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Sample records for romanian medicinal mineral

  1. The Romanian privilege in French medicine and anti-Semitism.

    PubMed

    Evleth, D

    1998-08-01

    This paper reviews a special privilege given to Romanian medical students over other foreign medical students coming to study in France from the 1850s to the 1930s. It shows how, because of changing circumstances in Romania itself, this privilege evolved from benefiting small numbers of Christian students, who generally returned home after their studies, to benefiting large numbers of Jewish students, many of whom remained in France to practise medicine. It also shows how this evolution fed into medical anti-Semitism in France which discriminated specifically against these Romanian students as Jews, a phenomenon which was distinct from the French medical xenophobia directed against all foreign students.

  2. Quality assessment of Romanian bottled mineral water and tap water.

    PubMed

    M Carstea, Elfrida; Levei, Erika A; Hoaghia, Maria-Alexandra; Savastru, Roxana

    2016-09-01

    This study reports the evaluation of bottled mineral water characteristics using fluorescence spectroscopy (synchronous fluorescence scans and emission spectra) and physico-chemical analyses. Samples from 14 still mineral water brands were compared to 11 tap waters collected from two Romanian cities. Correlation and factor analyses were undertaken to understand the relationships between the individual components. The concentration of major and minor ions showed great variation between the bottled mineral water samples highlighting the diversity of the water intakes, while in the case of tap water the chemical composition was relatively similar for samples collected in the same city. Fluorescence data showed that the mineral water contained low quantities of organic matter. The humic fraction was dominant in all samples, while the microbial fraction was low in most samples. Synchronous fluorescence scans provided more information, regarding the composition of organic matter, compared to emission spectra. The study evidenced the correlation between fluorescence parameters and major elements and highlighted the potential of using fluorescence for qualitative evaluation of the bottled mineral water quality, as a screening method before undertaking complex analyses.

  3. [Research progress of traditional mineral Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing-Chun; Zheng, Li-Li; Wang, Hai-Yan; Dong, Wei; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Traditional mineral Chinese medicine is a characteristic part of Chinese medicine, in the development of traditional Chinese medicine has its unique role. With the development of science and technology and the increase of the medical level, traditional mineral medicine research is gradually thorough and wide-ranging. In recent years, traditional mineral Chinese medicine research mainly includes the physical properties of mineral medicine, structure, chemical composition, pharmacology and treatment mechanism research. The above several aspects of research in the mineral medicine has important practical and theoretical significance. The above several aspects of research status and the problems existing in the research were briefly summarized and reviewed in this paper, and its development were discussed, to provide reference for further studies in the future.

  4. [Antoine Béchamp and Victor Cornil Memento for Romanian pharmacy, chemistry and medicine].

    PubMed

    Buiuc, D; Pânzaru, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Today we commemorate a century from the death of two Romanian loving scientists: Antoine Béchamp (1816- March 31 1908), pharmacist, chemist and physician, professor at the Universities of Strasbourg, Montpellier and Lille, and Victor Cornil (1837- April 14 1908), physician, histopathologist and bacteriologist, professor of the University of Medicine in Paris, co-author with Victor Babeş on the first ever Bacteriological Treaty.

  5. Knowledge and interests of Romanian medical students in parasitology, tropical and travel medicine.

    PubMed

    Neghina, Raul; Calma, Crenguta Livia; Neghina, Adriana Maria

    2011-01-01

    As travel has become easier and faster, the rate of tropical infections across the world is expected to increase; more students working abroad are going to encounter these diseases more often. Disorders of parasitic etiology play an important role in travel and tropical medicine. The aim of our study was to assess the preclinical students' knowledge regarding parasitic diseases, tropical and travel medicine in the broad context of their professional background. A total of 346 Romanian medical students completed a 13-item questionnaire on the above-mentioned topics. In order to allow for complex evaluation, the questionnaire also included items related to their extracurricular training as well as their future perspectives. The majority of the students (97.7%) declared they had prior knowledge (before studying parasitology) of malaria. Most of the responders (90.2%) knew that a journey in (sub)tropical regions requires adequate prophylactic measures. About a quarter of those interviewed (26.4%) would agree to practice tropical medicine after graduation. They were mainly interested in helping people from underdeveloped countries regardless of remuneration (52.7%). The majority of students (59.8%) wished to practice clinical medicine. It has been observed that fewer than 5% of the questioned students had ever read a scientific paper or book in the field of tropical medicine. English was the most commonly spoken foreign language (92.8%), and 99.1% of students had at least intermediate computer skills. Finally, 71.6% of students would choose to practice the specialty of travel medicine if it were available in Romania. The implementation of appropriate measures towards the globalization of medical teaching in Romanian universities should represent an important issue in this new millennium, in which borders between various nations are starting to fade; otherwise the next generations of physicians will lose the chance to gain wider experiences and share the international

  6. ROMANIAN SCIENTISTS IN THE NOMINATION DATABASE FOR THE NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSIOLOGY OR MEDICINE, 1901-1951.

