian and South African kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and eland (Taurotragus oryx).

    PubMed

    Scott, Terence P; Stylianides, Eleanor; Markotter, Wanda; Nel, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus that affects members of the order Artiodactyla, including members of the subfamily Bovinae. Little is known about the seroprevalence of BVDV in southern Africa, especially the prevalence in wild ruminant populations such as kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros). A handful of random surveys suggested that seroprevalence ranged between 6% and 70% in southern African wild ruminants. The present study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of BVDV amongst kudu and eland (Taurotragus oryx) from Namibia and South Africa. A BVDV-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed on 50 serum samples from kudu and eland from South Africa and Namibia. The seroprevalence of BVDV in South African kudu was 71%, identical to that in Namibian kudu. The seroprevalence in Namibian eland was 40%. The kudu and cattle farming (free ranging) regions in Namibia predominantly overlap in the central regions, ensuring ample opportunity for cross-species transmission of BVDV. It is therefore important to determine the true prevalence of BVDV in southern Africa in both domesticated and wild animals. In addition, a potential link between BVDV incidence and a devastating rabies epidemic in Namibian kudu was proposed and such a notion could be supported or discredited by comparative prevalence data. PMID:27476404

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of Th1 and Th2 cytokines of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Konnai, S; Okagawa, T; Githaka, N W; Kariuki, E; Gakuya, F; Kanduma, E; Shirai, T; Ikebuchi, R; Ikenaka, Y; Ishizuka, M; Murata, S; Ohashi, K

    2012-04-01

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) has been implicated as the reservoir of several bovine infectious agents. However, there is insufficient information on the protective immune responses in the African buffalo, particularly in infected animals. In this study, we analysed Th1 cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ, and Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. The cloned cDNA of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ contained an open reading frame of 468, 501, 408 and 540 nucleotides, encoding polypeptides of 155, 166, 135 and 179 amino acids, respectively. Nucleotide sequence homology of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4 was more than 98% between the African buffalo and cattle, which resulted in identical polypeptides. Meanwhile, IL-10 gene of African buffalo and cattle had 95% homology in nucleotide sequence, corresponding to thirteen amino acid residues substitution. Cysteine residues and potential glycosylation sites were conserved within the family Bovinae. Phylogenetic analyses including cytokines of the African buffalo placed them within a cluster comprised mainly of species belonging to the order Artiodactyla, including cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goat, pig and artiodactyl wildlife. A deeper understanding of the structure of these cytokines will shed light on their protective role in the disease-resistant African buffalo in comparison with other closely related species.

  14. Analysis of conserved microsatellite sequences suggests closer relationship between water buffalo Bubalus bubalis and sheep Ovis aries.

    PubMed

    Mattapallil, M J; Ali, S

    1999-06-01

    The distribution and evolutionary pattern of the conserved microsatellite repeat sequences (CA)n, (TGG)6, and (GGAT)4 were studied to determine the divergence time and phylogenetic position of the water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. The mean allelic frequencies of these repeat loci showed a high level of heterozygosity among the euartiodactyls (buffalo, cattle, sheep, and goat). Genetic distances calculated from the allelic frequencies of these microsatellites were used to position Bubalus bubalis in the phylogenetic tree. The tree topology revealed a closer proximity of the Bubalus bubalis to the Ovis aries (sheep) genome than to other domestic species. The estimated time of divergence of the water buffalo genome relative to cattle, goat, sheep, pig, rabbit, and horse was found to be 21, 0.5, 0.7, 94, 20.3, and 408 million years (Myr), respectively. Although water buffaloes share morphological and biochemical similarities with cattle, our study using the microsatellite sequences places the bubaline species in an entirely new phylogenetic position. Our results also suggest that with respect to these repeat loci, the water buffalo genome shares a common ancestry with sheep and goat after the divergence of subfamily Bovinae (Bos taurus) from the family Bovidae.

  15. Impact of x-ray dose on track formation and data analysis for CR-39-based proton diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Rinderknecht, H G; Rojas-Herrera, J; Zylstra, A B; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Sio, H; Sinenian, N; Rosenberg, M J; Li, C K; Séguin, F H; Petrasso, R D; Filkins, T; Steidle, Jeffrey A; Steidle, Jessica A; Traynor, N; Freeman, C

    2015-12-01

    The nuclear track detector CR-39 is used extensively for charged particle diagnosis, in particular proton spectroscopy, at inertial confinement fusion facilities. These detectors can absorb x-ray doses from the experiments in the order of 1-100 Gy, the effects of which are not accounted for in the previous detector calibrations. X-ray dose absorbed in the CR-39 has previously been shown to affect the track size of alpha particles in the detector, primarily due to a measured reduction in the material bulk etch rate [Rojas-Herrera et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 033501 (2015)]. Similar to the previous findings for alpha particles, protons with energies in the range 0.5-9.1 MeV are shown to produce tracks that are systematically smaller as a function of the absorbed x-ray dose in the CR-39. The reduction of track size due to x-ray dose is found to diminish with time between exposure and etching if the CR-39 is stored at ambient temperature, and complete recovery is observed after two weeks. The impact of this effect on the analysis of data from existing CR-39-based proton diagnostics on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility is evaluated and best practices are proposed for cases in which the effect of x rays is significant. PMID:26724031

  16. CHARACTERIZING THE COOL KEPLER OBJECTS OF INTERESTS. NEW EFFECTIVE TEMPERATURES, METALLICITIES, MASSES, AND RADII OF LOW-MASS KEPLER PLANET-CANDIDATE HOST STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Muirhead, Philip S.; Hamren, Katherine; Schlawin, Everett; Lloyd, James P.; Rojas-Ayala, Barbara; Covey, Kevin R.

    2012-05-10

    We report stellar parameters for late-K and M-type planet-candidate host stars announced by the Kepler Mission. We obtained medium-resolution, K-band spectra of 84 cool (T{sub eff} {approx}< 4400 K) Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) from Borucki et al. We identified one object as a giant (KOI 977); for the remaining dwarfs, we measured effective temperatures (T{sub eff}) and metallicities [M/H] using the K-band spectral indices of Rojas-Ayala et al. We determine the masses (M{sub *}) and radii (R{sub *}) of the cool KOIs by interpolation onto the Dartmouth evolutionary isochrones. The resultant stellar radii are significantly less than the values reported in the Kepler Input Catalog and, by construction, correlate better with T{sub eff}. Applying the published KOI transit parameters to our stellar radius measurements, we report new physical radii for the planet candidates. Recalculating the equilibrium temperatures of the planet-candidates assuming Earth's albedo and re-radiation fraction, we find that three of the planet-candidates are terrestrial sized with orbital semimajor axes that lie within the habitable zones of their host stars (KOI 463.01, KOI 812.03, and KOI 854.01). The stellar parameters presented in this Letter serve as a resource for prioritization of future follow-up efforts to validate and characterize the cool KOI planet candidates.

  17. Coleopterans associated with plants that form phytotelmata in subtropical and temperate Argentina, South America.

    PubMed

    Campos, Raúl E; Fernández, Liliana A

    2011-01-01

    A list of the most common plants that form phytotelmata and their associated coleopterans (aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial) from the northeastern subtropical and temperate area of Argentina, South America with biological and behavioral observations is presented in this study. Species of Poaceae (n = 3), Bromeliaceae (5), Apiaceae (6), Araceae (2), Urticaceae (1), Marantaceae (1), Arecaceae (1), Dipsacaceae (1) and Cyperaceae (1) were identified as phytotelmata. Aquatic species of Scirtidae (2), Dytiscidae (2), and Hydrophilidae (4), semi-aquatic Chelonariidae (2), and terrestrial species of Carabidae (3), Staphylinidae (5), Histeridae (1), Elateridae (1), Cantharidae (1), Cleridae (1), Tenebrionidae (1), Meloidae (1), Anthicidae (1), Chrysomelidae (3), Curculionidae (7) and Apionidae (1) were identified from six species of Eryngium L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), two species of Guadua Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), Aechmea distichantha Lemaire (Poales: Bromeliaceae), and from fallen leaves of Euterpe edulis Martius (Arecales: Arecaceae) from the temperate and subtropical area. The highest species richness was recorded in Eryngium phytotelmata. Fifteen species of beetles inhabit Eryngium cabrerae Pontiroli, 11 in E. horridum Malme, 7 in E. stenophyllum Urban, 4 in E. aff. serra Chamisso and Schlechtendal., 3 in E. elegans Chamisso and Schlechtendal, 2 in E. eburneum Decne and E. pandanifolium Chamisso and Schlechtendal. From bamboo, 6 species of coleopterans were collected from Guadua trinii (Nees) Nees ex Ruprecht and 4 from G. chacoensis (Rojas) Londoño and Peterson. Three species of aquatic coleopterans were recorded from A. distichantha and only one from E. edulis.

  18. Coleopterans Associated with Plants that form Phytotelmata in Subtropical and Temperate Argentina, South America

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Raúl E.; Fernández, Liliana A.

    2011-01-01

    A list of the most common plants that form phytotelmata and their associated coleopterans (aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial) from the northeastern subtropical and temperate area of Argentina, South America with biological and behavioral observations is presented in this study. Species of Poaceae (n = 3), Bromeliaceae (5), Apiaceae (6), Araceae (2), Urticaceae (1), Marantaceae (1), Arecaceae (1), Dipsacaceae (1) and Cyperaceae (1) were identified as phytotelmata. Aquatic species of Scirtidae (2), Dytiscidae (2), and Hydrophilidae (4), semi-aquatic Chelonariidae (2), and terrestrial species of Carabidae (3), Staphylinidae (5), Histeridae (1), Elateridae (1), Cantharidae (1), Cleridae (1), Tenebrionidae (1), Meloidae (1), Anthicidae (1), Chrysomelidae (3), Curculionidae (7) and Apionidae (1) were identified from six species of Eryngium L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), two species of Guadua Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), Aechmea distichantha Lemaire (Poales: Bromeliaceae), and from fallen leaves of Euterpe edulis Martius (Arecales: Arecaceae) from the temperate and subtropical area. The highest species richness was recorded in Eryngium phytotelmata. Fifteen species of beetles inhabit Eryngium cabrerae Pontiroli, 11 in E. horridum Malme, 7 in E. stenophyllum Urban, 4 in E. aff. serra Chamisso and Schlechtendal., 3 in E. elegans Chamisso and Schlechtendal, 2 in E. eburneum Decne and E. pandanifolium Chamisso and Schlechtendal. From bamboo, 6 species of coleopterans were collected from Guadua trinii (Nees) Nees ex Ruprecht and 4 from G. chacoensis (Rojas) Londoño and Peterson. Three species of aquatic coleopterans were recorded from A. distichantha and only one from E. edulis. PMID:22236084

  19. Electronic and geometrical properties of monoatomic and diatomic 2D honeycomb lattices. A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Ángela; Rey, Rafael; Fonseca, Karen; Grupo de Óptica e Información Cuántica Team

    Since the discovery of graphene by Geim and Novoselov at 2004, several analogous systems have been theoretically and experimentally studied, due to their technological interest. Both monoatomic lattices, such as silicine and germanene, and diatomic lattices (h-GaAs and h-GaN) have been studied. Using Density Functional Theory we obtain and confirm the chemical stability of these hexagonal 2D systems through the total energy curves as a function of interatomic distance. Unlike graphene, silicine and germanene, gapless materials, h-GaAs and h-GaN exhibit electronic gaps, different from that of the bulk, which could be interesting for the industry. On the other hand, the ab initio band structure calculations for graphene, silicene and germanene show a non-circular cross section around K points, at variance with the prediction of usual Tight-binding models. In fact, we have found that Dirac cones display a dihedral group symmetry. This implies that Fermi speed can change up to 30 % due to the orientation of the wave vector, for both electrons and holes. Traditional analytic studies use the Dirac equation for the electron dynamics at low energies. However, this equation assumes an isotropic, homogeneous and uniform space. Authors would like to thank the División de Investigación Sede Bogotá for their financial support at Universidad Nacional de Colombia. A. M. Rojas-Cuervo would also like to thank the Colciencias, Colombia.

  20. Transcriptomic seasonal variations in a natural population of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha).

    PubMed

    Navarro, Anna; Campos, Bruno; Barata, Carlos; Piña, Benjamin

    2013-06-01

    The zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha is a Caspian Sea bivalve that colonized freshwater bodies worldwide during the XX century. To analyze the impact of seasonal and environmental variations on the physiology and metabolism of this invasive species, we developed a custom microarray using 4057 publicly available DNA sequences from Dreissena and other related genera. Transcriptome profiles were analyzed using half-body samples from a relatively clean site (Riba-Roja, low Ebro River, N.E. Spain), at three different stages of the annual cycle: Pre-spawning (February), spawning (June), and gonad resorption (September). Transcripts from a total of 745 unique sequences showed significant changes among these three groups of samples. Functional characterization of these transcripts based on their closest known homologues showed that genes involved in stress defense (oxidative and infection) were overrepresented in September, whereas genes related to reproductive functions were overrepresented in the spawning and pre-spawning periods. This transcriptomic information can help to identify developmental stages at which the organism is more vulnerable for future control strategies. These data will also contribute to the implementation of gene expression-based assays for pollution monitoring in water bodies harboring stable zebra mussel populations. PMID:23567168

  1. The influence of hyperfine structure and isotope shift on the detection of Rb by 2 f-wavelength modulation diode laser absorption spectrometry—experimental verification of simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Jörgen; Axner, Ove

    1998-12-01

    This work presents an experimental verification of a previously developed methodology for simulation of the 2 f-wavelength modulation diode laser absorption spectrometry technique (2 f-WM-DLAS) when the influence of hyperfine structure, isotope shift and collisional broadening and shift of an atomic transition is taken into account [J. Gustafsson, D. Rojas and O. Axner, Spectrochim. Acta, 52B, 1937-1953 (1997)]. The pilot element in the simulations was Rb, detected at the 780 nm 5s 2S 1/2-5p 2P 3/2 transition, in low-pressure cells and atmospheric-pressure reservoirs (e.g. graphite furnaces). This experimental investigation verifies that the simulations are able to predict, with good accuracy, experimental 2 f-WM signals from Rb atoms under both low-pressure, room-temperature conditions and atmospheric-pressure, high-temperature conditions. This implies that the previously published simulation methodology can be used for predicting and optimizing 2 f-WM signal strengths and shapes from Rb atoms (and thereby presumably also from other atoms) under a variety of pressure and temperature conditions.

  2. Estudio fotométrico de estrellas tardías de alta luminosidad en 23 cúmulos abiertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clariá, J. J.; Piatti, A. E.; Osborn, W.

    Se presentan resultados obtenidos en los Observatorios de Cerro Tololo, Kitt Peak, Lowell y Las Campanas, a partir de fotometría UBV y DDO de 54 estrellas tardías de alta luminosidad en 23 cúmulos abiertos. La aplicación de dos criterios fotométricos independientes permite asignar a cada estrella probabilidades de pertenencia a cada agregado. Se encuentra que 32 estrellas son muy probablemente miembros de los cúmulos, mientras que las restantes son objetos del campo. En todos los casos se determinan excesos de color E(B-V) a través de procedimientos fotométricos y espectroscópicos tradicionales. Recientes calibraciones del sistema DDO permiten, además, derivar tipos espectrales MK, temperaturas efectivas, y abundancias superficiales de la muestra examinada. Las metalicidades DDO derivadas se distribuyen entre valores típicos de cúmulos moderadamente pobres en metales ([Fe/H]~=-0.3) y moderadamente ricos ([Fe/H]~=0.2), en tanto que las masas calculadas para las gigantes rojas oscilan entre 1 y 4 masas solares, con una dispersión dentro de cada cúmulo menor que 1 Msolar.

  3. MetiTree: a web application to organize and process high-resolution multi-stage mass spectrometry metabolomics data

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Chertó, Miguel; Reijmers, Theo

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Identification of metabolites using high-resolution multi-stage mass spectrometry (MSn) data is a significant challenge demanding access to all sorts of computational infrastructures. MetiTree is a user-friendly, web application dedicated to organize, process, share, visualize and compare MSn data. It integrates several features to export and visualize complex MSn data, facilitating the exploration and interpretation of metabolomics experiments. A dedicated spectral tree viewer allows the simultaneous presentation of three related types of MSn data, namely, the spectral data, the fragmentation tree and the fragmentation reactions. MetiTree stores the data in an internal database to enable searching for similar fragmentation trees and matching against other MSn data. As such MetiTree contains much functionality that will make the difficult task of identifying unknown metabolites much easier. Availability: MetiTree is accessible at http://www.MetiTree.nl. The source code is available at https://github.com/NetherlandsMetabolomicsCentre/metitree/wiki. Contact: m.rojas@lacdr.leidenuniv.nl or t.reijmers@lacdr.leidenuniv.nl PMID:22851531

  4. Population structure of eleven Spanish ovine breeds and detection of selective sweeps with BayeScan and hapFLK

    PubMed Central

    Manunza, A.; Cardoso, T. F.; Noce, A.; Martínez, A.; Pons, A.; Bermejo, L. A.; Landi, V.; Sànchez, A.; Jordana, J.; Delgado, J. V.; Adán, S.; Capote, J.; Vidal, O.; Ugarte, E.; Arranz, J. J.; Calvo, J. H.; Casellas, J.; Amills, M.

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the current work were to analyse the population structure of 11 Spanish ovine breeds and to detect genomic regions that may have been targeted by selection. A total of 141 individuals were genotyped with the Infinium 50 K Ovine SNP BeadChip (Illumina). We combined this dataset with Spanish ovine data previously reported by the International Sheep Genomics Consortium (N = 229). Multidimensional scaling and Admixture analyses revealed that Canaria de Pelo and, to a lesser extent, Roja Mallorquina, Latxa and Churra are clearly differentiated populations, while the remaining seven breeds (Ojalada, Castellana, Gallega, Xisqueta, Ripollesa, Rasa Aragonesa and Segureña) share a similar genetic background. Performance of a genome scan with BayeScan and hapFLK allowed us identifying three genomic regions that are consistently detected with both methods i.e. Oar3 (150–154 Mb), Oar6 (4–49 Mb) and Oar13 (68–74 Mb). Neighbor-joining trees based on polymorphisms mapping to these three selective sweeps did not show a clustering of breeds according to their predominant productive specialization (except the local tree based on Oar13 SNPs). Such cryptic signatures of selection have been also found in the bovine genome, posing a considerable challenge to understand the biological consequences of artificial selection. PMID:27272025

  5. [Yesterdays and happenings at hospitals of Tehuacán, Puebla, México].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo

    2004-01-01

    The history of the hospital of Tehuacán, the second city importance in Puebla State, began in 1744, when the Hospital de San Juan de Dios (Hospital of St. John) was founded; in 1820, it was converted into the Municipal of Civil Hospital. The medical establishement continues to provide services to the poor to this day annual also covers health public workers of services for the municipality. The Hospital de la Cruz Roja Mexicana (The Mexican Red Cross Hospital) was created in 1934 provide medical services for accident victims: The hospital services of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) began in 1953; an earthquake destroyed the building in 1973, and a new hospital was inaugurated in 1979; at present, it readers services to 98,000 persons. The Sanatorio del Sagrado Corazón (Sacred Heart Sanatorium) is a private religious institution founded at the beginning of the second half the 20th century. In 1996, the Hospital General (General Hospital) began to provide services, takes care of the poor of the geographical region, and is financed with federal funds. The Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para Trabajadores del Estado (Institute of Securtiy and Social Services for the Workers of the State, ISSSTE) has a small hospital with 10 beds, it was founded in 1995. PMID:15087055

  6. 2-Sulfanylidene-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-b]naphtho-[2,3-e][1,4]dithiine-5,10-dione.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Rojas, Miguel Angel; Bernès, Sylvain; Pérez-Benítez, Aarón; Romero Zarazúa, María Fernanda; Castellanos-Uribe, Adrián

    2011-11-01

    The title mol-ecule, C(13)H(4)O(2)S(5), is folded by 47.83 (6)° along the S⋯S vector of the [1,4]dithiine six-membered ring, with the naphtho-quinone and [1,3]dithiole-2-thione moieties being nearly planar [largest deviations from least-squares planes = 0.028 (2) and 0.016 (1) Å, respectively]. This boat conformation is close to that observed in the analogous compound [Mendez-Rojas et al. (2001). J. Chem. Crystallogr.31, 17-28] including a 2-oxo group [folding angle: 42.3 (1)° at 213 (2) K]. Both compounds are indeed isomorphous, and the small difference in the folding angle probably results from the involvement of the thioxo group of the title compound in inter-molecular S⋯S contacts [3.5761 (13) Å]. In the crystal structure, mol-ecules are stacked in the [100] direction, with dithiole rings making π-π inter-actions. In a stack, alternating short and long separations are observed between the centroids of dithiole rings, 3.5254 (17) and 4.7010 (18) Å.

  7. [Yesterdays and happenings at hospitals of Tehuacán, Puebla, México].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo

    2004-01-01

    The history of the hospital of Tehuacán, the second city importance in Puebla State, began in 1744, when the Hospital de San Juan de Dios (Hospital of St. John) was founded; in 1820, it was converted into the Municipal of Civil Hospital. The medical establishement continues to provide services to the poor to this day annual also covers health public workers of services for the municipality. The Hospital de la Cruz Roja Mexicana (The Mexican Red Cross Hospital) was created in 1934 provide medical services for accident victims: The hospital services of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) began in 1953; an earthquake destroyed the building in 1973, and a new hospital was inaugurated in 1979; at present, it readers services to 98,000 persons. The Sanatorio del Sagrado Corazón (Sacred Heart Sanatorium) is a private religious institution founded at the beginning of the second half the 20th century. In 1996, the Hospital General (General Hospital) began to provide services, takes care of the poor of the geographical region, and is financed with federal funds. The Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para Trabajadores del Estado (Institute of Securtiy and Social Services for the Workers of the State, ISSSTE) has a small hospital with 10 beds, it was founded in 1995.

  8. Velocidades radiales en Collinder 121

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, M.; Morrell, N.

    Se han llevado a cabo observaciones espectroscópicas de unas treinta estrellas que son posibles miembros del cúmulo abierto Collinder 121. Las mismas fueron realizadas con el telescopio de 2.15m del Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO). El análisis de las velocidades radiales derivadas del material obtenido, confirma la realidad de Collinder 121, al menos desde el punto de vista cinemático. La velocidad radial baricentral (LSR) del cúmulo es de +17 ± 3 km.s-1. Esta velocidad coincide, dentro de los errores, con la velocidad radial (LSR) de la nebulosa anillo S308, la cual es de ~20 ± 10 km.s-1. Como S308 se encuentra físicamente asociada a la estrella Wolf-Rayet HD~50896, es muy probable que esta última sea un miembro de Collinder 121. Desde un punto de vista cinemático, la supergigante roja HD~50877 (K3Iab) también pertenecería a Collinder 121. Basándonos en la pertenencia de HD~50896 a Collinder 121, y en la interacción encontrada entre el viento de esta estrella y el medio interestelar circundante a la misma, se estima para este cúmulo una distancia del orden de 1 kpc.

  9. Coleopterans associated with plants that form phytotelmata in subtropical and temperate Argentina, South America.

    PubMed

    Campos, Raúl E; Fernández, Liliana A

    2011-01-01

    A list of the most common plants that form phytotelmata and their associated coleopterans (aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial) from the northeastern subtropical and temperate area of Argentina, South America with biological and behavioral observations is presented in this study. Species of Poaceae (n = 3), Bromeliaceae (5), Apiaceae (6), Araceae (2), Urticaceae (1), Marantaceae (1), Arecaceae (1), Dipsacaceae (1) and Cyperaceae (1) were identified as phytotelmata. Aquatic species of Scirtidae (2), Dytiscidae (2), and Hydrophilidae (4), semi-aquatic Chelonariidae (2), and terrestrial species of Carabidae (3), Staphylinidae (5), Histeridae (1), Elateridae (1), Cantharidae (1), Cleridae (1), Tenebrionidae (1), Meloidae (1), Anthicidae (1), Chrysomelidae (3), Curculionidae (7) and Apionidae (1) were identified from six species of Eryngium L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), two species of Guadua Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), Aechmea distichantha Lemaire (Poales: Bromeliaceae), and from fallen leaves of Euterpe edulis Martius (Arecales: Arecaceae) from the temperate and subtropical area. The highest species richness was recorded in Eryngium phytotelmata. Fifteen species of beetles inhabit Eryngium cabrerae Pontiroli, 11 in E. horridum Malme, 7 in E. stenophyllum Urban, 4 in E. aff. serra Chamisso and Schlechtendal., 3 in E. elegans Chamisso and Schlechtendal, 2 in E. eburneum Decne and E. pandanifolium Chamisso and Schlechtendal. From bamboo, 6 species of coleopterans were collected from Guadua trinii (Nees) Nees ex Ruprecht and 4 from G. chacoensis (Rojas) Londoño and Peterson. Three species of aquatic coleopterans were recorded from A. distichantha and only one from E. edulis. PMID:22236084

  10. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry to characterise trace levels of cyanobacteria and dinoflagellate toxins in suspended solids and sediments.

    PubMed

    Rivetti, Claudia; Gómez-Canela, Cristian; Lacorte, Silvia; Barata, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    Microcystins, anatoxins and okadaic acid are toxins produced by freshwater cyanobacteria and marine dinoflagellates. These toxins have been the responsible for the illness and death of biota and humans. To determine their presence in water during blooms, sensitive analytical methods are needed. In this study, we have developed a new liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for fast multiresidue determination of five toxins in suspended material and sediment samples. For each target compound, two selected reaction monitoring (SRM) transitions were optimised. Chromatographic conditions were optimised considering that the compounds analysed had different chemical structure and chromatographic behaviour. Using a Luna C18 column and specific SRM transitions, five phytotoxins were resolved. Method detection limits (MDL) for anatoxin-a, microcystins RR, LR and YR and okadaic acid were 7.1, 3.3, 81.7, 102.8 and 28.8 ng g(-1) dry weight in sediment, respectively. The developed analytical method was successfully applied to analyse the presence of toxins in suspended solids and sediment from Ebro River (NE Spain) and Ebro delta-associated lagoons. Anatoxin-a was detected downstream of the Riba-Roja reservoir with levels ranging from 20 to 1120 ng g(-1) dry weight of suspended solids. Okadaic acid was only detected in three samples collected in the Alfacs Bay (Ebro delta, Spain) affected by Dinophysis blooms in 2012.

  11. Greengenes: 16S rRNA Database and Workbench Compatible with ARB

    DOE Data Explorer

    DeSantis, T. Z.; Hugenholtz, P.; Larsen, N.; Rojas, M.; Brodie, E. L.; Keller, K.; Huber, T.; Dalevi, D. Hu, P. Andersen, G. L.

    Greengenes was developed, as the abstract of an AEM reprint states, to "addresse limitations of public repositories by providing chimera screening, standard alignment, and taxonomic classification using multiple published taxonomies. It was found that there is incongruent taxonomic nomenclature among curators even at the phylum level. Putative chimeras were identified in 3% of environmental sequences and in 0.2% of records derived from isolates. Environmental sequences were classified into 100 phylum-level lineages in the Archaea and Bacteria....Greengenes is also a functional workbench to assist in analysis of user-generated 16S rRNA gene sequences. Batches of sequencing reads can be uploaded for quality-based trimming and creation of multiple-sequence alignments (9). Three types of non-MSA similarity searches are also available, seed extension by BLAST (1), similarity based on shared 7-mers by a tool called Simrank, and a direct degenerative pattern match for probe/primer evaluation. Results are displayed using user-preferred taxonomic nomenclature and can be saved between sessions. [Taken from DeSantis, T. Z., P. Hugenholtz, N. Larsen, M. Rojas, E. L. Brodie, K. Keller, T. Huber, D. Dalevi, P. Hu, and G. L. Andersen. 2006. Greengenes, a Chimera-Checked 16S rRNA Gene Database and Workbench Compatible with ARB. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:5069-72, pages 1 and 3] (Specialized Interface)

  12. Understanding environmental drivers in the regulation of soil respiration dynamics after fire in semi-arid ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Lewandrowski, Wolfgang; Erickson, Todd E.; Dixon, Kingsley W.; Merritt, David J.

    2016-04-01

    Keywords: Pilbara, soil CO2 efflux, soil C, soil moisture, soil temperature Introduction Soil respiration (Rs) has become a major research focus given the increase in atmospheric CO2 emissions and the large contribution of these CO2 fluxes from soils (Van Groenigen et al., 2014). In addition to its importance in the global C cycle, Rs is a fundamental indicator of soil health and quality that reflects the level of microbial activity and provides an indication of the ability of soils to support plant growth (Oyonarte et al., 2012; Munoz-Rojas et al., 2015). Wildfires can have a significant impact on Rs rates, with the scale of the impact depending on environmental factors such as temperature and moisture, and organic C content in the soil. Vegetation cover can have a significant effect on regulating organic C contents; and while advances are made into understanding the effects of fire on organic C contents and CO2 fluxes (Granged et al., 2011; Willaarts et al., 2015; Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016), there is limited knowledge of the variability of Rs across ecosystem types, vegetation communities, and responses to fire. In this research we aimed to assess the impacts of a wildfire on the soil CO2 fluxes and soil respiration in a semi-arid ecosystem of Western Australia (Pilbara biogeographical region), and to understand the main environmental drivers controlling these fluxes in different vegetation types. The study has application for other arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Methods The study area was selected following a wildfire that affected 25 ha in February 2014. Twelve plots were established in the burnt site (B) within a 400 m2 area, and 12 plots in an adjacent unburnt control site. At each site, three plots were installed below the canopy of each of the most representative vegetation types of the areas: Eucalyptus trees, Acacia shrubs and Triodia grasses, and three on bare soil. Soil sampling and measurement of soil CO2 efflux, temperature and moisture were

  13. Impact of x-ray dose on track formation and data analysis for CR-39-based proton diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Rinderknecht, H. G. Rojas-Herrera, J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Sio, H.; Sinenian, N.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Filkins, T.; Steidle, Jessica A.; Traynor, N.; Freeman, C.; Steidle, Jeffrey A.

    2015-12-15

    The nuclear track detector CR-39 is used extensively for charged particle diagnosis, in particular proton spectroscopy, at inertial confinement fusion facilities. These detectors can absorb x-ray doses from the experiments in the order of 1–100 Gy, the effects of which are not accounted for in the previous detector calibrations. X-ray dose absorbed in the CR-39 has previously been shown to affect the track size of alpha particles in the detector, primarily due to a measured reduction in the material bulk etch rate [Rojas-Herrera et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 033501 (2015)]. Similar to the previous findings for alpha particles, protons with energies in the range 0.5–9.1 MeV are shown to produce tracks that are systematically smaller as a function of the absorbed x-ray dose in the CR-39. The reduction of track size due to x-ray dose is found to diminish with time between exposure and etching if the CR-39 is stored at ambient temperature, and complete recovery is observed after two weeks. The impact of this effect on the analysis of data from existing CR-39-based proton diagnostics on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility is evaluated and best practices are proposed for cases in which the effect of x rays is significant.

  14. Impact of x-ray dose on track formation and data analysis for CR-39-based proton diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rojas-Herrera, J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Sio, H.; Sinenian, N.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Filkins, T.; Steidle, Jeffrey A.; Steidle, Jessica A.; Traynor, N.; Freeman, C.

    2015-12-23

    The nuclear track detector CR-39 is used extensively for charged particle diagnosis, in particular proton spectroscopy, at inertial confinement fusion facilities. These detectors can absorb x-ray doses from the experiments in the order of 1–100 Gy, the effects of which are not accounted for in the previous detector calibrations. X-ray dose absorbed in the CR-39 has previously been shown to affect the track size of alpha particles in the detector, primarily due to a measured reduction in the material bulk etch rate [Rojas-Herrera et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 033501 (2015)]. Similar to the previous findings for alpha particles, protons with energies in the range 0.5–9.1 MeV are shown to produce tracks that are systematically smaller as a function of the absorbed x-ray dose in the CR-39. The reduction of track size due to x-ray dose is found to diminish with time between exposure and etching if the CR-39 is stored at ambient temperature, and complete recovery is observed after two weeks. Lastly, the impact of this effect on the analysis of data from existing CR-39-based proton diagnostics on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility is evaluated and best practices are proposed for cases in which the effect of x rays is significant.

  15. Impact of x-ray dose on track formation and data analysis for CR-39-based proton diagnostics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rojas-Herrera, J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Sio, H.; Sinenian, N.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; et al

    2015-12-23

    The nuclear track detector CR-39 is used extensively for charged particle diagnosis, in particular proton spectroscopy, at inertial confinement fusion facilities. These detectors can absorb x-ray doses from the experiments in the order of 1–100 Gy, the effects of which are not accounted for in the previous detector calibrations. X-ray dose absorbed in the CR-39 has previously been shown to affect the track size of alpha particles in the detector, primarily due to a measured reduction in the material bulk etch rate [Rojas-Herrera et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 033501 (2015)]. Similar to the previous findings for alpha particles, protonsmore » with energies in the range 0.5–9.1 MeV are shown to produce tracks that are systematically smaller as a function of the absorbed x-ray dose in the CR-39. The reduction of track size due to x-ray dose is found to diminish with time between exposure and etching if the CR-39 is stored at ambient temperature, and complete recovery is observed after two weeks. Lastly, the impact of this effect on the analysis of data from existing CR-39-based proton diagnostics on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility is evaluated and best practices are proposed for cases in which the effect of x rays is significant.« less

  16. CHARACTERIZING THE COOL KOIs. VI. H- AND K-BAND SPECTRA OF KEPLER M DWARF PLANET-CANDIDATE HOSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Muirhead, Philip S.; Becker, Juliette; Price, Ellen M.; Thorp, Rachel; Riddle, Reed; Feiden, Gregory A.; Rojas-Ayala, Bárbara; Vanderburg, Andrew; Johnson, John Asher; Law, Nicholas M.; Baranec, Christoph; Hamren, Katherine; Schlawin, Everett; Lloyd, James P.; Covey, Kevin R.

    2014-07-01

    We present H- and K-band spectra for late-type Kepler Objects of Interest (the {sup C}ool KOIs{sup )}: low-mass stars with transiting-planet candidates discovered by NASA's Kepler Mission that are listed on the NASA Exoplanet Archive. We acquired spectra of 103 Cool KOIs and used the indices and calibrations of Rojas-Ayala et al. to determine their spectral types, stellar effective temperatures, and metallicities, significantly augmenting previously published values. We interpolate our measured effective temperatures and metallicities onto evolutionary isochrones to determine stellar masses, radii, luminosities, and distances, assuming the stars have settled onto the main sequence. As a choice of isochrones, we use a new suite of Dartmouth predictions that reliably include mid-to-late M dwarf stars. We identify five M4V stars: KOI-961 (confirmed as Kepler 42), KOI-2704, KOI-2842, KOI-4290, and the secondary component to visual binary KOI-1725, which we call KOI-1725 B. We also identify a peculiar star, KOI-3497, which has Na and Ca lines consistent with a dwarf star but CO lines consistent with a giant. Visible-wavelength adaptive optics imaging reveals two objects within a 1 arcsec diameter; however, the objects' colors are peculiar. The spectra and properties presented in this paper serve as a resource for prioritizing follow-up observations and planet validation efforts for the Cool KOIs and are all available for download online using the ''data behind the figure'' feature.

  17. The use of soil quality indicators to assess soil functionality in restored semi-arid ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Erickson, Todd E.; Dixon, Kingsley W.; Merritt, David J.

    2016-04-01

    Keywords: Pilbara, 1-day CO2 test, microbial activity, mine restoration, soil health, ecosystem services. Introduction Semi-arid and arid environments are highly vulnerable to land degradation and their restoration has commonly showed low rates of success (James et al., 2013). A systematic knowledge of soil functionality is critical to successful restoration of degraded ecosystems since approximately 80% of ecosystem services can be connected to soil functions. The assessment of soil functionality generally involves the evaluation of soil properties and processes as they relate to the ability of soil to function effectively as a component of a healthy ecosystem (Costantini et al., 2015) Using soil quality indicators may be a valuable approach to assess functionality of topsoil and novel substrates used in restoration (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2014; 2015). A key soil chemical indicator is soil organic C, that has been widely used as an attribute of soil quality because of the many functions that it provides and supports (Willaarts et al., 2015). However, microbial indicators can be more sensitive to disturbances and could be a valuable addition in soil assessment studies in restoration programs. Here, we propose a set of soil quality indicators to assess the soil status in restored soils (topsoil and waste material) of semi-arid environments. The study was conducted during March 2015 in the Pilbara biogeographical region (northwestern Australia) at an iron ore mine site rehabilitated in 2011. Methods Soil samples were collected from two sub-areas with different soil materials used as growth media: topsoil retrieved from nearby stockpiles and a lateritic waste material utilised for its erosive stability and physical competence. An undisturbed natural shrub-grassland ecosystem dominated by Triodia spp. and Acacia spp. representative of the restored area was selected as the analogue reference site. Soil physicochemical analysis were undertaken according to standard methods

  18. Differential blockage of two types of potassium channels in the crab giant axon.

    PubMed

    Soria, B; Arispe, N; Quinta-Ferreira, M E; Rojas, E

    1985-01-01

    Measurements were made of the kinetic and steady-state characteristics of the potassium conductance in the giant axon of the crabs Carcinus maenas and Cancer pagirus. The conductance increase during depolarizing voltage-clamp pulses was analyzed assuming that two separate types of potassium channels exist in these axons (M.E. Quinta-Ferreira, E. Rojas and N. Arispe, J. Membrane Biol. 66:171-181, 1982). It is shown here that, with small concentrations of conventional K+-channel blockers, it is possible to differentially inhibit these channels. The potassium channels with activation and fast inactivation gating (m3h, Hodgkin-Huxley kinetics) were blocked by external application of 4 amino-pyridine (4-AP). The potassium channels with standard gating (n4, Hodgkin-Huxley kinetics) were preferentially inhibited by externally applied tetraethylammonium (TEA). The differential blockage of the two types of potassium conductance changes suggests that they represent two different populations of potassium channels. It is further shown here that blocking the early transient conductance increase leads to the inhibition of the repetitive electrical activity induced by constant depolarizing current injection in fibers from Cardisoma guanhumi.

  19. Population structure of eleven Spanish ovine breeds and detection of selective sweeps with BayeScan and hapFLK.

    PubMed

    Manunza, A; Cardoso, T F; Noce, A; Martínez, A; Pons, A; Bermejo, L A; Landi, V; Sànchez, A; Jordana, J; Delgado, J V; Adán, S; Capote, J; Vidal, O; Ugarte, E; Arranz, J J; Calvo, J H; Casellas, J; Amills, M

    2016-06-07

    The goals of the current work were to analyse the population structure of 11 Spanish ovine breeds and to detect genomic regions that may have been targeted by selection. A total of 141 individuals were genotyped with the Infinium 50 K Ovine SNP BeadChip (Illumina). We combined this dataset with Spanish ovine data previously reported by the International Sheep Genomics Consortium (N = 229). Multidimensional scaling and Admixture analyses revealed that Canaria de Pelo and, to a lesser extent, Roja Mallorquina, Latxa and Churra are clearly differentiated populations, while the remaining seven breeds (Ojalada, Castellana, Gallega, Xisqueta, Ripollesa, Rasa Aragonesa and Segureña) share a similar genetic background. Performance of a genome scan with BayeScan and hapFLK allowed us identifying three genomic regions that are consistently detected with both methods i.e. Oar3 (150-154 Mb), Oar6 (4-49 Mb) and Oar13 (68-74 Mb). Neighbor-joining trees based on polymorphisms mapping to these three selective sweeps did not show a clustering of breeds according to their predominant productive specialization (except the local tree based on Oar13 SNPs). Such cryptic signatures of selection have been also found in the bovine genome, posing a considerable challenge to understand the biological consequences of artificial selection.

  20. ESO Helps Antofagasta Region after the Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    On November 14 at 12:41 local time, a major earthquake with magnitude 7.7 on the Richter scale affected the north of Chile. The epicentre was located 35 km from the city of Tocopilla and 170 km of Antofagasta. Two persons died and tens were injured, while buildings were damaged in several cities. In the Maria Elena-Tocopilla area, several thousand homes were destroyed or damaged. In an act of solidarity with the local community and its authorities, ESO immediately announced a donation of 30 millions Chilean pesos (around 40,000 euros) to Antofagasta's Regional Government to support reconstruction in the Region II. ESO and its staff have been shocked by the earthquake and its impact on local communities, especially on the people of Tocopilla. The ESO Representation in Chile formally contacted the regional authorities to explore with them possible ways to collaborate in this difficult moment. In addition, many of ESO staff are personally cooperating with the victims, under the coordination of Cruz Roja, the organisation currently in charge of implementing individual efforts.

  1. Characterizing the Cool KOIs. VI. H- and K-band Spectra of Kepler M Dwarf Planet-candidate Hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, Philip S.; Becker, Juliette; Feiden, Gregory A.; Rojas-Ayala, Bárbara; Vanderburg, Andrew; Price, Ellen M.; Thorp, Rachel; Law, Nicholas M.; Riddle, Reed; Baranec, Christoph; Hamren, Katherine; Schlawin, Everett; Covey, Kevin R.; Johnson, John Asher; Lloyd, James P.

