Coghlan, H C; Coghlan, L
The healthy left ventricle, with remarkable mechanical efficiency, has a gothic architecture, which results from the disposition of the myocardial fibers supported and maintained by a normal collagen matrix scaffold. This conclusion, arising from the analysis of roman and gothic buildings and from comparative biology of the left ventricles of different species, has been substantiated by the study of three-dimensional images obtained by MRI and analyzed with mathematic methods for measurements of the curvature and thickness of the ventricular walls. The assessment of left ventricular functional reserve based on the architecture has been very important in making therapeutic and surgical decisions in our patients and has important implications for the design of surgical strategies designed to try to improve ventricular function by restoring an architecture that allows more efficient ventricular mechanics. The structural approach and its combination with important advances in the knowledge of membrane channels, signaling pathways, cytokines, growth factors, neuroregulation, and targeted pharmacology, and with the advances in methods for reducing hemodynamic load and its cellular and structural consequences, is certain to bring about a dramatic change in the very serious and highly prevalent congestive failure associated with the Romanesque transformation of the diseased left ventricle.
Recheis, A.; Bidner, Th.; Hauser, W.; Mirwald, P. W.
Marble artifacts are confronted with two kinds of problems: i) weathering, which is a task for material conservation research, ii) unclear provenance which creates problems with respect to historical interpretations. An art historically very prominent example are the two romanesque marble portals of Schloß Tyrol/ South Tyrol/Italy, the Palas portal at the entrance sheltered by a canopy and the Chapel portal leading directly from the palas hall into the chapel. Stilistic criteria and historical sources date them into the 12th century (1). The performed study concerned a detailed macroscopic mapping and ultrasonic work (2) as well as petrographical and chemical investigations on some very small drill core samples. The map-ping and ultrasonic work revealed that the Palas portal is significantly more weathered and damaged than the chapel portal. At first glance this finding seems consistent with the location of the objects. However, even if a reported period of some 120 years of unsheltered free exposure of the Palas portal after its construction is taken into account, the weathering impacts are too severe (5). A fire catastrophy documented around 1300 might be considered the relevant damage event. This again sheds some light on the specific history of the well preserved Chapel portal: stylistically both portals are contemporaneous, so one may assume that it had been taken from another locality and was built in later. A potential candidate for this is a karolingian church (7-8th century) outside the castle-complex of which the relics have been excavated recently. This picture is substantiated by the results of the material investigations (grain size, chemistry and C, O isotopes (3)) suggesting different provenance of the marbles of the two portals. Comparative studies on the regional marbles speak in favour for Laas Marble for the Palas portal and Sterzing Marble for the Chapel portal (4). The study is continued with a detailed investigation on the supposed fire
Udphuay, S.; Everett, M. E.; Paul, V. L.; Warden, R. B.
Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is widely used in archeology as it is a very high resolution and nondestructive geophysical method. Information obtained from GPR provides detailed images of near-surface buried objects. GPR or other nondestructive imaging techniques are essential to permit minimal excavation of a historically sensitive building for which archeological investigation is planned. A 3-D GPR survey with 500- and 800-MHz antennas was performed on the fine gravel floor of the Gothic Abbey Church of Valmagne, near Montpellier, south of France. The whole floor area of the abbey including aisle, choir, transept, and nave was surveyed. Processed 2-D GPR profiles and time slice images of both 500- and 800-MHz data on a known buried limestone pier of earlier Romanesque construction within the survey area show distinct anomalies corresponding to the location of the object. The Romanesque pier abuts a present-day Gothic pillar inside the transept of the abbey. Several other GPR anomalies were also found. For example, n intriguing row of periodically-spaced buried objects can be seen down the center of nave which may be related to an earlier Romanesque wall. Imaging the foundations is very challenging due to low dielectric constant between foundations and host soil. Therefore the next stage is to attempt to apply 3-D seismic coherency techniques to the 3-D GPR data to better image the near subsurface structures inside the abbey. Our results shall be used to guide archeological ground-truthing and provide constraints on architectural historical models of Cistercian abbey construction.
de Los Ríos, Asunción; Cámara, Beatriz; García Del Cura, M A Angeles; Rico, Víctor J; Galván, Virginia; Ascaso, Carmen
In this study, the deterioration effects of lichens and other lithobionts in a temperate mesothermal climate were explored. We examined samples of dolostone and limestone rocks with visible signs of biodeterioration taken from the exterior wall surfaces of four Romanesque churches in Segovia (Spain): San Lorenzo, San Martín, San Millán and La Vera Cruz. Biofilms developing on the lithic substrate were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The most common lichen species found in the samples were recorded. Fungal cultures were then obtained from these carbonate rocks and characterized by sequencing Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS). Through scanning electron microscopy in back-scattered electron mode, fungi (lichenized and non-lichenized) were observed as the most frequent microorganisms occurring at sites showing signs of biodeterioration. The colonization process was especially conditioned by the porosity characteristics of the stone used in these buildings. While in dolostones, microorganisms mainly occupied spaces comprising the rock's intercrystalline porosity, in bioclastic dolomitized limestones, fungal colonization seemed to be more associated with moldic porosity. Microbial biofilms make close contact with the substrate, and thus probably cause significant deterioration of the underlying materials. We describe the different processes of stone alteration induced by fungal colonization and discuss the implications of these processes for the design of treatments to prevent biodeterioration.
Macher, H.; Grussenmeyer, P.; Kraemer, C.; Guillemin, S.
In this paper, the 3D documentation of the full structure of the Romanesque church of Dugny-sur-Meuse is discussed. In 2012 and 2013, a 3D recording project was carried out under the supervision of the Photogrammetry and Geomatics Research Group from INSA Strasbourg (France) in cooperation with C. Kraemer, archaeologist from Nancy (France). The goal of the project was on one hand to propose new solutions and tools to the archaeologists in charge of the project especially for stone by stone measurements. On the other hand, a simplified 3D model was required by the local authorities for communication purposes. To achieve these goals several techniques were applied namely GNSS measurements and accurate traverse networks, photogrammetric recordings and terrestrial laser scanning acquisitions. The various acquired data are presented in this paper. Based on these data, several deliverables are also proposed. The generation of orthoimages from plane as well as cylindrical surfaces is considered. Moreover, the workflow for the creation of a 3D simplified model is also presented.
The pyroclastic rocks, belonging to the calcalkaline volcanic activity occurred in Sardinia between 32 and 11 Ma ago, were widely used as construction material in several Romanesque Churches of the easternmost Logudoro, as well as in the Sardinia territory. In this work was taken as a case study the Church of Nostra Signora di Otti (12th cent.). There are no historical or archaeological evidences of the ancient quarries. Based on the geochemical, petrographic and volcanological characters of several samples from an extensive field area (approximately 150 kmq), a geographical zoning of the Oligo-Miocenic volcanics has been recognised. Internally to the Oschiri sector, according to TiO2 vs Differentiation Index diagram, there are three different sub-zones with pyroclastics: less fractionated (D.I. 70 ÷ 78); intermediate fractionated (D.I. 76 ÷ 79); more fractionated (D.I. 77 ÷ 82). To identify the origin of the ignimbrites of the Church, two statistical methods have been used: stepwise linear discriminant and canonical analysis. Moreover, to define the geochemical transformation processes induced by the alteration, by XRD analysis and XRF, SEM-EDS data, a comparative study of concentrations of major and trace elements measured between the surface portion and the innermost of the stone has been made.
