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Sample records for romagna region indagine

  1. Region Emilia Romagna: Primary Health Care Integration/Regione Emilia-Romagna: l’integrazione nel sistema di Cure Primarie

    PubMed Central

    Basenghi, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The politics of Region Emilia-Romagna have been meant to improve social and health care integration through an architecture of local services coherent with this purpose, setting up a Department dedicated to Primary Care inside the Social and Health District. The territorial basis of the Local Health Units (LHU), the resident people, the sustained public spending, the employed human resources and the provided services all delineate the organization of the LHU. The purpose is to grant strong integration among local bodies and LHUs through a governance system (planning, management and administration) that makes a distinction between commissioning and supply. The Committenza (commissioning department), which reports to the Strategic Direction and the District, directs the offer in connection with the need analysis, whereas the Primary Care Department arranges activities and provides services by means of integrated networks which ensure continuity to the care. The main hub in the network is known as the Casa della Salute (House of Health), which works through structured practices, protocols and procedures. LHU professionals and freelancers under contract supply primary, in-home and nursing home care, plus specialist outpatient treatment. The Casa della Salute, whose size will depend on the context (large, medium and small), are reliable reference points for citizens, who can address to them in every moment of the day. On behalf of the Regione Emilia-Romagna, it is the Primary Care Observatory which registers the functions existing in the 42 Houses of Health and their organizational and structural characteristics. The analysis of the obtained data will increase enhance the Houses’ implementation.

  2. [Preventive cardiology: comparisons of European and Italian projects with the Cardiac Units from Emilia Romagna region. A workshop of IACPR/GICR - Emilia Romagna].

    PubMed

    Piepoli, Massimo F; Brambilla, Antonio; Brambilla, Lorenzo; Ceconi, Claudio; Coruzzi, Paolo; Corvi, Ursula; Diaco, Tommaso; Di Pasquale, Giuseppe; Malagoli, Alessandro; Miserotti, Giuseppe; Pozzati, Andrea; Semprini, Pier Luigi; Sverzellati, Enrico; Urbinati, Stefano; Villani, Giovanni Q

    2011-06-01

    A workshop endorsed by the Italian Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation--Emilia Romagna Section--held in Piacenza in May 2011, gave the opportunity to discuss the emerging role of Preventive Cardiology in the modern era. From the new documents recently published by the European and Italian Scientific Associations, the barriers in their implementation, and the contribution of the health care providers, physicians, nurses, both in primary and secondary prevention were discussed. The local initiatives of cardiac prevention in different areas were presented and compared. A new project of secondary prevention in the follow-up and management of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure promoted by the Emilia Romagna Region Health Authority was presented.

  3. Outbreak of type C botulism in birds and mammals in the Emilia Romagna region, northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Defilippo, Francesco; Luppi, Andrea; Maioli, Giulia; Marzi, Dario; Fontana, Maria Cristina; Paoli, Federica; Bonilauri, Paolo; Dottori, Michele; Merialdi, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Over a 7-day period beginning 8 August 2011, a large number of wild birds of several species were found dead or with neurologic clinical signs along the shore of Crostolo stream, in the Emilia Romagna region, Italy. Twenty-eight Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), two Hooded Crows (Corvus corone cornix), and three coypus (Myocastor coypus) were found moribund on the Crostolo stream bank, collected, and sent to Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell'Emilia Romagna, Reggio Emilia Section. The cause of mortality was determined to be Clostridium botulinum type C toxin. The toxin was identified by a mouse bioassay for botulinum toxins and confirmed in bird sera and blowfly larvae (Lucilia caesar) collected from the stomachs of birds.

  4. [Population ageing and health implication. Thinking time trends in Emilia-Romagna Region].

    PubMed

    Mazzocchetti, Angelina; Caranci, Nicola; Addis, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Ageing is doubtless a factor characterizing population in Europe, and particularly in Emilia-Romagna, a north-east Italian region of about 4,5 million people. From 1990 to 2010 life expectancy in Emilia-Romagna has grown by about 6 years for men and 5 for women. At the same time good health life expectancy has grown even more rapidly, particularly among women. While it is expected that in 2030 the number of over-65s will have exceeded one million people, the trends in good health life expectancy is not granted. Strengthen actions aimed at increasing good health conditions promotes ageing sustainability and can feed the positive trend observed for the life expectancy in good health. The Emilia-Romagna Region takes up the demographic challenge of the coming years in the European context and promotes strategies for active and healthy ageing, working on prevention in its broadest sense and for the entire life span, with the aim of actively contribute to the achievement of the EU2020 target of an increase of two years in life expectancy in good health of European citizens.

  5. Radiation doses to the population of the Emilia-Romagna region from medical exposures.

    PubMed

    Compagnone, G; Angelini, P; Domenichelli, S

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to supplement the analysis of data related to conventional radiography (CR), computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine (NM) with those related to interventional radiology (IR), and illustrate the contribution of all these radiological procedures to radiation exposure of the Emilia-Romagna population in Italy. We gathered information about the number and mean doses of 30 interventional procedures performed in 17 hospitals of the Emilia-Romagna region. Seven hospitals were selected, and requests were made for numerical values of the dose-area product (DAP) in various IR procedures measured in the field. From these values, we calculated the 2006 annual collective effective dose (S), per-procedure dose and total dose, as well as the average per-capita dose to the Emilia-Romagna population. The 20 procedures amongst CR, CT, NM and IR that in 2006 contributed the most to Emilia-Romagna population radiation dose are described in detail: CR, CT, NM and IR contribute to approximately 10%, 66%, 9% and 15% of the total dose, and to 70%, 21%, 3% and 6% of procedure frequency, respectively. The S and average per-capita doses were 5,237 person-Sv and 1.2 mSv, respectively. IR procedures deliver high doses to the patient. Therefore, the same attention should be paid to radiation protection as with other high-dose examinations. As IR operators are often not radiologists, special attention should be paid to education in radiation protection of the professionals involved.

  6. Evolution of the techniques for subsidence monitoring at regional scale: the case of Emilia-Romagna region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitelli, G.; Bonsignore, F.; Pellegrino, I.; Vittuari, L.

    2015-11-01

    The recent decades have seen a significant evolution of the methodologies and techniques for the monitoring of subsidence on a regional scale: from the traditional levelling technique to GNSS and finally to SAR interferometry. The case study of Emilia-Romagna, Italy, is a prime example of this evolution. As known, the Emilia-Romagna plain is subject to a phenomenon of subsidence with a natural and an anthropogenic component, both of varying amounts depending on the area. The first contributes a few mm/year; the second, particularly evident in the last 60 years, is mainly correlated to excessive withdrawal of fluids from underground and reaches higher values (in the past, subsidence rates of several cm per year were observed in the Po delta and near Bologna). The geodetic monitoring of subsidence started in the 1950s by different entities, establishing and measuring levelling networks of varying size and with various characteristics, mainly located where the phenomenon was most clearly manifest. These local initiatives were not able to provide a consistent understanding of the phenomenon throughout the entire Emilia-Romagna plain. The first regional-scale monitoring of the Emilia-Romagna plain was initiated in 1999, with a large levelling network (about 3000 km) and a coupled network of 60 GNSS points. In subsequent years, the monitoring approach has mainly focused on the most modern remote sensing techniques integrated with each other, with the adoption of the method DInSAR calibrated to a GNSS Continuous Operating Reference Stations (CORS) database. The application of DInSAR methods resulted in subsidence maps with a greater level of detail. The paper analyzes the methodology choices made during 1999-2012, through three successive campaigns that adopted and integrated the different techniques.

  7. Distinct Leishmania infantum Strains Circulate in Humans and Dogs in the Emilia-Romagna Region, Northeastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Rugna, Gianluca; Carra, Elena; Corpus, Francesco; Calzolari, Mattia; Salvatore, Daniela; Bellini, Romeo; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Franceschini, Erica; Bruno, Antonella; Poglayen, Giovanni; Varani, Stefania; Vitale, Fabrizio; Merialdi, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    Human leishmaniasis is an emerging problem in Italy and is on the increase in the Emilia-Romagna region, northeastern part of the country. Nevertheless, studies dealing with the molecular characterization of Leishmania spp. circulating in these areas are limited. In the present work, we explored the genetic polymorphism of Leishmania isolates from 28 cases of canine leishmaniasis and three cases of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which occurred in 2013-2014 in the Emilia-Romagna region. The characterization was carried out in comparison with nine human isolates of Leishmania from other VL endemic Italian regions and two reference strains. Nucleic acid from 31 Leishmania-positive phlebotomine sandfly pools, sampled in 2012-2013 in the Emilia-Romagna region, were also evaluated. DNA amplification and sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 and of a repetitive nuclear region on chromosome 31 were carried out for genotyping. Two size polymorphic targets were also analyzed by PCR, the cpb E/F-gene and the k26-gene. Altogether, the analysis showed the circulation of different Leishmania infantum genotypes in the Emilia-Romagna region: two genotypes found in dogs from public kennels were similar to VL isolates from other Italian regions, whereas a third genotype was detected in VL cases of the Emilia-Romagna region and in all but one of the sandfly pools. The combined molecular tools applied in this study can constitute a helpful support for parasite tracking (e.g., in outbreak investigations) and for a better understanding of the epidemiological evolution of leishmaniasis in northeastern Italy.

  8. [Bioresorbable vascular scaffolds: clinical experience of the Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy].

    PubMed

    Menozzi, Alberto; Campo, Gianluca Calogero; Guiducci, Vincenzo; Dall'Ara, Gianni; Santarelli, Andrea; Sbarzaglia, Paolo; Balducelli, Marco; Magnavacchi, Paolo; Sgura, Fabio; Losi, Luciano; Vignali, Luigi; Casella, Gianni; Steffanon, Luigi; Tarantino, Fabio; Saia, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    The bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BRS) technology constitutes the new revolution of the coronary artery disease interventional treatment. Currently, three distinct types of BRSs are available but only one, the Absorb BVS, was on the market in 2013 when the Regional Commission for Medical Devices and the Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery Commission of the Emilia-Romagna Region drew up a technical and scientific essay to provide guidance for the introduction of BRS in public and affiliated health facilities. Five preferential indications were given for use: long coronary lesions (>28 mm), ostial lesions (left main stem excluded), complete revascularization in patients aged <50 years, diffuse disease (>40 mm) or involving the mid/distal left anterior descending (LAD) branch in patients <70 years, spontaneous coronary artery dissection. This survey analyzed data from all the catheterization laboratories in the Emilia-Romagna Region, merged in a unified database. In a 3-year study period, 546 BRS were implanted in 328 patients, corresponding to 1.5% of the drug-eluting stents (DES) used, with a trend towards a progressive increase over time. Initial indications were followed in 200/328 (61.0%) patients (about one third fitting more indications), mainly for treatment of long lesions in vessels >2.5 mm (67%), young patients (31.5%) and mid/distal LAD (28%). In 22.6% of cases the clinical scenario was a ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, in 39.3% a non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. Intracoronary imaging was infrequently used (intravascular ultrasound in 24.7% of cases). In 85 patients (25.9%) a hybrid procedure (BVS/DES) was performed. BRS use has resulted lower than expected, with discrete variability among centers, but according to the initial indications of the Emilia-Romagna Region in the majority of cases. The underuse might have been due to operators' caution in their initial experience. However, the increasing trend may reveal a greater

  9. Wild food plants traditionally consumed in the area of Bologna (Emilia Romagna region, Italy).

    PubMed

    Sansanelli, Sabrina; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2014-09-25

    This research was performed in an area belonging to the province of the city of Bologna (Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy). The purpose of the present survey was to record the local knowledge concerning traditional uses of wild food plants and related practices, such as gathering, processing, cooking, therapeutic uses, with the aim of preserving an important part of the local cultural heritage. Thirty-nine people still retaining Traditional Local Knowledge (TLK) were interviewed between March-April 2012 and September-October 2013 by means of open and semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews. For each plant species mentioned, we recorded the botanical family, the English common name, the Italian common and/or folk names, the parts of the plant used, the culinary preparation, and the medicinal usage. The relative frequency of citation index (RFC), a tool that measures the local cultural importance of a plant species, was also included. The folk plants mentioned by the respondents belonged to 33 botanical families, of which the Rosaceae (14 plants) and the Asteraceae (9 plants) were the most representative. The species with the highest RFC index (0.77) were Crepis vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia (Thuill) Thell and Taraxacum officinale Weber. Eleven folk plants were indicated as having therapeutic effects. T. officinale Weber, C. vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia (Thuill) Thell and Sonchus spp., which are used as food, were reported to be depurative, blood cleaning, refreshing, diuretic and laxative. The most commonly used species was Urtica spp, which was also the most frequently cited for medicinal uses. The present survey documented the wild food plant traditional knowledge of an area belonging to the province of the city of Bologna (Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy). The general perception obtained is that on one side the TLK related to wild food plants has strongly been eroded, mainly due to immigration and urbanization phenomena, whereas on the other side

  10. Trapping sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Eva; Pilani, Roberto; Carrieri, Marco; Bellini, Romeo

    2007-12-01

    The efficiency and practicality of two trapping methods for adult Phlebotomine sand flies in two areas of the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy) were evaluated. Suction traps (CO2) and sticky traps (ST) were used to collect sand flies every two weeks, from June to September, 1999, from 16:00 to 07:00. Two CO2 traps were activated at the same time for each area (one with light and one without light), whereas 38 (four with light and 34 without lights) and 48 (four with light and 44 without) sticky traps were activated in Borghi and Longiano, respectively. An Index of Apparent Abundance (IAA) was calculated for each trap type and area. A total of 2,253 sand flies was trapped over the four-month period, with 1,765 collected from Borghi and 488 from Longiano. Phlebotomus perfiliewi was the most abundant species collected, comprising 99.6% and 84.6% of the total flies trapped in Borghi and Longiano, respectively. Other species were also collected within the two areas (Phlebotomus perniciosus and Phlebotomus mascittii) but were not considered for further analyses due to low catches. Significantly more specimens were caught using CO2 than sticky traps and the addition of a light source also improved the catches, however, a significantly greater number of female specimens were collected by a CO2 trap without a light source. Phlebotomus perfiliewi thus appears to show a photophobic reaction in the case of females when trapped using CO2/light attractants.

  11. [Prevalence and prevention and treatment modalities for pressure sores. Study of the Emilia-Romagna region].

    PubMed

    Melotti, Rita Maria; Fortuna, Daniela; Chiari, Paolo; Cavicchioli, Andrea; Mongardi, Maria; Santullo, Antonella; Grilli, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    This audit initiative aimed at assessing the prevalence of pressure sores in the public hospitals of Emilia-Romagna, and at monitoring the rate of use of specific modalities of prevention and cure. The design was cross-sectional, with information collected on three index days during 2000 by trained personnel. Overall, the prevalence of pressure sores at the regional level was 7.1%, with remarkable variation across hospitals (from 2.9% to 9.7%), also after adjustment for case mix. As for patterns of prevention and cure, 74% of patients at risk (according to the Braden scale) of developing a pressure sores received only standard low technology devices, and 50% of those in need were included in a systematic programme of postural change. Adequate (according to the available evidence) medications were used in 45% of patients with a pressure sore. The overall prevalence of pressure sore is close (or even inferior) to that observed in similar studies. However, variation between hospitals indicates that the current health services ability to deal with pressure sore is variable and often suboptimal. This evaluation is also supported by the limited adoption of adequate preventive and curative modalities.

  12. CYP2D6 genotyping in natives and immigrants from the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Riccardi, Laura N; Lanzellotto, Rossana; Luiselli, Donata; Ceccardi, Stefania; Falconi, Mirella; Bini, Carla; Pelotti, Susi

    2011-11-01

    Pharmacogenetic testing of drug metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms provides an important tool to improve prescribing decisions, avoiding therapeutic failure and adverse drug reactions. Cytochrome P450 2D6 isoform plays an important role in the metabolism of about 20%-25% of widely used clinical drugs. Interethnic differences in allele frequency distribution of the CYP2D6 gene are well established, but interethnic admixture, introducing variations in population ancestry and resulting in distinct levels of population structure, should be acknowledged in pharmacogenomic studies to avoid inappropriate extrapolation of CYP2D6 data. The aim of the present research was to characterize CYP2D6 polymorphism in a random sample of 122 natives and 175 immigrants from Africa, Asia, and South America living in the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy), considering the present scenario of immigration and back migration events, which is a source of admixture. The results are today consistent with the known interethnic genetic variation, but the observed significant divergence between natives and Africans or South-East Asians predicts that admixture will reshape the population structure and the native metabolic ratio curve requiring, for drug prescription and pharmacogenetics studies, an interdisciplinary approach applied in an appropriate biogeographical and anthropological frame.

  13. HIV-1 early and late diagnosis in the Emilia Romagna Region (Italy): a three year study.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Giuseppina; Magnani, Giacomo; Bon, Isabella; Longo, Serena; Bertoldi, Alessia; Degli Antoni, Anna Maria; Rossi, Maria Rita; Ruggeri, Alessandro; Sambri, Vittorio; Semprini, Simona; Sighinolfi, Laura; Ursitti, Maria Alessandra; Zerbini, Alessandro; Colangeli, Vincenzo; Calza, Leonardo; Finarelli, Alba Carola; Massimiliani, Erika; Re, Maria Carla

    2016-10-01

    It is crucial to establish the timing of infection and distinguish between early and long-lasting HIV-1 infections not only for partner notification and epidemiological surveillance, but also to offer early drug treatment and contain the spread of infection. This study analyzed serum and/or plasma samples with a first positive HIV antibody/antigen result coming from different Medical Centers in the Emilia Romagna Region, North East Italy, using the avidity assay, Western Blotting, RNA viral load, CD4 cell counts and genotyping assay. From May 2013 to May 2016, we certified 845 new HIV-1 infections, 18.7% of which were classified on the basis of avidity index as recent infections and 81.3% as long-lasting infections, with an estimated conversion time exceeding six months at the time of study. Western Blotting showed reactivity to only one or two HIV-1 proteins in recently infected patients (RIPs), while a complete pattern to gag, env and pol proteins was observed in most long-lasting infected patients (LLIPs). The median age, gender, nationality and risk transmission factors were comparable in RIPs and LLIPs. Phylogenetic analysis performed in available plasma disclosed B strains, non-B subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) in both groups of patients, with a major presence of CRFs in non-Italian HIV subjects. The large number of patients unaware of their HIV status makes it crucial to discover hidden epidemics and implement appropriate targeted public health interventions.

  14. EQA pilot regional program for haematology in Emilia-Romagna, Italy.

    PubMed

    Carandina, G

    1995-01-01

    A pilot regional EQA scheme in haematology has been implemented in Emilia-Romagna. The distinctive features of this scheme are: a) inter-laboratory comparability of results on a local basis has been selected as main target of the whole scheme; b) fresh blood has been chosen as ideal control material; c) a fast and effective dispatching system of control material has been accomplished. This has been made possible by means of the hospital ambulances network and an express delivery service; d) the assessment of the analyzers calibration alignment in the whole region has been subdivided in two phases. The first one consists in aligning all analyzers of each province with the corresponding reference provincial center, the second one in aligning the analyzers of the eight reference centers in the region with each other; e) all laboratories taking part in the EQA scheme have been directly involved. Preparation of control material and comment sheet mailing to participants are carried out by eight provincial reference centers. Initial setting of the scheme targets, collegial survey of results and alteration of the scheme guidelines involve all participants in the scheme; f) a distinction between a short-term and a medium-term goal has been made. The short-term one is to improve the harmonization of results for comparability between different laboratories in the same area. The medium-term one is to set up educational programmes and consensus procedures for establishing operative protocols and for defining the allowable analytical errors, set on the basis of clinical requirements.

  15. Incidence of neuroepithelial primary brain tumors among adult population of Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Baldin, Elisa; Testoni, Stefania; de Pasqua, Silvia; Ferro, Salvatore; Albani, Fiorenzo; Baruzzi, Agostino; D'Alessandro, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    Incidence of neuroepithelial Primary Brain Tumors (nPBT) varies, ranging from 7.3 to 11.6 cases/100,000/year across Europe. We present incidence and survival of nPBT in the Emilia-Romagna region (ER), Italy. This study is the largest in Southern Europe. Specialists in neurosurgery, neurology, neuroradiology, oncology, radiotherapy, genetics, and pathology of ER notified all suspected nPBT adult cases residing in ER (4,337,966 inhabitants) observed during 2009. Furthermore, through ICD-9 discharge codes, we identified and reviewed all possible cases. Neuroepithelial PBT diagnosis was based on histological or radiological findings. We included 400 incident nPBT cases, of which 102 (25%) were retrospectively identified. These latter were significantly older. The standardized incidence was 10.5/100,000/year (95% CI 9.4-11.5), higher for men. It was 9.2/100,000/year (95% CI 8.3-10.2) for astrocytic tumors, 0.6/100,000/year (95% CI 0.4-0.9) for oligodendroglial tumors, and 7.1 (95% CI 6.3-8.0) for glioblastoma (GBM). Among GBM patients, median survival was 249 days if prospectively identified vs. 132 days when identified through ICD-9 codes (p < 0.0001). The incidence of nPBT in the ER region is among the highest in the literature. Older patients were more likely to escape an active surveillance system. This should be considered when comparing incidence rates across studies, giving the increasing number of elderly people in the general population.

  16. Subsidence monitoring update for Emilia-Romagna region (Italy) by integrated use of InSAR and GNSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitelli, Gabriele; Bonsignore, Flavio; Del Conte, Sara; Novali, Fabrizio; Pellegrino, Immacolata; Vittuari, Luca

    2014-05-01

    The alluvial plain sector (Po Plain) of Emilia Romagna region (Northern Italy) is a subsiding sedimentary basin, due to both natural and human-induced subsidence phenomena. Different Institutions without a plan consistent at regional scale initially monitored subsidence. In 1999 ARPA (Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention) Emilia-Romagna, on behalf of the Emilia-Romagna Region and in collaboration with DICAM Department of the Bologna University, established a network composed by 2300 leveling benchmarks, connected to 60 GNSS points, covering the whole Po Plain sector of the region. In 2005-2006 a first radar interferometry (PSInSAR™) analysis was conducted, exploiting both ESA (ERS - Envisat) and Radarsat satellite data. ARPA, on behalf of the Emilia-Romagna Region, with advisory from DICAM and in collaboration with TRE Tele-Rilevamento Europa, has recently updated the regional subsidence map of the Po Plain sector, using a new integrated approach: in the last campaign, the measurement of the vertical displacement was in fact obtained by the combined use of permanent GNSS stations and advanced InSAR data. The integrated use of these complementary techniques allows to take advantage of the strengths offered by each approach, overcoming their weaknesses. A SqueeSAR™ analysis of Radarsat radar images, acquired between 2006 and 2011, was carried out over the whole regional plain territory (more than 13.000 km2), allowing to obtain a map of vertical displacement for more than 2.000.000 measurement points (MP), with an average point density of 200MP/km2. In parallel, the data from 17 permanent GNSS stations with a long acquisition period were processed with appropriate time series analysis in order to calibrate and validate the InSAR results. The final calibrated outcomes have permitted to obtain a complete and homogeneous map of the subsidence phenomena at regional scale, defining a both "absolute" and relative velocity datum with respect to the ITRF

  17. Periodic ReMi-MASW surveys on active landslides in the Emilia Romagna region (Northern Apennines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertello, Lara; Squarzoni, Gabriela; Berti, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    From January 2014 to December 2016, several combined ReMi-MASW seismic surveys (Refraction Microtremor- Multi Channel Analysis of Surface Waves) were conducted on active landslides. All the landslides are located in the Emilia Romagna region (Northern Apennines), and were classified as: 1) flows and 2) slides. For the seismic campaigns, we used eight vertical polarized geophones at 4.5 Hz, placed at intervals of 2 m each, and a total array length in the range of 10-14 m. As suggested by Louie (2001), we used a single geophone sensor at each channel, with the geophones connected to a SoilSpy Rosina acquisition system (Micromed spa). The first 5 minutes of each acquisition were performed in the passive mode, just acquiring the ambient seismic noise, and the last minute was in the active mode. For the active source, we used the jump of an operator at 5 m from the first geophone. The MASW approach relies on mid-to-high frequency artificial sources and usually provides better results in the high frequency domain (i.e. low depth). The ReMi analysis relies on ambient noise, which is ubiquitous and spans a wider frequency range, potentially working better in the mid-to low frequency domain (i.e. mid-to-high depths). The surveys were interpreted with Grilla (Micromed Software) with a manual procedure. ReMi-MASW lines were done both inside and outside the landslide area to compare the shear wave velocity (Vs) of the displaced soil with that of the source material. Often, the first campaign survey was performed in the range of 15 days from the reactivation of the landslide, than, where it was possible, we conducted periodic ReMi-MASW acquisitions, in order to evaluate the Vs variation over time. Analyzing all the data, it is clear that the Vs detected in the flow types landslide are lower than the ones detected in the slide types. It is also interesting to observe the increase of shear wave velocity over time, due to the consolidation of the material and the decrease of void

  18. Etiological [corrected] agents of rickettsiosis and anaplasmosis in ticks collected in Emilia-Romagna region (Italy) during 2008 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Maioli, Giulia; Pistone, Dario; Bonilauri, Paolo; Pajoro, Massimo; Barbieri, Ilaria; Mulatto, Patrizia; Patrizia, Mulatto; Vicari, Nadia; Dottori, Michele

    2012-06-01

    Ticks are the main vectors of rickettsiae of the spotted fever group, as well as of a variety of other Rickettsiales, including bacteria of the genus Anaplasma, that might cause diseases in humans and animals. Here we present the result of a survey for ticks and for tick-associated Rickettsiales in the Emilia Romagna region (Northern Italy). The study was focused on ticks collected from wild-hunted animals. Out of 392 ticks collected from these animals, 282 (72%) were identified as Ixodes ricinus, 110 (28%) as Dermacentor marginatus. The former was found on four vertebrate species, whereas the latter appeared more specific for wild boar. The presence of rickettsiae was demonstrated in 22.5% of I. ricinus (57/253) and in 29% of D. marginatus (32/110). Five ticks of the species I. ricinus were also positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2%). In addition, we collected ticks by dragging in a natural park of the same region. All of the ticks captured by dragging were identified as I. ricinus. Thirty-six out of 200 analyzed ticks proved positive for Rickettsia monacensis and R. helvetica (16.5 and 1.5%, respectively). Our results highlight that that ticks present in wild areas, widely exploited for recreation and hunting in Emilia-Romagna, represent a risk for the transmission of spotted fevers and anaplasmosis to humans.

  19. [Tuberculosis among children and young adults in Emilia-Romagna Region (Northern Italy): surveillance system and integration with socioeconomic data].

    PubMed

    Morandi, Matteo; Di Girolamo, Chiara; Caranci, Nicola; Mattivi, Andrea; Marchi, Massimiliano; Borrini, Bianca Maria; Moro, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    to characterise the cases of tuberculosis (TB) aged 0-24 years reported in Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy) Region between 2001 and 2010 through an ecological approach and from a sociodemographic perspective. observational study on notified TB cases, with data integration and subsequent location through geocoding and ecological deprivation index. notification records of TB cases identified by the current surveillance system. Cases were geocoded where address details were available and, through spatial intersection with census block polygons, the related deprivation index (DI) was attributed to them. deprivation index distribution of the observed cases. in the considered decade, 686 cases of tuberculosis in the age group 0-24 years were reported, 14.5% of the overall number of cases in the Emilia-Romagna Region. The DI was attributed to the 90.4% of cases. Notified TB cases were more frequently located in the most deprived areas. as other TB international surveillance systems, this study shows that it is possible to locate TB cases, to link them with census data and, therefore, to characterise with socioeconomic information. Looking ahead, the extension of the analysis to all age classes, the updating of socioeconomic data and the use of qualitative methodologies can integrate surveillance system data to better describe the social disadvantage among TB cases.

  20. Underreporting in pharmacovigilance: an intervention for Italian GPs (Emilia-Romagna region).

    PubMed

    Biagi, Chiara; Montanaro, Nicola; Buccellato, Elena; Roberto, Giuseppe; Vaccheri, Alberto; Motola, Domenico

    2013-02-01

    Underreporting is a major limitation of spontaneous reporting systems for suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Several interventions to increase the ADR reporting rate have been proposed, but their efficacy remains poorly investigated. This was a questionnaire study aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of general practitioners (GPs) regarding ADR reporting and at evaluating whether a monthly e-mail-based newsletter on drug safety could affect the rate and the quality of the ADR reports submitted by these GPs. Three local health authorities (LHAs) of the Emilia-Romagna region were chosen on the basis of their ADR reporting rate during the period preceding the study: Rimini (high), Ferrara (average), and Piacenza (low reporting rate). All GPs (n = 737) associated with these three LHAs were recruited. The pooled number of ADR reports sent by GPs in the remaining seven LHAs of the region was used as controls. The study covered a period of 3 years and was divided into: (1) identification of the reasons leading to underreporting through a questionnaire (Phase I); (2) the intervention, i.e., sending a newsletter for a 10-month period (Phase II); (3) evaluation of the intervention outcomes during the 10 months following the period in which the newsletter had been received (Phase III). Among GPs involved, 22.8 % returned the questionnaire. Over 94 % of the respondents considered the spontaneous reporting of suspected ADRs to be part of their professional obligations, but only 6.5 % had submitted at least one report in the previous 6 months. Following the completion of Phase II, the overall number of reports coming from the LHAs subjected to the intervention rose by 49.2 % compared to 2009, while the number of reports coming from the control LHAs increased by 8.8 %. Rimini and Piacenza showed a 200 % increase in the number of ADR reports submitted by GPs, while the number of ADR reported submitted by the control group decreased by 25.5 %. In 2011

  1. Prevalence of Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy in the Adult Population of Bologna and Modena, Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Vignatelli, Luca; Bisulli, Francesca; Giovannini, Giada; Licchetta, Laura; Naldi, Ilaria; Mostacci, Barbara; Rubboli, Guido; Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo; Meletti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) in the adults of two areas of the Emilia-Romagna region (northeast Italy) and to describe the clinical features from a population-based perspective. Design: Population-based retrospective cohort study including adults with NFLE. Setting: Two areas of the Emilia-Romagna region: the city of Bologna (330,901 adult residents) and five districts of the province of Modena (424,007). Prevalence day: December 31, 2010. Participants: Patients with NFLE collected from multiple databases of neurologic hub centers of the districts involved. Diagnostic criteria: clinical history of sleep related bizarre motor attacks and videopolysomnographic recording confirming the typical features of NFLE. Inclusion criteria for prevalence calculation: residence in one of the two geographic areas on the prevalence day and an “active” or “in remission with treatment” form of NFLE. Measurements and Results: Six subjects from Bologna and eight from Modena were included. Crude prevalence (per 100,000 residents) was 1.8 (95% confidence interval 0.7–4.0) in Bologna and 1.9 (0.8–3.7) in Modena. Similarly, the main clinical features were consistent: onset during adolescence (median age 11–13 y), mainly hyperkinetic seizures, nonlesional form in more than two-thirds of cases, an active form of epilepsy in more than two-thirds of cases. A family history of epilepsy was reported only for two patients. Conclusions: This epidemiologic study establishes that nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy is a rare epileptic condition, fulfilling the definition for rare disease. Because of methodological limitations of our case ascertainment, the estimates we disclose must be considered the minimum prevalence. Citation: Vignatelli L, Bisulli F, Giovannini G, Licchetta L, Naldi I, Mostacci B, Rubboli G, Provini F, Tinuper P, Meletti S. Prevalence of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy in the adult population of Bologna and

  2. The implementation of a Community Health Centre-based primary care model in Italy. The experience of the Case della Salute in the Emilia-Romagna Region.

    PubMed

    Odone, Anna; Saccani, Elisa; Chiesa, Valentina; Brambilla, Antonio; Brianti, Ettore; Fabi, Massimo; Curcetti, Clara; Donatini, Andrea; Balestrino, Antonio; Lombardi, Marco; Rossi, Giuseppina; Saccenti, Elena; Signorelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The Comunity Health Centre (CHC) primary care model is a team-based health care delivery model intended to provide comprehensive and continuous medical care to patients within a defined community. The CHC, Case della Salute in Italian, model was introduced in the Emilia-Romagna Region in 2010. We present updated data on the implementation on the CHC Case della Salute primary care model in the Emilia-Romagna Region. There are 67 operating CHCs in Emilia-Romagna (update March 2015); 26 small (39%), 24 medium (36%) and 17 large (25%). Since 2011 the number of operating CHCs has increased by 60%, reaching 55% of the target planned CHCs (n. = 122). There is, on average, one running CHC per 66.524 inhabitants. 16% of total general practitioners (GPs) and 8.4% of total family paediatricians working in Emilia-Romagna have their practice in CHCs. CHCs offer primary and specialist integrated care, prevention services, health education and social care. Although preliminary results suggest CHCs have fostered primary care's quality and efficiency, more research is needed to assess their impact on improving clinical, social and economic outcomes.

  3. Autochthonous cultivars of Emilia Romagna region and their clones: Comparison of the chemical and sensory properties of olive oils.

    PubMed

    Rotondi, Annalisa; Lapucci, Chiara; Morrone, Lucia; Neri, Luisa

    2017-06-01

    The olive species (Olea europaea L.) is characterized by significant phenotypic and genetic variability the genetic matrix has a strong influence on several important extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) chemical components. Four clones from cultivars autochthonous of the Emilia Romagna region were selected for their notable performance in terms of agronomical characteristics, and the quality of the olive oil produced was studied in detail. In particular, we analyzed the fatty acid composition, the phenolic profile and the sensory analysis of the oils from these clones and compared them with the oils from the respective cultivars. Most of the new clones, all already provided with a genetic and sanitary certification, exhibited overall higher qualitative standards than the cultivars, producing monovarietal oils interesting both nutritionally and from a sensory point of view, and furthermore with a beneficial effect on health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of insecticide resistance of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Emilia-Romagna region.

    PubMed

    Civolani, Stefano; Boselli, Mauro; Butturini, Alda; Chicca, Milvia; Fano, Elisa Anna; Cassanelli, Stefano

    2014-06-01

    The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the key pest of vineyard, Vitis vinifera L. In Italy, failures in field chemical pest control have been recently reported. The susceptibility to insecticides indoxacarb, methoxyfenozide, and emamectin benzoate was then evaluated in a L. botrana population collected from a vineyard in Emilia-Romagna (northeastern Italy) where pest management programs achieved unsatisfactory results. The field trial showed that the indoxacarb efficacy toward L. botrana was very low in the two timings of application (7.9 and -1.5%) in comparison with untreated control, while the efficacy of methoxyfenozide (76.1%) and emamectin benzoate (88.8%) was high. The decreased efficacy of indoxacarb was also supported by the results of the laboratory bioassay on neonate L. botrana larvae, in which the resistance ratio was 72-fold in comparison with that of the susceptible strain.

  5. Prevalence of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy in the adult population of Bologna and Modena, Emilia-Romagna region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Vignatelli, Luca; Bisulli, Francesca; Giovannini, Giada; Licchetta, Laura; Naldi, Ilaria; Mostacci, Barbara; Rubboli, Guido; Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo; Meletti, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) in the adults of two areas of the Emilia-Romagna region (northeast Italy) and to describe the clinical features from a population-based perspective. Population-based retrospective cohort study including adults with NFLE. Two areas of the Emilia-Romagna region: the city of Bologna (330,901 adult residents) and five districts of the province of Modena (424,007). Prevalence day: December 31, 2010. Patients with NFLE collected from multiple databases of neurologic hub centers of the districts involved. Diagnostic criteria: clinical history of sleep related bizarre motor attacks and videopolysomnographic recording confirming the typical features of NFLE. Inclusion criteria for prevalence calculation: residence in one of the two geographic areas on the prevalence day and an "active" or "in remission with treatment" form of NFLE. Six subjects from Bologna and eight from Modena were included. Crude prevalence (per 100,000 residents) was 1.8 (95% confidence interval 0.7-4.0) in Bologna and 1.9 (0.8-3.7) in Modena. Similarly, the main clinical features were consistent: onset during adolescence (median age 11-13 y), mainly hyperkinetic seizures, nonlesional form in more than two-thirds of cases, an active form of epilepsy in more than two-thirds of cases. A family history of epilepsy was reported only for two patients. This epidemiologic study establishes that NFLE is a rare epileptic condition, fulfilling the definition for rare disease. Because of methodological limitations of our case ascertainment, the estimates we disclose must be considered the minimum prevalence. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  6. Earthquake Loading Assessment to Evaluate Liquefaction Potential in Emilia-Romagna Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daminelli, Rosastella; Marcellini, Alberto; Tento, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    The May-June 2012 seismic sequence that struck Lombardia and Emilia-Romagna consisted of seven main events of magnitude greater than 5 followed by numerous aftershocks. The strongest earthquakes occurred on May 20 (M=5.9) and May 29 (M=5.8). The widespread soil liquefaction, unexpected because of the moderate magnitude of the events, pushed the local authorities to issue research projects aimed to define the earthquake loading to evaluate the liquefaction safety factor. The reasons explained below led us to adopt a deterministic hazard approach to evaluate the seismic parameters relevant to liquefaction assessment, despite the fact that the Italian Seismic Building Code (NTC08) is based on probabilistic hazard analysis. For urban planning and building design geologists generally adopt the CRR/CSR technique to assess liquefaction potential; therefore we considered PGA and a design magnitude to be representative of the seismic loading. The procedure adopted consists: a) identification of seismic source zones and characterization of each zone by the maximum magnitude; b) evaluation of the source to site distance and c) adoption of a suitable attenuation law to compute the expected PGA at the site, given the site condition and the design magnitude. The design magnitude can be: the maximum magnitude; the magnitude that causes the largest PGA, or both. The PGA values obtained are larger with respect to the 474 years return period PGA prescribed by NTC08 for the seismic design for ordinary buildings. We conducted a CPTU resistance test intended to define the CRR at the village of Cavezzo, situated in the epicentral area of the 2012 earthquake. The CRR/CSR ratio led to an elevated liquefaction risk at the analysed site. On the contrary the adoption of the 474 years return period PGA of the NTCO8 prescribed for Cavezzo site led to a negligible liquefaction risk. Note that very close to the investigated site several liquefaction phenomena were observed.

  7. Earthquake Loading Assessment to Evaluate Liquefaction Potential in Emilia-Romagna Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daminelli, R.; Marcellini, A.; Tento, A.

    2016-12-01

    The May-June 2012 seismic sequence that struck Lombardia and Emilia-Romagna consisted of seven main events of magnitude greater than 5 followed by numerous aftershocks. The strongest earthquakes occurred on May 20 (M=5.9) and May 29 (M=5.8). The widespread soil liquefaction, unexpected because of the moderate magnitude of the events, pushed the local authorities to issue research projects aimed to define the earthquake loading to evaluate the liquefaction safety factor. The reasons explained below led us to adopt a deterministic hazard approach to evaluate the seismic parameters relevant to liquefaction assessment, despite the fact that the Italian Seismic Building Code (NTC08) is based on probabilistic hazard analysis. For urban planning and building design geologists generally adopt the CRR/CSR technique to assess liquefaction potential; therefore we considered PGA and a design magnitude to be representative of the seismic loading. The procedure adopted consists: a) identification of seismic source zones and characterization of each zone by the maximum magnitude; b) evaluation of the source to site distance and c) adoption of a suitable attenuation law to compute the expected PGA at the site, given the site condition and the design magnitude. The design magnitude can be: the maximum magnitude; the magnitude that causes the largest PGA, or both. The PGA values obtained are larger with respect to the 474 years return period PGA prescribed by NTC08 for the seismic design for ordinary buildings. We conducted a CPTU resistance test intended to define the CRR at the village of Cavezzo, situated in the epicentral area of the 2012 earthquake. The CRR/CSR ratio led to an elevated liquefaction risk at the analysed site. On the contrary the adoption of the 474 years return period PGA of the NTCO8 prescribed for Cavezzo site led to a negligible liquefaction risk. Note that very close to the investigated site several liquefaction phenomena were observed.

  8. International cooperation and networking in genetic health care provision: issues arising from the genetic services plan for the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Calzolari, E; Baroncini, A

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this report are to describe the genetic plan for Emilia-Romagna, a region in Italy, and to contribute to the international exchange of information on developing and applying policy frameworks to provide high-quality and comprehensive genetic health care in the publicly funded health systems. At the present time there is no national policy for genetic medicine in Italy, and only two regions, Emilia-Romagna and Liguria, have formally agreed to a strategic plan for health care in genetics. The current provision of genetic services in Emilia-Romagna is described focusing on the intra- and inter-organizational linkages to ensure a comprehensive system of coordinated activities. Strengths and implementation areas are highlighted. Points that must be solved within the regional or national context are the definition of the level of assistance required in genetic medicine, the formal professional recognition of the genetic counselor and the adjustment of the billing mechanisms to the complexities of clinical genetic services. Issues that need to be addressed at a wider level include full assessment of genetic tests before their introduction into clinical practice, networking to provide tests for the rarest genetic diseases, consensus on fundamental terminology and clinical and administrative data sets to promote a cohesive framework for the flow of information throughout the health care systems with respect to genetics.

  9. A Surveillance Program on Canine Leishmaniasis in the Public Kennels of Emilia-Romagna Region, Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Santi, Annalisa; Renzi, Maria; Baldelli, Raffaella; Calzolari, Mattia; Caminiti, Antonino; Dell'Anna, Silvia; Galletti, Giorgio; Lombardini, Annalisa; Paternoster, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Since 2007, a canine leishmaniasis (CanL) surveillance program has been carried out in public kennels of the Emilia-Romagna region with the aim of providing health guarantees for dog adoptions. According to this program, monitoring activities were performed to verify the presence of sandflies and infected dogs, and a specific CanL risk class was assigned to each kennel, resulting in different control approaches (entomological and/or serological monitoring, clinical surveillance, therapeutic treatment of infected dogs, protections against vector bites). From 2007 to 2012, 20,931 dogs, 89.8% of which were identified by microchip and housed in 73 kennels, were examined using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. In all, 528 (2.8%) dogs tested positive, and 43.0% of these were asymptomatic. The authors used monitoring results, in particular serological tests performed on dogs at admittance to the kennel and annual controls of sentinel dogs, to estimate CanL risk in the whole region and to evaluate the efficacy of the preventive measures adopted. CanL seroprevalence in dogs tested at the admittance in kennels increased significantly from 2010 (1.0%; 29/2858) to 2012 (2.4%; 69/2841). In contrast, the number of seroconversions in sentinel dogs was stable in 2010 (1.2%; 11/896) and 2011 (1.6%; 13/825) and decreased in 2012 (0.9%; 8/850), suggesting the efficacy of the preventive measures applied. PMID:24575787

  10. Evaluation of coastal vulnerability to flooding: comparison of two different methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perini, L.; Calabrese, L.; Salerno, G.; Ciavola, P.; Armaroli, C.

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims at presenting and comparing two methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna Region, northern Italy, to evaluate coastal vulnerability and to produce hazard and risk maps for coastal floods, in the framework of the EU Floods Directive. The first approach was adopted before the Directive had been issued. Three scenarios of damage were designed (1, 10, 100-year return periods), produced by the concurrent happening of a storm, high surge levels and high water spring tidal levels. Wave heights were used to calculate run-up values along 187 equally spaced profiles and these were added to the tidal and atmospheric water level contributions. The result is a list of ten vulnerability typologies. To satisfy the requests of the Directive, the Geological, Seismic and Soil Service (SGSS) recently implement a different methodology that considers three scenarios (10, 100 and > 100-year return periods) in terms of set-up (not including run-up) plus the contribution of surge levels as well as the High Water Springs. The flooded area extension is determined by a series of computations that are part of a model built into ArcGIS®. The model uses as input a high resolution Lidar DEM that is then processed using the Cost-Distance tool of ArcGIS®. Inundation maps are then overlapped to land use maps to produce risk maps. The qualitative validation and the comparison between the two methods are also presented, showing a positive agreement.

  11. Evaluation of coastal vulnerability to flooding: comparison of two different methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perini, L.; Calabrese, L.; Salerno, G.; Ciavola, P.; Armaroli, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting and comparing two methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy, to evaluate coastal vulnerability and to produce hazard and risk maps for coastal floods, in the framework of the EU Floods Directive. The first approach was adopted before the directive had been issued. Three scenarios of damage were designed (1-, 10-, 100-year return periods), produced by the concurrent occurrence of a storm, high surge levels and high-water spring tidal levels. Wave heights were used to calculate run-up values along 187 equally spaced profiles, and these were added to the tidal and atmospheric water level contributions. The result is a list of 10 vulnerability typologies. To satisfy the requirements of the directive, the Geological, Seismic and Soil Service (SGSS) recently implemented a different methodology that considers three scenarios (10-, 100- and > 100-year return periods) in terms of wave setup (not including run-up) plus the contribution of surge levels as well as the occurrence of high-water springs. The flooded area extension is determined by a series of computations that are part of a model built into ArcGIS®. The model uses as input a high-resolution lidar DEM that is then processed using a least-path cost analysis. Inundation maps are then overlapped with land use maps to produce risk maps. The qualitative validation and the comparison between the two methods are also presented, showing a positive agreement.

  12. Human and entomological surveillance of Toscana virus in the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy, 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Calzolari, M; Angelini, P; Finarelli, A C; Cagarelli, R; Bellini, R; Albieri, A; Bonilauri, P; Cavrini, F; Tamba, M; Dottori, M; Gaibani, P; Natalini, S; Maioli, G; Pinna, M; Mattivi, A; Sambri, V; Pierro, A; Landini, M P; Rossini, G; Squintani, G; Cinotti, S; Varani, S; Vocale, C; Bedeschi, E

    2014-12-04

    Toscana virus (TOSV), transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies, is recognised as one of the most important causes of viral meningitis in summer in Mediterranean countries. A surveillance plan based on both human and entomological surveys was started in 2010 in the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy. Clinical samples from patients with neurological manifestations were collected during 2010 to 2012. The surveillance protocol was improved during these years, allowing the detection of 65 human infections. Most of these infections were recorded in hilly areas, where sandflies reach the highest density. Entomological sampling around the homes of the patients resulted in a low number of captured sandflies, while later sampling in a hilly area with high number of human cases (n=21) resulted in a larger number of captured sandflies. Using this approach, 25,653 sandflies were sampled, of which there were 21,157 females, which were sorted into 287 pools. TOSV RNA was detected by real-time PCR in 33 of the pools. The results highlighted the role of Phlebotomus perfiliewi as the main vector of TOSV and a potential link between vector density and virus circulation. This integrated system shows that an interdisciplinary approach improves the sensitiveness and effectiveness of health surveillance.

  13. Vertical integration and contractual network in the cardiovascular sector: the experience of the Italian region Emilia Romagna

    PubMed Central

    Ugolini, Cristina; Nobilio, Lucia

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Objective We analysed the integrated planning model adopted by the Italian region Emilia Romagna in year 2000 to cover the entire range of treatment of cardiovascular disease. This model, called “hub and spoke”, provides for the transfer of patient care and treatment from peripheral units (the spokes) to central units (the hubs) once a certain complexity threshold has been reached. Methods We examined inter-temporal variations in patients flows for the selection/referral and follow-up phases between cardiac surgery and cardiology units during two periods characterised by different organisational set-ups, in order to reflect on the progress being made in the organisation of the network. The database consisted of regional records of hospital discharges during the 1997–2001 period. Results The investigation pointed to the achievement of a good degree of coordination between structures at different levels of specialisation in the case of cardiac surgery, for which six centres were selected already in 1996. On the other hand, the more recent introduction of a hierarchical system for interventional cardiology points to the prevalence of operations on patients previously treated within the same centre, to admissions by direct access, and to follow-up mainly conducted within the hub providing the initial service. Conclusions Despite the progress made towards the more effective rationalisation of the health care network, there is still room for improvement in relations between different centres, in particular with regard to the clearer definition of the roles and interdependence of those intermediate-level centres located between the hub centres and basic healthcare facilities. PMID:16896380

  14. Cholecystectomy in Emilia-Romagna region (Italy): A retrospective cohort study based on a large administrative database.

    PubMed

    Catena, Fausto; Melotti, Rita Maria; Louis, Daniel; Fortuna, Daniela; Ansaloni, Luca; Coccolini, Federico; Di Saverio, Salomone; Sartelli, Massimo; Tarasconi, Antonio; Baiocchi, Gianluca; Portolani, Nazario; Napoli, Josephine; De Simone, Belinda; Catena, Rodolfo; De Palma, Rossana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the variability and to identify a trend for the outcome of cholecystectomy surgery when used to treat cholelithiasis and acute cholecystitis. This was a large retrospective cohort study following patients up to 11 years post surgery, based on administrative data collected from 2002 to 2012 in the Emilia-Romagna Region (Northern Italy) and comparing the effectiveness and efficiency of surgical activity (laparoscopic (LC) and open cholecystectomy (OC)). Analyses included patient characteristics, length of hospital stay, type of admission and mortality risk. Outcomes considered were death from all causes (during the index hospital admission or thereafter), hospital readmissions with cholecystitis or cholelithiasis as principal diagnosis and time to surgery. A total of 84,628 cholecystomies were performed from 2002 to 2012 out of 123,061 admissions with primary diagnostic category of cholecystitis or cholelitiasis. Laparoscopic procedure was used in 69,842 patients. Over time there was a rising linear statistically significant trend in the use of LC. Mortality rate at 1 year of OC treated patients showed a statistically significant difference compared to LC treated patients (using a cohorts match with propensity score). Only a small number of patients with acute cholecystitis was operated according guidelines within 72 hours. The analysis of aggregate administrative data is a powerful tool to support regional health management, improve the quality of medical care, and assess the appropriateness of therapeutic or diagnostic approaches. It is important to stress a short hospital stay for laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients (50% less than open surgery): this shorter hospital stay leads to a significant economic advantage. Moreover, mortality is significantly higher in open surgery for acute cholecystitis. Interestingly, the same finding was confirmed after 30 days and 1 year, probably due to comorbidities that are more evident in

  15. Vertical integration and contractual network in the cardiovascular sector: the experience of the Italian region Emilia Romagna.

    PubMed

    Ugolini, Cristina; Nobilio, Lucia

    2003-01-01

    We analysed the integrated planning model adopted by the Italian region Emilia Romagna in year 2000 to cover the entire range of treatment of cardiovascular disease. This model, called "hub and spoke", provides for the transfer of patient care and treatment from peripheral units (the spokes) to central units (the hubs) once a certain complexity threshold has been reached. We examined inter-temporal variations in patients flows for the selection/referral and follow-up phases between cardiac surgery and cardiology units during two periods characterised by different organisational set-ups, in order to reflect on the progress being made in the organisation of the network. The database consisted of regional records of hospital discharges during the 1997-2001 period. The investigation pointed to the achievement of a good degree of coordination between structures at different levels of specialisation in the case of cardiac surgery, for which six centres were selected already in 1996. On the other hand, the more recent introduction of a hierarchical system for interventional cardiology points to the prevalence of operations on patients previously treated within the same centre, to admissions by direct access, and to follow-up mainly conducted within the hub providing the initial service. Despite the progress made towards the more effective rationalisation of the health care network, there is still room for improvement in relations between different centres, in particular with regard to the clearer definition of the roles and interdependence of those intermediate-level centres located between the hub centres and basic healthcare facilities.

  16. Assessing Adverse Events of Postprostatectomy Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Evaluation of Outcomes in the Regione Emilia-Romagna, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Timothy N.; Hegarty, Sarah E.; Rabinowitz, Carol; Maio, Vittorio; Hyslop, Terry; Dicker, Adam P.; Louis, Daniel Z.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Although the likelihood of radiation-related adverse events influences treatment decisions regarding radiation therapy after prostatectomy for eligible patients, the data available to inform decisions are limited. This study was designed to evaluate the genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and sexual adverse events associated with postprostatectomy radiation therapy and to assess the influence of radiation timing on the risk of adverse events. Methods: The Regione Emilia-Romagna Italian Longitudinal Health Care Utilization Database was queried to identify a cohort of men who received radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer during 2003 to 2009, including patients who received postprostatectomy radiation therapy. Patients with prior radiation therapy were excluded. Outcome measures were genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and sexual adverse events after prostatectomy. Rates of adverse events were compared between the cohorts who did and did not receive postoperative radiation therapy. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were developed for each class of adverse events, including models with radiation therapy as a time-varying covariate. Results: A total of 9876 men were included in the analyses: 2176 (22%) who received radiation therapy and 7700 (78%) treated with prostatectomy alone. In multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, the additional exposure to radiation therapy after prostatectomy was associated with increased rates of gastrointestinal (rate ratio [RR] 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-2.27; P<.001) and urinary nonincontinence events (RR 1.83; 95% CI 1.83-2.80; P<.001) but not urinary incontinence events or erectile dysfunction. The addition of the time from prostatectomy to radiation therapy interaction term was not significant for any of the adverse event outcomes (P>.1 for all outcomes). Conclusion: Radiation therapy after prostatectomy is associated with an increase in gastrointestinal and genitourinary adverse events. However

  17. Mosquito, Bird and Human Surveillance of West Nile and Usutu Viruses in Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy) in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Calzolari, Mattia; Gaibani, Paolo; Bellini, Romeo; Defilippo, Francesco; Pierro, Anna; Albieri, Alessandro; Maioli, Giulia; Luppi, Andrea; Rossini, Giada; Balzani, Agnese; Tamba, Marco; Galletti, Giorgio; Gelati, Antonio; Carrieri, Marco; Poglayen, Giovanni; Cavrini, Francesca; Natalini, Silvano; Dottori, Michele; Sambri, Vittorio; Angelini, Paola; Bonilauri, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2008, after the first West Nile virus (WNV) detection in the Emilia-Romagna region, a surveillance system, including mosquito- and bird-based surveillance, was established to evaluate the virus presence. Surveillance was improved in following years by extending the monitoring to larger areas and increasing the numbers of mosquitoes and birds tested. Methodology/Principal Findings A network of mosquito traps, evenly distributed and regularly activated, was set up within the surveyed area. A total of 438,558 mosquitoes, grouped in 3,111 pools and 1,276 birds (1,130 actively sampled and 146 from passive surveillance), were tested by biomolecular analysis. The survey detected WNV in 3 Culex pipiens pools while Usutu virus (USUV) was found in 89 Cx. pipiens pools and in 2 Aedes albopictus pools. Two birds were WNV-positive and 12 were USUV-positive. Furthermore, 30 human cases of acute meningoencephalitis, possibly caused by WNV or USUV, were evaluated for both viruses and 1,053 blood bags were tested for WNV, without any positive result. Conclusions/Significance Despite not finding symptomatic human WNV infections during 2010, the persistence of the virus, probably due to overwintering, was confirmed through viral circulation in mosquitoes and birds, as well as for USUV. In 2010, circulation of the two viruses was lower and more delayed than in 2009, but this decrease was not explained by the relative abundance of Cx. pipiens mosquito, which was greater in 2010. The USUV detection in mosquito species confirms the role of Cx. pipiens as the main vector and the possible involvement of Ae. albopictus in the virus cycle. The effects of meteorological conditions on the presence of USUV-positive mosquito pools were considered finding an association with drought conditions and a wide temperature range. The output produced by the surveillance system demonstrated its usefulness and reliability in terms of planning public health policies. PMID:22666446

  18. Usutu Virus Persistence and West Nile Virus Inactivity in the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy) in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Calzolari, Mattia; Bonilauri, Paolo; Bellini, Romeo; Albieri, Alessandro; Defilippo, Francesco; Tamba, Marco; Tassinari, Massimo; Gelati, Antonio; Cordioli, Paolo; Angelini, Paola; Dottori, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Background The circulation of West Nile virus and Usutu virus was detected in the Emilia-Romagna region in 2008 and 2009. To evaluate the extent of circulation of both viruses, environmental surveillance, based on bird and mosquito testing, was conducted in 2008 and gradually improved over the years. Methods In February–March 2009–2011, 5,993 hibernating mosquitoes were manually sampled, out of which 80.1% were Culex pipiens; none tested positive for the viruses. From 2008 to 2011, 946,213 mosquitoes, sampled between May and October, were tested; 86.5% were Cx. pipiens. West Nile virus was detected in 32 Cx. pipiens pools, and Usutu virus was detected in 229 mosquito pools (217 Cx. pipiens, 10 Aedes albopictus, one Anopheles maculipennis s.l., and one Aedes caspius). From 2009 to 2011, of 4,546 birds collected, 42 tested positive for West Nile virus and 48 for Usutu virus. West Nile virus and Usutu virus showed different patterns of activity during the 2008–2011 surveillance period. West Nile virus was detected in 2008, 2009, and 2010, but not in 2011. Usutu virus, however, was continuously active throughout 2009, 2010, and 2011. Conclusions The data strongly suggest that both viruses overwinter in the surveyed area rather than being continually reintroduced every season. The lack of hibernating mosquitoes testing positive for the viruses and the presence of positive birds sampled early in the season support the hypothesis that the viruses overwinter in birds rather than in mosquitoes. Herd immunity in key bird species could explain the decline of West Nile virus observed in 2011, while the persistence of Usutu virus may be explained by not yet identified reservoirs. Reported results are comparable with a peri-Mediterranean circulation of the West Nile virus lineage 1 related strain, which became undetectable in the environment after two to three years of obvious circulation. PMID:23667694

  19. Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Meat and Vegetable Products in Emilia Romagna Region, Years 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Bardasi, Lia; Taddei, Roberta; Nocera, Lucia; Ricchi, Matteo; Merialdi, Giuseppe

    2015-02-03

    In 2012-2013 Emilia-Romagna Region introduced a monitoring plan for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in foodstuff. Six hundred eighty-nine meat samples and 273 fruit and vegetable products were analyzed according to ISOTS13136. Pre-enriched samples were tested by multiplex real time PCR targeting the virulence genes eae, stx1 and stx2. Stx2 positive samples were investigated for the presence of serogroup O104 associated gene. O103, O111, O145, O157, O26 associated genes were tested on samples positive for stx in association with eae gene. Isolation of E. coli strains was attempted from samples positive for serogroup-associated genes. Thirty-four meat products (4.9%) resulted positive for stx1 and/or stx2 genes and 46 (6.7%) for stx1 and/or stx2 genes in association with eae gene. Forty-five (6.5%) samples resulted positive at least at one serogroup. Serogroup O103, O104, O111, O145, O157 and O26 genes were detected respectively in 1.3, 0.3, 0.1, 3.9, 2.9 and 2.5% samples; 0.6% samples resulted positive for STEC isolation (2 E. coli O103 and 2 E. coli O157). It is worth noting that STEC virulence genes were detected at high frequency (19%) in fresh pork meat sausages. Four (1.5%) vegetable samples were positive for stx1 and/or stx2 genes and 1 (0.4%) for stx1 and/or stx2 genes in association with eae gene; none resulted positive for the tested serogroups. Only a low number of samples positive by molecular methods were confirmed by cultural isolation. It is therefore of the uttermost importance for appropriate risk management, to be fully aware of the meaning of the analytical result.