    2014-07-01

    We present H- and K-band spectra for late-type Kepler Objects of Interest (the "Cool KOIs"): low-mass stars with transiting-planet candidates discovered by NASA's Kepler Mission that are listed on the NASA Exoplanet Archive. We acquired spectra of 103 Cool KOIs and used the indices and calibrations of Rojas-Ayala et al. to determine their spectral types, stellar effective temperatures, and metallicities, significantly augmenting previously published values. We interpolate our measured effective temperatures and metallicities onto evolutionary isochrones to determine stellar masses, radii, luminosities, and distances, assuming the stars have settled onto the main sequence. As a choice of isochrones, we use a new suite of Dartmouth predictions that reliably include mid-to-late M dwarf stars. We identify five M4V stars: KOI-961 (confirmed as Kepler 42), KOI-2704, KOI-2842, KOI-4290, and the secondary component to visual binary KOI-1725, which we call KOI-1725 B. We also identify a peculiar star, KOI-3497, which has Na and Ca lines consistent with a dwarf star but CO lines consistent with a giant. Visible-wavelength adaptive optics imaging reveals two objects within a 1 arcsec diameter; however, the objects' colors are peculiar. The spectra and properties presented in this paper serve as a resource for prioritizing follow-up observations and planet validation efforts for the Cool KOIs and are all available for download online using the "data behind the figure" feature.

  2. The β-expansion of periodic dressed chain models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa Silva, E. V.; de Souza, S. M.; Thomaz, M. T.

    2011-09-01

    We revisit the method of calculating the β-expansion of the Helmholtz free energy of any one-dimensional (1D) Hamiltonian with invariance under space translations, presented in [O. Rojas, S.M. de Souza, M.T. Thomaz, J. Math. Phys. 43 (2002) 1390], extending this method to 1-D Hamiltonians that are invariant under translations along super-sites (sequences of l sites). The method is applicable, for instance, to spin models and bosonic/fermionic versions of Hubbard models, either quantum or classical. As an example, we focus on the staggered spin-S Ising model in the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field, comparing some of its thermodynamic functions to those of the standard Ising model. We show that for arbitrary values of spin (S∈{1,3/2,2,…}) but distinct values of the coupling constant and the magnetic field, the specific heat and the z-component of the staggered and usual magnetizations can be well approximated by their respective thermodynamic function of the spin-1/2 models in a suitable interval of temperature. These approximations are valid for the standard Ising model as well as for the staggered model, the thermodynamics of which are known exactly.

  3. Population structure of eleven Spanish ovine breeds and detection of selective sweeps with BayeScan and hapFLK.

    PubMed

    Manunza, A; Cardoso, T F; Noce, A; Martínez, A; Pons, A; Bermejo, L A; Landi, V; Sànchez, A; Jordana, J; Delgado, J V; Adán, S; Capote, J; Vidal, O; Ugarte, E; Arranz, J J; Calvo, J H; Casellas, J; Amills, M

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the current work were to analyse the population structure of 11 Spanish ovine breeds and to detect genomic regions that may have been targeted by selection. A total of 141 individuals were genotyped with the Infinium 50 K Ovine SNP BeadChip (Illumina). We combined this dataset with Spanish ovine data previously reported by the International Sheep Genomics Consortium (N = 229). Multidimensional scaling and Admixture analyses revealed that Canaria de Pelo and, to a lesser extent, Roja Mallorquina, Latxa and Churra are clearly differentiated populations, while the remaining seven breeds (Ojalada, Castellana, Gallega, Xisqueta, Ripollesa, Rasa Aragonesa and Segureña) share a similar genetic background. Performance of a genome scan with BayeScan and hapFLK allowed us identifying three genomic regions that are consistently detected with both methods i.e. Oar3 (150-154 Mb), Oar6 (4-49 Mb) and Oar13 (68-74 Mb). Neighbor-joining trees based on polymorphisms mapping to these three selective sweeps did not show a clustering of breeds according to their predominant productive specialization (except the local tree based on Oar13 SNPs). Such cryptic signatures of selection have been also found in the bovine genome, posing a considerable challenge to understand the biological consequences of artificial selection. PMID:27272025

  4. Colour changes by laser irradiation of reddish building limestones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossi, C. M.; Benavente, D.

    2016-10-01

    We have used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as a novel method to investigate the causes of colour changes in a reddish limestone under irradiation by a Q-switched Nd:YAG 1064 nm laser. We irradiated clean dry and wet surfaces of Pidramuelle Roja, a building stone frequently used in the Asturian heritage, at fluences ranging from 0.12 to 1.47 J cm-2. We measured the colour coordinates and undertook XPS analysis of the state of oxidation of iron both before and after irradiation. Visible colour changes and potential aesthetic damage occurred on dry surfaces from a fluence of 0.31 J cm-2, with the stone showing a greening effect and very intense darkening. The colour change on dry surfaces was considerably higher than on wet surfaces, which at the highest fluence (1.47 J cm-2) was also above the human visual detection threshold. The use of XPS demonstrated that the change in colour (chroma and hue) is associated with a reduction in the iron oxidation state on dry surfaces during laser irradiation. This points out to a potential routinary use of XPS to analyse causes of colour changes during laser cleaning in other types of coloured building stones.

  5. Professional burnout, stress and job satisfaction of nursing staff at a university hospital1

    PubMed Central

    Portero de la Cruz, Silvia; Vaquero Abellán, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to describe the social and work characteristics of the nursing staff at a tertiary hospital in the Public Health Service of Andalucía, to assess the degree of professional professional burnout and job satisfaction of those professionals and to study the possible relation between the professional burnout variables and the stress and job satisfaction levels on the one hand and social and employment variables on the other. METHOD: descriptive and cross-sectional study in a sample of 258 baccalaureate and auxiliary nurses. As research instruments, an original and specific questionnaire was used to collect social and employment variables, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Nursing Stress Scale and the Font-Roja questionnaire. Descriptive, inferential statistics and multivariate analysis were applied. RESULTS: average scores were found for professional stress and satisfaction, corresponding to 44,23 and 65,46 points, respectively. As regards professional burnout, an average score was found on the emotional exhaustion subscale; a high score for depersonalization and a low score for professional accomplishment. Studies are needed to identify the scores on these subscales in health organizations and to produce knowledge on their interrelations. PMID:26155012

  6. The Impact of Regional Differences on Elementary School Teachers' Attitudes towards Their Students' Use of Code Switching in a South Texas School District (El impacto de las diferencias regionales en las actitudes de docentes de primaria respecto a la alternancia de códigos por parte de los estudiantes en un distrito escolar del sur de Texas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nava Gómez, Guadalupe Nancy; García, Hilda

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigating whether the teachers' geographical distribution influences their attitudes towards their students' use of code switching. The study was guided by the following research question: Are there differences between teachers' opinions of the north elementary schools and teachers' opinions of the…

  7. Evaluation de la qualité de modèles numériques de terrain dérivés par interférométrieEvaluación de la calidad de modelos digitales de elevación derivados por interferometría

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gens, Rüdiger

    One of the most important uses of SAR interferometry is in the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs). However, a standard procedure for quality estimation of DEMs does not exist. This paper proposes a method of quality estimation using an adapted Monte Carlo simulation, which has the advantage that it could be used in areas where appropriate reference DEMs are not available. This paper also addresses interferometric processing, with special emphasis on the influence of the input parameters. Practical implementation of the proposed technique is shown on a data set from Lower Saxony in Germany. The error map generated, which is a measure of the quality of the DEM, is also presented. For further analysis of the critical aspects of quality, a reference DEM has also been used.

  8. Reading with Children: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = La lectura con los ninos: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  9. Lo que los educadores necesitan saber sobre...El agrupamiento por habilidad [y] La compactacion del curriculum [y] Los alumnos dotados y el aprendizaje cooperativo [y] La actividad tutoral. Guias practica (What Educators Need To Know about...Ability Grouping [and] Curriculum Compacting [and] Gifted Students and Cooperative Learning [and] Mentoring. Practitioners' Guides).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del, Ed.

    These four pamphlets in Spanish offer guidelines supported by theory-driven quality research that is problem-based, practice-relevant, and consumer-oriented. Each pamphlet has a section summarizing research from the literature or topic notes as well as implications for the classroom. The first guide offers principles for teachers concerning the…

  10. Análisis clínico y epidemiológico de los accidentes por mordeduras de serpientes del género Bothrops en Venezuela [A clinical and epidemiological analysis of accidental bites by snakes of the genus Bothrops in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Acosta, A; Uzcategui, W; Azuaje, R; Aguilar, I; Girón, M E

    2000-01-01

    Clinical register of 60 patients bitten by Bothrops snake who assisted at Leopoldo Manrique Hospital and the Institute of Tropical Medicine (HLM-IMT) in Caracas during 1996-1997 were analysed. The accident was more frequent in males (45/75%). In 32 cases (53.3%) the snake was classified and 26 were Bothrops lanceolatus, 4 Bothrops venezuelensis and 2 Bothrops atrox. Anatomic regions more frequent bitten were superior members (40/66.6%): hands (36/60%), forearm (2/3.3%), elbow (1/1.6%) and arm (1/1.6%). On inferior members (20/33.3%): legs (6/10%), feet (10/16.7%), ankle (2/3.3%), and the hip (2:3.3%). The most frequent clinical manifestations in moderate and severe cases (33 patient) were pain (100%), oedema (98%), ecchymosis (76%), blisters (20%), necrosis (12%), abscess (6%) bleeding (19%), heart failure (1/1.6%), renal failure (1/1.6%). The blood clotting was evaluated in 60 (100%) cases and it was altered in 33 (55%) patients. No deaths were recorded. PMID:11107900

  11. Words All around Us: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Palabras y palabras a nuestro alrededor: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  12. Art and Writing: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Arte y escritura: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  13. Palabras del Secretario de Educacion Publica en la reunion anual de directores de education federal e inspectores generales en los estados que se rigen por el calendario "A". (Address by the Minister of Education at the Annual Meeting of Directors of Federal Education and Inspectors General in Calendar "A" States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanez, Agustin

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a speech by the Mexican Minister of Education at an annual educators meeting. The Minister dealt with the administration and quality of education, the role of the directors and the duties towards them of the inspectors, and the main features of the reform of national…

  14. Measurement of the branching ratio for the doubly cabibbo suppressed decay D++ K-K+K+; Medida da razao de ramificacao do Decaimento D++ K-K+K+ duplamente suprimido por cabibbo

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Carvalho, Hendly da

    1997-07-01

    In this thesis, we performed a study for the decay modes D++ K-K+K+ and D+s+ K-K+K+, using the data collected by the E791, a hadroproduction of charm experiment at Fermilab. The D++ K-K+K+ decay is doubly Cabibbo suppressed while the D+s+ K-K+K+ decay is singly Cabibbo suppressed. We found 11.6 +- 3.9 events in the D+ mass region and 8.9 +- 3.3 in the D+s mass region. The D++ K-K+K+ branching ratio is measured to be (3.7 +- 1.3 +- 0.6) x 10-4 while the D++ K-K+K+ branching ratio relative to D+s+ K-K+K+ is measured to be (4.2 +- 1.5 +- 0.6) x 10-2.

  15. Por que no dejar a los estudiantes con habilidad superior comenzar la escuela en enero? Estudio de la Compactaction del Curriculum. Monografia Investigativa 94401 (Why Not Let High Ability Students Start School in January? The Curriculum Compacting Study. Research Monograph 94401).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Sally M.; And Others

    This report presents an executive summary, in Spanish, of a study which examined the effects of curriculum compacting, a curriculum modification technique for gifted and talented students. The study involved approximately 436 elementary teachers and 783 students in 27 school districts throughout the United States. The study was designed to…

  16. Los Hispanos: Problemas y Oportunidades. Resumen de la Actual Situacion Demografica, Economica, Social y Politica de los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos y de las Iniciativas Tomadas por la Fundacion Ford Para Hacer Frente a las Necesidades de esta Poblacion en Aumento y Determinar sus Efectos Sobre la Sociedad Estadounidense. Documento de Trabajo de la Fundacion Ford, No. 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Hispanic population's growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census revealed 14.6 million Hispanics: 60% Mexican American; 14% Puerto Rican; 6% Cuban, and 20% Other. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing and is characterized by diversity; rapid growth…

  17. Análisis clínico y epidemiológico de los accidentes por mordeduras de serpientes del género Bothrops en Venezuela [A clinical and epidemiological analysis of accidental bites by snakes of the genus Bothrops in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Acosta, A; Uzcategui, W; Azuaje, R; Aguilar, I; Girón, M E

    2000-01-01

    Clinical register of 60 patients bitten by Bothrops snake who assisted at Leopoldo Manrique Hospital and the Institute of Tropical Medicine (HLM-IMT) in Caracas during 1996-1997 were analysed. The accident was more frequent in males (45/75%). In 32 cases (53.3%) the snake was classified and 26 were Bothrops lanceolatus, 4 Bothrops venezuelensis and 2 Bothrops atrox. Anatomic regions more frequent bitten were superior members (40/66.6%): hands (36/60%), forearm (2/3.3%), elbow (1/1.6%) and arm (1/1.6%). On inferior members (20/33.3%): legs (6/10%), feet (10/16.7%), ankle (2/3.3%), and the hip (2:3.3%). The most frequent clinical manifestations in moderate and severe cases (33 patient) were pain (100%), oedema (98%), ecchymosis (76%), blisters (20%), necrosis (12%), abscess (6%) bleeding (19%), heart failure (1/1.6%), renal failure (1/1.6%). The blood clotting was evaluated in 60 (100%) cases and it was altered in 33 (55%) patients. No deaths were recorded.

  18. Mitigation of Disagreement in Peer Review among L2 Learners and Native Speakers in a College Writing Class (Mitigación del Impacto de las Opiniones de Desacuerdo en el Proceso de Revisión por Pares entre Estudiantes de una Segunda Lengua y Hablantes Nativos en una Clase de Escritura a Nivel Universitario)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christoffersen, Katherine O'Donnell

    2015-01-01

    Peer review is now a commonplace practice in process-oriented writing instruction. A crucial aspect of peer review is assessing another classmate's work, which encompasses the act of disagreement. Given its prevalence in the classroom, it is necessary to analyze how L2 learners mitigate disagreement in the context of peer review with other L2…

  19. Talking, Singing, Rhyming: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Hablar, cantar, recitar: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  20. A Visit to the Library: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Una visita a la biblioteca: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions for parents of 3- to…

  1. For a Child, Life is a Creative Adventure: Supporting Development and Learning through Art, Music, Movement, and Dialogue. A Guide for Parents and Professionals. = Para los ninos, la vida es una aventura creativa: Como estimular el desarrollo y el aprendizaje por medio de las artes visuales, la musica, el movimiento y el dialogo. Guia para padres de familia y profesionales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elena

    Recognizing that creativity facilitates children's learning and development, the Head Start Program Performance Standards require Head Start programs to include opportunities for creative self-expression. This guide with accompanying videotape, both in English- and Spanish- language versions, encourages and assists adults to support children's…

  2. Exploring with Technology: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Exploremos con tecnologia: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides computer literacy activities for…

  3. Identification of six novel P450 oxidoreductase missense variants in Ashkenazi and Moroccan Jewish populations

    PubMed Central

    Tomková, Mária; Marohnic, Christopher C; Gurwitz, David; Šeda, Ondřej; Masters, Bettie Sue Siler; Martásek, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Background The enzyme NADPH–P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the main electron donor to all microsomal CYPs. The possible contribution of common POR variants to inter- and intra-individual variability in drug metabolism is of great pharmacogenetic interest. Aim To search for POR polymorphic alleles and estimate their frequencies in a Jewish population. Materials & methods We analyzed the POR gene in 301 Ashkenazi and Moroccan Jews. Results A total of 30 POR SNPs were identified, nine in the noncoding regions and 21 in the protein-coding regions (ten synonymous, 11 missense). Six of these missense variants are previously undescribed (S102P, V164M, V191M, D344N, E398A and D648N). Conclusion The data collected in this study on missense POR SNPs, interpreted in light of the crystallographic structure of human POR, indicate that some POR missense variants may be potential biomarkers for future POR pharmacogenetic screening. PMID:22462747

  4. Identification of NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases A and B: a branched pathway for light-dependent chlorophyll biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, G A; Runge, S; Frick, G; Sperling, U; Apel, K

    1995-01-01

    Illumination releases the arrest in chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis in etiolated angiosperm seedlings through the enzymatic photoreduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide), the first light-dependent step in chloroplast biogenesis. NADPH: Pchlide oxidoreductase (POR, EC 1.3.1.33), a nuclear-encoded plastid-localized enzyme, mediates this unique photoreduction. Paradoxically, light also triggers a drastic decrease in the amounts of POR activity and protein before the Chl accumulation rate reaches its maximum during greening. While investigating this seeming contradiction, we identified two distinct Arabidopsis thaliana genes encoding POR, in contrast to previous reports of only one gene in angiosperms. The genes, designated PorA and PorB, by analogy to the principal members of the phytochrome photoreceptor gene family, display dramatically different patterns of light and developmental regulation. PorA mRNA disappears within the first 4 h of greening, whereas PorB mRNA persists even after 16 h of illumination, mirroring the behavior of two distinct POR protein species. Experiments designed to help define the functions of POR A and POR B demonstrate exclusive expression of PorA in young seedlings and of PorB both in seedlings and in adult plants. Accordingly, we propose the existence of a branched light-dependent Chl biosynthesis pathway in which POR A performs a specialized function restricted to the initial stages of greening and POR B maintains Chl levels throughout angiosperm development. PMID:7659751

  5. Differential regulation of duplicate light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hunsperger, Heather M.; Ford, Christopher J.; Miller, James S.; Cattolico, Rose Ann; Ianora, Adrianna

    2016-07-01

    Diatoms (Bacilliariophyceae) encode two light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (POR1 and POR2) that catalyze the penultimate step of chlorophyll biosynthesis in the light. Algae live in dynamic environments whose changing light levels induce photoacclimative metabolic shifts, including altered cellular chlorophyll levels. We hypothesized that the two POR proteins may be differentially adaptive under varying light conditions. Using the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a test system, differences in POR protein abundance and por gene expression were examined when this organism was grown on an alternating light:dark cycles at different irradiances; exposed to continuous light; and challenged by a significant decrease in light availability.more » As a result, for cultures maintained on a 12h light: 12h dark photoperiod at 200μEm–2 s–1 (200L/D), both por genes were up-regulated during the light and down-regulated in the dark, though por1 transcript abundance rose and fell earlier than that of por2. Little concordance occurred between por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance. In contrast, por2 mRNA and POR2 protein abundances followed similar diurnal patterns. When 200L/D P. tricornutum cultures were transferred to continuous light (200L/L), the diurnal regulatory pattern of por1 mRNA abundance but not of por2 was disrupted, and POR1 but not POR2 protein abundance dropped steeply. Under 1200μEm–2 s–1 (1200L/D), both por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance displayed diurnal oscillations. A compromised diel por2 mRNA response under 1200L/D did not impact the oscillation in POR2 abundance. When cells grown at 1200L/D were then shifted to 50μEm–2 s–1 (50L/D), por1 and por2 mRNA levels decreased swiftly but briefly upon light reduction. Thereafter, POR1 but not POR2 protein levels rose significantly in response to this light stepdown.« less

  6. Correlation of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase Expression with the Expression of 10 Isoforms of Cytochrome P450 in Human Liver

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Li, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Jia-Yu; Liu, Ting-Ting; Wang, Ping; Fang, Yan; Zhou, Jun; Cui, Ming-Zhu; Gao, Na; Tian, Xin; Gao, Jie; Wen, Qiang; Jia, Lin-Jing

    2016-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) provides electrons for all microsomal cytochromes P450 (P450s) and plays an indispensable role in drug metabolism catalyzed by this family of enzymes. We evaluated 100 human liver samples and found that POR protein content varied 12.8-fold, from 12.59 to 160.97 pmol/mg, with a median value of 67.99 pmol/mg; POR mRNA expression varied by 26.4-fold. POR activity was less variable with a median value of 56.05 nmol/min per milligram. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption clearly influenced POR activity. Liver samples with a 2286822 TT genotype had significantly higher POR mRNA expression than samples with CT genotype. Homozygous carriers of POR2286822C>T, 2286823G>A, and 3823884A>C had significantly lower POR protein levels compared with the corresponding heterozygous carriers. Liver samples from individuals homozygous at 286823G>A, 1135612A>G, and 10954732G>A generally had lower POR activity levels than those from heterozygous or wild-type samples, whereas the common variant POR*28 significantly increased POR activity. There was a strong association between POR and the expression of P450 isoforms at the mRNA and protein level, whereas the relationship at the activity level, as well as the effect of POR protein content on P450 activity, was less pronounced. POR transcription was strongly correlated with both hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha and pregnane X receptor mRNA levels. In conclusion, we have elucidated some potentially important correlations between POR single-nucleotide polymorphisms and POR expression in the Chinese population and have developed a database that correlates POR expression with the expression and activity of 10 P450s important in drug metabolism. PMID:27271371

  7. Molecular insights into the evolution of the family Bovidae: a nuclear DNA perspective.

    PubMed

    Matthee, C A; Davis, S K

    2001-07-01

    The evolutionary history of the family Bovidae remains controversial despite past comprehensive morphological and genetic investigations. In an effort to resolve some of the systematic uncertainties within the group, a combined molecular phylogeny was constructed based on four independent nuclear DNA markers (2,573 characters) and three mitochondrial DNA genes (1,690 characters) for 34 bovid taxa representing all seven of the currently recognized bovid subfamilies. The nuclear DNA fragments were analyzed separately and in combination after partition homogeneity tests were performed. There was no significant rate heterogeneity among lineages, and retention index values indicated the general absence of homoplasy in the nuclear DNA data. The conservative nuclear DNA data were remarkably effective in resolving associations among bovid subfamilies, which had a rapid radiation dating back to approximately 23 MYA. All analyses supported the monophyly of the Bovinae (cow, nilgai, and kudu clade) as a sister lineage to the remaining bovid subfamilies, and the data convincingly suggest that the subfamilies Alcelaphinae (hartebeest, tsessebe, and wildebeest group) and Hippotraginae (roan, sable, and gemsbok clade) share a close evolutionary relationship and together form a sister clade to the more primitive Caprinae (represented by sheep, goat, and muskox). The problematic Reduncinae (waterbuck, reedbuck) seem to be the earliest-diverging group of the Caprinae/Alcelaphinae/Hippotraginae clade, whereas the Antilopinae (gazelle and dwarf antelope clade) were always polyphyletic. The sequence data suggest that the initial diversification of the Bovidae took place in Eurasia and that lineages such as the Cephalophinae and other enigmatic taxa (impala, suni, and klipspringer) most likely originated, more or less contemporaneously, in Africa.

  8. Comparative chromosome painting of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) and saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis) karyotypes with human and dromedary camel probes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pronghorn (Antilocapridae, 2n = 58) and saola (Bovidae, 2n = 50) are members of Pecora, a highly diversified group of even-toed hoofed mammals. Karyotypes of these species were not involved in chromosome painting studies despite their intriguing phylogenetic positions in Pecora. Results To trace the chromosome evolution during very fast radiation of main families from the common Pecoran ancestor, high-resolution comparative chromosome maps of pronghorn and saola with human (HSA) and dromedary camel (CDR) painting probes were established. The human and dromedary camel painting probes revealed 50 and 64 conserved segments respectively in the pronghorn genome, while 51 and 63 conserved segments respectively in the saola genome. Integrative analysis with published comparative maps showed that inversions in chromosomes homologous to CDR19/35/19 (HSA 10/20/10), CDR12/34/12 (HSA12/22/12/22), CDR10/33/10 (HSA 11) are present in representatives of all five living Pecoran families. The pronghorn karyotype could have formed from a putative 2n = 58 Pecoran ancestral karyotype by one fission and one fusion and that the saola karyotype differs from the presumed 2n = 60 bovid ancestral karyotype (2n = 60) by five fusions. Conclusion The establishment of high-resolution comparative maps for pronghorn and saola has shed some new insights into the putative ancestral karyotype, chromosomal evolution and phylogenic relationships in Pecora. No cytogenetic signature rearrangements were found that could unite the Antilocapridae with Giraffidae or with any other Pecoran families. Our data on the saola support a separate position of Pseudorigyna subtribe rather than its affinity to either Bovina or Bubalina, but the saola phylogenetic position within Bovidae remains unresolved. PMID:24923361

  9. Molecular insights into the evolution of the family Bovidae: a nuclear DNA perspective.

    PubMed

    Matthee, C A; Davis, S K

    2001-07-01

    The evolutionary history of the family Bovidae remains controversial despite past comprehensive morphological and genetic investigations. In an effort to resolve some of the systematic uncertainties within the group, a combined molecular phylogeny was constructed based on four independent nuclear DNA markers (2,573 characters) and three mitochondrial DNA genes (1,690 characters) for 34 bovid taxa representing all seven of the currently recognized bovid subfamilies. The nuclear DNA fragments were analyzed separately and in combination after partition homogeneity tests were performed. There was no significant rate heterogeneity among lineages, and retention index values indicated the general absence of homoplasy in the nuclear DNA data. The conservative nuclear DNA data were remarkably effective in resolving associations among bovid subfamilies, which had a rapid radiation dating back to approximately 23 MYA. All analyses supported the monophyly of the Bovinae (cow, nilgai, and kudu clade) as a sister lineage to the remaining bovid subfamilies, and the data convincingly suggest that the subfamilies Alcelaphinae (hartebeest, tsessebe, and wildebeest group) and Hippotraginae (roan, sable, and gemsbok clade) share a close evolutionary relationship and together form a sister clade to the more primitive Caprinae (represented by sheep, goat, and muskox). The problematic Reduncinae (waterbuck, reedbuck) seem to be the earliest-diverging group of the Caprinae/Alcelaphinae/Hippotraginae clade, whereas the Antilopinae (gazelle and dwarf antelope clade) were always polyphyletic. The sequence data suggest that the initial diversification of the Bovidae took place in Eurasia and that lineages such as the Cephalophinae and other enigmatic taxa (impala, suni, and klipspringer) most likely originated, more or less contemporaneously, in Africa. PMID:11420362

  10. Seminal-type ribonuclease genes in ruminants, sequence conservation without protein expression?

    PubMed

    Kleineidam, R G; Jekel, P A; Beintema, J J; Situmorang, P

    1999-04-29

    Bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS-RNase) is an interesting enzyme both for functional and structural reasons. The enzyme is the product of a gene duplication that occurred in an ancestral ruminant. It is possible to demonstrate the presence of seminal-type genes in all other investigated ruminant species, but they are not expressed and show features of pseudogenes. In this paper we report the determination of two pancreatic and one seminal-type ribonuclease gene sequences of swamp-type water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). The two pancreatic sequences encode proteins with identical amino acid sequences as previously determined for the enzymes isolated from swamp-type and river-type water buffalo, respectively. The seminal-type sequence has no pseudogene features and codes for an enzyme with no unusual features compared with the active bovine enzyme, except for the replacement of one of the cysteines which takes part in the two intersubunit disulfide bridges. However, Western blotting demonstrates the presence of only small amounts of the pancreatic enzymes in water buffalo semen, suggesting that also in this species the seminal-type sequence is not expressed. But it is still possible that the gene is expressed somewhere else in the body or during development. Reconstruction of seminal-type ribonuclease sequences in ancestors of Bovinae and Bovidae indicates no serious abnormalities in the encoded proteins and leads us to the hypothesis that the ruminant seminal-type ribonuclease gene has not come to expression during most of its evolutionary history, but did not exhibit a high evolutionary rate that is generally observed in pseudogenes.

  11. PREFACE: 21st Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XXI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, J. Albino

    2014-04-01

    The Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES) started in Caracas-Venezuela, and over time the symposia have taken place in 9 different Latin American countries. The last five events took place in Mérida-Venezuela (2002), Havana-Cuba (2004), Puebla-Mexico (2006), Puerto Iguazú-Argentina (2008) and Maragogi-Brazil (2011). During the last years, in the different SLAFES editions, the aim has been to bring together researches from Latina America and invite renowned scientists from around the world to a unique forum to discuss the latest developments regarding Solid state Physics. The 21st Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XXI) was held in Villa de Leyva-Colombia, from September 30 to October 04, 2013. The 21st SLAFES version featured the participation of experts in various areas of Solid State Physics from countries such as Belgium, Germany, United States, Spain, Ireland, Chile, Argentina and Brazil, had 270 submitted works and was attended by 140 researchers. The development of this event was made possible by financial support from the Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Universidad del Norte-CO, Universidad de Magdalena-CO, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco-BR and the Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exatas, Naturales y Física. Editors Professor J Albino Aguiar Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: albino@df.ufpe.br Professor Jairo Roa-Rojas Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales Departamento de Física Universidad Nacional de Colombia A.A. 5997 Bogotá DC, Colombia e-mail: jroar@unal.edu.co Professor Carlos Arturo Parra Vargas Grupo Física de Materiales Escuela de Física Universidad Padagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia Tunja Colombia e-mail: carlos.parra@uptc.edu.co Professor David A Land\\'i nez Téllez Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales Departamento de Física Universidad Nacional de Colombia A.A. 5997 Bogotá DC

  12. Aqueducts and geoglyphs : the response of Ancient Nasca to water shortages in the desert of Atacama (Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, Nicola; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2016-04-01

    The desert of Atacama is a plateau in South America, covering a 1,000-kilometre strip of land on the Pacific coast, west of the Andes mountains, between Chile and Peru. Due to the confluence of a cold ocean current (the Humboldt Current) along with other climatic factors, connected to the particular topography and geomorphology of the region, Atacama desert is one of the most arid areas of the world. In particular, in Nasca region (Southern Peru) the lack of water was (and still is) due to the following causes: (i) the scarce pluvial precipitations and the (ii) high infiltration capacity, and the consequent yearly significant reduction of the surface water (Schreiber & Lancho Rojas 2009). Over the millennia long periods of drought occurred and frequently the lack of water was persistent for several decades. Despite the arid and extreme nature of the environment, this region was populated by important civilizations, such as Paracas and Nasca, which flourished in the Early Intermediate period (200 BCE-500 AD) (Silvermann & Proulx 2002). In particular the Nasca civilization is well-known for its refined and colourful pottery, characterized by a rich icononographic repertory, and, above all, by the huge and mysterious geoglyphs drawn on the arid plateaus of the Rio Grande de Nasca Basin. In order to practice agriculture, the Nasca developed adequate strategies to cope with hostile environmental factors and water scarcity, building a very efficient aqueduct system. They were aided by the fact that underground water was likely enough close to the surface and accessible by constructing wells and underground aqueducts, known with quechua name of puquios (Schreiber & Lancho Rojas 2009; Lasaponara & Masini 2012a; 2012b) The effectiveness of the techniques of hydraulic engineering depended on the climate and the weather events that sometimes underwent drastic changes, as results of the cyclical phenomenon of El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO). Hence the

  13. Application of CarboSOIL model to predict the effects of climate change on soil organic carbon stocks in agro-silvo-pastoral Mediterranean management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Doro, Luca; Ledda, Luigi; Francaviglia, Rosa

    2014-05-01

    CarboSOIL is an empirical model based on regression techniques and developed to predict soil organic carbon contents (SOC) at standard soil depths of 0-25, 25-50 and 50-75 cm (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2013). The model was applied to a study area of north-eastern Sardinia (Italy) (40° 46'N, 9° 10'E, mean altitude 285 m a.s.l.), characterized by extensive agro-silvo-pastoral systems which are typical of similar areas of the Mediterranean basin (e.g. the Iberian peninsula). The area has the same soil type (Haplic Endoleptic Cambisols, Dystric according to WRB), while cork oak forest (Quercus suber L.) is the potential native vegetation which has been converted to managed land with pastures and vineyards in recent years (Lagomarsino et al., 2011; Francaviglia et al., 2012; Bagella et al, 2013; Francaviglia et al., 2014). Six land uses with different levels of cropping intensification were compared: Tilled vineyards (TV); No-tilled grassed vineyards (GV); Hay crop (HC); Pasture (PA); Cork oak forest (CO) and Semi-natural systems (SN). The HC land use includes oats, Italian ryegrass and annual clovers or vetch for 5 years and intercropped by spontaneous herbaceous vegetation in the sixth year. The PA land use is 5 years of spontaneous herbaceous vegetation, and one year of intercropping with oats, Italian ryegrass and annual clovers or vetch cultivated as a hay crop. The SN land use (scrublands, Mediterranean maquis and Helichrysum meadows) arise from the natural re-vegetation of former vineyards which have been set-aside probably due to the low grape yields and the high cost of modern tillage equipment. Both PA and HC are grazed for some months during the year, and include scattered cork-oak trees, which are key components of the 'Dehesa'-type landscape (grazing system with Quercus L.) typical of this area of Sardinia and other areas of southern Mediterranean Europe. Dehesas are often converted to more profitable land uses such as vineyards (Francaviglia et al., 2012; Muñoz-Rojas

  14. Effect of the intake of liquids rich in polyphenols on blood pressure and fat liver deposition in rats submitted to high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Palmisciano Bedê, Teresa; Pascoal, Ana Cláudia; Hauaji Facó, Lucas; de Salvo Castro, Eduardo; Mattoso, Vânia; Furtado Dias, Juliana; Blondet de Azeredo, Vilma

    2015-06-01

    Introducción: en busca de una mejor calidad de vida, crece el número de estudios sobre alimentos funcionales y la prevención de enfermedades. Destacan el jugo de uva roja (JU) y el vino tinto (VT), que son ricos en polifenoles, y tienen efecto antioxidante y antiinflamatorio. Objetivo: evaluar el efecto de la ingesta de JU, VT y solución de resveratrol (SR) sobre la presión arterial y la deposición de grasa hepática en ratas alimentadas con una dieta rica en grasas. Métodos: durante 60 días, 50 adultos de Rattus norvegicus Wistar Albino fueron divididos en grupos: control (GC) - dieta equilibrada y hiperlipídica (GH), vino tinto (GV), jugo de uva (JV) y resveratrol (GR) - dieta rica en grasas. El alimento y el agua se ofrecieron ad libttum a todos los grupos. JU, VT y SR se ofrecen diariamente a la GS, GV y GR, respectivamente. Se midió la presión arterial en la cola mediante manguito inflable. Los animales fueron anestesiados y sacrificados y se les extirpó el hígado, que fue pesado y del cual se extrajo la grasa con el extractor Soxhlet. Resultados: no hubo diferencia en la ganancia de peso, consumo de alimento, peso del hígado y presión arterial diastólica entre los grupos. Sin embargo, la presión arterial sistólica (mmHg) y la concentración de grasa en el hígado (g%) fueron menores (p.

  15. Effect of base cavities on the stability of the wake behind slender blunt-based axisymmetric bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanmiguel-Rojas, E.; Jiménez-González, J. I.; Bohorquez, P.; Pawlak, G.; Martínez-Bazán, C.

    2011-11-01

    We extend our previous research on the instability properties of the laminar incompressible flow of density ρ and viscosity μ, which develops behind a cylindrical body with a rounded nose and length-to-diameter ratio L/D = 2, aligned with a free-stream of velocity w∞ [E. Sanmiguel-Rojas et al., Phys. Fluids 21, 114102 (2009); P. Bohorquez et al., J. Fluid Mech. 676, 110 (2011)]. In particular, we analyze the effects of a cylindrical base cavity of length h and diameter Dc on both critical Reynolds number, Rec = ρw∞D/μ, and drag coefficient, CD, combining experiments, three-dimensional direct numerical simulations, and global linear stability analyses. The direct numerical simulations and the global stability results predict with precision the stabilizing effect of the cavity on the stationary, three-dimensional bifurcation in the wake as h/D increases. In fact, it is shown that, for a given value of Dc/D, the critical Reynolds number for the steady bifurcation, Recs, increases monotonically as h/D increases, reaching an asymptotic value which depends on Dc/D, at h/D ≈ 0.7. Likewise, for a fixed value of h/D, we have studied the effect of the cavity diameter Dc/D on the critical Reynolds number. No effect on Recs is observed over the range 0≤Dc/D ≲0.6, but Recs shows a monotonic growth for 0.6≲Dc/D <1. On the other hand, for steady flows, the drag coefficient decreases with the length of the cavity reaching an asymptotic minimum for h /D>rsim0.5 and Dc/D → 1. Similar behavior with the cavity length has been observed experimentally and numerically for the second, oscillatory bifurcation, and its associated critical Reynolds number, Reco.

  16. Lifetime of oil drops pressed by buoyancy against a planar interface: large drops.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Clara; García-Sucre, Máximo; Urbina-Villalba, Germán

    2010-11-01

    In a previous report [C. Rojas, G. Urbina-Villalba, and M. García-Sucre, Phys. Rev. E 81, 016302 (2010)] it was shown that emulsion stability simulations are able to reproduce the lifetime of micrometer-size drops of hexadecane pressed by buoyancy against a planar water-hexadecane interface. It was confirmed that small drops (r(i)< 10 μm) stabilized with β -casein behave as nondeformable particles, moving with a combination of Stokes and Taylor tensors as they approach the interface. Here, a similar methodology is used to parametrize the potential of interaction of drops of soybean oil stabilized with bovine serum albumin. The potential obtained is then employed to study the lifetime of deformable drops in the range 10 ≤ r(i) ≤ 1000 μm . It is established that the average lifetime of these drops can be adequately replicated using the model of truncated spheres. However, the results depend sensibly on the expressions of the initial distance of deformation and the maximum film radius used in the calculations. The set of equations adequate for large drops is not satisfactory for medium-size drops (10 ≤ r(i) ≤ 100 μm) , and vice versa. In the case of large particles, the increase in the interfacial area as a consequence of the deformation of the drops generates a very large repulsive barrier which opposes coalescence. Nevertheless, the buoyancy force prevails. As a consequence, it is the hydrodynamic tensor of the drops which determine the characteristic behavior of the lifetime as a function of the particle size. While the average values of the coalescence time of the drops can be justified by the mechanism of film thinning, the scattering of the experimental data of large drops cannot be rationalized using the methodology previously described. A possible explanation of this phenomenon required elaborate simulations which combine deformable drops, capillary waves, repulsive interaction forces, and a time-dependent surfactant adsorption.

  17. Clonal Dissemination of Enterobacter cloacae Harboring blaKPC-3 in the Upper Midwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Melissa L.; Shaw, Kristin M.; Dobbins, Ginette; Snippes Vagnone, Paula M.; Harper, Jane E.; Boxrud, Dave; Lynfield, Ruth; Aziz, Maliha; Price, Lance B.; Silverstein, Kevin A. T.; Danzeisen, Jessica L.; Youmans, Bonnie; Case, Kyle; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2015-01-01

    Carbapenemase-producing, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, or CP-CRE, are an emerging threat to human and animal health, because they are resistant to many of the last-line antimicrobials available for disease treatment. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter cloacae harboring blaKPC-3 recently was reported in the upper midwestern United States and implicated in a hospital outbreak in Fargo, North Dakota (L. M. Kiedrowski, D. M. Guerrero, F. Perez, R. A. Viau, L. J. Rojas, M. F. Mojica, S. D. Rudin, A. M. Hujer, S. H. Marshall, and R. A. Bonomo, Emerg Infect Dis 20:1583–1585, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140344). In early 2009, the Minnesota Department of Health began collecting and screening CP-CRE from patients throughout Minnesota. Here, we analyzed a retrospective group of CP-E. cloacae isolates (n = 34) collected between 2009 and 2013. Whole-genome sequencing and analysis revealed that 32 of the strains were clonal, belonging to the ST171 clonal complex and differing collectively by 211 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and it revealed a dynamic clone under positive selection. The phylogeography of these strains suggests that this clone existed in eastern North Dakota and western Minnesota prior to 2009 and subsequently was identified in the Minneapolis and St. Paul metropolitan area. All strains harbored identical IncFIA-like plasmids conferring a CP-CRE phenotype and an additional IncX3 plasmid. In a single patient with multiple isolates submitted over several months, we found evidence that these plasmids had transferred from the E. cloacae clone to an Escherichia coli ST131 bacterium, rendering it as a CP-CRE. The spread of this clone throughout the upper midwestern United States is unprecedented for E. cloacae and highlights the importance of continued surveillance to identify such threats to human health. PMID:26438492

  18. Monitoring the effects of floods on submerged macrophytes in a large river.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Carles; Caiola, Nuno; Rovira, Albert; Real, Montserrat

    2012-12-01

    The lower Ebro River (Catalonia, Spain) has recently undergone a regime shift from a phytoplankton to a macrophyte-dominated system. Macrophytes started to spread at the end of the 1990s and since 2002 artificial floods (flushing flows) of short duration (1-2 days) are released from the Riba-roja dam once or twice a year in order to reduce macrophyte density. The aim of this study was to analyse the spatiotemporal trends of the submerged macrophytes in two stretches of the lower Ebro River using high-resolution hydroacoustic methods, in order to elucidate the effects of artificial floods and natural floods on its distribution and abundance. Results showed that the mean cover in the two studied stretches (Móra and Ginestar) was not reduced after a flushing flow (from 36.59% to 55.85% in Móra, and from 21.18% to 21.05% in Ginestar), but it was greatly reduced after the natural flood (down to 9.79% in Móra and 2.04% in Ginestar); surprisingly the cover increased in Móra after the artificial flood. In order to increase the efficiency of floods in controlling macrophyte spreading, the magnitude and frequency of them should largely increase, as well as the suspended sediment load, approaching as much as possible to the original flood pattern before dam construction. Hydroacoustic methods combined with geostatistics and interpolation in GIS can accurately monitor spatiotemporal trends of submerged macrophytes in large rivers. This is the first article to apply this monitoring system to submerged macrophytes in rivers.