Columbu, Stefano; Palomba, Marcella; Sitzia, Fabio
In this research, the volcanic rocks belonging to the Sardinia Oligo-Miocene volcanic cycle (32 - 11 Ma) and building up the structure of the San Nicola church, one of the most representative churches of the Romanesque architecture, were studied. These stones were widely used in medieval architecture for the excellent workability, but they present some disadvantages, since they are greatly affected by alteration phenomena. The main objectives of this research are i) to focus the mineral, chemical and petrographic compositions of the San Nicola stones, ii) the chemical and physical alteration processes affecting these materials, and iii) to establish the exactly provenance of the volcanic rocks. Furthermore, a comparative study between the rocks from the ancient quarries and those forming the structure of the church was performed. In the ancient quarries, where presumably a more advanced alteration occurs due to the vertical alteration gradient, different facies of the same volcanic lithology, characterized by macroscopical evidences of chemical-physical degradation degree, were sampled. Petrographic, geochemical (both major elements that the traces) and physical-mechanical features of the collected samples were determined to highlight the compositional differences (density, porosity, water-absorption kinetics, mechanical resistance) as a function of the different alteration degree. Moreover, chemical-mineralogical analysis of the sample surfaces from the church, was performed, to highlight possible presence and nature of secondary newly-formed phases (e.g., salt efflorescence). Several methodologies were applied to carry out physical-chemical and petrographic analysis: X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) for chemical and mineral composition; Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for textures, mineral assemblages and microstructures studies; He-picnometry, water-absorption and mechanical
Columbu, Stefano; Palomba, Marcella; Sitzia, Fabio
A research project devoted to the study of building materials of the Romanesque churches in Sardinia is currently underway. One of the objectives of the project is to focus the mineral, chemical-physical and petrographic characterisation of the construction materials, as well as the alteration processes. To make a contribution to the preservation of Sardinian monuments, we suggests a new approach to define the different alteration-modes of rocks in function of their local exposure to the weather, studying: 1) the changes of physical properties on surface of stone (porosity, water absorption, micro-morphology) determined through laboratory tests and photogrammetry observations, 2) the alteration phases present on surface (e.g., secondary minerals, soluble salts) determined by mineralogical and chemical investigations. This methodological approach will allow to select appropriate, suitable and compatible materials for replacing the original altered one's, and to plan appropriate strategies devoted to the restoration work. In this paper the geomaterials used for construct the Santissima Trinità di Saccargia Basilica have been investigated. The church, finished in 1116 over the ruins of a pre-existing monastery, is the most important Romanesque site in the island. Have been studied the chemical alterations and physical decay of two different stones, as volcanic rocks (i.e., basalt) and sedimentary rocks (i.e., limestones) used in bichromy on the Basilica. The main purpose is to observe the different modes of alteration of these two lithologies with different petrophysical characteristics, placed in the same conditions of weathering. Macroscopic evidences show that the limestones, while not having a high porosity, they were strongly affected by alteration phenomena, especially in the outer surface of ashlars, due to the solubilization of the carbonate matrix. The basalt rocks show no obvious physical alteration. Occasionally, in some ashlar located in basal zone of the
Murtiyoso, A.; Grussenmeyer, P.; Freville, T.
Close-range photogrammetry is an image-based technique which has often been used for the 3D documentation of heritage objects. Recently, advances in the field of image processing and UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) have resulted in a renewed interest in this technique. However, commercially ready-to-use UAVs are often equipped with smaller sensors in order to minimize payload and the quality of the documentation is still an issue. In this research, two commercial UAVs (the Sensefly Albris and DJI Phantom 3 Professional) were setup to record the 19th century St-Pierre-le-Jeune church in Strasbourg, France. Several software solutions (commercial and open source) were used to compare both UAVs' images in terms of calibration, accuracy of external orientation, as well as dense matching. Results show some instability in regards to the calibration of Phantom 3, while the Albris had issues regarding its aerotriangulation results. Despite these shortcomings, both UAVs succeeded in producing dense point clouds of up to a few centimeters in accuracy, which is largely sufficient for the purposes of a city 3D GIS (Geographical Information System). The acquisition of close range images using UAVs also provides greater LoD flexibility in processing. These advantages over other methods such as the TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanning) or terrestrial close range photogrammetry can be exploited in order for these techniques to complement each other.
Tremblay, Victor Laurent
A discussion of Romantic literature examines the links between literature and history and a mythic mechanism, a recurrent polarization between two opposite trends (myth and history) at the level of discourse, symbols, and representation. Mytho-romantic and neo-romantic are distinguished and examined. (Author/MSE)
González-García, A. César; Belmonte, Juan Antonio
Pre-Romanesque churches in the Iberian Peninsula include a number of constructions from the fourth-fifth to the eleventh century when the first Romanesque churches appeared in the north of Spain. This period of time coincided with the Muslim invasion of the Peninsula. An important number of churches and mosques were built with prescriptions for the orientation, which possibly included astronomical observations. Investigations show that both groups of monuments reacted by avoiding the areas of theoretical influence of the other religion while trying to obey their own orientation rules.
27. Interior of former waiting room, now used as restaurant; only remaining original fixtures are windows and Romanesque-arched fireplace, the latter uncovered during removal of railroad-placed drywall by restaurant owner; view to south, 65mm lens. - Southern Pacific Depot, 559 El Camino Real, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA
Perspective view, northeast. Billings Memorial Library was designed by H.H. Richardson in 1883-85 in his characteristic Romanesque Revival mode. Located on the University of Vermont campus, it is now a student center. - University of Vermont, Billings Memorial Library, 48 University Place, Burlington, Chittenden County, VT
The overarching theme of this monograph is how a Russian intellectual, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, saw himself in the European context. By reference to various of Fyodor Dostoyevsky's romanesque works, the monograph proposes an account of the development of the European awareness of an author nevertheless greatly attached to his native land, and of his…
The overarching theme of this monograph is how a Russian intellectual, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, saw himself in the European context. By reference to various of Fyodor Dostoyevsky's romanesque works, the monograph proposes an account of the development of the European awareness of an author nevertheless greatly attached to his native land, and of his…
Exterior view, west-southwest, of Jeudevine Memorial Library. Built 1896-1897 and designed by local architect Lambert Packard, the library is an excellent example of Richardsonian Romanesque architecture. - Jeudevine Memorial Library, 93 North Main Street, Hardwick, Caledonia County, VT
Georadar methodology has a considerable potential as a tool for verification of archeological hypotheses. I applied it in the present study to resolve a discussion on the importance of a Proto-Romanesque structure located on Lasota Hill. It is one of the oldest structures on the right bank of Vistula River in Kraków in Poland and some archeologists believe that it was the first seat of the rulers of Lesser Poland in the 9th century. After few decades, the prince's castle was built on Wawel Hill, where subsequently the royal castle was constructed. On the place of the abandoned Proto-Romanesque edifice, a small St. Benedict's Church was raised, but the importance of its predecessor was discussed. Archeological excavations suggested that it served as the prince's residence, but this view would be much strengthened if traces of a prince's building — palatium — could be found. With this in mind, I undertook a search for traces of palatium, employing georadar methodology. I carried out the measurements using Georadar PROEX produced by MALA Geoscience with a set of shielded antennas of frequencies 500 and 800 MHz. They permitted to construct echogram profiles, whose interpretation suggested the existence of palatium. Thus, the georadar data supported the archeological hypothesis about the important role of the Proto-Romanesque structures on Lasota Hill in the early medieval era in Poland, and at the same time demonstrated the usefulness of introducing geophysical methods to archaeology.