    PubMed

    Cernescu, Costin

    2014-01-01

    Nobelprize.org site is the most reliable and complete resource of information on the Nobel Prize and the Nobel Laureates. The nomination database for Physiology or Medicine, 1901-1951, offers exciting facts about the Romanian Schools of Medicine from Bucharest, Iaşi and Cluj. Between 1920-1950, four Romanian scientists were nominated for the Nobel Prize: Victor Babeş (1854-1926), Ion Cantacuzino (1863-1934), Thoma Ionescu (1860-1926) and Constantin Levaditi (1874-1953). This paper discusses these nominees, the nominators and the motivations, as well as the specific publications that endorse the candidates' scientific activity. Recommendations made by Romanian professors for foreign researchers to receive the Nobel Prize are also included.

  7. Inhibitory potential of some Romanian medicinal plants against enzymes linked to neurodegenerative diseases and their antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    Paun, Gabriela; Neagu, Elena; Albu, Camelia; Radu, Gabriel Lucian

    2015-01-01

    Context: Eryngium planum, Geum urbanum and Cnicus benedictus plants are an endemic botanical from the Romanian used in folk medicine. Objective: The extracts from three Romanian medicinal plants were investigated for their possible neuroprotective potential. Materials and Methods: Within this study, in vitro neuroprotective activity of the extracts of E. planum, G. urbanum, and C. benedictus plants were investigated via inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and tyrosinase (TYR). Total content of phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins, high-performance liquid chromatography profile of the main phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were also determined. Results: Among the tested extracts, the best inhibition of AChE (88.76 ± 5.2%) and TYR (88.5 ± 5.2%) was caused by C. benedictus ethanol (EtOH) extract. The G. urbanum extracts exerted remarkable scavenging effect against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (IC50, 7.8 ± 0.5 μg/mL aqueous extract, and IC50, 1.3 ± 0.1 μg/mL EtOH extract, respectively) and reducing power, whereas the EtOH extract of C. benedictus showed high scavenging activity (IC50, 0.609 ± 0.04 mg/mL), also. Conclusion: According to our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates in vitro neuroprotective effects of E. planum, G. urbanum and C. benedictus. PMID:26109755

  8. Mineral arsenicals in traditional medicines: Orpiment, realgar, and arsenolite

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Lu, Yuanfu; Wu, Qin; Goyer, Robert A; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Mineral arsenicals have long been used in traditional medicines for various diseases, yet arsenic can be highly toxic and carcinogenic. Arsenic in traditional medicines typically comes from deliberate addition for therapeutic purposes, mainly in the form of mineral arsenicals including orpiment (As2S3), realgar (As4S4), and arsenolite (contains arsenic trioxide, As2O3). Inorganic arsenic is now accepted in Western medicine as a first line chemotherapeutic agent against certain hematopoietic cancers. This minireview analyzes the pharmacology and toxicology of these arsenicals used in traditional medicines. Orpiment and realgar are less soluble and poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, while the bioavailability of arsenic trioxide is similar to inorganic arsenic salts like sodium arsenite. Pharmacological studies show that arsenic trioxide and realgar are effective against certain malignancies. Orpiment and realgar are used externally for various skin diseases. Realgar is frequently included as an ingredient in oral traditional remedies for its antipyretic, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, anticonvulsive and anti-schistosmiasis actions, but the pharmacological basis for this inclusion still remains to be fully justified. Toxicological studies show that cardiovascular toxicity is the major concern for arsenic trioxide, and the gastrointestinal and dermal adverse effects may occur after prolonged use of mineral arsenicals. Little is known about possible secondary cancers resulting from the long-term use of any of these arsenicals. Similar to the safety evaluation of seafood arsenicals, total arsenic content alone appears to be insufficient for mineral arsenical safety evaluation. Arsenic speciation, bioavailability, and toxicity/benefit should be considered in evaluation of mineral arsenical-containing traditional medicines. PMID:18463319

  9. BioMiner: Paving the Way for Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Chris; Stec, Karol; Glintschert, Alexander; Gruden, Kristina; Schichor, Christian; Or-Guil, Michal; Selbig, Joachim; Schuchhardt, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Personalized medicine is promising a revolution for medicine and human biology in the 21st century. The scientific foundation for this revolution is accomplished by analyzing biological high-throughput data sets from genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Currently, access to these data has been limited to either rather simple Web-based tools, which do not grant much insight or analysis by trained specialists, without firsthand involvement of the physician. Here, we present the novel Web-based tool “BioMiner,” which was developed within the scope of an international and interdisciplinary project (SYSTHER†) and gives access to a variety of high-throughput data sets. It provides the user with convenient tools to analyze complex cross-omics data sets and grants enhanced visualization abilities. BioMiner incorporates transcriptomic and cross-omics high-throughput data sets, with a focus on cancer. A public instance of BioMiner along with the database is available at http://systherDB.microdiscovery.de/, login and password: “systher”; a tutorial detailing the usage of BioMiner can be found in the Supplementary File. PMID:26005322