  19. Postprandial lysophospholipid suppresses hepatic fatty acid oxidation: the molecular link between group 1B phospholipase A2 and diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, Eric D.; Pfluger, Paul T.; Cash, James G.; Kuhel, David G.; Roja, Juan C.; Magness, Daniel P.; Jandacek, Ronald J.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Hui, David Y.

    2010-01-01

    Decrease in fat catabolic rate on consuming a high-fat diet contributes to diet-induced obesity. This study used group 1B phospholipase A2 (Pla2g1b)-deficient mice, which are resistant to hyperglycemia, to test the hypothesis that Pla2g1b and its lipolytic product lysophospholipid suppress hepatic fat utilization and energy metabolism in promoting diet-induced obesity. The metabolic consequences of hypercaloric diet, including body weight gain, energy expenditure, and fatty acid oxidation, were compared between Pla2g1b+/+ and Pla2g1b−/− mice. The Pla2g1b−/− mice displayed normal energy balance when fed chow, but were resistant to obesity when challenged with a hypercaloric diet. Obesity resistance in Pla2g1b−/− mice is due to their ability to maintain elevated energy expenditure and core body temperature when subjected to hypercaloric diet, which was not observed in Pla2g1b+/+ mice. The Pla2g1b−/− mice also displayed increased postprandial hepatic fat utilization due to increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, PPAR-δ, PPAR-γ, cd36/Fat, and Ucp2, which coincided with reduced postprandial plasma lysophospholipid levels. Lysophospholipids produced by Pla2g1b hydrolysis suppress hepatic fat utilization and down-regulate energy expenditure, thereby preventing metabolically beneficial adaptation to a high-fat diet exposure in promoting diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes.—Labonté, E. D., Pfluger, P. T., Cash, J. G., Kuhel, D. G., Rojas, J. C., Magness, D. P., Jandacek, R. J., Tschöp, M. H., Hui, D. Y. Postprandial lysophospholipid suppresses hepatic fatty acid oxidation: the molecular link between group 1B phospholipase A2 and diet-induced obesity. PMID:20215528

  20. [The Great European Georg Friedrich Nicolai: physician and pacifist. Berlin, Germany, 1874 - Santiago, Chile, 1964].

    PubMed

    Cabello C, Felipe

    2013-04-01

    Georg Friedrich Nicolai (1874-1964) was a German physician and physiologist whose pacifism during the First World War led him in 1914 to cosign with W. J. Foerster, A. Einstein and O. Bueck a "Manifesto to the Europeans" against the entry of Germany into the war and the invasion of Belgium. As a result of this appeal and his strong pacifism, Nicolai lost his positions as cardiologist to the German royal family, professor at the University of Berlin and chief of laboratory at the Charite hospital also in Berlin, and was sent as a garrison physician in Graundenz, in today's Poland. There he began to write his book, The Biology of War. It managed to avoid censorship and was published in Leipzig in 1916. He was court-martialed in Danzig in 1916 but escaped to Denmark. Nicolai was reinstated to his faculty positions by the Weimar Republic after the war but was subsequently forced to emigrate from Germany to South America by the pressure of right wing student groups who accused him of being a deserter and a traitor. From 1922 to 1932 Nicolai lived in Argentina, and from 1932 until his death in 1964, in Chile. In this later country Nicolai was professor in the University of Chile and interacted with members of the Chilean intelligentsia, including the poets Vicente Huidobro, Gonzalo Rojas and Pablo Neruda. Through his friendship with Chilean psychiatrist Agustin Tellez, Nicolai influenced the development of phenomenological psychiatric school in Chile. The Chilean novelist Fernando Alegria compared him favorably with Robert J. Oppenheimer and Linus Pauling. PMID:23900377

  1. [Historical exploration of Acapulco hospitals, Guerrero, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo; Salcedo-Alvarez, Rey Arturo

    2006-01-01

    This study attempts to recount the history of the main hospitals of the port of Acapulco from colonial times until the end of the 20th century. The Augustine friars began hospital care at the end of the first part of the 16th century. Later, Bernardino Alvarez (1514?-1584), with the support of the Spanish crown, founded the first formal hospital in Acapulco called Hospital de Nuestra Señora de la Consolación (Our Lady of Consolation Hospital). During the 16th and 17th centuries, the sick were attended by friars, and by the end of the 19th century there were physicians and surgeons. From the end of the Independence War until the end of the 19th century, the port did not have any true hospital. The first degreed physicians and surgeons arrived and resided in Acapulco in 1920. In 1938, the Hospital Civil Morelos (Morelos Civil Hospital) began providing services. It was replaced by the Hospital General de Acapulco (General Hospital of Acapulco). At the fourth decade of the past century the Cruz Roja (Red Cross) was created. In 1957 the hospital services of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, Mexican Institute of Social Security), which was founded in 1963, was inaugurated with the Unidad Medico/Social (Medical and Social Unit) of the IMSS in Acapulco. This began the journey of modernity in Acapulco. In 1992, Hospital Regional Vicente Guerrero (Regional Hospital Vicente Guerrero) of the IMSS, initiated its services. In 1960, medical services for civil workers and their families were housed in the Hospital Civil Morelos (Morelos Civil Hospital). Shortly afterwards, the Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE, Security and Social Services Institute for State Employees) had their own hospital. During the 20th century, Acapulco has added other hospital services to care for members of the navy and armed forces, as well as for those persons with financial resources for private care.

  2. Interhospital spread of NDM-7-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae belonging to ST437 in Spain.

    PubMed

    Seara, Nieves; Oteo, Jesús; Carrillo, Raquel; Pérez-Blanco, Verónica; Mingorance, Jesús; Gómez-Gil, Rosa; Herruzo, Rafael; Pérez-Vázquez, María; Astray, Jenaro; García-Rodríguez, Julio; Ruiz-Velasco, Luis Moisés; Campos, José; de Burgos, Carmen; Ruiz-Carrascoso, Guillermo

    2015-08-01

    This study describes an interhospital spread of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) producing NDM-7 carbapenemase that started in December 2013 in Madrid, Spain. NDM-7-producing CRKP were isolated from urine, rectal swabs or blood samples from seven patients admitted to three different hospitals (Hospital Universitario La Paz, Hospital de Cantoblanco and Hospital Central de la Cruz Roja). The isolates were resistant to all antimicrobials tested except colistin and fosfomycin. One blood isolate was susceptible to minocycline and tigecycline but was resistant to fosfomycin. All isolates were closely related by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DiversiLab(®) analysis and belonged to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) sequence type 437. In addition, blaNDM-7, blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-15 and aac(3)-IIa were identified. Family contacts of the index case were negative for NDM-producing bacteria. The outbreak occurred in two separate waves and the cases associated with Hospital de Cantoblanco had been admitted to the same room. Environmental samples from the trap of a sink and a shower in this room were positive for NDM-7-producing CRKP. To our knowledge, this is the first reported worldwide outbreak of NDM-7-producing CRKP. No relationship with the Indian continent, the Balkans or the Middle East could be established. Frequent transfer of aged or chronically ill patients between the facilities involved may have favoured the spread of NDM-7-producing CRKP. The spread of the second wave in Hospital de Cantoblanco probably occurred as a result of transmission from an environmental reservoir.

  3. Modern sedimentation patterns in Laguna de Medina, Southern Spain, derived from lake surface and soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van ´t Hoff, Jasmijn; Schröder, Tabea; Reicherter, Klaus; Held, Peter; Melles, Martin

    2016-04-01

    In September 2014 and March 2015, a 25.66 m long sediment core (Co1313) was retrieved from the centre of Laguna de Medina, a small endorheic salt lake in Cádiz, SW Spain. This record covers the last 9.000 years, thus providing an unique archive for Holocene climatic and environmental changes with extraordinary high temporal resolution. For a better understanding of the palaeoenvironmental proxies to be analysed on the sediment core, the modern processes of sediment formation in the lake and its catchment under known environmental conditions were investigated on a set of 46 lake sediment surface samples and 32 soil surface sediment samples from the lake and the close surroundings, respectively. These samples were analysed for bulk mineralogy (XRD), chemical composition (XRF), grain-size distribution (laser scanner), and carbonate, total organic carbon (TOC), nitrogen (TN) and sulphur (TS) contents (elemental analyser). Based on the mineralogical, geochemical and granulometrical data, the lake can be divided into four zones. The northern shore is characterized by particularly high quartz contents and coarse grain sizes. This reflects input from ancient terraces of the Guadalete River that are exposed in that area. The southern shore is characterised by high calcite contents due to sediment supply from the Cretaceous ´Capas rojaś, a series of Subbetic deep-water marl- and limestones. The southeastern and to a lesser extend the northwestern shores show particularly high dolomite contents, reflecting the Triassic dolomites outcroping in the southeastern catchment. The southeastern shore furthermore is also influenced by strong terrestrial input of the Triassic Keuper facies from the most important inlet, Arroyo Fuente Bermeja, as reflected by high contents of Ti, K, Al, Fe, Rb in the lake sediments. The last zone comprises only a small part of the western shore and is characterized by a relatively high gypsum amount. This does not reflect the geology in the catchment

  4. Interhospital spread of NDM-7-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae belonging to ST437 in Spain.

    PubMed

    Seara, Nieves; Oteo, Jesús; Carrillo, Raquel; Pérez-Blanco, Verónica; Mingorance, Jesús; Gómez-Gil, Rosa; Herruzo, Rafael; Pérez-Vázquez, María; Astray, Jenaro; García-Rodríguez, Julio; Ruiz-Velasco, Luis Moisés; Campos, José; de Burgos, Carmen; Ruiz-Carrascoso, Guillermo

    2015-08-01

    This study describes an interhospital spread of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) producing NDM-7 carbapenemase that started in December 2013 in Madrid, Spain. NDM-7-producing CRKP were isolated from urine, rectal swabs or blood samples from seven patients admitted to three different hospitals (Hospital Universitario La Paz, Hospital de Cantoblanco and Hospital Central de la Cruz Roja). The isolates were resistant to all antimicrobials tested except colistin and fosfomycin. One blood isolate was susceptible to minocycline and tigecycline but was resistant to fosfomycin. All isolates were closely related by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DiversiLab(®) analysis and belonged to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) sequence type 437. In addition, blaNDM-7, blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-15 and aac(3)-IIa were identified. Family contacts of the index case were negative for NDM-producing bacteria. The outbreak occurred in two separate waves and the cases associated with Hospital de Cantoblanco had been admitted to the same room. Environmental samples from the trap of a sink and a shower in this room were positive for NDM-7-producing CRKP. To our knowledge, this is the first reported worldwide outbreak of NDM-7-producing CRKP. No relationship with the Indian continent, the Balkans or the Middle East could be established. Frequent transfer of aged or chronically ill patients between the facilities involved may have favoured the spread of NDM-7-producing CRKP. The spread of the second wave in Hospital de Cantoblanco probably occurred as a result of transmission from an environmental reservoir. PMID:25982912

  5. [Nutrition and cancer].

    PubMed

    Hernando Requejo, Ovidio; Rubio Rodríguez, Ma Carmen

    2015-07-18

    Introducción: hoy día se conoce cómo la dieta juega un importante papel tanto en la producción como en la prevención del cáncer. Métodos: se ha realizado una completa revisión bibliográfica para intentar conocer mejor aquellas dietas que pueden ser protectoras contra el cáncer o aquellas con más riesgo de producir cáncer. Resultados: entre los alimentos que pueden proteger de la aparición del cáncer destacan las frutas y verduras, también la soja y sus derivados y los pescados han mostrado protección frente a algunos tipos de tumores. Como claros factores que aumentan el riesgo de cáncer caben destacar la carne roja o procesada, los lácteos y el alcohol. El papel protector de vitaminas, antioxidantes y otros micronutrientes ha de ser explorado más a fondo. La obesidad parece un factor etiológico claro, asimismo la restricción calórica podría, de forma antagónica a la obesidad, proteger contra la aparición de tumores en estudios de laboratorio, pero se requerirán estudios clínicos para validar esta hipótesis. Conclusiones: el control de la dieta y la selección adecuada de los alimentos sería un método muy útil y de bajo coste en la prevención de tumores.

  6. High Fill-Out, Extreme Mass Ratio Overcontact Binary Systems. VIII. EM Piscium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, S.-B.; He, J.-J.; Soonthornthum, B.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Li, L.-J.; Liao, W. P.; Dai, Z.-B.

    2008-11-01

    CCD photometric observations of the newly discovered close binary, EM Piscium, obtained from 2006 December 4 to 2008 January 7, are presented. The light curves are symmetric and show complete eclipses with an eclipse duration of 54 minutes. When comparing the present light curves with those published by González-Rojas et al., it is found that the depths of the two minima of the light curve have been interchanged, and the positive O'Connell effect has disappeared. The symmetric light curves in R and I bands were analyzed with the 2003 version of the W-D code. It is found that EM Piscium is a high fill-out overcontact binary system (f = 95.3 ± 2.7%) with an extreme mass ratio of q = 0.1487, suggesting that it is on the late evolutionary stage of late-type tidal-locked binaries. Based on the nine instances of light minimum that we determined and those published by previous investigators, it is discovered that the orbital period shows a cyclic period variation with a period of 3.3 years, while it undergoes a continuously rapid increase at a rate of dP/dt = +3.97 × 10-6 days year-1. The cyclic period reveals the presence of a tertiary companion, which may play an important role for the formation and evolution of the overcontact binary by drawing angular momentum from the central system via Kozai oscillation or a combination of Kozai cycle and tidal friction. The high fill-out, the extreme mass ratio, and the rapid period increase may suggest that the binary system is quickly evolving into a rapid-rotating single star.

  7. [The Great European Georg Friedrich Nicolai: physician and pacifist. Berlin, Germany, 1874 - Santiago, Chile, 1964].

    PubMed

    Cabello C, Felipe

    2013-04-01

    Georg Friedrich Nicolai (1874-1964) was a German physician and physiologist whose pacifism during the First World War led him in 1914 to cosign with W. J. Foerster, A. Einstein and O. Bueck a "Manifesto to the Europeans" against the entry of Germany into the war and the invasion of Belgium. As a result of this appeal and his strong pacifism, Nicolai lost his positions as cardiologist to the German royal family, professor at the University of Berlin and chief of laboratory at the Charite hospital also in Berlin, and was sent as a garrison physician in Graundenz, in today's Poland. There he began to write his book, The Biology of War. It managed to avoid censorship and was published in Leipzig in 1916. He was court-martialed in Danzig in 1916 but escaped to Denmark. Nicolai was reinstated to his faculty positions by the Weimar Republic after the war but was subsequently forced to emigrate from Germany to South America by the pressure of right wing student groups who accused him of being a deserter and a traitor. From 1922 to 1932 Nicolai lived in Argentina, and from 1932 until his death in 1964, in Chile. In this later country Nicolai was professor in the University of Chile and interacted with members of the Chilean intelligentsia, including the poets Vicente Huidobro, Gonzalo Rojas and Pablo Neruda. Through his friendship with Chilean psychiatrist Agustin Tellez, Nicolai influenced the development of phenomenological psychiatric school in Chile. The Chilean novelist Fernando Alegria compared him favorably with Robert J. Oppenheimer and Linus Pauling.

  8. Observation and Analysis of a Single-Chord Stellar Occultation by Kuiper Belt Object (50000) Quaoar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Allen B.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Person, M. J.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Bosh, A. S.; Levine, S.; Naranjo, O. A.; Navas, G. R.; Gulbis, A.; Winters, J. G.; Bianco, F.

    2014-01-01

    The Williams-MIT collaboration (www.stellaroccultations.info) predicted and observed a stellar occultation of 2UCAC 26260847 (mag 14.35) by KBO 50000 Quaoar (mag 18.9) on 8/9 July 2013. Observations were attempted from a total of five sites in Chile, Venezuela, and Massachusetts. Only one site, Llano del Hato National Astronomical Observatory in Venezuela, had a positive detection of the occultation, giving us a single chord on Quaoar. All other sites were cloudy. The light curve from the 8/9 July 2013 event has been analyzed with the assumption that Quaoar is ellipsoidal or spherical, placing bounds on some of Quaoar’s properties: diameter (> 1138 ± 25 km), density (< 1.82 ± 0.28 g cm-3), and albedo (< 0.14 ± 0.10). An independent prediction of the occultation’s shadow path by Fraser, Gwyn, et al. (2013) suggests that the chord is near-equatorial, which means that our bounds on Quaoar’s properties are closer to estimates. We will compare our result with that of the 11 February 2011 single-chord occultation detected by Sallum et al. (2011) and Person et al. (2011). A subsequent attempt to observe a second Quaoar occultation, that of 12/13 July 2013 in South Africa, failed because of cloudy weather. This work was supported in part by NASA Planetary Astronomy grants NNX08AO50G and NNH11ZDA001N to Williams College, NNX10AB27G to MIT, and USRA grant #8500-98-003 to Lowell Observatory. We thank Steven P. Souza at Williams, and other collaborators in planning and carrying out the various observations: including Libardo Zerpa, Joresly Villarreal, Richard Rojas, and Jorge Moreno at Llano del Hato, and Patricio Rojo and Matias Jones at Cerro Calan/U. Chile.

  9. [Nutritional characterization of produced fish for human consumption in Bucaramanga, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Perea, Aide; Gómez, Elieth; Mayorga, Yamile; Triana, Cora Yohanna

    2008-03-01

    This research involves the nutritional characterization of the most commonly cultivated fish in the region. The species under study were: Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii), tilapia roja (Oreocliromis sp), cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus), bocachico (Prochilodus reticulatus magdalenae) and catfish (Pseudoplatystoma faciatum). A sea fish, coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), was used as reference because it is the imported species most used in the region, and it also contains n-3 fatty acids. For each fish sample moisture, ash, protein content, total fat, minerals (iron, calcium and phosphorous) and a fatty acid profile were determined. Results show a total protein content in between 16.4 and 22.6 g/100 g fillet for fresh water fish. Total fat amounts for trout are the highest (8.1 g/100 g fillet), while catfish has the lowest fat content (0.4 g/100 g fillet). Trout was found to be the most important source of n-3 fatty acids (EPA+DHA) and phosphorous, with values ranging from 0.25% to 0.52%, and 250 to 346 mg/100 g fillet, respectively. Catfish and trout exhibited the highest iron content, with values ranging from 3 to 6mg/100 g fillet. Salmon, on the other hand, showed a high n-3 fatty acid content of 1.16% to 2.25%, when compared to fresh water fish. Calcium content is low in all species under scrutiny. Fresh water fish, other than trout, show no significant amount of n-3 fatty acids. However, all of them are a good source of protein. The obtained results allowed to determine the profile of oily acids of produced fish for human consumption in the region, demonstrating that the trout is the species with major quantity of oily acids n-3 specially DHA and of the minerals the phosphorus. Other species (kinds) catfish, bocachico, tilapia and cachama, are not a source of oily acids n-3, but they are an important source of protein. PMID:18589578

  10. Spatio-temporal patterns of genetic change amongst populations of cassava Bemisia tabaci whiteflies driving virus pandemics in East and Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Legg, James P; Sseruwagi, Peter; Boniface, Simon; Okao-Okuja, Geoffrey; Shirima, Rudolph; Bigirimana, Simon; Gashaka, Gervais; Herrmann, Hans-Werner; Jeremiah, Simon; Obiero, Hannington; Ndyetabula, Innocent; Tata-Hangy, Willy; Masembe, Charles; Brown, Judith K

    2014-06-24

    The greatest current threat to cassava in sub-Saharan Africa, is the continued expansion of plant virus pandemics being driven by super-abundant populations of the whitefly vector, Bemisia tabaci. To track the association of putatively genetically distinct populations of B. tabaci with pandemics of cassava mosaic disease (CMD) and cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), a comprehensive region-wide analysis examined the phylogenetic relationships and population genetics of 642 B. tabaci adults sampled from cassava in six countries of East and Central Africa, between 1997 and 2010, using a mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I marker (780 bases). Eight phylogenetically distinct groups were identified, including one, designated herein as 'East Africa 1' (EA1), not previously described. The three most frequently occurring groups comprised >95% of all samples. Among these, the Sub-Saharan Africa 2 (SSA2) group diverged by c. 8% from two SSA1 sub-groups (SSA1-SG1 and SSA1-SG2), which themselves were 1.9% divergent. During the 14-year study period, the group associated with the CMD pandemic expansion shifted from SSA2 to SSA1-SG1. Population genetics analyses of SSA1, using Tajima's D, Fu's Fs and Rojas' R2 statistics confirmed a temporal transition in SSA1 populations from neutrally evolving at the outset, to rapidly expanding from 2000 to 2003, then back to populations more at equilibrium after 2004. Based on available evidence, hybrid introgression appears to be the most parsimonious explanation for the switch from SSA2 to SSA1-SG1 in whitefly populations driving cassava virus pandemics in East and Central Africa.

  11. Experimental study of rotating Hagen-Poiseuille flow discharging into a 1:8 sudden expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda-Barea, A.; Martínez-Arias, B.; Parras, L.; Burgos, M. A.; del Pino, C.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present experimental evidence for the five different states that result from rotating Hagen-Poiseuille flow when it discharges into a 1:8 sudden expansion, namely: stable, convectively unstable, unstable shear layer, stable and unstable vortex breakdowns. Sanmiguel-Rojas et al. ["Three-dimensional structure of confined swirling jets at moderately large Reynolds numbers," Phys. Fluids 20, 044104 (2008)] numerically predicted four of these five states and mapped the transition from one state to another. Our main objective is to study the onset of instabilities and vortex breakdown in these states experimentally. For this purpose, we visualize the flow at the inlet of the expansion for several values of moderately large Reynolds numbers, Re, and of swirl parameters, S. We analyze the inner region of the state that corresponds to the unstable shear layer in the sudden expansion and find two different states that share the same character, although they have different non-dimensional frequencies. The first relates to an oscillating structure near the axis, which arises at a small value of the swirl parameter, as well as to a generation of vortices that move downstream. The second shows, for greater values of the swirl parameter, vortices interacting with the boundary layer located on the wall of the static container that is perpendicular to the flow direction. In addition, we find a transition from stable to unstable vortex breakdown when perturbations become absolutely unstable inside the rotating pipe flow. Therefore, the most remarkable experimental finding is a new state, namely, unstable or transient vortex breakdown that takes place for the same pair of values (Rea, Sa) at which the onset of the absolute instability curve appears and intersects the region of stable vortex breakdown.

  12. Molecular characterization, distribution, and dynamics of hepatitis C virus genotypes in blood donors in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Mora, Mónica Viviana Alvarado; Romano, Camila Malta; Gomes-Gouvêa, Michele Soares; Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Carrilho, Flair José; Pinho, João Renato Rebello

    2010-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a frequent cause of acute and chronic hepatitis and a leading cause for cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV is classified in six major genotypes and more than 70 subtypes. In Colombian blood banks, serum samples were tested for anti-HCV antibodies using a third-generation ELISA. The aim of this study was to characterize the viral sequences in plasma of 184 volunteer blood donors who attended the "Banco Nacional de Sangre de la Cruz Roja Colombiana," Bogotá, Colombia. Three different HCV genomic regions were amplified by nested PCR. The first of these was a segment of 180 bp of the 5'UTR region to confirm the previous diagnosis by ELISA. From those that were positive to the 5'UTR region, two further segments were amplified for genotyping and subtyping by phylogenetic analysis: a segment of 380 bp from the NS5B region; and a segment of 391 bp from the E1 region. The distribution of HCV subtypes was: 1b (82.8%), 1a (5.7%), 2a (5.7%), 2b (2.8%), and 3a (2.8%). By applying Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation, it was estimated that HCV-1b was introduced into Bogotá around 1950. Also, this subtype spread at an exponential rate between about 1970 to about 1990, after which transmission of HCV was reduced by anti-HCV testing of this population. Among Colombian blood donors, HCV genotype 1b is the most frequent genotype, especially in large urban conglomerates such as Bogotá, as is the case in other South American countries.

  13. Aqueducts and geoglyphs : the response of Ancient Nasca to water shortages in the desert of Atacama (Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, Nicola; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2016-04-01

    The desert of Atacama is a plateau in South America, covering a 1,000-kilometre strip of land on the Pacific coast, west of the Andes mountains, between Chile and Peru. Due to the confluence of a cold ocean current (the Humboldt Current) along with other climatic factors, connected to the particular topography and geomorphology of the region, Atacama desert is one of the most arid areas of the world. In particular, in Nasca region (Southern Peru) the lack of water was (and still is) due to the following causes: (i) the scarce pluvial precipitations and the (ii) high infiltration capacity, and the consequent yearly significant reduction of the surface water (Schreiber & Lancho Rojas 2009). Over the millennia long periods of drought occurred and frequently the lack of water was persistent for several decades. Despite the arid and extreme nature of the environment, this region was populated by important civilizations, such as Paracas and Nasca, which flourished in the Early Intermediate period (200 BCE-500 AD) (Silvermann & Proulx 2002). In particular the Nasca civilization is well-known for its refined and colourful pottery, characterized by a rich icononographic repertory, and, above all, by the huge and mysterious geoglyphs drawn on the arid plateaus of the Rio Grande de Nasca Basin. In order to practice agriculture, the Nasca developed adequate strategies to cope with hostile environmental factors and water scarcity, building a very efficient aqueduct system. They were aided by the fact that underground water was likely enough close to the surface and accessible by constructing wells and underground aqueducts, known with quechua name of puquios (Schreiber & Lancho Rojas 2009; Lasaponara & Masini 2012a; 2012b) The effectiveness of the techniques of hydraulic engineering depended on the climate and the weather events that sometimes underwent drastic changes, as results of the cyclical phenomenon of El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO). Hence the

  14. Fatiga (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afección caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energía, que a menudo se observa como una complicación del cáncer y su tratamiento.

  15. Fatiga (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afección caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energía, que a menudo se observa como una complicación del cáncer y su tratamiento.

  16. Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase: Phylogeny, Regulation, and Catalytic Properties.

    PubMed

    Gabruk, Michal; Mysliwa-Kurdziel, Beata

    2015-09-01

    This Current Topic focuses on light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR, EC 1.3.1.33). POR catalyzes the penultimate reaction of chlorophyll biosynthesis, i.e., the light-triggered reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide. In this reaction, the chlorin ring of the chlorophyll molecule is formed, which is crucial for photosynthesis. POR is one of very few enzymes that are driven by light; however, it is unique in the need for its substrate to absorb photons to induce the conformational changes in the enzyme, which are required for its catalytic activation. Moreover, the enzyme is also involved in the negative feedback of the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway and controls chlorophyll content via its light-dependent activity. Even though it has been almost 70 years since the first isolation of active POR complexes, our knowledge of them has markedly advanced in recent years. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of POR, including the phylogenetic roots of POR, the mechanisms of the regulation of POR genes expression, the regulation of POR activity, the import of POR into plastids, the role of POR in PLB formation, and the molecular mechanism of protochlorophyllide reduction by POR. To the best of our knowledge, no previous review has compiled such a broad set of recent findings about POR. PMID:26230427

  17. Ash wettability conditions splash erosion in the postfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo-Rivero, Ángel J.; de Celis, Reyes; García-Moreno, Jorge; Jiménez-Compán, Elizabeth; Alanís, Nancy; Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    ; Neuenschwander LF.(Eds.), Management and productivity of western-montane forest soils. General Technical Report INT-280. Intermountain Forest and Range Experimental Station, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. Ogden, UT. DeBano LF. 2000. Water repellency in soils: a historical overview. Journal of Hydrology 231-232, 4-32. Doerr SH, Shakesby RA, Walsh RPD. 2000. Soil water repellency: its causes, characteristics and hydro-geomorphological significance. Earth-Science Reviews 51, 33-65. Larsen I, MacDonald LH, Brown E, Rough D, Welsh MJ, Pietraszek JH, Libohava Z, Benavides-Solorio JD, Schaffrath K. 2009. Causes of post-fire runoff and erosion: water repellency, cover or soil heating?. Soil Science Society of America Journal 73, 1393-1407. Mataix-Solera J, Guerrero C. 2007. Efecto de los incendios forestales sobre las propiedades edáficas. In: J. Mataix-Solera (Ed.) Incendios Forestales, Suelos y Erosión Hídrica. Caja Mediterráneo CENACAM Font Roja-Alcoi. Alicante. Pp.: 5-40. Mataix-Solera J, Guerrero C, Arcenegui V, Bárcenas G, Zornoza R, Pérez-Bejarano A, Bodí MB, Mataix-Beneyto J, Gómez I, García-Orenes F, Navarro-Pedreño J, Jordán MM, Cerdà A, Doerr SH, Úbeda X, Outeiro L, Jordán A, Zavala LM. 2009. Los incendios forestales y el suelo: un resumen de la investigación realizada por el Grupo de Edafología Ambiental de la UMH en colaboración con otros grupos. In: Cerdà A, Mataix-Solera J. (Eds.). El efecto de los incendios forestales sobre los suelos en España. El estado de la cuestión visto por los científicos españoles. Universitat de Valencia. Valencia. Pp.: 185-218. Mataix-Solera J, Cerdà A, Arcenegui V, Jordán A, Zavala LM. 2011. Fire efects on soil aggregation: a review. Earth-Science Reviews 109, 44-60 Neary DG, Klopatek CC, DeBano LF, Ffolliott PF. 1999. Fire effects on belowground sustainability: a review and synthesis. Forest Ecology and Management 122, 51-71. Pausas JG, Verdú M. 2005. Plant persistence traits in fire

  18. A two-component system regulates gene expression of the type IX secretion component proteins via an ECF sigma factor

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Tomoko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Naito, Mariko; Sato, Keiko; Kikuchi, Yuichiro; Kondo, Yoshio; Shoji, Mikio; Nakayama, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes potent pathogenic proteases, gingipains, via the type IX secretion system (T9SS). This system comprises at least 11 components; however, the regulatory mechanism of their expression has not yet been elucidated. Here, we found that the PorY (PGN_2001)-PorX (PGN_1019)-SigP (PGN_0274) cascade is involved in the regulation of T9SS. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis revealed a direct interaction between a recombinant PorY (rPorY) and a recombinant PorX (rPorX). rPorY autophosphorylated and transferred a phosphoryl group to rPorX in the presence of Mn2+. These results demonstrate that PorX and PorY act as a response regulator and a histidine kinase, respectively, of a two component system (TCS), although they are separately encoded on the chromosome. T9SS component-encoding genes were down-regulated in a mutant deficient in a putative extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor, PGN_0274 (SigP), similar to the porX mutant. Electrophoretic gel shift assays showed that rSigP bound to the putative promoter regions of T9SS component-encoding genes. The SigP protein was lacking in the porX mutant. Co-immunoprecipitation and SPR analysis revealed the direct interaction between SigP and PorX. Together, these results indicate that the PorXY TCS regulates T9SS-mediated protein secretion via the SigP ECF sigma factor. PMID:26996145

  19. Altered heme catabolism by heme oxygenase-1 caused by mutations in human NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Amit V.; Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E.

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Mutations in POR identified from patients lead to reduced HO-1 activities. {yields} POR mutation Y181D affecting FMN binding results in total loss of HO-1 activity. {yields} POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F, lost 50-70% activity. {yields} Mutations in FAD binding domain, R457H, Y459H and V492E lost all HO-1 activity. {yields} POR polymorphisms P228L, R316W, G413S, A503V and G504R have normal activity. -- Abstract: Human heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) carries out heme catabolism supported by electrons supplied from the NADPH through NADPH P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Previously we have shown that mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of mutations in POR on HO-1 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified HO-1 to measure heme degradation in a coupled assay using biliverdin reductase. Here we show that mutations in POR found in patients may reduce HO-1 activity, potentially influencing heme catabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had total loss of HO-1 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 50-70% activity. The POR variants P228L, R316W and G413S, A503V and G504R identified as polymorphs had close to WT activity. Loss of HO-1 activity may result in increased oxidative neurotoxicity, anemia, growth retardation and iron deposition. Further examination of patients affected with POR deficiency will be required to assess the metabolic effects of reduced HO-1 activity in affected individuals.

  20. Perceptions of risks to children's health from indoor air pollution and an investigation of respiratory illness symptoms from indoor heating with a woodburning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, J.S. III

    1986-01-01

    This study explores perceptions of risks to health (POR), risk taking behavior (RTB), and associated illness from the perspectives of medical anthropology and epidemiology. Specific objectives included investigation of the following: (1) general POR: (2) POR from indoor air pollution (IAP) and parental usage of IAP sources; (3) the relationship between POR and RTB; factors affecting POR and RTB; (4) the construction of risk domains; (5) sources of intracultural variation in POR, RTB, and the partitioning of risk domains; (6) patterns of indoor heating in central Michigan; and (7) respiratory illness symptoms (RIS) in children from exposure to indoor heating with a woodburning stove (WBS). POR and RTB were investigated in random and ethnographic samples, RIS in a random sample with an internal comparison group, and indoor heating in a random sample. Interview schedules were developed for each phase of inquiry. The instrument used to investigate POR and RTB includes both qualitative and quantitative scales for POR assessment. Findings of this study provide an ethnography of risk, an inferential analysis of POR/RTB, and a preliminary assessment of risks of RIS from heating with WBS.

  1. Efficient anti-tumor effect of photodynamic treatment with polymeric nanoparticles composed of polyethylene glycol and polylactic acid block copolymer encapsulating hydrophobic porphyrin derivative.

    PubMed

    Ogawara, Ken-ichi; Shiraishi, Taro; Araki, Tomoya; Watanabe, Taka-ichi; Ono, Tsutomu; Higaki, Kazutaka

    2016-01-20

    To develop potent and safer formulation of photosensitizer for cancer photodynamic therapy (PDT), we tried to formulate hydrophobic porphyrin derivative, photoprotoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (PppIX-DME), into polymeric nanoparticles composed of polyethylene glycol and polylactic acid block copolymer (PN-Por). The mean particle size of PN-Por prepared was around 80nm and the zeta potential was determined to be weakly negative. In vitro phototoxicity study for PN-Por clearly indicated the significant phototoxicity of PN-Por for three types of tumor cells tested (Colon-26 carcinoma (C26), B16BL6 melanoma and Lewis lung cancer cells) in the PppIX-DME concentration-dependent fashion. Furthermore, it was suggested that the release of PppIX-DME from PN-Por would gradually occur to provide the sustained release of PppIX-DME. In vivo pharmacokinetics of PN-Por after intravenous administration was evaluated in C26 tumor-bearing mice, and PN-Por exhibited low affinity to the liver and spleen and was therefore retained in the blood circulation for a long time, leading to the efficient tumor disposition of PN-Por. Furthermore, significant and highly effective anti-tumor effect was confirmed in C26 tumor-bearing mice with the local light irradiation onto C26 tumor tissues after PN-Por injection. These findings indicate the potency of PN-Por for the development of more efficient PDT-based cancer treatments.

  2. Patterns of coral disease across the Hawaiian archipelago: relating disease to environment.

    PubMed

    Aeby, Greta S; Williams, Gareth J; Franklin, Erik C; Kenyon, Jean; Cox, Evelyn F; Coles, Steve; Work, Thierry M

    2011-01-01

    In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing

  3. Patterns of coral disease across the Hawaiian Archipelago: Relating disease to environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aeby, G.S.; Williams, G.J.; Franklin, E.C.; Kenyon, J.; Cox, E.F.; Coles, S.; Work, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing

  4. Patterns of Coral Disease across the Hawaiian Archipelago: Relating Disease to Environment

    PubMed Central

    Aeby, Greta S.; Williams, Gareth J.; Franklin, Erik C.; Kenyon, Jean; Cox, Evelyn F.; Coles, Steve; Work, Thierry M.

    2011-01-01

    In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing

  5. The interactions of superoxide ion(O2-.) with metallo-porphyrins [(C1(8)TPP)M, M = Fe,Mn,Co Zn]; models for biological systems and superoxide dismutases.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, D T; Tsang, P K

    1991-01-01

    In dimethylformamide superoxide ion forms a 1:1 adduct with tetrakis (2,6-dichlorophenyl) porphinato-iron, (C1(8)TPP)FeOO-, as well as with its manganese analogue, (C1(8)TPP)MnOO-. On the basis of their electrochemical, spectroscopic, and magnetic properties these adducts have a metal-oxygen covalent bond (PorM-OO-), oxygen-centered redox chemistry, and reactivities that are similar to the hydroperoxide ion (HOO-). Addition of -OH to a solution of PorFe and O2 results in the formation of PorFe(OH)(OO-), which can be electrochemically oxidized to PorFeOH plus O2 (-0.2 V vs SCE). Addition of protons to the PorM-OO- adducts promotes their rapid decomposition to PorM, HOOH, and O2. This chemistry provides insight to the reactions of biological superoxide and superoxide dismutases. PMID:1649106

  6. Impact of a prescribed fire on soil water repellency in a Banksia woodland (Western Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Miller, Ben; Tangney, Ryan; Miller, Russell; González-Pérez, José A.; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    INTRODUCTION The Swan Coastal plain of Western Australia is dominated by fire-prone banksia woodland (Burrows and McCaw, 1990). In these areas, prescription burning is often used to reduce the risk of wildfires, by reducing available fuels (Boer et al., 2009). Little research has been conducted on the effects of prescription burning on Banksia woodlands, and, in particular, information on the impacts on soil properties and soil water repellency (SWR) is scarce. Here, we have studied the impact of fire on SWR in a Banksia woodland and monitored its evolution in the medium-term. It is expected that results are useful for management and restoration of fire-affected Banksia woodlands. METHODS An experimental fire was conducted on May 7th 2015 in Kings Park, Perth, Western Australia. The fire affected an area of 6 ha of mixed Banksia/Allocasuarina woodland under moderate fire intensity. At the time of ignition, the wind speed below the canopy was 1.2 km/h. During the prescribed burning, air temperatures were on average 20 ± 1 °C and relative humidity ranged between 45 and 55% (measured using a Kestrel portable weather station). Fuel moisture averaged 11.8% (measured using Wiltronics moisture meter) and soil moisture at 1 cm deep ranged from 0.1% to 8.6% (measured with a PR2 soil profile probe attached to a HH2 data logger). Temperatures greater than 120 °C were measured 1 cm below the soil surface using iButton temperature sensors. SWR was measured under lab conditions in oven-dry samples (48 h, 105 °C) with the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test. Soil microbial activity was determined with the 1-day CO2 test that is based on the measurement of the CO2 burst produced after moistening dry soil (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016). PRELIMINARY RESULTS AND DISCUSSION SWR was severe in the control (mean WDPT = 2608 s) and pre-burned areas (2722 s). One week after the prescribed fire, persistence of soil water repellency remained stable in the burned area (2402 s). In

  7. Influence of sprite streamers in the mesospheric chemical and thermal balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra-Rojas, Francisco C.; Luque, Alejandro; Gordillo-Vázquez, Francisco J.

    2015-04-01

    Earth mesosphere is proportional to the driving current duration. This produces variations of more than 40 K (in the extreme case of a 100 ms driving current) at low altitudes (< 55 km) and at about 10 seconds after the streamer head. [1] Gordillo-Vazquez, F. J., Air plasma kinetics under the influence of sprites, J. Phys. D, 41(23), 234016, doi:10.1088/0022-3727/41/23/234016, 2008. [2] Parra-Rojas, F. C., A. Luque, and F. J. Gordillo-Vazquez, Chemical and electrical impact of lightning on the Earth mesosphere: The case of sprite halos, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 1-25, doi:10.1002/jgra.50449, 2013a.

  8. Hazards Associated With Recent Popocatepetl Ash Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, A.; Martin, A.; Espinasa-Pereña, R.; Ferres, D.

    2013-05-01

    Popocatepetl has been producing ash from small eruptions since 1994. Until 2012 about 650 small ash emissions have been recorded at the monitoring system of Popocatépetl Volcano. Ash consists mainly of glassy lithic clasts from the recent crater domes, plagioclase and pyroxene crystals, and in major eruptions, olivine and/or hornblende. Dome forming eruptions produced a fine white ash which covers the coarser ash. This fine ash consists of plagioclase, glass and cristobalite particles mostly under15 microns. During the recent crisis at Popocatépetl, April and May2012 ash fell on villages to the east and west of the volcano, reaching Mexico City (more than 20 million people) and Puebla (2 million people). In 14 cases the plumes had heights over 2 km, the largest on May 2 and 11 (3 and 4 km in height, respectively). Heavier ash fall occurred on April 13, 14, 20, and 23 and May 2, 3, 5, 11, 14, 23, 24 and 25. A database for ash fall was constructed from April 13 with field observations, reports emitted by the Centro Nacional de Comunicaciones (CENACOM), ash fall advisories received at CENAPRED and alerts from the Servicios a la Navegación en el Espacio Aéreo Mexicano (SENEAM). This aim of this database is to calculate areas affected by the ash and estimate the ash fall volume emitted by Popocatépetl in each of these events. Heavy ash fall from the May 8 to May 11 combined with reduced visibility due to fog forced to closure of the Puebla airport during various periods of time, for up to 13 hours. Domestic and international flights were cancelled. Ash eruptions have caused respiratory conditions in the state of Puebla, to the east of the volcano, since 1994 (Rojas et al, 2001), but because of the changing wind conditions in the summer mainly, some of these ash plumes go westward to towns in the State of Mexico and even Mexico City. Preliminary analyses of these eruptions indicate that some ash emissions produced increased respiratory noninfectious problems

  9. Evolution of the Earthquake Catalog in Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, W.; Camacho, E. I.; Marroquín, G.; Molina, E.; Talavera, E.; Benito, M. B.; Lindholm, C.