Szopos, Marcela; Poussineau, Nicole; Maday, Yvon; Canniffe, Carla; Celermajer, David S; Bonnet, Damien; Ou, Phalla
To assess whether combining a computational modeling technique with data from patient magnetic resonance imaging studies can detect different fluid dynamics and vascular biomechanical properties of the ascending and horizontal aorta in patients with angulated "gothic" arch geometry compared with those with normal "Romanesque" arch geometry after aortic coarctation repair. Advanced computational fluid dynamics techniques (coupled Navier-Stokes and elastodynamics equations) were used to predict the fluid-wall interactions in large arteries. We modeled the fluid dynamics and shear stress in the ascending and horizontal aorta in cases of "gothic" arch and normal "Romanesque" aortic arch geometry. A total of 30 patients after aortic coarctation repair prospectively underwent 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging angiography of the thoracic aorta. Measurements of the ascending and horizontal aorta were assessed using multiplanar reformatting images. Our computational model demonstrated that wall shear stress is greater in those with an angulated "gothic" aortic arch than in those with a "Romanesque" arch. In particular, wall shear stress affected the anterior and posterior segments of the ascending aorta and the inferior and superior segments of the horizontal aorta (vs the left and right segments). In vivo, a "gothic" arch was associated with dilatation of the ascending and horizontal aorta, which was eccentric rather than concentric (P<.05). Our results have shown that wall shear stress is eccentric and significantly increased in the ascending and horizontal aorta in patients with a "gothic" aortic arch after repair of coarctation. This suggests that patients with an angulated "gothic" aortic arch might warrant increased surveillance for aortic complications. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Landrieu, J.; Père, C.; Rollier, J.; Castandet, S.; Schotte, G.
Our multidisciplinary team has virtually reconstructed the greatest church of the Romanesque period in Europe. The third church of the Abbey of Cluny (12th c.) has been destroyed after the French Revolution, leaving only 8% of the building standing. Many documents have been studied, to include the latest archaeological knowledge in the virtual model. Most remains have been scanned for CAD restitution. The mock-up of the church needed 1600 different numerical files, including the scanned pieces and the anastylosis of a Romanesque portal, a Gothic façade and a mosaic pavement. We faced various difficulties to assemble the different elements of the huge building, and to include the digitized parts. Our workflow consisted in generating geometrical shapes of the church, enriched with metadata such as texture, material... The whole mock up was finally exported to dedicated software to run the rendering step. Our work consisted in creating a whole database of 3D models as well as 2D sources (plans, engravings, pictures...) accessible by the scientific community. The scientific perspectives focus on a representation in virtual immersion of the grand church at scale 1 and an access to the digital mock-up through Augmented Reality.
Olivieri, Laura J; de Zélicourt, Diane A; Haggerty, Christopher M; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Cross, Russell R; Yoganathan, Ajit P
PURPOSE: Late morbidity of surgically repaired coarctation of the aorta includes early cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, shortened life expectancy, abnormal vasomodulator response, hypertension and exercise-induced hypertension in the absence of recurrent coarctation. Observational studies have linked patterns of arch remodeling (Gothic, Crenel, and Romanesque) to late morbidity, with Gothic arches having the highest incidence. We evaluated flow in native and surgically repaired aortic arches to correlate respective hemodynamic indices with incidence of late morbidity. METHODS: Three dimensional reconstructions of each remodeled arch were created from an anatomic stack of magnetic resonance (MR) images. A structured mesh core with a boundary layer was generated. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was performed assuming peak flow conditions with a uniform velocity profile and unsteady turbulent flow. Wall shear stress (WSS), pressure and velocity data were extracted. RESULTS: The region of maximum WSS was located in the mid-transverse arch for the Crenel, Romanesque and Native arches. Peak WSS was located in the isthmus of the Gothic model. Variations in descending aorta flow patterns were also observed among the models. CONCLUSION: The location of peak WSS is a primary difference among the models tested, and may have clinical relevance. Specifically, the Gothic arch had a unique location of peak WSS with flow disorganization in the descending aorta. Our results suggest that varied patterns and locations of WSS resulting from abnormal arch remodeling may exhibit a primary effect on clinical vascular dysfunction.
Edwards, H. G. M.
Microspecimens of vestigial pigment and substrate from a mediaeval limestone corbel (11th Century) have been analysed using Raman microscopy. The deep red pigment is a mixture of red ochre and pyrolusite. The white substrate gives clear indication of a mixture of calcite and gypsum; surprisingly, Raman bands for red ochre are present (but without the added pyrolusite) as are those assignable to a limewash putty as used by Roman decorators for preparing stone surfaces for painting. A weak signal for basic lead white in the substrate is also found. It is suggested that the substrate on which the red pigment has been applied is transitional between Romanesque and Renaissance periods during which the development of gypsum plaster as a base for wet fresco application was made.
21. On the left is the Butte Floral Co. It was built sometime before 1884, and housed the offices of the Daily Intermountain and the Butte Miner. The building was remodeled in 1906, and a green-glazed brick facade with three ogee-arched was added. There is a wide wooden cornice, with a band of egg-and-dart molding. The parapet is castellated. Adjacent to the Floral Co. is the Mantle and Bielenberg Building, constructed in 1891. Interesting features include the large arched entrance and romanesque-arched windows on the third floor. The original cornice has been removed. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT
Bellone, T.; Fiermonte, F.; Mussio, L.
Throughout history the link between geometry and architecture has been strong and while architects have used mathematics to construct their buildings, geometry has always been the essential tool allowing them to choose spatial shapes which are aesthetically appropriate. Sometimes it is geometry which drives architectural choices, but at other times it is architectural innovation which facilitates the emergence of new ideas in geometry. Among the best known types of geometry (Euclidean, projective, analytical, Topology, descriptive, fractal,…) those most frequently employed in architectural design are: - Euclidean Geometry - Projective Geometry - The non-Euclidean geometries. Entire architectural periods are linked to specific types of geometry. Euclidean geometry, for example, was the basis for architectural styles from Antiquity through to the Romanesque period. Perspective and Projective geometry, for their part, were important from the Gothic period through the Renaissance and into the Baroque and Neo-classical eras, while non-Euclidean geometries characterize modern architecture.
Phil Anderson, Professor of Physics at Princeton University, has devoted his career to research in theoretical physics. He is a member of the National Academy of Science and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a foreign member of the Royal Society, and a foreign associate of the Accademia Lincei in Rome. The Americal Physical Society awarded him the Oliver E. Buckley Solid State Physics Prize in 1964. In 1977 he won the Nobel Prize in Physics with J.H. van Vleck and N.F. Mott. His work has encompassed a broad range of subjects: quantum theory of condensed matter, broken symmetry, transport theory and localization, random statistical systems, spectral line broadening, superfluidity in helium and neutron stars, magnetism, and superconductivity. His avocations include ''hiking, the game of GO, Romanesque architecture, and the human condition.'' In this interview he explains his RVB theory of the oxide superconductors and its historical context.