  10. Elemental Characterization of Romanian Crop Medicinal Plants by Neutron Activation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moldovan, Radu Ioan; Savii, Cecilia; Dehelean, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The metallic elements concentrations of medicinal plants (coriander, dill, Echinacea, lavender, chamomile, mint, and plantain, used for phytopharmaceutical products), cultivated in unpolluted region, were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. The essential nutrients, macro-, micro-, and trace elements (K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Rb, Sr, and Zn), potentially toxic elements (Al, As, Ba, Co, Sb, Cr, and V), and rare earth elements were monitored and were compared with those presented in the literature. An estimation of their contributions to intake and toxicity for a person was made, which revealed that (a) teas prepared from the examined plants represent useful contribution to the food provided intake of three essential macronutrients (K, Ca, and Mg); (b) the Cu, Mn, Rb, Sr, Zn, and rare earths levels are normal or low; (c) the quantities of As, Ba, Co, Sb, Cr, and V do not represent toxicological concerns; (d) the examination of the estimated Al and Fe quantities recovered in infusions in the conditions of usual daily tea consumption is below the Tolerable Daily Intake values. The strategy of cultivation of medicinal plants in unpolluted areas is efficient and beneficial. However, individual plants ability to concentrate preferentially certain elements suggests controlling the contamination level of raw materials. PMID:28630784

  11. [Study on species and valence state of heavy metals and deleterious elements of mineral medicine].

    PubMed

    Han, Xu; Luo, Jiao-yang; Liu, Qiu-tao; Li, Yan-jun; Xie, Yan-jun; Yang, Shi-hai; Yang, Mei-hua

    2015-12-01

    As an important part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), mineral medicine plays an irreplaceable role. However, little has been reported on its species and valence state of heavy metals and deleterious elements, and also the relevance to pharmacological effect and toxicology. The present paper, in a new perspective, summarized the determination of the species and valence state of heavy metals and deleterious elements in recent years, discussed the progress of the pharmacological effect and toxicology, and prospected for future study which might provide reference for mineral medicine.

  12. [A NIR qualitative and quantitative model of 8 kinds of carbonate-containing mineral Chinese medicines].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming-Yang; Huang, Bi-Sheng; Yu, Chi; Liu, Yi-Mei; Chen, Ke-Li

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to apply near infrared spectroscopy techniques to construct a rapid identification method for 8 kinds of mineral Chinese Medicines containing carbonates. The qualitative model using clustering analysis method in OPUS software can identify accurately 8 kinds of carbonate-containing mineral Chinese medicines. The near-infrared quantitative model was established by using partial least squares method (PLS) for 7 mineral Chinese Medicines in which main component is calcium carbonate. Compared with the results by EDTA titration, the established quantitative analysis model for calcium carbonate content showed a good prediction result that when the content is between 47.61% -99.17%, the average relative deviation of the prediction result is 0.24% and the average recovery rate was 100.3%. The results also showed that the model using near infrared spectroscopy can get not only a rapid identification of the 8 mineral Chinese medicines containing carbonates, but also an accurate and reliabe content determination of calcium carbonate for the 7 mineral Chinese medicines which contain the component.

  13. Important Developments in Romanian Propolis Research

    PubMed Central

    Mărghitaş, Liviu Al; Dezmirean, Daniel S.; Bobiş, Otilia

    2013-01-01

    The most important developments in propolis analysis and pharmacological properties are discussed. In order to help in the Romanian propolis standardization, different methodologies for chemical composition analysis (UV-VIS, HP-TLC, and HPLC-DAD) are reviewed using new approaches and software (fuzzy divisive hierarchical clustering approach and ChromQuest software) and compared with international studies made until now in propolis research. Practical applications of Romanian propolis in medicinal therapy and cosmetics are reviewed, and quality criteria for further standardization are proposed. PMID:23818918

  14. Romanian Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The "Romanian Basic Course," consisting of 89 lesson units in eight volumes, is designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing Romanian (based on a 1-5 scale in which Level 5 is native speaker proficiency). Volume 1, which introduces basic sentences in dialog form with…

  15. [Induction and analysis for NIR features of frequently-used mineral traditional Chinese medicines].

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Yuan, Ming-Yang; Chen, Ke-Li

    2016-10-01

    In order to provide theoretical basis for the rapid identification of mineral traditional Chinese medicines(TCM) with near infrared (NIR)diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Characteristic NIR spectra of 51 kinds of mineral TCMs were generalized and compared on the basis of the previous research, and the characteristic spectral bands were determined and analyzed by referring to mineralogical and geological literatures. It turned out that the NIR features of mineral TCMs were mainly at 8 000-4 000 cm ⁻¹ wavebands, which can be assigned as the absorption of water, -OH and[CO3 ²⁻] and so on. Absorption peaks of water has regularity as follows, the structure water and -OH had a combined peak which was strong and keen-edged around 7 000 cm ⁻¹, the crystal water had two strong peak around 7 000 cm ⁻¹ and 5 100 cm ⁻¹, and water only has a broad peak around 5 100 cm ⁻¹. Due to the differences in the crystal form and the contents of water in mineral TCMs, NIR features of water in mineral TCMs which could be used for identification were different. Mineral TCMs containing sulfate are rich in crystal water, mineral TCMs containing silicate generally had structure water, and mineral TCMs containing carbonate merely had a little of water, so it was reasonable for the use of NIR spectroscopy to classify mineral TCMs with anionic type. In addition, because of the differences in cationic type, impurities, crystal form and crystallinity, mineral TCMs have exclusive NIR features at 4 600-4 000 cm ⁻¹, which can be assigned as Al-OH, Mg-OH, Fe-OH, Si-OH,[CO3 ²⁻] and so on. Calcined mineral TCMs are often associated with water and main composition changes, also changes of the NIR features, which could be used for the monitoring of the processing, and to provide references for the quality control of mineral TCMs. The adaptability and limitation of NIR analysis for mineral TCMs were also discussed:the majority of mineral TCMs had noteworthy NIR features which could be