    2013-05-01

    Central America (CA) is known as a seismically active region in which several historic destructive earthquakes have occurred. This fact has promoved the development of seismic hazard studies that provide necessary estimates for decision making and risk assessment efforts, requiring a complete and standardized seismic catalog. With this aim, several authors have contributed to the study of the historical seismicity of Central America (e.g. Grases, Feldaman; White y Harlow, 1993; White et al. 2004; Ambraseys y Adams, 2001; Peraldo y Montero, 1999), who complied historical data. A first catalogue was developed by Rojas (1993) that comprises the 1522 to 1993 period. This information was integrated in 2007, together with data from the International Seismological Centre (CASC) and the national catalogs of CA countries in a new regional catalogue. Since 2007 a continuous effort has been done in order to complete and update this CA earthquake catalog. In particular, two workshops were held in 2008 and 2011 in the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain), joining experts from the different CA countries who worked each one in its own catalogue covering the entire region and the border with northwestern Colombia and southern Mexico. These national catalogues were later integrated in a common regional catalogue in SEISAN format. At this aim it was necessary to solve some problems, like to avoid duplicity of events, specially close to the boundaries, to consider the different scales of magnitude adopted by different countries, to take into account the completeness by the different national networks, etc. Some solutions were adopted for obtaining a homogenized catalogue to Mw, containing historical and instrumental events with Mw > 3.5 from 1522 up to 2011. The catalogue updated to December 2007 was the basis for the first regional hazard study carried out by Benito et al., (2011) as part of the collaborative RESIS II project under coordination of NORSAR. The ones updated to

  10. Recent KBO (Pluto/Charon and beyond, including Quaoar) Occultation Observations by the Williams College Team as part of the Williams-MIT Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, B. A.; Davis, A. B.; Pandey, S.; Lu, M.; Rogosinski, Z.; Person, M. J.; Bosh, A. S.; Zangari, A. M.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Gulbis, A. S.; Naranjo, O.; Navas, G.; Zerpa, L.; Villarreal, J.; Rojo, P.; Förster, F.; Servajean, E.

    2013-10-01

    The Williams College-MIT collaboration has observed numerous occultations of stars by Pluto/Charon and other Kuiper-belt objects (www.stellaroccultations.info), since its establishment three decades ago with an attempted discovery of Neptune's rings in 1983. In this paper, we describe several recent occultation observations, both successful and (for reasons of path uncertainties and/or weather) unsuccessful. Light curves made or arranged by Williams College faculty and students were used together with light curves by MIT colleagues and others to study Pluto's atmosphere and Charon's size, to discover one of the highest-known solar-system albedos (KBO 55636), and to attempt to study 1000-km-diameter Quaoar. Observations discussed include light curves for KBO 55636 on 9 October 2009 from Hawaii; Pluto on 3/4 July 2010 from Chile, 22 May 2011 from Williamstown, Massachusetts, 23 June 2011 from Hawaii (in support of SOFIA observations of Pluto's atmosphere, discussed in an article in press in AJ and of the pair of Pluto/Charon occultations of the same star), and 4 May 2013 (Bosh et al., this conference) and 15 July 2013 from Williamstown; Charon on 15 June 2013 from Williamstown; Quaoar from a picket fence ranging from Chile through Venezuela (with a detection there) to Massachusetts on July 8/9 and in South Africa on 12 July 2013. This work was supported in part by NASA Planetary Astronomy grants NNX08AO50G and NNH11ZDA001N to Williams College, NNX10AB27G to MIT, and USRA grant #8500-98-003 to Lowell Observatory. We thank Steven P. Souza at Williams; Steven Levine at Lowell Obs.; Jennifer G. Winters (GSU) in Chile; Richard Rojas/Jorge Moreno in Venezuela; Scott Sheppard; Federica Bianco; David Osip; and others. ZR (Vassar '14) was a Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium Summer Fellow at Williams College, supported by an NSF/REU grant to the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium. ES: partial support from Programa Nacional de Becas de Postgrado (CONICYT Grant 21110496). FF

  11. [Cancer and its association with dietary patterns in Córdoba (Argentina)].

    PubMed

    Pou, Sonia Alejandra; Niclis, Camila; Aballay, Laura Rosana; Tumas, Natalia; Román, María Dolores; Muñoz, Sonia Edith; Coquet, Julia Becaria; Díaz, María del Pilar

    2014-03-01

    Introducción: La alimentación es un importante factor vinculado a la ocurrencia del cáncer. Su abordaje en términos de patrones alimentarios es de creciente interés en epidemiología nutricional, no obstante ha sido pocas veces empleado en Latinoamérica. Objetivos: Identificar patrones alimentarios en la población adulta de Córdoba (Argentina) y estimar sus efectos sobre el riesgo de ocurrencia de cáncer colorrectal (CCR), cáncer de mama (CM), cáncer de próstata (CP) y urotelial (CU). Métodos: Se condujeron estudios caso-control, 2006-2012, correspondientes a CCR, CM, CP y CU. Empleando un análisis factorial de componentes principales se identificaron patrones alimentarios. Se estimaron ORs mediante regresión logística multinivel. Resultados: Se identificaron patrones característicos en la población general, y en hombres y mujeres independientemente. En población total, los patrones Cono Sur y Bebidas Azucaradas evidenciaron un efecto promotor para CCR y CU, y el Patrón Prudente mostró efecto protector. En mujeres, el CM se asoció de manera directa con los patrones Cono Sur Femenino, Rural y Amiláceo, e inversa con el Patrón Prudente. En hombres, los Patrones Cono Sur Masculino, Bebidas Azucaradas y Típico Mesurado mostraron un efecto promotor para CP. Conclusión: Resulta necesario promover una ingesta habitual de vegetales, frutas y lácteos (éstos últimos de manera moderada en hombres), y disminuir el consumo de carnes rojas (fundamentalmente grasas), carnes procesadas, vegetales amiláceos, vino y bebidas azucaradas, a fin de prevenir la ocurrencia de cáncer. En hombres se sugiere moderar la ingesta de huevos, y en mujeres la de granos refinados, productos de pastelería, aceites y mayonesa.

  12. Interaction of Jovian White Ovals BC and DE in 1998 from Earth-Based Observations in the Visual Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Rojas, J. F.; Hueso, R.; Lecacheux, J.; Colas, F.; Acarreta, J. R.; Miyazaki, I.; Parker, D.

    1999-11-01

    During the 1998 Jupiter-Sun conjunction, the 60-year-old white ovals BC and DE at 33° south latitude merged into a larger oval "BE" at the same latitude (J. Lecacheux, P. Drossart, F. Colas, G. S. Orton, B. Fisher, A. Sanchez-Lavega, R. Hueso, J. F. Rojas, and I. Miyazaki, IAU Circular No. 6942). Here we report our study of the motions, morphology, and reflectivity changes pre and postmerger of the ovals based on extensive and continuous Earth-based CCD imaging (April 1997-September 1998) in the visual range (400-800 nm) and in the methane band at 890 nm. In late August 1997, BC and DE started their mutual approach with a relative zonal velocity of 1 m/s. The longitude drift curves of BC, DE, and new BE suggest that a merger of BC and DE took place in February 1998 in the position of BC. A smaller apparently cyclonic oval called O1 was seen in the northwest side of BE at latitude -31°. BE is about 12% larger than BC or DE as measured in the blue, red, and 890-nm methane band filters. However, if O1 is assumed to be a by-product of the merger, the sum of the areas of BC and DE is about that of BE and O1. The motion of BE is similar to that of the classic white oval spots. No significant center-to-limb reflectivity changes in the white oval spots at the 890-nm wavelength (sensitive to upper hazes and clouds) were noted before and after the merger. However the area-integrated blue-red color index changed slightly, with BE being bluer than BC or DE probably because the particles in BE have a higher single-scattering blue albedo. Using a radiative transfer model, the 890-nm data suggest that the upper cloud and haze (above 600 mbar) in BE are similar to those of BC and DE. In the limit, the upper cloud in BE could be higher (cloudtop at 110 mbar instead of 150 mbar) or have slightly larger optical depths (3.5 instead of 2.85) than that of BC or DE.

  13. Microfungal oasis in an oligotrophic desert: diversity patterns and community structure in three freshwater systems of Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Gasca-Pineda, Jaime; Rosique-Gil, Edmundo; Eguiarte, Luis E.; Espinosa-Asuar, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) comprises several oligotrophic aquatic ecosystems limited by phosphorus. These aquatic systems are dominated by a high prokaryotic diversity, shaped by the stress of low nutrient supplies and interspecific competition. Although fungi constitute a diverse and important component of microbial diversity, the microfungal diversity in the CCB remains to be unveiled. With the aim to explore microfungal diversity and ecological patterns in this area, we present the first investigation analyzing cultivable taxa from sediment and water, as well as lignocellulolytic taxa obtained from incubated submerged plant debris, and wood panels in three contrasting freshwater systems in the CCB: Churince, Becerra and Pozas Rojas. We chose a culture-based approach to analyze sediment and water samples in order to obtain fungal cultures, providing opportunities for a posteriori studies, and the possibility of ex situ preservation of the diversity. We evaluated sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer including the 5.8 rDNA region for 126 isolates, revealing 37 OTUs. These OTUs were phylogenetically affiliated to several genera in the fungal phyla: Zygomycota, Basidiomycota, and Ascomycota. We recorded two OTUs with saline affinity, agreeing with previous findings on the prokaryotic communities with ancestral marine resemblances. All the studied systems showed moderate diversity levels, however discrepancies among the diversity indexes were observed, due to the occurrence of abundant taxa in the samples. Our results indicated that lignocellulolytic microfungal communities are dominated by transient fungal taxa, as resident species were not recorded perhaps as a result of the long-term strong competition with the highly adapted prokaryotic community. Moreover, the obtained microfungal taxa occurred mostly on the resident plant debris, rather than submerged wood panels, perhaps as a result of the high adaptation to specific

  14. Microfungal oasis in an oligotrophic desert: diversity patterns and community structure in three freshwater systems of Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velez, Patricia; Gasca-Pineda, Jaime; Rosique-Gil, Edmundo; Eguiarte, Luis E; Espinosa-Asuar, Laura; Souza, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) comprises several oligotrophic aquatic ecosystems limited by phosphorus. These aquatic systems are dominated by a high prokaryotic diversity, shaped by the stress of low nutrient supplies and interspecific competition. Although fungi constitute a diverse and important component of microbial diversity, the microfungal diversity in the CCB remains to be unveiled. With the aim to explore microfungal diversity and ecological patterns in this area, we present the first investigation analyzing cultivable taxa from sediment and water, as well as lignocellulolytic taxa obtained from incubated submerged plant debris, and wood panels in three contrasting freshwater systems in the CCB: Churince, Becerra and Pozas Rojas. We chose a culture-based approach to analyze sediment and water samples in order to obtain fungal cultures, providing opportunities for a posteriori studies, and the possibility of ex situ preservation of the diversity. We evaluated sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer including the 5.8 rDNA region for 126 isolates, revealing 37 OTUs. These OTUs were phylogenetically affiliated to several genera in the fungal phyla: Zygomycota, Basidiomycota, and Ascomycota. We recorded two OTUs with saline affinity, agreeing with previous findings on the prokaryotic communities with ancestral marine resemblances. All the studied systems showed moderate diversity levels, however discrepancies among the diversity indexes were observed, due to the occurrence of abundant taxa in the samples. Our results indicated that lignocellulolytic microfungal communities are dominated by transient fungal taxa, as resident species were not recorded perhaps as a result of the long-term strong competition with the highly adapted prokaryotic community. Moreover, the obtained microfungal taxa occurred mostly on the resident plant debris, rather than submerged wood panels, perhaps as a result of the high adaptation to specific

  15. Optical properties of porous silicon processed in tetraethyl orthosilicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Len'shin, A. S.; Kashkarov, V. M.; Tsipenyuk, V. N.; Seredin, P. V.; Agapov, B. L.; Minakov, D. A.; Domashevskaya, E. P.

    2013-02-01

    We investigate the change in the composition and optical properties of porous silicon (por-Si) obtained by electrochemical etching of a palate made of n-type (111) silicon single crystal under high-temperature annealing and processing in tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). It is shown that TEOS processing and annealing prevent contamination of a sample stored for a long time in atmosphere. The processing of por-Si in TEOS does not change the position of the photoluminescence (PL) peak and suppresses PL to a smaller extent as compared to annealing of por-Si. This increases the reliability of optoelectronic devices based on por-Si.

  16. Concurrent Partnerships, Nonmonogamous Partners, and Substance Use Among Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Schoenbach, Victor J.; Taylor, Eboni M.; Khan, Maria R.; Schwartz, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We determined the prevalence, distribution, and correlates of US women's involvement in concurrent sexual partnerships, a sexual-network pattern that speeds population-wide HIV dissemination. Methods. We used sexual partnership dates reported by 7643 women in the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth to determine prevalence of concurrent sexual partnerships during the preceding 12 months. We examined associations between concurrency and sociodemographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Results. Prevalence of concurrent partnerships was 5.7% based on reported partnerships and 8.3% after adjustment for possible underreporting. Concurrency was associated with younger age (22 to 24 years: prevalence odds ratio [POR] = 2.44) versus older age (40 to 44 years); marital status (formerly married: POR = 6.56; never married: POR = 3.81; vs married); Black race/ethnicity (POR = 1.78); younger age at first sexual intercourse (12 to 13 years: POR = 2.89) versus 18 years or older); having a nonmonogamous sexual partner (POR = 6.96); having intercourse while “high” on drugs or alcohol (POR = 1.61); binge drinking (POR = 1.70); and crack or cocaine use (POR = 2.72). Conclusions. The association of concurrency with nonmonogamous sexual partners and substance use suggests the existence of extensive sexual networks that link people at higher risk for HIV infection with increased opportunities for disseminating infection. PMID:20724694

  17. [Financial expenses incurred by herniated disk in health professionals].

    PubMed

    Zonana-Nacach, Abraham; Moreno-Cazares, Marco Cesar; Gómez-Naranjo, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: las incapacidades prolongadas no sólo tienen un alto costo económico sino también repercusiones en la productividad debido a la ausencia del trabajador. Objetivo: evaluar el costo del subsidio pagado por el Instituto Mexicano Seguro Social (IMSS) a los trabajadores que incapacita por hernia de disco. Material y métodos: estudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo efectuado con trabajadores del IMSS a quienes se incapacita para no laborar por más de 14 días. El estudio se efectuó mediante la revisión de los registros asentados entre 2009-2011 de 1,070 trabajadores con incapacidad prolongada de los que 48 tuvieron diagnóstico de hernia de disco. Se cuantificaron los días totales de incapacidad, días subsidiados por incapacidad versus los días sugeridos por el consejero médico de incapacidades. Resultados: de los 48 pacientes con hernias de disco, 54% fueron cervicales y 65% recibieron tratamiento uirúrgico. Los días totales promedio de incapacidad por hernias de disco fueron 125 ± 84 y 24 (50%), respectivamente. De las que rebasaron las recomendadas por el consejero médico, 6 (26%) fueron por concordancia diagnóstica, 12 (52%) por diferimiento en el diagnóstico y 5 (22%) por dolor residual. El costo de las incapacidades laborales originadas por hernias de disco que rebasaron las sugeridas por el consejero médico fue de 683,026 pesos en comparación con 367,081 pesos que no rebasaron la recomendación de éste. Después de 12 meses de seguimiento, 9 casos (18.8%) seguían con incapacidad y 2 (4%) tuvieron pensión por invalidez. Conclusiones: el costo en subsidio por incapacidades a pacientes con hernia de disco se duplicó principalmente por diferimiento en el diagnóstico.

  18. Cross-Species Analysis of Protein Dynamics Associated with Hydride and Proton Transfer in the Catalytic Cycle of the Light-Driven Enzyme Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Hoeven, Robin; Hardman, Samantha J O; Heyes, Derren J; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2016-02-16

    Experimental interrogation of the relationship between protein dynamics and enzyme catalysis is challenging. Light-activated protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) is an excellent model for investigating this relationship because photoinitiation of the reaction cycle enables coordinated turnover in a "dark-assembled" ternary enzyme-substrate complex. The catalytic cycle involves sequential hydride and proton transfers (from NADPH and an active site tyrosine residue, respectively) to the substrate protochlorophyllide. Studies with a limited cross-species subset of POR enzymes (n = 4) have suggested that protein dynamics associated with hydride and proton transfer are distinct [Heyes, D. J., Levy, C., Sakuma, M., Robertson, D. L., and Scrutton, N. S. (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 11849-11854]. Here, we use steady-state assays and single-turnover laser flash spectroscopy to analyze hydride and proton transfer dynamics in an extended series of POR enzymes taken from many species, including cyanobacteria, algae, embryophytes, and angiosperms. Hydride/proton transfer in all eukaryotic PORs is faster compared to prokaryotic PORs, suggesting active site architecture has been optimized in eukaryotic PORs following endosymbiosis. Visible pump-probe spectroscopy was also used to demonstrate a common photoexcitation mechanism for representative POR enzymes from different branches of the phylogenetic tree. Dynamics associated with hydride transfer are localized to the active site of all POR enzymes and are conserved. However, dynamics associated with proton transfer are variable. Protein dynamics associated with proton transfer are also coupled to solvent dynamics in cyanobacterial PORs, and these networks are likely required to optimize (shorten) the donor-acceptor distance for proton transfer. These extended networks are absent in algal and plant PORs. Our analysis suggests that extended networks of dynamics are disfavored, possibly through natural selection. Implications for

  19. Inhibition of the alternative pathway of nonhuman infant complement by porin B2 contributes to virulence of Neisseria meningitidis in the infant rat model.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Lisa A; Vu, David M; Granoff, Dan M; Ram, Sanjay

    2014-06-01

    Neisseria meningitidis utilizes capsular polysaccharide, lipooligosaccharide (LOS) sialic acid, factor H binding protein (fHbp), and neisserial surface protein A (NspA) to regulate the alternative pathway (AP) of complement. Using meningococcal mutants that lacked all four of the above-mentioned molecules (quadruple mutants), we recently identified a role for PorB2 in attenuating the human AP; inhibition was mediated by human fH, a key downregulatory protein of the AP. Previous studies showed that fH downregulation of the AP via fHbp or NspA is specific for human fH. Here, we report that PorB2-expressing quadruple mutants also regulate the AP of baby rabbit and infant rat complement. Blocking a human fH binding region on PorB2 of the quadruple mutant of strain 4243 with a chimeric protein that comprised human fH domains 6 and 7 fused to murine IgG Fc enhanced AP-mediated baby rabbit C3 deposition, which provided evidence for an fH-dependent mechanism of nonhuman AP regulation by PorB2. Using isogenic mutants of strain H44/76 that differed only in their PorB molecules, we confirmed a role for PorB2 in resistance to killing by infant rat serum. The PorB2-expressing strain also caused higher levels of bacteremia in infant rats than its isogenic PorB3-expressing counterpart, thus providing a molecular basis for increased survival of PorB2 isolates in this model. These studies link PorB2 expression with infection of infant rats, which could inform the choice of meningococcal strains for use in animal models, and reveals, for the first time, that PorB2-expressing strains of N. meningitidis regulate the AP of baby rabbits and rats.

  20. Cross-Species Analysis of Protein Dynamics Associated with Hydride and Proton Transfer in the Catalytic Cycle of the Light-Driven Enzyme Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Hoeven, Robin; Hardman, Samantha J O; Heyes, Derren J; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2016-02-16

    Experimental interrogation of the relationship between protein dynamics and enzyme catalysis is challenging. Light-activated protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) is an excellent model for investigating this relationship because photoinitiation of the reaction cycle enables coordinated turnover in a "dark-assembled" ternary enzyme-substrate complex. The catalytic cycle involves sequential hydride and proton transfers (from NADPH and an active site tyrosine residue, respectively) to the substrate protochlorophyllide. Studies with a limited cross-species subset of POR enzymes (n = 4) have suggested that protein dynamics associated with hydride and proton transfer are distinct [Heyes, D. J., Levy, C., Sakuma, M., Robertson, D. L., and Scrutton, N. S. (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 11849-11854]. Here, we use steady-state assays and single-turnover laser flash spectroscopy to analyze hydride and proton transfer dynamics in an extended series of POR enzymes taken from many species, including cyanobacteria, algae, embryophytes, and angiosperms. Hydride/proton transfer in all eukaryotic PORs is faster compared to prokaryotic PORs, suggesting active site architecture has been optimized in eukaryotic PORs following endosymbiosis. Visible pump-probe spectroscopy was also used to demonstrate a common photoexcitation mechanism for representative POR enzymes from different branches of the phylogenetic tree. Dynamics associated with hydride transfer are localized to the active site of all POR enzymes and are conserved. However, dynamics associated with proton transfer are variable. Protein dynamics associated with proton transfer are also coupled to solvent dynamics in cyanobacterial PORs, and these networks are likely required to optimize (shorten) the donor-acceptor distance for proton transfer. These extended networks are absent in algal and plant PORs. Our analysis suggests that extended networks of dynamics are disfavored, possibly through natural selection. Implications for

  1. Impact of a prescribed fire on soil water repellency in a Banksia woodland (Western Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Miller, Ben; Tangney, Ryan; Miller, Russell; González-Pérez, José A.; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    INTRODUCTION The Swan Coastal plain of Western Australia is dominated by fire-prone banksia woodland (Burrows and McCaw, 1990). In these areas, prescription burning is often used to reduce the risk of wildfires, by reducing available fuels (Boer et al., 2009). Little research has been conducted on the effects of prescription burning on Banksia woodlands, and, in particular, information on the impacts on soil properties and soil water repellency (SWR) is scarce. Here, we have studied the impact of fire on SWR in a Banksia woodland and monitored its evolution in the medium-term. It is expected that results are useful for management and restoration of fire-affected Banksia woodlands. METHODS An experimental fire was conducted on May 7th 2015 in Kings Park, Perth, Western Australia. The fire affected an area of 6 ha of mixed Banksia/Allocasuarina woodland under moderate fire intensity. At the time of ignition, the wind speed below the canopy was 1.2 km/h. During the prescribed burning, air temperatures were on average 20 ± 1 °C and relative humidity ranged between 45 and 55% (measured using a Kestrel portable weather station). Fuel moisture averaged 11.8% (measured using Wiltronics moisture meter) and soil moisture at 1 cm deep ranged from 0.1% to 8.6% (measured with a PR2 soil profile probe attached to a HH2 data logger). Temperatures greater than 120 °C were measured 1 cm below the soil surface using iButton temperature sensors. SWR was measured under lab conditions in oven-dry samples (48 h, 105 °C) with the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test. Soil microbial activity was determined with the 1-day CO2 test that is based on the measurement of the CO2 burst produced after moistening dry soil (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016). PRELIMINARY RESULTS AND DISCUSSION SWR was severe in the control (mean WDPT = 2608 s) and pre-burned areas (2722 s). One week after the prescribed fire, persistence of soil water repellency remained stable in the burned area (2402 s). In

  2. Influence of soil sampling approaches in the evaluation of soil organic carbon stocks under different land uses in a Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francaviglia, Rosa; Doro, Luca; Ledda, Luigi; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    Different approaches of soil sampling can provide significantly different estimates of soil organic carbon stocks (SOCs) (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015a). Many studies have focused on SOC distribution only in the biologically active layers of topsoil, the IPCC carbon accounting method estimates the change in SOC storage for the top 30 cm of a soil profile, and indeed limited data are available for SOCs below this depth. Moreover, SOC estimates are more uncertain in areas with heterogeneous land uses and pedoclimatic conditions such as Mediterranean environments, which are more prone to land degradation due to SOC degradation and depletion and erosive processes (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2015). Anyhow, the open question is whether soil should be sampled following the pedogenetic horizons with soil entire soil approach (ESP), or along fixed depth increments using the soil control section method (SCS) (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015b). In addition, SOCs are often not adjusted for the soil volume occupied by coarse fragments as recommended by the IPCC Good Practice Guidance for LULUCF (IPCC, 2003) accordingly to the equation: SOCs = SOC (g kg‑1) × bulk density (Mg m‑3) × depth (m) × (1 - coarse fragment) × 10. The work deals with the comparison of SOCs using the ESP and SCS approaches, applied to a study area of northeastern Sardinia (Italy) under typical agro-silvo-pastoral systems (Francaviglia et al., 2014). The area lies within a hilly basin where elevation is in the range 275-340 m a.s.l., and slope ranges from 2-6% to 16-30%. The local climate is warm temperate with dry and hot summers, mean annual rainfall is 623 mm (range 367-811mm) and mean annual temperature is 15.0° C (13.8-16.4° C). The area has the same soil type (Haplic Endoleptic Cambisols, Dystric) according to IUSS Working Group WRB (2006), and the following land uses with different levels of cropping intensification were compared: Tilled vineyards (Tv), No-tilled grassed vineyards (Ntgv), Hay

  3. Influence of soil sampling approaches in the evaluation of soil organic carbon stocks under different land uses in a Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francaviglia, Rosa; Doro, Luca; Ledda, Luigi; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    Different approaches of soil sampling can provide significantly different estimates of soil organic carbon stocks (SOCs) (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015a). Many studies have focused on SOC distribution only in the biologically active layers of topsoil, the IPCC carbon accounting method estimates the change in SOC storage for the top 30 cm of a soil profile, and indeed limited data are available for SOCs below this depth. Moreover, SOC estimates are more uncertain in areas with heterogeneous land uses and pedoclimatic conditions such as Mediterranean environments, which are more prone to land degradation due to SOC degradation and depletion and erosive processes (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2015). Anyhow, the open question is whether soil should be sampled following the pedogenetic horizons with soil entire soil approach (ESP), or along fixed depth increments using the soil control section method (SCS) (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015b). In addition, SOCs are often not adjusted for the soil volume occupied by coarse fragments as recommended by the IPCC Good Practice Guidance for LULUCF (IPCC, 2003) accordingly to the equation: SOCs = SOC (g kg-1) × bulk density (Mg m-3) × depth (m) × (1 - coarse fragment) × 10. The work deals with the comparison of SOCs using the ESP and SCS approaches, applied to a study area of northeastern Sardinia (Italy) under typical agro-silvo-pastoral systems (Francaviglia et al., 2014). The area lies within a hilly basin where elevation is in the range 275-340 m a.s.l., and slope ranges from 2-6% to 16-30%. The local climate is warm temperate with dry and hot summers, mean annual rainfall is 623 mm (range 367-811mm) and mean annual temperature is 15.0° C (13.8-16.4° C). The area has the same soil type (Haplic Endoleptic Cambisols, Dystric) according to IUSS Working Group WRB (2006), and the following land uses with different levels of cropping intensification were compared: Tilled vineyards (Tv), No-tilled grassed vineyards (Ntgv), Hay crop

  4. Giant elves: Lightning-generated electromagnetic pulses in giant planets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luque Estepa, Alejandro; Dubrovin, Daria; José Gordillo-Vázquez, Francisco; Ebert, Ute; Parra-Rojas, Francisco Carlos; Yair, Yoav; Price, Colin

    2015-04-01

    lightning on Jupiter, Icarus, 142, 306-323, doi:10.1006/icar.1999.6195. [3] Dyudina, U. A., A. D. Del Genio, A. P. Ingersoll, C. C. Porco, R. A. West, A. R. Vasavada, and J. M. Barbara (2004), Lightning on Jupiter observed in the Hα line by the Cassini imaging science subsystem, Icarus, 172, 24-36, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2004.07.014. [4] Baines, K. H., et al. (2007), Polar lightning and decadal-scale cloud variability on Jupiter, Science, 318, 226-229, doi:10.1126/science.1147912. [5] Dyudina, U. A., A. P. Ingersoll, S. P. Ewald, C. C. Porco, G. Fischer, W. S. Kurth, and R. A. West (2010), Detection of visible lightning on Saturn, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L09205, doi:10.1029/2010GL043188. [6] Zarka, P., and B. M. Pedersen (1986), Radio detection of Uranian lightning by Voyager 2, Nature, 323, 605-608, doi:10.1038/323605a0. [7] Gurnett, D. A., W. S. Kurth, I. H. Cairns, and L. J. Granroth (1990), Whistlers in Neptune's magnetosphere'Evidence of atmospheric lightning, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 20,967-20,976, doi:10.1029/JA095iA12p20967. [8] Yair, Y., Y. Takahashi, R. Yaniv, U. Ebert, and Y. Goto (2009), A study of the possibility of sprites in the atmospheres of other planets, J. Geophys. Res., 114, E09002, doi:10.1029/2008JE003311. [9] Dubrovin, D., A. Luque, F. J. Gordillo-Vázquez, Y. Yair, F. C. Parra-Rojas, U. Ebert, and C. Price (2014), Impact of lightning on the lower ionosphere of Saturn and possible generation of halos and sprites, Icarus, 241, 313-328, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2014.06.025. [10] Luque, A., D. Dubrovin, F. J. Gordillo-Vázquez, U. Ebert, F. C. Parra-Rojas, Y. Yair, and C. Price (2014), Coupling between atmospheric layers in gaseous giant planets due to lightning-generated electromagnetic pulses, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 119, doi:10.1002/2014JA020457.

  5. Geochemical indicators and characterization of soil water repellence in three dominant ecosystems of Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Jordan, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Stevens, Jason; González-Pérez, Jose Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Soil water repellency (SWR) has critical implications for restoration of vegetation in degraded areas as it is responsible of poor plant establishment and a high incidence of erosion processes. Different organic substances are capable of inducing SWR but polar molecules such as certain fatty acids, and waxes i.e. esters and salts of fatty acids, appear to be the main constituents of hydrophobic coatings on soil mineral particles (Doerr et al., 2005). Plant species most commonly associated with SWR are evergreen trees with a considerable amount of resins, waxes or aromatic oils such as eucalypts and pines. Most of these substances are abundant in ecosystems and are released to soil by plants as root exudates or decaying organic debris, and by soil fauna, fungi and other microorganisms, but a thorough knowledge of substances capable of inducing hydrophobicity in soils is still not complete (Jordan et al., 2013). Although SWR has been reported in most continents of the world for different soil types, climate conditions and land uses, there are still many research gaps in this area, particularly in semi-arid areas largely affected by this phenomenon. Materials and methods This research was conducted in three dominant ecosystems of Western Australia (WA), e.g. semi-arid grassland in the Pilbara region (North WA), Banksia woodland, and a coastal dune (both located in South WA). These environments have different climate characteristics and soil types but similar vegetation communities. Soil samples were collected under the canopy of a broad range of plant species that compose the dominant vegetation communities of these ecosystems, and SWR was measured under lab conditions in oven-dry samples (48 h, 105 °C). Soil microbial activity was measured with the 1-day CO2 test, a cost-effective and rapid method to determine soil microbial respiration rate based on the measurement of the CO2 burst produced after moistening dry soil (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016). Soil p

  6. Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Cáncer de 1975 a 2008: preguntas y respuestas

    Cancer.gov

    Los índices generales de mortalidad por cáncer han seguido disminuyendo desde principios de los noventa entre hombres, mujeres y niños. Los índices de mortalidad disminuyeron en promedio 1,6% por año entre 2004 y 2008.

  7. Un estudio de los NIH indica que el consumo regular de aspirina podría reducir el riesgo de cáncer d

    Cancer.gov

    Las mujeres que toman aspirina diariamente podrían reducir el riesgo de cáncer de ovario en 20 por ciento, de acuerdo con un estudio realizado por científicos del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), el cual forma parte de los Institutos Nacionales de la

  8. Comunicado de prensa del Informe Anual sobre el Estado del Cáncer 2015

    Cancer.gov

    Por primera vez, los investigadores han usado datos a nivel nacional para determinar la incidencia de los cuatro subtipos moleculares principales de cáncer de seno (mama) por edad, raza y grupo étnico, nivel de pobreza y varios otros factores. El informe

  9. High resolution clear native electrophoresis (hrCNE) allows a detailed analysis of the heterotrimeric structure of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis porins inserted into liposomes.

    PubMed

    Freixeiro, Paula; Diéguez-Casal, Ernesto; Costoya, Liliana; Marzoa, Juan; Ferreirós, Carlos M; Criado, María Teresa; Sánchez, Sandra

    2013-02-01

    Three recombinant proteins of Neisseria meningitidis, rPorB, rPorA, and rRmpM, were purified and incorporated into liposomes prepared by dialysis-extrusion. The protein complexes formed using different combinations of recombinant proteins were studied by high resolution clear native electrophoresis (hrCNE) and 2-D hrCNE/SDS-PAGE, analyzing the influence of the stoichiometry of the two porins in the formation of complexes and comparing them with native porin complexes present in OMVs from five different N. meningitidis strains. Insertion of the recombinant proteins into liposomes allowed a complete refolding of porin complexes, and the electrophoretic analyses showed that, when the three recombinant proteins are present, the pattern of porin complexes obtained is similar to that observed in native OMVs. We could show homocomplexes of each individual porin and PorA/PorB, RmpM/PorB, and PorA/PorB/RmpM heterocomplexes. Our results suggest that RmpM binds only to PorB, confirm the trimeric structure of N. meningitidis pores, and demonstrate that insertion into liposomes restores the native structure of porin complexes.

  10. 78 FR 37205 - Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 78 FR 24723 (April 26, 2013... the POR.\\2\\ \\2\\ See Antidumping Duties; Countervailing Duties; Final Rule, 62 FR 27296, 27319 (May 19... case was made long after the end of the POR.\\5\\ \\3\\ See Final Rule, 62 FR at 27319-20 (``The...

  11. Estudio de NIH señala que la sigmoidoscopia reduce los índices de cáncer colorrectal

    Cancer.gov

    Estudio señala que la sigmoidoscopia flexible es efectiva para reducir los índices de casos nuevos y de muertes por cáncer colorrectal. Los investigadores encontraron que la mortalidad general por cáncer colorrectal se redujo 26% y que la incidencia se re

  12. Formation and helicity control of ssDNA templated porphyrin nanoassemblies.

    PubMed

    Sargsyan, Gevorg; Schatz, Alexandra A; Kubelka, Jan; Balaz, Milan

    2013-02-01

    We report the formation of left- (M-helix) and right-handed (P-helix) nanoassemblies of a porphyrin-diaminopurine conjugate (Por-DAP) templated by a single stranded oligodeoxythymidine (dT40) via directional hydrogen bonding. The supramolecular helicity can be controlled by the ionic strength, Por-DAP : dT40 ratio, and annealing rate.

  13. 76 FR 34296 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 1040-PR and 1040-SS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... para la Declaraci n de la Contribuci n Federal sobre el Trabajo por Cuenta Propia (Incluyendo el Cr... para la Declaraci n de la Contribuci n Federal sobre el Trabajo por Cuenta Propia (Incluyendo el Cr... collection techniques or other forms of information technology; and (e) estimates of capital or...

  14. 77 FR 72268 - Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... associated with the proposed collection of information; and Estimates of capital or start-up costs and costs... Declaraci n de la Contribuci n Federal sobre el Trabajo por Cuenta Propia (Incluyendo el Cr dito Tributario... Declaraci n de la Contribuci n Federal sobre el Trabajo por Cuenta Propia (Incluyendo el Cr dito...

  15. Planificar la transición en la etapa final de la vida (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre la preparación necesaria por parte de los proveedores de atención de la salud, los pacientes y sus familas para la transición a la atención del cáncer avanzado en la etapa final de la vida.

  16. Estudio Nacional de Exámenes de Pulmón: preguntas y respuestas

    Cancer.gov

    El Estudio Nacional de Exámenes de Pulmón (National Lung Screening Trial, NLST) es un estudio de exámenes selectivos de detección de cáncer de pulmón patrocinado por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) y llevado a cabo por la American College of Radiol

  17. Planificar la transición a la etapa final de la vida (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre la preparación necesaria por parte de los proveedores de atención de la salud, los pacientes y sus familias para la transición a la atención del cáncer avanzado en la etapa final de la vida.

  18. Aerodinámica y béisbol

    NASA Video Gallery

    La NASA es conocida por la astronáutica y los aviones, pero ¿también por el Active béisbol? A los investigadores de la NASA les gusta resolver problemas prácticoscomo cuán lejos llegará una bola b...

  19. Reduction in hepatic drug metabolizing CYP3A4 activities caused by P450 oxidoreductase mutations identified in patients with disordered steroid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E.; Pandey, Amit V.

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), metabolizes 50% of drugs in clinical use and requires NADPH-P450 reductase (POR). {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. {yields} We are reporting that mutations in POR may reduce CYP3A4 activity. {yields} POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X lost 99%, while A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% CYP3A4 activity. {yields} Reduction of CYP3A4 activity may cause increased risk of drug toxicities/adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the major P450 present in human liver metabolizes approximately half the drugs in clinical use and requires electrons supplied from NADPH through NADPH-P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. In this study we examined the effect of mutations in POR on CYP3A4 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified CYP3A4 to perform kinetic studies. We are reporting that mutations in POR identified in patients with disordered steroidogenesis/Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) may reduce CYP3A4 activity, potentially affecting drug metabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had more than 99% loss of CYP3A4 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% activity. Loss of CYP3A4 activity may result in increased risk of drug toxicities and adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations.

  20. Interannual variation and long-term trends in proportions of resident individuals in partially migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Meller, Kalle; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Hokkanen, Tatu; Rintala, Jukka; Piha, Markus; Lehikoinen, Aleksi

    2016-03-01

    Partial migration - a part of a population migrates and another part stays resident year-round on the breeding site - is probably the most common type of migration in the animal kingdom, yet it has only lately garnered more attention. Theoretical studies indicate that in partially migratory populations, the proportion of resident individuals (PoR) should increase in high latitudes in response to the warming climate, but empirical evidence exists for few species. We provide the first comprehensive overview of the environmental factors affecting PoR and the long-term trends in PoR by studying 27 common partially migratory bird species in Finland. The annual PoR values were calculated by dividing the winter bird abundance by the preceding breeding abundance. First, we analysed whether early-winter temperature, winter temperature year before or the abundance of tree seeds just before overwintering explains the interannual variation in PoR. Secondly, we analysed the trends in PoR between 1987 and 2011. Early-winter temperature explained the interannual variation in PoR in the waterbirds (waterfowl and gulls), most likely because the temperature affects the ice conditions and thereby the feeding opportunities for the waterbirds. In terrestrial species, the abundance of seeds was the best explanatory variable. Previous winter's temperature did not explain PoR in any species, and thus, we conclude that the variation in food availability caused the interannual variation in PoR. During the study period, PoR increased in waterbirds, but did not change in terrestrial birds. Partially migratory species living in physically contrasting habitats can differ in their annual and long-term population-level behavioural responses to warming climate, possibly because warm winter temperatures reduce ice cover and improve the feeding possibilities of waterbirds but do not directly regulate the food availability for terrestrial birds.

  1. Interannual variation and long-term trends in proportions of resident individuals in partially migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Meller, Kalle; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Hokkanen, Tatu; Rintala, Jukka; Piha, Markus; Lehikoinen, Aleksi

    2016-03-01

    Partial migration - a part of a population migrates and another part stays resident year-round on the breeding site - is probably the most common type of migration in the animal kingdom, yet it has only lately garnered more attention. Theoretical studies indicate that in partially migratory populations, the proportion of resident individuals (PoR) should increase in high latitudes in response to the warming climate, but empirical evidence exists for few species. We provide the first comprehensive overview of the environmental factors affecting PoR and the long-term trends in PoR by studying 27 common partially migratory bird species in Finland. The annual PoR values were calculated by dividing the winter bird abundance by the preceding breeding abundance. First, we analysed whether early-winter temperature, winter temperature year before or the abundance of tree seeds just before overwintering explains the interannual variation in PoR. Secondly, we analysed the trends in PoR between 1987 and 2011. Early-winter temperature explained the interannual variation in PoR in the waterbirds (waterfowl and gulls), most likely because the temperature affects the ice conditions and thereby the feeding opportunities for the waterbirds. In terrestrial species, the abundance of seeds was the best explanatory variable. Previous winter's temperature did not explain PoR in any species, and thus, we conclude that the variation in food availability caused the interannual variation in PoR. During the study period, PoR increased in waterbirds, but did not change in terrestrial birds. Partially migratory species living in physically contrasting habitats can differ in their annual and long-term population-level behavioural responses to warming climate, possibly because warm winter temperatures reduce ice cover and improve the feeding possibilities of waterbirds but do not directly regulate the food availability for terrestrial birds. PMID:26718017

  2. Cloning, expression and characterization of potential immunogenic recombinant hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of Porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, Julieta Sandra; Rivera-Benítez, José Francisco; Hernández-Baumgarten, Eliseo; Hernández-Jaúregui, Pablo; Vega, Marco; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Berg, Mikael; Baule, Claudia

    2016-12-01

    Blue eye disease caused by Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) is an endemic viral infection of swine causing neurological and respiratory disease in piglets, and reproductive failure in sows and boars. The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein of PorPV is the most abundant component in the viral envelope and the main target of the immune response in infected animals. In this study, we expressed the HN-PorPV-recombinant (rHN-PorPV) protein in an Escherichia coli system and analyzed the immune responses in mice. The HN gene was cloned from the reference strain PorPV-La Piedad Michoacan Virus (GenBank accession number BK005918), into the pDual expression vector. The expressed protein was identified at a molecular weight of 61.7 kDa. Three-dimensional modeling showed that the main conformational and functional domains of the rHN-PorPV protein were preserved. The antigenicity of the expressed protein was confirmed by Western blot with a monoclonal antibody recognizing the HN, and by testing against serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with PorPV. The immunogenicity of the rHN-PorPV protein was tested by inoculation of BALB/c mice with AbISCO-100(®) as adjuvant. Analysis of the humoral immune responses in mice showed an increased level of specific antibodies 14 days after the first immunization, compared to the control group (P < 0.0005). The results show the ability of the rHN-PorPV protein to induce an antibody response in mice. Due to its immunogenic potential, the rHN-PorPV protein will be further evaluated in pig trials for its suitability for prevention and control of blue eye disease. PMID:27496728

  3. [The two faces of veno-arteriolar reflex: cutaneous vasodilatation and vasoconstriction to raise and to lower the arm].