Freire Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael
Place names often provide examples of the importance that a heritage stone has had with the foundation of cities and throughout its subsequent history. The heritage of a town is related to its geological environment, which provides its construction materials. The historic quarry of San Pedro leucogranite in northwest Spain is considered here and its petrological characteristics, utilization throughout history and its heritage value are evaluated. The Romans used this stone, however there was an initial boom in the use of San Pedro leucogranite for Galician Romanesque sculptures during the Middle Ages. Notable among other monuments such as the twelfth century Romanesque churches of Santa María del Campo and Santiago and it has also been used to build the pedestal of Herculeś Tower, this is a majestic lighthouse in A Coruña city, it was declared World Heritage by UNESCO in 2 009. San Pedro leucogranite is part of the pavement of the main tourist streets of A Coruña city (Calle Real and Cantones, to name some of the most popular). Betanzos is a historical village about 25 km from A Coruña, its historical center was declared historic-artistic site in 1970. The Betanzos historical center also provides major utilization of this stone in sculptures and ashlars of San Francisco and Santa María de Azogue churches, among others. Color, rarity, appearance, quality and durability are the primary characteristics that have led to San Pedro leucogranite being used for sculpting and building. These characteristics and historical quarrying should be assessed with respect to its heritage significance and strategic location near the city of A Coruña. The preservation and enhancement of its historic quarries that are essential for conservation work and restoration of heritage assets built with the San Pedro leucogranite in this region.
Quattrini, R.; Malinverni, E. S.; Clini, P.; Nespeca, R.; Orlietti, E.
In order to improve the framework for 3D modeling, a great challenge is to obtain the suitability of Building Information Model (BIM) platform for historical architecture. A specific challenge in HBIM is to guarantee appropriateness of geometrical accuracy. The present work demonstrates the feasibility of a whole HBIM approach for complex architectural shapes, starting from TLS point clouds. A novelty of our method is to work in a 3D environment throughout the process and to develop semantics during the construction phase. This last feature of HBIM was analyzed in the present work verifying the studied ontologies, enabling the data enrichment of the model with non-geometrical information, such as historical notes, decay or deformation evidence, decorative elements etc. The case study is the Church of Santa Maria at Portonovo, an abbey from the Romanesque period. Irregular or complex historical architecture, such as Romanesque, needs the construction of shared libraries starting from the survey of its already existing elements. This is another key aspect in delivering Building Information Modeling standards. In particular, we focus on the quality assessment of the obtained model, using an open-source sw and the point cloud as reference. The proposed work shows how it is possible to develop a high quality 3D model semantic-aware, capable of connecting geometrical-historical survey with descriptive thematic databases. In this way, a centralized HBIM will serve as comprehensive dataset of information about all disciplines, particularly for restoration and conservation. Moreover, the geometric accuracy will ensure also reliable visualization outputs.
Pérez, A.; Cachero, R.; Navarro, S.; Jordá, F.; López, D.; Lerma, J. L.; Martos, A.
This paper describes the surveying process performed on the Church of San Ildefonso in Zamora (Spain) using Orthoware©, an innovative photogrammetric software tool specially designed for the digital reconstruction of cultural heritage. This software is the result of intense R&D at Metria Digital after several years producing heritage true orthoimages, plans and full color 3D models in a commercial environment. Orthoware allows true measurements and produces high quality true orthoimages and full color 3D models starting out from conventional digital photographs. This is a progressive tool designed for non-specialist users, providing intuitive and quick methods to visually diagnose the quality of the results. The Church of San Ildefonso in Zamora was built over a previously existing temple whose Romanesque construction dates back to the 11th century, although it is nowadays hidden among extensions and remodelings carried out up until 18th century. With a length of more than 30 meters, the original floor plan of the Church consists on three naves and three apses, although only one nave is visible now, covered by groin vault, and one semicircular apse partially hidden by the current building. The south front maintains the greater part of its Romanesque origins, in spite of being hidden and higher than the present ground level. At the feet of the temple a tower rises, whose first stage is Romanesque but which has been altered by numerous Baroque elements. The objective of the photogrammetric reconstruction was the integral survey of the monument, including its four façades, interior faces and roofs for the production of some true-orthoimages, cross-sections, longitudinal-sections and ground plans at scale 1/50 with an accuracy of 10 mm for the drawings and a pixel size below 10 mm for the synthetic imagery. The usual photogrammetric workflow for producing true-orthoimages and digital 3D models in cultural heritage depends to a great extent on finding and matching
Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo C.; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago; Molina-Ballesteros, Eloy
Silicified Granites have been widely used to build the main Romanesque monuments in the 12 th century of Avila city that was designated a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO in 1985. The stone was used in the Cathedral (12 th century); churches located interior and exterior of the Walls (e.g. Saint Vincent; Saint Peter). During the Renaissance and Gothic period, 15 th century Silicified Granites have been used mainly to buid ribbed vaults in Avila city (e.g. Royal Palace of the Catholic Monarchs, and Chapel of Mosén Rubí). Silicified Granites are related to an intermediate and upper parts of a complex palaeoweathering mantle developed on the Iberian Hercynian Basement (the greatest part of the western Iberian Peninsula and its oldest geological entity). In the Mesozoic the basement underwent tropical weathering processes. The weathered mantle were truncated by the Alpine tectonic movements during the Tertiary, and Its remnants were unconformably covered by more recent sediments and are located in the west and south part of the Duero Basin and in the north edge of the Ambles Valley graben. For the weathering profiles developed on the Hercynian Basement is possible to define three levels from bottom to top: 1) Lower level (biotitic granodiorite/porphyry and aplite dykes); 2) Intermediate level (ochre granite); 3) Upper level (red/white granite). The lower level has been much used as a source of ornamental stone, Avila Grey granite. The porphyry and applite dykes are mainly used to built the Walls of the City. The intermediate level is called Ochre granite or Caleño and was formed from the previous level through a tropical weathering process that, apart from variations in the petrophysical characteristics of the stone, has been accompanied by important mineralogical changes (2:1 and 1:1 phyllosilicates) and decreases in the contents of the most mobile cations. The upper level has received several names, Bleeding stone, Red and White granite or Silcrete and was formed
The Newport Tower is a masonry structure of fieldstone about 28 feet high and 22 feet in diameter located near the top of a hill overlooking the harbor in Newport, Rhode Island. In essence it is a cylinder with Romanesque arches resting on eight pillars. The cylinder has three major openings as well as four smaller ones. On the inside there are eight indentations for beams on a first floor and four for a second,. In addition there are seven niches and a fireplace on the inside. A careful photogrammetric survey of the tower done by the Technical University of Denmark for the Danish National Museum provided data for the calculation of declinations, azimuths and altitudes associated with possible pairs of features. Numerous alignments involving the Sun and Moon indicate an emphasis on determining the location of the nodes of the Moon's orbit. Accurate determination of true north by observing Polaris at upper culmination is evident. Possible observations of Sirius are indicated. These results provide strong evidence that astronomy was involved in the design and use of this intriguing structure first mentioned in Governor Arnold's will in 1677. Further study is clearly warranted. This paper was published in the New England Antiquities Research Association Journal, p. 44, 1994
Szczepaniak, M.; Nawrocka, D.; Mrozek-Wysocka, M.