  20. Geochemistry and microbial diversity of cave waters in the gypsum karst aquifers of Emilia Romagna region, Italy.

    PubMed

    D'Angeli, Ilenia M; Serrazanetti, Diana I; Montanari, Chiara; Vannini, Lucia; Gardini, Fausto; De Waele, Jo

    2017-11-15

    Fifty-seven control points of waters (sinking streams, rivers in caves, and resurgences) hosted in gypsum karst areas in Emilia Romagna region (N-Italy) were sampled in the framework of a Project LIFE+08NAT/IT/000369 "Gypsum" in the period 2010-2014. The microbiology and chemistry of these waters have been analyzed to evaluate the impact of human activities or natural factors, in the gypsum karst systems. Waters have been analyzed for major chemistry (Ca, Mg, Na, K, SO4, HCO3, Cl, NO3) and some minor constituents (F, Br, NH4 and PO4), measuring pH, electric conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS) and temperature (T) in situ. The same samples have been analyzed with traditional microbiology techniques focused on total microbial count and on fecal microbiota, as index of human and/or animal contamination, and molecular biology techniques (sequencing of 16S rRNA segment and PCR-DGGE), focused on the characterization of microbial populations in the different sampling sites and determination of their variations and/or changes during the five years of the project. As expected, waters tend to be increasingly mineralized from sinking streams to resurgences, with only local and temporarily high contents in nitrates and ammonium, often related to the presence of bat colonies. PCR-DGGE revealed ecological changes, in terms of microbial populations present in the bulk water samples, in different sampling sites within the same cave. Although the impact of fecal microorganisms only rarely exceeded 2 log UFC/ml, the results evidenced fluctuations of these microorganisms mainly correlated to the season and to the biological activity of bats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing adverse events of postprostatectomy radiation therapy for prostate cancer: evaluation of outcomes in the Regione Emilia-Romagna, Italy.

    PubMed

    Showalter, Timothy N; Hegarty, Sarah E; Rabinowitz, Carol; Maio, Vittorio; Hyslop, Terry; Dicker, Adam P; Louis, Daniel Z

    2015-03-15

    Although the likelihood of radiation-related adverse events influences treatment decisions regarding radiation therapy after prostatectomy for eligible patients, the data available to inform decisions are limited. This study was designed to evaluate the genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and sexual adverse events associated with postprostatectomy radiation therapy and to assess the influence of radiation timing on the risk of adverse events. The Regione Emilia-Romagna Italian Longitudinal Health Care Utilization Database was queried to identify a cohort of men who received radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer during 2003 to 2009, including patients who received postprostatectomy radiation therapy. Patients with prior radiation therapy were excluded. Outcome measures were genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and sexual adverse events after prostatectomy. Rates of adverse events were compared between the cohorts who did and did not receive postoperative radiation therapy. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were developed for each class of adverse events, including models with radiation therapy as a time-varying covariate. A total of 9876 men were included in the analyses: 2176 (22%) who received radiation therapy and 7700 (78%) treated with prostatectomy alone. In multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, the additional exposure to radiation therapy after prostatectomy was associated with increased rates of gastrointestinal (rate ratio [RR] 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-2.27; P<.001) and urinary nonincontinence events (RR 1.83; 95% CI 1.83-2.80; P<.001) but not urinary incontinence events or erectile dysfunction. The addition of the time from prostatectomy to radiation therapy interaction term was not significant for any of the adverse event outcomes (P>.1 for all outcomes). Radiation therapy after prostatectomy is associated with an increase in gastrointestinal and genitourinary adverse events. However, the timing of radiation therapy did

  2. Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Meat and Vegetable Products in Emilia Romagna Region, Years 2012-2013

    PubMed Central

    Taddei, Roberta; Nocera, Lucia; Ricchi, Matteo; Merialdi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    In 2012-2013 Emilia-Romagna Region introduced a monitoring plan for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in foodstuff. Six hundred eighty-nine meat samples and 273 fruit and vegetable products were analyzed according to ISOTS13136. Pre-enriched samples were tested by multiplex real time PCR targeting the virulence genes eae, stx1 and stx2. Stx2 positive samples were investigated for the presence of serogroup O104 associated gene. O103, O111, O145, O157, O26 associated genes were tested on samples positive for stx in association with eae gene. Isolation of E. coli strains was attempted from samples positive for serogroup-associated genes. Thirty-four meat products (4.9%) resulted positive for stx1 and/or stx2 genes and 46 (6.7%) for stx1 and/or stx2 genes in association with eae gene. Forty-five (6.5%) samples resulted positive at least at one serogroup. Serogroup O103, O104, O111, O145, O157 and O26 genes were detected respectively in 1.3, 0.3, 0.1, 3.9, 2.9 and 2.5% samples; 0.6% samples resulted positive for STEC isolation (2 E. coli O103 and 2 E. coli O157). It is worth noting that STEC virulence genes were detected at high frequency (19%) in fresh pork meat sausages. Four (1.5%) vegetable samples were positive for stx1 and/or stx2 genes and 1 (0.4%) for stx1 and/or stx2 genes in association with eae gene; none resulted positive for the tested serogroups. Only a low number of samples positive by molecular methods were confirmed by cultural isolation. It is therefore of the uttermost importance for appropriate risk management, to be fully aware of the meaning of the analytical result. PMID:27800377

  3. Quality control and data validation procedure in large-scale quantitative monitoring of mosquito density: the case of Aedes albopictus in Emilia-Romagna region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Carrieri, Marco; Albieri, Alessandro; Urbanelli, Sandra; Angelini, Paola; Venturelli, Claudio; Matrangolo, Carmela; Bellini, Romeo

    2017-03-01

    The risk of local transmission of chikungunya, dengue, and Zika viruses from viremic travelers arriving from affected areas is a real possibility in southern Europe, due to the large presence of the vector Aedes albopictus. The first chikungunya outbreak in Europe occurred in the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy, in 2007, prompting the regional public health department to implement an Ae. albopictus monitoring and control plan. This paper presents the procedure developed for the quality control of the data collected by the regional ovitrap monitoring network. The quality control procedure consists of four successive steps; the first step is data acquisition and the second is an automatic data processing step, while skilled technicians according to specific procedures perform the third and fourth steps by checking the exact position of the ovitraps and by conducting human landing collections, respectively. The paper also presents the results of this quality control procedure applied to the data collected through the large-scale Ae. albopictus monitoring operation performed in Emilia-Romagna in 2015.

  4. Diagnosis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in the Emilia Romagna region: a prospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Addimanda, Olga; Marino, Massimiliano; Farina, Ilaria; Trevisani, Marica; Arrigoni, Eugenio; Lumetti, Federica; Crescentini, Filippo; Sambo, Paola; Bezzi, Alessandra; Bruschi, Marco; Santilli, Daniele; Reta, Massimo; Bosi, Simona; Delsante, Giovanni; Girelli, Francesco; Montaguti, Luca; Meliconi, Riccardo; Sebastiani, Marco; Ferri, Clodoveo; Malavolta, Nazzarena; Govoni, Marcello; Trombetti, Susanna; De Palma, Rossana; Salvarani, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    To perform a population-based study in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, in order to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pharmacologic treatments. 1087 patients with RA were enrolled; inclusion criteria were: newly diagnosed RA, already diagnosed RA with high disease activity (HDA) (DAS28≥4.2) starting biologic DMARDs (bDMARDs), already diagnosed RA with HDA continuing with conventional DMARDs (cDMARDs). The following data were collected: demographics, clinical and laboratory features, imaging and prescribed drugs. All parameters except immunology and imaging (performed yearly) were repeated at each follow-up evaluations (after 3, 6 and 12 months, and thereafter every 12 months). In order to evaluate clinical response, the EULAR response criteria were used as the gold standard. 414 (38.1%) newly diagnosed patients with RA, 477 (43.9%) RA patients who started bDMARDs and 196 (18.0%) RA patients who continued with cDMARDs were enrolled from April 2012 to March 2015 at 12 Rheumatology Centres in the Emilia Romagna Region. Statistical analyses showed a relative risk ratio (RRR) for moderate response of 1.65 in RA patients who started bDMARDs (p=0.16) and 2.49 for newly diagnosed RA (p=0.01). Sex, age and Health Assessment Questionnaire were not statistically significant. A RRR of 2.00 has been confirmed for RA patients who started bDMARDs (p<0.0005) for a good response as well as 2.20 for newly diagnosed RA (p<0.0005). An increase in adverse events among bDMARDs was found, but when looking at infections or neoplasia, no differences were highlighted between RA which started bDMARDs and RA who continued with cDMARDs. Our results are in line with already published papers from British and Swedish Registries: a greater likelihood to have a good response is demonstrated for not longstanding RA starting cDMARDs or RA with HDA when a bDMARD is started. Also a good safety profile is demonstrated.

  5. Prevalence and risk of polypharmacy among the elderly in an outpatient setting: a retrospective cohort study in the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Slabaugh, S Lane; Maio, Vittorio; Templin, Megan; Abouzaid, Safiya

    2010-12-01

    Polypharmacy, the simultaneous taking of many medications, has been well documented and is a topic of much concern for those looking to improve the quality of care for the elderly. Elderly patients often develop complicated and multifactorial health states that require extensive pharmacotherapy, leaving this population at risk for exposure to drug-drug interactions and other adverse events. Previous literature supports an association between an increase in the rate of adverse events as the number of drugs taken by a patient increases. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of polypharmacy, and to determine patient characteristics that are predictive of exposure to polypharmacy, in the elderly population of the Emilia-Romagna region in Italy. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of the 2007 Emilia-Romagna outpatient pharmacy database linked with patient information available from a demographic file of approximately 1 million Emilia-Romagna residents aged ≥65 years. The cohort comprised 887,165 elderly subjects who had at least one prescription filled during the study year. Using the WHO's defined daily dose (DDD) to determine the duration of treatment for a given drug, we defined a polypharmacy episode as overlapping treatment with five or more medications occurring for at least 1 day. The prevalence of polypharmacy was measured together with subject characteristics found to be predictive of polypharmacy exposure. A total of 349,689 elderly people in the population (39.4%) were exposed to at least one episode of polypharmacy during the study period. The prevalence of polypharmacy substantially increased with age and with a higher number of chronic conditions. Over 35% of those exposed to polypharmacy were exposed for 101 or more days of the year. The top three classes of medications involved in polypharmacy were antithrombotics, peptic ulcer disease and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease agents, and ACE inhibitors. The odds of exposure to polypharmacy were

  6. Seasonal variation in occurrence of pulmonary embolism: analysis of the database of the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Gallerani, Massimo; Boari, Benedetta; Smolensky, Michael H; Salmi, Raffaella; Fabbri, Davide; Contato, Edgardo; Manfredini, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal variation in the occurrence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, including pulmonary embolism (PE), has been reported; however, recent large-scale, population-based studies conducted in the United States did not confirm such seasonality. The aim of this large-scale population study was to determine whether a temporal pattern in the occurrence of PE exists. The analysis considered all consecutive cases of PE in the database of all hospital admissions of the Emilia Romagna region in Italy at the Center for Health Statistics between January 1998 and December 2005. PE cases were first grouped according to season of occurrence, and the data were analyzed by the chi(2) test for goodness of fit. Then, inferential chronobiologic (cosinor and partial Fourier) analysis was applied to monthly data, and the best-fitting curve for the annual variation was derived. The total sample consisted of 19,245 patients (8,143 male, mean age 71.6+/-14.1 yrs; 11,102 female, mean age 76.1+/-13.7 yrs). Of these, 2,484 were <65 yrs, 5,443 were between 65 and 74, and 11,318 were > or = 75 yrs. There were 4,486 (23.3%) fatal-case outcomes. PE occurred least frequently in spring (n=4,442 or 23.1%) and most frequent in winter (n=5,236 or 27.2%, goodness of fit chi(2)=75.75, p<0.001). Similar results were obtained for subgroups formed by gender, age, fatal/non-fatal outcome, presence/absence of major underlying co-morbid conditions, and specific risk factors. Inferential chronobiological analysis identified a significant annual pattern in PE, with the peak between November and December for the total sample of cases (p<0.001), males (p<0.001), females (p=0.002), fatal and non-fatal cases (p<0.001 for both), and subgroups formed by age (<65 yrs, p=0.012; 65-74 yrs, p<0.001; > or = 75 yrs, p=0.012). This pattern was independent of the presence/absence of hypertension (p=0.003 and p<0.001, respectively), pulmonary disease (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively), stroke (p<0.001 and p=0

  7. Evaluation of coastal vulnerability: comparison of two different methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaroli, Clara; Perini, Luisa; Calabrese, Lorenzo; Ciavola, Paolo; Salerno, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    In the last years a large number of catastrophic events have occurred along worldwide coastlines (e.g.: 2012 Super-storm Sandy, US East Coast). European countries have to face similar calamities such as those caused by the recent Xaver cyclone (December 2013). The Emilia-Romagna coastline, Italy, along the North Adriatic Sea, is affected by storms that cause extensive damages. The coast has low elevations, is highly urbanised and there is a massive presence of defence structures. The area is micro-tidal (neap/spring tide ranges = 0.4/0.8 m), low energetic (65% Hs<=1 m) but subjected to significant surge levels (1 year return period = 0.85 m). Therefore an evaluation of the vulnerability of the coastal area is an urgent matter. The Regional Geological Survey has completed an analysis of three scenarios of damage produced by the concurrent happening of a marine storm and high surge levels (1-in-1, 10, 100 year return period) and high spring tidal levels (+0.45 m MSL). Wave heights were used to calculate run-up values along the whole coastline (on 187 equally spaced profiles extracted from LIDAR datasets). The result is a list of ten typology of different levels of damage obtained through the comparison between the computed water levels, for each scenario and along each profile, and the topography/human occupation of the coast. The assessment reveals that 60% of the coastline is vulnerable to the 1-in-1 year return period scenario, thus even modal meteorological conditions can generate significant losses. A comparison was made between the produced typologies and the actual damage caused by a recent storm and the correspondence is almost identical, underlining that the method is reliable. Because the above-mentioned methodology is only punctual, the Geological Survey has started a different evaluation of the areal extension of inundations. The methodology considers the concurrent happening of the same return period storms but in terms of wave set-up only (not including

  8. In-hospital mortality in patients with renal dysfunction admitted for myocardial infarction: the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy database of hospital admissions.

    PubMed

    Fabbian, Fabio; Pala, Marco; De Giorgi, Alfredo; Manfredini, Fabio; Mallozzi Menegatti, Alessandra; Salmi, Raffaella; Portaluppi, Francesco; Gallerani, Massimo; Manfredini, Roberto

    2013-06-01

    In-hospital mortality of patients with myocardial infarction (MI) in different European populations and renal dysfunction is variable. We aimed to evaluate in-hospital mortality for MI in chronic kidney disease (CKD), in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and in subjects admitted for MI without renal dysfunction living in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. We considered all cases of MI (first event) recorded in the database of hospital admissions of the region Emilia-Romagna of Italy, from January 1999 to December 2009. The criterion for inclusion was the presence, as a first discharge diagnosis, of acute MI (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification). The Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), with the exclusion of CKD, was calculated. The outcome variable was in-hospital mortality for MI, and its association with comorbidities, CKD and ESRD, was analyzed. During the considered period, 88,014 cases of first MI were recorded. The percentage of patients admitted with MI and died during hospitalization were higher in patients with ESRD (38.3 %) and CKD (16.5 %) than in those without renal dysfunction (14 %) (p < 0.01). In CKD and ESRD patients, data of in-hospital mortality for MI exhibited a twofold increase in the analyzed period. In-hospital mortality for MI was independently associated with age (OR 1.077, 95 % CI 1.075-1.080, p < 0.001), CCI excluding CKD (OR 1.101, 95 % CI 1.069-1.134, p < 0.001), cerebrovascular disease (OR 1.450, 95 % CI 1.349-1.557, p < 0.001), malignancy (OR 1.234, 95 % CI 1.153-1.320, p < 0.001), and ESRD (OR 4.137, 95 % CI 3.511-4.875, p < 0.001). As for the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy, in-hospital mortality for MI is increasing over the last years, and mortality seems to be related with patients' comorbidities and presence of advanced stages of CKD.

  9. Estimation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis load in raw bulk tank milk in Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy) by qPCR.

    PubMed

    Ricchi, Matteo; Savi, Roberto; Bolzoni, Luca; Pongolini, Stefano; Grant, Irene R; De Cicco, Caterina; Cerutti, Giulia; Cammi, Giuliana; Garbarino, Chiara A; Arrigoni, Norma

    2016-08-01

    Consumption of milk and dairy products is considered one of the main routes of human exposure to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Quantitative data on MAP load in raw cows' milk are essential starting point for exposure assessment. Our study provides this information on a regional scale, estimating the load of MAP in bulk tank milk (BTM) produced in Emilia-Romagna region (Italy). The survey was carried out on 2934 BTM samples (88.6% of the farms herein present) using two different target sequences for qPCR (f57 and IS900). Data about the performances of both qPCRs are also reported, highlighting the superior sensitivity of IS900-qPCR. Seven hundred and eighty-nine samples tested MAP-positive (apparent prevalence 26.9%) by IS900 qPCR. However, only 90 of these samples were quantifiable by qPCR. The quantifiable samples contained a median load of 32.4 MAP cells mL(-1) (and maximum load of 1424 MAP cells mL(-1) ). This study has shown that a small proportion (3.1%) of BTM samples from Emilia-Romagna region contained MAP in excess of the limit of detection (1.5 × 10(1) MAP cells mL(-1) ), indicating low potential exposure for consumers if the milk subsequently undergoes pasteurization or if it is destined to typical hard cheese production. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Epilepsy in primary cerebral tumors: the characteristics of epilepsy at the onset (results from the PERNO study--Project of Emilia Romagna Region on Neuro-Oncology).

    PubMed

    Michelucci, Roberto; Pasini, Elena; Meletti, Stefano; Fallica, Elisa; Rizzi, Romana; Florindo, Irene; Chiari, Annalisa; Monetti, Cinzia; Cremonini, Anna Maria; Forlivesi, Stefano; Albani, Fiorenzo; Baruzzi, Agostino

    2013-10-01

    To present new information on the semiology and short-term evolution of seizures associated with primary brain tumors (PBTs) in a prospective study. This study is a section of the PERNO study--Project of Emilia Romagna Region on Neuro-Oncology, the main aim of which is to collect prospectively all cases of PBTs occurring in the Emilia-Romagna region, northeast Italy (3,983,346 population) from January 2009 to December 2011, to allow epidemiologic, clinical, and biomolecular studies. The epilepsy section of the PERNO study included all the patients who experienced seizures, either as first symptom of the tumor or appearing during the course of the disease. Each patient was interviewed by the referring neurologist with a specific interest in epilepsy. The patients who entered the study were followed up with visits on a quarterly basis. We collected 100 cases with full clinical, neuroradiologic, and pathologic data. The majority (79%) had high grade PBTs (glioblastoma in 50 cases), whereas the remaining patients had low-grade gliomas, mostly localized in the frontal (60%), temporal (38%), and parietal (28%) lobes. Seizures were the first symptom of the tumor in 72 cases. Overall, the initial seizures were tonic-clonic (48%) (without clear initial focal signs in more than half of the patients), focal motor (26%), complex partial (10%), and somatosensitive (8%). The majority of cases (60%) had isolated seizures or a low seizure frequency at the onset of the disease, whereas a high seizure frequency or status epilepticus was observed in 18% and 12% of cases, respectively. Ninety-two patients underwent surgical removal of the tumor, which was either radical (38%) or partial (53%). Seven patients underwent only cerebral biopsy. In the 72 patients in whom seizures were the first symptom, the mean time to the surgical treatment was 174 days, with a significant difference between high grade (95 days) and low grade (481 days) gliomas. At the time of our first observation, the

  11. The Salmonella mutagenicity of urban airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) from eight sites of the Emilia-Romagna regional monitoring network (Italy).

    PubMed

    Cassoni, Francesca; Bocchi, Clara; Martino, Anna; Pinto, Giancarlo; Fontana, Federica; Buschini, Annamaria

    2004-05-25

    ARPA Emilia Romagna created, in 1997, a regional network for the continuous monitoring of the mutagenicity of PM(2.5) by short-term mutagenicity bioassays to guarantee a constant surveillance on the entire regional territory. The continuous monitoring of the PM mutagenicity provides essential information for a better understanding of the impact of air pollution on the health of the population, and allows one to better judge the efficiency of national and local efforts for urban air quality improvement (use of "green" petrol and ecodiesel, days during which traffic is prohibited, etc.). This article presents the results relating to the Network's activity between September 2000 and December 2002, on PM(2.5) fraction. The organic extracts of PM(2.5) were tested for mutagenicity using Salmonella tester strains TA98 and TA100 with and without metabolic activation (S9). The data obtained on the genotoxicity of air particulate extracts have revealed a constant presence of mutagenic substances adsorbed on particulate matter-with a prevalence of direct-acting mutagens than of promutagens-in a typical seasonal trend featuring higher levels in autumn-winter and lower in warmer periods of the year. In this work the evolution of PM(2.5) mutagenicity was compared with the particles, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) concentrations (monthly average); these comparisons revealed a quite good level of agreement on a local basis.

  12. Temporal patterns of hospital admissions for transient ischemic attack: a retrospective population-based study in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Manfredini, Roberto; Manfredini, Fabio; Boari, Benedetta; Malagoni, Anna Maria; Gamberini, Susanna; Salmi, Raffaella; Gallerani, Massimo

    2010-04-01

    Acute cerebrovascular events are not randomly distributed over time but show specific temporal patterns of occurrence. However, most studies focused stroke and little is known about transient ischemic attack. This study aimed to explore the existence of a temporal pattern of transient ischemic attack and the possible influence by the most common risk factors. The analysis included all hospital admissions with the ICD9-CM code for TIA, recorded in the database of the Emilia Romagna region of Italy (1998-2006; n = 43642, mean age 76.8 +/- 11.5 years, 45.5% males). Transient ischemic attack was most frequent in autumn and winter and less common in spring and summer (P < 0.0001), with the highest number of cases in October and the lowest in February, and also most frequent on Monday (P < 0.0001). This study shows a seasonal and weekly pattern in occurrence of transient ischemic attack, independent of sex and the presence of the most common risk factors.

  13. Primary care physicians' perspective on the management of anxiety and depressive disorders: a cross-sectional survey in Emilia Romagna Region.

    PubMed

    Casini, Federica; Sighinolfi, Cecilia; Tedesco, Paola; Bandieri, Pier Venanzio; Bologna, Maria; Colombini, Niccolò; Curcetti, Clara; Magnani, Michele; Morini, Mara; Serio, Alberto; Tarricone, Ilaria; Berardi, Domenico; Menchetti, Marco

    2013-06-07

    Evidences from literature suggest that Primary Care Physicians' (PCPs) knowledge and attitude about psychological and pharmacological treatments of anxiety and depressive disorders could influence their clinical practice. The aim of the study is double: 1) to assess PCPs' opinions about antidepressants (ADs) and psychotherapy for the management of anxiety and depressive disorders; 2) to evaluate the influence of PCPs' gender, age, duration of clinical practice, and office location on their opinions and attitudes. This cross-sectional multicentre survey involved 816 PCPs working in four Local Health Units of the Emilia Romagna Region. Participating PCPs were asked to complete a questionnaire during educational meetings between October 2006 and December 2008. The response rate was 65.1%. Eighty-five percent of PCPs agreed on the effectiveness of ADs for depressive disorder whereas lower agreement emerged for anxiety disorder and on psychotherapy for both anxiety and depression. Forty percent of PCPs reported to feel "very/extremely confident" in recognizing depression and 20.0% felt equally confident in treating it with pharmacotherapy. Considering anxiety disorder, these proportions increased. Female PCPs and those located in the rural/mountain areas reported to adopt more psycho-educational support compared to male and suburban colleagues. Our results suggest that an effort should be made to better disseminate recent evidences about the management of anxiety and depressive disorders in Primary Care. In particular, the importance of psychological interventions and the role of drugs for anxiety disorder should be addressed.

  14. Primary care Physicians’ perspective on the management of anxiety and depressive disorders: a cross-sectional survey in Emilia Romagna Region

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidences from literature suggest that Primary Care Physicians’ (PCPs) knowledge and attitude about psychological and pharmacological treatments of anxiety and depressive disorders could influence their clinical practice. The aim of the study is double: 1) to assess PCPs’ opinions about antidepressants (ADs) and psychotherapy for the management of anxiety and depressive disorders; 2) to evaluate the influence of PCPs’ gender, age, duration of clinical practice, and office location on their opinions and attitudes. Methods This cross-sectional multicentre survey involved 816 PCPs working in four Local Health Units of the Emilia Romagna Region. Participating PCPs were asked to complete a questionnaire during educational meetings between October 2006 and December 2008. Results The response rate was 65.1%. Eighty-five percent of PCPs agreed on the effectiveness of ADs for depressive disorder whereas lower agreement emerged for anxiety disorder and on psychotherapy for both anxiety and depression. Forty percent of PCPs reported to feel “very/extremely confident” in recognizing depression and 20.0% felt equally confident in treating it with pharmacotherapy. Considering anxiety disorder, these proportions increased. Female PCPs and those located in the rural/mountain areas reported to adopt more psycho-educational support compared to male and suburban colleagues. Conclusions Our results suggest that an effort should be made to better disseminate recent evidences about the management of anxiety and depressive disorders in Primary Care. In particular, the importance of psychological interventions and the role of drugs for anxiety disorder should be addressed. PMID:23758941

  15. Wide recognition of Culex pipiens and lack of detection of Culex torrentium through biomolecular differentiation of mosquitoes in the Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Calzolari, M; Bonilauri, P; Bellini, R; Becker, S; Dottori, M

    2016-12-01

    The Culex pipiens complex includes species with reported differences in vector competence for arthropod-borne viruses, many of which are of significant importance to human health such as the West Nile virus and the Sindbis virus. This group of mosquitoes is difficult to distinguish morphologically; particularly as adult females. In Europe, the two species of the complex, Culex pipiens Linnaeus 1758 and Culex torrentium Martini 1925, are often found sympatrically. With the aim to characterize the presence and spread of both species in the Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy, mosquitoes of the complex - collected during the West Nile virus surveillance plans - were tested by multiplex real-time PCR for the detection of the two species Cx. pipiens and Cx. torrentium. A total of 24 165 mosquitoes, collected between 2012 and 2014 from 105 sites, and sorted in 204 pools, were tested. All tested pools were found to be composed of Cx. pipiens, whereas Cx. torrentium was not detected. These results indicate a likely absence of Cx. torrentium mosquitoes within the surveyed territory, whereas Cx. pipiens is widely distributed in the area mentioned. This is in line with previous reports, which describe a pre-alpine distribution of Cx. torrentium in Italy. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  16. A procedure for the sensory evaluation of Salama da sugo, a typical fermented sausage produced in the Emilia Romagna Region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Coloretti, Fabio; Grazia, Luigi; Gardini, Fausto; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Montanari, Chiara; Tabanelli, Giulia; Chiavari, Cristiana

    2015-03-30

    Salama da sugo is a fermented sausage from the Ferrara tradition (Italy, Emilia-Romagna region), subjected to a long ripening period (4-6 months) and characterised by a high content of wine and spices in the mixture. It can be consumed after cooking and it is served with its sugo, i.e. the liquid extracted by cooking process. The aim of this work was to set up a method for the sensory profile of Salama da sugo as a request for Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) has been made to the European Commission. A system of sample preparation that provides for the precooking in an autoclave and cooking in boiling water was set up. A specific sheet for sensory evaluation of Salama da sugo has been created and reports 23 descriptors identified during the lexicon development. The differences in sensory profile of four samples were evaluated and principal component analysis highlighted the more discriminant parameters, i.e. odour intensity, wine odour, spicy aroma, fat/lean connection, sweet, bitter, juiciness, chewiness and pricking. The proposed method allows the standardisation of sensory profiling of Salama da sugo, and is also to verify compliance with the specification PGI. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. How do hospital-specialty characteristics influence health system responsiveness? An empirical evaluation of in-patient care in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna.

    PubMed

    Fiorentini, Gianluca; Robone, Silvana; Verzulli, Rossella

    2017-06-29

    Studies of health system responsiveness mostly focus on the demand side by investigating the association between sociodemographic characteristics of patients and their reported level of responsiveness. However, little is known about the influence of supply-side factors. This paper addresses that research gap by analysing the role of hospital-specialty characteristics in explaining variations in patients' evaluation of responsiveness from a sample of about 38,700 in-patients treated in public hospitals within the Italian Region of Emilia-Romagna. The analysis is carried out by adopting a 2-step procedure. First, we use patients' self-reported data to derive 5 measures of responsiveness at the hospital-specialty level. By estimating a generalised ordered probit model, we are able to correct for variations in individual reporting behaviour due to the health status of patients and their experience of being in pain. Second, we run cross-sectional regressions to investigate the association between patients' responsiveness and potential supply-side drivers, including waiting times, staff workload, the level of spending on non-clinical facilities, the level of spending on staff education and training, and the proportion of staff expenditure between nursing and administrative staff. Results suggest that responsiveness is to some extent influenced by the supply-side drivers considered. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Variation in hospital utilization at the end of life for patients with cancer in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Louis, Daniel Z; Hegarty, Sarah E; Leoni, Maurizio; De Palma, Rossana; Varga, Stefan; Melotti, Rita

    2016-12-01

    Despite the preference of many patients to die at home, high proportions of patients with advanced cancer undergo major procedures, receive intensive care, and die in the hospital. The goal of this study is to examine variation in hospital utilization and site of death for patients dying with poor-prognosis cancer in the Regione Emilia-Romagna (RER), Italy. We conducted a retrospective, population-level study using administrative data. Patients were included if they died in 2012 and had at least one hospital admission for metastatic or poor-prognosis cancer within 180 days of death. Variations in the use of the hospital, intensive care, and procedures performed were evaluated. 11,470 patients died with metastatic or poor-prognosis cancer in 2012. Seventy-eight percent of patients were hospitalized in the last month of life while 50.7% of patients died in the hospital. Results varied by local health authority from 38.3% to 69.3%. Of patients who had an ICU stay, 55.1% in the community hospitals and 59.8% in the teaching hospitals were admitted to the ICU on the day of death or the day before death. 7.5% of patients underwent a major procedure in the last 30 days of life. The overall high rate, and substantial variation, in hospital care at the end of life offers the RER the opportunity to evaluate if increasing availability of palliative care, along with provider and patient education, could reduce utilization of high-cost hospital care and increase patient and family satisfaction.

  19. The experience of West Nile virus integrated surveillance system in the Emilia-Romagna region: five years of implementation, Italy, 2009 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Bellini, R; Calzolari, M; Mattivi, A; Tamba, M; Angelini, P; Bonilauri, P; Albieri, A; Cagarelli, R; Carrieri, M; Dottori, M; Finarelli, A C; Gaibani, P; Landini, M P; Natalini, S; Pascarelli, N; Rossini, G; Velati, C; Vocale, C; Bedeschi, E

    2014-11-06

    Predicting West Nile virus (WNV) circulation and the risk of WNV epidemics is difficult due to complex interactions of multiple factors involved. Surveillance systems that timely detect virus activity in targeted areas, and allow evidence-based risk assessments may therefore be necessary. Since 2009, a system integrating environmental (mosquitoes and birds) and human surveillance has been implemented and progressively improved in the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy. The objective is to increase knowledge of WNV circulation and to reduce the probability of virus transmission via blood, tissue and organ donation. As of 2013, the system has shown highly satisfactory results in terms of early detection capacity (the environmental surveillance component allowed detection of WNV circulation 3–4 weeks before human cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) occurred), sensitivity (capacity to detect virus circulation even at the enzootic level) and area specificity (capacity to indicate the spatial distribution of the risk for WNND). Strong correlations were observed between the vector index values and the number of human WNND cases registered at the province level. Taking into consideration two scenarios of surveillance, the first with environmental surveillance and the second without, the total costs for the period from 2009 to 2013 were reduced when environmental surveillance was considered (EUR 2.093 million for the first scenario vs EUR 2.560 million for the second). Environmental surveillance helped to reduce costs by enabling a more targeted blood unit testing strategy. The inclusion of environmental surveillance also increased the efficiency of detecting infected blood units and further allowed evidence-based adoption of preventative public health measures.

  20. [Using hospital discharge records, birth certificates and a birth defects registry for epidemiological and public health purposes: experience in Emilia-Romagna region (northern Italy)].

    PubMed

    Astolfi, Gianni; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Lupi, Camilla; Napoli, Nicola; Neville, Amanda; Verdini, Eleonora; Verzola, Adriano; Calzolari, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    implementation and validation of a methodology to link and integrate hospital discharge record (SDO), birth certificate (CeDAP) and the population-based registry of congenital malformations of the Emilia-Romagna Region (IMER). An algorithm has been developed to link registry data and administrative data through the use of indirect patient identifiers in order to exploit the strengths of the different data sources and to expand the pool of existing data available for the analysis. use of IMER Registry, birth certificates and hospital discharge records to assess and diagnose congenital malformations; these data sources vary in terms of availability and accuracy. data from IMER Registry, SDO and CeDAP for year 2009 have been used. the main results of the study are: 1. a perfect monitoring system does not exist, the algorithm proposed enabled the integration of three different sources and the evaluation of the capacity to identify different anomalies to be capitalized on; 2. the high number of false positives in audit reporting in 4 hospitals underlines the importance of the contribution of clinical experts in the review of the case to exclude coding errors, clarify unspecific diagnostic categories and identify syndromes; 3. the IMER Registry with over 30 years of experience has been the catalyst for this work by integrating clinical skills in the registry with the public health expertise of other professionals involved in information flows; 4. in the absence of a single comprehensive source of data collection, the advantage of the integration of the information collected from multiple sources is confirmed. birth defects surveillance programmes are critical resources that can provide fundamental information to take sound decisions in healthcare planning and for environmental epidemiology studies. This experience, whilst not mechanically transferable to other areas and circumstances, is a model for the future clinical and epidemiological management of congenital

  1. Characterization of atmospheric aerosols in the Po valley during the supersito campaigns - Part 3: Contribution of wood combustion to wintertime atmospheric aerosols in Emilia Romagna region (Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrogrande, Maria Chiara; Bacco, Dimitri; Ferrari, Silvia; Kaipainen, Jussi; Ricciardelli, Isabella; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa; Trentini, Arianna; Visentin, Marco

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the influence of wood combustion on PM in fall/winter that are the most favorable seasonal periods with presumed intense biomass burning for residential heating due to low temperatures. As a part of the Supersito project, nearly 650 PM2.5 samples were daily collected at urban and rural sites in Emilia Romagna (Northern Italy) in five intensive experimental campaigns throughout the years from 2011 to 2014. From specific compounds related to wood combustion a set of 58 organic compounds was determined, such as anhydrosugars, primary biological sugars, low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids, methoxylated phenols, PAHs and carbonaceous components (EC/OC). Levoglucosan was by far the most dominant anhydrosugar, both on a relative and an absolute basis (35-1043 ng m-3), followed by mannosan (7-121 ng m-3) and galactosan (4-52 ng m-3), indicating that wood burning for domestic heating is a diffuse regional source during the seasons studied. Different diagnostic ratios between anhydrosugars and methoxylated phenols were computed to discriminate the prevalent contribution of hardwood as combustion fuel. The investigated 19 high molecular weight PAHs were more abundant at the urban than at the rural site, with mean total value of 4.3 and 3.2 ng m-3 at MS and SP, respectively. The strong contribution of wood combustion to atmospheric PAHs was indicated by the positive correlation between levoglucosan and the most abundant PAHs (R2 = 0.71÷0.79) and individually with benzo(a)pyrene (R2 = 0.79). By using this correlation, it was estimated that wood burning contributed nearly 77% to BaP concentration in the winter months. Based on the ratio between levoglucosan and OC data, it could be concluded that the wood burning contributed about 35% to OC during the cold November-February periods and the contribution was similar at both sampling sites.

  2. Forecasting future needs and optimal allocation of medical residency positions: the Emilia-Romagna Region case study.

    PubMed

    Senese, Francesca; Tubertini, Paolo; Mazzocchetti, Angelina; Lodi, Andrea; Ruozi, Corrado; Grilli, Roberto

    2015-01-30

    Italian regional health authorities annually negotiate the number of residency grants to be financed by the National government and the number and mix of supplementary grants to be funded by the regional budget. This study provides regional decision-makers with a requirement model to forecast the future demand of specialists at the regional level. We have developed a system dynamics (SD) model that projects the evolution of the supply of medical specialists and three demand scenarios across the planning horizon (2030). Demand scenarios account for different drivers: demography, service utilization rates (ambulatory care and hospital discharges) and hospital beds. Based on the SD outputs (occupational and training gaps), a mixed integer programming (MIP) model computes potentially effective assignments of medical specialization grants for each year of the projection. To simulate the allocation of grants, we have compared how regional and national grants can be managed in order to reduce future gaps with respect to current training patterns. The allocation of 25 supplementary grants per year does not appear as effective in reducing expected occupational gaps as the re-modulation of all regional training vacancies.

  3. Abundance of questing ticks and molecular evidence for pathogens in ticks in three parks of Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Aureli, Sara; Galuppi, Roberta; Ostanello, Fabio; Foley, Janet E; Bonoli, Cristina; Rejmanek, Daniel; Rocchi, Giorgia; Orlandi, Elisa; Tampieri, Maria Paola

    2015-01-01

    Infectious and parasitic diseases transmitted by ticks, such as Lyme diseases, granulocytic anaplasmosis and piroplasmosis, have been frequently reported in Europe, with increasing attention to them as an emerging zoonotic problem. The presented study was performed to assess the distribution and the density of questing ticks in three regional parks of Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy, and to seek molecular evidence of potential human pathogens in tick populations. In the period April-October 2010, 8,139 questing ticks were collected: 6,734 larvae, 1,344 nymphs and only a few adults - 28 females and 33 males. The abundance of Ixodes ricinus questing ticks was compared among different sampling sites and related to microclimate parameters. 1,544 out of 8,139 ticks were examined for the presence of pathogens: PCR was used to detect piroplasms DNA and Real time Taqman PCR for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. The predominant species was I. ricinus (overall abundance 1,075.9/100 m(2) ); more rarely, Dermacentor marginatus (n = 37 - 0.45%), Scaphixodes frontalis (n = 13 - 0.16%), Hyalomma spp. (n = 6 - 0.07%) and Ixodes acuminatus (n = 3 - 0.04%) were also found. 28 out of 324 (8.6%) samples of ticks were PCR-positive for piroplasm DNA. 11 amplicons of 18S rRNA gene were identical to each other and had 100% identity with Babesia EU1 (Babesia venatorum) using BLAST analysis. Real time Taqman PCR gave positive results for A. phagocytophilum in 23 out of 292 samples (7.9%), and for B. burgdorferi s.l. in 78 out of 292 samples (26.7%). I. ricinus was the only species found positive for pathogens by molecular analysis; 16 tick samples were co-infected with at least 2 pathogens. The peak of nymph presence was in May, and the higher prevalence of pathogens occurred in April-June, most often in nymphs; therefore, spring season could represent the higher risk period for the transmission of pathogens. These data could provide guidelines for the

  4. Evidence of Simultaneous Circulation of West Nile and Usutu Viruses in Mosquitoes Sampled in Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy) in 2009

    PubMed Central

    Calzolari, Mattia; Bonilauri, Paolo; Bellini, Romeo; Albieri, Alessandro; Defilippo, Francesco; Maioli, Giulia; Galletti, Giorgio; Gelati, Antoni; Barbieri, Ilaria; Tamba, Marco; Lelli, Davide; Carra, Elena; Cordioli, Paolo; Angelini, Paola; Dottori, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Background In recent years human diseases due to mosquito-borne viruses were increasingly reported in Emilia-Romagna region (Italy), from the chikungunya virus in 2007 to the West Nile virus (WNV) in 2008. An extensive entomological survey was performed in 2009 to establish the presence and distribution of mosquito arboviruses in this region, with particular reference to flaviviruses. Methodology/Principal Findings From May 6 to October 31, a total of 190,516 mosquitoes were sampled in georeferenced stations, grouped in 1,789 pools according date of collection, location, and species, and analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect the presence of RNA belong to Flavivirus genus. WNV was detected in 27 mosquito pools, producing sequences similar to those of birds and human strains obtained in 2008 outbreak, pointed out the probable virus overwintering. Isolation of WNV was achieved from one of these pools. Moreover 56 pools of mosquitoes tested positive for Usutu virus (USUV). Most PCR positive pools consisted of Culex pipiens, which also was the most analyzed mosquito species (81.4% of specimens); interestingly, USUV RNA was also found in two Aedes albopictus mosquito pools. Simultaneous circulation of WNV and USUV in the survey area was highlighted by occurrence of 8 mosquito WNV- and USUV-positive pools and by the overlaying of the viruses “hot spots”, obtained by kernel density estimation (KDE) analysis. Land use of sampled stations pointed out a higher proportion of WNV-positive Cx. pipiens pool in rural environments respect the provenience of total sampled pool, while the USUV-positive pools were uniformly captured in the different environments. Conclusions/Significance Obtained data highlighting the possible role of Cx. pipiens mosquito as the main vector for WNV and USUV in Northern Italy, and the possible involvement of Ae. albopictus mosquito in USUV cycle. The described mosquito-based surveillance could constitute the

  5. Seismic vulnerability of leaning masonry towers located in Emilia-Romagna region, Italy:FE analyses of four case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Gabriele; Shehu, Rafael; Valente, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Four inclined masonry towers are investigated in this paper in order to study the behavior under horizontal loads and the role of inclination on the seismic vulnerability. The towers are located in the North-East of Italy, a moderate seismicity region that was recently stricken by an earthquake with two major seismic events of magnitude 5.8 and 5.9. These towers date back to four to nine centuries ago and are well representative of the towers of the region. They present a meaningful inclination cumulated over years, which has a significant influence on the bearing capacity under lateral loads. Some retrofitting interventions were recently carried out by introducing tendons and hooping systems in order to ensure a box behavior and preclude the spreading of dangerous cracks due to the insufficient tensile strength of the masonry material. The structural behavior of the towers under horizontal loads is influenced by some geometrical issues, such as slenderness, walls thickness, perforations, irregularities, but the main aim of the paper is to provide an insight on the role played by inclination. The case studies are chosen to exhibit different values of slenderness in order to include a large range of geometrical cases for the assessment of the seismic vulnerability of the towers. Numerical analyses are carried out considering the effects of the retrofitting interventions too. As expected, pushover analyses show that inclination may increase the seismic vulnerability of the masonry towers comparing the results obtained for the inclined real case and the hypothetical vertical case.

  6. A population based cohort study to assess the safety of pandemic influenza vaccine Focetria in Emilia-Romagna region, Italy - part two.

    PubMed

    Moro, Maria Luisa; Nobilio, Lucia; Voci, Claudio; Di Mario, Simona; Candela, Silvia; Magrini, Nicola

    2013-02-27

    A two phases post authorization safety and effectiveness study of individuals vaccinated with the MF59-adjuvanted A/H1N1 influenza vaccine, Focetria (Novartis Vaccines & Diagnostics, Siena, Italy), was conducted in Emilia-Romagna region, Italy during the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic. The second phase study aim was to detect short- and long-term adverse events of special interest (AESIs) following vaccination, and to measure vaccine effectiveness in term of hospital admissions. A population-based cohort study using record linkage of automated healthcare databases is described. Focetria was administered to 127,522 subjects between October 2009 and February 2010. Vaccinated subjects were generally less healthy than unvaccinated ones. Propensity to be vaccinated was calculated for each subject, and vaccinated and unvaccinated subjects were matched accordingly (103,642 subjects in each group). AESIs were validated against clinical records. In the overall (pre-matching) cohort, a total of 504 short-term incident AESIs (28 in 127,522 vaccinated and 476 in 3,967,917 unvaccinated subjects) were registered (unadjusted OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2, 2.7). No fatalities were recorded. In the matched cohort, a total of 26 short-term incident AESIs (11 in the vaccinated and 15 in the unvaccinated group) were registered, with no differences between groups (OR: 0.7; 95% CI: 0.3, 1.6). Most frequent short-term incident AESIs were convulsions (4 out of 11), and demyelinating diseases (3 out of 11). In the long-term a total of 121 incident AESIs (60 in the vaccinated and 61 in the unvaccinated group) were registered, with no differences between groups (OR: 1.0; 95% CI: 0.7, 1.4). Most common long-term incident AESIs were demyelinating diseases (21 out of 60), and vasculitis (13 out of 60). Vaccine effectiveness was not assessed as the majority of subjects were vaccinated at the end of the pandemic peak and few cases (<0.1%) had laboratory confirmation. This population-based cohort study

  7. Risk of death associated with the use of conventional vs. atypical antipsychotic medications: evaluating the use of the Emilia-Romagna Region database for pharmacoepidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Sikirica, S; Marino, M; Gagne, J J; De Palma, R; Maio, V

    2014-02-01

    Since 2005, a mounting base of evidence has identified that conventional antipsychotic medications are associated with an increased risk of mortality among elderly patients when compared to atypical antipsychotics. This study sought to explore the feasibility of using the Emilia-Romagna Region (RER) database for comparative safety analyses by replicating and refining risk estimates of this well-known drug safety example through meta-analysis. We identified a cohort of 23 681 Italian RER patients (aged ≥65) who initiated treatment with a conventional or atypical antipsychotic between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2011. We compared 180-day mortality using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for risk factors for death, use of other medications and measures of health services utilization intensity, all measured before antipsychotic initiation. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies with similar methods against which to compare our results. Among 14 462 and 9219 patients prescribed conventional and atypical antipsychotics, respectively, we observed 2402 (16·6%) and 821 (8·9%) deaths during follow-up. Conventional antipsychotic initiators were older and generally had higher prevalence of outcome risk factors and higher baseline health service use intensity. The crude hazard ratio (HR) was 1·95 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1·80-2·11], which decreased to 1·47 (95% CI, 1·35-1·60) after full adjustment. We identified seven published studies that examined this association using similar methods. The pooled HR from these studies was 1·34 (95% CI, 1·28-1·39). Including our study, the meta-analysis yielded a summary estimate of 1·35 (95% CI, 1·31-1·40) and did not introduce any heterogeneity (I(2)  = 0%; P = 0·455). Our results support the use of the RER database for pharmacoepidemiological studies and provide an up-to-date and pooled estimate of the magnitude of the association between mortality and conventional vs. atypical antipsychotics. © 2013 John

  8. [New Technologies in coronary interventional cardiology: results from the first inter-regional survey promoted by SICI-GISE in four regions of northern Italy ("the GISE TOLOVE" area: Tuscany, Lombardy, Veneto, Emilia-Romagna)].

    PubMed

    Mojoli, Marco; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Tarantini, Giuseppe; Limbruno, Ugo; Tarantino, Fabio; Lettieri, Corrado; Napodano, Massimo; Fineschi, Massimo; Menozzi, Alberto; Pavei, Andrea; Parodi, Guido; Santarelli, Andrea; Trabattoni, Daniela; Marchese, Alfredo; Piccaluga, Emanuela; Danzi, Gian Battista; Varbella, Ferdinando; Bedogni, Francesco; Sardella, Gennaro; Berti, Sergio

    2015-02-01

    The implementation of the latest medical innovations can vary widely within the same geographic area. This study aimed to describe the current status of recent innovations in the field of coronary interventional cardiology in 4 regions of Northern Italy. From April to May 2014, 4 regional delegations of the Italian Society of Invasive Cardiology (SICI-GISE) have promoted a multicenter survey. By means of a web-based methodology, a focused questionnaire was administered to head physicians of 97 cath-labs in 4 Italian regions within the "GISE TOLOVE" area (Lombardy, Veneto, Tuscany, Emilia-Romagna). Pharmacological and technological innovations in coronary interventional cardiology appear to be widely used in the area covered by this survey, with uniformity in application and availability of therapeutic devices and drugs within the 4 regions involved. The main limiting factors to the adoption of new technologies and drugs were economic factors or lack of scientific evidence for some specific devices or drugs. This survey showed widespread and consistent application of the main latest innovations in coronary interventional cardiology across 4 Italian regions of Northern Italy.

  9. [Current practice and changing trends in the percutaneous treatment of structural heart disease. Results of a multicenter survey promoted by the Italian Society of Interventional Cardiology in six Italian Regions including Tuscany, Lombardy, Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, Campania and Puglia].

    PubMed

    Mojoli, Marco; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Berti, Sergio; Limbruno, Ugo; Marchese, Alfredo; Mauro, Ciro; Tarantino, Fabio; Fineschi, Massimo; Lettieri, Corrado; Menozzi, Alberto; My, Luigi; Attisano, Tiziana; Cernetti, Carlo; Favero, Luca; Napodano, Massimo; Pasquetto, Giampaolo; Pavei, Andrea; La Manna, Alessio; Parodi, Guido; Santarelli, Andrea; Trabattoni, Daniela; Varbella, Ferdinando; Signore, Nicola; Soriani, Nicola; Gregori, Dario; Figliozzi, Stefano; Tarantini, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    Significant developments have occurred in the field of percutaneous interventions for structural heart disease over the last decade. The introduction of several innovations has expanded significantly the spectrum of therapeutic applications of structural interventional cardiology. However, the translation of the most recent scientific evidence into clinical practice and the adoption of new technologies may be susceptible to large variability, even within the same geographic area. This study aimed at describing current status and changing trends of structural heart interventions within 6 Regions in Italy. Between July 2015 and October 2015, 6 regional delegations of the Italian Society of Interventional Cardiology (SICI-GISE) promoted a web-based multicenter survey concerning structural heart interventions. An ad hoc questionnaire was administered to head physicians of the cath-labs of 4 Regions of Northern Italy (Tuscany, Lombardy, Veneto and Emilia-Romagna) and 2 Regions of Southern Italy (Puglia and Campania). Also, in this study we considered previous data from a similar survey that involved Tuscany, Lombardy, Veneto and Emilia-Romagna between April 2014 and May 2014. Data from the two surveys were compared, observing the changing trends between 2014 and 2015. The 2015 survey was completed in more than two thirds (68%) of the 145 eligible cath-labs. According to the survey, the application of percutaneous structural heart interventions and the availability of devices were wide and homogeneous within the 6 Regions involved. The main factors perceived as limiting the execution of structural heart interventions resulted economic (e.g. cost of procedures and devices) or organizational (e.g. limited diffusion of hybrid operating rooms). In this study, which was based on the results of a recent survey conducted in 6 Italian Regions, structural heart interventions resulted widely growing throughout the investigated area. The indications for treatment and the

  10. Bioengineering applied to erosion and stability control in the North Apennines (Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy): a check about critical aspects of the works.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selli, Lavinia; Cavazza, Claudio; Pavanelli, Donatella

    2013-04-01

    Because of its geological structure, in the Emilia-Romagna Region over 32,000 landslides have been identified. Several works have been made in order to control mass movement's dynamics and to secure of Reno and Lamone Mountain Basin Rivers, the road network and near by villages and towns. Most of the control works dealt with bioengineering practices: palisades piles, geotextiles, seedings, surface flow control works, dikes within main drainage ditches. In order to check about critical aspects related to the use of these techniques in the Apennines, a survey in this basins was designed with specific interest in the several kinds of works realised, in which plant species were mostly used and in the factors that affected the success or failure of the works. Territory encompasses steep slopes covered with woods to low reliefs covered with grasslands. It is characterized by prevailing clays, inducing instability, and arenaceous lithology with impermeable soils; drainage density is quite high and hillsides suffer extensive and severe erosion and slope stability problems. Chestnut woods mainly represent land use at higher altitudes, while coppice, pastures and crops are present on milder hillsides. The remaining part of the basin is covered by vineyards, orchards, ponds and urban areas, which are basically located in the valley floor. Precipitation events mainly consist of rainfall ranging between 950-1015 mm per year; few snowfalls occur during winter and a long dry season lasts from June until September. We have analyzed 187 works designed mainly for the consolidation of slope instabilities through a widespread enhancement of the vegetation cover. The surveyed works are classified as a function of their building features: it can be seen that cribwalls and palisades are by far the most common types, being the 24% and the 34% respectively of the works. As far as the most adopted plant species, they were silver willow (Salix alba), Spanish Broom (Spartium Junceum) and

  11. Prenatal diagnosis of open spina bifida in Emilia-Romagna.

    PubMed

    Ghi, Tullio; Cocchi, Guido; Conti, Letizia; Pacella, Giuseppina; Youssef, Aly; Rizzo, Nicola; Pilu, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    To report recent data on the epidemiology of pregnancies affected by open spina bifida in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. All cases of open spina bifida diagnosed in the Emilia-Romagna region between 2001 and 2011 and reported to the IMER regional registry were included in the study group. The pregnancy outcome was retrospectively assessed. In the study period out of 390,978 babies born in Emilia-Romagna 126 cases of open spina bifida were reported to the IMER registry, resulting in a global prevalence of 3.2 per 10,000 births. Prenatal diagnosis was achieved in the vast majority of these cases (105/126; 83.3%) and in a great proportion of those women (85/105; 80.9%) who opted for termination of pregnancy. In a wide region of northern Italy where ultrasound anomaly scan is routinely offered to the general population, the vast majority of cases of open spina bifida are diagnosed antenatally and terminated electively. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Characteristics and major sources of carbonaceous aerosols in PM2.5 in Emilia Romagna Region (Northern Italy) from four-year observations.

    PubMed

    Pietrogrande, Maria Chiara; Bacco, Dimitri; Ferrari, Silvia; Ricciardelli, Isabella; Scotto, Fabiana; Trentini, Arianna; Visentin, Marco

    2016-05-15

    The concentrations of organic and elemental carbon in PM2.5 aerosol samples were measured in two sites of Emilia Romagna (Po Valley, Northern Italy) in eight campaigns during different seasons from 2011 to 2014. Strong seasonality was observed with the highest OC concentrations during the cold periods (≈ 5.5 μg m(-3)) and the lowest in the warm months (≈ 2.7 μg m(-3)) as well as with higher EC levels in fall/winter (≈ 1.4 μg m(-3)) in comparison with spring/summer (≈ 0.6 μg m(-3)). Concerning spatial variability, there were no statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between OC concentrations at the two sampling sites in each campaign, while the EC values were nearly twofold higher levels at the urban site than those at the rural one. Specific molecular markers were investigated to attempt the basic apportionment of OC by discriminating between the main emission sources of primary OC, such as fossil fuels burning - including traffic vehicle emission - residential wood burning, and bio-aerosol released from plants and microorganisms, and the atmospheric photo-oxidation processes generating OCsec. The investigated markers were low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids - to describe the contribution of secondary organic aerosol - anhydrosugars - to quantify primary emissions from biomass burning - bio-sugars - to qualitatively estimate biogenic sources - and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - to differentiate among different combustion emissions. Using the levoglucosan tracer method, contribution of wood smoke to atmospheric OC concentration was computed. Wood burning accounts for 33% of OC in fall/winter and for 3% in spring/summer. A clear seasonal trend is also observed for the impact of secondary processes with higher contribution in the warm seasons (≈ 63%) in comparison with that in colder months (≈ 33%), that is consistent with enhanced solar radiation in spring/summer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Same-day transfer for the invasive strategy of patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome admitted to spoke hospitals: Data from the Emilia-Romagna Regional Network.

    PubMed

    Campo, Gianluca; Menozzi, Mila; Guastaroba, Paolo; Vignali, Luigi; Belotti, Laura Mb; Casella, Gianni; Berti, Elena; Solinas, Emilia; Guiducci, Vincenzo; Biscaglia, Simone; Pavasini, Rita; De Palma, Rossana; Manari, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    The service strategy (same-day transfer between spoke hospital and hub centre with catheterisation laboratory (cath-lab) facility to perform invasive procedures) has been suggested to improve the management of patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS) admitted to spoke hospitals. We used data from a large prospective Italian registry to describe application, performance and outcome of the service strategy in the daily clinical practice. This study was based on an observational, post-hoc analysis of all consecutive NSTEACS patients admitted to spoke non-invasive hospitals of the Emilia-Romagna regional network and receiving coronary artery angiography (CAA)±percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We evaluated: application of service strategy, time to cath-lab access, hospital stay length, 30-days occurrence of adverse events. From January 2011-December 2012, 2952 NSTEACS consecutive patients were admitted to spoke non-invasive hospitals and received CAA. Overall, 1765 (60%) patients were managed with a service strategy. After multivariable analysis, service strategy emerged as independent predictor of faster access to cath-lab (within 72 h: hazard ratio (HR) 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-2.7, p<0.0001; within 24 h: HR 2.8, 95% CI 2.2-3.3, p<0.0001, respectively). Service strategy significantly reduced hospital stay length (-5.5 days, p<0.0001). We estimated a mean of €1590 saved for each patient managed with service strategy. Thirty-day occurrence of adverse events did not differ between patients managed with or without a service strategy. In our daily clinical practice, a service strategy seems to be an effective approach to optimise the invasive management of NSTEACS patients admitted to spoke hospitals. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  14. [Characteristics and outcomes of acute coronary syndrome in Italian-born patients and immigrants: a population-based observational study using health administrative data of the Emilia-Romagna Region].