    PubMed

    Estanol-Vidal, B; Gutierrez-Manjarrez, F; Martinez-Memije, R; Senties-Madrid, H; Berenguer-Sanchez, M J; Magana-Zamora, L; Delgado-Garcia, G; Chiquete-Anaya, E

    2016-05-01

    Introduccion. El reflejo venoarteriolar (RVA) lo provoca un incremento en la presion venosa transmural al colocar una parte del cuerpo en el sentido de la aceleracion gravitatoria por debajo del corazon. Objetivo. Evaluar el RVA en sujetos sanos al levantar una parte del cuerpo por encima del corazon. Sujetos y metodos. En 16 sujetos sanos (20-65 años) se estudio el RVA mediante cambios en el flujo sanguineo de la piel con un fotopletismografo digital infrarrojo colocado en el pulpejo en sujetos sanos durante las siguientes condiciones: brazo derecho a la altura del corazon, brazo derecho 40 cm por debajo del corazon y brazo derecho 40 cm por encima del corazon. Las variables medidas fueron: amplitud del flujo sanguineo de la piel con el brazo a la altura del corazon (amplitud basal), porcentaje de disminucion del flujo sanguineo de la piel con el brazo por debajo del corazon y porcentaje de aumento del flujo sanguineo de la piel con el brazo por encima del corazon. Resultados. El porcentaje de vasoconstriccion con el brazo derecho por debajo del corazon fue del 35%, y el de vasodilatacion, del 50%. Conclusiones. La evaluacion del RVA con el brazo por debajo del corazon provoca vasoconstriccion, y la elevacion del brazo produce una importante vasodilatacion. La vasoconstriccion y la vasodilatacion se mantienen mientras la extremidad se mantenga por encima o por debajo del corazon. Este es un estudio potencialmente muy util y economico para estudiar la inervacion de la microcirculacion en diversas neuropatias perifericas de fibras delgadas y mixtas.

  4. Cloning, expression and characterization of potential immunogenic recombinant hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of Porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, Julieta Sandra; Rivera-Benítez, José Francisco; Hernández-Baumgarten, Eliseo; Hernández-Jaúregui, Pablo; Vega, Marco; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Berg, Mikael; Baule, Claudia

    2016-12-01

    Blue eye disease caused by Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) is an endemic viral infection of swine causing neurological and respiratory disease in piglets, and reproductive failure in sows and boars. The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein of PorPV is the most abundant component in the viral envelope and the main target of the immune response in infected animals. In this study, we expressed the HN-PorPV-recombinant (rHN-PorPV) protein in an Escherichia coli system and analyzed the immune responses in mice. The HN gene was cloned from the reference strain PorPV-La Piedad Michoacan Virus (GenBank accession number BK005918), into the pDual expression vector. The expressed protein was identified at a molecular weight of 61.7 kDa. Three-dimensional modeling showed that the main conformational and functional domains of the rHN-PorPV protein were preserved. The antigenicity of the expressed protein was confirmed by Western blot with a monoclonal antibody recognizing the HN, and by testing against serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with PorPV. The immunogenicity of the rHN-PorPV protein was tested by inoculation of BALB/c mice with AbISCO-100(®) as adjuvant. Analysis of the humoral immune responses in mice showed an increased level of specific antibodies 14 days after the first immunization, compared to the control group (P < 0.0005). The results show the ability of the rHN-PorPV protein to induce an antibody response in mice. Due to its immunogenic potential, the rHN-PorPV protein will be further evaluated in pig trials for its suitability for prevention and control of blue eye disease.

  5. Deletion of P399{sub E}401 in NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase results in partial mixed oxidase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Flueck, Christa E.; Mallet, Delphine; Hofer, Gaby; Samara-Boustani, Dinane; Leger, Juliane; Polak, Michel; Morel, Yves; Pandey, Amit V.

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia. {yields} We are reporting a novel 3 amino acid deletion mutation in POR P399{sub E}401del. {yields} POR mutation P399{sub E}401del decreased P450 activities by 60-85%. {yields} Impairment of steroid metabolism may be caused by multiple hits. {yields} Severity of aromatase inhibition is related to degree of in utero virilization. -- Abstract: P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the electron donor for all microsomal P450s including steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP21A2. We found a novel POR mutation P399{sub E}401del in two unrelated Turkish patients with 46,XX disorder of sexual development. Recombinant POR proteins were produced in yeast and tested for their ability to support steroid metabolizing P450 activities. In comparison to wild-type POR, the P399{sub E}401del protein was found to decrease catalytic efficiency of 21-hydroxylation of progesterone by 68%, 17{alpha}-hydroxylation of progesterone by 76%, 17,20-lyase action on 17OH-pregnenolone by 69%, aromatization of androstenedione by 85% and cytochrome c reduction activity by 80%. Protein structure analysis of the three amino acid deletion P399{sub E}401 revealed reduced stability and flexibility of the mutant. In conclusion, P399{sub E}401del is a novel mutation in POR that provides valuable genotype-phenotype and structure-function correlation for mutations in a different region of POR compared to previous studies. Characterization of P399{sub E}401del provides further insight into specificity of different P450s for interaction with POR as well as nature of metabolic disruptions caused by more pronounced effect on specific P450s like CYP17A1 and aromatase.

  6. EPR study of new defects in neutron irradiated KS-4V and KU1 fused silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagomacini, J. C.; Bravo, D.; Martín, P.; Ibarra, A.; Martín, A.; López, F. J.

    2010-11-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies have been carried out on high purity fused silica KS-4V (low OH content) and KU1 (high OH content), irradiated with fast neutrons (E > 0.1 MeV) at a high fluence of 1022 n/m2. The spectrum of irradiated samples shows various well-known types of paramagnetic defects, POR, NBOHC and E'. Their thermal stability has also been studied by heating the samples in air up to 775 °C. A detailed analysis of the spectra shows that the POR spectrum of neutron-irradiated KS-4V and KU1 has two contributions from centres POR(I) and POR(II), which show very different thermal annealing behaviour. POR(I) is identified with the POR centre previously reported, whereas POR(II) is associated to the effects of fast neutrons. Moreover, a new broad line centred at g = 2.02 is reported that we suggest could be associated to oxygen-hole centres in the neighbourhood of the high amount of tracks generated by ion displacement due to fast neutrons.

  7. [Analysis of the causes leading to withdrawal of the treatment with triple antiviral therapy for hepatitis C patients].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Ramos, J; Lorente Fernández, L; Gil Gómez, I; Cueto Sola, M; Monte Boquet, E; Poveda Andrés, J L

    2014-05-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar las causas de suspensión de tratamientofrente a Hepatitis C que reciben triple terapia antiviral (peginterferon+ ribavirina + inhibidor de proteasa).Métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo de pacientes queiniciaron triple terapia antiviral entre enero 2012 - marzo 2013y suspendieron el tratamiento antes de completar el mismo.Resultados: De 156 pacientes que iniciaron triple terapia, 41interrumpieron el tratamiento: Diecinueve por toxicidad, siendodermatológica en siete pacientes (36,8%), intolerancia en seis(31,6%) y hematológica en cuatro (15,8%). Dieciséis pacientessuspendieron todo el tratamiento por ineficacia. El grupo depacientes con mayor porcentaje de fracasos por ineficacia fueronlos “no respondedores” (32,3%) mientras que el grupo depacientes “recidivantes” fueron el grupo con mayor porcentajede suspensiones por toxicidad (15,6%). Dos pacientes fallecierondurante el tratamiento por neumonía.Conclusiones: La triple terapia frente a VHC está asociada a unnúmero importante de fracasos terapéuticos tanto por toxicidadcomo por ineficacia.

  8. Bacterial porin disrupts mitochondrial membrane potential and sensitizes host cells to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Dian-Lothrop, Elke A; Meinecke, Michael; Kepp, Oliver; Ross, Katharina; Rajalingam, Krishnaraj; Harsman, Anke; Hauf, Eva; Brinkmann, Volker; Günther, Dirk; Herrmann, Ines; Hurwitz, Robert; Rassow, Joachim; Wagner, Richard; Rudel, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    The bacterial PorB porin, an ATP-binding beta-barrel protein of pathogenic Neisseria gonorrhoeae, triggers host cell apoptosis by an unknown mechanism. PorB is targeted to and imported by host cell mitochondria, causing the breakdown of the mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)). Here, we show that PorB induces the condensation of the mitochondrial matrix and the loss of cristae structures, sensitizing cells to the induction of apoptosis via signaling pathways activated by BH3-only proteins. PorB is imported into mitochondria through the general translocase TOM but, unexpectedly, is not recognized by the SAM sorting machinery, usually required for the assembly of beta-barrel proteins in the mitochondrial outer membrane. PorB integrates into the mitochondrial inner membrane, leading to the breakdown of DeltaPsi(m). The PorB channel is regulated by nucleotides and an isogenic PorB mutant defective in ATP-binding failed to induce DeltaPsi(m) loss and apoptosis, demonstrating that dissipation of DeltaPsi(m) is a requirement for cell death caused by neisserial infection. PMID:19851451

  9. Epidemiology and neurological complications of infection by the Zika virus: a new emerging neurotropic virus.

    PubMed

    Carod-Artal, Francisco J

    2016-04-01

    Introduccion. El actual brote epidemico por virus Zika se inicio en 2015 y en la actualidad afecta a 31 paises y territorios en America. Se revisan los aspectos epidemiologicos y clinicos asociados con la infeccion por virus Zika. Desarrollo. Desde 2007, 55 paises de America, Asia, Africa y Oceania han detectado transmision local del virus. La actual epidemia ha afectado a casi 1,5 millones de personas en Brasil. El 80% de los casos son asintomaticos. La enfermedad por virus Zika cursa con fiebre, exantema maculopapular, artralgias y conjuntivitis no purulenta. Los sintomas suelen ser autolimitados y duran una semana. Se ha descrito un aumento de la incidencia de los casos de microcefalia, lesiones retinianas y sindrome de Guillain-Barre asociados con el virus Zika. El sindrome de Guillain-Barre asociado al Zika en la Polinesia es una variante axonal motora pura. El ARN del virus Zika se ha identificado en muestras de tejido cerebral, placenta y liquido amniotico de niños con microcefalia y en perdidas fetales de mujeres infectadas por Zika durante el embarazo. Se recomienda realizar la prueba de reaccion en cadena de la polimerasa mediante transcriptasa inversa para detectar ARN virico y pruebas serologicas (IgM ELISA y anticuerpos neutralizantes) para confirmar una infeccion por Zika. El diagnostico diferencial incluye la infeccion por virus dengue y chikungunya. Conclusiones. Existe un conocimiento limitado sobre los mecanismos patogenicos implicados y las consecuencias a largo plazo de la infeccion por virus Zika en adultos y recien nacidos.

  10. NADPH–Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase: Roles in Physiology, Pharmacology, and Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xinxin; Wolf, C. Roland; Porter, Todd D.; Pandey, Amit V.; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Gu, Jun; Finn, Robert D.; Ronseaux, Sebastien; McLaughlin, Lesley A.; Henderson, Colin J.; Zou, Ling; Flück, Christa E.

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on a symposium sponsored by the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and held at the Experimental Biology 2012 meeting in San Diego, California, on April 25, 2012. The symposium speakers summarized and critically evaluated our current understanding of the physiologic, pharmacological, and toxicological roles of NADPH–cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), a flavoprotein involved in electron transfer to microsomal cytochromes P450 (P450), cytochrome b5, squalene mono-oxygenase, and heme oxygenase. Considerable insight has been derived from the development and characterization of mouse models with conditional Por deletion in particular tissues or partial suppression of POR expression in all tissues. Additional mouse models with global or conditional hepatic deletion of cytochrome b5 are helping to clarify the P450 isoform- and substrate-specific influences of cytochrome b5 on P450 electron transfer and catalytic function. This symposium also considered studies using siRNA to suppress POR expression in a hepatoma cell–culture model to explore the basis of the hepatic lipidosis phenotype observed in mice with conditional deletion of Por in liver. The symposium concluded with a strong translational perspective, relating the basic science of human POR structure and function to the impacts of POR genetic variation on human drug and steroid metabolism. PMID:23086197

  11. [Analysis of maternal deaths in Mexico occurred during 2009].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Dolci, Germán; Meljem-Moctezuma, José; Vicente-González, Esther; Venegas-Páez, Francisco Vicente; Villalba-Espinoza, Ignacio; Pérez-Cardoso, Ana Luisa; Barrón-Saldaña, Dante Adrián; Montesinos-Gómez, Gabriela; Aguirre Güemez, Ana Valeria; Novoa-Boldo, Alejandro; Mendoza-Larios, Laura Alejandra; López-González, Rosa; Mazón-González, Betania; Aguirre-Gas, Héctor Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: en 2011 ocurrieron 955 defunciones maternas en México, 49.9 por 100 000 nacidos vivos. La meta de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para 2015 es reducir la tasa a 22.5: 560 defunciones anuales. Métodos: estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo de 1257 muertes maternas ocurridas en México durante 2009, con una muestra representativa de 173 expedientes. Se calcularon frecuencias simples y porcentajes. Resultados: las muertes maternas ocurrieron por causas directas como preeclampsia-eclampsia, infección y hemorragia obstétrica secundaria a atonía uterina, acretismo placentario y placenta previa. Quince mujeres tuvieron complicaciones por abortos. Cuatro murieron por embarazo extrauterino debido a diagnóstico y tratamiento tardíos. Las causas indirectas de la muerte materna fueron neoplasias, sepsis abdominal, eventos vasculares, problemas metabólicos y cardiopatías. Veinticinco pacientes fallecieron por neumonía atípica y 11 por influenza A H1N1. Conclusiones: es factible disminuir la mortalidad materna mediante suficientes consultas prenatales de calidad y evitar embarazos con riesgo alto por los antecedentes obstétricos y los padecimientos asociados. La influenza A H1N1 interrumpió la tendencia descendente de la mortalidad materna.

  12. An ortholog of farA of Aspergillus nidulans is implicated in the transcriptional activation of genes involved in fatty acid utilization in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    SciTech Connect

    Poopanitpan, Napapol; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Akinori

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} POR1 is a Yarrowia lipolytica ortholog of farA involved in fatty acid response in A. nidulans. {yields} Deletion of POR1 caused growth defects on fatty acids. {yields} {Delta}por1 strain exhibited defects in the induction of genes involved in fatty acid utilization. -- Abstract: The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica effectively utilizes hydrophobic substrates such as fatty acids and n-alkanes. To identify a gene(s) regulating fatty acid utilization in Y. lipolytica, we first studied homologous genes to OAF1 and PIP2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but their disruption did not change growth on oleic acid at all. We next characterized a Y. lipolytica gene, POR1 (primary oleate regulator 1), an ortholog of farA encoding a transcriptional activator that regulates fatty acid utilization in Aspergillus nidulans. The deletion mutant of POR1 was defective in the growth on various fatty acids, but not on glucose, glycerol, or n-hexadecane. It exhibited slight defect on n-decane. The transcriptional induction of genes involved in {beta}-oxidation and peroxisome proliferation by oleate was distinctly diminished in the {Delta}por1 strains. These data suggest that POR1 encodes a transcriptional activator widely regulating fatty acid metabolism in Y. lipolytica.

  13. Characterisation of porin genes from Mycobacterium fortuitum and their impact on growth

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Highly pathogenic mycobacteria like Mycobacterium tuberculosis are characterised by their slow growth and their ability to reside and multiply in the very hostile phagosomal environment and a correlation between the growth rate of mycobacteria and their pathogenicity has been hypothesised. Here, porin genes from M. fortuitum were cloned and characterised to address their impact on the growth rate of fast-growing and pathogenic mycobacteria. Results Two genes encoding porins orthologous to MspA from M. smegmatis, porM1 and porM2, were cloned from M. fortuitum strains, which were originally isolated from human patients. Both porin genes were at least partially able to complement the mutations of a M. smegmatis mutant strain lacking the genes mspA and mspC with respect to the growth rate. PorM1 and porM2 were present in different strains of M. fortuitum including the type strain. Comparative expression analysis of porM genes revealed divergent porin expression among analysed M. fortuitum strains. Repression of the expression of porins by antisense technique decreased the growth rates of different M. fortuitum. The effects of over-expression of porM1 as well as porM2 varied depending on the strain and the concentration of antibiotic added to the medium and indicated that PorM1 and PorM2 enhance the growth of M. fortuitum strains, but also the diffusion of the antibiotic kanamycin into the cells. Conclusion This study demonstrates the important role of porin expression in growth as well as antibiotic susceptibility of the opportunistic bacterium M. fortuitum. PMID:19203364

  14. "Spider"-shaped porphyrins with conjugated pyridyl anchoring groups as efficient sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Stangel, Christina; Bagaki, Anthi; Angaridis, Panagiotis A; Charalambidis, Georgios; Sharma, Ganesh D; Coutsolelos, Athanasios G

    2014-11-17

    Two novel "spider-shaped" porphyrins, meso-tetraaryl-substituted 1PV-Por and zinc-metalated 1PV-Zn-Por, bearing four oligo(p-phenylenevinylene) (oPPV) pyridyl groups with long dodecyloxy chains on the phenyl groups, have been synthesized. The presence of four pyridyl groups in both porphyrins, which allow them to act as anchoring groups upon coordination to various Lewis acid sites, the conjugated oPPV bridges, which offer the possibility of electronic communication between the porphyrin core and the pyridyl groups, and the dodecyloxy groups, which offer the advantage of high solubility in a variety of organic solvents of different polarities and could prevent porphyrin aggregation, renders porphyrins 1PV-Por and 1PV-Zn-Por very promising sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Photophysical measurements, together with electrochemistry experiments and density functional theory calculations, suggest that both porphyrins have frontier molecular orbital energy levels that favor electron injection and dye regeneration in DSSCs. Solar cells sensitized by 1PV-Por and 1PV-Zn-Por were fabricated, and it was found that they show power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 3.28 and 5.12%, respectively. Photovoltaic measurements (J-V curves) together with incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency spectra of the two cells reveal that the higher PCE value of the DSSC based on 1PV-Zn-Por is ascribed to higher short-circuit current (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (Voc), and dye loading values. Emission spectra and electrochemistry experiments suggest a greater driving force for injection of the photogenerated electrons into the TiO2 conduction band for 1PV-Zn-Por rather than its free-base analogue. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements prove that the utilization of 1PV-Zn-Por as a sensitizer offers a high charge recombination resistance and, therefore, leads to a longer electron lifetime.

  15. Transcriptional Regulation of the Human P450 Oxidoreductase Gene: Hormonal Regulation and Influence of Promoter Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Damm, Izabella

    2011-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the flavoprotein that acts as the obligatory electron donor to all microsomal P450 enzymes, including those involved in hepatic drug metabolism as well as three steroidogenic P450 enzymes. The untranslated first exon of human POR was located recently, permitting analysis of human POR transcription. Expression of deletional mutants containing up to 3193 bp of the human POR promoter in human adrenal NCI-H295A and liver Hep-G2 cells located the proximal promoter at −325/−1 bp from the untranslated exon. Common human POR polymorphisms at −208 and −173 had little influence on transcription, but the polymorphism at −152 reduced transcription significantly in both cell lines. EMSA and supershift assays identified binding of Smad3/Smad4 between −249 and −261 and binding of thyroid hormone receptor-β (TRβ) at −240/−245. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that Smad3, Smad4, TRα, TRβ, and estrogen receptor-α were bound between −374 and −149. Cotransfection of vectors for these transcription factors and POR promoter-reporter constructs into both cell types followed by hormonal treatment showed that T3 exerts major tropic effects via TRβ, with TRα, estrogen receptor-α, Smad3, and Smad4 exerting lesser, modulatory effects. T3 also increased POR mRNA in both cell lines. Thyroid hormone also is essential for rat liver POR expression but acts via different transcription factor complexes. These are the first data on human POR gene transcription, establishing roles for TRβ and Smad3/4 in its expression and indicating that the common polymorphism at −152 may play a role in genetic variation in steroid biosynthesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21393444

  16. Metalloporphyrin-Nitroxyl Interactions: The Low-Energy States of Reduced Manganese, Iron, and Cobalt Porphyrin Nitrosyls.

    PubMed

    Conradie, Jeanet; Ghosh, Abhik

    2016-06-01

    DFT calculations employing the OLYP and B3LYP functionals have been used to map out the low energy states of the metalloporphyrin-nitroxyl adducts "M(Por) + NO(-)" and "M(Por) + HNO", where M = Fe, Co, and Mn and Por(2-) is the dianion of unsubstituted porphyrin. For [Fe(Por)(NO)](-), the calculations yield two low-energy solutions, with MS = 0 and 1. The MS = 0 solution is thought to represent the experimentally observed diamagnetic ground states of {FeNO}(8) porphyrins, and both functionals yield FeNO geometrical parameters in excellent agreement with a recent crystal structure. For [Co(Por)(NO)](-), the lowest-energy solution for both OLYP and B3LYP is a true {CoNO}(9) state that appears to be best described as a high-spin Co(II) center with a dxy(2)dxz(1)dyz(1)dz2(2)dx2-y2(1) configuration antiferromagnetically coupled to a NO(-) diradical. Such an electronic configuration is expected to lead to diagnostic structural features, including long equatorial Co-N distances (∼2.1 Å), a strong displacement (∼0.4 Å) of the metal from the mean plane of the equatorial nitrogens, and a relatively short Co-N(O) distance (1.8 Å), which should all be experimentally observable. The dx2-y2(1) electronic configuration should also lead to characteristic EPR hyperfine parameters. The calculations also indicate a number of other low-energy states for [Co(Por)(NO)](-), including multiple {CoNO}(8) porphyrin anion radical states. For [Mn(Por)(NO)](-), both functionals indicate a rather complex electronic state landscape, including multiple {MnNO}(6) porphyrin anion radical states as well as a high-spin S = 3/2 {MnNO}(7) state. Both functionals clearly indicate a low-spin Fe(II) state for [Fe(Por)(HNO)]. On the other hand, two comparably low-energy states are predicted for both [Co(Por)(HNO)] and [Mn(Por)(HNO)]. For [Co(Por)(HNO)], the two states are a low-spin Co(II) state with a dxy(2)dxz(2)dyz(2)dz2(1) configuration and a low-spin Co(III)(HNO)(•-) state. For [Mn(Por

  17. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Bersano Benavides, Gonzalo; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Tumi Figueroa, Ernesto Nayer; Urra Albornoz, Camilo; Sulla-Torres, Jose; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2016-03-25

    Objetivo: validar un cuestionario para medir la preocupación por la alimentación de los adolescentes, verificar la fiabilidad y desarrollar valores normativos en función de la edad, sexo y categoría. Metodología: se estudió a 3.121 (1.645 hombres y 1.476 mujeres) adolescentes de 11,0 a 18,9 años de cinco establecimientos municipales de la región del Maule, Chile. Se evaluó el peso, estatura y se calculó el índice de masa corporal. Se aplicó un cuestionario que mide la preocupación por la alimentación de adolescentes escolares. Se validó por análisis confirmatorio y la fiabilidad se determinó por consistencia interna. Resultados: el análisis factorial confirmó la presencia de cuatro factores (preocupación por la restricción de la comida, preocupación por el consumo de comida, preocupación por la forma de comer y preocupación por el peso corporal). Se eliminaron 5 preguntas que mostraron saturaciones inferiores a 0,39. El instrumento quedó conformado con 24 preguntas que explican 51,8% de la varianza. El alpha de Cronbach mostró valores entre 0,85 y 0,88. Se construyeron percentiles (p15, p50 y p85) a partir del método LMS para valorar la preocupación por la alimentación por categoría, edad y sexo. Conclusión: el instrumento desarrollado es válido y confiable y sirve para valorar el nivel de preocupación por la alimentación de adolescentes escolares. Además, las normas propuestas podrían servir a los profesionales del sistema educativo para llevar a cabo tareas de prevención con los jóvenes que evidencien bajos niveles de preocupación por su alimentación.

  18. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Bersano Benavides, Gonzalo; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Tumi Figueroa, Ernesto Nayer; Urra Albornoz, Camilo; Sulla-Torres, Jose; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: validar un cuestionario para medir la preocupación por la alimentación de los adolescentes, verificar la fiabilidad y desarrollar valores normativos en función de la edad, sexo y categoría. Metodología: se estudió a 3.121 (1.645 hombres y 1.476 mujeres) adolescentes de 11,0 a 18,9 años de cinco establecimientos municipales de la región del Maule, Chile. Se evaluó el peso, estatura y se calculó el índice de masa corporal. Se aplicó un cuestionario que mide la preocupación por la alimentación de adolescentes escolares. Se validó por análisis confirmatorio y la fiabilidad se determinó por consistencia interna. Resultados: el análisis factorial confirmó la presencia de cuatro factores (preocupación por la restricción de la comida, preocupación por el consumo de comida, preocupación por la forma de comer y preocupación por el peso corporal). Se eliminaron 5 preguntas que mostraron saturaciones inferiores a 0,39. El instrumento quedó conformado con 24 preguntas que explican 51,8% de la varianza. El alpha de Cronbach mostró valores entre 0,85 y 0,88. Se construyeron percentiles (p15, p50 y p85) a partir del método LMS para valorar la preocupación por la alimentación por categoría, edad y sexo. Conclusión: el instrumento desarrollado es válido y confiable y sirve para valorar el nivel de preocupación por la alimentación de adolescentes escolares. Además, las normas propuestas podrían servir a los profesionales del sistema educativo para llevar a cabo tareas de prevención con los jóvenes que evidencien bajos niveles de preocupación por su alimentación. PMID:27238796

  19. PREFACE: The XI Mexican School on Particles and Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    Veracruz. We acknowledge the help of our colleagues in the Organizing Committee: Norma Bagatella Flores (FFIA-U. Veracruzana), Heriberto Castilla Valdés (CINVESTAV-U. Zacatenco), Lorenzo Díz Cruz (FCFM-BUAP), Juan José Godina Nava (CINVESTAV-U. Zacatenco), Gerardo Herrera Corral (CINVESTAV-U. Zacatenco), German Mandujano Vallejo (FFIA-U. Veracruzana), Miguel Ángel Pérez Angón (CINVESTAV-U. Zacatenco), Efraín Rojas Marcial (FFIA-U. Veracruzana) and Carlos Vargas Madrazo (FFIA-U Veracruzana). Many thanks also to our Conference Secretaries Patricia Carranza and Soledad López for the efficiency with which they carried out their job and their dedication. Special thanks go to María Guadalupe Colorado Hernández and Javier Ignacio Fragoso Tizapan, whose help in carrying out the School was essential, without their collaboration this School would not have been the same. We take this opportunity to thank most warmly all the speakers for delivering excellent lectures which made this event a success. Moreover, to our utmost delight, the students participated very enthusiastically and we hope that this school will contribute considerably towards their academic development. The future of scientific endeavour always depends upon the students. Adnan Bashir (IFM-UMSNH) Jens Erler (IF-UNAM) Rául Hernández (FFIA-UV) Myriam Mondragón (IF-UNAM) Luis Villaseñor (IFM-UMSNH)

  20. An assessment of the validity and discrimination of the intensive time-series design by monitoring learning differences between students with different cognitive tendencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnsworth, Carolyn H.; Mayer, Victor J.

    Intensive time-series designs for classroom investigations have been under development since 1975. Studies have been conducted to determine their feasibility (Mayer & Lewis, 1979), their potential for monitoring knowledge acquisition (Mayer & Kozlow, 1980), and the potential threat to validity of the frequency of testing inherent in the design (Mayer & Rojas, 1982). This study, an extension of those previous studies, is an attempt to determine the degree of discrimination the design allows in collecting data on achievement. It also serves as a replication of the Mayer and Kozlow study, an attempt to determine design validity for collecting achievement data. The investigator used her eighth-grade earth science students, from a suburban Columbus (Ohio) junior high school. A multiple-group single intervention time-series design (Glass, Willson, & Gottman, 1975) was adapted to the collection of daily data on achievement in the topic of the intervention, a unit on plate tectonics. Single multiple-choice items were randomly assigned to each of three groups of students, identified on the basis of their ranking on a written test of cognitive level (Lawson, 1978). The top third, or those with formal cognitive tendencies, were compared on the basis of knowledge achievement and understanding achievement with the lowest third of the students, or those with concrete cognitive tendencies, to determine if the data collected in the design would discriminate between the two groups. Several studies (Goodstein & Howe, 1978; Lawson & Renner, 1975) indicated that students with formal cognitive tendencies should learn a formal concept such as plate tectonics with greater understanding than should students with concrete cognitive tendencies. Analyses used were a comparison of regression lines in each of the three study stages: baseline, intervention, and follow-up; t-tests of means of days summed across each stage; and a time-series analysis program. Statistically significant differences

  1. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Cuerda, Cristina; Álvarez, Julia; Ramos, Primitivo; Abánades, Juan Carlos; García-de-Lorenzo, Abelardo; Gil, Pedro; De-la-Cruz, Juan José

    2016-03-25

    Introducción: la desnutrición relacionada con la enfermedad (DRE) es un problema sociosanitario frecuente que afecta preferentemente a los mayores de 65 años, que aumenta la morbimortalidad y disminuye la calidad de vida.  Objetivo: estudiar la prevalencia de DRE en mayores de 65 años en diferentes centros sociosanitarios del Servicio Regional de Bienestar Social de la Comunidad de Madrid. Métodos: estudio transversal en 33 centros sociosanitarios de Madrid (6 centros de atención primaria [AP], 9 centros de mayores [CM], 9 hospitales [H] y 9 residencias [R]) seleccionados mediante muestreo polietápico. Las variables estudiadas fueron edad, sexo, nivel de dependencia según la escala de incapacidad de la Cruz Roja, motivo de ingreso y enfermedad de base, hábitat (urbano-periurbano-rural) y distribución geográfica (norte centro-sur). Como herramienta de cribado nutricional se utilizó el Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA-cribaje) en todos los centros. En los pacientes con cribado positivo (en riesgo-desnutrición) se realizó el MNA-evaluación. El estudio estadístico se realizó con el paquete SSS 21.0 e incluyó estadística descriptiva, test de Chi-cuadrado y prueba exacta de Fisher, ANOVA de un factor, Kruskal-Wallis y análisis de regresión logística (RL) binaria univariante y multivariante. Se consideró significación estadística p < 0,05. Resultados: se reclutaron 1.103 sujetos (275 AP, 278 CM, 281 H, 269 R), edad media de 79,5 ± 8,4 años (41,2% varones, 58,8% mujeres). Los sujetos procedentes de H y R tuvieron un mayor grado de incapacidad (p < 0,001). La prevalencia global de DRE fue del 10%, encontrándose un 23,3% en riesgo de desnutrición, con diferencias entre los cuatro tipos de centros sociosanitarios (p < 0,001). El análisis univariante de RL mostró diferencia significativas en la prevalencia de desnutrición según la edad, sexo, grado de dependencia, tipo de centro sociosanitario, hábitat y zona geográfica. Sin embargo, en el

  2. Born-Infeld extension of Lovelock brane gravity in the system of M0-branes and its application for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in BIonic superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehri, Alireza

    2016-07-01

    Recently, some authors (Cruz and Rojas, 2013 [1]) have constructed a Born-Infeld type action which may be written in terms of the Lovelock brane Lagrangians for a given dimension p. We reconsider their model in M-theory and study the process of birth and growth of nonlinear spinor and bosonic gravity during the construction of Mp-branes. Then, by application of this idea to BIonic system, we construct a BIonic superconductor in the background of nonlinear gravity. In this model, first, M0-branes link to each other and build an M5-brane and an anti-M5-brane connected by an M2-brane. M0-branes are zero dimensional objects that only scalars are attached to them. By constructing higher dimensional branes from M0-branes, gauge fields are produced. Also, if M0-branes don't link to each other completely, the symmetry of system is broken and fermions are created. The curvature produced by fermions has the opposite sign the curvature produced by gauge fields. Fermions on M5-branes and M2 plays the role of bridge between them. By passing time, M2 dissolves in M5's and nonlinear bosonic and spinor gravities are produced. By closing M5-branes towards each other, coupling of two identical fermions on two branes to each other causes that the square mass of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states are created. For removing these tachyons, M5-branes compact, the sign of gravity between branes reverses, anti-gravity is produced which causes that branes and identical fermions get away from each other. This is the reason for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in Bionic system. Also, the spinor gravity vanishes and its energy builds a new M2 between M5-branes. We obtain the resistivity in this system and find that its value decreases by closing M5 branes to each other and shrinks to zero at colliding point of branes. This idea has different applications. For example, in cosmology, universes are located on M5-branes and M2-brane has the role of bridge between

  3. Quantifying the effect of Tmax extreme events on local adaptation to climate change of maize crop in Andalusia for the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabaldon, Clara; Lorite, Ignacio J.; Ines Minguez, M.; Lizaso, Jon; Dosio, Alessandro; Sanchez, Enrique; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita

    2015-04-01

    Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change (FACCE - JPI) of EU and is financed by MULCLIVAR project (CGL2012-38923-C02-02) and IFAPA project AGR6126 from Junta de Andalucía, Spain. References Dosio A. and Paruolo P., 2011. Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high-resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: Evaluation on the present climate. Journal of Geophysical Research, VOL. 116, D16106, doi:10.1029/2011JD015934 Dosio A., Paruolo P. and Rojas R., 2012. Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: Analysis of the climate change signal. Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 117, D17, doi: 0.1029/2012JD017968 Gabaldón C, Lorite IJ, Mínguez MI, Dosio A, Sánchez-Sánchez E and Ruiz-Ramos M, 2013. Evaluation of local adaptation strategies to climate change of maize crop in Andalusia for the first half of 21st century. Geophysical Research Abstracts. Vol. 15, EGU2013-13625, 2013. EGU General Assembly 2013, April 2013, Vienna, Austria. Jones C.A. and J.R. Kiniry. 1986. CERES-Maize: A simulation model of maize growth and development. Texas A&M Univ. Press, College Station. Ruiz-Ramos M., E. Sanchez, C. Galllardo, and M.I. Minguez. 2011. Impacts of projected maximum temperature extremes for C21 by an ensemble of regional climate models on cereal cropping systems in the Iberian Peninsula. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science 11: 3275-3291. Teixeira EI, Fischer G, van Velthuizen H, Walter C, Ewert F. Global hotspots of heat stress on agricultural crops due to climate change. Agric For Meteorol. 2013;170(15):206-215.

  4. Low-fat dairy products consumption is associated with lower triglyceride concentrations in a Spanish hypertriglyceridemic cohort.

    PubMed

    Merino, Jordi; Mateo-Gallego, Rocío; Plana, Nuria; Bea, Ana María; Ascaso, Juan; Lahoz, Carlos; Aranda, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Una dieta cardiosaludable constituye el tratamiento de primera línea en la hipertrigliceridemia (HTG) aunque la asociación de los diferentes componentes de ésta con la concentración de triglicéridos (TG) en pacientes con HTG no está completamente establecida. Objetivo: Estudiar los patrones dietéticos en una cohorte de pacientes hipertrigliceridémicos y evaluar la asociación entres los diferentes componentes de la dieta y la concentración de TG. Métodos: El estudio, multicéntrico y transversal, incluyó sujetos (n = 1.394) diagnosticados de HTG (TG ≥?2,25 mmol/L) que fueron remitidos a diferentes Unidades de Lípidos pertenecientes a la Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Se realizó una valoración dietética mediante un cuestionario validado de 14 items además de la obtención de otras variables clínicas, antropométricas y bioquímicas. Resultados: Se definieron dos patrones dietéticos mediante análisis tipo cluster. Aquellos pacientes que seguían una “dieta cardiosaludable” (en la que predominaba el consumo de pescado, fruta, verduras, lácteos desnatados y legumbres) presentaron menores niveles de TG que aquellos que mantenían una “dieta no cardiosaludable” (con consumo de carne roja, productos cárnicos procesados, alcohol, bollería y azúcar predominantemente) (3,51 ± 2,41 vs. 3,96 ± 3,61 mmol/L, P = 0,002). El análisis multivariante determinó que el consumo de lácteos desnatados (B: - 0,089; 95% IC: -16,1, -3,1, P = 0,004) y el de alcohol (B: 0,070; 95% IC: 1,1, 13,1, P = 0,022) se asoció significativa, e independientemente de otros factores de confusión, con la concentración de TG. Conclusiones: Un patrón dietético típicamente mediterráneo incluyendo lácteos desnatados y un bajo consumo de alcohol se relaciona con menores concentraciones de TG en pacientes hipertrigliceridémicos, incluso en aquellos con tratamiento hipolipemiante. Queda patente así la importancia y necesidad del refuerzo del

  5. Topics in mathematical physics, general relativity, and cosmology in honor of Jerzy Plebanski

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plebanski, Jerzy; Garcia-Compean, Hugo

    pt. 1. Historical data. Jerzy Plebanski: the quest for new worlds / H. Garcia-Compean ... [et al.]. Pleasant memories with Jerzy Plebanski / D. Finley. My recollections of Jerzy Plebanski / A. Trautman. Working with Pleban / I. Robinson. List of Plebanski's publications -- pt. II. Invited papers (proceedings part). Organizing committee. The higher-energy precursor of the AdS/CFT correspondence / X. Amador ... [et al.]. How black holes grow / A. Ashtekar. Some theorems related to the Jacobi variational principle of analytical dynamics / S. L. Bazanski. Horizon structure of Born-Infeld black hole / N. Breton. Space-time torsion contribution to quantum interference phases / A. Camacho & A. Macias. Squeezing operator and squeeze tomography / O. Castanos ... [et al.]. A producer of universes / R. Cordero & E. Rojas. Moyal star-product on a Hilbert space / G. Dito. Null-Kahler structures, symmetries and integrability / M. Dunajski & M. Przanowski. Helicity basis and parity / V. V. Dvoeglazov. Second order supersymmetry transformations in quantum mechanics / D. J. Fernandez C. & A. Ramos. Generalized symmetries for the sDiff(2) Toda equation / D. Finley & J. K. Mciver. Differential equations and Cartan connections / S. Frittelli ... [et al.]. N = 2 String geometry and the heavenly equations / H. Garcia-Compean. Noncommutative topological and Einstein gravity from noncommutative SL(2, C) BF theory / H. Garcia-Compean ... [et al.]. Conservation laws, constants of the motion, and Hamiltonians / J. Goldberg. Electromagnetic wavelets as Hertzian pulsed beams in complex spacetime / G. Kaiser. Generalized k-deformations and deformed relativistic scalar fields on noncommutative Minkowski space / P. Kosinski ... [et al.]. Structure formation in the Lemaitre-Tolman cosmological model (a non-perturbative approach) / A. Krasinski & C. Hellaby. Ramond-Ramond fields in orientifold backgrounds and K-theory / O. Loaiza-Brito. Large N field theories, string theory and gravity / J

  6. 'Extra-regional' strike-slip fault systems in Chile and Alaska: the North Pacific Rim orogenic Stream vs. Beck's Buttress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redfield, T. F.; Scholl, D. W.; Fitzgerald, P. G.

    2010-12-01

    us to speculate towards the role of obliquity of plate tectonic convergence for the along-strike evolution of extra-regional strike-slip systems. Highly-oblique initiation of the DFS encourages detachment of fault-bounded terranes and provides a driver that encourages a westward-fanning pattern of extrusion towards the free face of the Beringian margin. Plausibly, its less-oblique central segment promotes vertical pathway exhumation observed at (for example) Denali itself. A more orthogonal regime drives the entire LOFZ, precluding slivering at its initiation and promoting upstream buttressing (Beck et al., 1993). The convergent plate boundary setting opens a window through time and space on the evolution of large-magnitude fault-systems. Escape, or not to escape ~ what best answers the question ? Citations Redfield, T. F., Scholl, D. W., Fitzgerald, P. G., and Beck, M. E., & 2007. Escape tectonics and the extrusion of Alaska: past, present, and future. Geology. 35, 11, 1039-1042 Beck, M.E., Rojas, C. and Cembrano, J. (1993). “On the nature of buttressing in margin-parallel strike-fault systems.” Geology, Vol. 21, pp. 755-758.

  7. PREFACE: International Conference on 'Quantum Control, Exact or Perturbative, Linear or Nonlinear' to celebrate 50 years of the scientific career of Professor Bogdan Mielnik (Mielnik50)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretón, N.; Fernández, D.; Kielanowski, P.