Investigations of the provenance and technology of ancient materials are an important part of archaeological research. Studies of the geology of a region combined with petrographic research and chemical analysis may allow one to establish a possible source of raw-materials used. They also enable selection of the materials from currently accessible sources in the process of renovation or reconstruction of buildings [1 3]. Until now, the authors have carried out the studies in order to determine provenance of the raw-materials, the detailed analysis of composition (for the stone materials from Romanesque buildings in South Wielkopolska Poland, and from ancient ruins in northern Israel and northern Egypt. Petrographic analysis (macro- and microscopic observations), cathodoluminescence (CL), X-raydiffraction (XRD) and stable isotopes analysis have been applied. In the next step, the detailed composition analysis enables, in the case of mortars, selection of suitable samples for dating [4, 9] and to determine the age of a given object, either directly by absolute dating (e.g. 14C of lime mortars) or indirectly, by relative age estimation on the basis of finds and artifacts (their components and characteristic style for a specific period).
Barone, Germana; Bersani, Danilo; Coccato, Alessia; Lauwers, Debbie; Mazzoleni, Paolo; Raneri, Simona; Vandenabeele, Peter; Manzini, Davide; Agostino, Giuseppe; Neri, Nicola Francesco
In this work, the results of a Raman campaign for studying seventeenth-century Sicilian frescoes, by using two portable Raman systems, equipped with different excitation sources (785 and 1064 nm), are proposed. The measurements were performed with the aim to provide an in situ diagnostic analysis of the wall paintings (in terms of colorants and preparation layer) and to support the conservators in the framework of the ongoing restoration. The combined use of the two Raman spectrometers has given a complete overview on the artist palette and on the state of preservation of frescoes, also informing us about the technique employed by the painter. Natural pigments as hematite, vermillion, goethite, lead red, lead white and carbon-based black pigments have been identified. Additionally, the application of a transitional Romanesque-Renaissance frescoes method has been noticed by the systematic combined presence of calcite and gypsum in the substrate. Finally, the analyses have highlighted the presence of degradation products, mainly related to alteration of lead-based pigments.
Milani, Gabriele; Shehu, Rafael; Valente, Marco
The paper presents some preliminary results of advanced Finite Element (FE) analyses on the upgrading of old masonry constructions by means of Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRPs). The case study is a masonry Romanesque church, located in Ferrara, Emilia Romagna (Italy). The church exhibits widespread damage caused by the recent earthquake sequence occurred in 2012 about 60 km far from Ferrara with two major seismic events of magnitude 5.8 and 5.9. The main damage involved mainly the columns of the central nave and the apse. A partial detachment of the façade was observed too. First, gravity load analyses and non-linear static and dynamic analyses are performed on the church in the unretrofitted configuration. Numerical results put in evidence the insufficient strength of the apse and the columns of the naves, and the detachment of the façade. A strengthening intervention conducted by means of FRP strips is numerically analysed, assuming the behavior of the strips, especially for what concerns delamination, in agreement with Italian Guidelines. Numerical results show a quite reasonable strength improvement of the weak structural elements due to FRP application, with levels of strength higher than the minimum ones required by Italian Code.
Daurelio, G.; Catalano, I. M.; Bassi, P.
It is the oldest church in the city after the cathedral. It is among the purest examples of Romanesque. It was founded in 1074 and expenses for its construction helped the inhabitants of the agricultural hamlets of the Cirignano, Pacciano and Zappino. The church was dedicated to St. Adoeno Dado, bishop of Rouen, protector of Norman, because , according to tradition, the building also participated Norman soldiers. San Adoeno church has a faÃ§ade at cusp with a truncated tympanum , crowned by an eagle. In the centre of the faÃ§ade there is a rose ornament surrounded by four lions and a statue of St. Adoeno ( Figs. A to I ). On the outside walls of this Abbey many graffiti, produced by different coloured spray paints were found. After the usual photographical tests some Laser Paint Removal trials were executed to verify the damage threshold of the calcareous stony substrate as well as the possibility to ablate these paints by a Nd - YAG laser in Q-Switch mode. Even if all the classical four laser paint ablation techniques were employed some paints showed a great difficulty to be removed from the substrate. For these ones it was necessary to increase at maximum both the energy per pulse and the fluence value for obtaining some acceptable result but the substrate looked turned pale. It was decided to remove a small amount of these paints and subject to chemical analysis for determining whether they were acrylic based. At the same time it was investigated on the type of limestone substrate that appeared more porous and less hard on the surface than the common local limestone marble basin, that is, Trani or Bisceglie. So, on the light of these investigations, the possible solution for this hard laser ablation problem was carried out with an acceptable final result.
Zorba, T.; Pavlidou, E.; Stanojlovic, M.; Bikiaris, D.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.; Nikolic, V.; Nikolic, P. M.
The monastery of Mileseva is one of the most important Serbian spiritual centers, and being a Romanesque type building, is nowadays mainly known for its frescoes. The first group of frescoes were produced in the 1230s. In the second half of the sixteenth century, the church was repainted with a new layer of frescoes of which only fragments have survived. These frescoes were damaged in a fire, but they happened to save (acting as a protective layer) the earlier and more valuable paintings from the thirteenth century. The fresco examined in the present study is in the southern part of the area under the dome and belongs to the XIII century fresco. The materials and techniques used for church iconography were determined by means of several micro-analytical techniques. The strong presence of the characteristic peaks of calcite (1407, 872 cm-1), in all FTIR spectra obtained from the substrate, as well as from painted layers confirms the use of the fresco technique for the construction of the wall painting. The combination of FTIR micro-spectroscopy and SEM-EDS elemental microanalysis revealed the existence of lapis lazuli in blue colours and green earth (celadonite) in green colours. In a sample taken from an angel halo, three different layers were found. With SEM-EDS elemental microanalysis it was verified that the first is a metallic layer of thickness 10 12 μm containing pure silver, while the third (2 3 μm) is gold. As was found by FTIR spectra animal glue was used to stick gold on the silver surface. The method of occurrence of the first and thicker silver sheets is still a puzzle, and we believe that it was applied from the beginning in the hagiography and then covered by the gold sheet for aesthetic reasons.
Vázquez, D.; Muñoz de Luna, J.; Alvarez, A.; Mayorga, S.; Hernández, G.; Garcia, A.; Laborde, A.; Herráez, J. A.; del Egido, M.
There are many master pieces of the cultural heritage which cańt be correctly contemplated if daylight is not part of the exhibition environment, since they were made with the sun light as essential element of them. The Pórtico de la Gloria and the Cloister and paintings of Santa María de El Paular monastery are ones of these cases. The Pórtico de la Gloria (Gate of the Glory) is probably the most relevant masterpiece of the Santiago de Compostela cathedral. It is located at the narthex of the west gate. It is a masterwork of Romanesque sculpture built between 1168 and 1188 by Master Mateo. During the XVIII century a new Baroque façade was placed in front of it replacing the middle ages wall. Daylight entering through the windows of the facade makes possible to see the art work but the sun can generate serious problems since it heats the stone and evaporates the humidity. Thermal imagers have been used to test the thermal performance of the antireflection treatment located in the windows in the actual temperature of the stone sculptures. The cloister of the monastery of Santa María de El Paular, housed until the confiscation of 1835 a collection of 54 paintings of Vincente Carducho called Carthusian series. When in 2006 the restoration of the 52 still preserved paintings was completed, began a refurbishment of the cloister to return the paintings to their original place. We conducted a study of the incidence of the Sun in the cloister and how to avoid direct sunlight on Carducho's paintings.