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Jacopo; Fantini, Maria Pia; Avaldi, Vera Maria; Pallotti, Maria Giovanna; Rucci, Paola; Fioritti, Angelo; Di Pasquale, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics and outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in relation to country of origin. The study population included patients living in the Emilia-Romagna Region and discharged from 2012 to 2014 with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (with [STEMI] and without ST-elevation). The study outcomes were: percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) within 48 hours of admission for STEMI, 30-day all-cause mortality, 1-year all-cause mortality, 1-year major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), and adherence to post-infarction medications. The relationship between outcomes and citizenship was investigated using multiple regression analysis. Potential confounders were identified among diagnoses recorded in the index hospitalization and in all hospitalizations occurring 2 years prior to the index hospitalization. Of the 23 884 study patients, 647 (2.7%) were non-Italians. The mean age of onset of ACS was lower among immigrants (56 years) than among Italians (73 years). Thirty-day mortality was 9.6% while 1-year mortality and MACCE were 19.8% and 20.8%, respectively. The proportion of PCI within 48 hours was 63.2%, while patients adherent to medications were 31.0%. Compared with Italians, patients from Africa and Asia had a reduced probability of undergoing PCI and were less adherent to medications. Adjusted mortality rates were similar between Italians and immigrants, while patients from Asia had a 62% increased probability of experiencing a MACCE during follow-up. Compared with Italians, immigrant citizens with ACS were younger, less likely to undergo PCI, and less adherent to drug treatment after discharge. Further studies are warranted to identify the determinants of these disparities and to develop organizational models tailored to the specific needs of immigrant patients.

  15. [Growth, employment and "necessary" immigration: a debate with demographic data on Emiglia-Romagna].

    PubMed

    Soliani, L; Manfredini, M

    1997-08-01

    "In Emiglia-Romagna [Italy] and in Central and Northern Italy the reduction in the number of young people, caused by the falling birth rate, has started to involve individuals in working and reproductive age groups.... With demographic data for the Emiglia-Romagna region six scenarios are constructed concerning the effects of an increase in fertility rates (to levels of equilibrium) and workforce participation (to European levels) and the demographic differences between younger and older generations on the job market. Estimates are calculated concerning the size of immigration flows deemed necessary for immediate production needs and for re-balancing the population's age structure in the future." (EXCERPT)

  16. How health service delivery guides the allocation of major trauma patients in the intensive care units of the inclusive (hub and spoke) trauma system of the Emilia Romagna Region (Italy). A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chieregato, Arturo; Volpi, Annalisa; Gordini, Giovanni; Ventura, Chiara; Barozzi, Marco; Caspani, Maria Luisa Rita; Fabbri, Andrea; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Ferri, Enrico; Giugni, Aimone; Marino, Massimiliano; Martino, Costanza; Pizzamiglio, Mario; Ravaldini, Maurizio; Russo, Emanuele; Trabucco, Laura; Trombetti, Susanna; De Palma, Rossana

    2017-09-29

    To evaluate cross-sectional patient distribution and standardised 30-day mortality in the intensive care units (ICU) of an inclusive hub and spoke trauma system. ICUs of the Integrated System for Trauma Patient Care (SIAT) of Emilia-Romagna, an Italian region with a population of approximately 4.5 million. 5300 patients with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) >15 were admitted to the regional ICUs and recorded in the Regional Severe Trauma Registry between 2007 and 2012. Patients were classified by the Abbreviated Injury Score as follows: (1) traumatic brain injury (2) multiple injuriesand (3) extracranial lesions. The SIATs were divided into those with at least one neurosurgical level II trauma centre (TC) and those with a neurosurgical unit in the level I TC only. A higher proportion of patients (out of all SIAT patients) were admitted to the level I TC at the head of the SIAT with no additional neurosurgical facilities (1083/1472, 73.6%) compared with the level I TCs heading SIATs with neurosurgical level II TCs (1905/3815; 49.9%). A similar percentage of patients were admitted to level I TCs (1905/3815; 49.9%) and neurosurgical level II TCs (1702/3815, 44.6%) in the SIATs with neurosurgical level II TCs. Observed versus expected mortality (OE) was not statistically different among the three types of centre with a neurosurgical unit; however, the best mean OE values were observed in the level I TC in the SIAT with no neurosurgical unit. The Hub and Spoke concept was fully applied in the SIAT in which neurosurgical facilities were available in the level I TC only. The performance of this system suggests that competition among level I and level II TCs in the same Trauma System reduces performance in both. The density of neurosurgical centres must be considered by public health system governors before implementing trauma systems. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use

  17. The Legacy of Foundlings in Emilia-Romagna (Italy).

    PubMed

    Nicolini, Luciano; Mazzoni, Stanislao; Tagliavinil, Federica; Manfredini, Matteo

    2015-09-01

    Between 1820 and 1929, in Iggio and in Tiola, rural parishes not too distant from the respective chief towns, a large number of marriages occurred between natives and former foundlings. The study of the distribution of surnames within the provinces of Emilia-Romagna (Italy) leads one to believe that the phenomenon was quite widespread in this region. This kind of marriage caused a direct gene flow from the town centres to the adjacent hilly areas. In general, however, the flow does not appear to have been so high as to change remarkably the genetic structure of the populations involved in the reception of the former foundlings, regardless that a percentage of them were taken to the hospitals of the towns from the countryside, and that many of those effectively born in the cities were children of people whose genetic pool did not differ substantially from that of the residents of the adjacent hilly zones.

  18. Museums on paper in Emilia-Romagna from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries: from Aldrovandi to Count Sanvitale.

    PubMed

    Olmi, G

    2001-06-01

    Ever since the Middle Ages, the art of Emilia Romagna (a region of Italy), and more generally of the Po Valley, has been characterised by great attention to aspects of daily life. This particular situation has undoubtedly encouraged the relations and links between the world of art and that of science. And, indeed, in Emila Romagna throughout the modern age a large number of painters worked on commission for naturalists and an equally large number of scientists and 'amateurs' themselves undertook the illustration of nature, or were interested in the problems and techniques of the figurative arts, or collected objects d'art.

  19. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes in Emilia-Romagna, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pan, Angelo; Gagliotti, Carlo; Resi, Davide; Moro, Maria Luisa

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the state-of-the-art of antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs) in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. A self-compiled, 23-question, multiple-choice questionnaire, divided into eight sections, focusing on Public Health Trust (PHT) characteristics, multidisciplinary team, formulary restrictions, education, guidelines and protocols, auditing, antimicrobial therapy management and consumption, and resistance surveillance, was sent to all 17 PHTs of Emilia-Romagna. The 'composite index of good antibiotic use' (ICATB) score, a French ASP process index based upon 12 different parameters, was calculated. All PHTs completed the survey. All PHTs had an antimicrobial control programme, although an antimicrobial stewardship team was present in 11/17 (65%) of trusts. The main results were (a) active antimicrobial committee, 47% of PHTs; (b) restricted formularies, 100%; (c) courses on surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (SAP) and antimicrobial therapy, 56% of surgical specialties and 47% of PHTs, respectively; courses for new prescribers, nil; (d) guidelines on SAP and on antimicrobial therapy, 100% and 71% of PHTs, respectively; (e) antimicrobial prescribing audits, 71%; and (f) antibiotic consumption and antimicrobial resistance data periodically fed back to wards, 100% and 88% of PHTs, respectively. Low overall quality scores were observed for antibiotic committee, education and auditing activities. The mean ICATB score was 11.94 points, varying significantly among trusts (5.25-16.25 points). In conclusion, all PHTs have implemented an ASP, although significant differences exist between trusts. Antimicrobial committee organisation, education and auditing activities represent the most critical points and need to be addressed by regional programmes in order to harmonise the healthcare system. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 78 FR 24670 - Notice of a Determination Regarding the Swine Vesicular Disease Status of Certain Regions in Italy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Italian Regions of Lombardia, Emilia-Romagna, Veneto, and Piemonte and the autonomous provinces of Trento... evaluation of the SVD status of the Italian Regions of Lombardia, Emilia-Romagna, Veneto, and Piemonte and... and recognition of the SVD status of the Italian Regions of Lombardia, Emilia-Romagna, Veneto, and...

  1. Impact of meningococcal C conjugate vaccination campaign in Emilia-Romagna, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Pascucci, Maria Grazia; Di Gregori, Valentina; Frasca, Gabriella; Rucci, Paola; Finarelli, Alba Carola; Moschella, Laura; Borrini, Bianca Maria; Cavrini, Francesca; Liguori, Giovanna; Sambri, Vittorio; Bonanni, Paolo; Fantini, Maria Pia

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of reported meningococcal disease in Italy is among the lowest in Europe. The trend of the disease was increasing up to 2005 and then declined after the gradual introduction of a universal Men C vaccination program in 17/21 Italian regions. Since 2006, in Emilia-Romagna region vaccination against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C was actively offered free of charge in a single dose to the age groups 12–15 months and 14–15 years, in addition to people with defined epidemiological risk. Our aim was to measure the impact of vaccination on the incidence of meningococcal disease caused by different serogroups among the population of Emilia Romagna Region, Northern Italy (approximately 4.5 million inhabitants) subdivided by age. Using surveillance data, we computed the incidence rates of Neisseria meninigitidis related invasive disease per 100.000 inhabitants for the years 2000 to 2012. In addition, the percentage change in incidence and the mortality rates were calculated. Results indicate a 70.1% decrease in the incidence of meningococcus C-related invasive disease after the introduction of MenC universal vaccination. No case of serogroup C related infection was observed since 2006 in children aged 1–4 years. These findings suggest that the single-dose vaccination strategy against serogroup C N.meningitidis targeted to the age groups 12–15 months and 14–15 years was effective in the Emilia-Romagna population. However, the occurrence of two cases of meningiditis in a 5-month child and in a 9-years child suggests caution and careful consideration in surveillance for the next years. PMID:24384537

  2. Impact of meningococcal C conjugate vaccination campaign in Emilia-Romagna, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pascucci, Maria Grazia; Di Gregori, Valentina; Frasca, Gabriella; Rucci, Paola; Finarelli, Alba Carola; Moschella, Laura; Borrini, Bianca Maria; Cavrini, Francesca; Liguori, Giovanna; Sambri, Vittorio; Bonanni, Paolo; Fantini, Maria Pia

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of reported meningococcal disease in Italy is among the lowest in Europe. The trend of the disease was increasing up to 2005 and then declined after the gradual introduction of a universal Men C vaccination program in 17/21 Italian regions. Since 2006, in Emilia-Romagna region vaccination against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C was actively offered free of charge in a single dose to the age groups 12-15 months and 14-15 years, in addition to people with defined epidemiological risk. Our aim was to measure the impact of vaccination on the incidence of meningococcal disease caused by different serogroups among the population of Emilia Romagna Region, Northern Italy (approximately 4.5 million inhabitants) subdivided by age. Using surveillance data, we computed the incidence rates of Neisseria meninigitidis related invasive disease per 100.000 inhabitants for the years 2000 to 2012. In addition, the percentage change in incidence and the mortality rates were calculated. Results indicate a 70.1% decrease in the incidence of meningococcus C-related invasive disease after the introduction of MenC universal vaccination. No case of serogroup C related infection was observed since 2006 in children aged 1-4 years. These findings suggest that the single-dose vaccination strategy against serogroup C N.meningitidis targeted to the age groups 12-15 months and 14-15 years was effective in the Emilia-Romagna population. However, the occurrence of two cases of meningiditis in a 5-month child and in a 9-years child suggests caution and careful consideration in surveillance for the next years.

  3. [PRIER II. The Emilia-Romagna Research and Innovation Programme].

    PubMed

    Addis, Antonio; Papini, Donato; Bassi, Maria Chiara; Grilli, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    The Emilia-Romagna Programme for Research and Innovation "PRIER" was born in 2005 with the aim of increasing cultural and operational conditions for the development of clinical research, useful both to the Regional Health Service (SSR) and to the private sectors of pharmaceutical and biomedical areas. In this context, the PRIER had from the beginning a double connotation: a space where the SSR can explore issues related to the development of its own research capacity; and a context where new possible ways of relating and comparison with the pharmaceutical and biomedical industry are tested. Over the years the activities of PRIER were defined by: initiatives to strengthen the system of research in SSR; development of tools to monitor activities of the research; production of clinical-organizational recommendations for the governance of innovation. In 2013 a new area of discussion and a common interest have been identified on the subject of clinical registries. In particular, it wanted to build a path of work able to identify all the possible critical and relevant points (points to consider), indispensable, necessary or useful to the construction and use of clinical registries, taking into account the points of view of all actors involved. The course began with defining the rules of the game and continued with workshops that allowed to analyse together the matter. At the end of the second workshop it was decided to make the work carried out visible: first, not to miss the opportunity offered by the past but recent discussion; secondly, to facilitate the discussion both on the issue of registers and to the adopted methodology, which sees the different actors (public and private ones) to reason together in a context for once not influenced by necessities of negotiation and government resources.

  4. Regular monitoring of breast-feeding rates: feasible and sustainable. The Emilia-Romagna experience.

    PubMed

    Di Mario, Simona; Borsari, Silvana; Verdini, Eleonora; Battaglia, Sergio; Cisbani, Luca; Sforza, Stefano; Cuoghi, Chiara; Basevi, Vittorio

    2017-08-01

    An efficient breast-feeding monitoring system should be in place in every country to assist policy makers and health professionals plan activities to reach optimal breast-feeding rates. Design/Setting/Subjects From March to June 2015, breast-feeding rates at 3 and 5 months of age were monitored in Emilia-Romagna, an Italian region, using four questions added to a newly developed paediatric immunization database with single records for each individual. Data were collected at primary-care centres. Breast-feeding definitions and 24 h recall as recommended by the WHO were used. Direct age standardization was applied to breast-feeding rates. Record linkage with the medical birth database was attempted to identify maternal, pregnancy and delivery factors associated with full breast-feeding rates at 3 and 5 months of age. Data on breast-feeding were collected for 14044 infants. The mean regional full breast-feeding rate at 3 months was 52 %; differences between local health authorities ranged from 42 to 62 %. At 5 months of age, the mean regional full breast-feeding rate dropped to 33 % (range between local health authorities: 26 to 46 %). Record linkage with the birth certificate database was successful for 93 % of records. Total observations more than doubled with respect to the previous regional survey. The new monitoring system implemented in 2015 in Emilia-Romagna region, totally integrated with the immunization database, has proved to be feasible, sustainable and more efficient than the previous one. This system can be a model for other regions and countries where the vast majority of mothers obtain vaccinations from public health facilities and that already have an immunization database in place.

  5. Climate change trends, grape production, and potential alcohol concentration in wine from the "Romagna Sangiovese" appellation area (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teslić, Nemanja; Zinzani, Giordano; Parpinello, Giuseppina P.; Versari, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    The trend of climate change and its effect on grape production and wine composition was evaluated using a real case study of seven wineries located in the "Romagna Sangiovese" appellation area (northern Italy), one of the most important wine producing region of Italy. This preliminary study focused on three key aspects: (i) Assessment of climate change trends by calculating bioclimatic indices over the last 61 years (from 1953 to 2013) in the Romagna Sangiovese area: significant increasing trends were found for the maximum, mean, and minimum daily temperatures, while a decreasing trend was found for precipitation during the growing season period (April-October). Mean growing season temperature was 18.49 °C, considered as warm days in the Romagna Sangiovese area and optimal for vegetative growth of Sangiovese, while nights during the ripening months were cold (13.66 °C). The rise of temperature shifted studied area from the temperate/warm temperate to the warm temperate-/warm grape-growing region (according to the Huglin classification). (ii) Relation between the potential alcohol content from seven wineries and the climate change from 2001 to 2012: dry spell index (DSI) and Huglin index (HI) suggested a large contribution to increasing level of potential alcohol in Sangiovese wines, whereas DSI showed higher correlation with potential alcohol respect to the HI. (iii) Relation between grape production and the climate change from 1982 to 2012: a significant increasing trend was found with little effect of the climate change trends estimated with used bioclimatic indices. Practical implication at viticultural and oenological levels is discussed.

  6. Primary care units in Emilia-Romagna, Italy: an assessment of organizational culture.

    PubMed

    Pracilio, Valerie P; Keith, Scott W; McAna, John; Rossi, Giuseppina; Brianti, Ettore; Fabi, Massimo; Maio, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the organizational culture and associated characteristics of the newly established primary care units (PCUs)-collaborative teams of general practitioners (GPs) who provide patients with integrated health care services-in the Emilia-Romagna Region (RER), Italy. A survey instrument covering 6 cultural dimensions was administered to all 301 GPs in 21 PCUs in the Local Health Authority (LHA) of Parma, RER; the response rate was 79.1%. Management style, organizational trust, and collegiality proved to be more important aspects of PCU organizational culture than information sharing, quality, and cohesiveness. Cultural dimension scores were positively associated with certain characteristics of the PCUs including larger PCU size and greater proportion of older GPs. The presence of female GPs in the PCUs had a negative impact on collegiality, organizational trust, and quality. Feedback collected through this assessment will be useful to the RER and LHAs for evaluating and guiding improvements in the PCUs. © 2013 by the American College of Medical Quality.

  7. Coupling scenarios of urban growth and flood hazard along the Emilia-Romagna coast (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekovski, I.; Armaroli, C.; Calabrese, L.; Mancini, F.; Stecchi, F.; Perini, L.

    2015-04-01

    The extent of coastline urbanization reduces their resilience to flooding, especially in low lying areas. The study site is the Emilia-Romagna Region coastline (Italy), historically affected by marine storms and floods. The main aim of this study is to investigate the vulnerability of this coastal area to marine flooding by considering the dynamics of the forcing component (Total Water Level) and the dynamics of the receptor (urban areas). This was done by comparing the output of the three flooding scenarios (10, 100 and >100 year return periods) to the output of different scenarios of future urban growth up to 2050. Scenario-based marine flooding extents were derived by applying the Cost-Distance tool of ArcGIS® to a high resolution Digital Terrain Model. Three scenarios of urban growth (similar-as-historic, compact and sprawled) up to 2050 were estimated by applying the cellular automata based SLEUTH model. The results show that, if the urban growth is compact-like, flood-prone areas will largely increase with respect to similar-as-historic and sprawled growth scenarios. Combining the two methodologies can be useful for identify flood-prone areas that have a high potential for future urbanization, and is therefore crucial for coastal managers and planners.

  8. Coupling scenarios of urban growth and flood hazards along the Emilia-Romagna coast (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekovski, I.; Armaroli, C.; Calabrese, L.; Mancini, F.; Stecchi, F.; Perini, L.

    2015-10-01

    The extent of coastline urbanization reduces their resilience to flooding, especially in low-lying areas. The study site is the coastline of the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy), historically affected by marine storms and floods. The main aim of this study is to investigate the vulnerability of this coastal area to marine flooding by considering the dynamics of the forcing component (total water level) and the dynamics of the receptor (urban areas). This was done by comparing the output of the three flooding scenarios (10, 100 and > 100 year return periods) to the output of different scenarios of future urban growth up to 2050. Scenario-based marine flooding extents were derived by applying the Cost-Distance tool of ArcGIS® to a high-resolution digital terrain model. Three scenarios of urban growth (similar-to-historic, compact and sprawled) up to 2050 were estimated by applying the cellular automata-based SLEUTH model. The results show that if the urban growth progresses compactly, flood-prone areas will largely increase with respect to similar-to-historic and sprawled growth scenarios. Combining the two methodologies can be useful for identification of flood-prone areas that have a high potential for future urbanization, and is therefore crucial for coastal managers and planners.

  9. Variation among local health units in follow-up care of breast cancer patients in Emilia-Romagna, Italy.

    PubMed

    Leoni, Maurizio; Sadacharan, Radha; Louis, Daniel; Falcini, Fabio; Rabinowitz, Carol; Cisbani, Luca; De Palma, Rossana; Yuen, Elaine; Grilli, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the patterns of follow-up care for breast cancer survivors in one region in Italy. This retrospective analysis included 10,024 surgically treated women, with incident cases of breast cancer in the years 2002-2005 who were alive 18 months after their incidence date. Rates of use of follow-up mammograms, abdominal echogram, bone scans and chest x-rays were estimated from administrative data and compared by Local Health Unit (LHU) of residence. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess possible "overuse", accounting for patient age, cancer stage, type of surgery and LHU of residence. A total of 7168 (72.1%) women received a mammogram within 18 months of their incidence date, while 6432 (64.2%) had an abdominal echogram, 3852 (38.4%) had a bone scan and 5231 (52.2%) had a chest x-ray. The rates of use of abdominal echograms, bone scans and chest x-rays were substantially higher in the population of breast cancer survivors than in the general female population. Taking account of patient age, cancer stage at diagnosis and type of surgery, multivariate analyses demonstrated significant variation in the use of these tests by LHU of residence. The observed variation in the use of abdominal echograms, bone scans and chest x-rays supports the conclusion that there is substantial misuse of these tests in the population of postsurgical breast cancer patients in the Emilia-Romagna region in Italy. In the absence of a documented survival benefit, overtesting has both a human and financial cost. We recommend additional review of the methods of follow-up care in breast cancer patients in the LHUs of Emilia-Romagna, with the aim of developing, disseminating and evaluating the implementation of specific guidelines targeting primary care physicians and oncologists providing care to breast cancer survivors. Patient education materials may also help to reduce unnecessary testing.

  10. Secular trends in antibiotic consumption in the adult population in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, 2003-2009.

    PubMed

    Pan, A; Buttazzi, R; Marchi, M; Gagliotti, C; Resi, D; Moro, M L

    2011-11-01

    Antibiotic resistance is closely related to antibiotic use and Italy is a country with high levels of both antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance. We analysed the trend in antibiotic use in the community among adults (≥15 years) and elderly, in the period 2003-2009, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, a region with over 4 000 000 inhabitants. Data regarding antibiotic use were obtained from the regional public health system databases. Between 2003 and 2009 the antibiotic consumption increased from 15.4 to 18.7 defined daily doses/1000 inhabitants per day (DID) (+21.4%, p <0.0001). The prescription rate in 2009 was 2.19 prescriptions/1000 inhabitants per day, an increase of 13.8% compared with 2003. The highest increase in antibiotic use was observed among persons aged 20-59 years (+24.7%). The proportion of inhabitants receiving at least one antibiotic treatment was 36.4% in 2003 and 39.7% in 2009, and the proportions receiving at least three antibiotic treatments were 3.5% and 4.2%, respectively. The H1N1 pandemic was associated, in October and November 2009, with a 37-90% increase in antibiotic use among the 15-19-year and 20-59-year age groups compared with 2007 and 2008. No other difference was observed in any other age group. The analysis per antibiotic class showed increases for penicillin + beta-lactamase inhibitor (from 3.6 to 6.3 DID), quinolones (from 2.6 to 3.0 DID) and macrolides (from 3.1 to 3.7 DID), whereas cephalosporin use was stable (1.4 DID). A steady increase in antibiotic use in the adult population has been observed in the Emilia-Romagna: public health interventions are mandatory to counteract this trend. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  11. Critical storm thresholds for significant morphological changes and damage along the Emilia-Romagna coastline, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaroli, Clara; Ciavola, Paolo; Perini, Luisa; Calabrese, Lorenzo; Lorito, Samantha; Valentini, Andrea; Masina, Marinella

    2012-03-01

    The definition of storm morphological thresholds along the coast of the Emilia-Romagna Region strictly depends on its configuration and variability. The region is located in northern Italy, facing the Adriatic Sea. The coastline is characterised by very different levels of economic development, ranging from natural zones with dunes to highly developed stretches protected by breakwaters and groynes. The Integrated Coastal Zone Management effort is mainly concentrated on preserving urban areas that generate significant income for the regional economy. Natural areas, while small in comparison to the urbanised zone, are important for environment preservation. Because of such a multiplicity of issues at stake, it was decided to produce two different thresholds: one for the morphological impact on natural sectors and another for inundation and damage to structures along urbanised zones. The "forcing" component of the threshold definition for natural areas was calculated by summing the effects of surge + tide + waves (run-up elevation) to find the Maximum Water Level (MWL) reached by the sea during one, ten and one-hundred year storm return periods. For urbanised zones, historical storm information was collected starting from the 1960s in order to identify the forcing conditions causing real damages. Each storm was classified in terms of wave height, period, direction and surge level. Morphological information were obtained from Lidar flights performed in 2003 and 2004 and from direct surveys undertaken in September 2008 and February 2009 as part of the monitoring programme for the MICORE Project. The computed MWL for each return period was then compared to beach elevations along natural areas in order to calculate the Dune Stability Factor (DSF), an index that accounts for the eroded sediment volume above the MWL during a storm. Based on analysis along 41 profile lines at a 500 m spacing, it was found that the 1-in-1 year return period wave height + 1-in-1 year return

  12. Impact of regionalisation of cardiac surgery in Emilia-Romagna, Italy.

    PubMed

    Nobilio, L; Fortuna, D; Vizioli, M; Berti, E; Guastaroba, P; Taroni, F; Grilli, R

    2004-02-01

    Assessment of the impact of the regionalisation of cardiac surgery through the organisational form of a hub&spoke model introduced in the year 2000. Case mix adjusted before (1998-1999)-after (2000-2002) comparison of: (a) in-hospital and 30 days mortality rates; (b) proportion of patients timely (within one day) referred for surgery from spoke to hub centres; (c) patients' waiting times to surgery. Emilia-Romagna, an Italian region with four million residents. 16,512 patients aged > or =18 years and referred to cardiac surgery over the period 1998-2002. Overall, taking into account differences in case mix across the whole study period, the implementation of the regionalisation policy was associated with a 22% reduction (OR: 0.79, 95%CI: 0.66 to 0.93) in in-hospital mortality rate. The corresponding figure for 30 day mortality was 18% (OR: 0.82: 95%CI: 0.69 to 0.98). The individual centres' volume of cases changed over the study period for all hospitals but two, and the biggest reduction in mortality was seen at the centre with the largest increase in caseload. This study provides additional evidence on the benefit of regionalisation of cardiac surgery interventions. The system allowed each centre to reach the minimum caseload required to assure good quality of care. These findings suggest that policies aimed at increasing cooperation rather than competition among health service providers have a positive impact on quality of care. Timely referrals for surgery increased by 21% (95%CI: 1.12 to 1.31), and mean waiting times were reduced by 7.5 average days (95%CI: -10.33 to -4.71).

  13. Impact of regionalisation of cardiac surgery in Emilia-Romagna, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Nobilio, L; Fortuna, D; Vizioli, M; Berti, E; Guastaroba, P; Taroni, F; Grilli, R

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: Assessment of the impact of the regionalisation of cardiac surgery through the organisational form of a hub&spoke model introduced in the year 2000. Design: Case mix adjusted before (1998–1999)—after (2000–2002) comparison of: (a) in-hospital and 30 days mortality rates; (b) proportion of patients timely (within one day) referred for surgery from spoke to hub centres; (c) patients' waiting times to surgery. Setting: Emilia-Romagna, an Italian region with four million residents. Patients: 16 512 patients aged ⩾18 years and referred to cardiac surgery over the period 1998–2002. Main results:Overall, taking into account differences in case mix across the whole study period, the implementation of the regionalisation policy was associated with a 22% reduction (OR: 0.79, 95%CI: 0.66 to 0.93) in in-hospital mortality rate. The corresponding figure for 30 day mortality was 18% (OR: 0.82: 95%CI: 0.69 to 0.98). The individual centres' volume of cases changed over the study period for all hospitals but two, and the biggest reduction in mortality was seen at the centre with the largest increase in caseload. Conclusions: This study provides additional evidence on the benefit of regionalisation of cardiac surgery interventions. The system allowed each centre to reach the minimum caseload required to assure good quality of care. These findings suggest that policies aimed at increasing cooperation rather than competition among health service providers have a positive impact on quality of care. Timely referrals for surgery increased by 21% (95%CI: 1.12 to 1.31), and mean waiting times were reduced by 7.5 average days (95%CI: -10.33 to -4.71). PMID:14729884

  14. The Comprehensive Cancer Care Network of Romagna: the opportunities generated by the OECI accreditation program.

    PubMed

    Ancarani, Valentina; Bernabini, Marna; Zani, Chiara; Altini, Mattia; Amadori, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS is a public-private partnership among 3 public sector bodies and 6 private nonprofit organizations and represents the hub of the Oncology Network of Romagna, which provides a wide range of services for the population ranging from primary prevention to palliative care. In 2012, IRST took part in the ministerial research project of the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) accreditation program for Comprehensive Cancer Centers. The self-assessment period lasted 6 months and was coordinated by a multidisciplinary project team headed by a project leader. Each project team member coordinated a subgroup whose task was to analyze specific standards from qualitative and quantitative questionnaires. During the self-assessment period for the areas in which IRST did not meet OECI requirements, the project team outlined several improvement plans. At the end of the self-assessment period, the OECI Accreditation & Designation Board approved the documentation presented by IRST and a peer review visit was scheduled. The OECI report suggested establishing a more specific and stronger centralized management and leadership of all the oncologic activities carried out in other centers. In accordance with these suggestions, IRST and the Local Health Authority of Romagna laid the foundations for a new management model for the Oncology Network of Romagna: the Comprehensive Cancer Care Network (CCCN). The CCCN is a territory-oriented model (population approach) based on a principle of cooperation and collaboration among the network nodes.

  15. Climate warming and the decline of Taxus airborne pollen in urban pollen rain (Emilia Romagna, northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Mercuri, A M; Torri, P; Casini, E; Olmi, L

    2013-01-01

    Woody plant performance in a changing global environment has always been at the centre of palaeoenvironmental and long-term climate reconstructions carried out by means of pollen analysis. In Mediterranean regions, Taxus constitutes the highest percentage in past pollen diagrams from cold or cool periods, and therefore it is generally considered a good index to infer climate features from past records. However, a comparison of these inferences with the true current trends in pollen production has not been attemped until now. This study reports the decline of airborne pollen of Taxus observed in Emilia Romagna, a region of northern Italy, during the period 1990-2007. Phenological observations on four male specimens and microscopic examination of fresh pollen were made in order to check Taxus flowering time and pollen morphology. Airborne pollen was monitored through continuous sampling with a Hirst volumetric sampler. In the 18-year long period of investigation, Taxus pollen production has decreased, while total woody pollen abundance in air has increased. The trend of the Taxus pollen season shows a delay at the beginning, a shortening of the pollen period, and an advance of the end of the pollen season. This was interpreted as a response to climate warming. In particular, Taxus follows the behaviour of winter-flowering plants, and therefore earlier pollination is favoured at low autumn temperatures, while late pollination occurs more often, most likely after warm autumn temperatures.

  16. [The ideation of the Emilia-Romagna surveillance system for arbovirosis following the experience from the Chikungunya outbreak 2007].

    PubMed

    Angelini, Paola; Mattivi, Andrea; Cagarelli, Roberto; Bellini, Romeo; Finarelli, Alba Carola

    2014-01-01

    Since 2008 the Emilia-Romagna Regional public health authority activated a regional Plan for arbovirosis surveillance and control, focused on Chikungunya, Dengue and West Nile. The Plan integrates sanitary, entomological and veterinary surveillance allowing a prompt adoption of efficient measures, aiming at the prevention and reduction of arbovirosis transmission risk. Following the 2007 Chikungunya outbreak, no autochthonous Chikungunya or Dengue cases has been registered, while an increase of confirmed imported cases of Dengue and Chikungunya has been observed. The integrated surveillance system allowed a prompt, appropriate and efficient intervention in 98.2% of imported suspected cases. The humanWNND (West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease) surveillance reported confirmed cases in 2008, 2009 and then in 2013 and 2014. In all cases the entomological and ornithological surveillance detected WNV circulation well in advance respect to the appearance of the first human case. The integration of information provided by different surveillance sources allows to evaluate, even through the vector index (VI) calculation, the risk of transmission, to optimize preventive measures on blood, tissues and organs donation and to implement further measures of vector fight.

  17. [Quality and efficacy in occupational medicine: relationship between quality, efficacy, and surveillance -- Experience of public and private facilities in Emilia Romagna].

    PubMed

    Frigeri, G

    2006-01-01

    Italian legislation concerning health and safety at work establishes minimal requirements, according to European regulations. On the other side it's compulsory for Employers to set themselves at a level "above minimal requirements" according only to technicalfeasibility. It's a duty of Control Bodies (in Italy National Health Service's Work Environment Prevention Services) to verify the respect of law's preview minimal requirements. Quality standards and application guidelines, on the contrary, require collaboration and consensus among all actors involved in the implementation of health and safety managing systems on workplaces: Control Bodies, Professional Officers (Occupational Physicians, Safety Consultants), public and private Consultant Companies working on the field of health and safety at work. In this document some Emilia Romagna Region Control Bodies guidelines are discussed, and two experiences concerning public and private Consultant Companies are presented.

  18. Health services utilization in patients with eating disorders: evidence from a cohort study in Emilia-Romagna.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Antonella; Rucci, Paola; Clo, Massimo; Gibertoni, Dino; Camellini, Lucia; Di Stani, Marinella; Fantini, Maria Pia; Ferri, Mila; Fioritti, Angelo

    2016-12-01

    To estimate the treated prevalence of eating disorders (ED) in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, and to compare health services utilization among age groups and geographical areas. The study cohort consists of patients aged 12-64 years with a primary or secondary ED diagnosis, treated in regional healthcare facilities in 2012. Patients were followed up for 1 year from the first contact. Data were extracted from regional administrative databases. The study cohort included 1550 cases, 36.8 % with anorexia nervosa, 21.9 % with bulimia nervosa and 41.3 % with ED not otherwise specified. Adolescents (12-17 years) were 18.6 %, young adults (18-30) 32.7 % and older adults (31-64) 48.7 %. The annual treated prevalence rate was 5.2/10,000 (13.3 for adolescents, 9.3 for young adults and 3.4 for older adults) and was highest among adolescent (24.6/10,000) and young adult females (17.1/10,000). Cases without a record for ED in the previous year were 46.8 %. Older adults displayed higher comorbidity and used more services including hospital-based care. Outpatient care greatly exceeded inpatient care across age groups. Variations in care patterns across regional areas were found. Our results indicate that the care pathway for ED varies among age groups and geographical areas, but is consistent with the regional care model that favors the use of outpatient services. Future perspectives include evaluating the integration among mental health services, specialty outpatient units and primary care.

  19. Finite fault kinematic inversion of the 2012, May 20th and 29th Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy, Earthquakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirella, A.; Piatanesi, A.; Molinari, I.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the rupture process of the 2012, May 20 and 29, Mw 6.1 and 5.9, respectively, Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy, earthquakes. The two earthquakes struck a densely populated region, causing 26 fatalities and significantly damaging the economy of the region. We image the rupture history of these events, by separately and jointly inverting strong motions, GPS displacements and High-Rate GPS data. The region of interest is a sedimentary basin (the Po Plain) surrounded by the northern Apennines; and it is characterized by a significant presence of fluid and strong heterogeneities leading to remarkable site effects and liquefaction phenomena; for these reasons we adopt an ad-hoc velocity profiles at each station, by inverting in a low-intermediate frequency band (0 - 0.25 Hz). We use a two-stage non-linear inversion technique that, rather than simply looking at the best model, extracts the most stable features of the earthquake rupture that are consistent with the data and gives an estimate of the variability of each model parameter. During the first stage, an algorithm based on the heat-bath simulated annealing generates an ensemble of models that efficiently sample the good data-fitting regions of parameter space. In the second stage the algorithm performs a statistical analysis of the ensemble providing us the best-fitting model, the average model, and the associated standard deviation, coefficient of variation, moda and median distributions. The goal of our work is to constrain the earthquake rupture history and to assess the associated model uncertainty, to better understand the mechanics of the causative fault as well as the observed ground shaking.

  20. [Estensione dell'età-bersaglio del programma di screening mammografico e governo della pratica mammografica in Emilia-Romagna].

    PubMed

    Sassoli de Bianchi, Priscilla; Ravaioli, Alessandra; Ferretti, Stefano; Finarelli, Alba Carola; Giannini, Adriana; Naldoni, Carlo; Sanna, Piera; Bucchi, Lauro

    2017-01-01

    "OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the effectiveness of the regional law No.1035 enacted in 2009 by the local government of the Emilia- Romagna Region (Northern Italy) with the purpose of revising the rules of access to breast-care services. The law dictated the extension of the organised mammography screening programme to women aged 45-49 and 70-74 years in order to decrease their spontaneous screening rates and, thus, the waiting times for the access to diagnostic mammography by women of all ages. study of time trends (joinpoint regression analysis and before/ after analysis) in annual percent mammography rates and in waiting times for access to clinical radiology facilities (2006-2014) among resident women. The information was taken from the regional Department of Health. public and accredited private radiology facilities. age-specific and waiting-time-specific (months) percent rates of organised screening mammography, spontaneous screening mammography, and diagnostic mammography. following the regional law No.1035, screening rates among women aged 45-49 and 70-74 years reached levels comparable to those attained by women aged 50-69 years. Spontaneous screening rates dropped and waiting times for spontaneous screening mammography (women aged 40-44 years) were cut. For diagnostic mammography, the rates remained stable, except for a decrease among women aged 35-39 and 45-49 years, and waiting times decreased in a constant manner over the study period. the above-mentioned law met most of its goals. Comprehensive programmes regulating mammography practice at the population level can be effective."

  1. Diagnostic rate of primary aldosteronism in Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy, during 16 years (2000-2015).

    PubMed

    Rossi, Ermanno; Perazzoli, Franco; Negro, Aurelio; Magnani, Antonia

    2017-08-01

    Although primary aldosteronism is considered the most common form of endocrine hypertension, the diagnostic rate of primary aldosteronism in the territory is unknown. The aims of the current study were to compare the number of patients discharged with International Classification of Diseases 9 Clinical Modification codes compatible with primary aldosteronism from all the hospitals in Emilia-Romagna during 16 years (from 2000 to 2015) with the number of expected cases of primary aldosteronism, and to compare the number of patients with primary aldosteronism who underwent adrenalectomy in the period 2000-2015 with the number of expected cases of unilateral primary aldosteronism. We accessed the Database of the Emilia-Romagna Health Service to select all patients from the age of 20 years discharged with International Classification of Diseases 9 Clinical Modification codes compatible with primary aldosteronism and, among them, those who underwent adrenalectomy in the same period. The prevalence of hypertension in Emilia-Romagna from the age of 20 years was drawn from the Health Search Database. The population from the age of 20 years in Emilia-Romagna has been drawn from the Italian National Statistical Institute. We hypothesized a prevalence of primary aldosteronism of 5% among hypertensive patients and a prevalence of unilateral subtypes of 30% among the primary aldosteronism patients. A total of 992 patients have been discharged with codes consistent with primary aldosteronism during 16 years in Emilia-Romagna, that is 1.9% of the expected cases of primary aldosteronism. A total of 160 of them underwent adrenalectomy in the same period, which corresponds to 1% of the expected cases of unilateral primary aldosteronism in Emilia-Romagna. Our results clearly indicate that primary aldosteronism is dramatically underdiagnosed and undertreated.

  2. Source modelling of the M5-6 Emilia-Romagna, Italy, earthquakes (2012 May 20-29)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesca, Simone; Braun, Thomas; Maccaferri, Francesco; Passarelli, Luigi; Rivalta, Eleonora; Dahm, Torsten

    2013-06-01

    On 2012 May 20 and 29, two damaging earthquakes with magnitudes Mw 6.1 and 5.9, respectively, struck the Emilia-Romagna region in the sedimentary Po Plain, Northern Italy, causing 26 fatalities, significant damage to historical buildings and substantial impact to the economy of the region. The earthquake sequence included four more aftershocks with Mw ≥ 5.0, all at shallow depths (about 7-9 km), with similar WNW-ESE striking reverse mechanism. The timeline of the sequence suggests significant static stress interaction between the largest events. We perform here a detailed source inversion, first adopting a point source approximation and considering pure double couple and full moment tensor source models. We compare different extended source inversion approaches for the two largest events, and find that the rupture occurred in both cases along a subhorizontal plane, dipping towards SSW. Directivity is well detected for the May 20 main shock, indicating that the rupture propagated unilaterally towards SE. Based on the focal mechanism solution, we further estimate the co-seismic static stress change induced by the May 20 event. By using the rate-and-state model and a Poissonian earthquake occurrence, we infer that the second largest event of May 29 was induced with a probability in the range 0.2-0.4. This suggests that the segment of fault was already prone to rupture. Finally, we estimate peak ground accelerations for the two main events as occurred separately or simultaneously. For the scenario involving hypothetical rupture areas of both main events, we estimate Mw = 6.3 and an increase of ground acceleration by 50 per cent. The approach we propose may help to quantify rapidly which regions are invested by a significant increase of the hazard, bearing the potential for large aftershocks or even a second main shock.

  3. Screening history of cervical cancers in Emilia-Romagna, Italy: defining priorities to improve cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Paolo Giorgi; Caroli, Stefania; Mancini, Silvia; de' Bianchi, Priscilla Sassoli; Finarelli, Alba C; Naldoni, Carlo; Bucchi, Lauro; Falcini, Fabio

    2015-03-01

    Most invasive cervical cancers in industrialized countries are due to the lack of Pap test coverage, very few are due to screening failures. This study aimed at quantifying the proportion of invasive cancers occurring in nonscreened or underscreened women and that in women with a previous negative screening, that is, screening failure, during the first two screening rounds (1996-2002) and in the following rounds (2003-2008) in the Emilia-Romagna region. All cases of invasive cancers registered in the regional cancer registry between 1996 and 2008 were classified according to screening history through a record linkage with the screening programme registry. The incidence significantly decreased from 11.6/100 000 to 8.7/100 000; this decrease is due to a reduction in squamous cell cancers (annual percentage change -6.2; confidence interval: -7.8, -4.6) and advanced cancers (annual percentage change -6.6; confidence interval: -8.8, -4.3), whereas adenocarcinomas and microinvasive cancers were essentially stable. The proportion of cancers among women not yet invited and among nonresponders decreased over the two periods, from 45.5 to 33.3%. In contrast, the proportion of women with a previous negative Pap test less than 5 years and 5 years or more before cancer incidence increased from 5.7 to 13.3% and from 0.3 to 5.5%, respectively. Although nonattendance of the screening programme remains the main barrier to cervical cancer control, the introduction of a more sensitive test, such as the human papillomavirus DNA test, could significantly reduce the burden of disease.

  4. Epidemiological modelling for the assessment of bovine tuberculosis surveillance in the dairy farm network in Emilia-Romagna (Italy).

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gianluigi; De Leo, Giulio A; Pongolini, Stefano; Natalini, Silvano; Vincenzi, Simone; Bolzoni, Luca

    2015-06-01

    Assessing the performance of a surveillance system for infectious diseases of domestic animals is a challenging task for health authorities. Therefore, it is important to assess what strategy is the most effective in identifying the onset of an epidemic and in minimizing the number of infected farms. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the performance of the bovine tuberculosis (bTB) surveillance system in the network of dairy farms in the Emilia-Romagna (ER) Region, Italy. A bTB-free Region since 2007, ER implements an integrated surveillance strategy based on three components, namely routine on-farm tuberculin skin-testing performed every 3 years, tuberculin skin-testing of cattle exchanged between farms, and post-mortem inspection at slaughterhouses. We assessed the effectiveness of surveillance by means of a stochastic network model of both within-farm and between-farm bTB dynamics calibrated on data available for ER dairy farms. Epidemic dynamics were simulated for five scenarios: the current ER surveillance system, a no surveillance scenario that we used as the benchmark to characterize epidemic dynamics, three additional scenarios in which one of the surveillance components was removed at a time so as to outline its significance in detecting the infection. For each scenario we ran Monte Carlo simulations of bTB epidemics following the random introduction of an infected individual in the network. System performances were assessed through the comparative analysis of a number of statistics, including the time required for epidemic detection and the total number of infected farms during the epidemic. Our analysis showed that slaughterhouse inspection is the most effective surveillance component in reducing the time for disease detection, while routine surveillance in reducing the number of multi-farms epidemics. On the other hand, testing exchanged cattle improved the performance of the surveillance system only marginally. Copyright © 2015 The Authors

  5. Trends in antiarrhythmic drug use after marketing authorization of dronedarone: comparison between Emilia Romagna (Italy) and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Piccinni, Carlo; Raschi, Emanuel; Poluzzi, Elisabetta; Puccini, Aurora; Cars, Thomas; Wettermark, Björn; Diemberger, Igor; Boriani, Giuseppe; De Ponti, Fabrizio

    2013-03-01

    Our aim was to evaluate whether dronedarone authorization impacts antiarrhythmic drug prescribing in Sweden and Emilia Romagna (Italy). Prescriptions of classes I and III antiarrhythmics, expressed as defined daily doses per thousand inhabitants per day (DDD/TID) were monthly using information collected from pharmacy-reimbursed databases. Interrupted time series analysis was applied to compare prescription data over the 2009-2011 period. In Emilia Romagna, the overall consumption of antiarrhythmics was six times as high as in Sweden (7.6 vs. 1.2 DDD/TID). In the first year on the market, dronedarone represented 1.0 % in Italy and 10.7 % in Sweden of the overall antiarrhythmic prescriptions. In Sweden, dronedarone authorization generated an increase in the prescription trend of antiarrhythmics (trend change +0.02; p < 0.001) without variation in amiodarone use In Emilia Romagna, dronedarone marketing did not influence the prescription pattern of either overall antiarrhythmics or amiodarone. Emilia Romagna and Sweden substantially differ in terms of overall antiarrhythmic use. Although clinical guidelines place dronedarone among first-choice treatments for atrial fibrillation, amiodarone prescribing was not affected in either country by the entry of dronedarone, probably due to a cautious approach by clinicians in line with regulatory recommendations and safety warnings.

  6. Plant Responses to Climate Change: The Case Study of Betulaceae and Poaceae Pollen Seasons (Northern Italy, Vignola, Emilia-Romagna)

    PubMed Central

    Mercuri, Anna Maria; Torri, Paola; Fornaciari, Rita; Florenzano, Assunta

    2016-01-01

    Aerobiological data have especially demonstrated that there is correlation between climate warming and the pollination season of plants. This paper focuses on airborne pollen monitoring of Betulaceae and Poaceae, two of the main plant groups with anemophilous pollen and allergenic proprieties in Northern Italy. The aim is to investigate plant responses to temperature variations by considering long-term pollen series. The 15-year aerobiological analysis is reported from the monitoring station of Vignola (located near Modena, in the Emilia-Romagna region) that had operated in the years 1990–2004 with a Hirst spore trap. The Yearly Pollen Index calculated for these two botanical families has shown contrasting trends in pollen production and release. These trends were well identifiable but fairly variable, depending on both meteorological variables and anthropogenic causes. Based on recent reference literature, we considered that some oscillations in pollen concentration could have been a main effect of temperature variability reflecting global warming. The duration of pollen seasons of Betulaceae and Poaceae, depending on the different species included in each family, has not unequivocally been determined. Phenological responses were particularly evident in Alnus and especially in Corylus as a general moving up of the end of pollination. The study shows that these trees can be affected by global warming more than other, more tolerant, plants. The research can be a contribution to the understanding of phenological plant responses to climate change and suggests that alder and hazelnut trees have to be taken into high consideration as sensible markers of plant responses to climate change. PMID:27929423

  7. Plant Responses to Climate Change: The Case Study of Betulaceae and Poaceae Pollen Seasons (Northern Italy, Vignola, Emilia-Romagna).

    PubMed

    Mercuri, Anna Maria; Torri, Paola; Fornaciari, Rita; Florenzano, Assunta

    2016-12-06

    Aerobiological data have especially demonstrated that there is correlation between climate warming and the pollination season of plants. This paper focuses on airborne pollen monitoring of Betulaceae and Poaceae, two of the main plant groups with anemophilous pollen and allergenic proprieties in Northern Italy. The aim is to investigate plant responses to temperature variations by considering long-term pollen series. The 15-year aerobiological analysis is reported from the monitoring station of Vignola (located near Modena, in the Emilia-Romagna region) that had operated in the years 1990-2004 with a Hirst spore trap. The Yearly Pollen Index calculated for these two botanical families has shown contrasting trends in pollen production and release. These trends were well identifiable but fairly variable, depending on both meteorological variables and anthropogenic causes. Based on recent reference literature, we considered that some oscillations in pollen concentration could have been a main effect of temperature variability reflecting global warming. The duration of pollen seasons of Betulaceae and Poaceae, depending on the different species included in each family, has not unequivocally been determined. Phenological responses were particularly evident in Alnus and especially in Corylus as a general moving up of the end of pollination. The study shows that these trees can be affected by global warming more than other, more tolerant, plants. The research can be a contribution to the understanding of phenological plant responses to climate change and suggests that alder and hazelnut trees have to be taken into high consideration as sensible markers of plant responses to climate change.

  8. [Continuity of care in oncology. Quantitative analysis of data from patients treated in two different settings in Emilia--Romagna.

    PubMed

    Carradori, Tiziano; Bravi, Francesca; Butera, Daniela Sara; Iannazzo, Erica; Valpiani, Giorgia; Wienand, Ulrich

    2017-06-01

    In order to ensure high-quality treatment for patients with cancer it is vital to implement organisational models (pathways and networks) and that guarantee continuity of care. Appropriate assessment tools that promote the evaluation and analysis of care pathways from the patients' perspective are available. Hence the aim of this study was to verify whether or not the coordination between the various stages and care providers in a cancer treatment pathway is perceived by our patients. Patients being treated for cancer of the lung, breast or colorectal tract by the Ferrara University Hospital (FUH) and the wider Romagna regional health service (RRHS), Italy, were administered the OPTION evaluation questionnaire. Univariate descriptive statistics of patients' sociodemographic features and care pathways were generated, and means and standard deviations were calculated for patient responses to OPTION items 1-19 on continuity of care throughout their treatment pathway. Responses from 341 patients (37.2 % treated by the FUH and 62.8% by the RRHS) were obtained. All mean scores provided for items 1-19 were above 4 on a Likert scale of 1-5, showing that the patients' perception of the continuity of their care was very positive on the whole. The highest mean scores were given for items regarding their emotional experience, while the lowest were given for those regarding information and integration with the GPs. Organisational efforts to promote patient-centred continuity of oncological care improved the experience of patients in our sample. Our data suggest that integration with the GPs still remains a problem, both from an organisational standpoint and in the perception of the patient being treated for cancer at one of the facilities under investigation. Although our findings are non-controlled and not generalisable to other geographical areas, they do show how such tools can be used to monitor and analyse patient's experience with continuity of care with a view to

  9. Natural versus Urban dunes along the Emilia-Romagna coast, Northern Adriatic (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbau, Corinne; Simeoni, Umberto

    2014-05-01

    Beach-dune interaction models can be precious tools for land managers and policymakers. However, if the models are inaccurate, land use policies may be designed based on false pretences or assumptions leading to poor land management, long-term erosion and sustainability issues, and increased difficulties in maintaining the dynamic coastal systems. From the literature, it appears that even the most reliable beach-dunes interactions models are not applicable to all coastal systems (Short and Hesp, 1982; Psuty, 1988; Sherman and Bauer, 1993). The study aims to identify the morphological evolution of the Emilia-Romagna coastal dunes according to its natural and "human" characteristics and to classify groups of dunes with similar evolutionary patterns. The coastal area consists essentially of 130 km of low sandy coast, interrupted by vast lagoon areas, harbor jetties and numerous hard coastal defense structures that were built during the first half of the 20th century to protect the Emilia-Romagna coast against erosion. Today about 57% of the littoral is protected by hard defenses, which have modified the morphodynamic characteristics of the beach without inverting the negative coastal evolution's trend. From recent aerial photographs (2011), 62 coastal dunes have been identified and mapped. Furthermore, the dune analysis shows a variability of the "physical characteristics" of coastal-dune systems along the Emilia-Romagna coast. The dune height varies from 1 to 7 meters, the width of the beach and of the active dunes range respectively from 10 to 150 m and from 10 to 65 m. Three main factors may explain the variability of the "physical characteristics": 1- Firstly the frontal dunes may be of different states according to the classification of Hesp (2002) since they correspond to incipient foredunes, well-developed foredunes, blowouts, residual foredunes as well as reactivated relict foredunes, 2- This could also be related to a different orientation of the coastline

  10. Monitoring of an active landslide in chaotic clay shales (Emilia Romagna region, Northern Apennines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squarzoni, Gabriela; Bertello, Lara; Guerriero, Luigi; Berti, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    Sassi Neri landslide is located in the Farini area (North Apennines), about 40 kilometers southwest of Piacenza city. The geology of the area is quite complex, with strongly tectonically deformed shales (Palombini Shales formation) thrusting over an arenaceous-pelitic flysch (Bettola Flysch formation). Starting from '50s, the landslide has been subjected to many reactivations developed as earthflows, the last one in the period between November 2013 and January 2014. The landslide is about 700 m long with a maximum width of about 200 m and a slip surface lying at a depth varying from 5 m to 15 m (Pizziolo et al 2014). In early fall 2016, Sassi Neri landslide seemed starting to move again; hence, a monitoring system has been installed in order to study the landslide's displacements and displacement rates and their correlation with rainfall events, pore water pressure and shear wave velocity (Vs) variations. The monitoring system consists of: 1) a CR1000 datalogger (Campbell Scientific), 2) a charge controller STECA SOLSUM 88F, 3) two time lapse cameras (Brinno TLC200 pro), 4) a pore water pressure sensor (buried at a depth of almost 1 meter), 5) a rain gauge and 6) four vertical polarized geophones at 4.5 Hz. The geophones are placed at intervals of 2 m and are acquiring the ambient seismic noise (passive mode) with a sampling frequency of 300 Hz for 2min every hours and all the data are collected in a Flash Memory Drive (SC115). The information about the displacements are collected analyzing the time-lapse video and using the free software Tracker. Preliminary collected data are presented here and their possible correlation is analyzed.

  11. Surveillance of the chikungunya vector Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in Emilia-Romagna (northern Italy): organizational and technical aspects of a large scale monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Carrieri, Marco; Albieri, Alessandro; Angelini, Paola; Baldacchini, Flavia; Venturelli, Claudio; Zeo, Silvia Mascali; Bellini, Romeo

    2011-06-01

    The chikungunya virus outbreak that occurred in 2007 in northern Italy (Emilia-Romagna region) prompted the development of a large scale monitoring system of the population density of Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894), comparable at the provincial and municipal levels. In 2007, egg density data presented an aggregated distribution (VMR >1) and Taylor's power law was applied to calculate the minimum number of ovitraps needed to obtain the prefixed precision levels: D=0.2 in the areas where the chikungunya epidemic occurred and D=0.3 in all the other urban areas >600 ha. The estimated minimum ovitrap number was then used to set up a monitoring network at the regional scale in season 2008 (May-October). In 242 municipalities 2,741 ovitraps were activated and the 2008 sampled data showed a similar aggregated distribution as in 2007. The adequacy of the monitoring design was evaluated by recalculating the Taylor's coefficients and the minimum ovitrap number for each urban area >600 ha using the 2008 egg density data. The comparison between the two estimates showed that the minimum ovitrap number calculated in 2007 was underestimated by 2.7% in weeks 22-41 but was overestimated by 29.4% if referring to the period of highest population density (weeks 27-37). The low cost of the proposed monitoring system, based on the use of fortnightly checked ovitraps, could make it economically sustainable even in a non-epidemic season. © 2011 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  12. Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols in Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy) based on two fall/winter field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, V.; Bacco, D.; Castellazzi, S.; Ricciardelli, I.; Vecchietti, R.; Zigola, C.; Pietrogrande, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    The carbonaceous aerosol in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy) was characterized in two fall/winter monitoring campaigns conducted through the years 2011-2012 and 2012-2013. Nearly 650 PM2.5 samples were collected at three monitoring stations describing urban background (main city Bologna, MS, Parma and Rimini) and one rural background site (San Pietro, SP). OC and EC values were measured by the thermal-optical transmittance method (TOT). Low flow-rate sampling strategy (24 m3 air volume per day) was used to reduce loading of light absorbing material on the filter surface in order to ensure the correct OC/EC discrimination. The TC values measured in winter 2011-2012 ranged from 9.8 μgC m- 3 at San Pietro to 12.0 μgC m- 3 at Parma, consisting of OC from 8.6 μgC m- 3 at SP to 9.9 μgC m- 3 at MS and EC from 1.3 μgC m- 3 at SP to 2.5 μgC m- 3 at Rimini. In winter 2012-2013, lower values were in general found with TC values ranging from 7.8 to 9.1 μgC m- 3 consisting of OC from 5.1 to 7.0 μgC m- 3 and EC from 1.5 to 2.2 μgC m- 3. Such differences can be likely explained by higher pollutant emissions related to domestic heating in colder fall/winter 2011/2012 (mean temperature ≈ 2 °C in comparison with ≈ 7 °C in winter 2012/2013). This hypothesis is supported by high levels of levoglucosan, as unambiguous tracer for biomass burning emission, and of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons related to combustion (levoglucosan ≃ 1000 ng m- 3 and burning PAHs ≃ 4 ng m- 3 at MS and SP sites).