    2015-06-01

    Corral, F Rojas, KB Wolf and M Znojil belong to the subject of Quantum Control and Dynamical Manipulation, while the articles of D Bermudez, A Contreras-Astorga, E Díaz-Bautista, JC González, V Hussin and VS Morales-Salgado are related with Factorization Method, Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics and Coherent States. Finally, the papers of S Cruz y Cruz, M Enríquez, A Jaimes-Nájera and R Kerner address some Interdisciplinary Problems in Quantum Mechanics. We would like to conclude by thanking for the support of the Physics Department of Cinvestav, the Academic Affairs Offce of Cinvestav, and the Mexican National Council of Science and Technology (Conacyt, projects 152574 and 166581). Without their support, neither the Conference would have been held nor this Conference Volume would have been published.

  8. TNFα and IL-6 Responses to Particulate Matter in Vitro: Variation According to PM Size, Season, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Soil Content

    PubMed Central

    Manzano-León, Natalia; Serrano-Lomelin, Jesús; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Quintana-Belmares, Raúl; Vega, Elizabeth; Vázquez-López, Inés; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; López-Villegas, Maria Tania; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Perez, Irma Rosas; O’Neill, Marie S.; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R.

    2015-01-01

    seasonal differences in associations between health outcomes and PM in epidemiologic studies. Citation: Manzano-León N, Serrano-Lomelin J, Sánchez BN, Quintana-Belmares R, Vega E, Vázquez-López I, Rojas-Bracho L, López-Villegas MT, Vadillo-Ortega F, De Vizcaya-Ruiz A, Rosas Perez I, O’Neill MS, Osornio-Vargas AR. 2016. TNFα and IL-6 responses to particulate matter in vitro: variation according to PM size, season, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and soil content. Environ Health Perspect 124:406–412; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409287 PMID:26372663

  9. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Cuerda, Cristina; Álvarez, Julia; Ramos, Primitivo; Abánades, Juan Carlos; García-de-Lorenzo, Abelardo; Gil, Pedro; De-la-Cruz, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la desnutrición relacionada con la enfermedad (DRE) es un problema sociosanitario frecuente que afecta preferentemente a los mayores de 65 años, que aumenta la morbimortalidad y disminuye la calidad de vida.  Objetivo: estudiar la prevalencia de DRE en mayores de 65 años en diferentes centros sociosanitarios del Servicio Regional de Bienestar Social de la Comunidad de Madrid. Métodos: estudio transversal en 33 centros sociosanitarios de Madrid (6 centros de atención primaria [AP], 9 centros de mayores [CM], 9 hospitales [H] y 9 residencias [R]) seleccionados mediante muestreo polietápico. Las variables estudiadas fueron edad, sexo, nivel de dependencia según la escala de incapacidad de la Cruz Roja, motivo de ingreso y enfermedad de base, hábitat (urbano-periurbano-rural) y distribución geográfica (norte centro-sur). Como herramienta de cribado nutricional se utilizó el Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA-cribaje) en todos los centros. En los pacientes con cribado positivo (en riesgo-desnutrición) se realizó el MNA-evaluación. El estudio estadístico se realizó con el paquete SSS 21.0 e incluyó estadística descriptiva, test de Chi-cuadrado y prueba exacta de Fisher, ANOVA de un factor, Kruskal-Wallis y análisis de regresión logística (RL) binaria univariante y multivariante. Se consideró significación estadística p < 0,05. Resultados: se reclutaron 1.103 sujetos (275 AP, 278 CM, 281 H, 269 R), edad media de 79,5 ± 8,4 años (41,2% varones, 58,8% mujeres). Los sujetos procedentes de H y R tuvieron un mayor grado de incapacidad (p < 0,001). La prevalencia global de DRE fue del 10%, encontrándose un 23,3% en riesgo de desnutrición, con diferencias entre los cuatro tipos de centros sociosanitarios (p < 0,001). El análisis univariante de RL mostró diferencia significativas en la prevalencia de desnutrición según la edad, sexo, grado de dependencia, tipo de centro sociosanitario, hábitat y zona geográfica. Sin embargo, en el

  10. Fermi surface study of quasi-one-dimensional metals using magneto-optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Y.; Kimata, M.; Kishigi, K.; Ohta, H.; Koyama, K.; Motokawa, M.; Nishikawa, H.; Kikuchi, K.; Ikemoto, I.

    2003-08-01

    Magneto-optical measurements of a quasi-one-dimensional (q1D) organic superconductor (DMET)2I3 have been performed by using a cavity perturbation technique. Several resonant absorption lines, which can be attributed to the q1D periodic orbit resonance (q1D POR), were observed as well as quite unusual high order q1D PORs coming from its corrugated Fermi surface (FS) in the interlayer direction. Moreover, these resonances seem to disappear when the magnetic field is applied close to the conducting axis due to the FS topological effect, and the transfer integral ratio can be obtained from the angular dependence of q1D POR. The FS of (DMET)2I3 can be estimated from these analyses of q1D PORs, and we will show that it has a characteristic FS structure. The observed results also indicate that the interlayer transport of (DMET)2I3 is coherent.

  11. Back Cover: NIH MedlinePlus Salud

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues NIH MedlinePlus Salud Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. ¡A su salud! Los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH, por ...

  12. Prevención del cáncer de cavidad oral y orofaringe (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de información revisada por expertos sobre factores que pueden influir en el riesgo de presentar cáncer de labio, cavidad oral y orofaringe, y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a prevenir esta enfermedad.

  13. Light-harvesting ytterbium(III)-porphyrinate-BODIPY conjugates: synthesis, excitation-energy transfer, and two-photon-induced near-infrared-emission studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhu, Xunjin; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Tam, Hoi-Lam; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2013-01-01

    Based on a donor-acceptor framework, several conjugates have been designed and prepared in which an electron-donor moiety, ytterbium(III) porphyrinate (YbPor), was linked through an ethynyl bridge to an electron-acceptor moiety, boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY). Photoluminescence studies demonstrated efficient energy transfer from the BODIPY moiety to the YbPor counterpart. When conjugated with the YbPor moiety, the BODIPY moiety served as an antenna to harvest the lower-energy visible light, subsequently transferring its energy to the YbPor counterpart, and, consequently, sensitizing the Yb(III) emission in the near-infrared (NIR) region with a quantum efficiency of up to 0.73% and a lifetime of around 40 μs. Moreover, these conjugates exhibited large two-photon-absorption cross-sections that ranged from 1048-2226 GM and strong two-photon-induced NIR emission.

  14. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radiómetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las características más importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resolución (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y contínuo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna técnica de síntesis digital directa. Por último, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisición de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la selección de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

  15. Las características más fascinantes del nuevo Robot

    NASA Video Gallery

    impresionante es la palabra que describe perfectamente al nuevo robot Curiosity por su tamaño, sus instrumentos científicos y la manera en que la NASA planifica hacerlo aterrizar en Marte de forma ...

  16. Se calcula que los costos del cáncer ascenderán po

    Cancer.gov

    Con base en el crecimiento y en el avance de edad de la población de EE. UU., se proyecta que los gastos médicos por cáncer en el año 2020 ascenderán por lo menos a $158.000 millones (en dólares de 2010); lo que significa un aumento de 27% sobre 2010. Si

  17. [Cytomegalovirus: congenital infection and clinical presentation in infants with respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Contreras, Angélica; Lira, Rosalía; Soria-Rodríguez, Carmen; Hori-Oshima, Sawako; Maldonado-Rodríguez, Angélica; Rojas-Montes, Othón; Ayala-Figueroa, Rafael; Estrada-Guzmán, Julia; Álvarez-Muñoz, Ma Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: el síndrome de dificultad respiratoria (SDR) es una enfermedad común multifactorial que varía del 15 al 50 % en el recién nacido (RN), y la mortalidad es de 50 %. Puede estar asociado a infecciones bacterianas y virales, una de las más frecuentes: el citomegalovirus (CMV). En el periodo neonatal la incidencia de infección por CMV es de 0.4 a 2.5 % y la seroprevalencia de 50 a 75 %; se desconoce la incidencia de infección en los RN. El objetivo fue determinar la frecuencia de infección por CMV en recién nacidos con SDR e identificar factores de riesgo asociados a infección. Métodos: el DNA-CMV fue identificado en plasma por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) cuantitativa, y las variables maternas y neonatales que definieron el cuadro clínico fueron analizadas por regresión logística. Resultados: la frecuencia de infección por CMV en 197 RN con SDR fue de 8.6 % (IC 95 % 4.7-12.5). Las variables significativas en los RN fueron: neutropenia (p = 0.012), trombocitopenia (p = 0.021), piel marmórea (p = 0.03) y la variable materna significativa fue cervicovaginitis (p = 0.05). Conclusiones: se reporta por primera vez la frecuencia más alta de infección por CMV en RN con SDR y la asociación de varios factores de riesgo con la infección por CMV.

  18. Does Dietary Deoxynivalenol Modulate the Acute Phase Reaction in Endotoxaemic Pigs?--Lessons from Clinical Signs, White Blood Cell Counts, and TNF-Alpha.

    PubMed

    Tesch, Tanja; Bannert, Erik; Kluess, Jeannette; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Renner, Lydia; Kahlert, Stefan; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-12-23

    We studied the interaction between deoxynivalenol (DON)-feeding and a subsequent pre- and post-hepatic immune stimulus with the hypothesis that the liver differently mediates the acute phase reaction (APR) in pigs. Barrows (n = 44) were divided into a DON-(4.59 mg DON/kg feed) and a control-diet group, surgically equipped with permanent catheters pre- (V. portae hepatis) and post-hepatic (V. jugularis interna) and infused either with 0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW). Thus, combination of diet (CON vs. DON) and infusion (CON vs. LPS, jugular vs. portal) created six groups: CON_CON(jug.)-CON(por.), CON_CON(jug.)-LPS(por.), CON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.), DON_CON(jug.)-CON(por.), DON_CON(jug.)-LPS(por.), DON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.). Blood samples were taken at -30, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150, 180 min relative to infusion and analyzed for leukocytes and TNF-alpha. Concurrently, clinical signs were scored and body temperature measured during the same period. LPS as such induced a dramatic rise in TNF-alpha (p < 0.001), hyperthermia (p < 0.01), and severe leukopenia (p < 0.001). In CON-fed pigs, an earlier return to physiological base levels was observed for the clinical complex, starting at 120 min post infusionem (p < 0.05) and persisting until 180 min. DON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.) resulted in a lower temperature rise (p = 0.08) compared to CON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.). In conclusion, APR resulting from a post-hepatic immune stimulus was altered by chronic DON-feeding.

  19. Brain abnormalities in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a review.

    PubMed

    Rubia, Katya; Alegría, Analucía A; Brinson, Helen

    2014-02-24

    Objetivo. Revisar los hallazgos de los estudios con resonancia magnetica en el trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH) infantil y adulto. Desarrollo. Dichos estudios han demostrado que el TDAH se caracteriza por la presencia de multiples anomalias de caracter estructural y funcional, primordialmente en los circuitos frontoestriatales, pero tambien en los circuitos frontoparietotemporales, frontocerebelares e, incluso, frontolimbicos. Los datos aportados por los estudios longitudinales de resonancia magnetica estructural demuestran que el TDAH se caracteriza por un retraso en la maduracion estructural del cerebro. Esta conclusion se ve reforzada por los indicios indirectos ofrecidos por los estudios de cortes transversales, que indican la existencia de una inmadurez sustancial tanto en la funcion cerebral como en los patrones de conectividad estructural y funcional, indicios que, sin embargo, estan pendientes de confirmar en estudios longitudinales. La alteracion funcional de la corteza prefrontal ventrolateral parece estar mas afectada en el TDAH que en otros trastornos pediatricos, y existen algunos indicios de anomalias distintivas en los ganglios basales. Un metaanalisis sobre los efectos de los estimulantes en la funcion cerebral demuestra que el mecanismo de accion agudo mas congruente de los farmacos psicoestimulantes consiste en el aumento de la activacion de la corteza prefrontal inferior y los ganglios basales. Los primeros intentos por utilizar los datos de los estudios de neuroimagen para elaborar clasificaciones diagnosticas individuales de los niños con TDAH a partir de tecnicas de reconocimiento de patrones han cosechado resultados alentadores, pero todavia deben ser replicados por mas centros y aparatos de resonancia magnetica. Conclusiones. Durante los ultimos 20 años, las tecnicas de neuroimagen han perfilado los biomarcadores del TDAH, pero es necesario que nuevos estudios descubran la utilidad clinica de esa informacion, como el

  20. Lack of a surface layer in Tannerella forsythia mutants deficient in the type IX secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Yuka; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Shoji, Mikio; Nakane, Daisuke; Nagano, Keiji; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Naito, Mariko

    2014-01-01

    Tannerella forsythia, a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, is an important pathogen in periodontal disease. This bacterium possesses genes encoding all known components of the type IX secretion system (T9SS). T. forsythia mutants deficient in genes orthologous to the T9SS-encoding genes porK, porT and sov were constructed. All porK, porT and sov single mutants lacked the surface layer (S-layer) and expressed less-glycosylated versions of the S-layer glycoproteins TfsA and TfsB. In addition, these mutants exhibited decreased haemagglutination and increased biofilm formation. Comparison of the proteins secreted by the porK and WT strains revealed that the secretion of several proteins containing C-terminal domain (CTD)-like sequences is dependent on the porK gene. These results indicate that the T9SS is functional in T. forsythia and contributes to the translocation of CTD proteins to the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu. PMID:25023245

  1. Electron transfer by human wild-type and A287P mutant P450 oxidoreductase assessed by transient kinetics: functional basis of P450 oxidoreductase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yi; Chen, Mo; Penning, Trevor M.; Miller, Walter L.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is a 2-flavin protein that transfers electrons from NADPH via its FAD and FMN moieties to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic and drug-metabolizing P450s. Defects in the POR gene can cause POR deficiency (PORD), manifested clinically by disordered steroidogenesis, genital anomalies and skeletal malformations. We examined the POR mutant A287P, which is the most frequent cause of PORD in patients of European ancestry and partially disrupts most P450 activities in vitro. Flavin content analysis showed that A287P is deficient in FAD and FMN binding, although the mutation site is distant from the binding sites of both flavins. Externally added flavin partially restored the cytochrome c reductase activity of A287P, suggesting that flavin therapy may be useful for this frequent form of PORD. Transient kinetic dissection of the reaction of POR with NADPH and the reduction in cytochrome c by POR using stopped-flow techniques revealed defects in individual electron transfer steps mediated by A287P. A287P had impaired ability to accept electrons from NADPH, but was capable of a fast FMN ➔ cytochrome c electron donation reaction. Thus the reduced rates of P450 activities with A287P may be due to deficient flavin and impaired electron transfer from NADPH. PMID:25728647

  2. Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antiulcer properties of Porphyra vietnamensis

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Saurabh; Sharma, Kiran; Sharma, Ajay; Nagpal, Kalpana; Bera, Tanmoy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Aim of the present work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antiulcer effects of red seaweed Porphyra vietnamensis (P. vietnamenis). Materials and Methods: Aqueous (POR) and alcoholic (PE) fractions were successfully isolated from P. vietnamenis. Further biological investigations were performed using a classic test of paw edema induced by carrageenan, writhing induced by acetic acid, hot plate method and naproxen induced gastro-duodenal ulcer. Results: Among the fractions POR showed better activity. POR and PE significantly (p < 0.05) reduced carrageenan induced paw edema in a dose dependent manner. In the writhing test POR significantly (p < 0.05) reduced abdominal writhes than PE. In hot plate method POR showed better analgesic activity than PE. POR showed comparable ulcers reducing potential (p<0.01) to that of omeprazole, and has more ulcer reducing potential then PE. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that P. vietnamenis aqueous fraction possesses biological activity that is close to the standards taken for the treatment of peripheral painful or/and inflammatory and ulcer conditions. PMID:25767759

  3. [Therapeutic potential of bone marrow stem cells in cerebral infarction].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Cruz, Gilberto; Milián-Rodríguez, Lismary

    2015-05-16

    Introduccion. Las celulas madre constituyen una alternativa terapeutica que se encuentra en fase de experimentacion para el infarto cerebral. Objetivo. Mostrar la evidencia cientifica existente sobre el potencial terapeutico de las celulas madre de la medula osea en esta enfermedad. Desarrollo. El infarto cerebral representa el 80% de las enfermedades cerebrovasculares. La trombolisis constituye la unica terapia aprobada, pero, por su estrecha ventana terapeutica, solo se aplica a un bajo porcentaje de los pacientes. De manera alternativa, los tratamientos neurorrestauradores, como el de celulas madre, pueden aplicarse en periodos mas prolongados. Por esta razon se efectuo una busqueda bibliografica en PubMed con el empleo de las palabras clave 'stem cells', 'bone marrow derived mononuclear cells' y 'stroke'. Se encontraron evidencias de seguridad y eficacia de dichas celulas en diferentes momentos evolutivos del infarto cerebral. Se identificaron estudios que en clinica y preclinica las recolectaron por puncion medular y en sangre periferica, y las trasplantaron directamente en el area infartada o por via intravascular. El efecto terapeutico se relaciona con sus propiedades de plasticidad celular y liberacion de factores troficos. Conclusiones. El concentrado de celulas mononucleares autologas, obtenido en sangre periferica o por puncion de la medula osea, y trasplantado por via intravenosa, es una factible opcion metodologica que permitira rapidamente incrementar el numero de ensayos clinicos en diferentes etapas evolutivas del infarto cerebral. Esta terapia muestra seguridad y eficacia; sin embargo, deben ampliarse las evidencias que avalen su generalizacion en humanos.

  4. [Familial microepidemic of food-borne botulism in the Region of Madrid].

    PubMed

    Jalda, D; Junco, A; Alvarez-Moreno, M; Rodero, I; Carneado-Ruiz, J

    2016-07-01

    Introduccion. El botulismo es un sindrome causado por la toxina del bacilo Clostridium botulinum. La toxina actua bloqueando las terminaciones colinergicas presinapticas de la placa motora y del sistema nervioso parasimpatico, y ocasiona una paralisis flacida y un fallo parasimpatico. El modo mas habitual de adquisicion de la enfermedad es por ingesta de toxina preformada presente en las conservas caseras mal esterilizadas, aunque otros mecanismos son posibles. Su incidencia actual en Espana es muy baja. Casos clinicos. Se describen tres miembros convivientes de una familia que presentaron un cuadro de botulismo alimentario. Las manifestaciones clinicas iniciales mostraron predileccion por la paresia ocular y por sintomatologia disautonomica de escasa especificidad, y la agregacion familiar fue el indicio fundamental que sugirio el diagnostico. Posteriormente, los pacientes empeoraron y dos de ellos presentaron afectacion de la funcion respiratoria y precisaron ingreso prolongado en la unidad de cuidados intensivos. Los tres pacientes convalecieron y se recuperaron sin secuelas. Se consiguio detectar la toxina botulinica por bioensayo en los restos de alimentos, lo que confiere al caso la categoria diagnostica de confirmado. Conclusiones. La microepidemia familiar presentada constituye un caso de afectacion inicial predominantemente ocular y disautonomica. Asimismo, ilustra varios aspectos tipicos de la enfermedad: la sospecha diagnostica ante pacientes convivientes que acuden simultaneamente por clinica similar, las complicaciones caracteristicas del proceso y su tratamiento, el diagnostico de laboratorio y su historia natural hacia la resolucion.

  5. First example of a modular porphyrinoid assembly capable of stabilizing different metal ions in a single molecular scaffold.

    PubMed

    Murugavel, Muthuchamy; Reddy, R V Ramana; Dey, Dhananjay; Sankar, Jeyaraman

    2015-10-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of porphyrin-corrole-porphyrin (Por-Cor-Por) hybrids directly linked at the meso-meso positions for the first time. The stability and solubility of the trimer are carefully balanced by adding electron-withdrawing substituents to the corrole ring and sterically bulky groups on the porphyrins. The new hybrids are capable of stabilizing more than one metal ion in a single molecular scaffold. The versatility of the triad has been demonstrated by successfully stabilizing homo- (Ni) and heterotrinuclear (Ni-Cu-Ni) coordination motifs. The solid-state structure of the NiPor-CuCor-PorNi hybrid was revealed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The Ni(II) porphyrins are significantly ruffled and tilted by 83° from the plane of corrole. The robustness of the synthesized hybrids was reflected in the electrochemical investigations and the redox behaviour of the hybrids show that the oxidation processes are mostly corrole-centred. In particular it is worth noting that the Por-Cor-Por hybrid can further be manipulated due to the presence of substituent-free meso-positions on both the terminals. PMID:26242294

  6. Layer-by-Layer Surface Molecular Imprinting on Polyacrylonitrile Nanofiber Mats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuxuan; Cao, Bing; Jia, Peng; An, Junhu; Luo, Chao; Ma, Lijing; Chang, Jiao; Pan, Kai

    2015-06-25

    Surface molecular imprinting in layer-by-layer (SMI-LbL) film is known as a facile and effective strategy to build imprinting sites that are more accessible to template molecules compared with molecular imprinting in polymers. Herein, we accomplished the formation of SMI-LbL film on electrospun nanofibers for the first time. The SMI-LbL nanofibers were prepared by a template-induced LbL process on the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber substrates, followed by postinfiltrating and photo-cross-linking of photosensitive agent 4,4'-diazostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid disodium salt (DAS). The obtained nanofiber mat maintained the nanofibrous structure and showed rapid absorption and extraction of template molecules of meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)-porphine (Por). The binding capacity of Por reached 2.1 mg/g when 3.5 bilayers were deposited on the nanofibers. After six cycles of extraction and reabsorption, the binding capacity of Por remained at 83%. Moreover, the absorption results of the targeted templated molecule of Por and the control molecule of Fast Green, which had a very similar chemical structure and charge status to Por, indicated the specific absorption for template molecule of Por. Thus, a surface molecular imprinted nanofiber mat with high selectivity of the templated molecule has been demonstrated. PMID:26038802

  7. Photoactive protochlorophyllide-enzyme complexes reconstituted with PORA, PORB and PORC proteins of A. thaliana: fluorescence and catalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Gabruk, Michał; Stecka, Anna; Strzałka, Wojciech; Kruk, Jerzy; Strzałka, Kazimierz; Mysliwa-Kurdziel, Beata

    2015-01-01

    Photoactive Pchlide-POR-NADPH complexes were reconstituted using protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) and recombinant light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) proteins, His₆-PORA, His₆-PORB and His₆-PORC, from Arabidopsis thaliana. We did not observe any differences in the kinetics of the protochlorophyllide photoreduction at room temperature among the PORA, PORB and PORC proteins. In contrast, the PORC protein showed lower yield of Chlide formation than PORA and PORB when preincubated in the dark for 30 min and then illuminated for a short time. The most significant observation was that reconstituted Pchlide-POR-NADPH complexes showed fluorescence maxima at 77 K similar to those observed for highly aggregated Pchlide-POR-NADPH complexes in prolamellar bodies (PLBs) in vivo. Homology models of PORA, PORB and PORC of Arabidopsis thaliana were developed to compare predicted structures of POR isoforms. There were only slight structural differences, mainly in the organisation of helices and loops, but not in the shape of whole molecules. This is the first comparative analysis of all POR isoforms functioning at different stages of A. thaliana development.

  8. Effect of binge eating disorder on the outcomes of laparoscopic gastric bypass in the treatment of morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    García Díaz, Eduardo; Jerez Arzola, María Elena; Martín Folgueras, Tomás; Morcillo Herrera, Luis; Jiménez Sosa, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Los estudios previos sobre el efecto del trastorno por atracón en los resultados del tratamiento de la obesidad mediante bypass gástrico por vía laparoscópica (LGBP) son controvertidos. Faltan trabajos que comparen a pacientes con y sin trastorno por atracón según el sistema BAROS, que incluye: el porcentaje de sobrepeso perdido, la evolución de las comorbilidades, la calidad de vida y las complicaciones. Objetivo: Estudiar si el trastorno por atracón predispone a peores resultados tras el LGBP en los términos que definen el sistema BAROS. Métodos: En un estudio de cohortes con 45 obesos mórbidos intervenidos mediante LGBP, se identificó a los pacientes con trastorno por atracón prequirúrgico mediante el Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns- Revised y se valoró sus resultados según los parámetros incluidos en el sistema BAROS. Resultados: El 21,4% de los pacientes presentaban trastorno por atracón. La mediana de seguimiento postoperatorio fue 12 meses. Los pacientes con trastorno por atracón presentaron menor tasa de resolución de la hipertensión arterial (42,9% frente a 92,9%; p = 0,025) y mayor frecuencia de estenosis de la anastomosis gastroyeyunal (70% frente al 17,1%; p = 0,003) que los pacientes sin trastorno por atracón. No se encontraron diferencias entre los grupos con y sin trastorno por atracón respecto al porcentaje de sobrepeso perdido, calidad de vida y puntuación global BAROS. Conclusiones: Los obesos con trastorno por atracón presentan tras el LGBP menores tasas de resolución de la hipertensión arterial y se complican más frecuentemente con una estenosis de la anastomosis gastroyeyunal. La valoración BAROS, la pérdida de peso y la calidad de vida son equiparables a la de los pacientes sin trastornopor atracón.

  9. Addressing Health Disparities among Men: Demographic, Behavioral and Clinical Characteristics of Men who have Sex with Men Living in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Colón-López, Vivian; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos; Suárez, Erick L.; Pérez, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics associated with HIV among Men who have sex with Men (MSM) and men who have sex with women (MSW) in Puerto Rico. Data from a population-based cross-sectional study in PR (2005–2008) was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study sample and bivariate analyses were performed to identify differences of sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics between MSM and MSW. Exact logistic regression models adjusting for age were constructed for each risk behavior associated to MSM in bivariate analysis. Of the 674 men interviewed, 6.1% (n=41) reported ever having sex with men. Age-adjusted logistic regression models indicated that MSM were significantly more likely than MSW to have first sexual intercourse before the age of 15 (POR=2.6; 95%CI= 1.3, 5.3) and have at least 10 lifetime sex partners (POR=2.8; 95%CI= 1.4,5.9). Also, MSM were significantly more likely to report lifetime use of marihuana (POR=2.7; 95%CI= 1.3,5.8), cocaine (POR=2.5; 95%CI= 1.2,5.0), amphetamines (POR=3.8; 95%CI= 1.4,9.2) and sedatives or tranquilizers (POR=3.3; 95%CI= 1.4,7.2). Also, MSM were 13 times more likely to be HIV seropositive as compared to MSW (POR=13.3; 95%CI=1.7,102.0). In this population-based sample of men living in Puerto Rico, self-reported same-sex behavior is strongly associated with HIV, and other behavioral factors associated with HIV. Future targeted research is still necessary for the development of intervention programs among MSM in Puerto Rico. PMID:24288521

  10. [Experience in molecular diagnostic in hereditary neuropathies in a pediatric tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ramos, Joaquín A; López-Laso, Eduardo; Camino-León, Rafael; Gascón-Jiménez, Francisco J; Jiménez-González, M Dolores

    2015-12-01

    Introduccion. La enfermedad de Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) es la neuropatia hereditaria sensitivomotora mas frecuente. Avances en el diagnostico molecular han incrementado las posibilidades diagnosticas de estos pacientes. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio retrospectivo de 36 casos pediatricos diagnosticados de CMT en un centro terciario en el periodo 2003-2015. Resultados. Se identificaron 16 pacientes con CMT1A por una duplicacion en PMP22; dos casos se diagnosticaron de neuropatia hereditaria con predisposicion a paralisis por presion, uno de ellos con una mutacion puntual en PMP22; un varon con un fenotipo leve desmielinizante se diagnostico de CMTX1 por mutacion en GJB1; un paciente con una hipotonia paralitica en el nacimiento y un patron axonal por mutacion en MFN2; un paciente de origen rumano se diagnostico de CMT4D por una mutacion en el gen NDRG1; una paciente con una atrofia muscular espinal congenita distal con neuropatia axonal leve asociada por mutacion en el gen TRPV4; tres niñas de una familia consanguinea de etnia gitana se diagnosticaron de CMT axonal con descargas neuromiotonicas por una mutacion en el gen HINT1; 12 pacientes no tienen diagnostico molecular actualmente, cuatro de ellos de etnia gitana. Conclusiones. CMT1A predomino en nuestra serie (44%), como corresponde a la bibliografia. Destacamos la descripcion de una paciente con una mutacion en TRPV4 recientemente descrita como causa de CMT2C y tres casos de una misma familia consanguinea gitana con la misma mutacion en el gen HINT1 recientemente publicada como causa de neuropatia axonal con neuromiotonia autosomica recesiva (AR-CMT2). El porcentaje de casos sin diagnostico molecular es similar al de grandes series europeas.

  11. Identification of functional circuitry between retrosplenial and postrhinal cortices during fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Siobhan; Poorman, Caroline E; Marder, Thomas J; Bucci, David J

    2012-08-29

    The retrosplenial cortex (RSP) and postrhinal cortex (POR) are heavily interconnected with medial temporal lobe structures involved in learning and memory. Previous studies indicate that RSP and POR are necessary for contextual fear conditioning, but it remains unclear whether these regions contribute individually or instead work together as a functional circuit to modulate learning and/or memory. In Experiment 1, learning-related neuronal activity was assessed in RSP from home cage, shock-only, context-only, or fear-conditioned rats using real-time PCR and immunohistochemical methods to quantify immediate-early gene expression. A significant increase in activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) mRNA and Arc and c-Fos protein expression was detected in RSP from fear-conditioned rats compared with all other groups. In Experiment 2, retrograde tracing combined with immunohistochemistry revealed that, compared with controls, a significant proportion of cells projecting from RSP to POR were immunopositive for c-Fos in fear-conditioned rats. These results demonstrate that neurons projecting from RSP to POR are indeed active during fear conditioning. In Experiment 3, a functional disconnection paradigm was used to further examine the interaction between RSP and POR during fear conditioning. Compared with controls, rats with unilateral lesions of RSP and POR on opposite sides of the brain exhibited impaired contextual fear memory, whereas rats with unilateral lesions in the same hemisphere displayed intermediate levels of freezing compared with controls and rats with contralateral lesions. Collectively, these results are the first to show that RSP and POR function as a cortical network necessary for contextual fear learning and memory.

  12. [Quality care in an intensive therapy unit at private hospital].

    PubMed

    Tejeda-Miranda, Mauricio; Anthon-Mendez, Francisco Javier; Esponda-Prado, Juan Gerardo; Rendón-Macías, Mario Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: el objetivo es evaluar la calidad de la atención en una unidad de terapia intensiva con índices internacionales de calidad. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, en una unidad de cuidados intensivos de atención privada en México. Se analizan los indicadores de 2012 con un total de 446 pacientes hospitalizados. Los indicadores de calidad fueron acordes a recomendaciones internacionales. La gravedad fue determinada por la escala SAPS III. Resultados: el indicador de neumonías asociadas a ventilación se encontró por debajo del estándar recomendado (11.7 frente a 12 por mil); la bacteremia relacionada a catéter venoso central en rangos aceptados (5.7 frente a 4 por mil). Las acciones de profilaxis de úlceras, prevención de tromboembolia pulmonar y prevención de caídas en altas proporciones de cumplimiento (> 90, > 95 % y 0 caídas). Las tasas de extubación no programada y reintubaciones estuvieron por debajo de los indicadores (< 1 por mil días intubación y < 12 %). La mortalidad fue menor a la estimada por la gravedad. Conclusión: En esta terapia la implementación de acciones recomendadas a nivel internacional ha permitido mantener una adecuada calidad de atención. El esfuerzo a impactado no solo a los pacientes con condiciones agudas de ingreso, sino también a pacientes con alto riesgo de mortalidad.

  13. Predictive modeling of coral disease distribution within a reef system.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gareth J; Aeby, Greta S; Cowie, Rebecca O M; Davy, Simon K

    2010-01-01

    Diseases often display complex and distinct associations with their environment due to differences in etiology, modes of transmission between hosts, and the shifting balance between pathogen virulence and host resistance. Statistical modeling has been underutilized in coral disease research to explore the spatial patterns that result from this triad of interactions. We tested the hypotheses that: 1) coral diseases show distinct associations with multiple environmental factors, 2) incorporating interactions (synergistic collinearities) among environmental variables is important when predicting coral disease spatial patterns, and 3) modeling overall coral disease prevalence (the prevalence of multiple diseases as a single proportion value) will increase predictive error relative to modeling the same diseases independently. Four coral diseases: Porites growth anomalies (PorGA), Porites tissue loss (PorTL), Porites trematodiasis (PorTrem), and Montipora white syndrome (MWS), and their interactions with 17 predictor variables were modeled using boosted regression trees (BRT) within a reef system in Hawaii. Each disease showed distinct associations with the predictors. Environmental predictors showing the strongest overall associations with the coral diseases were both biotic and abiotic. PorGA was optimally predicted by a negative association with turbidity, PorTL and MWS by declines in butterflyfish and juvenile parrotfish abundance respectively, and PorTrem by a modal relationship with Porites host cover. Incorporating interactions among predictor variables contributed to the predictive power of our models, particularly for PorTrem. Combining diseases (using overall disease prevalence as the model response), led to an average six-fold increase in cross-validation predictive deviance over modeling the diseases individually. We therefore recommend coral diseases to be modeled separately, unless known to have etiologies that respond in a similar manner to particular

  14. [Incidence and lethality of ischaemic stroke among people 60 years or older in the region of Tarragona (Spain), 2008-2011].

    PubMed

    Vila-Corcoles, Ángel; Satue-Gracia, Eva; Ochoa-Gondar, Olga; de Diego-Cabanes, Cinta; Vila-Rovira, Ángel; Blade, Jordi; Bobé, Francesc; Casanova, Raquel; Jariod, Manuel; Reig, Rosaura

    2014-12-01

    Introduccion. La informacion existente sobre la epidemiologia del ictus en nuestro pais es limitada. Este estudio analizo la incidencia y mortalidad por ictus isquemico en la poblacion general mayor de 60 años del area de Tarragona. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio de cohortes de base poblacional que incluyo a 27.204 personas de 60 o mas años adscritas a nueve areas basicas de salud en la comarca del Tarragones. Se realizo un seguimiento prospectivo durante tres años, en los que se seleccionaron todos los episodios de ictus isquemicos ocurridos entre los miembros de la cohorte desde el 1 de diciembre de 2008 hasta el 30 de noviembre de 2011. Se incluyeron exclusivamente episodios con diagnostico validado tras la revision de la historia clinica y se excluyeron aquellos casos sin confirmacion diagnostica por neuroimagen. Resultados. Se observo un total de 343 casos confirmados de ictus isquemico, lo cual supuso una incidencia de 453 episodios por 100.000 personas/año (intervalo de confianza del 95% = 408-504). La incidencia fue mayor en hombres que en mujeres (531 frente a 392 por 100.000 personas/año; p < 0,001) y aumento sustancialmente con la edad (195 frente a 517 y frente a 1.006 por 100.000 personas/año en 60-69, 70-79 y >= 80 años, respectivamente; p < 0,001). La incidencia fue mas de ocho veces superior entre las personas con antecedentes de ictus previo en comparacion con aquellas sin historia de ictus previo (2.962 frente a 340 por 100.000 personas/año; p < 0,001). El indice de letalidad global fue del 13%, y alcanzo el 21% entre las personas de 80 o mas años. Conclusiones. La morbimortalidad por ictus es considerable en nuestra poblacion. Medidas preventivas y tratamientos mas eficaces son imperativos.

  15. Identification of Functional Circuitry Between Retrosplenial and Postrhinal Cortices During Fear Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Siobhan; Poorman, Caroline E.; Marder, Thomas J.; Bucci, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The retrosplenial (RSP) and postrhinal (POR) cortices are heavily interconnected with medial temporal lobe structures involved in learning and memory. Previous studies indicate that RSP and POR are necessary for contextual fear conditioning, but it remains unclear whether these regions contribute individually or instead work together as a functional circuit to modulate learning and/or memory. In Experiment 1, learning-related neuronal activity was assessed in RSP from home-cage, shock-only, context-only or fear conditioned rats using real-time PCR and immunohistochemical methods to quantify immediate early gene expression. A significant increase in Arc (activity regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein) mRNA and Arc and c-Fos protein expression was detected in RSP from fear conditioned rats compared to all other groups. In Experiment 2, retrograde tracing combined with immunohistochemistry revealed that compared to controls, a significant proportion of cells projecting from RSP to POR were immunopositive for c-Fos in fear conditioned rats. These results demonstrate that neurons projecting from RSP to POR are indeed active during fear conditioning. In Experiment 3, a functional disconnection paradigm was used to further examine the interaction between RSP and POR during fear conditioning. Compared to controls, rats with unilateral lesions of RSP and POR on opposite sides of the brain exhibited impaired contextual fear memory whereas rats with unilateral lesions in the same hemisphere displayed intermediate levels of freezing compared to controls and rats with contralateral lesions. Collectively these results are the first to show that RSP and POR function as a cortical network necessary for contextual fear learning and memory. PMID:22933791

  16. Predictive Modeling of Coral Disease Distribution within a Reef System

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gareth J.; Aeby, Greta S.; Cowie, Rebecca O. M.; Davy, Simon K.

    2010-01-01

    Diseases often display complex and distinct associations with their environment due to differences in etiology, modes of transmission between hosts, and the shifting balance between pathogen virulence and host resistance. Statistical modeling has been underutilized in coral disease research to explore the spatial patterns that result from this triad of interactions. We tested the hypotheses that: 1) coral diseases show distinct associations with multiple environmental factors, 2) incorporating interactions (synergistic collinearities) among environmental variables is important when predicting coral disease spatial patterns, and 3) modeling overall coral disease prevalence (the prevalence of multiple diseases as a single proportion value) will increase predictive error relative to modeling the same diseases independently. Four coral diseases: Porites growth anomalies (PorGA), Porites tissue loss (PorTL), Porites trematodiasis (PorTrem), and Montipora white syndrome (MWS), and their interactions with 17 predictor variables were modeled using boosted regression trees (BRT) within a reef system in Hawaii. Each disease showed distinct associations with the predictors. Environmental predictors showing the strongest overall associations with the coral diseases were both biotic and abiotic. PorGA was optimally predicted by a negative association with turbidity, PorTL and MWS by declines in butterflyfish and juvenile parrotfish abundance respectively, and PorTrem by a modal relationship with Porites host cover. Incorporating interactions among predictor variables contributed to the predictive power of our models, particularly for PorTrem. Combining diseases (using overall disease prevalence as the model response), led to an average six-fold increase in cross-validation predictive deviance over modeling the diseases individually. We therefore recommend coral diseases to be modeled separately, unless known to have etiologies that respond in a similar manner to particular

  17. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and proteinuria: results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Mengling; Pesola, Gene R; Gamble, Mary V; Slavkovich, Vesna; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Hasan, Rabiul; Graziano, Joseph H; Ahsan, Habibul

    2011-01-01

    Background Proteinuria has been recognized as a marker for an increased risk of chronic renal disease. It is unclear whether arsenic (As) exposure from drinking water is associated with proteinuria. Methods We evaluated the association between As exposure from drinking water and proteinuria in 11 122 participants in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Proteinuria was detected by urinary dipstick tests at baseline and at 2-year intervals. As exposure variables included baseline well As and changes in urinary As during follow-up modelled as time-dependent variables in the analyses. Results At baseline, well As was positively related to prevalence of proteinuria; prevalence odds ratios (PORs) for proteinuria in increasing quintiles of well As (≤7, 8–39, 40–91, 92–179 and 180–864 µg/l) were 1.00 (ref), POR 0.99 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77–1.27], POR 1.23 (95% CI 0.97–1.57), POR 1.50 (95% CI 1.18–1.89) and POR 1.59 (95% CI 1.26–2.00) (P for trend <0.01). Hazard ratios for incidence of proteinuria were POR 0.83 (95% CI 0.67–1.03) and POR 0.91 (95% CI 0.74–1.12) for participants with a decreasing level of >70 and 17–70 µg/l in urinary As over time, respectively, and were POR 1.17 (95% CI 0.97–1.42) and POR 1.42 (95% CI 1.16–1.73) for participants with an increasing level of 16–68 and >68 µg/l in urinary As over time, respectively, compared with the group with relatively little changes in urinary As as the reference group (urinary As −16 to 15 µg/l). Conclusion The findings suggest that there are adverse effects of As exposure on the risk of proteinuria and the effects are modifiable by recent changes in As exposure. PMID:21343184

  18. Recombinant Salivary Proteins of Phlebotomus orientalis are Suitable Antigens to Measure Exposure of Domestic Animals to Sand Fly Bites

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Michal; Ferencova, Blanka; Warburg, Alon; Rohousova, Iva; Volf, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Background Certain salivary proteins of phlebotomine sand flies injected into the host skin during blood-feeding are highly antigenic and elicit strong antibody-mediated immune responses in repeatedly-exposed hosts. These antibodies can be measured by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISAs) using salivary gland homogenates (SGHs) as the source of antigens and serve as a markers for exposure to biting sand flies. Large-scale screening for anti-sand fly saliva antibodies requires replacement of SGH with recombinant salivary proteins. In East Africa, Phlebotomus orientalis is the main vector of Leishmania donovani, a trypanosomatid parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis. We tested recombinant salivary proteins derived from Ph. orientalis saliva to study exposure of domestic animals to this sand fly species. Methodology/Principal Findings Antigenic salivary proteins from Ph. orientalis were identified by immunoblot and mass spectrometry. Recombinant apyrase rPorSP15, yellow-related protein rPorSP24, ParSP25-like protein rPorSP65, D7-related protein rPorSP67, and antigen 5-related protein rPorSP76 were tested using ELISA with sera of domestic animals from L. donovani foci in Ethiopia where Ph. orientalis is present. Our results highlighted recombinant yellow-related protein rPorSP24 as the most promising antigen, displaying a high positive correlation coefficient as well as good sensitivity and specificity when compared to SGH. This recombinant protein was the most suitable one for testing sera of dogs, sheep, and goats. In addition, a different antigen, rPorSP65 was found efficacious for testing canine sera. Conclusions/Significance Recombinant salivary proteins of Ph. orientalis, specifically rPorSP24, were shown to successfully substitute SGH in serological experiments to measure exposure of domestic animals to Ph. orientalis, the vector of L. donovani. The results suggest that rPorSP24 might be a suitable antigen for detecting anti-Ph. orientalis antibody

  19. Co-infection of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus in pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Benitez, José Francisco; De la Luz-Armendáriz, Jazmín; Saavedra-Montañez, Manuel; Jasso-Escutia, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez-Betancourt, Ivan; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Hernández, Jesús; Martínez-Lara, Atalo; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto

    2016-02-29

    Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) and swine influenza virus infection causes respiratory disease in pigs. PorPV persistent infection could facilitate the establishment of secondary infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the pathogenicity of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus (swH1N1) in growing pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus. Conventional six-week-old pigs were intranasally inoculated with PorPV, swH1N1, or PorPV/swH1N1. A mock-infected group was included. The co-infection with swH1N1 was at 44 days post-infection (DPI), right after clinical signs of PorPV infection had stopped. The pigs of the co-infection group presented an increase of clinical signs compared to the simple infection groups. In all infected groups, the most recurrent lung lesion was hyperplasia of the bronchiolar-associated lymphoid tissue and interstitial pneumonia. By means of immunohistochemical evaluation it was possible to demonstrate the presence of the two viral agents infecting simultaneously the bronchiolar epithelium. Viral excretion of PorPV in nasal and oral fluid was recorded at 28 and 52 DPI, respectively. PorPV persisted in several samples from respiratory tissues (RT), secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). For swH1N1, the viral excretion in nasal fluids was significantly higher in single-infected swH1N1 pigs than in the co-infected group. However, the co-infection group exhibited an increase in the presence of swH1N1 in RT, SLO, and BALF at two days after co-infection. In conclusion, the results obtained confirm an increase in the clinical signs of infection, and PorPV was observed to impact the spread of swH1N1 in analysed tissues in the early stage of co-infection, although viral shedding was not enhanced. In the present study, the interaction of swH1N1 infection is demonstrated in pigs persistently infected with PorPV.