Panisova, Jaroslava; Murín, Igor; Pašteka, Roman; Haličková, Jana; Brunčák, Peter; Pohánka, Vladimír; Papčo, Juraj; Milo, Peter
Recording of the historic edifice using the state-of-the-art geodetic and geophysical techniques brings easier visualisation in form of a three-dimensional (3D) model, thus allowing better understanding of its historical construction by the public and non-experts. We have applied this approach at the Church of St. George, one of the most significant religious buildings in south-western Slovakia, which dominates a silhouette of the town Svätý Jur. The geodetic survey allowed to record the actual state of the church. The church exterior was surveyed using a total station. Due to the intricate shape of the interior components of the church, it was decided to use a terrestrial laser scanner to generate the point cloud data, which were processed into floor plan, elevations, sectional 2D drawings and 3D model. The geophysical survey was carried out in the interior of the church in order to identify potential subsurface anthropogenic structures. Microgravity and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were selected as the most effective geophysical tools for such task. In microgravity data processing we focused on the calculation and removal of the gravitational effects of the building masses. The main negative gravity anomalies of interest in the nave, which also have been confirmed by GPR measurements, are interpreted as medieval crypts. Another very important outcome of the geophysical survey is the discovery of the west wall foundations of the oldest Romanesque construction. From each geophysical data acquired we derived 3D polygonal models, which are compared to achieve more realistic picture of the subsurface structures. Verification of these structures by means of archaeological excavation has not been carried out yet.
Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.; Dufresne, P.; Blain, S.; Guibert, P.; Oberlin, C.; Sapin, C.
A multiple dating study, involving a collaboration between specialists of dating techniques (thermoluminescence (TL) and radiocarbon), historians of art and archaeologists, has been carried out on several early medieval buildings from western France. The early medieval period is not well known especially in France where there is a lack of visible evidence that identifies pre-Romanesque architecture. The majority of buildings to have survived from this period are religious ones, considered important enough to be made of strong, non-perishable material such as stone or brick, as for example the churches of Notre-Dame-sous- Terre in the Mont-Saint-Michel or St Martin in Angers. Due to their significance in architectural history, it is imperative to position them accurately in the chronology of the history of art. Bricks are often used to build up round-headed arches or to reinforce the frame of a wall with bonding courses in those churches. TL dating and archeomagnetic analysis were performed on cores drilled within bricks while radiocarbon dating were undertaken on coals found within mortars. In order to increase the number of data during the early Middle Ages, archeointensity determinations using the classical Thellier technique with anisotropy of thermal remanence and cooling rate corrections were performed. Archaeomagnetic directions were used to recognize the firing position of bricsk during manufacture. Reliable and precise ages were obtained on the church Notre-Dame-sous-Terre; they indicate two phases of building in 950±50AD and 990±50AD. Mean archeointensities obtained on 17 (21) samples from the first (second) phases appears very closed 69.1±1.2 and 68.3±1.6 microTesla. Ages and archeomagnetic results obtained on 4 other sites will be presented and compared to the available data in western Europe.
San José Alonso, J. I.; Martínez Rubio, J.; Fernández Martín, J. J.; García Fernández, J.
The appearance of the Terrestrial Laser Scanners or 3D Scanners in Heritage recording has been relatively recent and it is submitted to a constant evolution determined mainly by the big technological advance in fields like Optics, Signal Processing, Electronics and Computer Science. As they have become popular so suddenly, it is essential to study the behavior of these evolving devices in a variety of scenarios to support an accurate assessment of their capabilities. Until two years ago, TOF (time-of-flight) and PS (phase-shift) technologies could hardly be considered side by side comparable, at least under equal terms and requirements. The first enables much longer ranges, while the latter dominated the short distances producing more accurate data with very high acquisition rates. Today, in a sort of convergent career, the scope of phase-shift technology has grown to near 200 meters and the time-of-flight team have been increasing their speed to figures as 100,000 points per second. In this article we expose the results of the comparison between the data delivered by two scanners based on the two related technologies that categorize today's both long and medium-range scanners. The two have been opposed face to face in the survey of the so called "the Sistine Chapel of the Spanish Romanesque" during the same day, and under the same environmental conditions, using equivalent capture settings. But now that as we noted these technologies can fight in the same arena, can we claim to be able to produce similar results whatever which one we choose? The answer is "no" or a "conditioned yes" at least. Let's leave numbers and nominal specifications behind and see what else makes them behave so differently.
Inmaculada Martínez Garrido, María; Gómez Heras, Miguel; Fort González, Rafael; Valles Iriso, Javier; José Varas Muriel, María
This work presents a case study based on results of monitoring campaigns developed in San Juan Bautista church in Talamanca de Jarama (Madrid, Spain). This Church was built in the twelfth-thirteenth centuries (Romanesque style) with dolostone ashlars. It was reconstructed in the sixteenth century (Renaissance style) with rubble stone and mortar, brick and an earth fill. Different sections on walls and floors (north and south oriented) have been selected based on a preliminary study of moisture distribution on stone and masonry wall. The behavior of different materials has been studied according to the influence of indoor (microclimatic conditions) and outdoor conditions (weather conditions) and taking into account constructive facts. Several sensing technologies as dataloggers and wireless sensor networks (WSN) together to other non invasive techniques as thermal imaging, portable moisture meter, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) have been conducted. By means of this study it has been possible to establish an analysis methodology to determine the dampness origin in each case. Conclusions related to the each technique according to its effectiveness in the detection of decay problems have been established. Research funded by Geomateriales 2(S2013/MIT-2914) and Deterioration of stone materials in the interior of historic buildings as a result induced variation of its microclimate (CGL2011-27902) projects. The cooperation received from the Complutense University of Madrid's Research Group Alteración y Conservación de los Materiales Pétreos del Patrimonio (ref. 921349), the Laboratory Network in Science and Technology for Heritage Conservation (RedLabPat, CEI Moncloa) and the Diocese of Alcalá is gratefully acknowledged.