  16. Perspective targeting CuAuMo porphyries of Romanian Carpathians: blind porphyry mineralization and its variable distal expression as vein and skarns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlad, Serban Nicolae

    2011-09-01

    Romania has a genuine accumulation of "blind" porphyry CuAuMo systems associated with Cu skarns or AuAg (PbZn) epithermal vein sets. Many such hidden structures were discovered inadvertently during state exploration based on local tradition that Romanian Carpathians are rich in vein and skarn ore types. Notable dichotomy between porphyries associated with peripheral skarns versus epithermal ores is expressed by age (Mesozoic versus Tertiary), precious metal content, alteration types and zoning, shape/size and extension of ore bodies. Preliminary conclusions on metallic/alteration assemblages around porphyries in addition to geophysical information about inferred deep-seated Alpine plutonism promote potential exploration vectors for what will be an increasingly important deposit type in the future.

  17. Networking and rheology of concentrated clay suspensions "matured" in mineral medicinal water.

    PubMed

    Aguzzi, Carola; Sánchez-Espejo, Rita; Cerezo, Pilar; Machado, José; Bonferoni, Cristina; Rossi, Silvia; Salcedo, Inmaculada; Viseras, César

    2013-09-10

    This work studied the influence of "maturation" conditions (time and agitation) on aggregation states, gel structure and rheological behaviour of a special kind of pharmaceutical semisolid products made of concentrated clay suspensions in mineral medicinal water. Maturation of the samples was carried out in distilled and sulphated mineral medicinal water, both in static conditions (without agitation) and with manual stirring once a week, during a maximum period of three months. At the measured pH interval (7.5-8.0), three-dimensional band-type networks resulting from face/face contacts were predominant in the laminar (disc-like) clay suspensions, whereas the fibrous (rod-like) particles formed micro-aggregates by van der Waals attractions. The high concentration of solids in the studied systems greatly determined their behaviour. Rod-like sepiolite particles tend to align the major axis in aggregates promoted by low shearing maturation, whereas aggregates of disc-like smectite particles did not have a preferential orientation and their complete swelling required long maturation time, being independent of stirring. Maturation of both kinds of suspensions resulted in improved rheological properties. Laminar clay suspensions became more structured with time, independently from static or dynamic maturation conditions, whereas for fibrous clay periodic agitation was also required. Rheological properties of the studied systems have been related to aggregation states and networking mechanisms, depending on the type of clay minerals constituents. Physical stability of the suspensions was not impaired by the specific composition of the Graena medicinal water.

  18. Medicinal use of earths and minerals from Hippocrates to Sir Hans Sloane and beyond.

    PubMed

    Retsas, Spyros

    2012-12-01

    In 1931 two pharmaceutical drawers containing mineral specimens, belonging to Sir Hans Sloane, the 18th century collector, Royal Physician, President of the Royal Society and of the Royal College of Physicians of London, were found in the Department of Botany of the Natural History Museum (NHM) of London. The drawers, each divided into 49 compartments, contained a total of 107 mineral pharmaceutical specimens, some labelled as mercury or white arsenic. Their registration, identification with the Sloane Manuscript Catalogues and subsequent transfer to the Mineralogy department of the NHM where one of these drawers is now on public display, had been documented by 1935. In antiquity therapeutic empiricism attributed medicinal properties to animal products, plants and minerals, including the soil of specific geographic locations. This communication traces the medicinal use of certain earths and minerals, listed in Sir Hans Sloane's manuscript catalogues, to classical antiquity with a reference to Arsenic compounds, which in our time are finding application in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukaemia and to Terra Lemnia, a celebrated antidote of repute spanning twenty centuries, also included in the Sloane collections.

  19. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making enzymes and hormones. ...

  20. Astronomy in Romanian universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosu, Mihail

    In this work we present characteristics of the Romanian higher education related to the study of Astronomy. In spite of Romanian economic problems, opportunities for Bachelor's degree, Master's degree (at "Babes-Bolyai" University of Cluj-Napoca) and Ph.D. degree are provided for students enrolled at the faculties of Mathematics or Physics. General regulations, description of courses, research resources and job opportunities are also described and discussed in this paper.

  1. Vitamin D, Essential Minerals, and Toxic Elements: Exploring Interactions between Nutrients and Toxicants in Clinical Medicine.

    PubMed

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry K; Genuis, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    In clinical medicine, increasing attention is being directed towards the important areas of nutritional biochemistry and toxicant bioaccumulation as they relate to human health and chronic disease. Optimal nutritional status, including healthy levels of vitamin D and essential minerals, is requisite for proper physiological function; conversely, accrual of toxic elements has the potential to impair normal physiology. It is evident that vitamin D intake can facilitate the absorption and assimilation of essential inorganic elements (such as calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, and selenium) but also the uptake of toxic elements (such as lead, arsenic, aluminum, cobalt, and strontium). Furthermore, sufficiency of essential minerals appears to resist the uptake of toxic metals. This paper explores the literature to determine a suitable clinical approach with regard to vitamin D and essential mineral intake to achieve optimal biological function and to avoid harm in order to prevent and overcome illness. It appears preferable to secure essential mineral status in conjunction with adequate vitamin D, as intake of vitamin D in the absence of mineral sufficiency may result in facilitation of toxic element absorption with potential adverse clinical outcomes.