  13. The Cost of Arbovirus Disease Prevention in Europe: Area-Wide Integrated Control of Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Canali, Massimo; Rivas-Morales, Stefano; Beutels, Philippe; Venturelli, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Aedes albopictus (tiger mosquito) has become the most invasive mosquito species worldwide, in addition to being a well-known vector of diseases, with a proven capacity for the transmission of chikungunya and dengue viruses in Europe as well as the Zika virus in Africa and in laboratory settings. This research quantifies the cost that needs to be provided by public-health systems for area-wide prevention of arboviruses in Europe. This cost has been calculated by evaluating the expenditure of the plan for Aedes albopictus control set up in the Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy) after a chikungunya outbreak occurred in 2007. This plan involves more than 280 municipalities with a total of 4.2 million inhabitants. Public expenditure for plan implementation in 2008–2011 was examined through simple descriptive statistics. Annual expenditure was calculated to be approximately €1.3 per inhabitant, with a declining trend (from a total of €7.6 million to €5.3 million) and a significant variability at the municipality level. The preventative measures in the plan included antilarval treatments (about 75% of total expenditure), education for citizens and in schools, entomological surveillance, and emergency actions for suspected viremias. Ecological factors and the relevance of tourism showed a correlation with the territorial variability in expenditure. The median cost of one antilarval treatment in public areas was approximately €0.12 per inhabitant. Organizational aspects were also analyzed to identify possible improvements in resource use. PMID:28425959

  14. The Cost of Arbovirus Disease Prevention in Europe: Area-Wide Integrated Control of Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Canali, Massimo; Rivas-Morales, Stefano; Beutels, Philippe; Venturelli, Claudio

    2017-04-20

    Aedes albopictus (tiger mosquito) has become the most invasive mosquito species worldwide, in addition to being a well-known vector of diseases, with a proven capacity for the transmission of chikungunya and dengue viruses in Europe as well as the Zika virus in Africa and in laboratory settings. This research quantifies the cost that needs to be provided by public-health systems for area-wide prevention of arboviruses in Europe. This cost has been calculated by evaluating the expenditure of the plan for Aedes albopictus control set up in the Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy) after a chikungunya outbreak occurred in 2007. This plan involves more than 280 municipalities with a total of 4.2 million inhabitants. Public expenditure for plan implementation in 2008-2011 was examined through simple descriptive statistics. Annual expenditure was calculated to be approximately €1.3 per inhabitant, with a declining trend (from a total of €7.6 million to €5.3 million) and a significant variability at the municipality level. The preventative measures in the plan included antilarval treatments (about 75% of total expenditure), education for citizens and in schools, entomological surveillance, and emergency actions for suspected viremias. Ecological factors and the relevance of tourism showed a correlation with the territorial variability in expenditure. The median cost of one antilarval treatment in public areas was approximately €0.12 per inhabitant. Organizational aspects were also analyzed to identify possible improvements in resource use.

  15. Coastal Risk Assessment Framework tool for the identification of hotspots along the Emilia-Romagna coastline (northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaroli, Clara; Duo, Enrico; Ciavola, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    The Emilia-Romagna coastline is located in northern Italy, facing the Adriatic sea. The area is especially exposed to the flooding hazard because of its low lying nature, high urbanisation and the large exploitation of beach resources for tourism. The identification of hotspots where marine flooding can cause significant damages is, therefore, a key issue. The methodology implemented to identify hotspots is based on the Coastal Risk Assessment Framework tool that was developed in the RISC-KIT project (www.risckit.eu). The tool combines the hazard component with different exposure indicators and is applied along predefined coastal sectors of almost 1 Km alongshore length. The coastline was divided into 106 sectors in which each component was analysed. The hazard part was evaluated through the computation of maximum water levels, obtained as the sum of wave set-up, storm surge and tide, calculated along representative beach profiles, one per sector, and for two return periods (10 and 100 years). The data for the computation of the maximum water level were extracted from the literature. The landward extension of flood-prone areas in each sector was the extension of the flood maps produced by the regional authorities for the EU Flood Directive and for the same return periods. The exposure indicators were evaluated taking into account the location and type of different assets in each sector and in flood-prone areas. Specifically, the assets that were taken into account are: the transport network, the utilities (water, gas and electricity) networks, the land use typologies, the social vulnerability status of the population and the business sector. Each component was then ranked from 1 to 5, considering a scale based on their computed value (hazard), importance and location (exposure indicators). A final coastal index (CI) was computed as the root mean square of the geometrical mean of the exposure indicators multiplied by the hazard indicator. Land use typologies were

  16. [Evolution in the hospitalization for infectious diseases among non-EU patients in Emilia Romagna].

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Passini, Alessia; Salvioli, Valentina; Chiodo, Francesco

    2005-03-01

    In the Emilia Romagna (ER) area, between 1996 and 2000, a progressive increment in hospitalization for TBC, malaria, AIDS and hepatitis in non-EU patients was observed. This study aims to determine whether this trend was confirmed in 2001 and in which cities the increase was most significant. The Hospital Discharge Cards (HDC) registered in ER for non-EU patients in the relevant period were examined. In 2001, of 20,980 hospitalization cases of non-EU patients, 394 (1.87%) were attributed to infectious diseases, amounting to an increase of 1.77% over 2000. Of the 394 patients 250 (63.45%) were male and 144 (36.55%) female. The most represented age group was 20-39 yrs. Male patients more frequently come from Morocco (54), Senegal (45), Brazil (43), females from Nigeria (36), Morocco (26) and Ghana (14). The towns and cities where hospitalization occurred were, in decreasing order: Modena (24.6%), Bologna (19.3%), Reggio Emilia (12.9%), Ravenna (10.4%), Rimini (8.6%), Parma (8.3%), Piacenza (7.3%), Forli (4.8%), Ferrara and Cesena (both 1.8%). The Hospital Departments primarily involved were: Infectious Diseases with 213 hospitalizations (54%), Pneumology 69 (17.5%), Medicine 44 (11.1%), and Paediatrics 39 (9.9 %). Hospitalization causes were, in order of frequency: TBC with 137 cases (34.8%), malaria 75 cases (19%), AIDS 72 cases (18.3%), viral hepatitis 56 cases (14.2%), septicaemia 22 cases (5.6%) and Salmonella spp. infections 18 cases (4.5%).

  17. Origin of Human Losses due to the Emilia Romagna, Italy, M5.9 Earthquake of 20 May 2012 and their Estimate in Real Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, M.

    2012-12-01

    Estimating human losses within less than an hour worldwide requires assumptions and simplifications. Earthquake for which losses are accurately recorded after the event provide clues concerning the influence of error sources. If final observations and real time estimates differ significantly, data and methods to calculate losses may be modified or calibrated. In the case of the earthquake in the Emilia Romagna region with M5.9 on May 20th, the real time epicenter estimates of the GFZ and the USGS differed from the ultimate location by the INGV by 6 and 9 km, respectively. Fatalities estimated within an hour of the earthquake by the loss estimating tool QLARM, based on these two epicenters, numbered 20 and 31, whereas 7 were reported in the end, and 12 would have been calculated if the ultimate epicenter released by INGV had been used. These four numbers being small, do not differ statistically. Thus, the epicenter errors in this case did not appreciably influence the results. The QUEST team of INGV has reported intensities with I ≥ 5 at 40 locations with accuracies of 0.5 units and QLARM estimated I > 4.5 at 224 locations. The differences between the observed and calculated values at the 23 common locations show that the calculation in the 17 instances with significant differences were too high on average by one unit. By assuming higher than average attenuation within standard bounds for worldwide loss estimates, the calculated intensities model the observed ones better: For 57% of the locations, the difference was not significant; for the others, the calculated intensities were still somewhat higher than the observed ones. Using a generic attenuation law with higher than average attenuation, but not tailored to the region, the number of estimated fatalities becomes 12 compared to 7 reported ones. Thus, attenuation in this case decreased the discrepancy between observed and reported death by approximately a factor of two. The source of the fatalities is

  18. Ambient temperature and FIT performance in the Emilia-Romagna colorectal cancer screening programme.

    PubMed

    De Girolamo, Gianfranco; Goldoni, Carlo A; Corradini, Rossella; Giuliani, Orietta; Falcini, Fabio; Sassoli De'Bianchi, Priscilla; Naldoni, Carlo; Zauli Sajani, Stefano

    2016-12-01

    To assess the impact of ambient temperature on faecal immunochemical test (FIT) performance in the colorectal cancer screening programme of Emilia-Romagna (Italy). A population-based retrospective cohort study on data from 2005 to 2011. Positive rate, detection rate, and positive predictive value rate for cancers and adenomas, and incidence rate of interval cancers after negative tests were analysed using Poisson regression models. In addition to ambient temperature, gender, age, screening history, and Local Health Unit were also considered. In 1,521,819 tests analysed, the probability of a positive result decreased linearly with increasing temperature. Point estimates and 95% Confidence Intervals were estimated for six temperature classes (<5, 5 |-10, 10 |-15, 15 |-20, 20|-25 and ≥25℃), and referred to the 5|-10℃ class. The positive rate ratio was significantly related to temperature increase: 0.99 (0.97-1.02), 1, 0.98 (0.96-1.00), 0.96 (0.94-0.99), 0.93 (0.91-0.96), 0.92 (0.89-0.95). A linear trend was also evident for advanced adenoma detection rate ratio: 1.00 (0.96-1.04), 1, 0.98 (0.93-1.02), 0.96 (0.92-1.00), 0.92 (0.88-0.96), 0.94 (0.88-1.01). The effect was less linear, but still important, for cancer detection rates: 0.95 (0.85-1.06), 1, 1.00 (0.90-1.10), 0.94 (0.85-1.05), 0.81 (0.72-0.92), 0.93 (0.80-1.09). No association or linear trend was found for positive predictive values or risk of interval cancer, despite an excess of +16% in the highest temperature class for interval cancer. Ambient temperatures can affect screening performance. Continued monitoring is needed to verify the effect of introducing FIT tubes with a new buffer, which should guarantee a higher stability of haemoglobin. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Occurrence of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus, Vibrio Cholerae and Vibrio Vulnificus in the Clam Ruditapes Philippinarum (Adams & Reeve, 1850) from Emilia Romagna and Sardinia, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Passalacqua, Pier Luca; Zavatta, Emanuele; Bignami, Giorgia; Serraino, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Marine vibrios, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. cholerae are responsible of the majority of food-borne human infections by consumption of bivalve shellfish. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the occurrence of these bacteria, and their potential pathogenicity, in the Manila clam R. philippinarum from Emilia Romagna (ER) and Sardinia (SR) regions, Italy. Isolation was performed on CHROMagarTM vibrio with subculture on (thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose) Agar and m-modified-cellobiose-polymyxin b-colistin (-CPC) Agar. Suspected strains were purified, biochemically characterized and genotyped by simplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the specie-specific and pathogenic gene markers: V. parahaemolyticus (toxRP, tdh and trh); V. vulnificus (vvhA, hsp, vcgC, vcgE, CPS operon allele 1, CPS operon allele 2, 16s-rRNA operon allele A, 16s-rRNA operon allele B; V. cholerae (toxRC, hlya, tcpI, tcpA, ctxA, ctxB, stn/sto). Moreover a multiplex PCR was applied to the SR bivalve shellfish, for the simultaneous detection of the three targets directly on homogenate samples, targeting the species-specific gene for V. cholerae (toxRC), V. parahaemolyticus (toxRP) and V. vulnificus (vvhA). As a result of phenotyping and genotyping of isolates, bivalve shellfish from ER resulted positive for V. parahaemolyticus (27.8%) and V. vulnificus (10.1%), but negative for V. cholerae. Shellfish from SR resulted positive for V. parahaemolyticus (30.3%), V. vulnificus (6.1%) and V. cholerae (3%). No significant differences emerged between the two areas (P>0.05). PMID:27800436

  20. Correlation between pore fluid pressures and DInSAR post-seismic deformation of the May 20, 2012 Emilia-Romagna (Italy) earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moro, M.; Stramondo, S.; Albano, M.; Barba, S.; Solaro, G.; Saroli, M.; Bignami, C.

    2015-12-01

    The present work focuses on the detection and analysis of the postseismic surface deformations following the two earthquakes that hit the Emilia Romagna region (Italy) on May 20 and 29, 2012. The 2012 Emilia earthquake sequence struck the central sector of the Ferrara arc, which represents the external fold-and-thrust system of the Northern Apennines thrust belt buried below the Po plain. The May 20 event occurred on the Ferrara basal thrust at depth, at about 6-7 km, while, during the May 29 event, the rupture jumped on an inner splay of the Ferrara system. The analysis of the postseismic displacements was carried out thanks to a dataset of SAR COSMO­ SkyMed images covering a time span of about one year (May 20, 2012 - May 11, 2013) after the May 20 event. The DInSAR results revealed the presence of two deformation patches: the first one is located in the area that experienced the coseismic uplift. Here the postseismic displacements point out a further ground uplift occurring along the first three months after the 20 May event. The second deformation patch is located in the villages of San Carlo and Mirabello, where ground subsidence lasting about four months was detected. We hypothesized that both the observed phenomena are related to the pore pressure perturbation caused by the coseismic deformation. In particular, the ground uplift is due to the deep crustal deformations caused by the pore fluid diffusion at depth to re-establish the initial hydrostatic stresses. Instead, the ground subsidence is related to the compaction of the shallow sandy layers caused by the liquefaction phenomena, which widely affected the San Carlo and Mirabello area. Preliminary numerical analyses performed with the Finite Element Method and empirical relations confirmed our hypothesis.

  1. Occurrence of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus, Vibrio Cholerae and Vibrio Vulnificus in the Clam Ruditapes Philippinarum (Adams & Reeve, 1850) from Emilia Romagna and Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Passalacqua, Pier Luca; Zavatta, Emanuele; Bignami, Giorgia; Serraino, Andrea; Serratore, Patrizia

    2016-01-18

    Marine vibrios, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. cholerae are responsible of the majority of food-borne human infections by consumption of bivalve shellfish. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the occurrence of these bacteria, and their potential pathogenicity, in the Manila clam R. philippinarum from Emilia Romagna (ER) and Sardinia (SR) regions, Italy. Isolation was performed on CHROMagar(TM) vibrio with subculture on (thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose) Agar and m-modified-cellobiose-polymyxin b-colistin (-CPC) Agar. Suspected strains were purified, biochemically characterized and genotyped by simplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the specie-specific and pathogenic gene markers: V. parahaemolyticus (toxRP, tdh and trh); V. vulnificus (vvhA, hsp, vcgC, vcgE, CPS operon allele 1, CPS operon allele 2, 16s-rRNA operon allele A, 16s-rRNA operon allele B; V. cholerae (toxRC, hlya, tcpI, tcpA, ctxA, ctxB, stn/sto). Moreover a multiplex PCR was applied to the SR bivalve shellfish, for the simultaneous detection of the three targets directly on homogenate samples, targeting the species-specific gene for V. cholerae (toxRC), V. parahaemolyticus (toxRP) and V. vulnificus (vvhA). As a result of phenotyping and genotyping of isolates, bivalve shellfish from ER resulted positive for V. parahaemolyticus (27.8%) and V. vulnificus (10.1%), but negative for V. cholerae. Shellfish from SR resulted positive for V. parahaemolyticus (30.3%), V. vulnificus (6.1%) and V. cholerae (3%). No significant differences emerged between the two areas (P>0.05).

  2. [Low exposure to lead and reproductive health: a cohort study of female workers in the ceramic industry of Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy)].

    PubMed

    Paredes Alpaca, Rudy Ivan; Forastiere, Francesco; Pirani, Monica

    2013-01-01

    to assess the effects of low levels of lead exposure on reproductive health (miscarriage, fertility, multiple births, sex ratio at birth, incidence of some diseases during pregnancy), following a cohort of female workers exposed to lead in the ceramic tile industry in the Municipalities of Scandiano (RE) and Sassuolo (MO), Northern Italy. a cohort of 2,067 female workers was considered. These workers repeatedly underwent blood lead levels testing at the Toxicology Laboratory of Scandiano (RE) in the period 1998-2004. Follow-up was performed for each subject for the 12 months following any blood lead testing. Data on miscarriages and live births were obtained through a linkage with hospital discharge records. Results were compared with the frequency of events in the general female population in the Emilia-Romagna Region (Northern Italy). The frequency of multiple births was also examined, as well as the ratio of male-to-female infants and maternal diseases during pregnancy. An internal analysis within the cohort was conducted to evaluate the associations with increasing lead levels. the women under study accumulated 5,722 person-years of observation. The age distribution of study subjects was not different from the one observed in the Region. Thirty-one miscarriages and 212 live births were recorded. The miscarriage rate (5.42‰) among the study subjects was not different from the regional reference, while the fertility rate (37.05‰) was lower (RR: 0.72; 95%CI 0.63-0.83). The frequency of multiple births (1.9%) was similar to the regional rate (1.2%). Eighty-six females (40.57%) and 126 males (59.43%) were born, compared to regional percentages of 49% females and 51% males. Of all the indicators examined, only miscarriage showed a positive trend among women exposed to lead. In addition, women exposed to lead had a higher frequency of hypertension during pregnancy (RR: 1.34; 95%CI 1.07-1.68), problems with the amniotic cavity (RR: 1.16; 95%CI 1.02-1.33), and

  3. Occurrence and distribution of six selected endocrine disrupting compounds in surface- and groundwaters of the Romagna area (North Italy).

    PubMed

    Pignotti, Emanuela; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damià; Dinelli, Enrico

    2017-07-21

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are a wide group of contaminants of emerging concern known to be harmful for organisms. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence and distribution of six EDCs (estrone-E1, ß-estradiol-E2, 17α-ethinylestradiol-EE2, bisphenol A-BPA, perfluooctanoic acid-PFOA, perfluorooctane sulfonate-PFOS) in the Apenninic rivers and groundwaters of the Romagna area (North of Italy). Groundwaters were unaffected by EDC contamination, while all classes of compounds were detected at concentrations above the method quantification limit (MQL) in the majority of the river bodies. In detail, PFOA and PFOS concentrations varied between Romagna area showed a higher contamination by EDCs, in contrast with the southern part, which was almost unaffected by this kind of microcontamination.

  4. Traditional alcoholic beverages and their value in the local culture of the Alta Valle del Reno, a mountain borderland between Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna (Italy).

    PubMed

    Egea, Teresa; Signorini, Maria Adele; Ongaro, Luca; Rivera, Diego; Obón de Castro, Concepción; Bruschi, Piero

    2016-06-22

    Traditional alcoholic beverages (TABs) have only received marginal attention from researchers and ethnobotanists so far, especially in Italy. This work is focused on plant-based TABs in the Alta Valle del Reno, a mountainous area on the border between Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna regions. The aims of our study were to document local knowledge about TABs and to analyze and discuss the distribution of related knowledge within the investigated communities. Field data were collected through semi-structured interviews. The relative importance of each plant species used to prepare TABs was assessed by calculating a general Use Value Index (UV general), a current UV (UV current) and a past UV (UV past). We also assessed personal experience of use by calculating effective and potential UV (UV effective, UV potential). A multivariate analysis was performed to compare ingredients in recipes recorded in the Alta Valle del Reno with those reported for neighboring areas. Forty-six plant species, belonging to 20 families, were recorded. Rosaceae was the most significant family (98 citations, 19 species), followed by Rutaceae (15, 3) and Lamiaceae (12, 4). The most important species was Prunus cerasus L. (UV general = 0.44), followed by Juglans regia L. (0.38), Rubus idaeus L. (0.27) and Prunus spinosa L. (0.22). Species with the highest UV current were Juglans regia (0.254), Prunus cerasus (0.238) and Citrus limon L. (0.159). The highest UV effective values were obtained by Prunus cerasus (0.413), Juglans regia (0.254), Rubus idaeus (0.222) and Citrus limon (0.206). We also discuss the results of the multivariate analysis. TABs proved to occupy an important place in the traditional culture and social life of the studied communities. Moreover, data highlight the local specificity and richness of this kind of tradition in the Alta Valle del Reno, compared to other Italian areas. Some plant ingredients used for TABs have potential nutraceutical and even therapeutic properties

  5. Finite-fault inversion of the Mw 5.9 2012 Emilia-Romagna earthquake (Northern Italy) using aftershocks as near-field Green's function approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Causse, Mathieu; Cultrera, Giovanna; Herrero, André; Courboulex, Françoise; Schiappapietra, Erika; Moreau, Ludovic

    2017-04-01

    On May 29, 2012 occurred a Mw 5.9 earthquake in the Emilia-Romagna region (Po Plain) on a thrust fault system. This shock, as well as hundreds of aftershocks, were recorded by 10 strong motion stations located less than 10 km away from the rupture plane, with 4 stations located within the surface rupture projection. The Po Plain is a very large EW trending syntectonic alluvial basin, delimited by the Alps and Apennines chains to the North and South. The Plio-Quaternary sedimentary sequence filling the Po Plain is characterized by an uneven thickness, ranging from several thousands of meters to a few tens of meters. This particular context results especially in a resonance basin below 1 Hz and strong surface waves, which makes it particularly difficult to model wave propagation and hence to obtain robust images of the rupture propagation. This study proposes to take advantage of the large set of recorded aftershocks, considered as point sources, to model wave propagation. Due to the heterogeneous distribution of the aftershocks on the fault plane, an interpolation technique is proposed to compute an approximation of the Green's function between each fault point and each strong motion station in the frequency range [0.2-1Hz]. We then use a Bayesian inversion technique (Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm) to obtain images of the rupture propagation from the strong motion data. We propose to retrieve the slip distribution by inverting the final slip value at some control points, which are allowed to move on the fault plane, and by interpolating the slip value between these points. We show that the use of 5 control points to describe the slip, coupled with the hypothesis of spatially constant rupture velocity and rise-time (that is 18 free source parameters), results in a good level of fit with the data. This indicates that despite their complexity, the strong motion data can be properly modeled up to 1 Hz using a relatively simple rupture. The inversion results also

  6. Effects of FRP application on the seismic response of a masonry church in Emilia-Romagna (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Gabriele; Shehu, Rafael; Valente, Marco

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents some preliminary results of advanced Finite Element (FE) analyses on the upgrading of old masonry constructions by means of Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRPs). The case study is a masonry Romanesque church, located in Ferrara, Emilia Romagna (Italy). The church exhibits widespread damage caused by the recent earthquake sequence occurred in 2012 about 60 km far from Ferrara with two major seismic events of magnitude 5.8 and 5.9. The main damage involved mainly the columns of the central nave and the apse. A partial detachment of the façade was observed too. First, gravity load analyses and non-linear static and dynamic analyses are performed on the church in the unretrofitted configuration. Numerical results put in evidence the insufficient strength of the apse and the columns of the naves, and the detachment of the façade. A strengthening intervention conducted by means of FRP strips is numerically analysed, assuming the behavior of the strips, especially for what concerns delamination, in agreement with Italian Guidelines. Numerical results show a quite reasonable strength improvement of the weak structural elements due to FRP application, with levels of strength higher than the minimum ones required by Italian Code.

  7. Guillain-Barré syndrome variants in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, 1992-3: incidence, clinical features, and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Clinical, E.; Neurology, E. P.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To estimate the incidence rate of Guillain-Barré syndrome variants in an unselected population and to describe their clinical features and prognosis.
METHODS—A two year prospective multicentre study on the incidence and prognosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome was performed in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy (3 909 512 inhabitants). A surveillance system was instituted within the study area, which comprised all the neurological departments, private and public general hospitals, and practising neurologists. The international classification of diseases (ICD) codes 357.XX (any peripheral neuropathy) of hospital discharges were also reviewed.
RESULTS—Data were separately analysed for Miller Fisher syndrome and other Guillain-Barré syndrome variants. During the study period 18 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome variants including seven with Miller Fisher syndrome were recruited; the incidence rates were 0.14/100 000/year (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.07-0.25) for Guillain-Barré syndrome variants (excluding Miller Fisher syndrome) and 0.09/100 000/year (95% CI 0.04-0.18) for Miller Fisher syndrome. Guillain-Barré syndrome variants alone (excluding Miller Fisher syndrome) accounted for 10.5% of total cases. Death and relapses were not found. Details of clinical, electrophysiological, and CSF findings of Guillain-Barré syndrome variants are provided.
CONCLUSIONS—Guillain-Barré syndrome variants other than Miller Fisher syndrome, as obtained through a population based study, account for about 10% of total cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome and, as a whole, have a good prognosis. Their clinical features are heterogeneous; bifacial weakness (associated with other signs, mainly sensory disturbances) represents the most frequent finding.

 PMID:9703176

  8. The burden of early-onset sepsis in Emilia-Romagna (Italy): a 4-year, population-based study.

    PubMed

    Berardi, Alberto; Baroni, Lorenza; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Ambretti, Simone; Biasucci, Giacomo; Bolognesi, Serenella; Capretti, Maria Grazia; Carretto, Edoardo; Ciccia, Matilde; Fiorini, Valentina; Fortini, Cinzia; Gargano, Giancarlo; Pedna, Maria Federica; Rizzo, Vittoria; Creti, Roberta; Ferrari, Fabrizio

    2016-10-01

    To provide the first Italian data on pathogens causing early-onset sepsis (EOS) and their antimicrobial susceptibility, after the successfully prevention of Group B streptococcus (GBS) EOS. Retrospective area-based cohort study from Emilia-Romagna (Italy). Cases of EOS registered (from 2009 to 2012) in all gestational age neonates were reviewed. Live births (LB) numbered 146 682. Ninety neonates had EOS and 12 died (incidence rates of 0.61 and 0.08/1000 LB, respectively). EOS and mortality were the highest among neonates with a birth weight <1000 g (20.37/1000 LB and 8.49/1000 LB, respectively). The most common pathogens were GBS (n = 27, 0.18/1000 LB) and Escherichia coli (n = 19, 0.13/1000 LB). Most infants affected by E. coli EOS were born preterm (n = 13), had complications (n = 4) or died (n = 7). Among 90 isolates tested, only 3 were resistant to both first line empirical antibiotics. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that low gestational age, caesarean section and low platelet count at presentation were significantly associated with death or brain lesions (area under ROC curve = 0.939, H-L = 0.944, sensitivity 76.0%, specificity 90.7%). GBS slightly exceeds E. coli as a cause of EOS. However, E. coli is the prominent cause of death, complications and in most cases affects preterm neonates. Empirical antimicrobial therapy of EOS seems appropriate.

  9. Functional structure of marine benthic assemblages using Biological Traits Analysis (BTA): A study along the Emilia-Romagna coastline (Italy, North-West Adriatic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paganelli, Daniele; Marchini, Agnese; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The functional diversity index has shown that the functional diversity of the macrobenthic community increased along a spatial gradient of distance from the Po river delta (Emilia-Romagna coast, Italy, North-Adriatic Sea), which suggests that riverine inputs have a detrimental effect on community functioning. This study focuses on two different depths along a southward gradient of increasing distance from the Po river delta where the Po river is the main source of freshwater and nutrient inputs in the North-Adriatic Sea. A Biological Traits Analysis (BTA) was used to examine a dataset of 156 soft-bottom macrobenthic species that were collected at eight stations in this area. Instead of comparing communities on the basis of their taxonomic composition, BTA uses a series of life history, morphological and behavioural characteristics of species to indicate aspects of their ecological functioning. The variability of the Emilia-Romagna dataset was governed by relatively few biological traits: growth form, trophic group, type of movement, habit, adult mobility and bioturbation activity. The community closer to the coastline was mainly composed of moderately mobile vermiform organisms with burrowing or tube-dwelling behaviour, and deposit feeding behaviour. However, the offshore community was mainly characterized by organisms with a laterally compressed or globose body and tube-dwelling behaviour; filter feeders and deposit feeders were dominant.

  10. X-ray population exposure from projection radiology and computed tomography in Emilia-Romagna from 2001 to 2010: comparison of ICRP 60 and ICRP 103 weighting factors.

    PubMed

    Compagnone, Gaetano; Angelini, Paola; Domenichelli, Sara

    2014-05-01

    This paper shows the trends from 2001 to 2010 of per caput and collective effective dose (S) to the Emilia-Romagna population due to radiation exposure from projection radiology (PR) and computed tomography (CT), calculated according to both ICRP60 and ICRP103 tissue weighting factors. The frequency of examinations and dose calculations were based on data provided directly by Emilia-Romagna Health Trusts. In particular, effective doses were evaluated using the tissue weighting (w T) factors reported both in ICRP60 (w T,60) and in ICRP103 (w T,103). A decrease in the frequency of PR skull examinations and an increase in the frequency of mammography, CT of the abdomen, chest, and head-neck were found during the decade. In 2010, the PR/CT procedures contributed 75.4 %/24.6 % to examination frequency and approximately 10 %/90 % to dose; S was 6,169.2 man Sv when w T,60 was used and 5,855.1-6,665.5 man Sv when w T,103 in two different mathematical models was utilised. Dose estimates pre- and post-ICRP103 must be compared carefully, because changes due to different radiological practices could be confused with changes due to the use of different w T's. In general, dose evaluations with the use of w T,60 until 2007 and w T,103 from 2008 seem to be consistent and coherent.

  11. Body image, body dissatisfaction and weight status in children from Emilia-Romagna (Italy): comparison between immigrant and native-born.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Stefania; Brasili, Patricia; Spiga, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional study among immigrant and native children from Emilia-Romagna (Italy). The purpose of the present study was to examine the relative contribution of weight status, ethnicity and sex on body dissatisfaction in a sample of children from Emilia-Romagna (Italy). Primary school children (226 immigrants and 1206 Italians) aged 6-11 years were measured: immigrant children were divided into Asians, Africans, Latin Americans and East Europeans. Height and weight were measured and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Body image perception was assessed using Body Silhouette Charts. A body dissatisfaction score (BDS) was derived by subtracting the "ideal self" from the "self" score. Weight status disorders were higher in immigrants than in native-born males; Italian females had higher prevalence of underweight and overweight and lower prevalence of obesity than immigrants peers. BDS rose with the increase of weight status categories. Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established in childhood, regardless of ethnicity and gender.

  12. iCOLT: Seasonal prediction of water irrigation need in Emilia-Romagna (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavan, Valentina; Villani, Giulia; Spisni, Andrea; Pratizzoli, William; Tomei, Fausto; Botarelli, Lucio; Marletto, Vittorio

    2015-04-01

    Mediterranean regions are frequently exposed to water scarcity and an early assessment of the potential water requirements from summer crops is very important for water management at regional and Reclamation Consortia level. Since 2007, ARPA-SIMC has developed the operational climate service iColt (irrigazione e Classificazione delle cOLture in atto tramite Telerilevamento - irrigation and classification of crops by remote sensing), in order to monitor and predict potential water needs for crop irrigation at different geographical scales. iColt has three components: a) a classification of crops through a set of satellite images acquired at different phenological stages; b) calibrated multi-model ensemble seasonal predictions of climate indices, using as input the EUROSIP products; c) a crop water balance prediction by the model CRITERIA. The climate indices are predicted as input for a weather generator to produce an ensemble of daily meteorological time-series. The meteorological series together with the regional distribution of crops, classified by remote sensing, are used by the water balance and crop development model CRITERIA to assess the crop potential water requirement at geographical level during the following summer. CRITERIA includes an empirical model for computing the shallow water table through spring (observed ) and summer (predicted) meteorological data. The water requirements predictions are verified at the end of summer by forcing the water balance model using the observed meteorological data. The results obtained from 2011 to 2014 are described and show that the operational service has a better skill than the seasonal ensemble prediction products used as input. In all the years, the sign of the irrigation water requirements anomaly has been correctly forecasted. Furthermore, the system has shown to be able to capture the spatial variability of the predicted field. These encouraging results are thought to be due partly to the correct

  13. Seasonal dynamics and long-term trend of hypoxia in the coastal zone of Emilia Romagna (NW Adriatic Sea, Italy).

    PubMed

    Alvisi, Francesca; Cozzi, Stefano

    2016-01-15

    Long-term series of meteorological, hydrological and oceanographic data were compared with hypoxia occurrence, in order to define characteristics and trends of this phenomenon in the Emilia Romagna Coastal Zone (ERCZ) in 1977-2008. During this period, hypoxia was recorded at all sampling stations, up to 20 km offshore. In winter, spring and late autumn, hypoxia appearance was matched to significant positive anomalies of air and surface seawater temperatures (up to +3.6 °C), whereas this effect was less pronounced in August-October. Hypoxia generally occurred with scarce precipitation (0-2 dm(3)m(2)d(-1)) and low wind velocity (0-2 ms(-1)), suggesting the importance of stable meteo-marine conditions for the onset of this phenomenon. Nevertheless, wind direction emerged as an indicator of hydrodynamic seasonal changes in the area and is thus a hypoxia regulator. In winter, spring and autumn, hypoxia was favored by large increases of biomass induced by river freshets. In contrast, summer hypoxia occurred during periods of low runoff, suggesting that pronounced stratification and weak circulation of coastal waters were more important in this season. Since the 1990s, a shift from widespread summer hypoxia to local hypoxia irregularly distributed across the year has occurred. This process was concomitant to long-term increases of air temperature (+0.14 °C yr(-1)), wind speed (+0.03 ms(-1) yr(-1)) and salinity (+0.09 yr(-1)), and decreases of Po River flow (-0.54 km(3) yr(-1)), oxygen saturation (-0.2% yr(-1)) and PO4(3-) (-0.004 μmol P L(-1) yr(-1)) and NH4(+) (-0.04 μmol N L(-1) yr(-1)) concentrations in surface coastal waters. Despite that several of these changes suggest an ERCZ trophic level positive reduction, similar to that reported for the N Adriatic, the concomitant climate warming might further exacerbate hypoxia in particularly shallow shelf locations. Therefore, in order to avoid hypoxia development a further mitigation of anthropogenic pressure is still

  14. Electrical resistivity tomography for studying liquefaction induced by the May 2012 Emilia-Romagna earthquake (Mw = 6.1, North Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giocoli, A.; Quadrio, B.; Bellanova, J.; Lapenna, V.; Piscitelli, S.

    2013-10-01

    This work shows the result of an Electrical Resistivity Tomography survey carried out for imaging and characterizing the shallow subsurface affected by the coseismic effects of the Mw = 6.1 Emilia-Romagna (North Italy) earthquake occurred on 20 May 2012. The most characteristic coseismic effects were ground failure, lateral spreading and liquefaction that occurred extensively along the paleo-Reno river in the urban areas of San Carlo, a hamlet of Sant'Agostino municipality, and of Mirabello (south-western portion of the Ferrara Province). Totally, six Electrical Resistivity Tomography were performed and calibrated with surface geological surveys, exploratory borehole and aerial photo interpretations. This was one of the first applications of the Electrical Resistivity Tomography method in investigating coseismic liquefaction.

  15. D Geomatics Techniques for AN Integrated Approach to Cultural Heritage Knowledge: the Case of San Michele in Acerboli's Church in Santarcangelo DI Romagna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitelli, G.; Dellapasqua, M.; Girelli, V. A.; Sanchini, E.; Tini, M. A.

    2017-05-01

    The modern Geomatics techniques, such as Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and multi-view Structure from Motion (SfM), are gaining more and more interest in the Cultural Heritage field. All the data acquired with these technologies could be stored and managed together with other information in a Historical Building Information Model (HBIM). In this paper, it will be shown the case study of the San Michele in Acerboli's church, located in Santarcangelo di Romagna, Italy. This church, dated about the 6th century A.D., represents a high relevant Romanic building of the high Medieval period. The building presents an irregular square plan with a different length of the lateral brick walls and a consequential oblique one in correspondence of the apse. Nevertheless, the different lengths of the lateral brick walls are balanced thanks to the irregular spaces between the windows. Different changes occurred during the centuries, such as the closing of the seven main doors and the building of the bell tower, in the 11th century A.D., which is nowadays the main entrance of the church. An integrated survey was realized, covering the exterior and the interior. The final 3D model represents a valid support not only for documentation, but also to maintain and manage in an integrate approach the available knowledge of this Cultural Heritage site, developing a HBIM system in which all the mentioned historical, geometrical, material matters are collected.

  16. Effects of long-term dumping of harbor-dredged material on macrozoobenthos at four disposal sites along the Emilia-Romagna coast (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy).

    PubMed

    Simonini, R; Ansaloni, I; Cavallini, F; Graziosi, F; Iotti, M; Massamba N'siala, G; Mauri, M; Montanari, G; Preti, M; Prevedelli, D

    2005-12-01

    Sediment from harbors of the Emilia-Romagna (Northern Adriatic Sea) were dredged and dumped in four disposal areas characterized by muddy bottoms. The long-term effects of the dumping on macrozoobenthic communities were investigated before and after 6 month, 8 month, 2 years and 4 years. The disposal of dredged material did not influence the granulometry and %TOC in the sediment, and no alterations in the structure of the macrobenthic communities were observed in the four areas. The lack of impact could be ascribed to the environmental characteristics and precautionary measures taken to minimize the effects of the dumping. It appears that: (1) the communities of the dumping areas are well adapted to unstable environments; (2) the sediments were disposed gradually and homogeneously over relatively large areas; Other factors that help to reduce the impact of sediment disposal are the low concentrations of contaminants in dredged materials and the similarity of sediment in the dredged and disposal areas. Off-shore discharge appears a sustainable strategy for the management of uncontaminated dredged sediments from the Northern Adriatic Sea harbors.

  17. Brief communication "Ground failure and liquefaction phenomena triggered by the 20 May 2012 Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy) earthquake: case study of Sant'Agostino-San Carlo-Mirabello zone"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, R.; Papathanassiou, G.

    2012-10-01

    The basic aim of this study was to observe and report the earthquake-induced ground deformation of the MW = 6.1 Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy) event that occurred on the 20 May 2012. The event caused widespread structural damages in a large area of the Po Plain, while the most characteristic geological effects were ground failure, lateral spreading and liquefaction. This post-earthquake reconnaissance report focuses on secondary effects within the area between the villages of Sant'Agostino, San Carlo and Mirabello located along a former reach of the Reno River. Our field observations started just few hours after the main shock until the 28 May 2012.

  18. Strategies for delivery of faecal occult blood test kits and participation to colorectal cancer screening in the Emilia-Romagna Region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Mancini, S; Ravaioli, A; Falcini, F; Giuliani, O; Corradini, R; De Girolamo, G; Goldoni, C A; Finarelli, A C; Naldoni, C; Landi, P; Sassoli de Bianchi, P; Bucchi, L

    2016-12-29

    There is a lack of agreement about which routine invitation strategy should be adopted in colorectal cancer screening. We conducted an observational study to assess the impact of three invitation strategies on participation. Invitation records for the years 2005-2009 were evaluated. There were 2,234,276 invitations from 1,230,683 individuals. Among first invitations, participation associated with direct mailing of the faecal occult blood test kits was slightly lower (relative risk, RR 0.985; 95% confidence interval 0.979-0.990) than that of the reference invitation strategy, that is, the distribution of the test kits by pharmacies. In repeated invitations/previous non-responders, the participation associated with the direct mailing of the test kits was even lower (RR 0.914; 95% confidence interval 0.895-0.933) and this was also the case for the distribution of the test kits by primary care centres (RR 0.983; 95% confidence interval 0.971-0.995). In contrast, in repeated invitations/previous responders, the impact of primary care centres and direct mailing of the test kits was greater than the use of pharmacies, showing only modest RRs: 1.021 (95% confidence interval 1.019-1.023) and 1.029 (95% confidence interval 1.025-1.033) respectively. The faecal occult blood test mailing strategy modestly increased participation in previous responders. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Prescribing of Antidiabetic Medicines before, during and after Pregnancy: A Study in Seven European Regions

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Rachel A.; Klungsøyr, Kari; Neville, Amanda J.; Jordan, Sue; Pierini, Anna; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.; Bos, H. Jens; Puccini, Aurora; Engeland, Anders; Gini, Rosa; Davies, Gareth; Thayer, Daniel; Hansen, Anne V.; Morgan, Margery; Wang, Hao; McGrogan, Anita; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Dolk, Helen; Garne, Ester

    2016-01-01

    Aim To explore antidiabetic medicine prescribing to women before, during and after pregnancy in different regions of Europe. Methods A common protocol was implemented across seven databases in Denmark, Norway, The Netherlands, Italy (Emilia Romagna/Tuscany), Wales and the rest of the UK. Women with a pregnancy starting and ending between 2004 and 2010, (Denmark, 2004–2009; Norway, 2005–2010; Emilia Romagna, 2008–2010), which ended in a live or stillbirth, were identified. Prescriptions for antidiabetic medicines issued (UK) or dispensed (non-UK) during pregnancy and/or the year before or year after pregnancy were identified. Prescribing patterns were compared across databases and over calendar time. Results 1,082,673 live/stillbirths were identified. Pregestational insulin prescribing during the year before pregnancy ranged from 0.27% (CI95 0.25–0.30) in Tuscany to 0.45% (CI95 0.43–0.47) in Norway, and increased between 2004 and 2009 in all countries. During pregnancy, insulin prescribing peaked during the third trimester and increased over time; third trimester prescribing was highest in Tuscany (2.2%) and lowest in Denmark (0.5%). Of those prescribed an insulin during pregnancy, between 50.5% in Denmark and 88.8% in the Netherlands received an insulin analogue alone or in combination with human insulin, this proportion increasing over time. Oral products were mainly metformin and prescribing was highest in the 3 months before pregnancy. Metformin use during pregnancy increased in some countries. Conclusion Pregestational diabetes is increasing in many areas of Europe. There is considerable variation between and within countries in the choice of medication for treating pregestational diabetes in pregnancy, including choice of insulin analogues and oral antidiabetics, and very large variation in the treatment of gestational diabetes despite international guidelines. PMID:27192491

  20. An early (3-6 weeks) active surveillance study to assess the safety of pandemic influenza vaccine Focetria in a province of Emilia-Romagna region, Italy - part one.

    PubMed

    Candela, Silvia; Pergolizzi, Sara; Ragni, Pietro; Cavuto, Silvio; Nobilio, Lucia; Di Mario, Simona; Dragosevic, Valentina; Groth, Nicola; Magrini, Nicola

    2013-02-27

    An observational, non-comparative, prospective, surveillance study of individuals vaccinated with the MF59-adjuvanted A/H1N1 influenza vaccine, Focetria, (Novartis Vaccines & Diagnostics, Siena, Italy), was performed in Italy during the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic. This study assessed the short-term (six-week) safety profile of the investigational vaccine in real time. After vaccination (N=7943), adverse events (AE) were assessed using both active (telephone) and passive (healthcare database) follow-up in enrolled vaccinated subjects, including infants (6-23 months), pregnant women, and the immunosuppressed. The treating physicians of all subjects experiencing AEs post-vaccination were consulted for clinical information on the conditions reported. All AEs were coded according to ICD-10. A total of 1583 AEs occurred during the study, 67 (4.2%) of which were serious adverse events (SAEs). One SAE was considered to be possibly related to vaccination (transitory and ill-defined neurologic disorder experienced by a 16-year-old asthmatic male). Three adverse events of special interest (AESI) were identified (convulsions experienced by two epileptic subjects), none of which were considered to be vaccine-related. Six individuals died during the study period, in each case the cause of death was not related to vaccination (four cases of severe underlying co-morbidity, one case of psychoactive drug misuse, and one case of acute myocardial infarction). No cases of clinically relevant AEs, SAEs, or AESI were observed within a six-week period of vaccine administration. In accordance with existing clinical and post-marketing safety data, the results of this active surveillance study demonstrate a good safety profile for the MF59-adjuvanted A/H1N1 vaccine, Focetria, within the general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Simulation of the Basin Effects in the Po Plain During the Emilia-Romagna Seismic Sequence (2012) Using Empirical Green's Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dujardin, Alain; Causse, Mathieu; Courboulex, Françoise; Traversa, Paola

    2016-06-01

    The two main earthquakes that occurred in 2012 (May 20 and 29) in the Reggio-Emiliano region (Northern Italy) were relatively small (Mw 6.1 and Mw 5.9) but they generated unexpected damages in a large area around the epicenter. On some stations, the observed seismic levels exceeded design levels recommended by the EC8 seismic code for buildings and civil engineering works. The ground motions generated by the two mainshocks have specific characteristics: the waveforms are mainly controlled by surface waves generated by the deep sedimentary Po plain, by local site effects and also, on some stations, by non-linear behaviors. In this particular context, we test the ability of an empirical Green's function (EGF) simulation approach to reproduce the recorded seismograms in a large frequency band without any knowledge of the underground medium. We focus on the possibility to reproduce the strong surface waves generated by the basin at distances between 25 and 90 km. We choose to work on the second mainshock of the sequence (Mw 5.9), which occurred on May 29, 2012, because it is better recorded by the seismological networks than the May 20th first mainshock. We use a k-2 kinematic source model to generate a set of 100 slip distributions on the fault plane and choose the recordings of a close-by Mw 3.9 event as EGF. We then generate a set of broad-band seismograms (from 0.2 to 35 Hz) and compare them to the mainshock signals at 15 stations (Seismograms, Fourier spectra, PGA, PGV, duration, Stockwell Transforms) at epicentral distances from 5 to 160 km. We find that the main specific features of the signals are very well reproduced for all the stations within and beyond the basin. Nevertheless, at nearby stations, the PGA values are over-evaluated, which could be explained by the fact that non- linear effects are not taken into account in the simulation process. A better fit was found for a position of the nucleation point to the bottom west of the fault, that suggest a

  2. A comparative study of the risk profile of hemodialysis patients in a for profit network and in two regional registries of the Italian Society of Nephrology.

    PubMed

    Postorino, Maurizio; Amato, Claudia; Mancini, Elena; Carioni, Paola; D'Arrigo, Graziella; Di Benedetto, Attilio; Cerino, Fabrizio; Marino, Carmela; Vilasi, Antonio; Tripepi, Giovanni; Stuard, Stefano; Capasso, Giovanbattista; Santoro, Antonio; Zoccali, Carmine

    2017-02-16

    In 2013, the Italian Society of Nephrology joined forces with Nephrocare-Italy to create a clinical research cohort of patients on file in the data-rich clinical management system (EUCLID) of this organization for the performance of observational studies in the hemodialysis (HD) population. To see whether patients in EUCLID are representative of the HD population in Italy, we set out to compare the whole EUCLID population with patients included in the regional HD registries in Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy) and in Calabria (Southern Italy), the sole regions in Italy which have systematically collected an enlarged clinical data set allowing comparison with the data-rich EUCLID system. An analysis of prevalent and incident patients in 2010 and 2011 showed that EUCLID patients had a lower prevalence of coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease, liver disease, peptic ulcer and other comorbidities and risk factors and a higher fractional urea clearance (Kt/V) than those in the Emilia Romagna and Calabria registries. Accordingly, survival analysis showed a lower mortality risk in the EUCLID 2010 and 2011 cohorts than in the combined two regional registries in the corresponding years: for 2010, hazard ratio (HR) EUCLID vs. Regional registries: 0.80 [95% confidence interval: 0.71-0.90]; for 2011, HR: 0.76 [0.65-0.90]. However, this difference was nullified by statistical adjustment for the difference in comorbidities and risk factors, indicating that the longer survival in the EUCLID database was attributable to the lower risk profile of patients included in that database. This preliminary analysis sets the stage for future observational studies and indicates that appropriate adjustment for difference in comorbidities and risk factors is needed to generalize to the Italian HD population analyses based on the data-rich EUCLID database.

  3. Final Report - 2016 Annual Scientific Meeting of European Underwater and Baromedical Society (EUBS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-23

    AKA) . Using the comparison between the county of Romagna in Italy (where HBOT is routinely used for DFU treatment) with the Emilia Romagna region... Emilia Romagna- USA data from 2010 indicate a 0.4/1000 AKA rate there). Using this Number Needed to Treat (NNT) of 4 (with 35 HBOT sessions as a guide

  4. Socioeconomic factors influencing childhood vaccination in two northern Italian regions.

    PubMed

    Anello, Paola; Cestari, Laura; Baldovin, Tatjana; Simonato, Lorenzo; Frasca, Gabriella; Caranci, Nicola; Grazia Pascucci, Maria; Valent, Francesca; Canova, Cristina

    2017-08-24

    Infant vaccination rates have been declining in Italy over the past 5-7years. The aims of this study were to assess the trend in the proportions of children unvaccinated at 24months old, to identify sociodemographic factors associated with non-vaccination; and to examine changes in parental attitudes to vaccination over time. We conducted a population-based birth cohort study by combining existing electronic data sets. The study population consisted of children born from 1995 to 2010 in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia (FVG) region, and from 2007 to 2011 in part of the Emilia Romagna (ER) region, in north-eastern Italy. The immunization registers were linked with the medical birth registers, which contain sociodemographic data on both parents and the newborn. Unconditional logistic regressions were used to identify associations between vaccine uptake at 24months and maternal sociodemographic variables. Of 145,571 babies born in FVG and 75,308 in ER, there were 4222 (1.9%) who had not been vaccinated at all, and 23,948 (11.0%) without the optional measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination. The number of unvaccinated infants increased over time. Mothers who were over 35 or under 25years old, unmarried, with a higher formal education, and citizens of highly-developed countries were less compliant with vaccination recommendations in both the regions. A cohort effect was observed in FVG, for both educational level and citizenship: babies born between 1995 and 2000 to mothers without an Italian citizenship and with a lower formal education were more likely to refuse vaccination for their offspring, while this association was reversed between 2006 and 2010. Mothers who are Italian citizens and have a good formal education have begun to refuse vaccination for their children in recent years. Future public health action in this setting should target highly educated parents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Disability and inclusive education in an Italian Region: analysis of the data for the school year 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Lanzarini, Evamaria; Parmeggiani, Antonia

    2017-02-17

    In Italy, pupils with disabilities enroll in mainstream schools and attend the ordinary classes at all educational levels. For the past twelve years, the Region Emilia Romagna has witnessed an increase in the number of children who are in need of special support. The aim of the study was to identify the causes of disability in children attending public schools during the school year 2012-2013. The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. Data were obtained from the Regional Education Department, and divided into categories based on clinical diagnoses. Statistical analyses were performed to analyze the distribution of the diagnostic categories among Provinces and school grades. The most recurrent combinations of illnesses were identified. Intellectual disability was the most common cause of impairment (38,5%), often associated with epilepsy and autism. Hyperkinetic disorder associated with specific disorders of scholastic skills was the most recurrent combination of diagnoses. Rare diseases were diagnosed in 4,1%, whereas 5,0% of cases were affected by Psychopathological disorders. Our study is the first in Italy for its focus on the causes of children's disabilities in an Italian region. Being familiar with the causes of disability affecting the children of a territory is important to allocate the available resources efficiently, and to ensure all children's effective social integration.

  6. A study on limb reduction defects in six European regions.

    PubMed

    Stoll, C; Calzolari, E; Cornel, M; Garcia-Minaur, S; Garne, E; Nevin, N; Ten Kate, L

    1996-01-01

    Limb reduction defects (LRD) gained special attention after the thalidomide tragedy in 1962. LRD are common congenital malformations which present as obvious congenital anomalies recognized at birth. Therefore it might be assumed that they are well documented. However classification of LRDs is disputed as the identification of the exact site of the reduction(s) is hindered by imprecise information. This study was undertaken in 6 European countries to evaluate the use of the new classification proposed by EUROCAT for the epidemiologic and genetic study of LRD. The total number of births including livebirths, still-births and terminations, surveyed during 7 years by the 6 registries of congenital anomalies participating to this study was 611.150. The total prevalence of LRD was 7.06 per 10.000 births including the following categories prevalence : terminal transverse, 3.97, longitudinal, 1.75, proximal-intercalary, 0.10, split hand/foot 0.54 and multiple types 0.70. The prevalence of LRD was statistically higher in Basque Country, Odense, Strasbourg and Groningen than in Belfast and Emilia Romagna. Six per cent of the cases were chromosomal anomalies, including 15 trisomies 18 out of 26 cases, 49.5% (201 cases) were isolated LRD and 50.5% (206 cases) had other major non LRD associated malformations. Sex ratio and maternal age were not statistically different between regions and from the normal population. Multiply malformed with LRD had statistically significantly lower birthweight and lower gestational age than isolated cases with LRD, where available prenatal detection of LRD was higher in multiple malformed children with LRD than in isolated cases, 19.9% and 4.8% respectively. The precurrence risk was 1 in 37.

  7. West Nile virus circulation in Veneto region in 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Busani, L; Capelli, G; Cecchinato, M; Lorenzetto, M; Savini, G; Terregino, C; Vio, P; Bonfanti, L; Pozza, M Dalla; Marangon, S

    2011-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in Italy, in late summer 2008 in horses and birds in the Po valley. As a consequence, an intense WNV surveillance was implemented in that area involving Emilia-Romagna, Veneto and Lombardy. This paper presents the results of the September 2008-November 2009 surveillance on equines, mosquitoes, wild birds, dogs and cattle in Veneto. WNV was detected in equines and dogs, and, to a lesser extent in cattle and wild birds. Simultaneous circulation of Usutu virus was detected by testing wild birds found dead. Usutu virus but not WNV was also found in mosquitoes monitored during 2009. Equine practices monitoring allowed the definition of an area of WNV circulation and the 2008-2009 westward and northward spread of the infection. Although a relatively low number of human cases and a low virus circulation in vectors and birds detected in Veneto region could be considered favourable conditions for a limited risk of human exposure, it remains difficult to predict the possible evolution of the epidemiological situation.

  8. [Quality indicators for the assessment of ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) networks. How hospital discharge records could be integrated with Emergency medical services data: the Emilia-Romagna STEMI network experience].

    PubMed

    Pavesi, Pier Camillo; Guastaroba, Paolo; Casella, Gianni; Berti, Elena; De Palma, Rossana; Di Bartolomeo, Stefano; Di Pasquale, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    The assessment of the regional network for ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) is fundamental for quality assurance. Since 2011 all Italian Health Authorities, in addition to hospital discharge records (HDR), must provide a standardized information flow (ERD) about emergency department (ED) and emergency medical system (EMS) activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether data integration of ERD with HDR may allow the development of appropriate quality indicators. Patients admitted to coronary care units (CCU) for STEMI between January 1 to December 31, 2013, were identified from the regional HDR database. All data were linked to those of the regional ERD database. Four quality indicators were defined: 1) rates of EMS activation, 2) rates of EMS direct transfer to the catheterization laboratory (Cath-lab), 3) transfer rates from a Spoke to a Hub hospital with angioplasty facilities, and 4) median time spent in ED. In 2013, 2793 patients with STEMI were admitted to the CCU. Of these, 1684 patients (60%) activated EMS and were transported to Spoke or Hub hospitals; 955 (57%) entered directly in CCU/Cath-lab; 677 were transferred directly to a Hub hospital ED without being admitted to a Spoke hospital. The median ED time in Hub hospital was 47 min (IQR 24-136) and in Spoke hospital 53 min (IQR 30-131). The integration among administrative data banks (i.e., HDR with ERD) allowed the assessment of the regional STEMI network and the identification of potentially useful quality indicators. Their easy availability should enable comparisons with local, national and international standards, and may favor quality improvement.

  9. The history of derogations from chemical parametric values set by the European Drinking Water Directive (Council Directive 98/83/EC), in Italy and the Piedmont region.

    PubMed

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Marro, Silvia; Soardo, Vincenzo; Berruti, Renza; Maggi, Claudio; Cerrato, Elena; Ferrari, Romina; Gulino, Margherita

    2014-01-01

    Italian legislation (Article 13 of Legislative Decree 31/2001) provides for the possibility of establishing derogations from chemical parametric values for drinking water set by EU legislation (Council Directive 98/83/EC), if the supply of drinking water cannot be maintained by any other reasonable means. A derogation is possible only after obtaining a specific authorization and must be limited to the shortest time possible. This paper presents the history of derogations granted in Italy and the case of arsenic and nickel in Piedmont. From 2003 to 2009, 13 regions requested a derogation (Campania, Emilia Romagna, Latium, Lombardy, Marche, Piedmont, Apulia, Sardinia, Sicily, Tuscany, Trentino Alto Adige, Umbria, Venetia) at different times and for a total of 13 parameters. In 2012, tap water provided to almost one million Italians in 112 municipalities of three regions (Latium, Tuscany and Campania), did not comply with the legal limits for the following parameters: arsenic, boron and fluorides. Currently, in the Piedmont region there are no derogations from the maximum permitted concentrations of contaminants in drinking water. In the past derogations have been applied for the nickel parameter (years 2006-2007) and from the arsenic parameter (years 2006-2008).

  10. Continuity of care from child and adolescent to adult mental health services: evidence from a regional survey in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Stagi, Paolo; Galeotti, Simona; Mimmi, Stefano; Starace, Fabrizio; Castagnini, Augusto C

    2015-12-01

    To examine clinical and demographic factors associated with continuity of care from child-adolescent (CAMHS) to adult mental health services (AMHS), we undertook a record-linkage study to the Adult Mental Health Information System including all those 16 years old and over who were listed between 2010 and 2013 in the Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Information System in Emilia-Romagna, an Italian region of nearly 4.5 million residents. From a cohort of 8239 adolescents attending CAMHS (population at risk about 144,000), 821 (19.4 %) moved to AMHS, excluding cases with specific developmental disorders, whose conditions were not managed by adult psychiatrists, and those with mental retardation who attended usually social services. Young people referred for treatment to AMHS were more likely to receive a discharge diagnosis of schizophrenia and related disorders (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.92; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.17-7.08), personality disorders (OR 2.69; 95 % CI 1.89-3.83), and pervasive developmental disorders (OR 2.13; 95 % CI 1.51-2.99). Further factors predicting transfer to AMHS were not living with parents, inpatient psychiatric admission, and being on medication in the previous 24 months. These findings suggest that a relatively small number of adolescents moved to AMHS and are likely to reflect the configuration of local mental health services and alternative care available, mainly for those with less-severe mental disorders.