  20. Moléculas orgánicas obtenidas en simulaciones experimentales del medio interestelar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Caro, Guillermo Manuel

    Las nubes moleculares son regiones de formación de estrellas, con temperaturas cinéticas entre 10-50 K y densidades de 103-106 átomos cm-3. Su materia está formada por gas y polvo interestelar. Estas partículas de polvo están cubiertas por una fina capa de hielo, de unos 0.01 μm, que contiene H2O y a menudo CO, CO2, CH3OH y NH3. El hielo es presumiblemente irradiado por fotones ultravioleta y rayos cósmicos en las zonas poco profundas de las nubes moleculares y las regiones circunestelares. En un sistema de vacío, P ˜ 10-7 mbar, simulamos la deposición de hielo a partir de 10 K y la irradiación ultravioleta por medio de una lámpara de descarga de hidrógeno activada con microondas. La evolución del hielo se observa por medio de un espectrómetro infrarrojo. De este modo es posible determinar la composición del hielo observado en el medio interestelar y predecir la presencia de moléculas aún no detectadas en el espacio, que han sido producto del procesamiento del hielo en nuestros experimentos. También es posible calentar el sistema hasta temperatura ambiente para sublimar el hielo depositado. Cuando el hielo ha sido previamente irradiado, se observa un residuo compuesto por moléculas orgánicas complejas, algunas prebióticas, como varios ácidos carboxílicos, aminas, amidas, ésteres y en menor proporción moléculas heterocíclicas y aminoácidos. Algunas de estas moléculas podrían detectarse en estado gaseoso por medio de observaciones milimétricas y de radio. También podrían estar presentes en el polvo cometario, cuyo análisis químico está planeado por las misiones Stardust y Rosetta. Mientras tanto, nuestro grupo está llevando a cabo el análisis de partículas de polvo interplanetario (IDPs), algunas de las cuales pueden ser de origen cometario. Al igual que ocurre con los productos obtenidos por irradiación del hielo en nuestros experimentos, algunas IDPs son ricas en material orgánico que contiene oxígeno.

  1. [Neurological health care activity in a recently created district hospital: model of high efficiency].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Jiménez, Félix J; Plaza-Nieto, José F; Navacerrada, Francisco; Alonso-Navarro, Hortensia; Pilo-de-la-Fuente, Belén; Arroyo-Solera, Margarita; Guillán, Marta; Calleja, Marisol; Moreno-Puertas, Dolores

    2015-03-01

    Objetivo. Analizar la actividad asistencial de un hospital comarcal de reciente creacion, con especial enfasis en los indicadores asistenciales en consultas externas y en actos medicos de pacientes ingresados. Pacientes y metodos. Describimos la actividad asistencial realizada por nuestra seccion de neurologia durante los años 2008-2013. Se comparan nuestros indicadores asistenciales de los años 2012 y 2013 (quinto y sexto año de actividad), tanto en consultas externas como en pacientes ingresados, con los de otros dos hospitales de caracteristicas similares, otros tres de nivel secundario y otros cuatro de nivel terciario. Resultados. La seccion de neurologia de nuestro hospital fue la que realizo mayor numero de primeras consultas por facultativo, tuvo el mejor indice de consultas sucesivas/primeras y el mayor porcentaje de consultas de alta resolucion, tuvo la menor estancia media en los dos grupos relacionados por el diagnostico (GRD) mas frecuentes en nuestra especialidad, y fue la segunda en ingresos por facultativo del GRD 'ictus con infarto' y la tercera en ingresos por facultativo del GRD 'otros trastornos del sistema nervioso'. Conclusiones. Los indicadores asistenciales de la seccion de neurologia de nuestro hospital muestran un modelo de muy alta eficiencia, al cual solo se aproximan los de otros dos de caracteristicas y desarrollo similares al nuestro. La implantacion gradual de modelos similares al de estos tres hospitales en los niveles secundario y terciario podria ser de utilidad en la mejora de su eficiencia asistencial.

  2. [Delayed neurological syndrome following carbon monoxide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Lima, Manuel J; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Cesáreo; Cruz-Landeira, Angelines; López-Rivadulla, Manuel

    2015-08-16

    Introduccion. La intoxicacion por monoxido de carbono es la mas frecuente en nuestro medio a consecuencia de la exposicion a gases toxicos. Los efectos de la intoxicacion por monoxido de carbono no se limitan a la exposicion aguda porque, tras la aparente recuperacion de la intoxicacion, pueden aparecer alteraciones neurologicas o del comportamiento. Pacientes y metodos. Se realizo un estudio de las intoxicaciones por monoxido de carbono en un area sanitaria de 80.000 habitantes durante un periodo de 10 años. Posteriormente se hizo un seguimiento de estos pacientes y se valoro la aparicion de sindrome neurologico tardio (SNT) y su relacion con diferentes variables en la exposicion inicial al monoxido de carbono, en el tratamiento administrado o en la gravedad de la intoxicacion. Resultados y conclusiones. Se observo que el 9,1% de los intoxicados por monoxido de carbono detectados en el area sanitaria de Salnes desarrollan el SNT, que es mas frecuente en los pacientes con criterios analiticos de gravedad y muy poco probable en los que no los tienen. Los pacientes con SNT no expresaron manifestaciones clinicas ni analiticas diferentes a los que no presentaron el sindrome; tampoco se observaron diferencias en relacion con la terapia con oxigeno administrada. La tasa de SNT en el area sanitaria de Salnes entre 2002 y 2012 es de 0,84 casos por 100.000 habitantes y año.

  3. Decomposition of peroxy radicals in SiO2 glass with X-rays or KrF laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajihara, Koichi; Skuja, Linards; Hirano, Masahiro; Hosono, Hideo

    2005-01-01

    Decomposition of the peroxy radical (POR) was examined for wet SiO2 glasses exposed to X-rays from a Rh-target tube or KrF laser light. The exposure to KrF laser light destroys POR resulting in the selective formation of the oxygen dangling bond (termed non-bridging oxygen hole center, NBOHC). In contrast, the exposure to X-rays creates both the silicon dangling bond (E center) and NBOHC on bleaching of POR. Clear mutual correlation is found between the formation kinetics of the interstitial oxygen molecule (O2) and of the Si-Si bond but not between those of O2 and the E center. These observations indicate that O2 is created mainly from the radiolysis of the Si-O-Si bond by the Frenkel mechanism rather than by the dissociation of the Si-O bond in POR. It is concluded that both of KrF laser light and X-rays primarily dissociate the O-O bond in POR.

  4. TOPICAL REVIEW: Magneto-optical studies of low-dimensional organic conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Hitoshi; Kimata, Motoi; Oshima, Yugo

    2009-04-01

    Our periodic orbit resonance (POR) results on quasi-two-dimensional (q2D), highly anisotropic q2D and quasi-one-dimensional (q1D) organic conductors are reviewed together with our rotational cavity magneto-optical measurement system. Higher order POR up to seventh order has been observed in the q2D system (BEDT-TTF)2Br(DIA), and the experimental conditions to observe POR and the cyclotron resonance (CR) are discussed. Highly anisotropic q2D Fermi surface (FS) in β''-(BEDT-TTF)(TCNQ), which was considered to have q1D FS previously, is proposed by our POR measurements, and the possible interpretations of other experimental results of β''-(BEDT-TTF)(TCNQ) are discussed assuming the highly anisotropic q2D FS. Finally, detailed q1D FS of (DMET)2I3, obtained from our POR results, is discussed in connection with the typical q1D system (TMTSF)2ClO4.

  5. Human C4b-binding protein selectively interacts with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and results in species-specific infection.

    PubMed

    Ngampasutadol, Jutamas; Ram, Sanjay; Blom, Anna M; Jarva, Hanna; Jerse, Ann E; Lien, Egil; Goguen, Jon; Gulati, Sunita; Rice, Peter A

    2005-11-22

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the causative agent of gonorrhea, a disease that is restricted to humans. Complement forms a key arm of the innate immune system that combats gonococcal infections. N. gonorrhoeae uses its outer membrane porin (Por) molecules to bind the classical pathway of complement down-regulatory protein C4b-binding protein (C4bp) to evade killing by human complement. Strains of N. gonorrhoeae that resisted killing by human serum complement were killed by serum from rodent, lagomorph, and primate species, which cannot be readily infected experimentally with this organism and whose C4bp molecules did not bind to N. gonorrhoeae. In contrast, we found that Yersinia pestis, an organism that can infect virtually all mammals, bound species-specific C4bp and uniformly resisted serum complement-mediated killing by these species. Serum resistance of gonococci was restored in these sera by human C4bp. An exception was serotype Por1B-bearing gonococcal strains that previously had been used successfully in a chimpanzee model of gonorrhea that simulates human disease. Por1B gonococci bound chimpanzee C4bp and resisted killing by chimpanzee serum, providing insight into the host restriction of gonorrhea and addressing why Por1B strains, but not Por1A strains, have been successful in experimental chimpanzee infection. Our findings may lead to the development of better animal models for gonorrhea and may also have implications in the choice of complement sources to evaluate neisserial vaccine candidates.

  6. Genetic variations in NADPH-CYP450 oxidoreductase in a Czech Slavic cohort

    PubMed Central

    Tomková, Mária; Panda, Satya Prakash; Šeda, Ondřej; Baxová, Alice; Hůlková, Martina; Masters, Bettie Sue Siler; Martásek, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Background Gene polymorphisms encoding the enzyme NADPH–cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) contribute to inter-individual differences in drug response. Aim To estimate polymorphic allele frequencies of the POR gene in a Czech Slavic population. Materials & Methods The gene POR was analyzed in 322 Czech Slavic individuals from a control cohort by sequencing and HRM analysis. Results Twenty-five SNP genetic variations were identified. Of these variants, 7 were new, unreported SNPs, including two SNPs in the 5´flanking region (g.4965 C>T and g.4994 G>T), one intronic variant (c.1899 −20C>T), one synonymous SNP (p.20Ala=) and three nonsynonymous SNPs (p.Thr29Ser, p.Pro384Leu and p.Thr529Met). The p.Pro384Leu variant exhibited reduced enzymatic activities compared to wild type. Conclusion New POR variant identification indicates that the number of uncommon variants might be specific for each subpopulation being investigated, particularly germane to the singular role that POR plays in providing reducing equivalents to all CYPs in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:25712184

  7. [Subcutaneous drug administration in palliative care].

    PubMed

    Matoses Chirivella, Carmen; Rodríguez Lucena, Francisco José; Sanz Tamargo, Gregorio; Murcia López, Ana Cristina; Morante Hernández, María; Navarro Ruiz, Andrés

    2015-03-01

    Objetivo: Elaborar una guía que recopile toda la información disponible en la bibliografía para el personal sanitario sobre la administración de medicamentos por vía subcutánea en pacientes de cuidados paliativos de la Unidad de Hospitalización a Domicilio. Método: Se diseña una tabla resumen de fármacos susceptibles de ser administrados por vía subcutánea en pacientes de cuidados paliativos mediante la revisión de los informes técnicos de los laboratorios fabricantes y de otra literatura publicada por organizaciones científicas, además de la búsqueda bibliográfica en Pubmed® y Micromedex®. Resultados: Se han revisado 65 fármacos y se ha elaborado una guía de recomendaciones en función de si existe información de su administración por vía subcutánea o, si por el contrario, esta contraindicado su uso. Conclusiones: Aunque mayoritariamente los laboratorios fabricantes no disponen de datos, la información recopilada en esta guía permitirá el manejo de la vía subcutánea de algunos de los medicamentos más utilizados en cuidados paliativos.

  8. Estimación de pequeñas perturbaciones en satélites geocéntricos como un problema inverso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadunaisky, P. E.

    El movimiento geocéntrico de un satélite artificial es simulado automáticamente por un sistema de ecuaciones diferenciales de segundo orden que incluyen dos funciones perturbadoras. La primera representa el segundo término del potencial gravitatorio de la Tierra y la segunda corresponde al frenado atmosférico. Asumiendo como conocidas, por hipótesis o por mediciones, la posición y velocidad del satélite en instantes sucesivos se estiman las perturbaciones a intervalos sucesivos por un método determinístico. Para ilustrar el método y comprobar la precisión de nuestros resultados hemos simulado dos ejemplos incluyendo valores conocidos de las perturbaciones que luego comparamos con los resultados de nuestro método. El método puede aplicarse por ejemplo para el intervalo de una revolución satelital lo cual permitiría el diseño inmediato de una maniobra correctiva de la órbita satelital.

  9. Completing the surrogate motherhood process: parental order reporters' attitudes towards surrogacy arrangements, role ambiguity and role conflict.

    PubMed

    Purewal, Satvinder; Crawshaw, Marilyn; van den Akker, Olga

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of parental order reporters (PORs) towards their work with surrogacy arrangements and their experiences of role conflict and role ambiguity. A questionnaire was used to assess PORs' perceptions of their role in parental order [PO] applications, attitudes towards surrogacy arrangements and the legal process and the influence of role ambiguity or conflict. Questionnaires were distributed to all PORs employed by the Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service in England. Thirty-three PORs participated (response rate 46%) who, on average, had each completed five PO applications (range 1-40). Positive attitudes towards surrogacy and the child's needs for openness about origins were found. Concerns about the inadequacy of preparation and assessment arrangements, overseas arrangements and non-regulation of surrogacy agencies were evident. PORs with high-role ambiguity were more likely to report less positive attitudes towards the emotional consequence of surrogacy on offspring. High scores on role ambiguity and role conflict were reflected in less positive attitudes towards the parties' preparation towards parenthood. These results have implications for training, policy and practice in this area. PMID:22458916

  10. Sensitivity of the cortical pitch onset response to height, time-variance, and directionality of dynamic pitch.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M

    2015-08-31

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) demonstrate that human auditory cortical responses are sensitive to changes in static pitch as indexed by the pitch onset response (POR), a negativity generated at the initiation of acoustic periodicity. Yet, it is still unclear if this brain signature is sensitive to dynamic, time-varying properties of pitch more characteristic of those found in naturalistic speech and music. Neuroelectric PORs were recorded in response to contrastive pitch patterns differing in their pitch height, time-variance, and directionality (i.e., rise vs. fall). Broadband noise followed by contiguous iterated rippled noise (producing salient pitch sweeps) was used to temporally separate neural activity coding the onset of acoustic energy from the onset of time-varying pitch. Analysis of PORs revealed distinct modulations in response latency that distinguished static from time-varying pitch contours (steady-statePORs were insensitive to the direction of pitch sweeps (rise=fall). Our findings suggest that the POR signature provides a useful neural index of auditory cortical pitch processing for some, but not all pitch-evoking stimuli. PMID:26200250

  11. Buracos negros primordiais e astrofísica observacional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custódio, P. S.; Horvath, J. E.

    2003-02-01

    A história da física contemporânea é pródiga em grandes descobertas (a Relatividade e a Mecânica Quântica entre as mais importantes) até meados dos anos '30. O peso destes desenvolvimentos é tão grande que outros feitos de grande porte (por exemplo, a teoria da nucleossíntese nas estrelas) são geralmente considerados como "filhotes" dos primeiros, ao menos na imaginação popular. Porém, algumas exceções à regra não-escrita são dignas de menção. Entre estas últimas está a descoberta por S.W.Hawking e colaboradores das propriedades de emissão dos buracos negros, trabalho que iniciou uma disciplina com vida própria denominada Termodinâmica de Buracos Negros.

  12. [Validation of cut points of skeletal muscle mass index for identifying sarcopenia in Chilean older people].

    PubMed

    Lera, Lydia; Ángel, Bárbara; Sánchez, Hugo; Picrin, Yaisy; Hormazabal, María José; Quiero, Andrea; Albala, Cecilia

    2014-09-28

    Objetivos: Estimar y validar puntos de corte de índice de masa muscular esquelética (IMMAE) en adultos mayores chilenos, para el diagnóstico de sarcopenia Métodos: Estimación de puntos de corte para IMMAE determinados por DEXA y por ecuación antropométrica en un análisis secundario de datos transversales de 440 Adultos Mayores (AM) chilenos, y posterior validación transversal en una muestra de 164 AM. Se realizaron pruebas de rendimiento físico, auto-reporte de salud, antropometría y DEXA. Se definió la fuerza muscular disminuida por dinamometría de mano.

  13. Composition of breast milk of lactating adolescents in function of time of lactation.

    PubMed

    Bolognini Pereira, Kallyne; de Azeredo, Vilma Blondet; Barros da Sileira, Camila; Pedruzzi, Liliana Magnago

    2013-11-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la composición de la leche materna de lactantes adolescentes en función del tiempo de la lactancia. Métodos: Se siguieron 51 adolescentes lactantes, entre la semana 6 y 14 después del parto (WPP). Se llevaron a cabo la determinación de grasa, proteína y lactosa de la leche, respectivamente, por los métodos de Lucas, Lowry y Perry & Doan. Los micronutrientes se determinaron por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. Los datos fueron presentados por la media y el error estándar. ANOVA con medidas repetidas se utilizó Tukey como prueba post. Se aceptó un nivel de significación del 5%. Resultados: Se observó una reducción significativa (P.

  14. Periodic-orbit resonance in the quasi-one-dimensional organic superconductor (TMTSF)2 Cl O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, S.; Hill, S.; Takasaki, S.; Yamada, J.; Anzai, H.

    2005-07-01

    We report the observation of periodic-orbit resonance (POR) in a metal possessing pure quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) Fermiology—namely, the organic linear-chain compound (TMTSF)2ClO4 , whose Fermi surface consists of a pair of weakly warped sheets. The POR phenomenon is related to weak interchain coupling, which allows electrons constrained on open trajectories to acquire small transverse velocities. The application of an appropriately oriented magnetic field induces periodic motion transverse to the chain direction and, hence, to a resonance in the ac conductivity. This resonance phenomenon is closely related to cyclotron resonance observed in metals with closed Fermi surfaces. For the Q1D POR, the field orientation dependence of the resonance is related simply to the Fermi velocity and lattice periodicity.

  15. Role of Mobile Interstitial Oxygen Atoms in Defect Processes in Oxides: Interconversion between Oxygen-Associated Defects in SiO2 Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajihara, Koichi; Skuja, Linards; Hirano, Masahiro; Hosono, Hideo

    2004-01-01

    The role of mobile interstitial oxygen atoms (O0) in defect processes in oxides is demonstrated by interconversion between the oxygen dangling bond and the peroxy radical (POR) in SiO2 glass. Superstoichiometric O0 was created by F2 laser photolysis of the interstitial O2. On annealing above 300 °C, O0 migrated and converted the oxygen dangling bond to POR. Exposure to 5.0eV light converted POR back to a pair of the oxygen dangling bond and O0 (quantum yield: ˜0.1). These findings suggest that various defect processes typically occurring in SiO2 glass at ˜300 500 °C are related to migration of O0, which exists in the glass network in the peroxy linkage form.

  16. NADPH: Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase-Structure, Catalytic Function, and Role in Prolamellar Body Formation and Morphogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Timko, Michael P

    2013-02-01

    The biosynthesis of chlorophyll is a critical biochemical step in the development of photosynthetic vascular plants and green algae. From photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria) to algae, non-vascular plants, gymnosperms and vascular plants, mechanisms have evolved for protochlorophyllide reduction a key step in chlorophyll synthesis. Protochlorophyllide reduction is carried out by both a light-dependent (POR) and light-independent (LIPOR) mechanisms. NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (EC 1.3.1.33, abbreviated POR) catalyzes the light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide (PChlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide). In contrast, a light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase (LIPOR) involves three plastid gene products (chlL, chlN, and chlB) and several nuclear factors. Our work focused on characterization of both the POR and LIPOR catalyzed processes.

  17. Resonancias en la región trans-neptuniana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, T.; Ferraz-Mello, S.

    La expansión de la órbita del planeta Neptuno en la etapa de acreción del Sistema Solar exterior (Fernández e Ip 1984, 1996) parece ser un mecanismo eficiente para la captura de planetesimales en las resonancias exteriores con Neptuno (Malhotra 1995). Por otro lado, los estudios dinámicos realizados por varios autores indican que las resonancias son regiones de evolución estable, en contraste con el comportamiento caótico del resto de la región trans-neptuniana. Por estas razones, y si bien los datos observacionales son todavía muy limitados, se supone que los objetos descubiertos se encuentran en alguna de esas resonancias. En esta comunicación presentamos un estudio analítico y numérico de las principales resonancias exteriores con Neptuno.

  18. Como Lo Hago Yo: Anomalías del Tubo Neural en Guatemala — Mielomeningocele Unidad de Espina Bífida e Hidrocefalia

    PubMed Central

    Manucci, Graciela; von Quednow, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    En Guatemala nacen por añ 786 niños con defectos de tubo neural. Operamos 65 a 70 niños con mielomenigocele por año. Tenemos equipo multidisciplinario. Recomendamos parto por cesárea. Infección antes de la cirugía es un problema mayor. Derivación tardía es un problema. Disecamos la plaqueta con la técnica clásica. Suturamos la plaqueta para restituir la forma de la médula. Corpectomía en casos de cifósis. Hidrocefalía: Operamos el 80% de los niños. Chiari II: Operamos basados en los síntomas, primero nos aseguramos que la válvula funciona bien. Médula anclada: Operamos basados en los síntomas. PMID:24791216

  19. [Blood and urine lead levels in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Villegas, M del Carmen S; Cortés-Vargas, Astrid; Hidalgo-Luna, Ricardo Gerardo; Alam-Escamilla, David Abraham; Vargas-García, Víctor Manuel; Loría-Castellanos, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: los síntomas del trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad pueden persistir hasta la vida adulta en 60 % de quienes la padecieron en la niñez. Nuestro objetivo fue cuantificar los niveles de plomo en la sangre y la orina en niños con diagnóstico de trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad para identificar si existe alguna relación. MÉTODOS: estudio observacional que incluyó a una muestra cautiva del Servicio de Higiene Mental del Hospital General del Centro Médico Nacional La Raza, con diagnóstico de trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad. Se cuantificaron los niveles séricos y urinarios del plomo mediante la técnica de absorción atómica.

  20. Molecular and epidemiological studies of Porcine rubulavirus infection – an overview

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Romero, Julieta Sandra; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Berg, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Porcine rubulavirus-La Piedad-Michoacan-Mexico virus (PorPV-LPMV) was identified as the causative agent of a viral disease that emerged spontaneously in Mexican swine in the 1980s. Since the report of the initial outbreak of the disease, only one full-length genome from a strain isolated in 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been sequenced; sequence data are scarce from other isolates. The genetic variation of this virus that has spread throughout the main endemic region of Mexico is almost a complete mystery. The development of molecular techniques for improved diagnostics and to investigate the persistence, molecular epidemiology, and the possible reservoirs of PorPV are needed. Together, this will provide greater knowledge regarding the molecular genetic changes and useful data to establish new strategies in the control of this virus in Mexico. PMID:26584829

  1. [Presacral tumor as a differential diagnosis of recurrent pilonidal sinus].

    PubMed

    Mengual-Ballester, Mónica; Pellicer-Franco, Enrique; Valero-Navarro, Graciela; Alcaraz-Mateos, Eduardo; Soria-Aledo, Victoriano; Aguayo-Albasini, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: durante el desarrollo embriológico, el espacio retrorrectal o presacro está ocupado por células pluripotenciales y, por tanto, puede contener un grupo heterogéneo de tumores. Caso clínico: se comunica el caso de un paciente masculino de 22 años de edad, intervenido de sinus pilonidal recidivado. Con estudios de tomografía computada de pelvis y resonancia magnética nuclear se sospechó la existencia de un tumor quístico presacro compatible con tumor germinal; la lesión se extirpó quirúrgicamente por vía abdominal y se estableció el diagnóstico definitivo de teratoma quístico. Conclusiones: los tumores retrorrectales son lesiones poco habituales que es necesario descartar en caso de sinus recidivantes.

  2. Molecular and epidemiological studies of Porcine rubulavirus infection - an overview.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, Julieta Sandra; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Berg, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Porcine rubulavirus-La Piedad-Michoacan-Mexico virus (PorPV-LPMV) was identified as the causative agent of a viral disease that emerged spontaneously in Mexican swine in the 1980s. Since the report of the initial outbreak of the disease, only one full-length genome from a strain isolated in 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been sequenced; sequence data are scarce from other isolates. The genetic variation of this virus that has spread throughout the main endemic region of Mexico is almost a complete mystery. The development of molecular techniques for improved diagnostics and to investigate the persistence, molecular epidemiology, and the possible reservoirs of PorPV are needed. Together, this will provide greater knowledge regarding the molecular genetic changes and useful data to establish new strategies in the control of this virus in Mexico.

  3. Novel porphyrin-daunomycin hybrids: Synthesis and preferential binding to G-quadruplexes over i-motif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ping; Jin, Shu-fang; Lu, Jia-Zheng; Lv, Jun-liang; Wu, Gong-qing; Chen, Pan-Pan; Tan, Cai-Lian; Chen, Dian-Wen

    2015-02-01

    Encouraged by the enormous importance attributed to the structure and function of human telomeric DNA, herein we focused our attention on the interaction of a serious of newly prepared porphyrin-daunomycin (Por-DNR) hybrids with the guanine-rich single-strand oligomer (G4) and the complementary cytosine-rich strand (i-motif). Various spectral methods such as absorption and fluorescence titration, surface-enhanced Raman and circular dichroism spectrum were integrated in the experiment and it was found that these Por-DNR hybrids could serve as prominent molecules to recognize G4 and i-motif. What is more, interesting results were obtained that the hybrids with longer flexible links are more favorable in binding with both G4 and i-motif than the hybrid with shorter linkage. These Por-DNR hybrids may help to develop new ideas in the research of human telomeric DNA with small molecules.

  4. Structural domains in NADPH: Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases involved in catalysis and substrate binding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Timko, Michael P.

    1999-09-24

    Until recently little direct information was available about specific structural determinants within the light-dependent NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (PORs) required for substrate and cofactor binding, catalytic activity, and thylakoid membrane localization. Based on our previous DOE-funded studies, during the past year we brought to fruition a number of ongoing experiments, initiated several new avenues of investigations, and overall have made considerable progress towards establishing the basic structural parameters governing POR function. Our studies to date have defined residues and domains involved in substrate and cofactor binding and catalysis, and elaborated on the mechanism for membrane localization of POR in developing plastids. Our results and their significance, as well as our work in progress, are detailed.

  5. Formation of the seed layers for layer-transfer process silicon solar cells by zone-heating recrystallization of porous silicon structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukianov, A.; Murakami, K.; Takazawa, C.; Ihara, M.

    2016-05-01

    Thin-film crystalline silicon is promising for photovoltaic application to reduce the cost of photovoltaic energy. Porous silicon structures have been intensively studied as a seed layer for epitaxial growth of thin Si film and layer-transfer process (LTP). In this article, another approach for LTP has been proposed. The seed layers for epitaxial silicon growth have been formed by zone-heating recrystallization of double-layer por-Si structures. The influence of annealing parameters on porous silicon structures was studied. The transformation of por-Si layer to crystalline Si was observed with the formation of smooth continuous surface with the roughness 0.3 nm, peak-to-valley distance around 3.5 nm, and reduced density of pores. The mechanism of the transformation of por-Si surface due to the action of hydrogen in the passivated pores with preventing surface oxidation was proposed.

  6. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel; Martínez-López, Emilio José; Ruiz-Ariza, Alberto; Izquierdo-Rus, Tomás; Salas-Sánchez, Jesús; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2016-06-30

    Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio es evaluar las propiedades psicométricas del cuestionario de disfrute por el ejercicio físico (PACES) en adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad.Métodos: participaron 139 adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad: 91 niñas (edad = 13,85 ± 1,92 años; índice de masa corporal [IMC] = 26,83 ± 3,16 kg/m2) y 48 niños (edad = 14,29 ± 1,62 años; IMC = 28,31 ± 3,74 kg/m2). Para analizar el disfrute por la actividad física se empleó el cuestionario Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES).Resultados: los resultados del análisis factorial exploratorio y confirmatorio han mostrado una estructura de dos factores; a su vez el PACES presenta una consistencia interna muy alta (alfa de Cronbach = 0,908). La fiabilidad test-retest indica una buena concordancia temporal (Spearman rho = 0,815, p < 0,001). Por último, el PACES en adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad manifiesta una validez convergente adecuada con la intencionalidad de ser activo (MIFA), la atracción por la actividad física (CAPA), la resistencia cardiorrespiratoria y los pliegues suprailiacoy subescapular.Conclusión: los resultados confirman que el PACES es una medida válida y fiable del disfrute por la actividad física en adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad. El disfrute por la actividad física puede ser relevante en la participación de los adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad en estas actividades.

  7. [Beta-1 adrenoceptor blockade decreases the firing rate to painful stimuli in spinal wide-dynamic range neurons in rats].

    PubMed

    Lamothe-Molina, Paul J; Lamothe-Molina, Pedro A; López-Ávila, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: la epinefrina/norepinefrina inhibe la transmisión del dolor agudo; empero, no es claro el papel de los receptores beta-adrenérgicos. Por tanto, analizamos si los fármacos de estos receptores modulan la transmisión del dolor agudo mediante registro electrofisiológico unitario extracelular in vivo durante estimulación periférica dolorosa y no dolorosa en ratas. Métodos: estudio longitudinal en el que se cotejaron siete grupos de ratas: control (n = 11): solución salina (0,9 %); EPI (n = 8): 100 mcg epinefrina; agonista beta-1 (n = 8): 125 mcg dobutamina; antagonista beta-1 (n = 9): 100 mcg metoprolol; agonista beta-2 (n = 7): 100 mcg clembuterol; antagonista beta-2 (n = 8): butoxamina 100 mcg; antagonista beta-1 + EPI (n = 10): 100 mcg metoprolol + 100 mcg epinefrina. Se hizo análisis estadístico por medio de ANOVA. Resultados: La epinefrina redujo significativamente la tasa de disparo basal (RDB) en 34.1 % (p < 0.05) y la respuesta evocada por la estimulación dolorosa en 56 % (p < 0.05). No hubo cambios en la respuesta provocada por la falta de estimulación dolorosa. El antagonista beta-1 fue el único fármaco con acción beta-adrenérgica que redujo significativamente la respuesta evocada por la estimulación dolorosa en 41 % (p < 0.05). Conclusión: por primera vez un antagonista de los receptores beta-1-adrenérgicos (metoprolol) prueba ser eficaz en la reducción de la respuesta a la estimulación dolorosa en las neuronas ARD.

  8. [Visceral leishmaniasis in an HIV positive patient].

    PubMed

    Rossiere-Echazarreta, Natalia Lorena; Rodríguez-Campos, Esther Alicia; Morales-Esponda, Mario; Domínguez-Moreno, Rogelio; Cruz-Ortiz, Margarita; Rodríguez-Guzmán, Leoncio Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la leishmaniasis visceral o kala azar es la presentación clínica más grave. En México, es una enfermedad rara por lo que su diagnóstico es tardío y generalmente culmina en la muerte del paciente. Se describe a un paciente VIH positivo que desarrolló leishmaniasis visceral. El objetivo es explicar sus características fisiopatológicas y de su tratamiento. Caso clínico: hombre de 45 años de edad, quien ingresó al hospital por cuadro crónico de diarrea sanguinolenta, distensión abdominal, dolor tipo cólico, pérdida de peso y fiebre. A la exploración física se identificó paciente febril con dolor en fosa iliaca derecha y hepatoesplenomegalia. La prueba ELISA para VIH resultó positiva y el ultrasonido hizo evidente una tumoración en ciego, por lo que se realizó biopsia. El informe histopatológico indicó que se trataba de leishmaniasis. Conclusiones: en los pacientes con leishmaniasis e infección por VIH existe pobre respuesta al tratamiento y la mortalidad es alta, causada por la menor respuesta inmune del huésped. En la literatura especializada se sugiere el tratamiento establecido para la infección por VIH combinado con miltefosine y anfotericina B liposomal para la leishmaniasis.

  9. SUBCORTICAL CONNECTIONS OF THE PERIRHINAL, POSTRHINAL, AND ENTORHINAL CORTICES OF THE RAT. I. AFFERENTS

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Inês Tomás; Agster, Kara L.; Burwell, Rebecca D.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we characterized the subcortical afferents for the rat PER areas 35 and 36, POR, and the lateral and medial entorhinal areas (LEA and MEA). We analyzed 33 retrograde tract-tracing experiments distributed across the five regions. For each experiment, we estimated the total numbers, percentages, and densities of labeled cells in 36 subcortical structures and nuclei distributed across septum, basal ganglia, claustrum, amygdala, olfactory structures, thalamus, and hypothalamus. We found that the complement of subcortical inputs differs across the five regions, especially the PER and POR. The PER receives input from the reuniens, suprageniculate, and medial geniculate thalamic nuclei as well as the amygdala. Overall, the subcortical inputs to the PER are consistent with a role in perception, multimodal processing, and the formation of associations that include the motivational significance of individual items and objects. Subcortical inputs to the POR were dominated by the dorsal thalamus, particularly the lateral posterior nucleus, a region implicated in visuospatial attention. The complement of subcortical inputs to the POR is consistent with a role in representing and monitoring the local spatial context. We also report that, in addition to the PER, the LEA and the medial band of the MEA also receive strong amygdala input. In contrast, subcortical input to the POR and the MEA lateral band includes much less amygdala input and is dominated by dorsal thalamic nuclei, particularly nuclei involved in spatial information processing. Like the cortical inputs, the patterns of subcortical inputs to these regions are consistent both with the view that the dorsal hippocampus is important for spatial cognition and the ventral hippocampus is important for affective cognition, and the view that they provide considerable functional integration. We conclude that the patterns of subcortical inputs to the PER, POR, and the entorhinal LEA and MEA provide further evidence

  10. Routes to new hafnium(IV) tetraaryl porphyrins and crystal structures of unusual phosphate-, sulfate-, and peroxide-bridged dimers.

    PubMed

    Falber, Alexander; Todaro, Louis; Goldberg, Israel; Favilla, Michael V; Drain, Charles Michael

    2008-01-21

    New routes for the synthesis of mono tetraaryl porphyrinato hafnium(IV) complexes, Hf(IV)Por(L)(2), are reported, where the secondary ligands, L, are determined by the method of purification. These synthetic routes cater to the solubility of the macrocycles and provide access to Hf(IV) complexes of meso tetraaryl porphyrins bearing diverse functional groups such as phenyl, tolyl, pyridyl, pentafluorophenyl, and carboxyphenyl. The latter three derivatives significantly expand the repertoire of hafnium porphyrinates. One route refluxes the porphyrin with HfCl(4) in 1-chloronaphthalene or in a mixed solvent of 1-chloronaphthalene and o-cresol. A second, solventless method is also reported wherein the porphyrin is mixed with Hf(cp)(2)Cl(2) and heated to give the metalated porphyrin in good yields. Simultaneous purification and formation of stable porphyrinato hafnium(IV) diacetate complexes, Hf(Por)OAc(2), is accomplished by elution over silica gel using 3-5% acetic acid in the eluent. Exchange of the acetate ligands for other oxo-bearing ligands can be nearly quantitative, such as p-aminobenzoate (PABA), pentanoate (pent), or octanoate (oct). Notably, we find that two to three of a variety of small multitopic dianions such as peroxo (O(2)(-2)), SO(4)(-2), and HPO(4)(-2) serve to bridge between two Hf(Por) moieties to form stable dimers. The crystal structures of this library of Hf(Por) complexes are reported, and we note that careful analysis of crystallography data reveals (Por)Hf(micro-eta(2)-O(2))(2)Hf(Por) rather than four bridging oxo or hydroxy ions.

  11. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Calleja Fernández, Alicia; Vidal Casariego, Alfonso; Cano Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros Pomar, María D

    2016-03-25

    Introducción: la cuantificación y registro de la ingesta alimentaria del paciente hospitalizado es clave dentro del plan de cuidado nutricional. Objetivo: evaluar la validez de un cuestionario semicuantitativo de valoración del consumo comparado con una técnica de registro de alimentos por observación y pesada de los platos incluidos en la dieta hospitalaria. Métodos: estudio transversal realizado en condiciones de práctica clínica habitual. Las técnicas de valoración del consumo que se compararon fueron un registro por doble pesada y un cuestionario semicuantitativo por observación de la ingesta de cinco categorías (todo [> 80%], casi todo [80-60%], la mitad [60-40%], casi nada [40-20%] o nada [< 20%]), ambas realizadas por un dietista-nutricionista. La comparación entre ambas herramientas fue realizada con el índice kappa con ponderación cuadrática e intervalo de confianza del 95%. Resultados: fueron realizadas un total de 1.980 valoraciones. Se observó con el cuestionario semicuantitativo que en el 50% de los casos se ingirió todo, en el 19% casi todo, en el 13% la mitad, en el 9% menos de la mitad y en el 9% nada. La mediana de la ingesta por doble pesada de alimentos fue de 76,8 (RIC 45,8)%. Se observó que existió un acuerdo satisfactorio entre la técnica de doble pesada y la valoración visual del consumo con un valor κ = 0,907 (IC 95% 0,894-0,925). Conclusión: la escala visual empleada en este estudio permite cuantificar la ingesta real del paciente de forma precisa y adecuada por personal cualificado.

  12. [Identification of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex by PCR of AIDS and disseminated mycobacteriosis].

    PubMed

    García-Elorriaga, Guadalupe; Degollado-Estrada, Edgar; Villagómez-Ruiz, Alfredo; Cortés-Torres, Nancy; Arreguín-Reséndiz, Lilián; Del Rey-Pineda, Guillermo; González-Bonilla, César

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el objetivo de este artículo es Identificar y diferenciar el complejo MAC por PCR en pacientes con SIDA y micobacteriosis diseminada. Métodos: se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal para identificar MAC por biología molecular. Se sintetizaron dos conjuntos de iniciadores: MAV y MIN, para M. avium y M. intracellulare, respectivamente. El ADN total de células obtenidas de 29 aislados clínicos y muestras de suero de otros 24 pacientes con SIDA e infección micobacteriana diseminada fue extraído y se amplificó por PCR con los iniciadores MAV y MIN. Cada uno de los iniciadores MAV y MIN amplificó un segmento altamente específico de 1.3 kb del ADN homólogo, respectivamente. Resultados: veintinueve ADN de los aislados clínicos de MAC identificadas por Gen-Probe AccuProbes se amplificaron con los iniciadores MAV (M. avium). De las 24 muestras clínicas, 3 fueron positivas para M. avium y 6 para M. tuberculosis. Conclusiones: nuestros resultados demostraron que la técnica de PCR se puede aplicar para la diferenciación de M. avium y M. intracellulare por iniciadores específicos 16S rRNA. En pacientes con estadio avanzado de SIDA y en quienes se sospecha micobacteriosis diseminada, la presencia de anemia (incluso con cultivos negativos) fosfatasa alcalina elevada y una mediana de CD4 de 15.9/ml, se debe considerar seriamente el diagnóstico de infección por MAC; sugerimos que, de acuerdo con nuestros resultados, se justifica una estratificación más precisa de los pacientes en términos de sus recuentos de células T CD4.