  2. Vitamin D, Essential Minerals, and Toxic Elements: Exploring Interactions between Nutrients and Toxicants in Clinical Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry K.; Genuis, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    In clinical medicine, increasing attention is being directed towards the important areas of nutritional biochemistry and toxicant bioaccumulation as they relate to human health and chronic disease. Optimal nutritional status, including healthy levels of vitamin D and essential minerals, is requisite for proper physiological function; conversely, accrual of toxic elements has the potential to impair normal physiology. It is evident that vitamin D intake can facilitate the absorption and assimilation of essential inorganic elements (such as calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, and selenium) but also the uptake of toxic elements (such as lead, arsenic, aluminum, cobalt, and strontium). Furthermore, sufficiency of essential minerals appears to resist the uptake of toxic metals. This paper explores the literature to determine a suitable clinical approach with regard to vitamin D and essential mineral intake to achieve optimal biological function and to avoid harm in order to prevent and overcome illness. It appears preferable to secure essential mineral status in conjunction with adequate vitamin D, as intake of vitamin D in the absence of mineral sufficiency may result in facilitation of toxic element absorption with potential adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:26347061

  3. [Antibacterial nature of medicinal ointments, based on Georgian mineral waters in treatment of generalized periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Gasviani, E N; Chikviladze, D P; Iverieli, M V; Iavich, P A; Mikeladze, M L

    2007-04-01

    The goal of the work was to determine antibacterial nature of the medicinal ointments (N1 - "Achtala"; N2 - "Sairme", N3 - "Tschaltubo", N4 "Amagleba") based on Georgian mineral waters and containing bio-active extracts. The goal of the work was to determine antibacterial nature of the medicinal ointments (N1 - "Achtala"; N2 - "Sairme", N3 - "Tschaltubo", N4 "Amagleba") based on Georgian mineral waters and containing bio-active extracts. The investigation was done in purpose to determine microbial structure of oral cavity of the 80 patients with chronic generalized periodontitis, as a result was confirmed, that microbial structure of these patients was rather heterogeneous and is presented by different aerobe, microaerophil and anaerobe microbial flora. The sensitivity, resistance, of isolated microorganisms, was studied to modern groups of antibiotics. Results of investigations are: high antibacterial activities of ointments, prepared on mineral waters of Georgia. So, it can be recommended for usage in treatment schedule for patients with chronic generalized periodontitis.

  4. What happens to health professionals when the ill patient is the health care system? Understanding the experience of practising medicine in the Romanian socio-cultural context.

    PubMed

    Spânu, Florina; Băban, Adriana; Bria, Mara; Dumitrascu, Dan L

    2013-09-01

    Our aims were to investigate the sources of work strain and stress, and the way in which they are experienced by Romanian health professionals in a work context shaped by the ongoing 20 years long reform of the national health care system. An exploratory, qualitative design was used to investigate medical professionals' perceptions of stress and work strain. Twenty eight interviews and two focus groups were conducted with 38 physicians, residents and nurses, between the age of 26 and 53. A semi-structured interview guide was used for data gathering and the major themes were identified using thematic analysis of the transcripts. Three themes emerged in the analysis: governance and health system management, scarcity of resources, and health system reputation. Health professionals described the image of a suffering health system, exhausted by an inconsistent management plan, underfunded and understaffed; a system that is a constant source of discontent, bitterness and doubts for them and their patients. Romanian health professionals' experiences reveal a health care system which after 20 years of reform managed to shape a learned helplessness culture within the medical community and drive a large proportion of its workforce across the borders. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Mineral content of culinary and medicinal plants cultivated by Hmong refugees living in Sacramento, California.

    PubMed

    Corlett, Jan L; Clegg, Michael S; Keen, Carl L; Grivetti, Louis E

    2002-03-01

    Since the end of the American-Vietnamese War in 1975, more than 1.5 million refugees from Southeast Asia have resettled in the United States. Included among these displaced persons were the Hmong from Laos, a subsistence-based, shifting-cultivation, agricultural society. Hmong who resettled in urban areas have viewed vacant lots adjacent to urban dwellings as potential garden sites for production of familiar herbs and vegetables. In the present study exotic culinary and medicinal herbs grown by Hmong refugees in Sacramento, California were identified and analyzed for mineral composition. The herbs grown in these urban gardens were significant ingredients of Hmong recipes, and herb leaves, or infusions of steamed herb leaves were widely consumed as a component of pregnancy and post-partum diets. Six common species, Acorus gramineus, aff. Angelica, Dendranthema indicum, Eupatorium lindleyana, Sedum aff. sarmentosum, and Sedum aff. spectabile, were used in combination to season chicken. Polygonum odoratum, also widely cultivated, was used to season fish. Exotic culinary-medicinal species with highest mineral profiles included: Basella alba (Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn); Houttuynia cordata (Fe, Mg, Mn); Justica gendarussa (Ca, Mg, Zn); and Polygonum odoratum (Ca, Mg, Mn). While vacant lots sometimes are heavy metal contamination sites, we found no detectable levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, or lead in the samples analyzed.