  11. Implantable electrical devices for prevention of sudden cardiac death: data on implant rates from a 'real world' regional registry.

    PubMed

    Boriani, Giuseppe; Berti, Elena; Biffi, Mauro; Marino, Massimiliano; Sassone, Biagio; Villani, Giovanni Q; Bottoni, Nicola; Malavasi, Vincenzo L; Melandri, Francesco; Barbato, Gaetano; Talamonti, Ennio; Marconi, Marco

    2010-09-01

    International and national consensus guidelines define appropriate indications for implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), but the variability in implant rates in 'real world' clinical practice is still unknown. In Emilia-Romagna, an Italian region with around 4.3 million inhabitants, a web-based registry was instituted to collect data for all ICDs implanted. Between January 2006 and December 2008, data from all consecutive patients resident in this region who underwent first implant of an ICD or a biventricular ICD were collected and standardized, considering each regional area (i.e. each of the nine provinces). The overall number of implanted ICDs had an increase in years 2007 and 2008, with a relative increase in comparison to 2006, by 14 and 48% respectively, reaching an average value of 16.2 per 10,000 inhabitants in 2008. Most of the increase was due to a rise in ICDs for primary prevention. The ratio between the implant rates of the provinces with the highest and the lowest implant rates, respectively, was around 2 in 2008. Implant rates for ICDs, considering both primary and secondary prevention of sudden death, show up to two-fold variations even in a geographical region where the general level of health care is advanced and well appreciated by the population. The lack of a common strategy for sudden death prevention, approved by both physicians and institutional regional authorities, together with some degree of variability in translating guidelines into clinical practice, were identified as the main factors explaining the heterogeneity in ICD implant rates.

  12. Birth, growth and progresses through the last twelve years of a regional scale landslide warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanti, Riccardo; Segoni, Samuele; Rosi, Ascanio; Lagomarsino, Daniela; Catani, Filippo

    2017-04-01

    SIGMA is a regional landslide warning system that operates in the Emilia Romagna region (Italy). In this work, we depict its birth and the continuous development process, still ongoing, after over a decade of operational employ. Traditionally, landslide rainfall thresholds are defined by the empirical correspondence between a rainfall database and a landslide database. However, in the early stages of the research, a complete catalogue of dated landslides was not available. Therefore, the prototypal version of SIGMA was based on rainfall thresholds defined by means of a statistical analysis performed over the rainfall time series. SIGMA was purposely designed to take into account both shallow and deep seated landslides and it was based on the hypothesis that anomalous or extreme values of accumulated rainfall are responsible for landslide triggering. The statistical distribution of the rainfall series was analyzed, and multiples of the standard deviation (σ) were used as thresholds to discriminate between ordinary and extraordinary rainfall events. In the warning system, the measured and the forecasted rainfall are compared with these thresholds. Since the response of slope stability to rainfall may be complex, SIGMA is based on a decision algorithm aimed at identifying short but exceptionally intense rainfalls and mild but exceptionally prolonged rains: while the former are commonly associated with shallow landslides, the latter are mainly associated with deep-seated landslides. In the first case, the rainfall threshold is defined by high σ values and short durations (i.e. a few days); in the second case, σ values are lower but the decision algorithm checks long durations (i.e. some months). The exact definition of "high" and "low" σ values and of "short" and "long" duration varied through time according as it was adjusted during the evolution of the model. Indeed, since 2005, a constant work was carried out to gather and organize newly available data (rainfall

  13. Why do paediatricians prescribe antibiotics? Results of an Italian regional project

    PubMed Central

    Moro, Maria Luisa; Marchi, Massimiliano; Gagliotti, Carlo; Di Mario, Simona; Resi, Davide

    2009-01-01

    Background To investigate determinants of antibiotic prescription in paediatric care, as a first step of a multilevel intervention to improve prescribing for common respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in a northern Italian region with high antibiotic prescription rate. Methods A two-step survey was performed: in phase I, knowledge, and attitudes were explored involving all family and hospital paediatricians of Emilia-Romagna and a sample of parents. In phase II, patient care practices were explored in a stratified random sample of visits, both in hospitals and family physician's clinics; parent expectations were investigated in a sub-sample of these visits. Results Out of overall 4352 visits for suspected RTIs, in 38% of children an antibiotic was prescribed. Diagnostic uncertainty was perceived by paediatricians as the most frequent cause of inappropriate prescription (56% of 633 interviewed paediatricians); but, rapid antigen detecting tests was used in case of pharyngitis/pharyngotonsillitis by 36% and 21% of family and hospital paediatricians only. More than 50% of paediatricians affirmed to not adopt a "wait and see strategy" in acute otitis. The perceived parental expectation of antibiotics was not indicated by paediatricians as a crucial determinant of prescription, but this perception was the second factor most strongly associated to prescription (OR = 12.8; 95% CI 10.4 - 15.8), the first being the presence of othorrea. Regarding parents, the most important identified factors, potentially associated to overprescribing, were the lack of knowledge of RTIs and antibiotics (41% of 1029 parents indicated bacteria as a possible cause of common cold), and the propensity to seek medical care for trivial infections (48% of 4352 children accessing ambulatory practice presented only symptoms of common cold). Conclusion A wide gap between perceived and real determinants of antibiotic prescription exists. This can promote antibiotic overuse. Inadequate parental

  14. Epidemiology and outcome of candidemia in internal medicine wards: A regional study in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Sara; Tumietto, Fabio; Giannella, Maddalena; Bartoletti, Michele; Cristini, Francesco; Cioni, Giorgio; Ambretti, Simone; Carretto, Edoardo; Sambri, Vittorio; Sarti, Mario; Viale, Pierluigi

    2016-10-01

    More than one-third of candidemia episodes occur in Internal Medicine Wards (IMWs) but only few studies have focused on this setting and specific data about epidemiology, clinical characteristics and risk factors for mortality are scant. To describe epidemiology and to assess risk factors for in-hospital mortality among patients with candidemia in IMWs. Multicenter retrospective cohort study on patients with candidemia cared for in IMWs of an Italian region (Emilia Romagna) from January 2012 to December 2013. Non survivors were compared with survivors; variables with p≤0.1 at univariate analysis were entered into a multivariate Cox regression model. 232 patients were included. Overall candidemia incidence was 2.2 cases/1000 admissions. Candida albicans accounted for 59% of cases. Antifungal treatment was started <24h, 24-72h, and >72h from blood cultures in 47%, 27% and 12% of patients, respectively; 13.8% of patients received no antifungal treatment. In-hospital mortality was 40%. At multivariate analysis, chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease (HR 2.72, 95%CI 1.66-4.45, p<0.001) and isolation of C. tropicalis (HR 2.18, 95%CI 1.19-3.99, p=0.01) were the independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality; central-venous-catheter removal (HR 0.59, 95%CI 0.36-0.96, p=0.03) and adequate and timely (within 72h from blood drawing) empirical therapy (HR 0.42, 95%CI 0.25-0.69, p=0.001) were protective factors. The present study conducted in a relatively large geographic area confirms high incidence and mortality of candidemia in IMWs, with a worrisome rate of inappropriateness in patient management. Specific interventions aimed to increase awareness of IMWs about candidemia are needed. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Real-Time Coastal Monitoring and Prediction for Operations and Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Meteorological and Hydrological Service 5Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention in Emilia -Romagna Introduction: The coastal ocean is often character...Agency for Environmental Prevention in Emilia -Romagna (ARPA-SIM); and the Aire Limitée Adaptation Dynamique développement InterNational (ALADIN

  16. Chaos Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-10

    In the center of this 300-mile (470-kilometer) wide image of Pluto from NASA's New Horizons spacecraft is a large region of jumbled, broken terrain on the northwestern edge of the vast, icy plain informally called Sputnik Planum, to the right. The smallest visible features are 0.5 miles (0.8 kilometers) in size. This image was taken as New Horizons flew past Pluto on July 14, 2015, from a distance of 50,000 miles (80,000 kilometers). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19934

  17. Photodissociation Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The interstellar medium of galaxies is the reservoir out of which stars are born and into which stars inject newly created elements as they age. The physical properties of the interstellar medium are governed in part by the radiation emitted by these stars. Far-ultraviolet (6 eV< hNu < 13.6 eV) photons from massive stars dominate the heating and influence the chemistry of the neutral atomic gas and much of the molecular gas in galaxies. Predominantly neutral regions of the interstellar medium in which the heating and chemistry are regulated by far ultraviolet photons are termed Photodissociation Regions (PDRs). These regions are the origin of most of the non-stellar infrared (IR) and the millimeter and submillimeter CO emission from galaxies. The importance of PDRs has become increasingly apparent with the advances in IR and submillimeter astronomy. The IR emission from PDRs includes fine structure lines of C, C(+) and O; rovibrational lines of H2; rotational lines of CO; broad mid-IR features of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; and a luminous underlying IR continuum from interstellar dust. The transition of H to H2 and C(+) to CO occurs within PDRs. Comparison of observations with theoretical models of PDRs enables one to determine the density and temperature structure, the elemental abundances, the level of ionization, and the radiation field. PDR models have been applied to interstellar clouds near massive stars, planetary nebulae, red giant outflows, photoevaporating planetary disks around newly formed stars, diffuse clouds, the neutral intercloud medium, and molecular clouds in the interstellar radiation field-in summary, much of the interstellar medium in galaxies. Theoretical PDR models explain the observed correlations of the [CII] 158, micrometers with the CO J=1-0 emission, the CO J=1-0 luminosity with the interstellar molecular mass, and the [CII] 158 micrometers plus [OI] 63 micrometers luminosity with the IR continuum luminosity. On a more global

  18. A framework to assess welfare mix and service provision models in health care and social welfare: case studies of two prominent Italian regions.

    PubMed

    Longo, Francesco; Notarnicola, Elisabetta; Tasselli, Stefano

    2015-04-09

    The mechanisms through which the relationships among public institutions, private providers and families affect care and service provision systems are puzzling. How can we understand the mechanisms in these contexts? Which elements should we explore to capture the complexity of care provision? The aim of our study is to provide a framework that can help read and reframe these puzzling care provision mechanisms in a welfare mix context. First, we develop a theoretical framework for understanding how service provision occurs in care systems that are characterised by a variety of relationships between multiple actors, using an evidence-based approach that looks at both public and private expenditures and the number of users relative to the level of needs coverage and compared with declared values and political rhetoric. Second, we test this framework in two case studies built on data from two prominent Italian regions, Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna. We argue that service provision models depend on the interplay among six conceptual elements: policy values, governance rules, resources, nature of the providers, service standards and eligibility criteria. Our empirical study shows that beneath the relevant differences in values and political rhetoric between the case studies of the two Italian regions, there is a surprising isomorphism in service standards and the levels of covering the population's needs. The suggested framework appears to be effective and feasible; it fosters interdisciplinary approaches and supports policy-making discussions. This study may contribute to deepening knowledge about public care service provision and institutional arrangements, which can be used to promote more effective reforms and may advance future research. Although the framework was tested on the Italian welfare system, it can be used to assess many different systems.

  19. Asthma medication prescribing before, during and after pregnancy: a study in seven European regions

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Rachel A; Pierini, Anna; Klungsøyr, Kari; Neville, Amanda J; Jordan, Susan; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T W; Thayer, Daniel; Bos, H Jens; Puccini, Aurora; Hansen, Anne V; Gini, Rosa; Engeland, Anders; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Dolk, Helen; Garne, Ester

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore utilisation patterns of asthma medication before, during and after pregnancy as recorded in seven European population-based databases. Design A descriptive drug utilisation study. Setting 7 electronic healthcare databases in Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Italy (Emilia Romagna and Tuscany), Wales, and the Clinical Practice Research Datalink representing the rest of the UK. Participants All women with a pregnancy ending in a delivery that started and ended between 2004 and 2010, who had been present in the database for the year before, throughout and the year following pregnancy. Main outcome measures The percentage of deliveries where the woman received an asthma medicine prescription, based on prescriptions issued (UK) or dispensed (non-UK), during the year before, throughout or during the year following pregnancy. Asthma medicine prescribing patterns were described for 3-month time periods and the choice of asthma medicine and changes in prescribing over the study period were evaluated in each database. Results In total, 1 165 435 deliveries were identified. The prevalence of asthma medication prescribing during pregnancy was highest in the UK and Wales databases (9.4% (CI95 9.3% to 9.6%) and 9.4% (CI95 9.1% to 9.6%), respectively) and lowest in the Norwegian database (3.7% (CI95 3.7% to 3.8%)). In the year before pregnancy, the prevalence of asthma medication prescribing remained constant in all regions. Prescribing levels peaked during the second trimester of pregnancy and were at their lowest during the 3-month period following delivery. A decline was observed, in all regions except the UK, in the prescribing of long-acting β-2-agonists during pregnancy. During the 7-year study period, there were only small changes in prescribing patterns. Conclusions Differences were found in the prevalence of prescribing of asthma medications during and surrounding pregnancy in Europe. Inhaled β-2 agonists and inhaled corticosteroids were

  20. Returning "Region" to World Regional Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Peter W.; Legates, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    World regional geography textbooks rarely focus on the process of region formation, despite frequent calls to reincorporate a regional approach to teaching global geography. An instructional strategy using problem-based learning in a small honors section of a large world regional geography course is described. Using a hypothetical scenario…

  1. Ionospheric research. [E region, F region, D region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: D-region theory; E and F-region; wave propagation; mass spectrometer measurements; and atmospheric reactions. Various supporting operations are included: design and construction of instrumentation; and programming.

  2. Regional Sustainable Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional sustainable environmental management is an interdisciplinary effort to develop a sufficient understanding of the interactions between ecosystems, the economy, law, and technology to formulate effective long-term management strategies on a regional scale. Regional sustai...

  3. Regional Sustainable Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional sustainable environmental management is an interdisciplinary effort to develop a sufficient understanding of the interactions between ecosystems, the economy, law, and technology to formulate effective long-term management strategies on a regional scale. Regional sustai...

  4. Parameter regionalisation methods for a semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model: application to a Northern Apennine region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, Mattia; Toth, Elena

    2017-04-01

    The study presents the implementation of different regionalisation approaches for the transfer of model parameters from similar and/or neighbouring gauged basin to an ungauged catchment, and in particular it uses a semi-distributed continuously-simulating conceptual rainfall-runoff model for simulating daily streamflows. The case study refers to a set of Apennine catchments (in the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy), that, given the spatial proximity, are assumed to belong to the same hydrologically homogeneous region and are used, alternatively, as donors and regionalised basins. The model is a semi-distributed version of the HBV model (TUWien model) in which the catchment is divided in zones of different altitude that contribute separately to the total outlet flow. The model includes a snow module, whose application in the Apennine area has been, so far, very limited, even if snow accumulation and melting phenomena do have an important role in the study basins. Two methods, both widely applied in the recent literature, are applied for regionalising the model: i) "parameters averaging", where each parameter is obtained as a weighted mean of the parameters obtained, through calibration, on the donor catchments ii) "output averaging", where the model is run over the ungauged basin using the entire set of parameters of each donor basin and the simulated outputs are then averaged. In the first approach, the parameters are regionalised independently from each other, in the second one, instead, the correlation among the parameters is maintained. Since the model is a semi-distributed one, where each elevation zone contributes separately, the study proposes to test also a modified version of the second approach ("output averaging"), where each zone is considered as an autonomous entity, whose parameters are transposed to the ungauged sub-basin corresponding to the same elevation zone. The study explores also the choice of the weights to be used for averaging the parameters (in

  5. Identification of high radon areas with passive methods and geological assessments in some Italian regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetti, Marta; Bartolomei, Paolo; Esposito, Massimo; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2010-05-01

    Internationally the indoor radon exposition as health hazard is widely recognized; so in many countries specific laws and regulations and so-called radon - risk maps have been introduced. Few Italian Regions have started surveys for the identification of 'radon prone areas', with independent standards and protocols and this involves a bigger uncertainty on the definition of a national risk map failing guidelines. In the present work a standardized methodology for indoor radon measurements has been set up by U-Series Srl (Bologna), with attention to the development of a passive measurement technique (solid state nuclear track detectors) on large scale. The developed technique has been validated through an inter-laboratory comparison conducted by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) in 2008 and repeated in 2009. An indoor radon monitoring survey has been conducted in all Italian Regions with the developed methodology and 5425 measurements have been elaborated to obtain the annual average radon concentration in regional scale and the relapse of seasonal fluctuations on radon concentrations were verified. For the survey, the detectors were installed in underground rooms in workplaces and the measurements were performed over one solar year. As a consequence of our developed methodology (measurements only in underground rooms), indoor radon concentrations resulted generally higher than the concentrations obtained in the National Survey; we estimated an annual mean radon concentration of 110 Bqm3 compared to 70 Bq/m3 obtained by the National Survey. Only for the Italian Regions with the largest number of sampling (Lombardia, with the case studies of Milano Province and Milano city, Emilia Romagna, Toscana, Puglia) the data obtained were georeferentiated and we elaborated these data using geostatistical technique in order to produce distribution maps of the annual average indoor radon concentration. We have integrated the elaborated maps with the

  6. Regional Smart Growth Alliances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page describes the Urban Land Institute regional smart growth alliances that received funding from EPA to help support economic development, accommodate growth, enhance quality of, and protect the environment in regions across the country.

  7. Region 9 Tribal Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Region 9 helps tribes strengthen management of environmental programs in Indian country, and ensure that tribes have a voice in decisions. The region serves 148 federally recognized tribes with the states of Arizona, California, and Nevada.

  8. ERLN Regional Support

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Regional labs play important roles in the Environmental Response Laboratory Network. They can serve as point of contact; coordinate sample flow, special analytical service requests, or training exercises; and partner with regional emergency/disaster staff.

  9. Region 9 RTOC Charter

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    U.S. EPA Pacific Southwest (Region 9) Regional Tribal Operations Committee (RTOC) Charter as amended 11/13/2014: Mission, Goals, Scope, Structure & Membership, Meetings, Administration, Charter Amendment/Review, and Current Working Draft.

  10. [Regional aging in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bucher, H

    1996-01-01

    Elderly people in Germany have a specific regional distribution. Recent regional population projections show that these patterns will change. The most dynamic process of aging will take place in the suburban parts of the large western Germany agglomerations, whereas in eastern Germany aging concentrates in regions with a lower density. There will be a regional deconcentration of elderly people with consequences for the planning of infrastructure.

  11. Learning Regions in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thinesse-Demel, Jutta

    2010-01-01

    In 2000, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) launched the programme "Learning Regions--Providing Support for Networks'" in cooperation with the Lander. It was co-financed by the European Social Fund (ESF). Some 90 regions were selected and financially supported. After one year, 71 regions continued to build-up…

  12. Learning Regions in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thinesse-Demel, Jutta

    2010-01-01

    In 2000, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) launched the programme "Learning Regions--Providing Support for Networks'" in cooperation with the Lander. It was co-financed by the European Social Fund (ESF). Some 90 regions were selected and financially supported. After one year, 71 regions continued to build-up…

  13. HRM: HII Region Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, Trey V.; Kepley, Amanda K.; Balser, Dana S.

    2017-07-01

    HII Region Models fits HII region models to observed radio recombination line and radio continuum data. The algorithm includes the calculations of departure coefficients to correct for non-LTE effects. HII Region Models has been used to model star formation in the nucleus of IC 342.

  14. Assessment of Wind Quality for Oceanographic Modelling in Semi-Enclosed Basins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    30125 Venice, Italy cServizio Meteorologico Regionale -ARPA Emilia Romagna, Viale Silvani 6, I-40122 Bologna, Italy dDepartment of Earth Sciences...atmospheric, limited area model at Servizio Meteo Regionale -Agenzia Regionale per la Protezione dell’Ambiente, regione Emilia Romagna (SMR- ARPA-EMR) in...LAMI model Limited Area Model Italy (LAMI) is the Italian operational implementation of LOKAL MODELL, the limited area model originally developed by

  15. The zitterbewegung region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidharth, B. G.; Das, Abhishek

    2017-07-01

    This paper deals with a precise description of the region of zitterbewegung below the Compton scale and the stochastic nature associated with it. We endeavor to delineate this particular region by means of Ito’s calculus and instigate certain features that are in sharp contrast with conventional physics. Interestingly, our work substantiates that the zitterbewegung region represents a pre-space-time region and from therein emerges the notion of our conventional space-time. Interestingly, this unique region engenders the relativistic and quantum mechanical aspects of space-time.

  16. Reversed-polarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, F.

    1982-01-01

    It is found by a statistical study of 58 reversed-polarity regions (RPRs) covering the 11-year period 1969-1979 that RPRs (1) have a lifespan comparable to normal active regions, (2) do not show a tendency to rotate toward a more normal alignment, and (3) have stable configurations that do not suggest stress due to their anomalous magnetic alignment. As in normal regions, RPR magnetic complexity is found to be the primary factor in flare productivity. Weak-field RPRs produce no flares, and regions with complex spots produce more flares than regions with non-complex spots by a factor of five. The main difference between RPRs and normal regions lies in complex spot frequency, with less that 17% of normal active regions having such spots and fewer than 1.8% having long-lived complex ones, while 41% of RPRs have complex spots and 24% have long-lived complex spots.

  17. Reversed-polarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, F.

    1982-01-01

    It is found by a statistical study of 58 reversed-polarity regions (RPRs) covering the 11-year period 1969-1979 that RPRs (1) have a lifespan comparable to normal active regions, (2) do not show a tendency to rotate toward a more normal alignment, and (3) have stable configurations that do not suggest stress due to their anomalous magnetic alignment. As in normal regions, RPR magnetic complexity is found to be the primary factor in flare productivity. Weak-field RPRs produce no flares, and regions with complex spots produce more flares than regions with non-complex spots by a factor of five. The main difference between RPRs and normal regions lies in complex spot frequency, with less that 17% of normal active regions having such spots and fewer than 1.8% having long-lived complex ones, while 41% of RPRs have complex spots and 24% have long-lived complex spots.

  18. Unraveling Landscape Complexity: Land Use/Land Cover Changes and Landscape Pattern Dynamics (1954-2008) in Contrasting Peri-Urban and Agro-Forest Regions of Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Smiraglia, D; Ceccarelli, T; Bajocco, S; Perini, L; Salvati, L

    2015-10-01

    This study implements an exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics and a change detection analysis of land use and population density to assess landscape dynamics (1954-2008) in two physiographic zones (plain and hilly-mountain area) of Emilia Romagna, northern Italy. The two areas are characterized by different landscape types: a mixed urban-rural landscape dominated by arable land and peri-urban settlements in the plain and a traditional agro-forest landscape in the hilly-mountain area with deciduous and conifer forests, scrublands, meadows, and crop mosaic. Urbanization and, to a lesser extent, agricultural intensification were identified as the processes underlying landscape change in the plain. Land abandonment determining natural forestation and re-forestation driven by man was identified as the process of change most representative of the hilly-mountain area. Trends in landscape metrics indicate a shift toward more fragmented and convoluted patterns in both areas. Number of patches, the interspersion and juxtaposition index, and the large patch index are the metrics discriminating the two areas in terms of landscape patterns in 1954. In 2008, mean patch size, edge density, interspersion and juxtaposition index, and mean Euclidean nearest neighbor distance were the metrics with the most different spatial patterns in the two areas. The exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics contributed to link changes over time in both landscape composition and configuration providing a comprehensive picture of landscape transformations in a wealthy European region. Evidence from this study are hoped to inform sustainable land management designed for homogeneous landscape units in similar socioeconomic contexts.

  19. Unraveling Landscape Complexity: Land Use/Land Cover Changes and Landscape Pattern Dynamics (1954-2008) in Contrasting Peri-Urban and Agro-Forest Regions of Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiraglia, D.; Ceccarelli, T.; Bajocco, S.; Perini, L.; Salvati, L.

    2015-10-01

    This study implements an exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics and a change detection analysis of land use and population density to assess landscape dynamics (1954-2008) in two physiographic zones (plain and hilly-mountain area) of Emilia Romagna, northern Italy. The two areas are characterized by different landscape types: a mixed urban-rural landscape dominated by arable land and peri-urban settlements in the plain and a traditional agro-forest landscape in the hilly-mountain area with deciduous and conifer forests, scrublands, meadows, and crop mosaic. Urbanization and, to a lesser extent, agricultural intensification were identified as the processes underlying landscape change in the plain. Land abandonment determining natural forestation and re-forestation driven by man was identified as the process of change most representative of the hilly-mountain area. Trends in landscape metrics indicate a shift toward more fragmented and convoluted patterns in both areas. Number of patches, the interspersion and juxtaposition index, and the large patch index are the metrics discriminating the two areas in terms of landscape patterns in 1954. In 2008, mean patch size, edge density, interspersion and juxtaposition index, and mean Euclidean nearest neighbor distance were the metrics with the most different spatial patterns in the two areas. The exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics contributed to link changes over time in both landscape composition and configuration providing a comprehensive picture of landscape transformations in a wealthy European region. Evidence from this study are hoped to inform sustainable land management designed for homogeneous landscape units in similar socioeconomic contexts.

  20. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in a low-incidence Italian region with high immigration rates: differences between not Italy-born and Italy-born TB cases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Emilia Romagna, a northern Italian region, has a population of 4.27 million, of which 9.7% are immigrants. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) during the period 1996-2006 in not Italy-born compared to Italy-born cases. Methods Data was obtained from the Regional TB surveillance system, from where personal data, clinical features and risk factors of all notified TB cases were extracted. Results 5377 TB cases were reported. The proportion of immigrants with TB, over the total number of TB cases had progressively increased over the years, from 19.1% to 53.3%. In the not Italy-born population, TB incidence was higher than in Italians (in 2006: 100.7 cases per 100 000 registered not Italy-born subjects and 83.9/100 000 adding 20% of estimated irregular presences to the denominators. TB incidence among Italians was 6.5/100 000 Italians). A progressive rise in the not Italy-born incident cases was observed but associated with a decline in TB incidence. Not Italy-born cases were younger compared to the Italy-born cases, and more frequently classified as "new cases" (OR 2.0 95%CI 1.61-2.49 for age group 20-39); 60.7% had pulmonary TB, 31.6% extra pulmonary and 7.6% disseminated TB. Risk factors for TB in this population group were connected to lower income status (homeless: OR 149.9 95%CI 20.7-1083.3 for age group 40-59). Conclusions In low-incidence regions, prevention and control of TB among sub-groups at risk such as the foreign-born population is a matter of public health concern. In addition, increasing immigration rates may affect TB epidemiology. TB among immigrants is characterized by particular clinical features and risk factors, which should be analyzed in order to plan effective action. PMID:21605460

  1. Robotics and regional anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Wehbe, Mohamad; Giacalone, Marilu; Hemmerling, Thomas M

    2014-10-01

    Robots in regional anesthesia are used as a tool to automate the performance of regional techniques reducing the anesthesiologist's workload and improving patient care. The purpose of this review is to show the latest findings in robotic regional anesthesia. The literature separates robots in anesthesia into two groups: pharmacological robots and manual robots. Pharmacological robots are mainly closed-loop systems that help in the titration of anesthetic drugs to patients undergoing surgery. Manual robots are mechanical robots that are used to support or replace the manual gestures performed by anesthesiologists. Although in the last decade researchers have focused on the development of decision support systems and closed-loop systems, more recent evidence supports the concept that robots can also be useful in performing regional anesthesia techniques. Robots can improve the performance and safety in regional anesthesia. In this review, we present the developments made in robotic and automated regional anesthesia, and discuss the current state of research in this field.

  2. Active Regions Blossoming

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-28

    As a pair of active regions began to rotate into view, their towering magnetic field lines above them bloomed into a dazzling display of twisting arches (Oct. 27-28, 2015). Some of the lines reached over and connected with the neighboring active region. Active regions are usually the source of solar storms. The images were taken in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20048

  3. Transition Region Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansteen, V.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The SOLAR TRANSITION REGION comprises the PLASMA between the CHROMOSPHERE and the CORONA. In both of these regions the temperature is fairly uniform. The transition region, by contrast, is believed to be characterized by a very steep temperature rise from a chromospheric temperature of slightly less than 104 K to coronal temperatures on the order of 106 K. The goal of modeling the transition regi...

  4. Regions and Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunt, Barry M.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that regional geography is undergoing important changes in its method of study to achieve a greater degree of relevancy in the context of a global system. Presents Western Europe as a case study to reflect this new approach. Includes 11 maps illustrating 6 generalizations applied to regional patterns. (CFR)

  5. MC-6 Casius Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-6 quadrangle, Casius region of Mars. Except for the highly dissected southwestern part, which contains faults, mesas, and buttes of Nilosyrtis Mensae, the Casius region is dominated by light-colored and dark, relatively smooth plains. Latitude range 30 to 65 degrees, longitude range -120 to -60 degrees.

  6. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  7. The Regional Educational Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Office of Reform Assistance and Dissemination.

    The Regional Educational Laboratory Program is the U.S. Department of Education's largest research and development investment designed to help educators, policymakers, and communities improve schools and help all students attain their potential. The network of 10 regional laboratories works to ensure that those involved in education improvement at…

  8. Regionalism, Devolution and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdanor, Vernon

    1977-01-01

    Described are effects of political decentralization in the United Kingdom on political and social institutions, particularly education. The author concludes that regionalism could yield advantages of power decentralization, diversity of decision making, and educational systems which are more closely connected to regional and local traditions.…

  9. Forest regions of Montana

    Treesearch

    Stephen F. Arno

    1979-01-01

    In this paper, Montana is divided into eight geographic subdivisions called "forest regions," based on distributions of tree and undergrowth species and the relationship of these patterns to climate and topography. The regions serve as a geographic reference for describing patterns of forest vegetation across the State. Data on the distributions of plant...

  10. Politics, Planning and Regionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zukosky, Jerome

    The concept of regionalism identifies the issues in public affairs pertaining to a region and develops structures through which citizens can participate in the decisionmaking process. This speech describes educational decisions in the State of New York as affected by local decentralization and by concentration of power at the State level. Relevant…

  11. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  12. Introduction - regional monitoring programs

    Treesearch

    Richard L. Hutto; C. John Ralph

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the initiation of regional or statewide monitoring programs that are less extensive than national efforts such as the Breeding Bird Survey. A number of regional programs have been in existence for a decade or more, so the papers in this section represented an effort to bring together the collective experience of the people who had...

  13. REGIONAL EMAP PROPOSALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA's Environmental Assessment and Monitoring Program (EMAP) annually funds regional EMAP (REMAP) projects through each of the regions to support the improvement of monitoring activities by the states. The last call for proposals emphasized the need to support biological m...

  14. REGIONAL EMAP PROPOSALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA's Environmental Assessment and Monitoring Program (EMAP) annually funds regional EMAP (REMAP) projects through each of the regions to support the improvement of monitoring activities by the states. The last call for proposals emphasized the need to support biological m...

  15. Reversed-polarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, F.

    1980-01-01

    The 58 RPRS studied have a lifespan comparable to normal active regions and have no tendency to rotate toward a more normal alignment. They seem to have stable configurations with no apparent evidence suggesting stress due to their anomalous magnetic alignment. Magnetic complexity in RPRs is the key to flare productivity just as it is in normal regions - weak field RPRs produced no flares and regions with complex spots produced more flares than regions with noncomplex spots by a factor of 5. The RPRs however, differ from normal regions in the frequency of having complex spots, particularly the long lived complex spots, in them. Less than 17 percent of normal ARs have complex spots; less than 1.8 percent have long lived complex spots. In contrast, 41 percent of RPRs have complex spots and 24 percent have long lived complex spots.

  16. Adverse drug reactions related to the use of fluoroquinolone antimicrobials: an analysis of spontaneous reports and fluoroquinolone consumption data from three italian regions.

    PubMed

    Leone, Roberto; Venegoni, Mauro; Motola, Domenico; Moretti, Ugo; Piazzetta, Valentina; Cocci, Alfredo; Resi, Domenico; Mozzo, Federico; Velo, Giampaolo; Burzilleri, Liliana; Montanaro, Nicola; Conforti, Anita

    2003-01-01

    To analyse and compare with one another and with other antibacterial drugs the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of the different fluoroquinolones currently used in Italy, spontaneously reported from doctors in three northern Italian regions. The data on fluoroquinolones and other antibacterials were obtained from the spontaneous reporting system database of Emilia Romagna, Lombardy and the Veneto, which are the principal contributors to the Italian spontaneous surveillance system. The fluoroquinolone ADRs with a causality assessment of certain, probable or possible (according to WHO criteria), reported between January 1999 and December 2001, were selected and toxicity profiles of individual drugs were described and compared with one another. The reports were also correlated with sex and age of patients and with regional prescription data to estimate individual fluoroquinolone reporting rate of adverse events. During the study period, 10 011 reports were received by the system (a mean annual reporting rate of approximately 185 per million inhabitants): 1920 referred to systemic antimicrobials, of which 432 (22.5%) involved fluoroquinolones. Pefloxacin was associated with the highest reporting rate (982 reports/daily defined dose/1000 inhabitants/day), followed by moxifloxacin (356), rufloxacin (221) and lomefloxacin (196). The most frequently reported reactions to fluoroquinolones involved the skin, but their percentage (25%) was significantly lower (p < 0.01) than those of other systemic antimicrobials (58.5%), whereas the percentages of reactions involving the central nervous (12.2 vs 3.6%), musculoskeletal (14.7 vs 0.3%) and psychiatric systems (9.3 vs 1.8%) were significantly higher (p < 0.01). We found some significant differences in the safety profiles of individual fluoroquinolones: ciprofloxacin was more frequently associated with skin reactions (p < 0.01), levofloxacin and pefloxacin with musculoskeletal (p < 0.01), and rufloxacin with psychiatric disorders (p

  17. Regional inequalities in mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Illsley, R; Le Grand, J

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To examine the hypothesis of sustained and persistent inequalities in health between British regions and to ask how far they are a consequence of using standardised mortality ratios as the tool of measurement. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS--Data are regional, age specific death rates at seven points in time from 1931 to 1987-89 for the British regions, reconstructed to make them comparable with the 1981 regional definitions. Log variance is used to measure inequality; regional rankings are also used. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--There has been a substantial convergence in age specific death rates between regions in younger but not in older age groups. In younger age groups the historic north/south gradient has disappeared; it persists in older groups. CONCLUSIONS--Use of standardised mortality ratios obscures differences in the convergence rates of age specific death rates between regions. Simple conclusions about the persistence of a north/south divide are not justified. Different processes of change seem to be at work in different age groups. PMID:8120497

  18. Upper Extremity Regional Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Joseph M.; Gerancher, J.C.; Hebl, James R.; Ilfeld, Brian M.; McCartney, Colin J.L.; Franco, Carlo D.; Hogan, Quinn H.

    2009-01-01

    Brachial plexus blockade is the cornerstone of the peripheral nerve regional anesthesia practice of most anesthesiologists. As part of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine’s commitment to providing intensive evidence-based education related to regional anesthesia and analgesia, this article is a complete update of our 2002 comprehensive review of upper extremity anesthesia. The text of the review focuses on (1) pertinent anatomy, (2) approaches to the brachial plexus and techniques that optimize block quality, (4) local anesthetic and adjuvant pharmacology, (5) complications, (6) perioperative issues, and (6) challenges for future research. PMID:19282714

  19. Drycleaner Database - Region 7

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Drycleaner Database (R7DryClnDB) which tracks all Region7 drycleaners who notify Region 7 subject to Maximum Achievable Control Technologiy (MACT) standards. The Air and Waste Management Division is the primary managing entity for this database. This work falls under objectives for EPA's 2003-2008 Strategic Plan (Goal 4) for Healthy Communities & Ecosystems, which are to reduce chemical and/or pesticide risks at facilities.

  20. Drycleaner Database - Region 7

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Drycleaner Database (R7DryClnDB) which tracks all Region7 drycleaners who notify Region 7 subject to Maximum Achievable Control Technologiy (MACT) standards. The Air and Waste Management Division is the primary managing entity for this database. This work falls under objectives for EPA's 2003-2008 Strategic Plan (Goal 4) for Healthy Communities & Ecosystems, which are to reduce chemical and/or pesticide risks at facilities.

  1. Regional ocean data assimilation.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Christopher A; Moore, Andrew M; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Cornuelle, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the ocean is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the ocean state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional ocean systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.

  2. Energized Active Regions

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-02

    A pair of relatively small (but frenetic) active regions rotated into view, spouting off numerous small flares and sweeping loops of plasma (May 31-June 2, 2017). At first, only the one active region was observed, but mid-way though the video clip a second one behind the first can be picked out. The dynamic regions were easily the most remarkable areas on the sun during this 42-hour period. The images were taken in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. Movies are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21756

  3. Regional Instrumentation Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromie, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the activities of regional instrumentation centers that utilize the state-of-the-art instruments and methodology in basic scientific research. The emphasis is on the centers involved in mass spectroscopy, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, lasers, and accelerators. (SA)

  4. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... regional pain syndrome is an uncommon form of chronic pain that usually affects an arm or a ... I need? Is my condition likely temporary or chronic? What types of treatments are available? Which do ...

  5. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. ... in skin temperature, color, or texture Intense burning pain Extreme skin sensitivity Swelling and stiffness in affected ...

  6. Active Regions' Magnetic Connection

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-22

    Several bright bands of plasma connect from one active region to another, even though they are tens of thousands of miles away from each other (May 17-18, 2017). Active regions are, by their nature, strong magnetic areas with north and south poles. The plasma consists of charged particles that stream along the magnetic field lines between these two regions. These connecting lines are clearly visible in this wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. Other loops and strands of bright plasma can be seen rising up and out of smaller active regions as well. The video covers about one day's worth of activity. Movies are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21638

  7. Regional Health Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Sherrilynne

    1997-01-01

    Abstract In general, there is agreement that robust integrated information systems are the foundation for building successful regional health care delivery systems. Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) institutions that, over the years, have developed strategies for creating cohesive institutional information systems and services are finding that IAIMS strategies work well in the even more complex regional environment. The key elements of IAIMS planning are described and lessons learned are discussed in the context of regional health information systems developed. The challenges of aligning the various information agencies and agendas in support of a regional health information system are complex ; however, the potential rewards for health care in quality, efficacy, and cost savings are enormous. PMID:9067887

  8. Regional Screening Levels (RSLs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Regional Screening Level RSL Home Page introduces risk assessors to Chemical Risk Assessment preliminary remediation goals PRG risk based concentration RBC and risk calculations for the assessment of human Health.

  9. Regional Response Teams

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There are thirteen in the U.S., each representing a geographic region (including the Caribbean and the Pacific Basin). Composed of representatives from field offices of the agencies that make up the National Response Team, and state representatives.

  10. Regional Hearing Clerk

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Regional Hearing Clerk receives filings for proceedings under the Consolidated Rules of Practice Governing the Administrative Assessment of Civil Penalties and the Revocation/Termination or Suspension of Permits, 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 22

  11. Regional Instrumentation Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromie, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the activities of regional instrumentation centers that utilize the state-of-the-art instruments and methodology in basic scientific research. The emphasis is on the centers involved in mass spectroscopy, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, lasers, and accelerators. (SA)

  12. Mercury's South Polar Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation shows 89 wide-angle camera (WAC) images of Mercury’s south polar region acquired by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) over one complete Mercury solar day (176 Earth days). Thi...

  13. Regional Discrimination Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    regional phase amplitudes across southern Russia from earthquake sources in the Pamir Mountain region and Baikal area ....... .................. ... 11 7...and Southern Asia from explosions in east Kazakh .......... . 11. Comparison of peak L and maximum P amplitude measuremenZs for events in I. the...U.S.S.R. recorded outside the country ....... ................... ... 18 12. Comparison of peak amplitudes before and after Sn and in the Pn and Lg windows

  14. MC-16 Memnonia Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-16 quadrangle, Memnonia region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands in the southern two-thirds are cut in the northeastern part by a large outflow channel, Mangala Vallis. The highlands are bounded to the north by undulating wind-eroded deposits and to the east by lava flows of the Tharsis region. Latitude range -30 to 0 degrees, longitude range 135 to 180 degrees.

  15. Gyrating Active Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-26

    On Jan. 20, 2017, NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory captured a small area of the sun highlighted three active region. Over half a day this active region sent dark swirls of plasma and bright magnetic arches twisting and turning above it. All the activity in the three areas was driven by competing magnetic forces. The dynamic action was observed in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. Movies are available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11703

  16. On regional geomagnetic charts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    When regional geomagnetic charts for areas roughly the size of the US were compiled by hand, some large local anomalies were displayed in the isomagnetic lines. Since the late 1960s, when the compilation of charts using computers and mathematical models was started, most of the details available in the hand drawn regional charts have been lost. One exception to this is the Canadian magnetic declination chart for 1980. This chart was constructed using a 180 degrees spherical harmonic model. -from Author

  17. Modeling the transition region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Bart A.

    1994-04-01

    The calculation of engineering flows undergoing laminar-turbulent transition presents special problems. Mean-flow quantities obey neither the fully laminar nor the fully turbulent correlations. In addition, local maxima in skin friction, wall temperature, and heat transfer often occur near the end of the transition region. Traditionally, modeling this region has been important for the design of turbine blades, where the transition region is long in relation to the chord length of the blade. More recently, the need for better transition-region models has been recognized by designers of hypersonic vehicles where the high Mach number, the low Reynolds number, and the low-disturbance flight environment emphasize the importance of the transition region. Needless to say, a model that might work well for the transitional flows typically found in gas turbines will not necessarily work well for the external surface of a hypersonic vehicle. In Section 2 of this report, some of the important flow features that control the transition region will be discussed. In Section 3, different approaches to the modeling problem will be summarized and cataloged. Fully turbulent flow models will be discussed in detail in Section 4; models specifically designed for transitional flow, in Section 5; and the evaluation of models, in Section 6.

  18. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  19. Ultrasound in regional anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Griffin, J; Nicholls, B

    2010-04-01

    Ultrasound guidance is rapidly becoming the gold standard for regional anaesthesia. There is an ever growing weight of evidence, matched with improving technology, to show that the use of ultrasound has significant benefits over conventional techniques, such as nerve stimulation and loss of resistance. The improved safety and efficacy that ultrasound brings to regional anaesthesia will help promote its use and realise the benefits that regional anaesthesia has over general anaesthesia, such as decreased morbidity and mortality, superior postoperative analgesia, cost-effectiveness, decreased postoperative complications and an improved postoperative course. In this review we consider the evidence behind the improved safety and efficacy of ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia, before discussing its use in pain medicine, paediatrics and in the facilitation of neuraxial blockade. The Achilles' heel of ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia is that anaesthetists are far more familiar with providing general anaesthesia, which in most cases requires skills that are achieved faster and more reliably. To this ends we go on to provide practical advice on ultrasound-guided techniques and the introduction of ultrasound into a department.

  20. NV PFA Regional Data

    SciTech Connect

    James Faulds

    2015-10-28

    This project focused on defining geothermal play fairways and development of a detailed geothermal potential map of a large transect across the Great Basin region (96,000 km2), with the primary objective of facilitating discovery of commercial-grade, blind geothermal fields (i.e. systems with no surface hot springs or fumaroles) and thereby accelerating geothermal development in this promising region. Data included in this submission consists of: structural settings (target areas, recency of faulting, slip and dilation potential, slip rates, quality), regional-scale strain rates, earthquake density and magnitude, gravity data, temperature at 3 km depth, permeability models, favorability models, degree of exploration and exploration opportunities, data from springs and wells, transmission lines and wilderness areas, and published maps and theses for the Nevada Play Fairway area.

  1. Turbulence in HII regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'dell, C. R.

    1986-10-01

    It has been known for many decades that the Reynolds number in HII regions must be very high and that the corresponding fine scale flow must be turbulent. Even though the theoretical relation between turbulent element separation and random velocity was derived by Kolmogoroff over forty years ago, there have been only a few attempts to test this theory and its corresponding assumptions. An attempt by Munch for M42 with marginal velocity resolution lead to ambiguous results, although more recent studies by Jean Rene Roy and his colleagues have been more credible. The internal velocities of a number of HII regions were systematically studied and the theory was tested with considerable certainty. The results should be important for the determination of the energy balance of HII regions and the relation of small scale motion to the process of star formation.

  2. Regional anesthesia at home

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Gloria S.; Choy, Lynna P.; Ilfeld, Brian M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review To review the recently published peer-reviewed literature involving regional anesthesia and analgesia in patients at home. Recent findings The potential benefits and risks of regional anesthesia and analgesia at home are pertinent queries, and increased data regarding these topics are rapidly becoming available. Of particular interest is the use of continuous peripheral nerve blocks at home and their potential effect upon hospitalization duration and recovery profile. Summary Advantages of regional techniques include site-specific anesthesia and decreased postoperative opioid use. For shoulder surgeries, the interscalene block provides effective analgesia with minimal complications, whereas the impact and risks of intraarticular injections remain unclear. Perineural catheters are an analgesic option that offer improved pain relief among other benefits. They are now being used at home in both adult and pediatric populations. PMID:18660659

  3. Stability of regional configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-08-13

    At moderate force levels the first strike stability index is proportional to the first strike cost, so as the attacker minimizes attack costs, he automatically minimizes stability. Weapons grow rapidly and saturate to levels comparable to the number of value targets held at risk. This growth could appear destabilizing to dominant regional powers, whose response could in turn appear threatening to the major nuclear powers, which could slow or halt efforts towards deep reductions. The fundamental way to alter these pressures appears to be through reducing the likelihood of regional crises by removing these fundamental antagonisms.

  4. Agitated Active Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-11

    An active region just rotating into view gave us a perfect view of the tussle of magnetic field lines above it (Oct. 10-11, 2016). The particles spiraling along the magnetic field lines become visible in extreme ultraviolet light, helping us to see the struggle going on. There were no eruptions during this period, although active regions are usually the source for solar storms. The video clip covers just one day's worth of activity. Movies are available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21109

  5. 2011 Bayou Regional

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-19

    Students from 38 high school teams in seven states competed for top honors during the 2011 FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Robotics Bayou Regional competition held March 17-19 in the New Orleans area. In this photo, members of the robotics team from Gulfport High School guide their robot during the annual tournament. The robotics competition is designed to help encourage students to pursue studies and careers in the areas of science, technology, engineering and mathematics. John C. Stennis Space Center is a supporter of FIRST activities and the Bayou Regional tournament.

  6. Jumpy Active Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-03

    A close-up view of one day in the life of a rather small active region shows the agitation and dynamism of its magnetic field (Dec. 21, 2016). This wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light reveals particles as they spin along the cascading arches of magnetic field lines above the active region. Some darker plasma rises up and spins around at the edge of the sun near the end of the video clip also being pulled by unseen magnetic forces. Movies are available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA15032

  7. Safety profile of the fluoroquinolones: analysis of adverse drug reactions in relation to prescription data using four regional pharmacovigilance databases in Italy.

    PubMed

    Lapi, Francesco; Tuccori, Marco; Motola, Domenico; Pugi, Alessandra; Vietri, Michele; Montanaro, Nicola; Vaccheri, Alberto; Leoni, Olivia; Cocci, Alfredo; Leone, Roberto; Conforti, Anita; Moretti, Ugo; Sessa, Emiliano; Mazzaglia, Giampiero; Mugelli, Alessandro; Mazzei, Teresita; Vannacci, Alfredo

    2010-09-01

    Fluoroquinolones are widely used both in primary care and in hospital settings. Since the last comparison performed in Italy on the safety profiles of different fluoroquinolones, a new molecule, prulifloxacin, has been introduced into the market and several warnings concerning this class of drugs have been released. The aim of this study was to reassess the safety profiles of fluoroquinolones using the database of the Italian Interregional Group of Pharmacovigilance (IGP) and the administrative data of fluoroquinolone prescriptions. All adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported in four Italian regions (Lombardy, Veneto, Emilia Romagna and Tuscany) were retrieved from the IGP database. Consumption data (defined daily dose [DDD]/1000 inhabitants/day) were used as denominators. Both single reports and all ADRs (classified by System Organ Classes and MedDRA Preferred Term [PT]) due to fluoroquinolones were considered as numerators of each analysis, comparing two periods (2005 vs 2006). All fluoroquinolones with at least ten reports per year were included in the analysis. On the basis of 272 reports (532 single ADRs or PTs), patients did not show any statistically significant differences between 2005 and 2006 in terms of sex, age and number of concurrent medications. After adjustment for drug consumption, moxifloxacin showed the highest reporting rate (84.6 reports/DDD/1000 inhabitants/day; 15.4 serious reports/DDD/1000 inhabitants/day) followed by prulifloxacin (72.2; 22.2 serious) and levofloxacin (55.3; 30.6 serious) in 2005. An increment of ADR/report rates was observed over the 2 years for all fluoroquinolones except prulifloxacin, which had the lowest ADR reporting rate in 2006 (25.0; 12.5 serious). In 2006, the rate of serious ADRs associated with prulifloxacin was lower than with ciprofloxacin, while in 2005 serious events were almost equal for both compounds (55.6 vs 47.6 serious ADRs/DDD/1000 inhabitants/day). Ciprofloxacin showed the highest proportion of

  8. REGIONAL CONFERENCE SUMMARIES, 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    AN AVERAGE OF 200 TEACHER EDUCATORS, STATE DIRECTORS, LAYMEN, AND REPRESENTATIVES OF VARIOUS AGENCIES ATTENDED EACH OF NINE REGIONAL CONFERENCES CONDUCTED THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES TO DISCUSS THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGES AND PROBLEMS IN PLANNING AND CONDUCTING VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS. MAJOR SPEECHES PRESENTED…

  9. Regional Population Dynamics

    Treesearch

    Andrew Birt

    2011-01-01

    The population dynamics of the southern pine beetle (SPB) exhibit characteristic fluctuations between relatively long endemic and shorter outbreak periods. Populations exhibit complex and hierarchical spatial structure with beetles and larvae aggregating within individual trees, infestations with multiple infested trees, and regional outbreaks that comprise a large...

  10. Norway's Regional Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kintzer, Frederick C.

    1974-01-01

    Created in 1969 as a 3-college system coordinated by the Regional College section of the Ministry of Education, the current 6 institutions represent Norway's attempt to extend equal opportunity and employment-oriented education to rural and remote areas. (Editor)

  11. TVA and regional development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Although TVA is best known as a producer of electric power, its mission, in the words of Franklin D. Roosevelt, called for a program that touches and gives life to all forms of human concerns. This booklet provides general information about the scores of ways - beyond the electric power generation - in which the agency serves the region and nation.

  12. Australia's Regional Youth Exodus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines media coverage of youth outmigration from Tasmania in the context of Australia's regional crisis. Focuses on how young people are constructed by others and positioned in others' visions of their rural home towns. Discusses two recurring narratives: strategies to keep youth at home, and preoccupation with the "best and brightest"…

  13. MC-24 Phaethontis Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-24 quadrangle, Phaethontis region of Mars. The Phaethontis quadrangle is dominated by heavily cratered highlands and low-lying areas forming relatively smooth plains. Latitude range -65 to -30 degrees, longitude range 120 to 180.

  14. MC-2 Diacria Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-2 quadrangle, Diacria region of Mars. The northern two-thirds is dominated by relatively smooth plains. The southeastern part is marked by aureole deposits of the largest known volcano in the solar system, Olympus Mons. Latitude range 30 to 65 degrees, longitude range 120 to 180.

  15. MC-14 Amenthes Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-14 quadrangle, Amenthes region of Mars. The southern part includes heavily cratered highlands. The northern part is dominated by relatively smooth plains of Elysium Planitia and the eastern half of the Isidis basin. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range -135 to -90 degrees.

  16. MC-3 Arcadia Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-3 quadrangle, Arcadia region of Mars. The southern part contains the large shield volcano, Alba Patera, and the highly faulted Tempe Terra province, which includes many small volcanoes. The northern part is dominated by relatively smooth plains. Latitude range 30 to 65 degrees, longitude range 60 to 120 degrees.

  17. Regional Norms for English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachru, Braj B.

    The debate continues about regional norms for English usage around the world, although the discussion has become more realistic and less didactic. Educated non-native varieties are increasingly accepted, distinctions are being made between national and international language uses, and localized varieties are no longer considered as necessarily…

  18. Australia's Regional Youth Exodus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines media coverage of youth outmigration from Tasmania in the context of Australia's regional crisis. Focuses on how young people are constructed by others and positioned in others' visions of their rural home towns. Discusses two recurring narratives: strategies to keep youth at home, and preoccupation with the "best and brightest"…

  19. Regionalism. Clip and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the art movement, called Regionalism, discussing the painters involved and describing the characteristics of the art movement. Provides a set of learning activities and background information on John Steuart Curry. Includes a discussion of Curry's painting, "Tornado Over Kansas," and a reproduction of the painting. (CMK)

  20. Regional cancer pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Victor T; Janjan, Nora; Jain, Subash; Chau, Chi

    2006-12-01

    Cancer pain often presents in a body region. This review summarizes articles from 1999-2004 relevant to cancer pain syndromes in the head and neck, chest, back, abdomen, pelvis, and limbs. Although the evidence is limited, progress is being made in further development of the evidence base to support and guide current practice.

  1. Regional native plant strategies

    Treesearch

    Wendell G. Hassell

    1999-01-01

    Because of increasing public interest in native plants, regional groups have been cooperating to develop native species. The Federal Native Plants Initiative was formed in 1994 to coordinate and encourage the development and use of native plants. The program they developed includes public involvement, organizational structure, technical work groups, implementation...

  2. Climatic Concepts and Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    Designed for students in grades 7 through 12, this teaching unit presents illustrative resource materials depicting concepts related to climate and geographic regions. Emphasis is on giving students an understanding of climatic elements and factors, not as isolated, disjointed entities, but as a dynamic interplay of forces having a very definite…

  3. Regionalism. Clip and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the art movement, called Regionalism, discussing the painters involved and describing the characteristics of the art movement. Provides a set of learning activities and background information on John Steuart Curry. Includes a discussion of Curry's painting, "Tornado Over Kansas," and a reproduction of the painting. (CMK)

  4. Regionalism in Scottish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Dougal

    1976-01-01

    It is well-known that Scottish universities are highly local institutions and that over two-fifth of Scottish university students live at home. Attempts to ascertain if this regionalism has relaxed over the past twenty years with student grant regulations, improvement in communications and the increasing affluence of today's society. (Author/RK)

  5. Neptune South Polar Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-07-25

    This image of Neptune south polar region was obtained by NASA Voyager on Aug. 23, 1989. The smallest cloud features are 45 kilometers 28 miles in diameter. The image shows the discovery of shadows in Neptune atmosphere, shadows cast onto a deep cl

  6. Recipe for Regional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1994-01-01

    The Ceramics Corridor has created new jobs in New York's Appalachian region by fostering ceramics research and product development by small private companies. Corridor business incubators offer tenants low overhead costs, fiber-optic connections to Alfred University's mainframe computer, rental of lab space, and use of equipment small companies…

  7. Climatic Concepts and Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    Designed for students in grades 7 through 12, this teaching unit presents illustrative resource materials depicting concepts related to climate and geographic regions. Emphasis is on giving students an understanding of climatic elements and factors, not as isolated, disjointed entities, but as a dynamic interplay of forces having a very definite…

  8. Venus - Lada Terra Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-02-01

    This NASA Magellan radar image mosaic is of part of Venus, centered at 51 degrees south latitude, 21 degrees east longitude. Running from west to east across the center of the image is part of a wide lava channel in the Lada Terra region of Venus. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00219

  9. Venus - Phoebe Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-02-05

    This radar image from NASA Magellan is of part of the Phoebe region of Venus. It is a mosaic of parts of revolutions 146 and 147 acquired in the first radar test on Aug. 16, 1990. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00211

  10. Benchmarks: WICHE Region 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Benchmarks: WICHE Region 2012 presents information on the West's progress in improving access to, success in, and financing of higher education. The information is updated annually to monitor change over time and encourage its use as a tool for informed discussion in policy and education communities. To establish a general context for the…

  11. Iapetus' Equatorial Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-10-09

    Cassini made a close flyby of Saturn's moon Iapetus on Sept. 10, 2007, and the visual and infrared mapping spectrometer obtained these images during that event. These two images show a higher resolution version of the equatorial region shown in PIA10010. The equatorial region includes the equatorial bulge which shows no differences in these compositions compared to surrounding regions. The color image on the right shows the results of mapping for three components of Iapetus' surface: carbon dioxide that is trapped or adsorbed in the surface (red), water in the form of ice (green), and a newly-discovered effect due to trace amount of dark particles in the ice creating what scientists call Rayleigh scattering (blue). The Rayleigh scattering effect is the main reason why the Earth's sky appears blue. There is a complex transition zone from the dark region, on the right, which is high in carbon dioxide, to the more ice-rich region on the left. Some crater floors are filled with carbon dioxide-rich dark material. As the ice becomes cleaner to the left, the small dark particles become more scattered and increase the Rayleigh scattering effect, again indicative of less than 2 percent dark sub-0.5-micron particles. The visual and infrared mapping spectrometer is like a digital camera, but instead of using three colors, it makes images in 352 colors, or wavelengths, from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared. The many wavelengths produce a continuous spectrum in each pixel, and these spectra measure how light is absorbed by different materials. By analyzing the absorptions expressed in each pixel, a map of the composition at each location on the moon can be constructed. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA10011

  12. Hawaii Regional Sediment Management: Regional Sediment Budget for the Poipu Region of Kauai, HI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    originator. Hawaii Regional Sediment Management: Regional Sediment Budget for the Poipu Region of Kauai , HI Edited by Jessica H. Podoski PURPOSE...Island of Kauai , HI, as part of the Hawaii Regional Sediment Management (RSM) initiative funded by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) RSM Program...POH), is to investigate RSM opportunities along all shoreline regions in Hawaii . Initial RSM regions on Kauai include the Kekaha Region and the

  13. Hawaii Regional Sediment Management: Regional Sediment Budget for the Kekaha Region of Kauai, HI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    originator. Hawaii Regional Sediment Management: Regional Sediment Budget for the Kekaha Region of Kauai , HI Edited by Jessica H. Podoski PURPOSE...Island of Kauai , HI, as part of the Hawaii Regional Sediment Management (RSM) initiative funded by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) RSM Program...POH), is to investigate RSM opportunities along all shoreline regions in Hawaii . Initial RSM regions on Kauai include the Kekaha Region and the

  14. Inclusion of climatic and touristic factors in the analysis and modelling of the municipal water demand in a Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Elena; Bragalli, Cristiana; Neri, Mattia

    2017-04-01

    In Mediterranean regions, inherently affected by water scarcity conditions, the gap between water availability and demand may further increase in the near future due to both climatic and anthropogenic drivers. In particular, the high degree of urbanization and the concentration of population and activities in coastal areas is often severely impacting the water availability also for the residential sector. It is therefore crucial analysing the importance of both climatic and touristic factors as drivers for the water demand in such areas, to better understand and model the expected consumption in order to improve the water management policies and practices. The study presents an analysis referred to a large number of municipalities, covering almost the whole Romagna region, in Northern Italy, representing one of the most economically developed areas in Europe and characterized by an extremely profitable tourist industry, especially in the coastal cities. For this region it is therefore extremely important to assess the significance of the drivers that may influence the demand in the different periods of the year, that is climatic factors (rainfall depths and occurrence, temperature averages and extremes), but also the presence of tourists, in both official tourist accommodation structures and in holidays homes (and the latter are very difficult to estimate). Analyses on the Italian water industry at seasonal or monthly time scale has been so far, extremely limited in the literature by the scarce availability of data on the water demands, that are made public only as annual volumes. All the study municipalities are supplied by the same water company, who provided monthly consumption volumes data at the main inlet points of the entire distribution network for a period of 7 years (2009-2015). For the same period, precipitation and temperature data have been collected and summarised in indexes representing monthly averages, days of occurrence and over threshold values

  15. Active region seismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdan, Tom; Braun, D. C.

    1995-01-01

    Active region seismology is concerned with the determination and interpretation of the interaction of the solar acoustic oscillations with near-surface target structures, such as magnetic flux concentration, sunspots, and plage. Recent observations made with a high spatial resolution and a long temporal duration enabled measurements of the scattering matrix for sunspots and solar active regions to be carried out as a function of the mode properties. Based on this information, the amount of p-mode absorption, partial-wave phase shift, and mode mixing introduced by the sunspot, could be determined. In addition, the possibility of detecting the presence of completely submerged magnetic fields was raised, and new procedures for performing acoustic holography of the solar interior are being developed. The accumulating evidence points to the mode conversion of p-modes to various magneto-atmospheric waves within the magnetic flux concentration as being the unifying physical mechanism responsible for these diverse phenomena.