López-González, Laura; Gomez-Heras, Miguel; Ortiz de Cosca, Raquel Otero; García-Morales, Soledad
Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) is a geophysical technique widely used to identify subsurface structures based on electrical resistivity measurements made at the surface. In recent years this technique has been used for surveying historic buildings and characterise the subsurface of walls by using non-invasive EKG electrodes. This methods is used to locate wet areas based on the lower electrical resistivity wet materials have in relation to dry ones. A good knowledge of the wetting patterns of historic buildings during, for example, rainfalls is crucial to understand the decay processes that take place in the building and plan interventions. This paper presents results of transects of Electric Resistivity Tomography of walls of the Monastery of Santa Maria de Mave (Palencia, Spain), a 9th century Romanesque building, during rainfall. ERT transects were performed with a GeoTom device (Geolog2000) in areas with and without buttresses to understand how this architectural detail affected the wetting dynamics of the building. The ERT results were integrated with other resistivity-based techniques and Thermohygrometric survey in a GIS and showed how lower resistivity surface measurements ERT correspond with areas of higher humidity. Resistivity-based techniques measured and evaporation focal points take in the interior of the building mark the outer ground level. The highest moisture content measurements do not always correspond to the visibly most damaged areas of the wall. The consecutive ERT transects show the wall getting wetter as rainfall progresses. The comparison of the measurements obtained of a wall affected by water obtained with GIS mapping, allowed to quickly studying the development of moisture in the wall over time, which is essential for a correct diagnosis of the building. Research funded by Madrid's Regional Government project Geomateriales 2 S2013/MIT-2914
Wedekind, Wanja; Protz, Andreas
The damaging alcali-silica reaction leads to crack-formation and structural destruction at noumerous, constructed with cement mortar, buildings worldwide. The ASR-reaction causes the expansion of altered aggregates by the formation of a swelling gel. This gel consists of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) that increases in volume with water, which exerts an expansive pressure inside the material. The cathedral of Schleswig is one of the oldest in northern Germany. The first church was built in 985-965. The Romanesque building part was erected around 1180 and the Gothic nave at the end of the 13th century. The central tower was constructed between 1888 and 1894 with brick and cement mortar. With 112 meters, the tower is the second-largest church spire of the country of Schleswig-Holstein in northern Germany. Due to the formation of cracks and damages from 1953 to 1956 first restoration works took place. Further developments of cracks are making restoration necessary again today. For developing a suitable conservation strategy, different investigations were done. The investigation included the determination of the pore space properties, the hygric and thermal dilatation and mercury porosimetry measurements. Furthermore, the application of cathodoluminescence microscopy may give information about the alteration process and microstructures present and reveal the differences between unaltered and altered mortars. An obvious relation between the porosity and the swelling intensity could be detected. Furthermore it becomes apparent, that a clear zonation of the mortar took place. The mortar near the surface is denser with a lower porosity and has a significantly lower swelling or dilatation.
Calia, A.; Giannotta, M. T.; Masini, N.; Quarta, G.; Persico, R.
Non destructive testing has been gaining a large interest in the field of the diagnostics applied to the cultural heritage. The exceptional and brittle nature of the investigated structures, in fact, discourages invasive investigation techniques even more than in other applications. In particular, non-destructive testing can be exploited for the detection of fractures or for the investigation of pillars and columns within churches of particular historical and/or architectural relevance. This has been recently done in the cathedral of Matera , and previously in the crypt of the Romanesque cathedral of Otranto . In both cases, integrated prospecting has been performed, where GPR data have been considered together with acoustic sounding or resistive measurements and even microclimatic investigation. Integrated prospecting is a good help to perform not only the diagnosis of the structure but also its restoring and continuative preservation. In this contribution, we propose a case study where integrated methodologies have been adopted for the analysis of the conservation state of the architectural elements which constitute the church of S.Giovanni al Sepolcro, in Brindisi (Southern Italy). This church is a precious artifact of medieval age, which recently underwent restoration works. IBAM-CNR has been put in charge of the task to analyse the constitutive materials, the superficial finishing (paintings, patinas, plasters etc.) and the causes and the products of the decay. The information retrieved from the analysis of the materials have been fruitfully integrated with non-destructive testing of the structure. Some results will be shown at the conference. References  N. Masini, R. Persico, A. Guida, A. Pagliuca, "A Multifrequency and Multisensor Approach for the Study and the Restoration of Monuments: the Case of the Cathedral of Matera.", Advances in Geoscience, vol. 18, pp. 1-6, 2008.  G. Leucci, R. Persico, F. Soldovieri, "Detection of Fracture From GPR
Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago
Villamayor stone is an arkosic stone of Middle Eocene age and belongs to the Cabrerizos Sandstone Formation that comprising braided fluvial systems and paleosoils at the top of each stratigraphic sequence. The sandstone is known by several names: i) the Villamayor Stone because the quarries are located in Villamayor de Armuña village that are situated at 7 km to the North from Salamanca city; ii) the Golden Stone due to its patina that produced a ochreous/golden color on the façades of monuments of Salamanca (World Heritage City,1988) built in this Natural stone (one of the silicated rocks utilised). We present in this work, the Villamayor Stone to be candidate as Global Heritage Stone Resource. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of Romanesque religious monuments as the Old Cathedral and San Julian church; Gothic (Spanish plateresc style) as the New Cathedral, San Esteban church and the sculpted façade of the Salamanca University, one of the oldest University in Europe (it had established in 1250); and this stone was one of the type of one of the most sumptuous Baroque monuments is the Main Square of the its galleries and arcades (1729). Also, this stone was used in building palaces, walls and reconstruction of Roman bridge. Currently, Villamayor Stone is being quarried by small and family companies, without a modernized processing, for cladding of the façades of the new buildings until that the construction sector was burst (in 2008 the international economic crisis). However, Villamayor Stone is the main stone material used in the city of Salamanca for the restoration of monuments and, even in small quantities when compared with just before the economic crisis, it would be of great importance for future generations protect their quarries and the craft of masonry. Villamayor Stone has several varieties from channels facies to floodplains facies, in this work the selected varieties are: i) the fine-grained stone
Sidova, Katerina; Prikryl, Richard; Weishauptova, Zuzana; Racek, Martin
Opuka as a very fine-grained sedimentary rock deposited during Upper Cretaceous in relatively shallow (hemipelagic) marine conditions in the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (Czech Republic) represents type of natural stone that has been widely exploited and used for construction from about 9th c. AD. Romanesque churches in Prague and central Bohemia are among the first preserved structures for which the opuka has been used. Question whether very local or more distant sources have been employed represents still unsolved matter. In the recent study, we focus on the detailed analysis of specimens of opuka taken from the Church of the Beheading of St. John the Baptist in Dolní Chabry (Prague). During the previous archaeological survey of the recent church (dated to 12th c. AD), remnants (basements constructed of opuka stone) of three older churches have recognized. The aim of recent material study is recognition of similarities or differences between opuka stones coming from these different construction phases and answering a question, whether material from a single source or from different localities has been employed. The study is based on the detailed petrographic examination using four sets of techniques: (1) microscopic observation (basic optical microscopy supplemented with the electron microscopy with microanalysis and X-ray elemental mapping), (2) X-ray diffraction of insoluble residue (composition of clay fraction and detection of some less organized silica forms), (3) chemical analysis and computation of modal composition by using normative minerals based on known mineralogical composition (input from microscopy and XRD), (4) study of physical properties, specifically by means of mercury porosimetry to quantify complex pore space of these rocks. Based on the results, three basic sets of specimens have been distinguished: (1) opuka stone with low content of carbonates (22-26 wt. %) and with higher content of kaolinite and illite (both WCI and PCI), (2) opuka stone
Cardinale, Tiziana; Rospi, Gianluca; Cardinale, Nicola; Paterino, Lucia; Persia, Ivan
The Matera Cathedral was built in Apulian-Romanesque style in the thirteenth century on the highest spur of the "Civita" that divides "Sassi" district in two parts. The constructive material is the calcareous stone of the Vaglia, extracted from quarries in the area of Matera. The interior is Baroque and presents several artworks, including: mortars covered with a golden patina, a wooden ceiling, painted canvas and painting frescoes, three minor altars and a major altar of precious white marble, a nativity scene made of local painted limestone. The research had to evaluate the indoor microclimate during and after the restoration works, that also concern the installation of floor heating system to heat the indoor environments. Specifically, we have analyzed the thermal comfort and the effect that the artwork and construction materials inside the Cathedral of Matera have undergone. This evaluation was carried out in two different phases: in the first one we have investigated the state of the art (history of the site, constructive typology and artworks); in the second one we have done a systematic diagnosis and an instrumental one. The analysis were carried out in a qualitative and quantitative way and have allowed us to test indoor microclimatic parameters (air temperature, relative humidity and indoor air velocity), surface temperatures of the envelope and also Fanger's comfort indices (PMV and PPD) according to the UNI EN ISO 7730. The thermal mapping of the wall surface and of the artworks, carried out through thermal imaging camera, and the instrumental measurement campaigns were made both before restoration and after installation of the heating system; in addition measurements were taken with system on and off. The analysis thus made possible to verify that the thermo-hygrometric parameters found, as a result of the recovery operations, meet the limits indicated by the regulations and international studies. In this way, we can affirm that the indoor environment
Fort, R.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Vazquez-Calvo, C.; Perez-Monserrat, E. M.; Varas-Muriel, M. J.; Lopez-Arce, P.