  6. Aflatoxin, proximate composition and mineral profile of stored broiler feed treated with medicinal plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Hassan, S M; Sultana, B; Atta, A; Qureshi, N; Iqbal, M; Abbas, M

    2017-09-01

    In the present investigation, the Morus alba (M. alba), Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera), Ficus religiosa (F. religiosa) and Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) leaves anti-aflatoxigenic activities were evaluated in Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) inoculated feed. The broiler feed inoculated with A. flavus was treated with selected medicinal plant leaf powder (5%, 10% and 15% w/w) and stored for the period of six months at 28°C and 16% moisture. The aflatoxins (AFTs) were estimated at the end of each month by Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) method along with proximate composition and mineral contents. Plant leaves controlled AFTs efficiently without affecting the feed proximate composition and mineral contents. The M. alba leaves completely inhibition (100%) the AFTs (B1 and B2) in feed at very low concentration (5%). Other plants also showed significant (P<0.05) inhibition of AFTs production without affecting the feed quality over the storage period of six months. Based on promising efficiency of selected medicinal plant leaves, A. flavus produced AFTs could possibly be controlled in stored poultry feed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Modern Romanian. Limba Romana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augerot, James E.; Popescu, Florin D.

    This manual is intended for advanced university students in America who are learning Romanian as a third language. Part One is based upon an oral approach, each lesson containing a preparatory section in which the student is simultaneously introduced to pronunciation, intonation, and new semantic and syntactic structures. The second portion of the…

  8. Neurotoxicological effects of cinnabar (a Chinese mineral medicine, HgS) in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.-F.; Liu, S.-H.; Lin-Shiau, S.-Y.

    2007-10-15

    Cinnabar, a naturally occurring mercuric sulfide (HgS), has long been used in combination with traditional Chinese medicine as a sedative for more than 2000 years. Up to date, its pharmacological and toxicological effects are still unclear, especially in clinical low-dose and long-term use. In this study, we attempted to elucidate the effects of cinnabar on the time course of changes in locomotor activities, pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, motor equilibrium performance and neurobiochemical activities in mice during 3- to 11-week administration at a clinical dose of 10 mg/kg/day. The results showed that cinnabar was significantly absorbed by gastrointestinal (G-I) tract and transported to brain tissues. The spontaneous locomotor activities of male mice but not female mice were preferentially suppressed. Moreover, frequencies of jump and stereotype-1 episodes were progressively decreased after 3-week oral administration in male and female mice. Pentobarbital-induced sleeping time was prolonged and the retention time on a rotating rod (60 rpm) was reduced after treatment with cinnabar for 6 weeks and then progressively to a greater extent until the 11-week experiment. In addition, the biochemical changes in blood and brain tissues were studied; the inhibition of Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activities, increased production of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) were found with a greater extent in male mice than those in female mice, which were apparently correlated with their differences in the neurological responses observed. In conclusion, these findings, for the first time, provide evidence of the pharmacological and toxicological basis for understanding the sedative and neurotoxic effects of cinnabar used as a Chinese mineral medicine for more than 2000 years.

  9. Multi-element analysis of mineral and trace elements in medicinal herbs and their infusions.

    PubMed

    Pytlakowska, K; Kita, A; Janoska, P; Połowniak, M; Kozik, V

    2012-11-15

    Twelve mineral and trace elements (Al, B, Ba, Fe, Zn, Mn, Mg, K, Na, P, Cu, Sr, and Ca) were determined in the herbs and their infusions consumed for medical purposes in Poland such as chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), peppermint (Mentha xpiperita), melissa (Melissa officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), nettle (Urtica dioica), linden (Tilia vulgaris) and St. John's wort (Hypericum calycinum). Dry digestion procedure for total concentration and wet digestion procedure for infusions were applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of medicinal herbs. Element concentrations in herbs and their infusions were determined by ICP-OES. The accuracy and precision were verified against NCS DC 73349 - bush branches and leaves certified reference material. The result of total concentrations of elements in herb leaves shows that all herbs contain most of the elements, except K and P, in the μg/g range, and that elemental concentrations varied widely. Moreover, on the basis of experimental results for the extraction efficiencies, the elements in herb infusions were classified into three specific groups: highly-extractable (>55%) including K; moderately-extractable (20-55%) including Mg, Na, P, B, Zn and Cu and poorly-extractable (<20%) including Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Ca and Sr. The results of analysis were evaluated statistically using ANOVA one-way and three-way analysis of variance, variance correlation test and Spearman's test. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Bulakh, Andrei

    2004-06-01

    This introduction to mineralogy for undergraduate and graduate students in geology and materials science has been designed for a semester course. Covering all aspects of mineralogy in an integrated way, it links mineral properties with broader geological processes, and conveys their economic importance throughout the text. Handy reference tables and a glossary of terms make this study an indispensable guide for the next generation of mineralogy students.