  16. Arctic region mapping tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-08-01

    An interactive online mapping tool is now available to assist with scientific, environmental, and emergency response needs in the Arctic region, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) announced on 31 July. The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) already has been used in other regions, including in the Gulf of Mexico, as part of the response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010. The tool—which is a product of the combined work of NOAA, the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE), the University of New Hampshire, and others—offers near-real time oceanographic observations, weather data, environmental and commercial information, and other data.

  17. Regional technology transfer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The continuing operation is reported of a jointly state- and NASA-sponsored Regional Dissemination Center serving the southeastern United States. The NC/STRC offers automated searching of large information collections, such as that assembled by NASA, with emphasis on textile-related files to serve regional industry. During this period, NC/STRC conducted an in-depth analysis of its marketing programs and prepared a series of brochures aimed at various segments of industry. Heavy emphasis was also placed on the Library Search Service inaugurated by NC/STRC, and a total of 32 universities now participate in this service. Smaller schools are served through the university network. Although the nationwide industrial recession caused a general drop in search requests, NC/STRC processed a total of 838 retrospective searches during this period: 39.97% for its industrial clients, 22.9% for university libraries, and 37.1% for other RDC's.

  18. MC-7 Cebrenia Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-7 quadrangle, Cebrenia region of Mars. The northwestern two-thirds is dominated by light-colored and dark, relatively smooth plains. The southeastern part is marked by one of three prominent Elysium shield volcanoes, Hecates Tholus, and the ridge system of Phlegra Montes. Latitude range 30 to 65 degrees, longitude range -180 to -120 degrees.

  19. MC-23 Aeolis Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-23 quadrangle, Aeolis region of Mars. The southern part is dominated by heavily cratered highlands that are cut by two large channels having features characteristic of terrestrial river beds. The highlands are separated from the northern plains of Elysium Planitia by a highly dissected, discontinuous northwest trending scarp. The northeastern part is marked by a large shield volcano, Apollinaris Patera. Latitude range - 30 to 0 degrees, longitude range -180 to -135 degrees.

  20. MC-12 Arabia Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-12 quadrangle, Arabia region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands dominate the Arabia quadrangle. The northeastern part is marked by a large impact crater, Cassini. Cassini is an ancient remnant of the many large impact events that occurred during the period of heavy bombardment. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range -45 to 0 degrees.

  1. Mc-9 Tharsis Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-9 quadrangle, Tharsis region of Mars. Three of the four largest shield volcanoes on Mars--Olympus, Ascraeus, and Pavonis Montes--lie within the Tharsis quadrangle, together with several smaller shields. The north-central part is marked by highly faulted terrain of Ceraunius Fossae. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range 90 to 135 degrees.

  2. MC-26 Argyre Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-26 quadrangle, Argyre region of Mars. The west-central part is marked by the large Argyre impact basin, defined by a rim of rugged mountain blocks that surrounds a nearly circular expanse of light-colored plains 800 km across. The large basin is surrounded by heavily cratered highlands. Latitude range -65 to -30 degrees, longitude range 0 to 60 degrees.

  3. Regionalism and Secession

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    integration. See Ramon Maiz , Francisco Caamaño, and Miguel Azpitarte, “The Hidden Counterpoint of Spanish Federalism: Recentralization and Resymmetrization...Sobre Cataluña (Madrid: Los Libros de la Catarata, 2014), 112. 269 Ibid. 60 autonomy and not independence.270 Catalan nationalists, aided by the media...de Escritos Sobre Cataluña. Madrid: Los Libros de la Catarata, 2014. Domorenok, Ekaterina,. “The Committee of the Regions: In Search of Identity

  4. Region 9 Tribal Lands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Dataset of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada) with some reservation border areas of adjacent states included (adjacent areas of Colorado, New Mexico and Utah). Reservation boundaries are compiled from multiple sources and are derived from several different source scales. Information such as reservation type, primary tribe name are included with the feature dataset. Public Domain Allotments are not included in this data set.

  5. Regional Seismic Wave Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-31

    Baikal to the Pamirs, earthquakes occuring in the Baikal region, Sinkiang , the Gobi desert, southwest China and the Himalayas generated Lg/P ratios...data were obtained from stations within the USSR from earthquake events occuring in Baikal, Sinkiang , the Gobi desert, Southwest China and the...earthquakes originating in the Sinkiang province and recorded by seismo- graphic stations along the Pamir-Lena River profile [25] 0 - recorded by short

  6. Transition Region Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekke, P.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Ultraviolet emission lines emitted from the SOLAR TRANSITION REGION are often shifted from their expected rest wavelengths. Shifts of spectral lines are due to the so-called DOPPLER EFFECT, where the source of emission is moving either away from or towards the observer, causing a change in the apparent wavelength. The shifted emission lines are most often interpreted as a flow of plasma along ...

  7. Northwest Regional Climate Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschultz, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Objectives are to establish a continuing, inclusive National process that: 1) synthesizes relevant science and information 2) increases understanding of what is known & not known 3) identifies information needs related to preparing for climate variability and change, and reducing climate impacts and vulnerability 4) evaluates progress of adaptation & mitigation activities 5) informs science priorities 6) builds assessment capacity in regions and sectors 7) builds understanding & skilled use of findings

  8. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  9. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, Michael B.; Dennison, Deborah; Kane, Jave; Walker, Hoyt; Miller, Paul

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  10. Tangled up Active Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    This close-up image of the sun presents an active region in profile as it rotated out of view. We can observe both the bright arching field lines and smaller pieces of darker matter in their midst being pulled back and forth just above the Sun's surface over about 36 hours (July 20-22, 2011). Both of these physical responses were caused by strong, tangled magnetic forces that are constantly evolving and reorganizing within the active region. Other active regions can be seen in the foreground as well. The image and movie were taken in extreme ultraviolet light of ionized iron heated to one million degrees. To view a hd video of this event go here: www.flickr.com/photos/gsfc/6006013038 Credit: NASA/GSFC/SDO NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  11. Regional technical cooperation.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, P H

    1997-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic threatens economic development in Asia because Asia offers fertile conditions for unchecked transmission and because the epidemic has the most impact on young adults who make up a large sector of the work force. Prevention is still possible, however, and should be viewed as an investment in the future. Effective prevention strategies will have regional as well as domestic components and will recognize the hierarchy of interventions and spread the burden among the public sector, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and the private sector in each country. The public sector should 1) ensure that markets function well and do not discriminate against infected individuals; 2) provide a supportive macroeconomic framework of fiscal, trade, and credit policies; and 3) provide public and quasipublic goods, such as information and training. The contribution of NGOs should are vital for reducing the suffering involved with HIV/AIDS. Private sector contributions can include care facilities, research and development, and funding. The private sector must realize that the threat to the stock of human capital posed by HIV/AIDS will reduce profits. The regional dimensions of the HIV/AIDS epidemic relate 1) to factors that contribute to transmission and 2) to approaches that can be taken to prevent transmission and curb its impact. The Greater Mekong Subregion Work Program on HIV/AIDS is a good example of a cooperative regional effort to prevent and control HIV/AIDS. The epidemic requires cooperation among sectors and among countries.

  12. Jupiter Equatorial Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-03-06

    This photographic mosaic of images from NASA's Galileo spacecraft covers an area of 34,000 kilometers by 22,000 kilometers (about 21,100 by 13,600 miles) in Jupiter's equatorial region. The dark region near the center of the mosaic is an equatorial "hotspot" similar to the site where the Galileo Probe parachuted into Jupiter's atmosphere in December 1995. These features are holes in the bright, reflective, equatorial cloud layer where heat from Jupiter's deep atmosphere can pass through. The circulation patterns observed here along with the composition measurements from the Galileo Probe suggest that dry air may be converging and sinking over these regions, maintaining their cloud-free appearance. The bright oval in the upper right of the mosaic as well as the other smaller bright features are examples of upwelling of moist air and condensation. These images were taken on December 17, 1996, at a range of 1.5 million kilometers (about 930,000 miles) by the Solid State Imaging camera system aboard Galileo. North is at the top. The mosaic covers latitudes 1 to 19 degrees and is centered at longitude 336 degrees west. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00604

  13. Regionalization Lessons from Denmark.

    PubMed

    Vrangbaek, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Denmark is a small Northern European country with an extensive welfare state and a strong commitment to maintaining a universal healthcare system. Like the other countries in the Nordic region, Denmark has a long tradition of democratically governed local and regional governments with extensive responsibilities in organizing welfare state services. The Danish healthcare system has demonstrated an ability to increase productivity, while at the same time maintaining a high level of patient satisfaction. Ongoing reforms have contributed to these results, as well as a firm commitment to innovation and coordination. Regions and municipalities in Denmark are governed by directly elected democratic councils. The Danish case is thus an example of democratic decentralization, but within a framework of national coordination and fiscal control. In spite of the difference in size and historical traditions there are also many similarities between Canada and Denmark, particularly in terms of health and social policy goals and aspirations, and in terms of the commitment to a comprehensive, universal healthcare system. These similarities provide interesting opportunities for comparison.

  14. Region counting algorithm based on region labeling automaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sudi; Gu, Guoqing

    2007-12-01

    Region counting is a conception in computer graphics and image analysis, and it has many applications in medical area recently. The existing region-counting algorithms are almost based on filling method. Although filling algorithm has been improved well, the speed of these algorithms used to count regions is not satisfied. A region counting algorithm based on region labeling automaton is proposed in this paper. By tracing the boundaries of the regions, the number of the region can be obtained fast. And the proposed method was found to be fastest and requiring less memory.

  15. Food habits and nutritional status of adolescents in Emilia-Romagna, Italy.

    PubMed

    Toselli, S; Argnani, L; Canducci, E; Ricci, E; Gualdi-Russo, E

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity is increasing, with negative medical and psychosocial consequences. This study examines the association between weight status and nutrient intake, sport and leisure habits of middle school students in Bologna (Italy). Anthropometric data (height, weight) of 598 subjects (321 males and 277 females) 11-14 years old were collected. Questionnaires on nutrient intake, sport and leisure behaviour were administered. Protein, carbohydrate and total fat intakes of the adolescents were higher than the recommended ranges in all age groups and in both sexes. The proportion of energy from protein and total fat was higher than recommended, but the percentage from carbohydrate was lower. A significant proportion of the adolescents had a cholesterol intake above the Italian RDA and lower than recommended intakes for micronutrients. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is higher in males than in females at all ages (overweight: 35.2 vs 31.6 at 11 yrs.; 27.5 vs 20.2 at 12 yrs.; 18.6 vs 17.8 at 13 yrs.; 18.7 vs 10.9 at 14 yrs.; obesity: 5.5 vs 3.2 at 12 yrs.; 3.9 vs 1.1 at 13 yrs.; 5.3 vs 3.6 at 14 yrs.), except in subjects 11 years old (obesity: 7.4 vs 10.5). The overweight and obese adolescents consumed less carbohydrates and less fibre than their normal weight and underweight counterparts. The results of the present study indicate an unbalanced diet of the Bologna adolescents, which could damage their health and quality of life.

  16. The Public Good. Historical and Political Roots of Municipal Preschools in Emilia Romagna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazzari, Arianna

    2012-01-01

    According to the findings of a recent European study on competence requirement for the early childhood education and care workforce, competent systems that succeed in achieving high levels of professionalism are embedded in coherent public policies that build on consultation with key stakeholders, particularly at local level. In order to flourish,…

  17. Tutorship process in health care professions: a survey investigation in Emilia Romagna.

    PubMed

    Priami, Diletta; Sollami, Alfonso; Vivoli, Vanessa; Artioli, Giovanna

    2015-09-09

    The areas that we wanted to investigate include: tasks performed, tools used, formalization of the assignment, workload, empowerment and satisfaction of the function performed, and training. The results clearly show that the processes of tutoring are different for physicians and non-physician healthcare professionals. The first interesting difference is the method of assignment of mentoring. While among medical professions the function is assigned by others, tutors are often non-medical volunteers. This evidence leads to two unanswered questions: what are the criteria by which they are chosen as tutors? Do volunteers really possess the skills and ability to carry out this role? Future research should be directed towards clearly defining the profile of the "tutor" among both doctors and non-medical professionals. Another difference is the way the work of the mentor is formalized. If they are doctors, the task is assigned to them; this is not the case for non-medical professions. Despite this difference, a high percentage of both medical professionals and doctors said they did not feel valued for their role of tutor. However, differences emerge: physicians see their role as a paid tutor and / or recognized in their curriculum vitae. For non-medical professions, however, the only reward is a recognition of ECM (Educazione Continua in Medicina)credits. A common feature among professionals is that for both physicians and non-physician healthcare tutors, a system of evaluation is rarely reported. Another common feature is the skills that professionals would like to see improved. Both groups of professionals, in fact, would like to see improved teaching methods, communication strategies and reporting and evaluation systems. Finally, non-physician tutors report the same level of satisfaction, although the non-physician professionals are more satisfied in their relationship with colleagues. The degree of empowerment reveals perceived differences and similarities among the professionals. In fact, both professional groups reported the same levels of competence and impact, but differ in meaning and self-determination. More specifically, the non-medical professionals show high scores, while doctors get a higher score for self-determination. These results suggest that for increased attention to the system of evaluation and enhancement of the function tutorial we need not only to increase the satisfaction of those who act as tutors, but also to improve the tutorial process itself. Furthermore, the results suggest the carrying out of training projects for teaching and assessment methods that represent the issues that are most in demand by tutors. The training should include the use of tools for the governance process that project tutorial and apprenticeships. The responses indicate that these tools are already in use, although not as widespread and continuous.

  18. Discriminating between natural and anthropogenic earthquakes: insights from the Emilia Romagna (Italy) 2012 seismic sequence.

    PubMed

    Albano, Matteo; Barba, Salvatore; Tarabusi, Gabriele; Saroli, Michele; Stramondo, Salvatore

    2017-03-21

    The potential for oilfield activities to trigger earthquakes in seismogenic areas has been hotly debated. Our model compares the stress changes from remote water injection and a natural earthquake, both of which occurred in northern Italy in recent years, and their potential effects on a nearby Mw 5.9 earthquake that occurred in 2012. First, we calculate the Coulomb stress from 20 years of fluid injection in a nearby oilfield by using a poroelastic model. Then, we compute the stress changes for a 2011 Mw 4.5 earthquake that occurred close to the area of the 2012 mainshock. We found that anthropogenic activities produced an effect that was less than 10% of that generated by the Mw 4.5 earthquake. Therefore, the 2012 earthquake was likely associated with a natural stress increase. The probability of triggering depends on the magnitude of recent earthquakes, the amount of injected water, the distance from an event, and the proximity to the failure of the activated fault. Determining changes that are associated with seismic hazards requires poroelastic area-specific models that include both tectonic and anthropogenic activities. This comprehensive approach is particularly important when assessing the risk of triggered seismicity near densely populated areas.

  19. Were the May 2012 Emilia-Romagna earthquakes induced? A coupled flow-geomechanics modeling assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juanes, R.; Jha, B.; Hager, B. H.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Astiz, L.; Dieterich, J. H.; Frohlich, C.

    2016-07-01

    Seismicity induced by fluid injection and withdrawal has emerged as a central element of the scientific discussion around subsurface technologies that tap into water and energy resources. Here we present the application of coupled flow-geomechanics simulation technology to the post mortem analysis of a sequence of damaging earthquakes (Mw = 6.0 and 5.8) in May 2012 near the Cavone oil field, in northern Italy. This sequence raised the question of whether these earthquakes might have been triggered by activities due to oil and gas production. Our analysis strongly suggests that the combined effects of fluid production and injection from the Cavone field were not a driver for the observed seismicity. More generally, our study illustrates that computational modeling of coupled flow and geomechanics permits the integration of geologic, seismotectonic, well log, fluid pressure and flow rate, and geodetic data and provides a promising approach for assessing and managing hazards associated with induced seismicity.

  20. [Ultrasound and regional anaesthesia].

    PubMed

    Delaunay, L; Plantet, F; Jochum, D

    2009-02-01

    The use of ultrasound is the latest major evolution in regional anaesthesia. Review of available literature shows significant changes in clinical practice. Ultrasound guidance allows the visualization of anatomical variations or unsuspected intraneural injections, reduces the volume of local anaesthetic injections and confirms correct local anaesthetic distribution or catheter placement. No study has found a statistical difference in success rates and safety because all studies were underpowered. However, the ability to visualize an invasive procedure that has been performed blindly in the past is an undeniable progress in terms of safety. The necessity to be familiar with the machine and the learning curve can be repulsive. The aim of this article is to demystify ultrasound guidance by explaining the fundamentals of the clinical use of ultrasound. With the help of different chapters, the authors explain the different adjustments and possible artefacts and give easy solutions for the use of bedside ultrasound. Training is essential and can be performed on manikins or training phantom. For each region the main anatomical landmarks are explained. One must be familiar with several imaging techniques: short axis (transverse) or long axis (longitudinal) nerve imaging, in-plane or out-of-plane imaging and hydrolocalization. Viewing the needle's tip position during its progression remains the main safety endpoint. Therefore, electrical nerve stimulation and ultrasound guidance should be combined, especially for beginners, to confirm proximity to neural structures and to help in case of difficulty. Optimizing safety and clinical results must remain a key priority in regional anaesthesia. Finally, specific regulations concerning the transducers are described. Paediatric specificities are also mentioned.

  1. Regional river sulfur runoff

    SciTech Connect

    Husar, R.B.; Husar, J.D.

    1985-01-20

    The water and sulfur runoff data for 54 large river basins were assembled, covering 65% of the nondesert land area of the world. The sulfur concentration ranges from 0.5 mg S/L for the West African rivers Niger and Volta to 100 mg S/L in the Colorado River; the world average is 3.2 mg S/L. The concentrations in central and eastern Europe as well as central and eastern North America exceed 8 mg S/L. The sulfur runoff density is also highest in the river basins over these industrialized regions, exceeding 2 g S/m/sup 2//yr. However, high sulfur runoff density in excess of 3 g S/m/sup 2//yr is also measured over the Pacific islands New Zealand and New Guinea and the archipelagos of Indonesia and the Philippines. The natural background sulfur runoff was estimated by assuming that South America, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific Islands are unperturbed by man and that the average river sulfur concentration is in the range 1--3 mg S/L. Taking these background concentration values, the man-induced sulfur runoff for Europe ranges between 2 and 8 times the natural flow, and over North America, man's contribution ranges between 1 and 5 times the natural runoff. The global sulfur flow from nondesert land to the oceans and the Caspian Sea is estimated as 131 Tg S/yr, of which 46--85 Tg S/yr is attributed to natural causes. The regional river sulfur runoff pattern discussed in this paper does not have enough spatial resolution to be directly applicable to studies of the environmental effects of man-induced sulfur flows. However, it points to the continental-size regions where those perturbations are most evident and to the magnitude of the perturbations as expressed in units of the natural flows.

  2. Regional river sulfur runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husar, Rudolf B.; Husar, Janja Djukic

    1985-01-01

    The water and sulfur runoff data for 54 large river basins were assembled, covering 65% of the nondesert land area of the world. The sulfur concentration ranges from 0.5 mg S/L for the West African rivers Niger and Volta to 100 mg S/L in the Colorado River; the world average is 3.2 mg S/L. The concentrations in central and eastern Europe as well as central and eastern North America exceed 8 mg S/L. The sulfur runoff density is also highest in the river basins over these industrialized regions, exceeding 2 g S/m2/yr. However, high sulfur runoff density in excess of 3 g S/m2/yr is also measured over the Pacific islands New Zealand and New Guinea and the archipelagos of Indonesia and the Philippines. The natural background sulfur runoff was estimated by assuming that South America, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific Islands are unperturbed by man and that the average river sulfur concentration is in the range 1-3 mg S/L. Taking these background concentration values, the man-induced sulfur runoff for Europe ranges between 2 and 8 times the natural flow, and over North America, man's contribution ranges between 1 and 5 times the natural runoff. The global sulfur flow from nondesert land to the oceans and the Caspian Sea is estimated as 131 Tg S/yr, of which 46-85 Tg S/yr is attributed to natural causes. The regional river sulfur runoff pattern discussed in this paper does not have enough spatial resolution to be directly applicable to studies of the environmental effects of man-induced sulfur flows. However, it points to the continental-size regions where those perturbations are most evident and to the magnitude of the perturbations as expressed in units of the natural flows.

  3. Southeast Regional Experiment Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-08-01

    This is the final report of the Southeast Regional Experiment Station project. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), a research institute of the University of Central Florida (UCF), has operated the Southeast Regional Experiment Station (SE RES) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since September 1982. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA) provides technical program direction for both the SE RES and the Southwest Regional Experiment Station (SW RES) located at the Southwest Technology Development Institute at Las Cruces, New Mexico. This cooperative effort serves a critical role in the national photovoltaic program by conducting system evaluations, design assistance and technology transfer to enhance the cost-effective utilization and development of photovoltaic technology. Initially, the research focus of the SE RES program centered on utility-connected PV systems and associated issues. In 1987, the SE RES began evaluating amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film PV modules for application in utility-interactive systems. Stand-alone PV systems began receiving increased emphasis at the SE RES in 1986. Research projects were initiated that involved evaluation of vaccine refrigeration, water pumping and other stand-alone power systems. The results of this work have led to design optimization techniques and procedures for the sizing and modeling of PV water pumping systems. Later recent research at the SE RES included test and evaluation of batteries and charge controllers for stand-alone PV system applications. The SE RES project provided the foundation on which FSEC achieved national recognition for its expertise in PV systems research and related technology transfer programs. These synergistic products of the SE RES illustrate the high visibility and contributions the FSEC PV program offers to the DOE.

  4. Higher Education and Regional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neave, Guy

    1979-01-01

    The effect that the university has upon its region and the issue of regional control of higher education are examined. A definition of regional development is offered and regional planning, relevant research, cultural mobilization, and the Jacobin university are described. (Author/MLW)

  5. MC-27 Noachis Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-27 quadrangle, Noachis region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands dominate the Noachis quadrangle. The northeastern part is marked by the western half of the ancient large Hellas basin, defined by a rim of rugged mountain blocks that surrounds a nearly circular expanse of light-colored plains. The southeastern part is marked by the Peneus caldera and part of the Amphitrites shield volcano and associated ridged plains that may be basaltic flows. Latitude range -65 to -30 degrees, longitude range -60 to 0 degrees.

  6. MC-8 Amazonis Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-8 quadrangle, Amazonis region of Mars. The central part, which is dominated by light-colored, relatively smooth to hummocky plains of Amazonis Planitia, is partly bounded to the east by the western flank of the largest known volcano in the solar system, Olympus Mons, and its associated aureole deposits. Moderately cratered knobby terrain is west of the plains of Amazonis Planitia. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range 135 to 180 degrees.

  7. MC-15 Elysium Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-15 quadrangle, Elysium region of Mars. The Elysium quadrangle includes relatively smooth lowland plains immediately north of the more cratered highlands. The plains are interrupted on the northwest by two large shield volcanoes, Elysium Mons and Albor Tholus. The plains are also marked by an elongate crater, Orcus Patera, at the east boundary and a band of knobby terrain that extends northeastward through the eastern part. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range -180 to -135 degrees.

  8. MC-18 Coprates Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-18 quadrangle, Coprates region of Mars. Moderately cratered and faulted highland ridged plains in the northern and southern parts are cut by the prominent Valles Marineris chasma system, which reaches depths of 10 km and extends in an east-southeast direction for about 2,500 km across the quadrangle. The long, central canyons appear to be large, fault-bounded rifts, whereas some of the isolated, northern canyons are the sources of large outflow channels. Latitude range -30 to 0 degrees, longitude range 45 to 90 degrees.

  9. MC-21 Iapygia Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-21 quadrangle, Iapygia region of Mars. Heavily cratered and in places dissected highlands dominate the Iapygia quadrangle. The west-central part is marked by a large impact crater, Huygens. Huygens is an ancient remnant of the many large impact events that occurred during the period of heavy bombardment. The southern one-third is characterized by mountainous and knobby terrain of the northern rim of the enormous Hellas impact basin. Latitude range -30 to 0 degrees, longitude range -90 to -45 degrees.

  10. MC-29 Eridania Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-29 quadrangle, Eridania region of Mars. The quadrangle is dominated by heavily cratered highlands, with some moderately cratered plains in the central part and large ridge systems in the southern part. The west-central part is marked by a large impact crater, Kepler. Kepler is an ancient remnant of the many large impact events that occurred during the period of heavy bombardment. Latitude range -65 to 30 degrees, longitude range -180 to -120 degrees.

  11. Complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sebastin, Sandeep J

    2011-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the limbs characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. CRPS is not uncommon after hand surgery and may complicate post-operative care. There is no specific diagnostic test for CRPS and the diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. Recent modifications to diagnostic criteria have enabled clinicians to diagnose this disease more consistently. This review gives a synopsis of CRPS and discusses the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment options based on the limited evidence in the literature. PMID:22022040

  12. Colorado Regional Faults

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) Publication Date: 2012 Title: Regional Faults Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science, University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the regional faults of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4543192.100000 m Left: 144385.020000 m Right: 754585.020000 m Bottom: 4094592.100000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  13. Neptune's south polar region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This image of Neptune's south polar region was obtained by the NASA Voyager narrow-angle camera on Aug. 23, 1989, when it was at a distance of 25 million kilometers (1.6 million miles). The smallest cloud features are 45 kilometers (28 miles) in diameter. The image shows the discovery of shadows in Neptune's atmosphere, shadows cast onto a deep cloud bank by small elevated clouds. Located at about 68 degrees south latitude, they are the first cloud shadows ever seen by the Voyager on any planet. The dark regions adjacent to the small bright clouds are believed to be shadows, because they are on the side of the cloud that is opposite to the incoming sunlight and because they lengthen in places where the sun lies closer to the horizon. Estimates of the height of these discrete clouds above the underlying cloud bank can be obtained by careful analysis of this data. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  14. Transient regional osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Cano-Marquina, Antonio; Tarín, Juan J; García-Pérez, Miguel-Ángel; Cano, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Transient regional osteoporosis (TRO) is a disease that predisposes to fragility fracture in weight bearing joints of mid-life women and men. Pregnant women may also suffer the process, usually at the hip. The prevalence of TRO is lower than the systemic form, associated with postmenopause and advanced age, but may be falsely diminished by under-diagnosis. The disease may be uni- or bilateral, and may migrate to distinct joints. One main feature of TRO is spontaneous recovery. Pain and progressive limitation in the functionality of the affected joint(s) are key symptoms. In the case of the form associated with pregnancy, difficulties in diagnosis derive from the relatively young age at presentation and from the clinical overlapping with the frequent aches during gestation. Densitometric osteoporosis in the affected region is not always present, but bone marrow edema, with or without joint effusion, is detected by magnetic resonance. There are not treatment guidelines, but the association of antiresorptives to symptomatic treatment seems to be beneficial. Surgery or other orthopedic interventions can be required for specific indications, like hip fracture, intra-medullary decompression, or other.

  15. Regional flood probabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    The T-year annual maximum flood at a site is defined to be that streamflow, that has probability 1/T of being exceeded in any given year, and for a group of sites the corresponding regional flood probability (RFP) is the probability that at least one site will experience a T-year flood in any given year. The RFP depends on the number of sites of interest and on the spatial correlation of flows among the sites. We present a Monte Carlo method for obtaining the RFP and demonstrate that spatial correlation estimates used in this method may be obtained with rank transformed data and therefore that knowledge of the at-site peak flow distribution is not necessary. We examine the extent to which the estimates depend on specification of a parametric form for the spatial correlation function, which is known to be nonstationary for peak flows. It is shown in a simulation study that use of a stationary correlation function to compute RFPs yields satisfactory estimates for certain nonstationary processes. Application of asymptotic extreme value theory is examined, and a methodology for separating channel network and rainfall effects on RFPs is suggested. A case study is presented using peak flow data from the state of Washington. For 193 sites in the Puget Sound region it is estimated that a 100-year flood will occur on the average every 4,5 years.

  16. MC-28 Hellas Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-28 quadrangle, Hellas region of Mars. The northwestern part includes the eastern half of the ancient large Hellas basin, defined by a rim of rugged mountain blocks that surrounds a nearly circular expanse of light-colored plains. The southwestern part is marked by part of the Amphitrites shield volcano and associated ridged plains that may be basaltic lava flows. The northern part includes a low, dissected shield volcano, Hadriaca Patera, and associated plains that may be basaltic lava flows. These plains are dissected in places by large sinuous channels. The eastern part is dominated by high-standing heavily cratered highlands, perhaps uplifted by the Hellas impact event. Latitude range -65 to -30 degrees, longitude range -120 to -60 degrees.

  17. MC-25 Thaumasia Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-25 quadrangle, Thaumasia region of Mars. In the northern part, a prominent physiographic feature, Thaumasia plateau, includes a complex array of small- and large-scale faults and ridges and ancient volcanoes. Channel systems, upturned beds, and large troughs occur in places along the southern edge of the plateau. In the southern part, the lowlands that surround the plateau include heavily cratered highland terrain and relatively smooth, low plains. The east-central part is marked by a relatively young large impact crater, Lowell. Lowell is one of several large, relatively young impact events on Mars that followed the period of heavy bombardment. Latitude range -65 to -30 degrees, longitude range 60 to 120 degrees.

  18. MC-17 Phoenicis Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-17 quadrangle, Phoenicis Lacus region of Mars. Two of the four largest shield volcanoes on Mars are within the northwestern part, the south half of Pavonis Mons and Arsia Mons. The eastern part includes Syria and Sinai Plana. Most of the quadrangle forms the Tharsis plateau--the highest plateau on Mars; its elevation, 10 km, is twice that of the Tibetan Plateau, the highest plateau on Earth. Also in the northeastern part is Noctis Labyrinthus, a complex system of fault valleys at the west end of Valles Marineris. The south-central part is marked by the large fault system, Claritas Fossae. Latitude range -30 to 0 degrees, longitude range 90 to 135 degrees.

  19. Strengthening regional safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Palhares, L.; Almeida, G.; Mafra, O.

    1996-08-01

    Nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil has been growing since the early 1980`s and as it grew, so did cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was formed in December 1991 to operate the Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). In April 1994, ABACC and the DOE signed an Agreement of Cooperation in nuclear material safeguards. This cooperation has included training safeguards inspectors, exchanging nuclear material measurement and containment and surveillance technology, characterizing reference materials, and studying enrichment plant safeguards. The goal of the collaboration is to exchange technology, evaluate new technology in Latin American nuclear facilities, and strengthen regional safeguards. This paper describes the history of the cooperation, its recent activities, and future projects. The cooperation is strongly supported by all three governments: the Republics of Argentina and Brazil and the United States.

  20. Apsus Vallis Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    22 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, windblown ripples on the floors of channels of the Apsus Vallis system. The fluid responsible for forming the valleys is unknown; it might have been water. No primary landforms, other than the channels themselves, have been preserved in a way that would indicate the nature of the fluid that carved the valleys. Apsus Vallis is located just west of the Elysium volcanic region; the area in the picture is located near 35.5oN, 225.6oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  1. Mountain regions in peril

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The United Nations has declared 2002 the International Year of Mountains (IYM) to bring attention to a number of threats that affect ecosystems and human populations in mountainous and highland regions around the world.“More than half of humanity—3 billion people—relies on mountains for safe, fresh water, water to grow food, to produce electricity to sustain industries and, most important, water to drink,“ said Jacques Diouf, director-general of the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization, the primary IYM sponsor. “Yet, mountain glaciers, the source of water for many of the world's river systems and people, are melting at unprecedented rates.”

  2. Complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Emily S.; De La Cerda, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neurologic disorder that often results in debilitating chronic pain, but the diagnosis may elude providers as it is one of exclusion. A history of trauma may be elucidated. We report a case of CRPS and review the clinical findings, appropriate workup, and treatment options for the patient. The patient we describe went through an extensive workup before receiving the correct diagnosis. Delay in diagnosis leads to prolonged suffering for the patient and, at times, unnecessary invasive debridement procedures. Raising awareness of this entity may help physicians make the correct diagnosis early, as well as initiate a collaborative effort between neurology, anesthesiology, and dermatology to provide the patient the most favorable outcome. PMID:27365892

  3. Modeling Regional Seismic Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-29

    AD-A264 002 PL-TR-92-2186 iIIiL NIl$111111IlIlIl DTIC 0i•ELECTE fl MODELING REGIONAL SEISMIC WAVES c U 19 Donald V . Heimberger David G. Harkrider...09 WU BA 6. AU~m~ri(ý) -Contract F19628-90-K-0049 Donald V . Helmberger David G. Harkrider .I. PLIFOitRNIhGI OACANIZATItO’ NANIL(ý.) ANO A;ýDOREý(eS...01731-5000 PL-TR-92-2186 Contract Manager: James Lewkowicz/GPEH 11. SUh1Lt 0 ’L.i..TAiY v ~u rLS 1 24. ULr r l,, 4 lI0NAVAIL/jILITY STArTMENT 12b

  4. Reull Vallis Source Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 1 July 2002) The jumbled, chaotic terrain in this THEMIS image may represent a source region for the Reull Vallis, one of the larger channel systems in the southern hemisphere of Mars. Such regions of chaos are thought to form by the catastrophic release of groundwater. If this was the case, then the water would have flowed down gradient to the south and may have contributed to the formation of the Reull Vallis. The top of the image shows two short segments of channels that are interrupted by the chaos, demonstrating that there was a channel system in place before the ground foundered to produce the chaos. One of the more intriguing features seen among the jumbled blocks are narrow ledges that vaguely resemble bath tub rings in the way they conform to the topography. Two good examples are seen running roughly left-right across the image about a fourth of the way down. At first they appear to be layers protruding from the cliff faces, but upon closer inspection a more ledge-like character is evident. Note how they appear different between the south-facing and north facing cliffs. The occurrence of one of these features on the south-facing interior rim of the largest crater in the image but nowhere else around the rim argues against the idea that the ledges are due to a layer of rock cropping out throughout the landscape. Instead, they appear more like the edges of a layer of sediment that drapes the topography. It is possible that the sediment is mixed with ice and is best preserved in the shadowed portions of the terrain. There is no easy explanation for these unusual features. They represent one more Martian enigma.

  5. Reull Vallis Source Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 1 July 2002) The jumbled, chaotic terrain in this THEMIS image may represent a source region for the Reull Vallis, one of the larger channel systems in the southern hemisphere of Mars. Such regions of chaos are thought to form by the catastrophic release of groundwater. If this was the case, then the water would have flowed down gradient to the south and may have contributed to the formation of the Reull Vallis. The top of the image shows two short segments of channels that are interrupted by the chaos, demonstrating that there was a channel system in place before the ground foundered to produce the chaos. One of the more intriguing features seen among the jumbled blocks are narrow ledges that vaguely resemble bath tub rings in the way they conform to the topography. Two good examples are seen running roughly left-right across the image about a fourth of the way down. At first they appear to be layers protruding from the cliff faces, but upon closer inspection a more ledge-like character is evident. Note how they appear different between the south-facing and north facing cliffs. The occurrence of one of these features on the south-facing interior rim of the largest crater in the image but nowhere else around the rim argues against the idea that the ledges are due to a layer of rock cropping out throughout the landscape. Instead, they appear more like the edges of a layer of sediment that drapes the topography. It is possible that the sediment is mixed with ice and is best preserved in the shadowed portions of the terrain. There is no easy explanation for these unusual features. They represent one more Martian enigma.

  6. Regional brain hypometabolism is unrelated to regional amyloid plaque burden

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, Andre; Ng, Bernard; Landau, Susan M.; Jagust, William J.

    2015-01-01

    See Sorg and Grothe (doi:10.1093/brain/awv302) for a scientific commentary on this article. In its original form, the amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease holds that fibrillar deposits of amyloid are an early, driving force in pathological events leading ultimately to neuronal death. Early clinicopathological investigations highlighted a number of inconsistencies leading to an updated hypothesis in which amyloid plaques give way to amyloid oligomers as the driving force in pathogenesis. Rather than focusing on the inconsistencies, amyloid imaging studies have tended to highlight the overlap between regions that show early amyloid plaque signal on positron emission tomography and that also happen to be affected early in Alzheimer’s disease. Recent imaging studies investigating the regional dependency between metabolism and amyloid plaque deposition have arrived at conflicting results, with some showing regional associations and other not. We extracted multimodal neuroimaging data from the Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging database for 227 healthy controls and 434 subjects with mild cognitive impairment. We analysed regional patterns of amyloid deposition, regional glucose metabolism and regional atrophy using florbetapir (18F) positron emission tomography, 18F-fluordeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Specifically, we derived grey matter density and standardized uptake value ratios for both positron emission tomography tracers in 404 functionally defined regions of interest. We examined the relation between regional glucose metabolism and amyloid plaques using linear models. For each region of interest, correcting for regional grey matter density, age, education and disease status, we tested the association of regional glucose metabolism with (i) cortex-wide florbetapir uptake; (ii) regional (i.e. in the same region of interest) florbetapir uptake; and (iii) regional florbetapir uptake

  7. Regional brain hypometabolism is unrelated to regional amyloid plaque burden.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Andre; Ng, Bernard; Landau, Susan M; Jagust, William J; Greicius, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    In its original form, the amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease holds that fibrillar deposits of amyloid are an early, driving force in pathological events leading ultimately to neuronal death. Early clinicopathological investigations highlighted a number of inconsistencies leading to an updated hypothesis in which amyloid plaques give way to amyloid oligomers as the driving force in pathogenesis. Rather than focusing on the inconsistencies, amyloid imaging studies have tended to highlight the overlap between regions that show early amyloid plaque signal on positron emission tomography and that also happen to be affected early in Alzheimer's disease. Recent imaging studies investigating the regional dependency between metabolism and amyloid plaque deposition have arrived at conflicting results, with some showing regional associations and other not. We extracted multimodal neuroimaging data from the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging database for 227 healthy controls and 434 subjects with mild cognitive impairment. We analysed regional patterns of amyloid deposition, regional glucose metabolism and regional atrophy using florbetapir ((18)F) positron emission tomography, (18)F-fluordeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Specifically, we derived grey matter density and standardized uptake value ratios for both positron emission tomography tracers in 404 functionally defined regions of interest. We examined the relation between regional glucose metabolism and amyloid plaques using linear models. For each region of interest, correcting for regional grey matter density, age, education and disease status, we tested the association of regional glucose metabolism with (i) cortex-wide florbetapir uptake; (ii) regional (i.e. in the same region of interest) florbetapir uptake; and (iii) regional florbetapir uptake while correcting in addition for cortex-wide florbetapir uptake. P-values for each setting

  8. Landslides of Palestinian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwahsh, H.

    2013-12-01

    Natural disasters are extreme sudden events caused by environmental and natural actors that take away the lives of many thousands of people each year and damage large amount of properties. They strike anywhere on earth, often without any warning. A risk maps of natural disaster are very useful to identify the places that might be adversely affected in the event of natural disaster. The earthquakes are one of natural disaster that have the greatest hazards and will cause loss of life and properties due to damaging the structures of building, dams, bridges. In addition, it will affect local geology and soil conditions. The site effects play an important role in earthquake risk because of its amplification or damping simulation. Another parameter in developing risk map is landslide, which is also one of the most important topics in site effect hazards. Palestine region has been suffering landslide hazards because of the topographical and geological conditions of this region. Most Palestine consists of mountainous area, which has great steep slopes and the type of soil is mainly grayish to yellowish silty clay (Marl Soil). Due to the above mentioned factors many landslides have been occurred from Negev south to the northern borders of Palestine. An example of huge and destruction landslide in a Palestine authority is the landslide in the White Mountain area in the city of Nablus, which occurred in 1997. The geotechnical and geophysical investigation as well as slope stability analysis should be considered in making landslide maps that are necessary to develop risk levels of the natural disaster. Landslides occurred in slopes that are created naturally or by human beings. Failure of soil mass occurs, and hence landslide of soil mass happen due to sliding of soil mass along a plane or curved surface. In general, the slopes become unstable when the shear stresses (driving force) generated in the soil mass exceed the available shearing resistance on the rupture surface

  9. USArray Regional Phase Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, J. S.; Shearer, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    The regional Pn and Sn phases, which are typically described as headwaves that propagate in the uppermost mantle, are sensitive to heterogeneities in the mantle lid and complement other seismic studies with poorer vertical resolution at this depth. We have experimented with a variety of approaches to image the velocity structure and anisotropy in the western U.S., starting with separate Pn and Sn time-term tomographies, but also localized cross-correlation and stacking approaches that benefit from the regular USArray station arrangement. Later we combined the data sets for joint Pn-Sn inversions and the resulting Vp/Vs maps provide further insight into the nature of the seismic anomalies. Now that USArray has reached the east coast, we are updating our models to include the cumulative station footprint. The sparser source distribution in the eastern U.S., and the resulting longer ray paths, provide new challenges and justify the inclusion of additional parameters that account for the velocity gradient in the mantle lid. Our results show generally higher Pn velocities in the eastern U.S., but we observe patches of lower velocities around the New Madrid seismic zone and below the eastern Appalachians. We find that the Pn fast axes generally do not agree with SKS splitting orientations, suggesting significant vertical changes in anisotropy in the upper mantle. For example, the circular pattern of the fast polarization direction of SKS in the western U.S. is much less pronounced in the Pn results, and in the eastern U.S. the dominant Pn fast direction is approximately north-south, whereas the SKS fast polarizations are oriented roughly parallel to the absolute plate motion direction. Since Pn and Sn travel through the crust, they can provide additional information on crustal thickness. In several regions our results and estimates from receiver function studies are inconsistent. For example, beneath the Colorado Plateau our crustal thickness estimates are about 35-40 km

  10. A Regional Resource: Appalachian Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roesch, Harry

    1975-01-01

    An Appalachian Regional Commission survey of 180 institutions of higher education in the Appalachian Region pinpoints which institutions offer technical assistance to state and local governments and officals. (Author)

  11. Region 6 Targeted Brownfields Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A Target Brownfields Assessment (TBA) is a free service the EPA Region 6 Brownfields Team provides to communities to support their eligible brownfields projects. Region 6 consists of Arkansas, Louisiana, new Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas.

  12. A Regional Resource: Appalachian Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roesch, Harry

    1975-01-01

    An Appalachian Regional Commission survey of 180 institutions of higher education in the Appalachian Region pinpoints which institutions offer technical assistance to state and local governments and officals. (Author)

  13. Sudurnes Regional Heating Corp.

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.

    1996-11-01

    The Svartsengi geothermal area is close to the town of Grindavik on the Rekjanes peninsula and is part of an active fissure swarm, lined with crater-rows and open fissures and faults. The high-temperature area has an area of 2 sq. km and shows only limited signs of geothermal activity at the surface. The reservoir, however, contains lots of energy and at least 8 wells supply the Svartsengi Power Plant with steam. The steam is not useable for domestic heating purposes so that heat exchangers are used to heat cold groundwater with the steam. Some steam is also used for producing 16.4 MW{sub e} of electrical power. The article shows the distribution system piping hot water to nine towns and the Keflavik International Airport. The effluent brine from the Svartsengi Plant is disposed of into a surface pond, called the Blue Lagoon, popular to tourists and people suffering from psoriasis and other forms of eczema seeking therapeutic effects from the silica rich brine. This combined power plant and regional district heating system (cogeneration) is an interesting and unique design for the application of geothermal energy.

  14. Active region flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foukal, Peter

    1987-01-01

    A wide range of observations has shown that active region phenomena in the photospheric, chromospheric and coronal temperature regimes are dynamical in nature. At the photosphere, recent observations of full line profiles place an upper limit of about + or - 20/msec on any downflows at supergranule cell edges. Observations of the full Stokes 5 profiles in the network show no evidence for downflows in magnetic flux tubes. In the area of chromospheric dynamics, several models were put forward recently to reproduce the observed behavior of spicules. However, it is pointed out that these adiabatic models do not include the powerful radiative dissipation which tend to damp out the large amplitude disturbances that produce the spicular acceleration in the models. In the corona, loop flows along field lines clearly transport mass and energy at rates important for the dynamics of these structures. However, advances in understanding the heating and mass balance of the loop structures seem to require new kinds of observations. Some results are presented using a remote sensing diagnostic of the intensity and orientation of macroscopic plasma electric fields predicted by models of reconnective heating and also wave heating.

  15. On Titan's Xanadu region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Robert H.; Barnes, Jason W.; Melosh, H. Jay

    2011-08-01

    A large, circular marking ˜1800 km across is seen in near-infrared images of Titan. The feature is centered at 10°S, 120°W on Titan, encompasses much of Titan's western Xanadu region, and has an off-center, quasi-circular, inner margin about 700 km across, with lobate outer margins extending 200-500 km from the inner margin. On the feature's southern flank is Tui Regio, an area that has very high reflectivity at 5 μm, and is hypothesized to exhibit geologically recent cryovolcanic flows (Barnes, J.W. et al. [2006]. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33), similar to flows seen in Hotei Regio, a cryovolcanic area whose morphology may be controlled by pre-existing, crustal fractures resulting from an ancient impact (Soderblom, L.A. et al. [2009]. Icarus, 204). The spectral reflectivity of the large, circular feature is quite different than that of its surroundings, making it compositionally distinct, and radar measurements of its topography, brightness temperature and volume scattering also suggest that the feature is quite distinct from its surroundings. These and several other lines of evidence, in addition to the feature's morphology, suggest that it may occupy the site of an ancient impact.

  16. Teaching Regional Perspectives in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCreath, Peter

    1978-01-01

    Defines Canadian regionalism in terms of geographical features and their political, social, and economic implications, rather than in terms of political and provincial boundaries. The significance of regionalism is mentioned as an important topic for Canadian studies. Increasing awareness and acceptance of regional perspectives is presented as an…

  17. Comparative effectiveness of ceramic-on-ceramic implants in stemmed hip replacement: a multinational study of six national and regional registries.

    PubMed

    Sedrakyan, Art; Graves, Stephen; Bordini, Barbara; Pons, Miquel; Havelin, Leif; Mehle, Susan; Paxton, Elizabeth; Barber, Thomas; Cafri, Guy

    2014-12-17

    The rapid decline in use of conventional total hip replacement with a large femoral head size and a metal-on-metal bearing surface might lead to increased popularity of ceramic-on-ceramic bearings as another hard-on-hard alternative that allows implantation of a larger head. We sought to address comparative effectiveness of ceramic-on-ceramic and metal-on-HXLPE (highly cross-linked polyethylene) implants by utilizing the distributed health data network of the ICOR (International Consortium of Orthopaedic Registries), an unprecedented collaboration of national and regional registries and the U.S. FDA (Food and Drug Administration). A distributed health data network was developed by the ICOR and used in this study. The data from each registry are standardized and provided at a level of aggregation most suitable for the detailed analysis of interest. The data are combined across registries for comprehensive assessments. The ICOR coordinating center and study steering committee defined the inclusion criteria for this study as total hip arthroplasty performed without cement from 2001 to 2010 in patients forty-five to sixty-four years of age with osteoarthritis. Six national and regional registries (Kaiser Permanente and HealthEast in the U.S., Emilia-Romagna region in Italy, Catalan region in Spain, Norway, and Australia) participated in this study. Multivariate meta-analysis was performed with use of linear mixed models, with survival probability as the unit of analysis. We present the results of the fixed-effects model and include the results of the random-effects model in an appendix. SAS version 9.2 was used for all analyses. We first compared femoral head sizes of >28 mm and ≤28 mm within ceramic-on-ceramic implants and then compared ceramic-on-ceramic with metal-on-HXLPE. A total of 34,985 patients were included; 52% were female. We found a lower risk of revision associated with use of ceramic-on-ceramic implants when a larger head size was used (HR [hazard

  18. Europa Wedge Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This image shows an area of crustal separation on Jupiter's moon, Europa. Lower resolution pictures taken earlier in the tour of NASA's Galileo spacecraft revealed that dark wedge-shaped bands in this region are areas where the icy crust has completely pulled apart. Dark material has filled up from below and filled the void created by this separation.

    In the lower left corner of this image, taken by Galileo's onboard camera on December 16, 1997, a portion of one dark wedge area is visible, revealing a linear texture along the trend of the wedge. The lines of the texture change orientation slightly and reflect the fact that we are looking at a bend in the wedge. The older, bright background, visible on the right half of the image, is criss-crossed with ridges. A large, bright ridge runs east-west through the upper part of the image, cutting across both the older background plains and the wedge. This ridge is rough in texture, with numerous small terraces and troughs containing dark material.

    North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the northwest. This image, centered at approximately 16.5 degrees south latitude and 196.5 degrees west longitude, covers an area approximately 10 kilometers square (about 6.5 miles square). The resolution of this image is about 26 meters per picture element. This image was taken by the solid state imaging system from a distance of 1250 kilometers (750 miles).

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  19. Europa Wedge Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This image shows an area of crustal separation on Jupiter's moon, Europa. Lower resolution pictures taken earlier in the tour of NASA's Galileo spacecraft revealed that dark wedge-shaped bands in this region are areas where the icy crust has completely pulled apart. Dark material has filled up from below and filled the void created by this separation.

    In the lower left corner of this image, taken by Galileo's onboard camera on December 16, 1997, a portion of one dark wedge area is visible, revealing a linear texture along the trend of the wedge. The lines of the texture change orientation slightly and reflect the fact that we are looking at a bend in the wedge. The older, bright background, visible on the right half of the image, is criss-crossed with ridges. A large, bright ridge runs east-west through the upper part of the image, cutting across both the older background plains and the wedge. This ridge is rough in texture, with numerous small terraces and troughs containing dark material.

    North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the northwest. This image, centered at approximately 16.5 degrees south latitude and 196.5 degrees west longitude, covers an area approximately 10 kilometers square (about 6.5 miles square). The resolution of this image is about 26 meters per picture element. This image was taken by the solid state imaging system from a distance of 1250 kilometers (750 miles).

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  20. Venus - Lavinia Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-10-23

    This image from NASA Magellan spacecraft is centered at approximately 29.6 degrees south latitude and 341 degrees east longitude in the Lavinia Region of Venus. Volcanic vent areas in this part of the plains west of Alpha Regio consist of domes and pits up to nearly 3 kilometers across. Extending eastward these features are sinuous channels, most of which are about 10 kilometers or more long. The channels narrow away from the pits and for most of their lengths are about 1 kilometer in diameter. The nearest planetary analogues for these features are sinuous rilles on the moon. These have been explained as lava channels and/or the result of lava erosion. On Earth lava channels form by downhill drainage of a lava flow leaving a channel behind. Lava may continue to flow in the channel once it has formed. However, lava channels on Earth are normally only a few meters or tens of meters wide. On the other hand, they may be the result of lava erosion. This is a process that only normally occurs to a limited extent on Earth because melting is inhibited by the cool upper layers of the planet. Also, lavas rarely flow turbulently enough to cause mechanical erosion. On Venus the surface materials are already at high temperatures, thus assisting thermal erosion and it is possible that lavas which may flow turbulently are more readily available than on Earth. Resolution of the Magellan data is about 120 meters (400 feet). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00467

  1. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  2. Thinking regionally: narrative, the medical humanities and region.

    PubMed

    Waddington, Keir

    2015-06-01

    Drawing on multiple literatures from history, geography, anthropology, sociology and literature, this essay asks questions about what we mean by region and why narratives of region should matter to the medical humanities. The essay surveys how region can be used as a lens of analysis, exploring the various academic approaches to region and their limitations. It argues that regions are dynamic but also unstable as a category of analysis and are often used uncritically by scholars. In encouraging scholars working in the medical humanities to be aware that regions are not simple objective or analytical boxes, the essay shows how an awareness of region helps challenge metropolitan whiggism and ideas of core and periphery to give a more prominent place to hinterlands, market towns and rural environments. Furthermore, the essay considers how incorporating region into our understanding of illness can offer new insights. It demonstrates the need for scholars to be attuned to the narratives constructed around regions, suggesting that regions can be viewed as discursive formations that provide a frame for understanding both collective and personal ideas of, and responses to, health and illness, disease and healing, to create what Megan Davies calls a more nuanced 'intellectual cartography'. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Emission measure distribution for diffuse regions in solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Srividya; Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.; Mason, Helen E.

    2014-11-01

    Our knowledge of the diffuse emission that encompasses active regions is very limited. In this paper we investigate two off-limb active regions, namely, AR 10939 and AR 10961, to probe the underlying heating mechanisms. For this purpose, we have used spectral observations from Hinode/EIS and employed the emission measure (EM) technique to obtain the thermal structure of these diffuse regions. Our results show that the characteristic EM distributions of the diffuse emission regions peak at log T = 6.25 and the coolward slopes are in the range 1.4-3.3. This suggests that both low- as well as high-frequency nanoflare heating events are at work. Our results provide additional constraints on the properties of these diffuse emission regions and their contribution to the background/foreground when active region cores are observed on-disk.

  4. Elementary bipoles of active regions and ephemeral active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Sara F.

    1990-01-01

    The general properties of elementary bipoles (EBs), the class of moving magnetic features identified by Frazier (1972) as building blocks of new solar active regions, are described, and variations in their characteristics are illustrated with extensive videomagnetograms obtained at Big Bear Solar Observatory during 1984-1989. Consideration is given to ephemeral active regions consisting of EBs with only one positive and one negative pole, multiple-pole ephemeral regions, reversed-polarity EBs, interactions among EBs and adjacent magnetic features, and the EBs of small and medium active regions. The detection of EBs prior to the appearance of arch filaments confirms the relationship found by Frazier.

  5. Regional governance: strategies and disputes in health region management

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Adriano Maia; Giovanella, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the regional governance of the health systemin relation to management strategies and disputes. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES A qualitative study with health managers from 19 municipalities in the health region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Data were drawn from 17 semi-structured interviews of state, regional, and municipal health policymakers and managers; a focus group; observations of the regional interagency committee; and documents in 2012. The political-institutional and the organizational components were analyzed in the light of dialectical hermeneutics. RESULTS The regional interagency committee is the chief regional governance strategy/component and functions as a strategic tool for strengthening governance. It brings together a diversity of members responsible for decision making in the healthcare territories, who need to negotiate the allocation of funding and the distribution of facilities for common use in the region. The high turnover of health secretaries, their lack of autonomy from the local executive decisions, inadequate technical training to exercise their function, and the influence of party politics on decision making stand as obstacles to the regional interagency committee’s permeability to social demands. Funding is insufficient to enable the fulfillment of the officially integrated agreed-upon program or to boost public supply by the system, requiring that public managers procure services from the private market at values higher than the national health service price schedule (Brazilian Unified Health System Table). The study determined that “facilitators” under contract to health departments accelerated access to specialized (diagnostic, therapeutic and/or surgical) services in other municipalities by direct payment to physicians for procedure costs already covered by the Brazilian Unified Health System. CONCLUSIONS The characteristics identified a regionalized system with a conflictive pattern of governance and

  6. An interactive region merging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rongteng

    2011-11-01

    The paper presents a novel region merging method based on the interactive information from users. An image firstly is partitioned into homogeneous regions by using an initial segmentation and the regions will be label by taking an interactive scheme. In this scheme, the users only roughly specify the position and main features of the object and background, then any region will belong to non-label region or label region i.e. object or background. A similarity rule is used to guide the merging process with the help of the users' markers. And then the object of interest is extracted from the image. Experiment results show that the proposed method is efficient for us to extract the object of interest from the complex background.