The construction of the Cistercian Monastery began at 1180, in an initial Late Romanesque style in which the Church was erected; later on, in 1258, the church underwent a severe fire, only the apse stood standing. The church was reconstructed at the end of the 13th century in Mudejar style. Gothic style was used later on, in the 16th century, for the reconstruction of the funerary chapel, and Renaissance style for the Plateresque door in between the church and the sacristy. At the end of the 16th century, the main door to access the church was built in Baroque style. In 1836, the Ecclesiastical Confiscations resulted on transfer the Monastery into particular owners. This fact favoured its abandon and ruin state until 1979, when architect Mariano Garcia Benito purchased the property and started the conservation and consolidation of the complex, beginning with the Bell Tower. Natural stone materials used in the Monastery are igneous (granite) and metamorphic rocks (gneiss and schist), and artificial stone materials are bricks and mortars, both joint and rendering ones. Granite is the most abundant material used in the complex, with a structural/reinforcing role in elements such as lintels, jambs, buttresses, or bottom areas of the walls with greater sizes and better dimensioned. Some pillars are granite built, from the large ashlars of the sacristy, to the rubble-work of the Mozarab chapel. Two types of monzogranite can be differentiated in relation to distinct constructive stages: the coarse texture monzogranite is used in the first building stages, while the fine texture monzogranite was employed mainly from 17th century on. Petrophysical characteristics of these granites are different but show a good quality to be used in construction. Nevertheless, the abandon and partial ruin of the complex, the devastating fire events (the second one in 1743) leaded to the decay acceleration of the monumental complex, being nowadays the church in ruin, with no roofs and walls
Geomaterials and architecture of the medieval monuments of Sardinia (Italy): petrophysical investigations on their construction materials and documentation on the architectonic aspects using digital technologies
Columbu, Stefano; Verdiani, Giorgio
The Sardinia Island is in the core area of the Mediterranean Sea. Its position has made it the crossing point of many cultural and political events, but at the same time its isolation has favoured the manifestation of specific and unique Cultural Heritage phenomena. The network of several medieval monuments (i.e., Romanesque churches) disseminated all around the island clearly shows how an architectural language can be declined according to site specific materials and specific artistical and practical choices, always preserving its original logic and grammar. On the bases of different architectural characteristics and petrophysical features of their lithology, a significant number of churches have been chosen from the different medieval geographical-political areas of the Sardinia named (at that time) "Giudicati". Each of these churches were surveyed using the following methods: photography, 3D Laser Scanner for the whole interior and exterior parts (using a Leica HDS 6000 and a Cam/2 Faro Photon units), photogrammetry (using high resolution Nikon D700 and D800e) of a selected set of the extern surface of significant altered samples (aimed to the production of high quality and highly detailed 3D digital models), direct sampling of representative rocks and ancient mortars for geochemical and minero-petrographic analysis using optical polarized microscope, electronic microscopy (SEM), X-Ray fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray diffractometry (XRD). The physical-mechanical properties (real and bulk densities, open and closed porosity, water absorption and saturation, vapour permeability, flexion and compression strengths, etc.) of various geomaterials are determined with helium picnometry, microscopic image analysis, gas-permeability thermostatic chamber, oil-hydraulic press machine, Point Load Test (PLT), abrasimeter. For each church, when there was the occasion, some specific case study has been developed, matching the information about the materials and the specific events
Benedetto, Andrea; Pajewski, Lara; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Avlonitou, Pepi; Konstantakis, Yannis; Musiela, Małgorzata; Mitka, Bartosz; Lambot, Sébastien; Żakowska, Lidia
The Wawel ensemble, including the Royal Castle, the Wawel Cathedral and other monuments, is perched on top of the Wawel hill immediately south of the Cracow Old Town, and is by far the most important collection of buildings in Poland. St. Leonard's Crypt is located under the Wawel Cathedral of St Stanislaus BM and St Wenceslaus M. It was built in the years 1090-1117 and was the western crypt of the pre-existing Romanesque Wawel Cathedral, so-called Hermanowska. Pope John Paul II said his first Mass on the altar of St. Leonard's Crypt on November 2, 1946, one day after his priestly ordination. The interior of the crypt is divided by eight columns into three naves with vaulted ceiling and ended with one apse. The tomb of Bishop Maurus, who died in 1118, is in the middle of the crypt under the floor; an inscription "+ MAVRVS EPC MCXVIII +" indicates the burial place and was made in 1938 after the completion of archaeological works which resulted in the discovery of this tomb. Moreover, the crypt hosts the tombs of six Polish kings and heroes: Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki (King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), Jan III Sobieski (King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Commander at the Battle of Vienna), Maria Kazimiera (Queen of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and consort to Jan III Sobieski), Józef Poniatowski (Prince of Poland and Marshal of France), Tadeusz Kościuszko (Polish general, revolutionary and a Brigadier General in the American Revolutionary War) and Władysław Sikorski (Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile and Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Armed Forces). The adjacent six crypts and corridors host the tombs of the other Polish kings, from Sigismund the Old to Augustus II the Strong, their families and several Polish heroes. In May 2015, the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil engineering applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" organised and offered a Training School (TS) on the
Nuzzo, L.; Masini, N.; Rizzo, E.
The correct management and restoration of architectural monuments of high cultural interest requires a comprehensive understanding of their status of preservation, the detection of the building features, the localization of damages and possibly the identification of their causes, nature and extent. To this aim, in recent times there is a growing interest on non-destructive and non-invasive geophysical methods as an invaluable tool for correlating spatially the information gained through destructive tests, which are restricted to a few locations of the investigated structure, and to optimize the choice of their position in order to minimize their impact on the monument structural stability. Moreover, the integration of the classical geophysical techniques with emerging surface and subsurface sensing techniques (acoustics, thermography) provides a suitable methodology for a multi-scale assessment of the monument state of preservation and its material and building components, which is vital for addressing maintenance and restoration issues. The present case study focuses on the application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), infrared thermography (IRT), sonic and ultrasonic tests to analyze a 13th century precious rose window in Southern Italy, affected by widespread decay and instability problems. The Cathedral of Troia (Apulia, Italy) is the masterpiece of the Apulian Romanesque architecture. Its façade is adorned with an astonishing 6 m diameter rose window consisting of 11 twin columns, in various stone and reused marbles, connected to a central oculus and to a ring of trapezoidal elements decorated with arched ribworks. Between the twin columns there are 11 triangular carved panels with different and strongly symbolic geometrical patterns. According to visual inspection, mineralogical and petrographic studies, different materials have been used for the different architectural elements: fine grained limestone for the central oculus, medium-fine grained calcarenite