  11. Romanian Scholarly Productivity: Recent History and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ives, Bob; Badescu, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Romanian scholars, and others, have decried the quality and quantity of scholarly productivity from Romania. However, Romanian scholars face challenges of both tradition and resources as they try to westernize their higher education system. We analyzed data from two sources to compare Romanian scholarly productivity to that of other countries from…

  12. Romanian Scholarly Productivity: Recent History and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ives, Bob; Badescu, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Romanian scholars, and others, have decried the quality and quantity of scholarly productivity from Romania. However, Romanian scholars face challenges of both tradition and resources as they try to westernize their higher education system. We analyzed data from two sources to compare Romanian scholarly productivity to that of other countries from…

  13. Effect of mineral-enriched diet and medicinal herbs on Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu uptake in chicken

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The goal of our study was to evaluate the effects of different medicinal herbs rich in polyphenol (Lemon balm, Sage, St. John's wort and Small-flowered Willowherb) used as dietary supplements on bioaccumulation of some essential metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) in different chicken meats (liver, legs and breast). Results In different type of chicken meats (liver, legs and breast) from chickens fed with diets enriched in minerals and medicinal herbs, beneficial metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Fe is the predominant metal in liver and Zn is the predominant metal in legs and breast chicken meats. The addition of metal salts in the feed influences the accumulations of all metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat with specific difference to the type of metal and meat. The greatest influences were observed in legs meat for Fe and Mn. Under the influence of polyphenol-rich medicinal herbs, accumulation of metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat presents specific differences for each medicinal herb, to the control group that received a diet supplemented with metal salts only. Great influence on all metal accumulation factors was observed in diet enriched with sage, which had significantly positive effect for all type of chicken meats. Conclusions Under the influence of medicinal herbs rich in different type of polyphenol, accumulation of metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat presents significant differences from the group that received a diet supplemented only with metal salts. Each medicinal herb from diet had a specific influence on the accumulation of metals and generally moderate or poor correlations were observed between total phenols and accumulation of metals. This may be due to antagonism between metal ions and presence of other chelating agents (amino acids and protein) from feeding diets which can act as competitor for complexation of metals and influence accumulation of metals

  14. Use of non-vitamin, non-mineral (NVNM) supplements by hospitalized internal medicine patients and doctor-patient communication.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Noah; Zisk-Rony, Rachel Y; Zevin, Shoshana; Becker, Evy L; Yinnon, Amos M; Oberbaum, Menachem

    2012-12-01

    To study non-vitamin, non-mineral (NVNM) supplements use and disclosure of among hospitalized internal medicine patients. A convenience sample of patients completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire examining use of and perceptions regarding NVNM supplements, and disclosure to medical personnel. 280 patients were interviewed (54% female), 15.4% reporting NVNM supplement use. This practice was more prevalent among female patients (p=0.045), more educated (p<0.001) and patients with more impaired quality-of-life, measured by the SF-12 tool (p<0.020). The most common factor influencing NVNM supplement use was a physician's recommendation. Most (74%) patients using NVNM supplements reported having disclosed this practice to community-based physicians, with only 23.7% disclosing to hospital staff. Six patients reported using supplements at the exclusion of conventional medication, with potentially serious implications. While the majority of patients using NVNM supplements are sharing this information with their primary-care physicians, there is little disclosure of this practice to hospital staff. This may be due to a perceived negative attitude of medical professionals to complementary medicine, and a lack of awareness by hospital staff regarding such practices. Hospital-based medical professionals need to be aware of the use of NVNM supplements and the resulting implications by their internal medicine patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Creative Children in Romanian Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinca, Margareta

    1999-01-01

    Romanian teachers and creative adolescents were interviewed to profile the creative adolescent, focusing on self-image and a description of social conditions contributing to creativity. Responses suggested that schools lack the means to stimulate creativity. Teachers recognize creativity but lack curricula to meet students' needs. Creative…

  16. Romanian Special Course, 12 Weeks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The format of the first volume in this five-volume accelerated course in Romanian consists of (1) a dialog , which introduces new structures and vocabulary, (2) a dialog translation, (3) grammar drills, (4) a reading, (5) comprehension questions and answers based on the reading, and (6) a vocabulary listing for the lesson. Later volumes include…

  17. Correction methods of medicinal properties of mineral waters in Pyatigorsk resort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reps, Valentina; Potapov, Evgeniy; Abramtsova, Anna; Kotova, Margarita