  7. Regional Climate Tutorial: Assessing Regional Climate Change and Its Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, E.; Fisher, A.

    2002-05-01

    Recent scientific progress now enables credible projections of global changes in climate over long time periods. But people will experience global climate change where they live and work, and have difficulty thinking of a future beyond their grandchildren's lifetime. Although the task of projecting climate change and its impacts is far more challenging for regional and relatively near-term time scales, these are the scales at which actions most easily can be taken to moderate negative impacts. This tutorial will summarize what is known about projecting changes in regional climate, and about assessing the impacts for sectors such as forests, agriculture, fresh water quantity and quality, coastal zones, human health, and ecosystems. The Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment (MARA) is used to provide context and illustrate how adaptation within the region and feedback from other regions influence the impacts that might be experienced.

  8. Global and regional air quality responses to regional CO reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, M. M.; Adelman, Z.; Dolwick, P.; Jang, C.; West, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Ozone (O3) precursor emissions influence global and regional air quality and climate through changes in the tropospheric concentrations of O3, methane (CH4), and aerosols. Here we examine the influence of regional carbon monoxide (CO) emissions on air quality by simulating 50% reductions in anthropogenic CO emissions from 10 world regions (Australia/New Zealand, Southeast Asia, East Asia, India, Southern Africa, Northern Africa/Middle East, Former Soviet Union, Europe, South America, and North America), using the global chemical transport model MOZART-4. The IPCC AR5 Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP 8.5) emissions inventory for 2005 and global meteorology from the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5) for 2004-2005 are used as inputs to MOZART-4, run at 1.9 x 2.5 degree horizontal resolution. Base case global air quality is first simulated for the year 2005, and the resulting distributions of tropospheric O3 and related species are compared with observations. Then CO emission reductions from each of the 10 regions are simulated individually. We quantify global and regional changes in O3 and PM2.5 at the surface and within the troposphere, including the influence of each regional reduction on long-term O3 concentrations via CH4 and the long-range transport of O3 and CO. This analysis shows the sensitivity of global and regional air quality to anthropogenic CO emissions from many world regions, in contrast to previous studies of only a few regions. Beyond this study, these simulations will be used to estimate the net radiative forcing due to CO emission reductions from these world regions.

  9. Regional Hospital Input Price Indexes

    PubMed Central

    Freeland, Mark S.; Schendler, Carol Ellen; Anderson, Gerard

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the development of regional hospital input price indexes that is consistent with the general methodology used for the National Hospital Input Price Index. The feasibility of developing regional indexes was investigated because individuals inquired whether different regions experienced different rates of increase in hospital input prices. The regional indexes incorporate variations in cost-share weights (the amount an expense category contributes to total spending) associated with hospital type and location, and variations in the rate of input price increases for various regions. We found that between 1972 and 1979 none of the regional price indexes increased at average annual rates significantly different from the national rate. For the more recent period 1977 through 1979, the increase in one Census Region was significantly below the national rate. Further analyses indicated that variations in cost-share weights for various types of hospitals produced no substantial variations in the regional price indexes relative to the national index. We consider these findings preliminary because of limitations in the availability of current, relevant, and reliable data, especially for local area wage rate increases. PMID:10309557

  10. East Texas post oak region

    Treesearch

    Herbert S. Sternitzke

    1967-01-01

    This report summarizes information on forest area and timber volume in a 26-county area designated as the post oak region of east Texas. These counties are on the western fringe of lands capable of supporting productive southern forests. The information here is from the first detailed forest inventory of the region, made during 1965 in cooperation with the Texas...

  11. REGIONAL VULNERABILITY: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional vulnerability assessment, or ReVA, is an approach to place-based ecological risk assessment that is currently under development by the Office of Research and Development of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The assessment is done at the scale of EPA region...

  12. About the REL Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific, 2014

    2014-01-01

    REL Pacific is one of ten Regional Educational Laboratories established and funded by the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences. Their region encompasses approximately 4.9 million square miles and serves seven Pacific island entities, including American Samoa; the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; the Federated…

  13. CLIMATE IMPACTS ON REGIONAL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The New England region (including the 6 New England
    states plus upstate New York) offers a very diverse geography,
    matched by an equally diverse economy and human
    population. Livelihoods throughout the region are based
    on service industries that depend heavily on comm...

  14. Regional Early Childhood Policy Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith

    2008-01-01

    The UNESCO-UNICEF joint regional policy review project was launched in September 2006 with the aim to support the countries of Asia-Pacific region in meeting the first goal of Education For All (EFA) on Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) by identifying, documenting and sharing good practices as well as constraints and challenges in early…

  15. What's Happening to Regional Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Back in November, voters in the North East of England overwhelmingly rejected the move towards an elected regional assembly. The scale of the defeat (three to one) of a Government-backed scheme was a rude awakening for the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister and the range of regional agencies created since 1997. After all, it was felt that the…

  16. What's Happening to Regional Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Back in November, voters in the North East of England overwhelmingly rejected the move towards an elected regional assembly. The scale of the defeat (three to one) of a Government-backed scheme was a rude awakening for the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister and the range of regional agencies created since 1997. After all, it was felt that the…

  17. Training Teachers for Regional Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hla Myint; And Others

    This report presents alternative plans for training teachers for the newly-established Regional Colleges in Burma. The Regional Colleges are three-year postsecondary institutions designed to train middle level technicians to help increase the production of goods and services needed in the Burmese economy. Concentrating on the Hawaii Community…

  18. Regional Early Childhood Policy Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith

    2008-01-01

    The UNESCO-UNICEF joint regional policy review project was launched in September 2006 with the aim to support the countries of Asia-Pacific region in meeting the first goal of Education For All (EFA) on Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) by identifying, documenting and sharing good practices as well as constraints and challenges in early…

  19. MISR Regional VBBE Imagery Overview

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... View Data  |  Download Data About this Web Site: Visualizations of select MISR Level 3 data for special regional ... in the northern hemisphere (see the table at right). By design, the images show data for a fixed geographical region, with a fixed ...

  20. MISR Regional SAMUM Imagery Overview

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... View Data  |  Download Data About this Web Site: Visualizations of select MISR Level 3 data for special regional ... in the northern hemisphere (see the table at right). By design, the images show data for a fixed geographical region, with a fixed ...

  1. CLIMATE IMPACTS ON REGIONAL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The New England region (including the 6 New England
    states plus upstate New York) offers a very diverse geography,
    matched by an equally diverse economy and human
    population. Livelihoods throughout the region are based
    on service industries that depend heavily on comm...

  2. Identification of USSR Indicator Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disler, J.; Breigh, H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Potential indicator regions were determined by comparing the statistics for barley and wheat at the lowest administrative levels for which published statistics were available. Fourteen were selected for review based on their relative abundances of wheat and barely. These potential indicator regions were grouped according to three conditions that could affect labeling and classification accuracies: (1) high-barley content; (2) presence of barley and spring wheat; and (3) presence of barley and winter wheat. Each region was further evaluated based on the availability of crop calendars, LANDSAT acquisitions, and ancillary data. Based on the relative abundance of wheat and barley and the availability of data, three indicator regions were recommended. Within each region, individual oblasts and/or krays were selected according to segment availability and segment acquisition histories for potential barley separation.

  3. About Region 8’s Central Regional Laboratory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Region 8 laboratory plays a critical role in protecting people's health and the environment through the analysis of air, water, soil, and biota samples (plant, fish, and occasionally, mammalian tissue).

  4. Finding Distant Galactic HII Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P.; Johnstone, B. M.; Bania, T. M.; Balser, Dana S.; Wenger, Trey V.; Cunningham, V.

    2015-12-01

    The WISE Catalog of Galactic H ii Regions contains ˜2000 H ii region candidates lacking ionized gas spectroscopic observations. All candidates have the characteristic H ii region mid-infrared morphology of WISE 12 μ {{m}} emission surrounding 22 μ {{m}} emission, and additionally have detected radio continuum emission. We here report Green Bank Telescope hydrogen radio recombination line and radio continuum detections in the X-band (9 GHz; 3 cm) of 302 WISE H ii region candidates (out of 324 targets observed) in the zone 225^\\circ ≥slant {\\ell }≥slant -20^\\circ , | {\\text{}}b| ≤slant 6^\\circ . Here we extend the sky coverage of our H ii region Discovery Survey, which now contains nearly 800 H ii regions distributed across the entire northern sky. We provide LSR velocities for the 302 detections and kinematic distances for 131 of these. Of the 302 new detections, 5 have ({\\ell },{\\text{}}b,v) coordinates consistent with the Outer Scutum-Centaurus Arm (OSC), the most distant molecular spiral arm of the Milky Way. Due to the Galactic warp, these nebulae are found at Galactic latitudes >1° in the first Galactic quadrant, and therefore were missed in previous surveys of the Galactic plane. One additional region has a longitude and velocity consistent with the OSC but lies at a negative Galactic latitude (G039.183-01.422 -54.9 {km} {{{s}}}-1). With Heliocentric distances >22 kpc and Galactocentric distances >16 kpc, the OSC H ii regions are the most distant known in the Galaxy. We detect an additional three H ii regions near {\\ell }≃ 150^\\circ whose LSR velocities place them at Galactocentric radii >19 kpc. If their distances are correct, these nebulae may represent the limit to Galactic massive star formation.

  5. Magnetic TRAnsition Region Probe (MTRAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. L.; Davis, John; Hathaway, David; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    MTRAP (Magnetic Transition Region Probe) will reveal the fine-scale physical processes in the Sun's magnetic transition region, the complex layer from the upper photosphere to the upper chromosphere/lower transition region. In the magnetic transition region plasma forces and magnetic forces are of comparable strength, which results in complex interplay of the two, which interplay governs the coupling of the convectively-driven deeper layers to the magnetically-driven upper transition region and inner corona. The fine-scale magnetic structure, processes, and events in the magnetic transition region are key to the genesis of the Sun's entire hot, dynamic outer atmosphere and to the initiation of large eruptive events. MTRAP will be a single spacecraft in Sun-synchronous Earth orbit. Because MTRAP will probe and measure the 3-D structure and dynamics of the magnetic field and plasma in the chromosphere and transition region with unprecedented resolution, the required telescope size and telemetry rates dictate that MTRAP be in Earth orbit, not in deep space. The observations will feature visible and infrared maps of vector magnetic and velocity fields in the magnetic transition region and photosphere. These will have large field of view (greater than 100,000 km), high resolution (greater than 100 km), and high sensitivity (greater than 30 G in transverse field). These observations of the lower atmosphere will be complemented by UV maps of the structure, velocity, and magnetic field (including the full vector field if technically feasible) higher up, in the upper chromosphere and lower transition region. MTRAP will also have an EUV imaging spectrograph observing coronal structure and dynamics in the same field of view with comparable resolution. Specific phenomena to be analyzed include spicules, bright points, jets, the base of plumes, and the triggering of eruptive flares and coronal mass ejections. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  6. Regional strategies for global leadership.

    PubMed

    Ghemawat, Pankaj

    2005-12-01

    The leaders of such global powerhouses as GE, Wal-Mart, and Toyota seem to have grasped two crucial truths: First, far from becoming submerged by the rising tide of globalization, geographic and other regional distinctions may in fact be increasing in importance. Second, regionally focused strategies, used in conjunction with local and global initiatives, can significantly boost a company's performance. The business and economic data reveal a highly regionalized world. For example, trade within regions, rather than across them, drove the surge of international commerce in the second half of the twentieth century. Regionalization is also apparent in foreign direct investment, companies' international sales, and competition among the world's largest multinationals. Harvard Business School Professor Pankaj Ghemawat says that the most successful companies employ five types of regional strategies in addition to--or even instead of--global ones: home base, portfolio, hub, platform, and mandate. Some companies adopt the strategies in sequence, but the most nimble switch from one to another and combine approaches as their markets and businesses evolve. At Toyota, for example, exports from the home base continue to be substantial even as the company builds up an international manufacturing presence. And as Toyota achieves economies of scale and scope with a strong network of hubs, the company also pursues economies of specialization through interregional mandates. Embracing regional strategies requires flexibility and creativity. A company must decide what constitutes a region, choose the most appropriate strategies, and mesh those strategies with the organization's existing structures. In a world that is neither truly global nor truly local, finding ways of coordinating within and across regions can deliver a powerful competitive advantage.

  7. LLNL's Regional Seismic Discrimination Research

    SciTech Connect

    Hanley, W; Mayeda, K; Myers, S; Pasyanos, M; Rodgers, A; Sicherman, A; Walter, W

    1999-07-23

    As part of the Department of Energy's research and development effort to improve the monitoring capability of the planned Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty international monitoring system, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is testing and calibrating regional seismic discrimination algorithms in the Middle East, North Africa and Western Former Soviet Union. The calibration process consists of a number of steps: (1) populating the database with independently identified regional events; (2) developing regional boundaries and pre-identifying severe regional phase blockage zones; (3) measuring and calibrating coda based magnitude scales; (4a) measuring regional amplitudes and making magnitude and distance amplitude corrections (MDAC); (4b) applying the DOE modified kriging methodology to MDAC results using the regionalized background model; (5) determining the thresholds of detectability of regional phases as a function of phase type and frequency; (6) evaluating regional phase discriminant performance both singly and in combination; (7) combining steps 1-6 to create a calibrated discrimination surface for each stations; (8) assessing progress and iterating. We have now developed this calibration procedure to the point where it is fairly straightforward to apply earthquake-explosion discrimination in regions with ample empirical data. Several of the steps outlined above are discussed in greater detail in other DOE papers in this volume or in recent publications. Here we emphasize the results of the above process: station correction surfaces and their improvement to discrimination results compared with simpler calibration methods. Some of the outstanding discrimination research issues involve cases in which there is little or no empirical data. For example in many cases there is no regional nuclear explosion data at IMS stations or nearby surrogates. We have taken two approaches to this problem, first finding and using mining explosion data when available, and

  8. Monitoring of Polar Avalanche Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-03

    This image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows the scarp that demarcates the boundary between layered deposits covering the north polar region and the lower surrounding terrain, which includes sand dunes. Original release date March 3, 2010.

  9. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 8

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 3 (CO, MT, ND, SD, UT, WY) is provided here.

  10. Region 9 RTOC Strategic Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Regional Tribal Operations Committee (RTOC) has developed this Strategic Plan to address the issues the RTOC has identified and the activities the RTOC intends to carry out between October 1, 2015 and September 30, 2017.

  11. Boundary Preserving Dense Local Regions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaechul; Grauman, Kristen

    2015-05-01

    We propose a dense local region detector to extract features suitable for image matching and object recognition tasks. Whereas traditional local interest operators rely on repeatable structures that often cross object boundaries (e.g., corners, scale-space blobs), our sampling strategy is driven by segmentation, and thus preserves object boundaries and shape. At the same time, whereas existing region-based representations are sensitive to segmentation parameters and object deformations, our novel approach to robustly sample dense sites and determine their connectivity offers better repeatability. In extensive experiments, we find that the proposed region detector provides significantly better repeatability and localization accuracy for object matching compared to an array of existing feature detectors. In addition, we show our regions lead to excellent results on two benchmark tasks that require good feature matching: weakly supervised foreground discovery and nearest neighbor-based object recognition.

  12. Star Forming Regions in Cassiopeia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, M.

    2008-12-01

    This chapter describes the Galactic star forming regions in the constellation Cassiopeia, in the Galactic coordinate range 120° ⪉ l ⪉ 130°, -5° ⪉ b ⪉ 15°. At |b| > 10° the nearby clouds L 1333 and L 1340 are found in this region. The local arm of the Galaxy in Cassiopeia contains only a few star forming regions, smaller and less active than the OB associations of the neighboring Cepheus. Five members of this system, LkHα 198 and its environment, L 1287, L 1293, L 1302/NGC 255, and S 187 are discussed. Several more distant OB associations and giant star forming regions in Cassiopeia are associated with the Perseus arm at 2.0--3.0 kpc. Among these, the Herbig Be star MWC 1080 is discussed in this chapter.

  13. Active Region Release Two CMEs

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Solar material can be seen blowing off the sun in this video captured by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) on the night of Feb. 5, 2013. This active region on the sun sent out two coronal ...

  14. A regional technology transfer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chenery, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    The activities of the NC/STRC are reported. The background and organization of the regional dissemination center, and marketing methods are discussed along with the services provided, and available information resources.

  15. Venus - Landslide in Navka Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-03-14

    NASA Magellan spacecraft observed remnant landslide deposits apparently resulting from the collapse of volcanic structures. This radar image is centered in the southwestern Navka Region of Venus. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00262

  16. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 5

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the conformity SIP adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 5 (IL, IN, MI, OH, WI) is provided here.

  17. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 2

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 2 (NJ, NY, PR, VI) is provided here.

  18. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 1

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 1 (CT, ME, MA, NH, RI, VT) is provided here.

  19. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 4

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 4 (AL, FL, GA, KY, MS, NC, SC, TN) is provided here.

  20. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 9

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 9 (AZ, CA, HI, NV, AS, GU) is provided here.

  1. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 3

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 3 (DE, DC, MD, PA, VA, WV) is provided here.

  2. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 6

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 6 (AR, LA, NM, OK, TX) is provided here.

  3. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 7

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 7 (IA, KS, MO, NE) is provided here.

  4. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 10

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 10 (AK, ID, OR, WA) is provided here.

  5. MC-10 Lanae Palus Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-10 quadrangle, Lanae Palus region of Mars. The western part is dominated by lava flows of the Tharsis region. The central part includes ridged terrain of Lunae Planum. The west and north borders of Lunae Planum are dissected by the large, relatively young outflow channel, Kasei Vallis, which terminates in Chryse Planitia. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range 45 to 90 degrees.

  6. ESPC Regional Arctic Prediction System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    the Navy the capability to conduct short-term (1 week) to extended (2 weeks) coupled weather forecasts for the Arctic region. APPROACH To...sensitivity of the Arctic weather forecast to key numerical parameters; and 5) conduct extensive validation and verification of the coupled system and...SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ESPC Regional Arctic Prediction System 5a. CONTRACT

  7. Parallel Processing of Region Boundaries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    from A is W, while in the other it is S: the region enclosed by the 40--------A curve AC belongs to includes the area above AC, while that cf C AB ...includes the area to the left of AB . The intersection of the iB regions is the one included by AC while the union is the one included by AB . Thus, C is the

  8. MC-13 Syrtis Major Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-13 quadrangle, Syrtis Major region of Mars. The central part is dominated by dark dust and lava flows of the Syrtis Major Planitia region. These lava flows are partly bounded to the east by a large depression, Isidis basin, which contains smooth plains, and to the west and north by heavily cratered and moderately faulted highlands. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range -90 to -45 degrees.

  9. Unexpected fireworks! Active region 808

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Harry

    2005-12-01

    The activity in 2005 September of the large sunspot group 10808 is discussed. This was the return of active region 10798 of the previous month. That such activity on the Sun continued despite the proximity of Solar Minimum adds to the excitement and interest of these regions. Observations in hydrogen alpha light enable detailed phenomenon to be followed both on and off the Sun's disc.

  10. Revisiting Health Regionalization in Canada.

    PubMed

    Barker, Paul; Church, John

    2017-04-01

    Twenty years ago, many of Canada's provinces began to introduce regional health authorities to address problems with their health care systems. With this action, the provinces sought to achieve advances in community decision-making, the integration of health services, and the provision of care in the home and community. The authorities were also to help restrict health care costs. An assessment of the authorities indicates, however, that over the past two decades they have been unable to meet their objectives. Community representatives continue to play little role in determining the appropriate health services for their regions. Gains have been made towards integrating health services, but the plan for a near seamless set of health services has not been realized. Funding for health services remains focused on hospital and physician care, and health care expenditures have until very recently been little affected by regional authorities. This disappointing performance has caused some provinces to abandon their regional authorities, but this article argues that the provision of greater autonomy and a better public appreciation of their role and potential may lead to more successful regional authorities. Accordingly, the objective of this article is to reveal the shortcomings of regional health authorities in Canada while at the same time arguing that changes can be made to increase the chances of more workable authorities.

  11. Regional sinkhole susceptibility maps: The Latium Region case (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Vigna, F.; Teoli, P.; Mazza, R.; Leoni, G.; Capelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    Several and frequent studies were internationally presented about landslide susceptibility, meanwhile in literature is missing a broad diffusion of studies regarding sinkhole susceptibility. That's why sinkhole recurrence depends on several geological conditions related to specific geological and hydrogeological context (sinkhole prone area) that vary case by case. Notwithstanding this regionalization problem of sinkhole recurrence, in the central Appenine sedimentary basins (Italy) a certain number of geological, geomorphologic and hydrogeological conditions (sinkhole predisposing issues) can be considered in common between the surveyed sinkholes. Eventually this could be compared with similar geological conditions and sinkhole occurrence in the rest of Italy or in other countries. In this case study is presented a probabilistic approach regarding the Latium Region deriving from the comparison between the regional sinkhole inventory realized during a precedent project and the dataset of the new Hydrogeological Map of Latium Region (scale 1:100.000). Indexed elements, chosen because associated to the majority of sinkhole phenomena, are: outcropping lithologies, water table depth, main faults (even if buried), hydrothermal springs, land use and the epicentres of recent earthquakes. These indexed elements were weighted and combined in a matrix which preliminary result is the sinkhole susceptibility map of Latium Region. When definitively validated, this approach could be suitable for local authorities to planning more targeted studies in major hazard areas.

  12. Regional Variations in Diagnostic Practices

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yunjie; Skinner, Jonathan; Bynum, Julie; Sutherland, Jason; Wennberg, John E.; Fisher, Elliott S.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Current methods of risk adjustment rely on diagnoses recorded in clinical and administrative records. Differences among providers in diagnostic practices could lead to bias. METHODS We used Medicare claims data from 1999 through 2006 to measure trends in diagnostic practices for Medicare beneficiaries. Regions were grouped into five quintiles according to the intensity of hospital and physician services that beneficiaries in the region received. We compared trends with respect to diagnoses, laboratory testing, imaging, and the assignment of Hierarchical Condition Categories (HCCs) among beneficiaries who moved to regions with a higher or lower intensity of practice. RESULTS Beneficiaries within each quintile who moved during the study period to regions with a higher or lower intensity of practice had similar numbers of diagnoses and similar HCC risk scores (as derived from HCC coding algorithms) before their move. The number of diagnoses and the HCC measures increased as the cohort aged, but they increased to a greater extent among beneficiaries who moved to regions with a higher intensity of practice than among those who moved to regions with the same or lower intensity of practice. For example, among beneficiaries who lived initially in regions in the lowest quintile, there was a greater increase in the average number of diagnoses among those who moved to regions in a higher quintile than among those who moved to regions within the lowest quintile (increase of 100.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 89.6 to 112.1; vs. increase of 61.7%; 95% CI, 55.8 to 67.4). Moving to each higher quintile of intensity was associated with an additional 5.9% increase (95% CI, 5.2 to 6.7) in HCC scores, and results were similar with respect to laboratory testing and imaging. CONCLUSIONS Substantial differences in diagnostic practices that are unlikely to be related to patient characteristics are observed across U.S. regions. The use of clinical or claims-based diagnoses in

  13. Ig Constant Region Effects on Variable Region Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Janda, Alena; Bowen, Anthony; Greenspan, Neil S.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive humoral immune response is responsible for the generation of antimicrobial proteins known as immunoglobulin molecules or antibodies. Immunoglobulins provide a defense system against pathogenic microbes and toxins by targeting them for removal and/or destruction. Historically, antibodies have been thought to be composed of distinct structural domains known as the variable and constant regions that are responsible for antigen binding and mediating effector functions such as opsonization and complement activation, respectively. These domains were thought to be structurally and functionally independent. Recent work has revealed however, that in some families of antibodies, the two regions can influence each other. We will discuss the body of work that led to these observations, as well as the mechanisms that have been proposed to explain how these two different antibody regions may interact in the function of antigen binding. PMID:26870003

  14. Regional waveform calibration in the Pamir-Hindu Kush region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lupei; Helmberger, Donald V.; Saikia, Chandan K.; Woods, Bradley B.

    1997-10-01

    Twelve moderate-magnitude earthquakes (mb 4-5.5) in the Pamir-Hindu Kush region are investigated to determine their focal mechanisms and to relocate them using their regional waveform records at two broadband arrays, the Kyrgyzstan Regional Network (KNET), and the 1992 Pakistan Himalayas seismic experiment array (PAKH) in northern Pakistan. We use the "cut-and-paste" source estimation technique to invert the whole broadband waveforms for mechanisms and depths, assuming a one-dimensional velocity model developed for the adjacent Tibetan plateau. For several large events the source mechanisms obtained agree with those available from the Harvard centroid moment tensor (CMT) solutions. An advantage of using regional broadband waveforms is that focal depths can be better constrained either from amplitude ratios of Pnl to surface waves for crustal events or from time separation between the direct P and the shear-coupled P wave (sPn + sPmP) for mantle events. All the crustal events are relocated at shallower depths compared with their International Seismological Centre bulletin or Harvard CMT depths. After the focal depths are established, the events are then relocated horizontally using their first-arrival times. Only minor offsets in epicentral location are found for all mantle events and the bigger crustal events, while rather large offsets (up to 30 km) occur for the smaller crustal events. We also tested the performance of waveform inversion using only two broadband stations, one from the KNET array in the north of the region and one from the PAKH array in the south. We found that this geometry is adequate for determining focal depths and mechanisms of moderate size earthquakes in the Pamir-Hindu Kush region.

  15. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association

  16. Regional desertification: A global synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helldén, Ulf; Tottrup, Christian

    2008-12-01

    The paper presents results on the use of NOAA AVHRR data for desertification monitoring on a regional-global level. It is based on processing of the GIMMS 8 km global NDVI data set. Time series of annually integrated and standardized annual NDVI anomalies were generated and compared with a corresponding rainfall data set (1981-2003). The regions studied include the Mediterranean basin, the Sahel from the Atlantic to the Red Sea, major parts of the drylands of Southern Africa, China-Mongolia and the drylands of South America, i.e. important parts of the desertification prone drylands of the world. It is concluded that the suggested methodology is a robust and reliable way to assess and monitor vegetation trends and related desertification on a regional-global scale. A strong general relationship between NDVI and rainfall over time is demonstrated for considerable parts of the drylands. The results of performed trend analysis cannot be used to verify any systematic generic land degradation/desertification trend at the regional-global level. On the contrary, a "greening-up" seems to be evident over large regions.

  17. [Nitrogen flow in Huizhou region].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaobo; Wang, Zhaoyin; Koenig, Albert; Deng, Jiaquan

    2006-06-01

    Eutrophication is a serious problem of water body pollution. By the method of material flow accounting, this paper studied the human activities- related nitrogen flow in the system of environment and anthroposphere in Huizhou region. The non-point source pollution was quantified by export coefficient method, and the domestic discharge was estimated by demand-supply method. The statistic and dynamic analyses based on the investigation data of 1998 showed that the major nitrogen flows in this region were river loads, fertilizer and feedstuff imports, atmospheric deposition, animal excretes' degradation and volatilization, and the processes relating to burning and other emissions. In 1998, about 40% of nitrogen was detained in the system, which could be accumulated and yield potential environmental problems. The nitrogen export in this region was mainly by rivers, accounted for about 57%. A comparison of Huizhou region with the Danube and Changjiang basins showed that the unit area nitrogen exports in these three regions were of the same magnitude, and the per capita nitrogen exports were comparable.

  18. Does regional anaesthesia improve outcome?

    PubMed

    Hopkins, P M

    2015-12-01

    This review examines the recent evidence of an impact of regional anaesthesia on important clinical outcomes. Evidence was obtained from a variety of studies, with increasing numbers of analyses of large databases being prominent. The benefits and limitations of these approaches are considered in order to provide a context for interpretation of the data they generate. There should be little argument that correctly performed and appropriately used regional anaesthetic techniques can provide the most effective postoperative analgesia for the duration of the block, but the majority of studies suggest that this does not translate into improved longer-term surgical outcomes. The evidence for reduced incidence of major complications when regional anaesthesia is compared with, or added to, general anaesthesia is mixed. There appears to be a small effect in reducing blood loss during major joint arthroplasty. Some, but not all, studies demonstrate a reduced incidence of respiratory and infective complications with regional anaesthesia, but the effect on cardiovascular complications is variable. There are even some data consistent with a hypothesis that general anaesthesia may be protective against postoperative cognitive dysfunction. In conclusion, there is probably no generally applicable benefit in long-term outcomes with regional anaesthesia. More likely is an interaction between patient factors, the surgical procedure, and the relative capability of the anaesthetist to manage different types of anaesthesia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Extending Regional Seismic Travel Time (RSTT) Tomography to New Regions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Seism . Soc. Am. 59, 1365–1398. Flanagan, M. P., D. A. Dodge, and S. C. Myers (2008). GT merge process: Version 2.0, LLNL technical report, LLNL-TR...Validation of regional and teleseismic travel-time models by relocating ground-truth events, Bull. Seism . Soc. Amer. 94: 897–919. Zhao, L.-S. (1993

  20. Regional climate services: A regional partnership between NOAA and USDA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Climate services in the Midwest and Northern Plains regions have been enhanced by a recent addition of the USDA Climate Hubs to NOAA’s existing network of partners. This new partnership stems from the intrinsic variability of intra and inter-annual climatic conditions, which makes decision-making fo...

  1. Correlation of regional breath sound with regional ventilation in emphysema

    SciTech Connect

    Ploysongsang, Y.; Pare, J.A.; Macklem, P.T.

    1982-09-01

    We measured regional breath sound intensities (Ib) by a microphone amplifier system in 8 subjects with emphysema. We also measured regional white noise transmissions (Tn) from the same areas in all subjects. The recorded areas were 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm from the apex of the lung just lateral to the right anterior midclavicular line. Xenon ventilation indexes (xenon tidal raw counts, an index of total regional ventilation; xenon equilibration raw counts, an index of ventilating lung volume; xenon ventilation per unit volume (Vr), an index of ventilation per unit volume) were also recorded from the same areas. The Ib, Tn, Ib/Tn (an index of sound generation), and xenon ventilation indexes were all expressed as a fraction of the mean value of all four recorded areas. The Ib and Ib/Tn correlated best with the xenon tidal raw counts, correlated well with the xenon equilibration raw counts, and correlated poorly with Vr. We conclude that Ib and Ib/Tn can be used to quantify regional ventilation in subjects with emphysema.

  2. Northeast Regional Biomass Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1992-02-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is entering its ninth year of operation. The management and the objectives have virtually remained unchanged and are stated as follows. The program conducted by NRBP has three basic features: (1) a state grant component that provides funds (with a 50 percent matching requirement) to each of the states in the region to strengthen and integrate the work of state agencies involved in biomass energy; (2) a series of technical reports and studies in areas that have been identified as being of critical importance to the development of biomass energy in the region; and (3) a continuous long range planning component with heavy private sector involvement that helps to identify activities necessary to spur greater development and use of biomass energy in the Northeast.

  3. Regional Cooperation to Strengthen Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Minnini, Margot; Elkhamri, Oksana O.

    2016-06-06

    President Obama’s decision over four years ago to ”pivot” toward Asia represented an important strategic shift in American foreign policy and a rebalancing of U.S. economic and security engagement in the Asia-Pacific countries. The United States has since supported a variety of regional initiatives aimed at promoting nuclear security and safeguards. When a new regional organization, the Asia-Pacific Safeguards Network (APSN) was established in 2010, DOE/NNSA became an early member and enthusiastic advocate. Launched on the initiative of Australia, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Indonesia, the APSN aims to strengthen the quality and effectiveness of safeguards implementation in the Asia-Pacific region.

  4. Northeast Regional Biomass Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1992-04-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is entering its ninth year of operation. The management and the objectives have virtually remained unchanged and are stated as follows. The program conducted by NRBP has three basic features: (1) a state grant component that provides funds (with a 50 percent matching requirement) to each of the states in the region to strengthen and integrate the work of state agencies involved in biomass energy; (2) a series of technical reports and studies in areas that have been identified as being of critical importance to the development of biomass energy in the region; and (3) a continuous long range planning component with heavy private sector involvement that helps to identify activities necessary to spur greater development and use of biomass energy in the Northeast.

  5. Satellites monitor Atlanta regional development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, William J.; Blackmon, C.C.; Rudasill, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    Since the adoption of a Regional Development Plan in 1975, the Atlanta Regional Commission has investigated methods for monitoring regional development patterns in a periodic, efficient manner. A promising approach appears to be the use of Landsat satellite data. In cooperation with the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, the commission used machine processing of digital temporal overlays of Landsat data collected in 1972, 1974 and 1976 to detect land use and land cover changes in the Atlanta metropolitan area. Results of the analysis revealed the conversion of forested and open space areas to residential, commercial and industrial land use in the urban-rural fringe zone from 1972 to 1974 and from 1974 to 1976. The study indicated that a land use and land cover change-detection program may be used to revise small-area forecasts of land use, population and employment made by planning models.

  6. Regional sea level change in the Thailand-Indonesia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenoglio-Marc, L.; Becker, M. H.; Buchhaupt, C.

    2013-12-01

    It is expected that the regional sea level rise will strongly affect particular regions with direct impacts including submergence of coastal zones, rising water tables and salt intrusion into groundwaters. It can possibly also exacerbate other factors as floodings, associated to storms and hurricanes, as well as ground subsidence of anthropogenic nature. The Thailand-Vietnam-Indonesian region is one of those zones. On land, the Chao-Praya and Mekong Delta are fertile alluvial zones. The potential for sea level increases and extreme floodings due to global warming makes the Deltas a place where local, regional, and global environmental changes are converging. We investigate the relative roles of regional and global mechanisms resulting in multidecadal variations and inflections in the rate of sea level change. Altimetry and GRACE data are used to investigate the variation of land floodings. The land surface water extent is evaluated at 25 km sampling intervals over fifteen years (1993-2007) using a multisatellite methodology which captures the extent of episodic and seasonal inundations, wetlands, rivers, lakes, and irrigated agriculture, using passive and active (microwaves and visible observations. The regional sea level change is analysed during the period 1993-2012 using satellite altimetry, wind and ocean model data, tide gauge data and GPS. The rates of absolute eustatic sea level rise derived from satellite altimetry through 19-year long precise altimeter observations are in average higher than the global mean rate. Several tide gauge records indicate an even higher sea level rise relative to land. We show that the sea level change is closely linked to the ENSO mode of variability and strongly affected by changes in wind forcing and ocean circulation. We have determined the vertical crustal motion at a given tide gauge location by differencing the tide gauge sea level time-series with an equivalent time-series derived from satellite altimetry and by computing

  7. Automatic thoracic body region localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, PeiRui; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Tong, YuBing; Xie, ShiPeng; Torigian, Drew A.

    2017-03-01

    Radiological imaging and image interpretation for clinical decision making are mostly specific to each body region such as head & neck, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, and extremities. For automating image analysis and consistency of results, standardizing definitions of body regions and the various anatomic objects, tissue regions, and zones in them becomes essential. Assuming that a standardized definition of body regions is available, a fundamental early step needed in automated image and object analytics is to automatically trim the given image stack into image volumes exactly satisfying the body region definition. This paper presents a solution to this problem based on the concept of virtual landmarks and evaluates it on whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans. The method first selects a (set of) reference object(s), segments it (them) roughly, and identifies virtual landmarks for the object(s). The geometric relationship between these landmarks and the boundary locations of body regions in the craniocaudal direction is then learned through a neural network regressor, and the locations are predicted. Based on low-dose unenhanced CT images of 180 near whole-body PET/CT scans (which includes 34 whole-body PET/CT scans), the mean localization error for the boundaries of superior of thorax (TS) and inferior of thorax (TI), expressed as number of slices (slice spacing ≍ 4mm)), and using either the skeleton or the pleural spaces as reference objects, is found to be 3,2 (using skeleton) and 3, 5 (using pleural spaces) respectively, or in mm 13, 10 mm (using skeleton) and 10.5, 20 mm (using pleural spaces), respectively. Improvements of this performance via optimal selection of objects and virtual landmarks and other object analytics applications are currently being pursued. and the skeleton and pleural spaces used as a reference objects

  8. Solitary neurilemmoma in postaural region.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, Bivas; Sen, Indranil; Basu, Asim Jiban; Bandyopadhyay, Saumyendra Nath; Saha, Debdas; Basu, Sumit Kumar

    2007-05-01

    Neurilemmoma in postaural region arising from great auricular nerve is an extremely rare tumour. An 11 years boy presented with pain and swelling behind his left ear for last 3-4 years. The clinical examination revealed the swelling appeared to be diffuse with the margin being ill defined. On radiological examination a diffuse homogeneous mass was seen in the postaural region of the left side. The tumour was completely removed by an incision through postaural route. Histopathological study revealed neurilemmoma. Postoperative period was uneventful.

  9. Hydrodynamics of post CHF region

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, M.; De Jarlais, G.

    1984-04-01

    Among various two-phase flow regimes, the inverted flow in the post-dryout region is relatively less well understood due to its special heat transfer conditions. The review of existing data indicates further research is needed in the areas of basic hydrodynamics related to liquid core disintegration mechanisms, slug and droplet formations, entrainment, and droplet size distributions. In view of this, the inverted flow is studied in detail both analytically and experimentally. Criteria for initial flow regimes in the post-dryout region are given. Preliminary models for subsequent flow regime transition criteria are derived together with correlations for a mean droplet diameter based on the adiabatic simulation data.

  10. Floristic study of Mirabad region.

    PubMed

    Hasanzadeh Gorttapeh, A; Panahy, J

    2007-10-15

    The study area (Mirabad) is located between 36 degrees, 55' to 37 degrees north latitude and 45 degrees, 05' to 55 degrees, 44' east longitude in west Azerbaijan province. In this study, Flora of this region was determined by using available references. We encountered 192 species that belongs to 126 genera and 41 families. The largest family of region is Asteraceae with 31 sp. and the largest Genera is Astragalus with 7 sp. The main life forms are: Hemicryptophyte with 30.2% and Therophyte with 28.1%. The most extended chorotype with 62.5% is related to: Irano_Turanian.

  11. Regional High School Senior Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Philip R., Jr.

    In order to identify the educational needs and aspirations of graduating high school seniors in the service region of the University of Maine at Augusta, a survey instrument was designed and administered to 1,950 seniors at 19 institutions. In all, 1,744 completed surveys were returned, a 92 percent response rate. The data are sub-grouped into…

  12. Biocapacity optimization in regional planning

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jianjun; Yue, Dongxia; Li, Kai; Hui, Cang

    2017-01-01

    Ecological overshoot has been accelerating across the globe. Optimizing biocapacity has become a key to resolve the overshoot of ecological demand in regional sustainable development. However, most literature has focused on reducing ecological footprint but ignores the potential of spatial optimization of biocapacity through regional planning of land use. Here we develop a spatial probability model and present four scenarios for optimizing biocapacity of a river basin in Northwest China. The potential of enhanced biocapacity and its effects on ecological overshoot and water consumption in the region were explored. Two scenarios with no restrictions on croplands and water use reduced the overshoot by 29 to 53%, and another two scenarios which do not allow croplands and water use to increase worsened the overshoot by 11 to 15%. More spatially flexible transition rules of land use led to higher magnitude of change after optimization. However, biocapacity optimization required a large amount of additional water resources, casting considerable pressure on the already water-scarce socio-ecological system. Our results highlight the potential for policy makers to manage/optimize regional land use which addresses ecological overshoot. Investigation on the feasibility of such spatial optimization complies with the forward-looking policies for sustainable development and deserves further attention. PMID:28112224

  13. Regional Highlights of Climate Change

    Treesearch

    David L. Peterson; J.M. Wolken; Teresa Hollingsworth; Christian Giardina; J.S. Littell; Linda Joyce; Chris Swanston; Stephen Handler; Lindsey Rustad; Steve McNulty

    2014-01-01

    Climatic extremes, ecological disturbance, and their interactions are expected to have major effects on ecosystems and social systems in most regions of the United States in the coming decades. In Alaska, where the largest temperature increases have occurred, permafrost is melting, carbon is being released, and fire regimes are changing, leading to a...

  14. MC-1 Mare Boreum Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-1 quadrangle, Mare Boreum region of Mars. The central part is covered by a residual ice cap that is cut by spiral-patterned troughs exposing layered terrain. The cap is surrounded by broad flat plains and large dune fields. Latitude range 65 to 90, longitude range -180 to 180.

  15. MC-5 Ismenius Lacus Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-5 quadrangle, Ismenius Lacus region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands of the southern part are separated from the relatively smooth plains of the northern part by a belt of dissected terrain, containing mesas and buttes. Latitude range 30 to 65 degrees, longitude range -60 to 0 degrees.

  16. Jupiter Great Red Spot Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-09-26

    This mosaic of Jupiter Great Red Spot taken by NASA Voyager 1, shows the area around the northern boundary where a white cloud is seen which extends to east of the region. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00065

  17. Multimodal analgesia and regional anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Tornero Tornero, C; Fernández Rodríguez, L E; Orduña Valls, J

    Multimodal analgesia provides quality analgesia, with fewer side effects due to the use of combined analgesics or analgesic techniques. Regional anaesthesia plays a fundamental role in achieving this goal. The different techniques of regional anaesthesia that include both peripheral and central blocks in either a single dose or in continuous infusion help to modulate the nociceptive stimuli that access the central level. The emergence of the ultrasound as an effective system to perform regional anaesthesia techniques has allowed the development of new regional anaesthesia techniques that formerly could not be carried out since only neurostimulation or skin references were used. It is essential to take into account that even with effective blocking it is advisable to associate other drugs by other routes, in this way we will be able to reduce the required doses individually and attempt to achieve a synergistic, not purely additive, effect. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. PREL Pacific Region Language Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Region Educational Lab., Honolulu, HI.

    This collection of 10 cue cards presents English translations of common English words and expressions into 10 Pacific Region languages: Palauan, Samoan, Chamorro, Hawaiian, Carolinian, Chuukese, Pohnpeian, Marshallese, Yapese, and Kosraean. The cards translate the following: hello, good morning, good afternoon, good night, thank you, you're…

  19. Biocapacity optimization in regional planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianjun; Yue, Dongxia; Li, Kai; Hui, Cang

    2017-01-01

    Ecological overshoot has been accelerating across the globe. Optimizing biocapacity has become a key to resolve the overshoot of ecological demand in regional sustainable development. However, most literature has focused on reducing ecological footprint but ignores the potential of spatial optimization of biocapacity through regional planning of land use. Here we develop a spatial probability model and present four scenarios for optimizing biocapacity of a river basin in Northwest China. The potential of enhanced biocapacity and its effects on ecological overshoot and water consumption in the region were explored. Two scenarios with no restrictions on croplands and water use reduced the overshoot by 29 to 53%, and another two scenarios which do not allow croplands and water use to increase worsened the overshoot by 11 to 15%. More spatially flexible transition rules of land use led to higher magnitude of change after optimization. However, biocapacity optimization required a large amount of additional water resources, casting considerable pressure on the already water-scarce socio-ecological system. Our results highlight the potential for policy makers to manage/optimize regional land use which addresses ecological overshoot. Investigation on the feasibility of such spatial optimization complies with the forward-looking policies for sustainable development and deserves further attention.

  20. Regional Libraries Study, FY93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont State Dept. of Libraries, Montpelier.

    The Vermont General Assembly mandated an evaluation of the regional library program of the Vermont State Department of Libraries. To carry out this charge, the department initiated a 14-month review of the program with three components: an internal review of library service, use, and costs; public library input derived from a detailed survey and…

  1. Regional Background Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling system composed of the global model GEOS-Chem providing hourly lateral boundary conditions to the regional model CMAQ was used to calculate the policy relevant background level of fine particulate: matter. Simulations were performed for the full year of 2004 over the d...

  2. SDO Sees Active Region Outbursts

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This close up video by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory shows an active region near the right-hand edge of the sun’s disk, which erupted with at least a dozen minor events over a 30-hour period fr...

  3. Future and present regional wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameh, T.; Vrac, M.; Drobinski, P.; Naveau, P.

    2009-04-01

    Accurate and rapid determination of near-surface wind fields in a complex area (orography, inhomogeneous surface properties) is a challenge for applications like the evaluation of wind energy production, the prediction of pollution transport and hazardous conditions for aeronautics and ship navigation, among others. This work presents a statistical downscaling approach for regional near-surface wind field in the region of southern France (characterized by the presence of major mountain ranges). It is based on generalized additive models (GAM, Salameh et al. 2008), relating large-scale upper air to local-scale surface atmospheric fields. We apply our statistical downscaling model conditionally on regional circulation patterns defined from measurements. Hence, near-surface wind components in southern France are simulated based on large-scale information from ERA-40 reanalyses (1991-2001) and from IPCC scenarios (1991-2001 and 2040-2050). The performances of our method are evaluated, (1) by comparing downscaled wind from ERA-40 and from IPCC, and (2) by comparing them with measurements, for the period 1991-2001. Then, we evaluate the change in regional atmospheric circulations in southern France, by comparing future and present downscaled wind.

  4. Microinstabilities in the pedestal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, David; Dudson, Benjamin; Wilson, Howard; Roach, Colin

    2014-10-01

    The regulation of transport at the pedestal top is important for the inter-ELM pedestal dynamics. Linear gyrokinetic analysis of the pedestal region during an ELM cycle on MAST has shown kinetic ballooning modes to be unstable at the knee of the pressure profile and in the steep pedestal region whilst microtearing modes (MTMs) dominate in the shallow gradient region inboard of the pedestal top. The transition between these instabilities at the pedestal knee has been observed in low and high collisionality MAST pedestals, and is likely to play an important role in the broadening of the pedestal. Nonlinear simulations are needed in this region to understand the microturbulence, the corresponding transport fluxes, and to gain further insight into the processes underlying the pedestal evolution. Such gyrokinetic simulations are numerically challenging and recent upgrades to the GS2 gyrokinetic code help improve their feasibility. We are also exploring reduced models that capture the relevant physics using the plasma simulation framework BOUT + + . An electromagnetic gyrofluid model has recently been implemented with BOUT + + that has significantly reduced computational cost compared to the gyrokinetic simulations against which it will be benchmarked. This work was funded by the RCUK Energy programme, EURATOM and a EUROFusion fellowship WP14-FRF-CCFE/Dickinson and was carried out using: HELIOS at IFERC, Japan; ARCHER (EPSRC Grant No. EP/L000237/1); HECToR (EPSRC Grant No. EP/H002081/1).

  5. Biocapacity optimization in regional planning.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jianjun; Yue, Dongxia; Li, Kai; Hui, Cang

    2017-01-23

    Ecological overshoot has been accelerating across the globe. Optimizing biocapacity has become a key to resolve the overshoot of ecological demand in regional sustainable development. However, most literature has focused on reducing ecological footprint but ignores the potential of spatial optimization of biocapacity through regional planning of land use. Here we develop a spatial probability model and present four scenarios for optimizing biocapacity of a river basin in Northwest China. The potential of enhanced biocapacity and its effects on ecological overshoot and water consumption in the region were explored. Two scenarios with no restrictions on croplands and water use reduced the overshoot by 29 to 53%, and another two scenarios which do not allow croplands and water use to increase worsened the overshoot by 11 to 15%. More spatially flexible transition rules of land use led to higher magnitude of change after optimization. However, biocapacity optimization required a large amount of additional water resources, casting considerable pressure on the already water-scarce socio-ecological system. Our results highlight the potential for policy makers to manage/optimize regional land use which addresses ecological overshoot. Investigation on the feasibility of such spatial optimization complies with the forward-looking policies for sustainable development and deserves further attention.

  6. PREL Pacific Region Language Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Region Educational Lab., Honolulu, HI.

    This collection of 10 cue cards presents English translations of common English words and expressions into 10 Pacific Region languages: Palauan, Samoan, Chamorro, Hawaiian, Carolinian, Chuukese, Pohnpeian, Marshallese, Yapese, and Kosraean. The cards translate the following: hello, good morning, good afternoon, good night, thank you, you're…

  7. Education and Italian Regional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Liberto, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the connection between growth and human capital in a convergence regression for the panel of Italian regions. We include measures of average primary, secondary and tertiary education. We find that increased education seems to contribute to growth only in the South. Decomposing total schooling into its three constituent…

  8. Higher Education and European Regionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Lindsay

    2001-01-01

    Speculates about the relationship between two fundamental social changes occurring in Europe: the development of a mass higher education system and the slow decay of the old states that were inherited from the 19th century, eroded from below by various movements for national and regional autonomy, and eroded from above by the growing power and…

  9. Regional Needs Analysis Report. 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB) is required to develop a comprehensive and ongoing needs assessment process to analyze demand for additional degrees and programs [RCW 28B.76.230 (1)]. This report fulfills a portion of that mandate by focusing on employer demand on the regional level, but also includes additional information on…

  10. Regional Resources for Scottish Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, David D.

    A series of interviews of education professionals was conducted in 12 regions of Scotland to gather information on the resource provisions made by education authorities, and to examine the extent of resource centers in the schools. This report details the range of teachers' centers, resource centers, resource collections, and equipment banks…

  11. Io, the South Polar Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-06-04

    This archival image mosaic from NASA Voyager 1 shows Io south polar region. The South Pole is near the terminator line between daylight and night at right center. Haemus Mons, a 10-km high 32,000 foot mountain is at bottom. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00327

  12. Regionalization--Deja Vu Again?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallanan, Edwin J.

    The subject of regionalization or the consolidation of schools has been a major issue of discussion and educational research for the past 15 years. A fact that has come out of the research is that consolidation is expensive. Yet, some observers continue to recommend consolidating the remaining school districts. When schools are closed, children…

  13. L'insegnamento della lingua inglese nella scuola materna: un'indagine in area romana (Teaching English in Preschool: A Survey in the Rome Area).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevetti, Franca

    1987-01-01

    Presents the results of a survey to determine the extent to which English was taught and what methods were used in public and private nursery schools in Rome, Italy, during the academic year 1985-86. (CFM)

  14. 32 CFR 1605.7 - Region Manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Region Manager. 1605.7 Section 1605.7 National... ORGANIZATION Region Administration § 1605.7 Region Manager. (a) Subject to the direction and control of the Director of Selective Service, the Region Manager of Selective Service for each region shall be in...

  15. 32 CFR 1605.7 - Region Manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Region Manager. 1605.7 Section 1605.7 National... ORGANIZATION Region Administration § 1605.7 Region Manager. (a) Subject to the direction and control of the Director of Selective Service, the Region Manager of Selective Service for each region shall be...

  16. Fireball of 30 May 2017 over NE Italy: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stomeo, Enrico; Eltri, Maurizio

    2017-03-01

    A big fireball has been observed in Northern Italy at 21h09m22s UT on 30 May 2017. The fireball was registered by 3 video cameras of the Italian Meteor Group and observed by many visual people. The preliminary trajectory above the area between Romagna and Veneto regions was calculated.

  17. An Evaluation of a High-Resolution Operational Wave Forecasting System in the Adriatic Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    SIMC of Emilia Romagna Region, Bologna, Italy; model (2) was run by the University of Athens: model (3) was run by the Marine Science Institute of...work of Martina Tudor. We thank APAT for sharing RON wave buoy data. We thank Jacopo Chiggiato and Servizio Idro-Meteo-Clima ARPA-SIMC of Emilia

  18. Algorithms for Labeling Focus Regions.

    PubMed

    Fink, M; Haunert, Jan-Henrik; Schulz, A; Spoerhase, J; Wolff, A

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of labeling point sites in focus regions of maps or diagrams. This problem occurs, for example, when the user of a mapping service wants to see the names of restaurants or other POIs in a crowded downtown area but keep the overview over a larger area. Our approach is to place the labels at the boundary of the focus region and connect each site with its label by a linear connection, which is called a leader. In this way, we move labels from the focus region to the less valuable context region surrounding it. In order to make the leader layout well readable, we present algorithms that rule out crossings between leaders and optimize other characteristics such as total leader length and distance between labels. This yields a new variant of the boundary labeling problem, which has been studied in the literature. Other than in traditional boundary labeling, where leaders are usually schematized polylines, we focus on leaders that are either straight-line segments or Bezier curves. Further, we present algorithms that, given the sites, find a position of the focus region that optimizes the above characteristics. We also consider a variant of the problem where we have more sites than space for labels. In this situation, we assume that the sites are prioritized by the user. Alternatively, we take a new facility-location perspective which yields a clustering of the sites. We label one representative of each cluster. If the user wishes, we apply our approach to the sites within a cluster, giving details on demand.

  19. Regional location in western China

    SciTech Connect

    Cogbill, A.H.; Steck, L.K.

    1996-10-01

    Accurately locating seismic events in western China using only regional seismic stations is a challenge. Not only is the number of seismic stations available for locating events small, but most stations available to researchers are often over 10{degree} distant. Here the authors describe the relocation, using regional stations, of both nuclear and earthquake sources near the Lop Nor test site in western China. For such relocations, they used the Earthquake Data Reports provided by the US Geological Survey (USGS) for the reported travel times. Such reports provide a listing of all phases reported to the USGS from stations throughout the world, including many stations in the People`s Republic of China. LocSAT was used as the location code. The authors systematically relocated each event int his study several times, using fewer and fewer stations at reach relocation, with the farther stations being eliminated at each step. They found that location accuracy, judged by comparing solutions from few stations to the solution provided using all available stations, remained good typically until fewer than seven stations remained.With a good station distribution, location accuracy remained surprisingly good (within 7 km) using as few as 3 stations. Because these relocations were computed without good station corrections and without source-specific station corrections (that is, path corrections), they believe that such regional locations can be substantially improved, largely using static station corrections and source-specific station corrections, at least in the Lop nor area, where sources have known locations. Elsewhere in China, one must rely upon known locations of regionally-recorded explosions. Locating such sources is clearly one of the major problems to be overcome before one can provide event locations with any assurance from regional stations.

  20. Regional Sediment Budgets for the Haleiwa Region, Oahu, Hawaii

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Hawaii by Jessica H. Podoski PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) reviews the development of conceptual...morphology and coastal processes have on sediment pathways and transport volumes. In the Southeast Oahu Region, Mokapu Point to Makapuu Point RSB...and Development Center, Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory,3909 Halls Ferry Road,Vicksburg,MS,39180-6199 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9

  1. Numerical Simulation of Regional Circulation in the Monterey Bay Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Y. H.; Dietrich, D. E.; Ferziger, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to produce a high-resolution numerical model of Mon- terey Bay area in which the dynamics are determined by the complex geometry of the coastline, steep bathymetry, and the in uence of the water masses that constitute the CCS. Our goal is to simulate the regional-scale ocean response with realistic dynamics (annual cycle), forcing, and domain. In particular, we focus on non-hydrostatic e ects (by comparing the results of hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic models) and the role of complex geometry, i.e. the bay and submarine canyon, on the nearshore circulation. To the best of our knowledge, the current study is the rst to simulate the regional circulation in the vicinity of Monterey Bay using a non-hydrostatic model. Section 2 introduces the high resolution Monterey Bay area regional model (MBARM). Section 3 provides the results and veri cation with mooring and satellite data. Section 4 compares the results of hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic models.

  2. [Regional clinical audit, guideline targets, and local and regional benchmarks].