  13. Instability of the Human Cytochrome P450 Reductase A287P Variant Is the Major Contributor to Its Antley-Bixler Syndrome-like Phenotype.

    PubMed

    McCammon, Karen M; Panda, Satya P; Xia, Chuanwu; Kim, Jung-Ja P; Moutinho, Daniela; Kranendonk, Michel; Auchus, Richard J; Lafer, Eileen M; Ghosh, Debashis; Martasek, Pavel; Kar, Rekha; Masters, Bettie Sue; Roman, Linda J

    2016-09-23

    Human NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene mutations are associated with severe skeletal deformities and disordered steroidogenesis. The human POR mutation A287P presents with disordered sexual development and skeletal malformations. Difficult recombinant expression and purification of this POR mutant suggested that the protein was less stable than WT. The activities of cytochrome P450 17A1, 19A1, and 21A2, critical in steroidogenesis, were similar using our purified, full-length, unmodified A287P or WT POR, as were those of several xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochromes P450, indicating that the A287P protein is functionally competent in vitro, despite its functionally deficient phenotypic behavior in vivo Differential scanning calorimetry and limited trypsinolysis studies revealed a relatively unstable A287P compared with WT protein, leading to the hypothesis that the syndrome observed in vivo results from altered POR protein stability. The crystal structures of the soluble domains of WT and A287P reveal only subtle differences between them, but these differences are consistent with the differential scanning calorimetry results as well as the differential susceptibility of A287P and WT observed with trypsinolysis. The relative in vivo stabilities of WT and A287P proteins were also examined in an osteoblast cell line by treatment with cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, showing that the level of A287P protein post-inhibition is lower than WT and suggesting that A287P may be degraded at a higher rate. Current studies demonstrate that, unlike previously described mutations, A287P causes POR deficiency disorder due to conformational instability leading to proteolytic susceptibility in vivo, rather than through an inherent flavin-binding defect.

  14. A PHYSICAL EDUCATION-BASED STRETCHING PROGRAM PERFORMED ONCE A WEEK ALSO IMPROVES HAMSTRING EXTENSIBILITY IN SCHOOLCHILDREN: A CLUSTER-RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL.

    PubMed

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Merino-Marban, Rafael; Real, Javier; Viciana, Jesús

    2015-10-01

    Introducción: los profesores de educación física deben llevar a cabo programas de intervención para que los estudiantes alcancen niveles de flexibilidad saludables. Lamentablemente, no se conocen estudios que examinen el efecto de un programa de estiramiento llevado a cabo solo una vez por semana en escolares. Objetivos: el objetivo del presente estudio fue comparar los efectos de un programa de intervención de estiramiento a corto plazo realizado una y dos veces por semana sobre la extensibilidad isquiosural en escolares en el contexto de la educación física. Métodos: una muestra de 180 estudiantes de educación secundaria de 12-14 años fue asignado aleatoriamente (por grupos naturales) a los grupos control, experimental 1 y experimental 2. Durante las clases de educación física, los estudiantes experimentales realizaron un programa de estiramiento durante ocho semanas. El grupo experimental 1 y 2 realizaron el programa de estiramiento una y dos veces por semana, respectivamente. Resultados: los resultados del análisis de varianza mostraron que los estudiantes de ambos grupos experimentales obtuvieron una mejora estadísticamente significativa de la extensibilidad isquiosural, comparado con los estudiantes del grupo de control (p < 0,01). Sin embargo, no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los dos grupos experimentales (p > 0,05). Conclusiones: un programa de estiramiento a corto plazo realizado una vez por semana mejora la extensibilidad isquiosural en escolares. Cuando el programa de estiramiento se lleva a cabo dos veces por semana, la mejora en la extensibilidad isquiosural de los estudiantes no es estadísticamente mayor.

  15. Determination of the Fermi velocity by angle-dependent periodic orbit resonance measurements in the organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, A. E.; Hill, S.; Qualls, J. S.

    2002-10-01

    We report on detailed angle-dependent studies of the microwave (ν=50-90 GHz) interlayer magnetoelectrodynamics of a single crystal sample of the organic charge-density-wave (CDW) conductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4. Recently developed instrumentation enables both magnetic-field (B) sweeps for a fixed sample orientation and angle sweeps at fixed ν/B. We observe series' of resonant absorptions, which we attribute to periodic orbit resonances (POR)-a phenomenon closely related to cyclotron resonance. The angle dependence of the POR indicates that they are associated with the low-temperature quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) Fermi surface (FS) of the title compound; indeed, all of the resonance peaks collapse onto a single set of ν/B versus angle curves, generated using a semiclassical magnetotransport theory for a single Q1D FS. We show that Q1D POR measurements provide one of the most direct methods for determining the Fermi velocity, without any detailed assumptions concerning the band structure; our analysis yields an average value of vF=6.5×104 m/s. Quantitative analysis of the POR harmonic content indicates that the Q1D FS is strongly corrugated. This is consistent with the assumption that the low-temperature FS derives from a reconstruction of the high-temperature quasi-two-dimensional FS, caused by the CDW instability. Detailed analysis of the angle dependence of the POR yields parameters associated with the CDW superstructure, which are consistent with published results. Finally, we address the issue as to whether or not the interlayer electrodynamics are coherent in the title compound. We obtain a relaxation time from the POR linewidths, which is considerably longer than the interlayer hopping time, indicating that the transport in this direction is coherent.

  16. Angle-dependent high magnetic field microwave spectroscopy of low dimensional conductors and superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Susumu

    This dissertation presents studies of angle-dependent high-field microwave spectroscopy of low dimensional conductors and superconductors. Over the past 20 years, low dimensional conductors and superconductors have been investigated extensively because of their unusual superconducting, electronic and magnetic ground states. In order to understand these phenomena, it is important to study the topology of the Fermi surface (FS). We employ a novel type of cyclotron resonance to study the FS, the so-called periodic orbit resonance (POR). In Chapter 2, we explain the details of the POR effect using a semiclassical description. An important aspect of this POR effect is that it is applicable not only to a quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) FS, but also to a quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) FS. In Chapter 3, our experimental techniques are presented. We outline a rotating cylindrical cavity, which enables angle-dependent cavity perturbation measurements in ultra-high-field magnets, and two-axis rotation capabilities in standard high-field superconducting split-pair magnets. In Chapters 4 and 5, the results of studies of the Q1D conductor (TMTSF) 2ClO4, are shown. Using the POR, we determined the Fermi velocity vF and revealed new information concerning the nature of the so-called Lebed effect in Chapter 4. In Chapter 5, we studied the non-magnetic, impurity effect and its influence on the possible spin-triplet superconductivity in (TMTSF)2ClO4. In Chapter 6, measurements of the POR are performed in the Q2D conductors kappa-(ET)2X [X=Cu(NCS)2 and I3]. In X=I3, POR involving the magnetic breakdown effect was observed for the first time.

  17. [Subjective memory complaints, personality and prefrontal symptomatology in young adults].

    PubMed

    Pedrero-Pérez, Eduardo J; Ruiz-Sánchez de León, José M

    2013-10-01

    Introduccion. El presente trabajo explora dos cuestiones relacionadas con la aparicion de quejas subjetivas de memoria en adultos jovenes: la posibilidad de que dichas quejas sean resultado de deficits atencionales y ejecutivos, y, por otro lado, si determinadas caracteristicas de la personalidad propician y modulan la expresion clinica de las quejas. Sujetos y metodos. Se administro el Memory Everyday Failures, version española, el inventario de sintomas prefrontales y el inventario del temperamento y el caracter-revisado a una muestra de 1.132 participantes (900 de poblacion general y 232 en tratamiento por adiccion a drogas). Se exploro la correlacion entre variables de las quejas de memoria, del funcionamiento prefrontal en la vida diaria y de las dimensiones de la personalidad propuestas por Cloninger. Se estudiaron relaciones de causalidad entre las variables mediante metodos estructurales. Resultados. Se observa una fuerte correlacion entre las quejas cognitivas y la sintomatologia prefrontal, lo que sugiere que las quejas son, en realidad, resultado de una inadecuada gestion atencional y ejecutiva que propicia los errores cotidianos. Se aprecia tambien una relacion con gran tamaño del efecto entre las quejas cognitivas y la baja autodireccion. Esta dimension de la personalidad presenta una importante capacidad predictiva sobre la aparicion y la intensidad de las quejas, bien directamente, bien modulada por otras dimensiones, especialmente la evitacion del daño. Conclusiones. Los datos apoyan la idea de que las quejas de memoria son producto de la autopercepcion de fallos y errores cotidianos provocados a nivel atencional y ejecutivo –aunque son tenidos por olvidos mnesicos–, y que la expresion clinica de dichas quejas esta modulada por un perfil de la personalidad.

  18. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    San Mauro Martin, Ismael; Mendive Dubourdieu, Paula; Paredes Barato, Víctor; Garicano Vilar, Elena

    2016-07-19

    Introducción: la tradición de la comida picante desempeña un papel muy importante en el gusto por este tipo de comida y su tolerancia. Las preferencias alimentarias muestran influencia genética y ambiental.Objetivos: estudiar la tolerancia y el gusto por el picante de tres poblaciones, y la influencia hereditaria y del ambiente.Métodos:se realizó una encuesta a 522 sujetos, de tres continentes (Asia, Europa y Latinoamérica) en tres idiomas (español, inglés y chino) a través de Internet. Se realizaron preguntas acerca de la tolerancia al picante, el gusto por los alimentos picantes, su uso, la edad de comienzo de consumo, el gusto del padre y de la madre y si ella lo consumía durante el embarazo y/o lactancia.Resultados: existe diferencia entre el gusto por el picante del hijo y el sexo (p < 0,001), la tolerancia (p < 0,001) y, solo en el sexo femenino, el gusto de la madre por el picante (p < 0,001), su consumo durante el embarazo (p < 0,001) y la lactancia (p = 0,005) y el gusto del padre por el picante (p = 0,003). Existe correlación entre el continente de residencia (p = 0,007) y de nacimiento (p = 0,012) y la tolerancia a los alimentos picantes.Conclusión: la influencia de los progenitores, el género y la composición corporal se relacionaron con gustos y tolerancias diferentes.

  19. Anastomotic reinforcement with omentoplasty following gastrointestinal anastomosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, T; Markar, S R; Arya, S; Hanna, G B

    2015-09-01

    Anastomotic leak is a potentially devastating complication following gastrointestinal anastomosis. Some surgeons believe that reinforcing the anastomosis with omentum reduces the incidence and severity of anastomotic leak. A comprehensive electronic search of EMBASE, Medline, Web of Science and Cochrane databases was performed. Pooled odds ratios (POR) were calculated for discrete variables. There were six studies investigating esophageal anastomosis and 3 studies investigating colorectal anastomosis identified by the literature search. A total of 2296 patients were included, 1073 with omentoplasty and 1223 without. In esophageal surgery omentoplasty significantly reduced the rate of anastomotic leak (2.9% vs 10.5% (POR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.17 to 0.47; P < 0.0001), but there was no significant effect upon in-hospital mortality (2.3% vs. 2.5%; POR = 0.911 [95% CI 0.439-1.887]; P = 0.802) or anastomotic stricture between the two groups (6.6% vs 9.1%; POR = 0.842 [95% CI 0.331 to 2.145]; P = 0.720). In colorectal surgery there was no significant difference in anastomotic leak rate (5.0% vs 8.4%; POR: 0.50; 95% CI 0.21 to 1.17) or in-hospital mortality (4.2% vs 4.1%; POR: 0.90; 95% CI 0.34 to 2.41). The results of this analysis show that omentoplasty significantly reduced the rate of anastomotic leak following esophageal anastomosis but these results were not observed in colorectal anastomosis. Omentoplasty could be used as an adjunct technique to reduce the incidence of anastomotic leak in oesophageal anastomosis.

  20. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    San Mauro Martin, Ismael; Mendive Dubourdieu, Paula; Paredes Barato, Víctor; Garicano Vilar, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la tradición de la comida picante desempeña un papel muy importante en el gusto por este tipo de comida y su tolerancia. Las preferencias alimentarias muestran influencia genética y ambiental.Objetivos: estudiar la tolerancia y el gusto por el picante de tres poblaciones, y la influencia hereditaria y del ambiente.Métodos:se realizó una encuesta a 522 sujetos, de tres continentes (Asia, Europa y Latinoamérica) en tres idiomas (español, inglés y chino) a través de Internet. Se realizaron preguntas acerca de la tolerancia al picante, el gusto por los alimentos picantes, su uso, la edad de comienzo de consumo, el gusto del padre y de la madre y si ella lo consumía durante el embarazo y/o lactancia.Resultados: existe diferencia entre el gusto por el picante del hijo y el sexo (p < 0,001), la tolerancia (p < 0,001) y, solo en el sexo femenino, el gusto de la madre por el picante (p < 0,001), su consumo durante el embarazo (p < 0,001) y la lactancia (p = 0,005) y el gusto del padre por el picante (p = 0,003). Existe correlación entre el continente de residencia (p = 0,007) y de nacimiento (p = 0,012) y la tolerancia a los alimentos picantes.Conclusión: la influencia de los progenitores, el género y la composición corporal se relacionaron con gustos y tolerancias diferentes. PMID:27571668

  1. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel; Martínez-López, Emilio José; Ruiz-Ariza, Alberto; Izquierdo-Rus, Tomás; Salas-Sánchez, Jesús; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio es evaluar las propiedades psicométricas del cuestionario de disfrute por el ejercicio físico (PACES) en adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad.Métodos: participaron 139 adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad: 91 niñas (edad = 13,85 ± 1,92 años; índice de masa corporal [IMC] = 26,83 ± 3,16 kg/m2) y 48 niños (edad = 14,29 ± 1,62 años; IMC = 28,31 ± 3,74 kg/m2). Para analizar el disfrute por la actividad física se empleó el cuestionario Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES).Resultados: los resultados del análisis factorial exploratorio y confirmatorio han mostrado una estructura de dos factores; a su vez el PACES presenta una consistencia interna muy alta (alfa de Cronbach = 0,908). La fiabilidad test-retest indica una buena concordancia temporal (Spearman rho = 0,815, p < 0,001). Por último, el PACES en adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad manifiesta una validez convergente adecuada con la intencionalidad de ser activo (MIFA), la atracción por la actividad física (CAPA), la resistencia cardiorrespiratoria y los pliegues suprailiacoy subescapular.Conclusión: los resultados confirman que el PACES es una medida válida y fiable del disfrute por la actividad física en adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad. El disfrute por la actividad física puede ser relevante en la participación de los adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad en estas actividades. PMID:27513493

  2. [Premature twins: clinic comparison, reproductive assisted techniques versus spontaneous conception].

    PubMed

    Noriega-Alvarez, Roxana; Iglesias-Leboreiro, José; Bernardez-Zapata, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: los embarazos gemelares ocurren una vez cada 800 embarazos. Debido al incremento en la edad materna y a la prevalencia de la infertilidad ha aumentado el uso de las técnicas de reproducción asistida (TRA). De los embarazos resueltos por medio de estas técnicas, 35 % son gemelares. Las TRA se definen como tratamientos de infertilidad en los que oocitos y espermatozoides son manipulados. El objetivo de este estudio consistió en comparar el comportamiento clínico de los gemelos obtenidos por técnicas de reproducción asistida frente al de los gemelos obtenidos de manera espontánea. Métodos: estudio de cohorte retrolectiva. La información se obtuvo de expedientes de pacientes gemelares recién nacidos con 37 semanas de gestación o menos durante el periodo agosto 2010-2013. La población se dividió en dos grupos: los concebidos por técnicas de reproducción asistida (TRA) y los espontáneos (CE). Se compararon características demográficas y resultados neonatales. Resultados: fueron en total 398 pacientes: 208 pacientes por TRA y 190 por CE. De las variables analizadas no existe diferencia significativa entre grupos, únicamente en enterocolitis necrosante y nutrición parenteral. El número de días de estancia intrahospitalaria por grupos no tuvo resultados significativos. Conclusión: el modo de concepción no tuvo un efecto detectable en la mortalidad y la morbilidad neonatales.

  3. Subcortical connections of the perirhinal, postrhinal, and entorhinal cortices of the rat. I. afferents.

    PubMed

    Tomás Pereira, Inês; Agster, Kara L; Burwell, Rebecca D

    2016-09-01

    In this study the subcortical afferents for the rat PER areas 35 and 36, POR, and the lateral and medial entorhinal areas (LEA and MEA) were characterized. We analyzed 33 retrograde tract-tracing experiments distributed across the five regions. For each experiment, we estimated the total numbers, percentages, and densities of labeled cells in 36 subcortical structures and nuclei distributed across septum, basal ganglia, claustrum, amygdala, olfactory structures, thalamus, and hypothalamus. We found that the complement of subcortical inputs differs across the five regions, especially the PER and POR. The PER receives input from the reuniens, suprageniculate, and medial geniculate thalamic nuclei as well as the amygdala. Overall, the subcortical inputs to the PER were consistent with a role in perception, multimodal processing, and the formation of associations that include the motivational significance of individual items and objects. Subcortical inputs to the POR were dominated by the dorsal thalamus, particularly the lateral posterior nucleus, a region implicated in visuospatial attention. The complement of subcortical inputs to the POR is consistent with a role in representing and monitoring the local spatial context. We also report that, in addition to the PER, the LEA and the medial band of the MEA also receive strong amygdala input. In contrast, subcortical input to the POR and the MEA lateral band includes much less amygdala input and is dominated by dorsal thalamic nuclei, particularly nuclei involved in spatial information processing. Thus, some subcortical inputs are consistent with the view that there is functional differentiation along the septotemporal axis of the hippocampus, but others provide considerable integration. Overall, we conclude that the patterns of subcortical inputs to the PER, POR, and the entorhinal LEA and MEA provide further evidence for functional differentiation in the medial temporal lobe. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID

  4. Preferential regeneration of the NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase oligomer complexes in pea epicotyls after bleaching.

    PubMed

    Szenzenstein, Andrea; Kósa, Annamária; Solymosi, Katalin; Sárvári, Eva; Böddi, Béla

    2010-01-01

    The regeneration and stability of the NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR, EC 1.3.1.33) enzyme complexes were studied in bleached epicotyls of 9-day-old dark-germinated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Zsuzsi) seedlings. Middle segments were illuminated with 1300 micromol m(-2) s(-1) photon flux density (PFD) white light and subsequently incubated in total darkness for 4-24 h at 24 degrees C. Almost the full amount of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) was degraded after 60 min illumination. The preferential regeneration of the 655 nm emitting Pchlide form was observed after 4 h dark incubation; the accumulation of the short-wavelength Pchlide form-dominating in epicotyls of dark-grown seedling-required 18-24 h dark. The Pchlide content of bleached samples was around 2.5% of that of the etiolated samples; after 4 h of dark incubation this value increased to 4-7%. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blot showed that the amount of the POR protein decreased to about 50% during bleaching; after 4 h regeneration it reached almost the same level as that of dark-grown samples. We concluded that much more POR protein compared with Pchlide pigment remained stable during bleaching and the non-destroyed POR units were able to form preferentially oligomers during the dark-regeneration which could collect de novo synthesized Pchlide into 655 nm emitting complexes. These data indicate the high stability of the POR protein in pea epicotyls and the importance of the molecular environment in stimulating the aggregation of POR units.

  5. Instability of the Human Cytochrome P450 Reductase A287P Variant Is the Major Contributor to Its Antley-Bixler Syndrome-like Phenotype.

    PubMed

    McCammon, Karen M; Panda, Satya P; Xia, Chuanwu; Kim, Jung-Ja P; Moutinho, Daniela; Kranendonk, Michel; Auchus, Richard J; Lafer, Eileen M; Ghosh, Debashis; Martasek, Pavel; Kar, Rekha; Masters, Bettie Sue; Roman, Linda J

    2016-09-23

    Human NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene mutations are associated with severe skeletal deformities and disordered steroidogenesis. The human POR mutation A287P presents with disordered sexual development and skeletal malformations. Difficult recombinant expression and purification of this POR mutant suggested that the protein was less stable than WT. The activities of cytochrome P450 17A1, 19A1, and 21A2, critical in steroidogenesis, were similar using our purified, full-length, unmodified A287P or WT POR, as were those of several xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochromes P450, indicating that the A287P protein is functionally competent in vitro, despite its functionally deficient phenotypic behavior in vivo Differential scanning calorimetry and limited trypsinolysis studies revealed a relatively unstable A287P compared with WT protein, leading to the hypothesis that the syndrome observed in vivo results from altered POR protein stability. The crystal structures of the soluble domains of WT and A287P reveal only subtle differences between them, but these differences are consistent with the differential scanning calorimetry results as well as the differential susceptibility of A287P and WT observed with trypsinolysis. The relative in vivo stabilities of WT and A287P proteins were also examined in an osteoblast cell line by treatment with cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, showing that the level of A287P protein post-inhibition is lower than WT and suggesting that A287P may be degraded at a higher rate. Current studies demonstrate that, unlike previously described mutations, A287P causes POR deficiency disorder due to conformational instability leading to proteolytic susceptibility in vivo, rather than through an inherent flavin-binding defect. PMID:27496950

  6. MACRONUTRIENT INTAKE IS CORRELATED WITH DYSLIPIDEMIA AND LOW-GRADE INFLAMMATION IN CHILDHOOD OBESITY BUT MOSTLY IN MALE OBESE.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Barbara de Moura Mello; Monteiro, Paula Alves; Silveira, Loreana Sanches; Brunholi, Claudia de Carvalho; Lira, Fábio Santos; Freitas Júnior, Ismael Forte

    2015-09-01

    Introducción y objetivo: la hipoxia causada por la hipertrofia de las células adiposas en la obesidad desencadena macrófagos de reclutamiento y la producción de citoquinas. Además, el alto consumo de ácidos grasos saturados (AGS) y las comidas con alto índice glucémico pueden contribuir al estrés oxidativo y la inflamación crónica de bajo grado por los aumentos de activación de NF-kB. Por lo tanto, el objetivo del estudio fue analizar la contribución de la ingesta de macronutrientes en el perfil metabólico e inflamatorio, por niveles de lipoproteínas, resistencia a la insulina, citoquinas anti y pro inflamatorias, en adolescentes obesos según el género. Métodos: la muestra estaba compuesta por 37 adolescentes, de ambos géneros, identificados como obesos según el índice de masa corporal (IMC). La composición corporal se evaluó mediante absorciometría de energía dual de rayos X (DEXA) y medidas de adiposidad intraabdominal (IAAT) y del tejido adiposo subcutáneo (SAT) se realizaron mediante ecografía. Los análisis bioquímicos se realizaron mediante la medición de citoquinas; los ácidos grasos y la insulina se realizaron por la técnica de ELISA. La estimación del consumo de macronutrientes fue llevado a cabo durante tres días mediante el registro de alimentos con respecto a la ingesta total. La significación estadística se estableció en el valor p.

  7. [Adherence to oral nutrition supplements in hospitalized patients with clinical pathology-surgical].

    PubMed

    Villagra, Anabel; Merkel, María Cecilia; Rodriguez Bugueiro, Julia; Lacquaniti, Natalia; Remoli, Rosario

    2014-09-12

    Introducción: Los trabajos cientificos realizados respecto al uso de los suplementos nutricionales sugieren que su aceptacion es en general buena, por lo que su utilizacion es ampliamente aceptada por los profesionales. Sin embargo en la practica diaria hospitalaria se observa que dicha aceptacion es variable. El objetivo de nuestro estudio es conocer el nivel de adherencia a los suplementos nutricionales orales y los principales motivos de no adherencia en pacientes internados por patologia clinica o quirurgica. Métodos: Estudio observacional y prospectivo, unicentrico. Se incluyeron pacientes consecutivos internados en un hospital de alta complejidad, con evaluacion global subjetiva categoria B, entre agosto 2012 y mayo 2013. Se indico un suplemento diario, se evaluo la adherencia y se determinaron los motivos de no adherencia. Se considero paciente adherente cuando el consumo fue ≥75% de los suplementos indicados. Resultados: Sobre un total de 807 pacientes con evaluacion global subjetiva, 73 pacientes tuvieron indicacion de suplemento nutricional oral. La mediana de edad fue 52 anos (IIC 35-62), hombres 58,9%, mediana de indice de masa corporal 24,5 (IIC 22,5-27,3). Se indicaron un total de 489 suplementos y fueron consumidos un total de 371. La mediana de tiempo de indicacion de suplemento por paciente fue de 5 dias (IIC 4-10) y la mediana de dias consumidos fue de 4 por paciente (IIC 1-8). La adherencia fue de 58,9% (43 pacientes). Los motivos de no adherencia fueron: causas digestivas propias del paciente 5 pacientes (16,7%), intolerancia al suplemento nutricional oral 18 pacientes (60%), negativa del paciente no justificada 7 pacientes (23,3%). Conclusiones:En pacientes internados por patologia clinica o quirurgica con evaluacion global subjetiva B, la adherencia a los suplementos nutricionales orales fue insuficiente. La intolerancia al suplemento fue la causa mas frecuente de no adherencia.

  8. A novel meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccine with constitutive expression of FetA: A phase I clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Marsay, L.; Dold, C.; Green, C.A.; Rollier, C.S.; Norheim, G.; Sadarangani, M.; Shanyinde, M.; Brehony, C.; Thompson, A.J.; Sanders, H.; Chan, H.; Haworth, K.; Derrick, J.P.; Feavers, I.M.; Maiden, M.C.; Pollard, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives Outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines are used against outbreaks of capsular group B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) caused by strains expressing particular PorA outer membrane proteins (OMPs). Ferric enterobactin receptor (FetA) is another variable OMP that induces type-specific bactericidal antibodies, and the combination of judiciously chosen PorA and FetA variants in vaccine formulations is a potential approach to broaden protection of such vaccines. Methods The OMV vaccine MenPF-1 was generated by genetically modifying N. meningitidis strain 44/76 to constitutively express FetA. Three doses of 25 μg or 50 μg of MenPF-1 were delivered intra-muscularly to 52 healthy adults. Results MenPF-1 was safe and well tolerated. Immunogenicity was measured by serum bactericidal assay (SBA) against wild-type and isogenic mutant strains. After 3 doses, the proportion of volunteers with SBA titres ≥1:4 (the putative protective titre) was 98% for the wild-type strain, and 77% for the strain 44/76 FetAonPorAoff compared to 51% in the strain 44/76 FetAoffPorAoff, demonstrating that vaccination with MenPF-1 simultaneously induced FetA and PorA bactericidal antibodies. Conclusion This study provides a proof-of-concept for generating bactericidal antibodies against FetA after OMV vaccination in humans. Prevalence-based choice of PorA and FetA types can be used to formulate a vaccine for broad protection against MenB disease. PMID:25982025

  9. Electrophysiological and morphological properties of neurons in layer 5 of the rat postrhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Sills, Joseph B; Connors, Barry W; Burwell, Rebecca D

    2012-09-01

    The postrhinal (POR) cortex of the rat is homologous to the parahippocampal cortex of the primate based on connections and other criteria. POR provides the major visual and visuospatial input to the hippocampal formation, both directly to CA1 and indirectly through connections with the medial entorhinal cortex. Although the cortical and hippocampal connections of the POR cortex are well described, the physiology of POR neurons has not been studied. Here, we examined the electrical and morphological characteristics of layer 5 neurons from POR cortex of 14- to 16-day-old rats using an in vitro slice preparation. Neurons were subjectively classified as regular-spiking (RS), fast-spiking (FS), or low-threshold spiking (LTS) based on their electrophysiological properties and similarities with neurons in other regions of neocortex. Cells stained with biocytin included pyramidal cells and interneurons with bitufted or multipolar dendritic patterns. Similarity analysis using only physiological data yielded three clusters that corresponded to FS, LTS, and RS classes. The cluster corresponding to the FS class was composed entirely of multipolar nonpyramidal cells, and the cluster corresponding to the RS class was composed entirely of pyramidal cells. The third cluster, corresponding to the LTS class, was heterogeneous and included both multipolar and bitufted dendritic arbors as well as one pyramidal cell. We did not observe any intrinsically bursting pyramidal cells, which is similar to entorhinal cortex but unlike perirhinal cortex. We conclude that POR includes at least two major classes of neocortical inhibitory interneurons, but has a functionally restricted cohort of pyramidal cells.

  10. [Ethical and methodological quality of non-interventional post-authorization studies promoted by Hospital Pharmacy Departments].

    PubMed

    González Bermejo, D; Vicente Sánchez, M P; Pozuelo González, C; Macías Saint-Gerons, D; Greciano Greciano, V; de la Fuente Honrubia, C

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Describir la calidad ética y metodológica de los estudios posautorización de tipo observacional con medicamentos de uso humano promovidos por los Servicios de Farmacia Hospitalaria (SFH). Métodos: Se identificaron los estudios promovidos por los SFH registrados en la Agencia Española de Medicamentos y Productos Sanitarios (AEMPS) durante 2009-2011 y/o publicados en la revista Farmacia Hospitalaria en el mismo período. Se analizaron los aspectos éticos y metodológicos más relevantes. Con el fin de conocer las diferencias de los estudios promovidos por los SFH respecto a estudios realizados por otros promotores, se compararon con los estudios registrados durante 2003-2007. Resultados: Se registraron en la AEMPS 22 estudios promovidos por SFH, que comparados con aquellos realizados por promotores diferentes, mostraron un menor cumplimiento de los aspectos éticos recogidos en la normativa, así como resultados más discretos y estadísticamente significativos (p < 0,05), respecto a justificación del tamaño muestral (41,5% vs 80%) o ámbito internacional (0% vs 24%). Respecto a los estudios publicados en la revista Farmacia Hospitalaria (n = 52), ninguno fue registrado en la AEMPS. En comparación con los estudios registrados promovidos por SFH, presentaron menor calidad metodológica, en aspectos tales como presencia de grupo control (3,8% vs 27,3%) (p = 0,0072) o justificación del tamaño muestral (19,2% vs 42,8%) (p < 0,05). Conclusión: Existen aspectos administrativos, metodológicos y éticos de los estudios promovidos por los SFH que deben ser mejorados según la normativa. El registro en la AEMPS, parece tener un efecto positivo en el rigor científico y ético de los protocolos de investigación.

  11. ?Cuales son las amenazas o peligros volcanicos?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Bobbie; Brantley, Steven R.; Stauffer, Peter; Hendley, James W.

    2000-01-01

    Los volcanes son capaces de producir numerosos peligros geologicos e hidrologicos. Los cientificos del Servicio Geologico de los EE. UU. (USGS, por sus siglas en ingles) y de otras instituciones alrededor del mundo estan estudiando los peligros de muchos de los centenares de volcanes activos y potencialmente activos del mundo. Estos cientificos vigilan muy de cerca la actividad de algunos de los volcanes mas peligrosos, por lo que estan preparados para alertar a las autoridades y/o a la poblacion en caso de que aumente sustancialmente la probabilidad de que ocurra una erupcion u otro evento peligroso.

  12. Pasado, presente y futuro de la epidemiología. Una perspective latinoamericana

    PubMed Central

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo intenta contestar tres preguntas. Sobre el pasado: ¿Por qué no existió una epidemiología precolombina? Sobre el presente: ¿Cuáles son los orígenes de la epidemiología moderna, incluyendo sus raíces sudamericanas? Y sobre el futuro, escogí un título surrealista para enfatizar el hecho que estoy consciente de que es siempre delicado hacer predicciones: ¿Por qué fenómenos complejos son los “objetos oscuros del deseo” epidemiológico? PMID:25124247

  13. Paleoenvironmental implications of taxonomic variation among δ 15 N values of chloropigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Meytal B.; Wolfe-Simon, Felisa; Robinson, Rebecca S.; Qin, Yelun; Saito, Mak A.; Pearson, Ann

    2011-11-01

    Natural variations in the ratios of nitrogen isotopes in biomass reflect variations in nutrient sources utilized for growth. In order to use δ 15N values of chloropigments of photosynthetic organisms to determine the corresponding δ 15N values of biomass - and by extension, surface waters - the isotopic offset between chlorophyll and biomass must be constrained. Here we examine this offset in various geologically-relevant taxa, grown using nutrient sources that may approximate ocean conditions at different times in Earth's history. Phytoplankton in this study include cyanobacteria (diazotrophic and non-diazotrophic), eukaryotic algae (red and green), and anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (Proteobacteria), as well as environmental samples from sulfidic lake water. Cultures were grown using N 2, NO 3-, and NH 4+ as nitrogen sources, and were examined under different light regimes and growth conditions. We find surprisingly high variability in the isotopic difference (δ 15N biomass - δ 15N chloropigment) for prokaryotes, with average values for species ranging from -12.2‰ to +11.7‰. We define this difference as ɛpor, a term that encompasses diagenetic porphyrins and chlorins, as well as chlorophyll. Negative values of ɛpor reflect chloropigments that are 15N-enriched relative to biomass. Notably, this enrichment appears to occur only in cyanobacteria. The average value of ɛpor for freshwater cyanobacterial species is -9.8 ± 1.8‰, while for marine cyanobacteria it is -0.9 ± 1.3‰. These isotopic effects group environmentally but not phylogenetically, e.g., ɛpor values for freshwater Chroococcales resemble those of freshwater Nostocales but differ from those of marine Chroococcales. Our measured values of ɛpor for eukaryotic algae (range = 4.7-8.7‰) are similar to previous reports for pure cultures. For all taxa studied, values of ɛpor do not depend on the type of nitrogen substrate used for growth. The observed environmental control of ɛpor

  14. Aplicación del Teorema de Nekhorochev para tiempos de estabilidad en Mecánica Celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O.; Núñez, J.; Brunini, A.

    En Mecánica Celeste, uno de los problemas centrales consiste en la determinación de los tiempos de estabilidad. El teorema de Nekhorochev proporciona un método para dicho estudio, para un sistema determinado por un hamiltoniano descripto en las variables acción-ángulo. El trabajo consiste en la acotación tanto del potencial perturbador y de la matriz hessiana del hamiltoniano integrable para determinar luego el tiempo de estabilidad de dicho sistema, donde por estabilidad se entiende la separación en norma infinito en el espacio de las acciones.

  15. Fluctuaciones cuánticas y cosmología

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetta, E.

    El objetivo de la charla es repasar 1) los motivos para creer que el Universo pasó por una etapa inflacionaria antes del período dominado por la radiación, durante la cual se habrían formado las fluctuaciones primordiales en la densidad de energía que luego colapsaron para formar estructuras cosmológicas 2) los mecanismos que crearon dichas fluctuaciones a partir de fluctuaciones cuánticas del campo del ``inflaton" durante dicho período y 3) los problemas abiertos en el estudio de modelos inflacionarios, especialmente respecto al inicio y final del mismo.

  16. Anthropometric, food intake differences and applicability of low-cost instruments for the measurement of body composition in two distinct groups of individuals with short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bizari, Letícia; Da Silva Santos, Andressa Feijó; Marchini, Júlio Sérgio; Marques Miguel Suen, Vivian

    2014-07-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: El síndrome del intestino corto se asocia con pérdida de peso por la malabsorción de nutrientes, electrolitos y líquidos. A la vista de la fisiopatología del SIC, se esperaría que todos los pacientes exhibieran signos y síntomas clínicos similares, mientras que pueden ocurrir variaciones probablemente por la capacidad de adaptación del intestino delgado restante con el fin de compensar el área resecada.

  17. Electrical properties of porous oxides with adsorbed water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, Feodor A.; Kytin, Vladimir G.; Nosova, Ludmila; Kozlov, Sergei N.

    2005-05-01

    The impedance of porous alumina (por-Al2O3) and titanium oxide (por-TiO2) with adsorbed water has been investigated in a wide frequency range and at temperatures near the water-ice phase transition. The equivalent circuit of the investigated structures has been determined. It has been shown that water adsorption in the pores of a solid-state matrix has a great influence on its electrical properties. The characteristics of the electrical properties of experimental structures related to the water-ice phase transition have been revealed.

  18. Baseline Comorbidities in a Skin Cancer Prevention Trial in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Argos, Maria; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Parvez, Faruque; Dignam, James; Islam, Tariqul; Quasem, Iftekhar; Hore, Samar Kumar; Haider, Ahmed Talat; Hossain, Zahid; Patwary, Tazul Islam; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Sarwar, Golam; La Porte, Paul; Harjes, Judith; Anton, Kristen; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Jasmine, Farzana; Khan, Rashed; Kamal, Mohammed; Shea, Christopher R.; Yunus, Muhammad; Baron, John A.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic research suggests that increased cancer risk due to chronic arsenic exposure persists for several decades even after the exposure has terminated. Observational studies suggest antioxidants exert a protective effect on arsenical skin lesions and cancers among those chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water. This study reports on the design, methods, and baseline analyses from the Bangladesh Vitamin E and Selenium Trial (BEST), a population based chemoprevention study conducted among adults in Bangladesh with visible arsenic toxicity. Materials and methods BEST is a 2×2 full factorial double-blind randomized controlled trial of 7,000 adults having manifest arsenical skin lesions evaluating the efficacy of 6-year supplementation with alpha-tocopherol (100 mg daily) and L-selenomethionine (200 μg daily) for the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer. Results In cross-sectional analyses, we observed significant associations of skin lesion severity with male sex (female prevalence odds ratio (POR)=0.87; 95% CI=0.79–0.96), older age (aged 36–45 POR=1.27; 95% CI=1.13–1.42; aged 46–55 POR=1.44; 95% CI=1.27–1.64; and aged 56–65 POR=1.50; 95% CI=1.26–1.78 compared to aged 25–35), hypertension (POR=1.29; 95% CI=1.08–1.55), diabetes (POR=2.13; 95% CI=1.32–3.46), asthma (POR=1.55; 95% CI=1.03–2.32), and peptic ulcer disease (POR=1.20; 95% CI=1.07–1.35). Conclusions We report novel associations between arsenical skin lesions with several common chronic diseases. With the rapidly increasing burden of preventable cancers in developing countries, efficient and feasible chemoprevention study designs and approaches, such as employed in BEST, may prove both timely and potentially beneficial in conceiving cancer chemoprevention trials in Bangladesh and beyond. PMID:23590571

  19. [Prevalence of rhinitis and asthma respiratory symptoms in Spanish working population].

    PubMed

    Vicente-Herrero, M Teófila; Prieto-Andrés, Luis; López-González, Angel Arturo; Pérez-Francés, Carmen; Ramírez-Íñiguez de la Torre, M Victoria; Santamaría-Navarro, Cristina; Terradillos-García, M Jesús; Capdevila-García, Luisa M

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: en salud laboral interesa conocer la prevalencia de los síntomas respiratorios relacionados con la rinitis y el asma en trabajadores españoles y sus variaciones por factores demográficos y laborales. El objetivo de esta investigación fue interrelacionar los síntomas respiratorios de vías altas y bajas. MÉTODOS: se solicitó a 2603 trabajadores de distintos sectores y provincias españolas contestar una encuesta que fue supervisada por un médico del trabajo.

  20. Functional comparison of the binding of factor H short consensus repeat 6 (SCR 6) to factor H binding protein from Neisseria meningitidis and the binding of factor H SCR 18 to 20 to Neisseria gonorrhoeae porin.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, Jutamas; Lewis, Lisa A; Jarva, Hanna; Ram, Sanjay

    2009-05-01

    Both Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae recruit the alternative pathway complement inhibitory protein factor H (fH) to their surfaces to evade complement-dependent killing. Meningococci bind fH via fH binding protein (fHbp), a surface-exposed lipoprotein that is subdivided into three variant families based on one classification scheme. Chimeric proteins that comprise contiguous domains of fH fused to murine Fc were used to localize the binding site for all three fHbp variants on fH to short consensus repeat 6 (SCR 6). As expected, fH-like protein 1 (FHL-1), which contains fH SCR 6, also bound to fHbp-expressing meningococci. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we identified histidine 337 and histidine 371 in SCR 6 as important for binding to fHbp. These findings may provide the molecular basis for recent observations that demonstrated human-specific fH binding to meningococci. Differences in the interactions of fHbp variants with SCR 6 were evident. Gonococci bind fH via their porin (Por) molecules (PorB.1A or PorB.1B); sialylation of lipooligosaccharide enhances fH binding. Both sialylated PorB.1B- and (unsialylated) PorB.1A-bearing gonococci bind fH through SCR 18 to 20; PorB.1A can also bind SCR 6, but only weakly, as evidenced by a low level of binding of FHL-1 relative to that of fH. Using isogenic strains expressing either meningococcal fHbp or gonococcal PorB.1B, we discovered that strains expressing gonococcal PorB.1B in the presence of sialylated lipooligosaccharide bound more fH, more effectively limited C3 deposition, and were more serum resistant than their isogenic counterparts expressing fHbp. Differences in fH binding to these two related pathogens may be important for modulating their individual responses to host immune attack.