    PubMed

    Casino, F G; Lopez, T

    2005-01-01

    Regional clinical Audit, guideline Targets and local and regional Benchmarks In order to improve the quality of dialysis treatment, we have devised some routines, particularly suitable for electronic data management systems. First, we suggest a systematic monthly analysis of 10 common clinical performance measures (CPM), with the following guideline based targets: predialysis systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 140 mmHg; session length >/= 240 min; dialysis dose (spKt/V) >/=1.3; normalized protein catabolic rate (NPCR) >/=1.2 g/kg/d; hemoglobin (Hb) >/=11 g/dL; serum calcium (Ca) 8.4-9.5 mg/dL; serum phosphorus (P) 3.5-5.5 mg/dL; Ca x P /=20 mmol/L; serum potassium (K) 3.5-6.0 mmol/L. The Hb target should be reached in at least 85% of all maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients in the unit; for all other targets, an arbitrary >/=80% is proposed. Since the above percentages are quite difficult to reach on a short-term basis, an intermediate local or regional standard (benchmark) could be devised as an average of the percentage of patients who actually reach the targets for each CPM at any dialysis unit in a given regional area; and therefore, from truly comparable patients. As an example, we simulated a regional audit by using the above targets with available data from 398 patients from southern Italy. A further step in this process was to find the cause(s) of failure in each patient who did not reach the targets. To this end, we suggest a systematic search of the well-known factors that could affect each CPM, for each failed patient. As an example, we screened all patients with Hb < 11 g/dL at a single unit, to establish the presence/absence of any common cause associated with inadequate response to epoetin treatment. Moreover, by using criteria for prescribing iron therapy or increasing epoetin dose, we found that some patients did not receive the appropriate therapy after blood sampling results. To avoid this possible

  3. EURO-CORDEX regional climate models: Performance over Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stilinović, Tomislav; Güttler, Ivan; Srnec, Lidija; Branković, Čedo

    2017-04-01

    Regional climate models (RCMs) are high-resolution version of a global climate models (GCMs) designed to achieve simulations at horizontal resolutions relevant for human activities on local and regional spatial scales, and to simulate relevant processes in historical and potential future climate conditions. In this study, a set of experiments the EURO-CORDEX simulations are evaluated over the Mediterranean region. All simulations were made at the two horizontal resolutions (50 km and 12.5 km) and compared with gridded pan-European gridded dataset E-OBSv11 at the regular 0.25°×0.25° grid for the two periods (1989-2008 for the ERA-Interim-driven ensemble of simulations; 1971-2000 for the GCMs-driven ensemble of simulations). We will evaluate the impacts of (1) the boundary conditions, (2) different horizontal resolutions (0.44°/50 km vs. 0.11°/12.5 km), and (3) the impact of convective parametrization on systematic errors, specialy in case of the RegCM4 model extensively used at DHMZ. For each simulation commonly used evaluation metrics are applied. They include: (1) spatially-averaged differences between RCMs and observations, (2) the spatial 95 th percentiles of simulated and observed temperature and precipitation, (3) spatial correlation coefficients between models and observations, (4) the ratio of spatial standard deviations between simulated and observed fields, and (5) the Spearman rank correlations between simulated and observed time-series of spatially-averaged temperature and precipitation. As commonly found in other studies, the total precipitation in RCM simulations is often overestimated and spatial correlations are noticeably lower than for temperature. The results highlight that, the RegCM4 is able to capture the (observed) spatial variability of the Mediterranean temperature climate. This is indicated by high spatial correlations with values larger than 0.9 and values of normalized standard deviation below 1 for Mediterranean region. The results

  4. Schwannoma Located in Nasopharyngeal Region

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Fadlullah; Senturk, Erol; Ozturan, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Schwannoma is a tumor which has neuroectoderm origins, is hard, well-circumscribed, encapsulated, and slow growing benign cranial tumor, and may autonomously grow out of the nerve sheath of peripheral nerves. It is mostly seen in the head and neck region. In the paranasal sinus and nose areas, it is seen at a rate of 4%. The diagnosis is mostly made after histopathological examination. In this paper, a Schwannoma case observed in the nasopharyngeal region was presented in a 20-year-old female who had complaints of sleeping with open mouth, snoring, foreign body feeling in throat, and swallowing difficulties. The tumor was extracted via transoral approach. No recurrence was observed during follow-up over the next year. This case presentation is presented for the first time in the literature in English. PMID:27293938

  5. Saliency detection using regional histograms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Le Meur, Olivier; Luo, Shuhua; Shen, Liquan

    2013-03-01

    We propose an efficient regional histogram (RH)-based computation model for saliency detection in natural images. First, the global histogram is constructed by performing an adaptive color quantization on the original image. Then multiple RHs are built on the basis of the region segmentation result, and the color-spatial similarity between each pixel and each RH is calculated accordingly. Two efficient measures, distinctiveness and compactness of each RH, are evaluated based on the color difference with the global histogram and the color distribution over the whole image, respectively. Finally, the pixel-level saliency map is generated by integrating the color-spatial similarity measures with the distinctiveness and compactness measures. Experimental results on a dataset containing 1000 test images with ground truths demonstrate that the proposed saliency model consistently outperforms state-of-the-art saliency models.

  6. [Health in Andean regional integration].

    PubMed

    Agudelo, Carlos A

    2007-01-01

    Despite their shared history, the Andean countries are socially and politically diverse, with heterogeneous health realities and complex integration processes. General developments such as the Latin American Free Trade Association and Latin American Integration Association have existed for decades, along with others of a regional scope, like the Andean Community of Nations, Caribbean Community, and Central American Common Market. The health field has a specific instrument in the Andean Region called the Hipólito Unánue Agreement, created in 1971. Integration processes have concentrated on economic aspects, based on preferential customs agreements that have led to an important long-term increase in trade. Less progress has been made in the field of health in terms of sharing national experiences, knowledge, and capabilities. Analysis of experiences in health has shown that integration depends on the countries' respective strengths and to a major extent on national political processes.

  7. Marine cloud brightening: regional applications.

    PubMed

    Latham, John; Gadian, Alan; Fournier, Jim; Parkes, Ben; Wadhams, Peter; Chen, Jack

    2014-12-28

    The general principle behind the marine cloud brightening (MCB) climate engineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with substantial concentrations of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre-sized seawater particles might significantly enhance cloud albedo and longevity, thereby producing a cooling effect. This paper is concerned with preliminary studies of the possible beneficial application of MCB to three regional issues: (1) recovery of polar ice loss, (2) weakening of developing hurricanes and (3) elimination or reduction of coral bleaching. The primary focus is on Item 1. We focus discussion herein on advantages associated with engaging in limited-area seeding, regional effects rather than global; and the levels of seeding that may be required to address changing current and near-term conditions in the Arctic. We also mention the possibility that MCB might be capable of producing a localized cooling to help stabilize the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.

  8. Marine cloud brightening: regional applications

    PubMed Central

    Latham, John; Gadian, Alan; Fournier, Jim; Parkes, Ben; Wadhams, Peter; Chen, Jack

    2014-01-01

    The general principle behind the marine cloud brightening (MCB) climate engineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with substantial concentrations of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre-sized seawater particles might significantly enhance cloud albedo and longevity, thereby producing a cooling effect. This paper is concerned with preliminary studies of the possible beneficial application of MCB to three regional issues: (1) recovery of polar ice loss, (2) weakening of developing hurricanes and (3) elimination or reduction of coral bleaching. The primary focus is on Item 1. We focus discussion herein on advantages associated with engaging in limited-area seeding, regional effects rather than global; and the levels of seeding that may be required to address changing current and near-term conditions in the Arctic. We also mention the possibility that MCB might be capable of producing a localized cooling to help stabilize the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. PMID:25404682

  9. Star Forming Regions in Cepheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, M.; Kiss, Z. T.; Balog, Z.

    2008-12-01

    The northern Milky Way in the constellation of Cepheus (100° ≤ l ≤ 120°; 0° ≤ b ≤ 20°) contains several star forming regions. The molecular clouds of the Cepheus Flare region at b > 10°, are sites of low and intermediate mass star formation located between 200 and 450 pc from the Sun. Three nearby OB associations, Cep OB2, Cep OB3, Cep OB4, located at 600--800 pc, are eac= h involved in forming stars, like the well known high mass star forming regio= n S 140 at 900 pc. The reflection nebula NGC 7129 around 1 kpc harbors young, compact clusters of low and intermediate mass stars. The giant star forming complex NGC 7538 and the young open cluster NGC 7380, associated with the Perseus arm, are located at d > 2 kpc.

  10. Forest clearing and regional landsliding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montgomery, D.R.; Schmidt, K.M.; Greenberg, H.M.; Dietrich, W.E.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of forest clearing on landsliding is central to longstanding concern over the effects of timber harvesting on slope stability. Here we document a strong topographic control on shallow landsliding by combining unique ground-based landslide surveys in an intensively monitored study area with digital terrain modeling using high-resolution laser altimetry and a coarser resolution regional study of 3224 landslides. As predicted by our digital terrain-based model, landslides occur disproportionately in steep, convergent topography. In terrain predicted to be at low risk of slope failure, a random model performs equally well to our mechanism-based model. Our monitoring shows that storms with 24 hr rainfall recurrence intervals of less than 4 yr triggered landslides in the decade after forest clearing and that conventional monitoring programs can substantially underestimate the effects of forest clearing. Our regional analysis further substantiates that forest clearing dramatically accelerates shallow landsliding in steep terrain typical of the Pacific Northwest.

  11. The transition regions of Capella

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Wood, Brian E.; Judge, Philip; Brown, Alexander; Andrulis, Catherine; Ayers, Thomas R.

    1995-01-01

    We have used the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS) to observe the spectoscopic binary system Capella (G8 III + G1 III). Exposures with the G140L, G140M, G160M, G200M, and echelle gratings provide emission line profiles with unprecedented signal-to-noise and spectral resolving power (lambda/Delta-lambda) up to 92,000. Multi-Gaussin fits to the line profiles show that the hotter star contributes 60%-70% of the total flux in the chromospheric O I and Mg II resonance lines, but about 90% of the flux in the Si III, Si IV, and C IV lines formed in the transition region at T less than or = 10(exp 5) K. We find clear evidence that the emission lines from the hotter star are systemtically redshifted relative to the photosphere with Doppler shifts of 5 +/- 1 km/s for the +9 +/- 3 km/s in the chromospheric Mg II and O I lines, respectively, increasing to +24 +/- 5 km/s for the transition region Si IV 1393.8A line. The multi-Gaussian fits to permitted transition region lines of SI III, Si IV, C IV, and N V indicate the presence of three components: moderately broad lines formed in the transition region of the hotter star (component H), narrow lines formed in the transition region of the cooler star (component C), and very broad lines that we think are formed in microflares on the hotter star (component B). The He II 1640.4 A feature has an broad profile, which indicates that it is formed by collisional excitation primarily from the hotter star, and a weak narrow component that we interpret as due to radiative recombination on the cooler star. We observed spin-forbidden emission lines of C III), O III), Si III), O IV), O V), and S IV) that are sensitive to electron density. Fainter members of the O IV) multiplet and all of the S IV) lines have never before been seen in any star than the Sun. We determine electron densities in the transition regions of the Capella stars using lines ratios of O IV) lines and emission measure analysis. The emission measures are self

  12. Sustainable development: a regional perspective.

    PubMed

    Icamina, P

    1988-12-01

    This article discusses sustainable development in Asia and current environmental problems in this region. Droughts and rainy seasons pose a major concern indicating environmental limitations: India's 1987 drought halted world grain production and China suffered US $435 million in flooding damage. Deforestation and land degradation are consequences of a rising population's demand for agriculture, fuelwood, irrigation, and hydroelectric projects; 1815 million hectares of forest are cleared/year and 40% of the land could possible be subjected to soil erosion. Although population growth is declining in some Asian countries, the continent inhabits the greatest proportion of world population; 300 million are underfed. Food production remains a problem for this region because of bad weather, highly populated areas, less cropland, soil erosion, and limited water supply. Efforts currently employed to conserve natural resources include community reforestation, providing available drinking water, substituting firewood for fuelwood, and delivering primary health care.

  13. Pollutant transport among California regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angevine, Wayne M.; Brioude, Jerome; McKeen, Stuart; Holloway, John S.; Lerner, Brian M.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guha, Abhinav; Andrews, Arlyn; Nowak, John B.; Evan, Stephanie; Fischer, Marc L.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Bon, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Several regions within California have significant air quality issues. Transport of pollutants emitted in one region to another region may add to the impact of local emissions. In this work, Lagrangian particle dispersion model simulations show the amounts of tracers that are transported within and among four regions, Southern California, the San Francisco Bay Area, the Central Valley, and the rest of the state. The simulations cover May and June of 2010, the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change experiment period. Tracers of automobile emissions and one type of agricultural emission are used. Tracer mixing ratios are compared to airborne and ground-based measurements. The age of tracers in each location is also presented. Vertical profiles and diurnal cycles help to clarify the transport process. As is well known, Southern California emissions are transported to the east and affect the desert areas, and Bay Area automobile emissions are an important source of pollutants in the San Joaquin Valley. A novel result is that the Southern California Bight is filled with a mixture of well-aged carbon monoxide tracer from Southern California and the Bay Area. Air over the Bight is also affected by the agricultural emissions represented by the agricultural tracer, dominantly from the Central Valley where its sources are largest. There is no indication of transport from Southern California to the Central Valley. Emissions from the Central Valley do make their way to Southern California, as shown by the agricultural tracer, but automobile emissions from the Valley are insignificant in Southern California.

  14. Source Contributions at Regional Distances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-14

    turbidity, and source excitation can in some instances be recovered. High frequency RSTN data with bandwidths as high as 7 Hz are analyzed. The coda Q values...observations used in this study are seismograms from Nevada Test Site (NTS) nuclear explosions and earthquakes in the California/Gulf of California region. The...Yield estimates of Nevada Test Site explosions obtained from seismic Lg waves, J.Geophys.Res., 91, 2137-2151 Nuttli, O.W. (1988): Lg magnitudes and yield

  15. MC-11 Oxia Palus Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-11 quadrangle, Oxia Palus region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands of the southeastern two-thirds are cut by several large outflow channels. These channels terminate at the dark large depression, Chryse basin, which contain relatively smooth plains in the northwestern part. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range 0 to 45 degrees.

  16. MC-22 Mare Tyrrhenum Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-22 quadrangle, Mare Tyrrhenum region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands dominate the Mare Tyrrhenum quadrangle. The central part is marked by a large shield volcano, Tyrrhena Patera, and associated ridged plains of Hesperia Planum that probably are made up of basaltic lava flows. Latitude range -30 to 0 degrees, longitude range -135 to -90 degrees.

  17. MC-19 Margaritifer Sinus Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-19 quadrangle, Margaritifer Sinus region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands, which dominate the Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle, are marked by large expanses of chaotic terrain. In the northwestern part, the major rift zone of Valles Marineris connects with a broad canyon filled with chaotic terrain. Latitude range -30 to 0, longitude range 0 to 45 degrees.

  18. MC-20 Sinus Sabeus Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-20 quadrangle, Sinus Sabeus region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands dominate the Sinus Sabeus quadrangle. The northern part is marked by a large impact crater, Schiaparelli. Schiaparelli is an ancient remnant of the many large impact events that occurred during the period of heavy bombardment. Latitude range -30 to 0 degrees, longitude range -45 to 0.

  19. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2006-08-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's (SECARB) Phase I program focused on promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and commercial deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The SECARB program, and its subsequent phases, directly support the Global Climate Change Initiative's goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by the year 2012. Work during the project's two-year period was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix''. The SECARB team was successful in accomplishing its tasks to define the geographic boundaries of the region; characterize the region; identify and address issues for technology deployment; develop public involvement and education mechanisms; identify the most promising capture, sequestration, and transport options; and prepare action plans for implementation and technology validation activity. Milestones accomplished during Phase I of the project are listed below: (1) Completed preliminary identification of geographic boundaries for the study (FY04, Quarter 1); (2) Completed initial inventory of major sources and sinks for the region (FY04, Quarter 2); (3) Completed initial development of plans for GIS (FY04, Quarter 3); (4) Completed preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues (FY04, Quarter 4); (5) Assessed safety, regulatory and permitting issues (FY05, Quarter 1); (6) Finalized inventory of major sources/sinks and refined GIS algorithms (FY05, Quarter 2); (7) Refined public involvement and education mechanisms in support of technology development options (FY05, Quarter 3); and (8) Identified the most promising capture, sequestration and transport options and prepared action plans (FY05, Quarter 4).

  20. Indian Ocean Region - Superpower Interests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-21

    Arab-Israeli wars, the Iraq-Iran war dividing the Muslim world and the occupation of Afghanistan by the Soviet troops, lead- ing to regional conflicts...with its policy of apartheid the Palestinian problem leading to Arab-Israeli wars, the Iraq-Iran war dividing the Muslim world and the occupation of...interested in the Malay archipelago--the Spice Islands. The Dutch also established themselves firmly at the Cape of Good Hope, in Mauritius, on the coast

  1. A Regional Medical Library Network *

    PubMed Central

    Pizer, Irwin H.

    1969-01-01

    The raison d'être for cooperative networks is discussed, and the development of the SUNY Biomedical Communication Network is traced briefly; a description of the system and its products is given. The cooperative cataloging program engaged in with the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine and the National Library of Medicine is described, as are the efforts of the Network in the production of regional and state-wide union lists of serials. PMID:5778720

  2. Climatology of urban regional systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pease, R. W.

    1970-01-01

    The combining of remote sensing technologies to urban-regional energy climatology is studied. It was found to be three dimensional with a mosaic urban surface, each smaller surface with its own radiant and thermal properties. Urban patterns of radiant exchange were found to be constantly changing during diurnal and annual cycles. Results were derived from Barbados data using remote methods for monitoring and mapping radiation. Isoline maps of terrestrial radiation patterns were made generalizing the minute patterns of the scan image.

  3. Appendix 1: Regional summaries - Alaska

    Treesearch

    Jane M. Wolken; Teresa N. Hollingsworth

    2012-01-01

    Alaskan forests cover one-third of the state’s 52 million ha of land (Parson et al. 2001), and are regionally and globally significant. Ninety percent of Alaskan forests are classified as boreal, representing 4 percent of the world’s boreal forests, and are located throughout interior and south-central Alaska (fig. A1-1). The remaining 10 percent of Alaskan forests are...

  4. Cold regions hydrology and hydraulics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, W.L. ); Crissman, R.D. )

    1990-01-01

    This monograph addresses a narrow aspect of cold regions engineering, namely the effects of cold weather on the traditional civil engineering disciplines of hydrology and hydraulics. Hydrologic and hydraulic considerations in the design, construction, and operation of civil works are very important. Many of the problems encountered in the design and construction of buildings, transportation systems, water supply facilities, waste treatment facilities, and hazardous waste disposal facilities, for example are closely tied to the characteristics of the site hydrology.

  5. Regional Variability of Thermohaline Finestructure.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    the Sargasso Sea yo-yo data were acquired (Hallock, et al., 1982). * The regions in the vicinity of the Iceland-Faeroe- Shetland gaps are...along the south coast of Iceland as the Irminger Current, and northeastward through the Faeroe- Shetland gap into the Norwegian Sea, converging with the...10) U through the Faeroe- Shetland Channel. Ship drift at Station 175 was northwestward. Of particular interest is the deep frontal feature evident in

  6. EPA Region 3 Quality Management Plans

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Has links to resources that describe the Region's Quality Assurance Program, which is a collection of the Region's ongoing quality assurance (QA) policies, procedures, responsibilities and management systems.

  7. Developing a Regional Recovery Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Clark, Rebecca; Kelly, Heather; Sheline, Jim; Tietje, Grant; Williamson, Mark; Woodcock, Jody

    2011-09-01

    Abstract A biological attack would present an unprecedented challenge for local, state, and federal agencies; the military; the private sector; and individuals on many fronts ranging from vaccination and treatment to prioritization of cleanup actions to waste disposal. To prepare the Seattle region to recover from a biological attack, the Seattle Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) partners collaborated with military and federal agencies to develop a Regional Recovery Framework for a Biological Attack in the Seattle Urban Area. The goal was to reduce the time and resources required to recover and restore wide urban areas, military installations, and other critical infrastructure following a biological incident by providing a coordinated systems approach. Based on discussions in small workshops, tabletop exercises, and interviews with emergency response agency staff, the partners identified concepts of operation for various areas to address critical issues the region will face as recovery progresses. Key to this recovery is the recovery of the economy. Although the Framework is specific to a catastrophic, wide-area biological attack using anthrax, it was designed to be flexible and scalable so it could also serve as the recovery framework for an all-hazards approach. The Framework also served to coalesce policy questions that must be addressed for long-term recovery. These questions cover such areas as safety and health, security, financial management, waste management, legal issues, and economic development.

  8. Decay of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.; Choudhary, Debi Prasad

    2005-01-01

    We examine the record of sunspot group areas observed over a period of 100 years to determine the rate of decay of solar active regions. We exclude observations of groups when they are more than 60deg in longitude from the central meridian and only include data when at least three days of observations are available following the date of maximum area for a spot group's disk passage. This leaves data for some 24,000 observations of active region decay. We find that the decay rate is a constant 20 microHem/day for spots smaller than about 200 microHem (about the size of a supergranule). This decay rate increases linearly to about 90 microHem/day for spots with areas of 1000 microHem. We find no evidence for significant variations in active region decay from one solar cycle to another. However, we do find that the decay rate is slower at lower latitudes. This gives a slower decay rate during the declining phase of sunspot cycles.

  9. Great Lakes' regional climate regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsov, Sergey; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Roebber, Paul

    2016-04-01

    We simulate the seasonal cycle of the Great Lakes' water temperature and lake ice using an idealized coupled lake-atmosphere-ice model. Under identical seasonally varying boundary conditions, this model exhibits more than one seasonally varying equilibrium solutions, which we associate with distinct regional climate regimes. Colder/warmer regimes are characterized by abundant/scarce amounts of wintertime ice and cooler/warmer summer temperatures, respectively. These regimes are also evident in the observations of the Great Lakes' climate variability over recent few decades, and are found to be most pronounced for Lake Superior, the deepest of the Great Lakes, consistent with model predictions. Multiple climate regimes of the Great Lakes also play a crucial role in the accelerated warming of the lakes relative to the surrounding land regions in response to larger-scale global warming. We discuss the physical origin and characteristics of multiple climate regimes over the lakes, as well as their implications for a longer-term regional climate variability.

  10. Decay of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.; Choudhary, Debi Prasad

    2005-01-01

    We examine the record of sunspot group areas observed over a period of 100 years to determine the rate of decay of solar active regions. We exclude observations of groups when they are more than 60deg in longitude from the central meridian and only include data when at least three days of observations are available following the date of maximum area for a spot group's disk passage. This leaves data for some 24,000 observations of active region decay. We find that the decay rate is a constant 20 microHem/day for spots smaller than about 200 microHem (about the size of a supergranule). This decay rate increases linearly to about 90 microHem/day for spots with areas of 1000 microHem. We find no evidence for significant variations in active region decay from one solar cycle to another. However, we do find that the decay rate is slower at lower latitudes. This gives a slower decay rate during the declining phase of sunspot cycles.

  11. Regional projection of climate impact indices over the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanueva, Ana; Frías, M.; Dolores; Herrera, Sixto; Bedia, Joaquín; San Martín, Daniel; Gutiérrez, José Manuel; Zaninovic, Ksenija

    2014-05-01

    Climate Impact Indices (CIIs) are being increasingly used in different socioeconomic sectors to transfer information about climate change impacts and risks to stakeholders. CIIs are typically based on different weather variables such as temperature, wind speed, precipitation or humidity and comprise, in a single index, the relevant meteorological information for the particular impact sector (in this study wildfires and tourism). This dependence on several climate variables poses important limitations to the application of statistical downscaling techniques, since physical consistency among variables is required in most cases to obtain reliable local projections. The present study assesses the suitability of the "direct" downscaling approach, in which the downscaling method is directly applied to the CII. In particular, for illustrative purposes, we consider two popular indices used in the wildfire and tourism sectors, the Fire Weather Index (FWI) and the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET), respectively. As an example, two case studies are analysed over two representative Mediterranean regions of interest for the EU CLIM-RUN project: continental Spain for the FWI and Croatia for the PET. Results obtained with this "direct" downscaling approach are similar to those found from the application of the statistical downscaling to the individual meteorological drivers prior to the index calculation ("component" downscaling) thus, a wider range of statistical downscaling methods could be used. As an illustration, future changes in both indices are projected by applying two direct statistical downscaling methods, analogs and linear regression, to the ECHAM5 model. Larger differences were found between the two direct statistical downscaling approaches than between the direct and the component approaches with a single downscaling method. While these examples focus on particular indices and Mediterranean regions of interest for CLIM-RUN stakeholders, the same study

  12. Regional Location Calibration in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steck, L. K.; Hartse, H.; Aprea, C.; Franks, J.; Velasco, A.; Randall, G.; Bradley, C.; Begnaud, M.; Aguilar-Chang, J.

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents a spectrum of issues and efforts involved in improving seismic location performance worldwide. Our efforts are largely designed around providing validated, rigorously calibrated travel times, azimuths, and slownesses along with accurate error estimates. To do so entails a significant effort that includes data mining, data integration, database management, developing optimal 1-, 2-, and 3-D Earth models, using the Earth models to predict wave propagation, developing corrections and errors for travel times, azimuths, and slownesses, and validation of all products. Results presented here will focus on Asia. For the region around station MAKZ in north-central Asia we have looked at several tens of published 1-D velocity models. For each model, travel time calculations were performed, predictions for P and S arrivals were established, and the predicted times were compared to the observed. We will present best-fit models for tectonic provinces out to regional distances from MAKZ. Previous work has shown that Non-stationary Modified Bayesian Kriging of travel time residuals successfully improves regional seismic event location, and this method is being extended to calculate corrections for azimuth and slowness. The ability to krig over 3-D Earth models is also being implemented. In order to produce the most useful corrections, we require accurate ground truth. For this we are continuing efforts to create a location database consisting of the best available seismic event locations and the most accurate and precise travel times. Building this database relies on participation from universities, other NNSA laboratories, and contacts in private industry. Through the kriging procedure we are able to stabilize location algorithms, but the ultimate usefulness of the corrections themselves is directly related to the quality of the ground truth from which the corrections are derived. Indeed, epicentral mislocations from EvLoc using travel time correction

  13. Regional air pollution over Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO

  14. Active region evolution in the chromosphere and transtition region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shine, R. A.; Schrijver, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    Images in the C IV 1548 A and the Si II 1526 S lines taken with the ultraviolet spectrometer polarimeter (UVSP) instrument on board the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite were combined into movies showing the evolution of active regions and the neighboring supergranulation over several days. The data sets generally consist of 240 by 240 arc second rasters with 3 arc second pixels taken one per orbit (about every 90 minutes). The images are projected on a latitude/longitude grid to remove the forshortening as the region rotates across the solar disk and further processed to remove jitter and gain variations. Movies were made with and without differential rotation. Although there are occasional missing orbits, these series do not suffer from the long nighttime gaps that occur in observations taken at a single groundbased observatory and are excellent for studying changes on time scales of several hours. The longest sequence processed to date runs from 20 Oct. 1980 to 25 Oct. 1980. This was taken during an SMM flare buildup study on AR 2744. Several shorter sequences taken in 1980 and 1984 will also be shown. The results will be presented on a video disk which can be interactively controlled to view the movies.

  15. Regional Slip Tendency Analysis of the Great Basin Region

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-09-30

    Slip and dilation tendency on the Great Basin fault surfaces (from the USGS Quaternary Fault Database) were calculated using 3DStress (software produced by Southwest Research Institute). Slip and dilation tendency are both unitless ratios of the resolved stresses applied to the fault plane by the measured ambient stress field. - Values range from a maximum of 1 (a fault plane ideally oriented to slip or dilate under ambient stress conditions) to zero (a fault plane with no potential to slip or dilate). - Slip and dilation tendency values were calculated for each fault in the Great Basin. As dip is unknown for many faults in the USGS Quaternary Fault Database, we made these calculations using the dip for each fault that would yield the maximum slip or dilation tendency. As such, these results should be viewed as maximum slip and dilation tendency. - The resulting along‐fault and fault‐to‐fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault‐to‐fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions were calculated across the entire Great Basin. Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson‐Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes, 2010; Davatzes and Hickman, 2006; Blake and Davatzes 2011; Blake and Davatzes, 2012; Moeck et al., 2010; Moos and Ronne, 2010 and Reinecker et al., 2005). The minimum horizontal stress direction (Shmin) was contoured, and spatial bins with common Shmin directions were calculated. Based on this technique, we subdivided the Great Basin into nine regions (Shmin <070, 070140). Slip and dilation tendency were calculated using 3DStress for the faults within each region using the mean Shmin for the region. Shmin variation throughout Great Basin

  16. 7 CFR 322.4 - Approved regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.4 Approved regions. (a) Adult honeybees. The following regions are approved for the importation of adult honeybees into..., Canada, and New Zealand. (b) Honeybee germ plasm. The following regions are approved for the importation...

  17. 7 CFR 322.4 - Approved regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.4 Approved regions. (a) Adult honeybees. The following regions are approved for the importation of adult honeybees into..., Canada, and New Zealand. (b) Honeybee germ plasm. The following regions are approved for the importation...

  18. 7 CFR 322.4 - Approved regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.4 Approved regions. (a) Adult honeybees. The following regions are approved for the importation of adult honeybees into..., Canada, and New Zealand. (b) Honeybee germ plasm. The following regions are approved for the importation...

  19. 7 CFR 322.4 - Approved regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.4 Approved regions. (a) Adult honeybees. The following regions are approved for the importation of adult honeybees into..., Canada, and New Zealand. (b) Honeybee germ plasm. The following regions are approved for the importation...

  20. 7 CFR 322.4 - Approved regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.4 Approved regions. (a) Adult honeybees. The following regions are approved for the importation of adult honeybees into..., Canada, and New Zealand. (b) Honeybee germ plasm. The following regions are approved for the importation...

  1. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  2. Appalachian Regional Commission: 1987 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jack, Ed.; And Others

    The Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) used its $105 million appropriation for fiscal year 1987 to support three major program areas in the 13 state region: (1) creating and retaining regional jobs; (2) assisting in construction of basic facilities, particularly water and sewer systems, in the region's 90 poorest counties; and (3) working…

  3. The French Regions and Their Social Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jany-Catrice, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a new indicator designed to capture the multidimensionality of the social health of the French regions is put to the test. Drawing on regional data for 2004, this indicator of social health (ISH) sheds new light on the social performance of the French regions. The worst performers are the highly urbanised regions, whereas others,…

  4. 40 CFR 1.61 - Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regional Offices. 1.61 Section 1.61... INFORMATION Field Installations § 1.61 Regional Offices. Regional Administrators are responsible to the... Headquarters Staff Offices; (b) Developing, proposing, and implementing approved Regional programs...

  5. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  6. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  7. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  8. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  9. The French Regions and Their Social Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jany-Catrice, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a new indicator designed to capture the multidimensionality of the social health of the French regions is put to the test. Drawing on regional data for 2004, this indicator of social health (ISH) sheds new light on the social performance of the French regions. The worst performers are the highly urbanised regions, whereas others,…

  10. 50 CFR 2.2 - Regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regional offices. 2.2 Section 2.2 Wildlife... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND LOCATIONS § 2.2 Regional offices. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has eight... Complex, 911 NE. 11th Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97232. (b) Southwest Regional Office (Region 2—comprising...

  11. Seismotectonics of the Iran Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engdahl, E. R.; Bergman, E. A.; Myers, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    More than 2000 instrumentally recorded earthquakes occurring in the Iran region during the period 1918- 2008 have been relocated using an advanced seismic location technique. Relocation sharpens the image of seismic activity in the region and - more importantly - significantly improves event focal depths. Iranian seismicity is largely a result of the early stages of continent/continent collision (25-35mm/yr of northwards overall shortening) between the Arabian Peninsula and Eurasia. Most earthquakes in the Iranian continental lithosphere occur in the upper crust (consistent with focal depths of available local seismic network hypocenters), with crustal shortening accommodated entirely by thickening and distributed deformation. This shortening across Iran results in thrust and strike-slip faulting. In the Zagros Mountains nearly all earthquakes are confined to the upper crust (depths < 20 km), and there is no evidence for a seismically active subducted slab dipping NE beneath central Iran. Moreover, the Zagros has many earthquakes but their magnitudes are all less than Mw 7.0 and nearly all the moment release occurs near the SW topographic edge (i.e., elevations between 500-1000m) of the belt. The moment release in the Zagros cannot account for the expected convergence across it, suggesting that the missing moment release is being accommodated aseismically. In southeastern Iran, where the Arabian seafloor is being subducted beneath the Makran coast, low-level earthquake activity occurs in the upper crust as well as to depths of at least 150 km within a northward-dipping subducting slab. Near the Oman Line, a region transitional between the Zagros and the Makran, seismicity extends to depths of up to 30-45 km in the crust, consistent with low-angle thrusting of Arabian basement beneath central Iran. In north-central Iran, along the Alborz mountain belt, seismic activity occurs primarily in the upper crust but with some infrequent events in the lower crust

  12. MC-30 Mare Australe Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-30 quadrangle, Mare Australe region of Mars. The central part is dominated by a permanent residual ice cap that is enclosed by layered and troughed terrain. This cap is much smaller than the northern ice cap due to differing amounts of solar heating. The layered and troughed terrain is encircled by heavily and moderately cratered terrains that include unique depositional and erosional landforms, including large pits, troughs, and complex ridge systems. Latitude range -90 to -60 degrees, longitude range -180 to 180 degrees.

  13. MC-4 Mare Acidalium Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-4 quadrangle, Mare Acidalium region of Mars. The central part is characterized by dark depression--the northern Chryse basin, which contains relatively smooth plains where several large outflow channels terminate. The depression is partly bounded to the southwest by the highly faulted and heavily cratered Tempe Terra province, to the southeast by the heavily cratered Arabia Terra province, and to the north by relatively smooth plains of Vastitas Borealis. Latitude range 30 to 65 degrees, longitude range 0 to 60 degrees.

  14. Emergency Medicine in Remote Regions.

    PubMed

    Renouf, Tia; Pollard, Megan

    2016-09-09

    Rural and remote places like Sable Island (Nova Scotia) or François (Newfoundland) pose a challenge in delivering both health care and appropriate education that today's learners need to practice in a rural setting. This education can be difficult to deliver to students far from academic centers. This is especially true for learners and practitioners at offshore locations like ships, oil installations, or in the air when patients are transported via fixed wing aircraft or helicopter. The following editorial provides a snapshot of the setting and the challenges faced while working as a physician on a ship, in remote regions.

  15. Black Hills Region, SD, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-81-157 (22 June 1973) --- This view of the Black Hills Region, SD (44.0N, 104.0W) shows the scenic Black Hills where Mt. Rushmore and other monuments are located. Cities and towns in this view include: Rapid City, Deadwood, and Belle Fourche with the nearby Belle Fourche Reservoir. Notable in this scene are the recovering burn scars (seen as irregular shaped light toned patches) from a 1959 forest fire in the Black Hills National Forest near the edge of the photo. Photo credit: NASA

  16. NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.

    2001-01-01

    The Regional Planetary Image Facility (RPIF) provided access to data from NASA planetary missions and expert assistance about the data sets and how to order subsets of the collections. This ensures that the benefit/cost of acquiring the data is maximized by widespread dissemination and use of the observations and resultant collections. The RPIF provided education and outreach functions that ranged from providing data and information to teachers, involving small groups of highly motivated students in its activities, to public lectures and tours. These activities maximized dissemination of results and data to the educational and public communities.

  17. NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.

    2001-01-01

    The Regional Planetary Image Facility (RPIF) provided access to data from NASA planetary missions and expert assistance about the data sets and how to order subsets of the collections. This ensures that the benefit/cost of acquiring the data is maximized by widespread dissemination and use of the observations and resultant collections. The RPIF provided education and outreach functions that ranged from providing data and information to teachers, involving small groups of highly motivated students in its activities, to public lectures and tours. These activities maximized dissemination of results and data to the educational and public communities.

  18. [Health, marginality and regional development].

    PubMed

    Urbina-Fuentes, M; Narro-Robles, J; Wolpert-Barraza, E; Meljem-Moctezuma, J

    1996-01-01

    The paper discusses the close link between marginality, regional development and health. In order to do so, reference is made to some health indicators like nutrition, causes of death and health infrastructure within the low as well as the high marginality areas. The paper also presents the strategies that the Ministry of Health has established to assist the population living in the high marginality areas. It specifies the related activities that are being carried out through the national institutes of health and the sanitary regulation offices.

  19. Muon collider interaction region design

    DOE PAGES

    Alexahin, Y. I.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Kashikhin, V. V.; ...

    2011-06-02

    Design of a muon collider interaction region (IR) presents a number of challenges arising from low β* < 1 cm, correspondingly large beta-function values and beam sizes at IR magnets, as well as the necessity to protect superconducting magnets and collider detectors from muon decay products. As a consequence, the designs of the IR optics, magnets and machine-detector interface are strongly interlaced and iterative. A consistent solution for the 1.5 TeV center-of-mass muon collider IR is presented. It can too provide an average luminosity of 1034 cm-2s-1 with an adequate protection of magnet and detector components.

  20. Diversity in Mawrth Region, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view shows diverse materials and morphologies in the region south of Mawrth Vallis on Mars. The color is composed of infrared, red, and blue-green color images, and has been enhanced to accentuate the color differences. The bright material may be rich in clays and date back to a time when Mars had a wetter environment. This is a sub-image of a larger view imaged by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter on Oct. 1, 2006. The resolution is 25 centimeters (10 inches) per pixel, and the scene is 352 meters (385 yards) wide.

  1. Emergency Medicine in Remote Regions

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Rural and remote places like Sable Island (Nova Scotia) or François (Newfoundland) pose a challenge in delivering both health care and appropriate education that today’s learners need to practice in a rural setting. This education can be difficult to deliver to students far from academic centers. This is especially true for learners and practitioners at offshore locations like ships, oil installations, or in the air when patients are transported via fixed wing aircraft or helicopter. The following editorial provides a snapshot of the setting and the challenges faced while working as a physician on a ship, in remote regions. PMID:27738573

  2. Solar active region display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golightly, M.; Raben, V.; Weyland, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare and CME production. The active region information can be overlaid onto solar maps, multiple solar images, and solar difference images in orthographic, Mercator or cylindrical equidistant projections. Near real-time graphs display the GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, flare events, and daily F10.7 value as a function of time; color-coded indicators show current trends in soft x-ray flux, flare temperature, daily F10.7 flux, and x-ray flare occurrence. Through a separate window up to 4 real-time or static graphs can simultaneously display values of KP, AP, daily F10.7 flux, GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, GOES >10 and >100 MeV proton flux, and Thule neutron monitor count rate. Climatologic displays use color-valued cells to show F10.7 and AP values as a function of Carrington/Bartel's rotation sequences - this format allows users to detect recurrent patterns in solar and geomagnetic activity as well as variations in activity levels over multiple solar cycles. Users can customize many of the display and graph features; all displays can be printed or copied to the system's clipboard for "pasting" into other applications. The system obtains and stores space weather data and images from sources such as the NOAA Space Environment Center, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft, and the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, and can be extended to include other data series and image sources. Data and images retrieved from the system's database are converted to XML and transported from a central server using HTTP and SOAP protocols, allowing

  3. Surface compositions in the Aristarchus Region: Implications for regional stratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, H. R.; Lucey, P. G.; Mccord, T. B.; Pieters, C. M.; Head, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Near infrared reflectance spectra for the Aristachus region, obtained using the 2.2m UH telescope at the Mauna Kea Observatory, were reduced and analyzed. The spectra obtained for the central peak, southern floor, southwestern wall, eastern wall, and northwestern wall of Aristachus crater exhibit shallow continuum slopes, relatively strong feldspar bands, pyroxene bands stronger than those typically seen in the spectra of fresh higland features, and pyroxene band centers near l micrometer suggesting the dominance of Ca rich clinopyroxene. The spectrum of the south rim of Aristachus is quite distinct from those of other crater units. The position of Aristrchus on the plateau/mare boundary raises questions concerning compositional variations in crater ejects deposits.

  4. Evolution of active region outflows throughout an active region lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangrilli, L.; Poletto, G.

    2016-10-01

    Context. We have shown previously that SOHO/UVCS data allow us to detect active region (AR) outflows at coronal altitudes higher than those reached by other instrumentation. These outflows are thought to be a component of the slow solar wind. Aims: Our purpose is to study the evolution of the outflows in the intermediate corona from AR 8100, from the time the AR first forms until it dissolves, after several transits at the solar limb. Methods: Data acquired by SOHO/UVCS at the time of the AR limb transits, at medium latitudes and at altitudes ranging from 1.5 to 2.3 R⊙, were used to infer the physical properties of the outflows through the AR evolution. To this end, we applied the Doppler dimming technique to UVCS spectra. These spectra include the H i Lyα line and the O vi doublet lines at 1031.9 and 1037.6 Å. Results: Plasma speeds and electron densities of the outflows were inferred over several rotations of the Sun. AR outflows are present in the newly born AR and persist throughout the entire AR life. Moreover, we found two types of outflows at different latitudes, both possibly originating in the same negative polarity area of the AR. We also analyzed the behavior of the Si xii 520 Å line along the UVCS slit in an attempt to reveal changes in the Si abundance when different regions are traversed. Although we found some evidence for a Si enrichment in the AR outflows, alternative interpretations are also plausible. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that outflows from ARs are detectable in the intermediate corona throughout the whole AR lifetime. This confirms that outflows contribute to the slow wind.

  5. Regional case studies--Africa.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the final continent to be affected by the nutrition transition and, as elsewhere, is characterized by the paradoxical coexistence of malnutrition and obesity. Several features of the obesity epidemic in Africa mirror those in other emerging nations: it penetrates the richer nations and urban areas first with a strong urban- rural gradient; initially it affects the wealthy, but later there is a demographic switch as obesity becomes a condition more associated with poverty, and it shares many of the same drivers related to the increasing affordability of highly refined oils and carbohydrates, and a move away from subsistence farm work and towards sedentary lifestyles. Africa also has some characteristics of the obesity epidemic that stand out from other regions such as: (1) excepting some areas of the Pacific, Africa is probably the only region in which obesity (especially among women) is viewed culturally as a positive and desirable trait, leading to major gender differences in obesity rates in many countries; (2) most of Africa has very low rates of obesity in children, and to date African obesity is mostly an adult syndrome; (3) Africans seem genetically prone to higher rates of diabetes and hypertension in association with obesity than Caucasians, but seem to be relatively protected from dislipidemias; (4) the case-specific deaths and disabilities from diabetes and hypertension in Africa are very high due to the paucity of health services and the strain that the 'double burden' of disease places on health systems.

  6. Cold dust in hot regions

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenilayam, Gopika; Fich, Michel; Ade, Peter; Bintley, Dan; Chapin, Ed; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Jenness, Tim; Dunlop, James S.; Holland, Wayne S.; Ivison, Rob; Gibb, Andy; Halpern, Mark; Scott, Douglas; Greaves, Jane S.; Robson, Ian

    2014-03-01

    We mapped five massive star-forming regions with the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Temperature and column density maps are obtained from the SCUBA-2 450 and 850 μm images. Most of the dense clumps we find have central temperatures below 20 K, with some as cold as 8 K, suggesting that they have no internal heating due to the presence of embedded protostars. This is surprising, because at the high densities inferred from these images and at these low temperatures such clumps should be unstable, collapsing to form stars and generating internal heating. The column densities at the clump centers exceed 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}, and the derived peak visual extinction values are from 25 to 500 mag for β = 1.5-2.5, indicating highly opaque centers. The observed cloud gas masses range from ∼10 to 10{sup 3} M {sub ☉}. The outer regions of the clumps follow an r {sup –2.36±0.35} density distribution, and this power-law structure is observed outside of typically 10{sup 4} AU. All these findings suggest that these clumps are high-mass starless clumps and most likely contain high-mass starless cores.

  7. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.

  8. Regional solid waste management study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    In 1990, the Lower Savannah Council of Governments (LSCOG) began dialogue with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) regarding possibilities for cooperation and coordination of solid waste management practices among the local governments and the Savannah River Site. The Department of Energy eventually awarded a grant to the Lower Savannah Council of Governments for the development of a study, which was initiated on March 5, 1992. After careful analysis of the region`s solid waste needs, this study indicates a network approach to solid waste management to be the most viable. The network involves the following major components: (1) Rural Collection Centers, designed to provide convenience to rural citizens, while allowing some degree of participation in recycling; (2) Rural Drop-Off Centers, designed to give a greater level of education and recycling activity; (3) Inert landfills and composting centers, designed to reduce volumes going into municipal (Subtitle D) landfills and produce useable products from yard waste; (4) Transfer Stations, ultimate landfill disposal; (5) Materials Recovery Facilities, designed to separate recyclables into useable and sellable units, and (6) Subtitle D landfill for burial of all solid waste not treated through previous means.

  9. Nuclear weapons and regional conflict

    SciTech Connect

    Latter, A.L.; Martinelli, E.A.

    1993-05-01

    An important national defense objective for the US in the post cold-war era -- according to Secretary of Defense, Cheney is to deter regional conflicts. To satisfy this objective there is more or less general agreement that nuclear weapons are not needed, especially against regional powers like Iraq that do not (as yet) have a nuclear capability. Modern conventional weapons (PGMs), it is believed, are adequate when used in the traditional way of fighting: massive ground forces with heavy ground equipment, supported by air and naval forces. Of course, there are arguments against this view. For example, nuclear advocates call attention to deeply buried targets that are unattackable with conventional munitions. But this argument, and others, for US use (or threat of use) of nuclear weapons are presently discounted in favor of the political/moral advantages of a no-first-use policy. We do not wish to take sides in this debate. We believe, however, that the debate win continue as political, military, technical and economic factors undergo inevitable changes. In this brief paper, we want to present another pro-nuclear argument which, to the best of our knowledge, has received little or no attention. This argument, we believe, could become important in weighing the pros and cons of the debate if domestic pressures cause the defense budget to undergo such severe cuts that we must either abandon our political commitments or adopt a non-traditional war-fighting strategy that is effective under a greatly reduced defense budget.

  10. Overview of the Impact Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-29

    On April 30th, this region of Mercury's surface will have a new crater! Traveling at 3.91 kilometers per second (over 8,700 miles per hour), the MESSENGER spacecraft will collide with Mercury's surface, creating a crater estimated to be 16 meters (52 feet) in diameter. The large, 400-kilometer-diameter (250-mile-diameter), impact basin Shakespeare occupies the bottom left quarter of this image. Shakespeare is filled with smooth plains material, likely due to extensive lava flooding the basin in the past. As of 24 hours before the impact, the current best estimates predict that the spacecraft will strike a ridge slightly to the northeast of Shakespeare. View this image to see more details of the predicted impact site and time. Instrument: Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) and Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) Latitude Range: 49°-59° N Longitude Range: 204°-217° E Topography: Exaggerated by a factor of 5.5. Colors: Coded by topography. The tallest regions are colored red and are roughly 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) higher than low-lying areas such as the floors of impact craters, colored blue. Scale: The large crater on the left side of the image is Janacek, with a diameter of 48 kilometers (30 miles) http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19444

  11. Talisman in the orofacial region.

    PubMed

    Loh, F C; Yeo, J F

    1989-09-01

    Among the various traditional beliefs and practices of the peoples of the Southeast Asia region is the practice of inserting talismans under the skin in various parts of the human body. In the orofacial region, these talismans (also called charm needles or charm pins) are also seen, usually as incidental radiographic findings. These talismans are believed to enhance the beauty of the wearers, as well as to provide protection to the wearers against harm. It is also believed that they could help the wearer obtain favorable business deals inasmuch as they are believed to have a "spell-like" influence on the business counterparts. In the present series, 67% of the patients are female and 66% of them are Muslim. Very little is known about the possible ill effects of these talismans because there is no report of these radiographic findings in major dental journals. In the present series of 12 cases representing a total of 65 talismans, only one talisman was surgically removed. We believe that generally no definitive treatment is required. However, we believe that the existence of these talismans should be made known so that they will not be misdiagnosed and mismanaged.

  12. Gastric Cancer Regional Detection System.

    PubMed

    Ural, Berkan; Hardalaç, Fırat; Serhatlioğlu, Selami; İlhan, Mustafa Necmi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel system was created to localize cancerous regions for stomach images which were taken with computed tomography(CT). The aim was to determine the coordinates of cancerous regions which spread in the stomach area in the color space with using this system. Also, to limit these areas with a high accuracy ratio and to feedback to the user of this system were the other objectives. This integration was performed with using energy mapping, analysis methods and multiple image processing methods and the system which was consisted from these advanced algorithms was appeared. For this work, in the range of 25-40 years and when gender discrimination was insignificant, 30 volunteer patients were chosen. During the formation of the system, to exalt the accuracy to the maximum level, 2 main stages were followed up. First, in the system, advanced image processing methods were processed between each other and obtained data were studied. Second, in the system, FFT and Log transformations were used respectively for the first two cases, then these transformations were used together for the third case. For totally three cases, energy distribution and DC energy intensity analysis were done and the performance of this system was investigated. Finally, with using the system's unique algorithms, a non-invasive method was achieved to detect the gastric cancer and when FFT and Log transformation were used together, the maximum success rate was obtained and this rate was calculated as 83,3119 %.

  13. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  14. [Epidemiological imaginary in Campania Region].

    PubMed

    Greco, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    The interviews on the epidemiological imaginary, collected within the framework of the project Sebiorec,(1) clearly demonstrate that also in Campania, on the border between the provinces of Naples and Caserta - where the issue of waste and land devastation take forms that are unprecedented compared to any other part of Europe - there is a widespread, strong, sacrosanct demand of participation in environment and health management. The request of deliberative ecological democracy is pressing.(2) There is an urgent need to meet that plethora of rights emerging in the "knowledge society" and in the "risk society" that someone has called "rights for scientific citizenship."(3) This request of the population of Campania, net of local cultural specificity, it is quite similar to that of the people of any other region of Europe. The context in which this request of participation is expressed, however, is quite different. Not only and not just for that real or perceived social pre-modern and familist web that would replace a modern civil society in Campania and all across the Southern Italian regions, but also and especially for some structural causes that we here try to list. Campania is a unique region in Europe - in many ways different even from other regions of southern Italy - due to the conjunction of at least five factors, not independent from each other. 1) The presence of a widespread organized crime which, in many areas, metropolitan and non-metropolitan alike, and especially in the provinces of Naples and Caserta, is a sort of state against the State and has one of its main levers of power and a major source of its wealth in the illegal control of the territory, in its different dimensions (military, but also economic, social and even cultural). 2) A huge social and economic disintegration, exacerbated in the last twenty years by a process of deindustrialization (until the early nineties Naples was the fifth industrial city of Italy, today it is a desert where

  15. Beach morphodynamics and types of foredune erosion generated by storms along the Emilia-Romagna coastline, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaroli, Clara; Grottoli, Edoardo; Harley, Mitchell D.; Ciavola, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study are to examine the response of a dune and beach system on the Adriatic coastline in northern Italy to the arrival of storms, compare it with seasonal (months) and medium-term (3-year) morphodynamic change, and evaluate results predicted by the numerical model XBeach. The studied coastline stretches 4 km from the Bevano River mouth to the north of the site to the township of Lido di Classe to the south, where the beach is protected by coastal structures. Fieldwork consisted of topographic profile surveys using RTK-DGPS technology (7 times over an approx. 3-year period). 103 samples of surface sediment were collected along 20 of the cross-shore profiles at 6 distinct cross-shore positions, selected on the basis of morphological beach characteristics. Data analyses of dune and beach slopes enabled the study area to be divided into 6 separate morphological zones using the spatial (longshore and cross-shore) variation of morphologies located on the backshore and intertidal beach observed in a preliminary survey of the area. Other criteria were a spatial consistency in beach slopes and/or presence/absence of intertidal morphologies identified in the aerial photographs and Lidar data. The swash zone slope did not show any significant variability for the entire area. A weak seasonal trend in the variability of the mean foredune slope was observed, with steeper slopes typically during winter and flatter slopes during summer. Analysis of grain size revealed that the beach sediment is well-sorted fine sand tending to medium, with a decreasing trend in size from the Bevano River mouth southwards towards Lido di Classe. According to the Masselink and Short (1993) classification, the natural part of the study site has an Intermediate Barred Beach (IBB) and following the Short (1999) classification, results in a modally LBT (longshore bar-trough) or LTT (low tide terrace) with a small section being TBR (transverse bar and rip). Storms are considered the main factor controlling changes in the beach and dune slope. The most significant storm was recorded in March 2010 with a peak significant wave height of 3.91 m. Contrary to the seasonal dune trend, several foredune slopes were observed to flatten following this event, which can be attributed to the action of dune slumping from the already weakened dune state. Modelling of foredune erosion, using a process-based model (XBeach), reproduced the erosion of the upper beach and dune toe reasonably well, but is currently limited by the acceptable slope value for dune stability, which does not account for biotic factors (e.g. plant roots). The comparison between the storm impact categories of Sallenger (2000) and the DSF (Dune Stability Factor) of Armaroli et al. (2012) shows a very good correspondence between the effects of the winter 2008-2009 storms and the vulnerability of the dune system predicted using both classifications.

  16. Geomorphology of Titan's Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, S. P.; Hayes, A. G., Jr.; Dietrich, W. E.; Malaska, M. J.; Kirk, R. L.; Lucas, A.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous lakes and seas have been observed in Titan's polar regions (Stofan et al., 2007), primarily at the north pole (Hayes et al., 2008), while evidence for channelized fluid flow has been found at all latitudes (Lorenz et al., 2008), though primarily at the poles as well. We construct a geomorphologic map of both poles at latitudes higher than 600 using a combination of the Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar images along with topographic data in the form of SARTopo (Stiles et al., 2009) and sparsely distributed Digital Terrain Models. Utilizing data from flybys Ta through T98, we define five governing morphologic units: plains, small depressions, large seas, mountains and ridge and valley networks. These units are subdivided according to their radar properties (bright or dark, uniformity), morphologies (degree of dissection, undulation, curvature and organization, regional slope), relative elevations and contact relations. These units are systematically mapped in a repeatable, quantitative manner along with various structural features such as remnant ridges, channels, alluvial fans and scarps. In combining SAR imagery with topographic data, our geomorphic map reveals a stratigraphic sequence from which we can infer processes. We find that the North Pole is dominated by an elevated, radar-dark plains unit, embedded by numerous filled, wet and dry small depressions with a sparse number of channels. The dark-plains unit transitions into a highly dissected radar-bright, lowland unit closer to the mare. A high density of radar-dark remnant ridges, channels and alluvial fans characterizes this unit. The South Pole is markedly different from the North, having far fewer lakes, no large filled seas, larger elevation gradients and a greater number of mountain regions while also being dominated by an organized ridge and valley network. Our work suggests the South Pole is not a drier version of the North. Rather the observed dichotomy between the two poles is likely the

  17. Reliability of regional climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrens, W.; Block, A.; Böhm, U.; Hauffe, D.; Keuler, K.; Kücken, M.; Nocke, Th.

    2003-04-01

    Quantification of uncertainty becomes more and more a key issue for assessing the trustability of future climate scenarios. In addition to the mean conditions, climate impact modelers focus in particular on extremes. Before generating such scenarios using e.g. dynamic regional climate models, a careful validation of present-day simulations should be performed to determine the range of errors for the quantities of interest under recent conditions as a raw estimate of their uncertainty in the future. Often, multiple aspects shall be covered together, and the required simulation accuracy depends on the user's demand. In our approach, a massive parallel regional climate model shall be used on the one hand to generate "long-term" high-resolution climate scenarios for several decades, and on the other hand to provide very high-resolution ensemble simulations of future dry spells or heavy rainfall events. To diagnosis the model's performance for present-day simulations, we have recently developed and tested a first version of a validation and visualization chain for this model. It is, however, applicable in a much more general sense and could be used as a common test bed for any regional climate model aiming at this type of simulations. Depending on the user's interest, integrated quality measures can be derived for near-surface parameters using multivariate techniques and multidimensional distance measures in a first step. At this point, advanced visualization techniques have been developed and included to allow for visual data mining and to qualitatively identify dominating aspects and regularities. Univariate techniques that are especially designed to assess climatic aspects in terms of statistical properties can then be used to quantitatively diagnose the error contributions of the individual used parameters. Finally, a comprehensive in-depth diagnosis tool allows to investigate, why the model produces the obtained near-surface results to answer the question if the

  18. Regional strategy tested in Caribbean.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia have joined forces in the world's 1st regional Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM) effort -- the Caribbean CSM. The Barbados Family Planning Association (BFPS) is overseeing the operation, which begins selling 2 contraceptive pills and a condom in early February. Costs and start-up times were shaved by adopting brand names and advertising materials from Jamaica's highly successful CSM project. Jamaica's popular "Panther" condom and "Perle" oral contraceptive (OC) are being used by the Caribbean CSM project. Perle's 9-year-old package has been redesigned and the Caribbean CSM project also is selling a 2nd, low-dose version called "Perle-LD." The products are manufactured in the US by Syntex as Noriday and Norminest, respectively. But the regional approach's financial gains also had a debit side, most notably a tripling of bureaucratic procedures. Part of project difficulties stem from differences among the 3 Caribbean countries. While sharing a common cultural heritage, St. Lucians speak a patois dialect in addition to the English prevalent on the other islands. The biggest hurdle was overcoming an economic disparity between Barbados and its less affluent neighbors, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. The CSM project decided to try a 2-tier product pricing strategy. In US currency, prices run $1.75 per cycle for both OCs on Barbados, but $1.26 on St. Vincent and St. Lucia. A Panther 3-pack costs 75 cents on Barbados and 42 cents on the othe 2 islands. The project is being promoted with generic family planning media advertisements. The project also has held physician orientation seminars on each island. The pilot program will be accompanied by retailer training seminars. In addition the project may introduce a spermicidal foaming tablet, once the US Food and Drug Administration approvs a new American-made product. The unique Caribbean CSM project may spread an idea as potent as the family planning message. Its success could transmit the

  19. Selection of USSR foreign similarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disler, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The similarity regions in the United States and Canada were selected to parallel the conditions that affect labeling and classification accuracies in the U.S.S.R. indicator regions. In addition to climate, a significant condition that affects labeling and classification accuracies in the U.S.S.R. is the proportion of barley and wheat grown in a given region (based on sown areas). The following regions in the United States and Canada were determined to be similar to the U.S.S.R. indicator regions: (1) Montana agrophysical unit (APU) 104 corresponds to the Belorussia high barley region; (2) North Dakota and Minnesota APU 20 and secondary region southern Manitoba and Saskatchewan correspond to the Ural RSFSR barley and spring wheat region; (3) Montana APU 23 corresponds to he North Caucasus barley and winter wheat region. Selection criteria included climates, crop type, crop distribution, growth cycles, field sizes, and field shapes.

  20. Adolescent pregnancy: a regional tragedy.

    PubMed

    Conner, S L

    1992-12-01

    Adolescent childbearing increased 16% over 1986-90 in the Southern region of the US from 38.4 to 44.6 births/1000 girls aged 15-17; adolescent birth rates declined only in Oklahoma at the rate of 1%. Southern states spent more than $5.7 billion in Aid to Families with Dependent Children, Medicaid, and food stamps in 1991 to support families started by adolescent mothers, but federal and state spending combined for the primary prevention of adolescent pregnancy totalled only $110 million in the same states. Public expenditures related to adolescent childbearing in Alabama in fiscal year 1991 totalled more than $117 million, yet less than $1.5 million is spent on preventing teen pregnancy. The author stresses the need for stronger state commitment, leadership, and funds for programs to prevent pregnancy. Thus far, Alabama has definitely not done enough to address the HIV and AIDS pandemic.