    2016-04-01

    Mineral Water (MW) of Pyatigorsk deposit (PD) is united in five genetic groups (operational stocks of 2809,8 m3/day): carbonic and hydrosulphuric, carbonic, carbonic chloride-hydrocarbonate sodium (salt and alkaline), radonic low carbonate, nitrogen-carbonic terms. A variety of MW types is explained by peculiarities of geological structure and hydrogeological conditions of PD. Here on the sites of the development of deep semi-ring splits there are overflows and a mixture of various complexes. Unloading of deep water strikes happens not only on the earth surface in the form of springs but also at the depth in its edging crumbling rocks of Palaeocene and quarternary deposits. As a result of mixture processes of water and its subsequent metamorphization, various types of mineral water of this deposit are formed. Pyatigorsk resort is in a special protected ecologo-resort region which mode allows to keep stability of structure and ecological purity of MW. Nevertheless, MW variability, compositional differences and MW mineralization determining the level of its biological effect demand studying of action mechanisms of both natural MW, and possibility of its modification for range expansion of rehabilitation action. There have been examined biological effects of the course drinking reception In experiment on 80 rats males of the Wistar line biological effects of the course drinking reception of two MW types: "Krasnoarmeyskaya new" (MW1) of sulphate-hydrocarbonate-chloride calcium-sodium structure with the raised contents of iron (3-5 mg/dm3), mineralization of 5,0-5,2 g/dm3, CO2 of 1,3-2,2 g/dm3, daily flow of 10-86 m3/day, temperature from 14 to 370C on the mouth of the well and spring №2 (MW2) low sulphate, low carbonate sulphate-hydrocarbonate-chloride calcium-sodium, mineralization of 5,0 g/l, CO2 of 0,7 g/dm3, H2 of S 0,01 g/dm3. There has been shown an ability of the drinking course MW1 to influence on endocrine and metabolic continium - cortisol level increased

  18. Ballads of the Romanian Immigrants. Romanian Americans in Lake County, Indiana: An Ethnic Heritage Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuca, Mary, Comp.

    Twelve Romanian immigrant ballads with musical scores, Romanian lyrics, and English translations are presented. Following a description of early 20th Century Romanian immigrants in Lake County, Indiana, a pronunciation guide, descriptions of the ballads, and suggestions for classroom use are provided. English titles include "Lament from…

  19. The recognition of Gheorghe Bilaşcu's contributions in the Romanian history of dentistry.

    PubMed

    Bârsu, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Prof. Dr. Gheorghe Bilaşcu (1863-1926) was one of the founders of the Romanian Faculty of Medicine in Cluj. At this Faculty, in 1919/1920 he created the department and the clinic of dentistry. These two achievements were accomplished for the first time in Romania. Normally, his contribution should have been appreciated both during his life and after his death. Also, his name would be expected to be present in the large majority of Romanian medico-historians dictionaries, treatises, papers etc. Unfortunately, his posthumous appreciation was not as Bilaşcu would have deserved. In our paper we present the recognition of Gh. Bilaşcu's contributions in the Romanian history of dentistry between 1926-2013. We divided this period into three intervals: from 1926 to 1948, the communist era, and after the anticommunist revolution (1990-present). In the first interval the achievements of Bilaşcu in the field of dentistry were very much appreciated and they were mentioned in a correct way in different medico-historical sources of information. During the communist era the name of Bilaşcu was omitted in some dictionaries, courses etc. After 1990, the important role of Bilaşcu in Romanian dentistry was put into its important place in the majority of Romanian history of medicine sources of information.

  20. The recognition of Gheorghe Bilaşcu’s contributions in the Romanian history of dentistry

    PubMed Central

    BÂRSU, CRISTIAN

    2013-01-01

    Prof. Dr. Gheorghe Bilaşcu (1863–1926) was one of the founders of the Romanian Faculty of Medicine in Cluj. At this Faculty, in 1919/1920 he created the department and the clinic of dentistry. These two achievements were accomplished for the first time in Romania. Normally, his contribution should have been appreciated both during his life and after his death. Also, his name would be expected to be present in the large majority of Romanian medico-historians dictionaries, treatises, papers etc. Unfortunately, his posthumous appreciation was not as Bilaşcu would have deserved. In our paper we present the recognition of Gh. Bilaşcu’s contributions in the Romanian history of dentistry between 1926–2013. We divided this period into three intervals: from 1926 to 1948, the communist era, and after the anticommunist revolution (1990-present). In the first interval the achievements of Bilaşcu in the field of dentistry were very much appreciated and they were mentioned in a correct way in different medico-historical sources of information. During the communist era the name of Bilaşcu was omitted in some dictionaries, courses etc. After 1990, the important role of Bilaşcu in Romanian dentistry was put into its important place in the majority of Romanian history of medicine sources of information. PMID:26527965

  1. Evaluation of the medicinal use of clay minerals as antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lynda B; Haydel, Shelley E

    2010-07-01

    . Furthermore, aqueous leachates of the antibacterial clays effectively kill the bacteria. Progressively heating the clay leads first to dehydration (200 degrees C), then dehydroxylation (550 degrees C or more), and finally to destruction of the clay mineral structure by (~900 degrees C). By identifying the elements lost after each heating step, and testing the bactericidal effect of the heated product, we eliminated many toxins from consideration (e.g., microbes, organic compounds, volatile elements) and identified several redox-sensitive refractory metals that are common among antibacterial clays. We conclude that the pH and oxidation state buffered by the clay mineral surfaces is key to controlling the solution chemistry and redox related reactions occurring at the bacterial cell wall.

  2. Evaluation of the medicinal use of clay minerals as antibacterial agents

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lynda B.; Haydel, Shelley E.

    2010-01-01

    process. Furthermore, aqueous leachates of the antibacterial clays effectively kill the bacteria. Progressively heating the clay leads first to dehydration (200°C), then dehydroxylation (550°C or more), and finally to destruction of the clay mineral structure by (~900°C). By identifying the elements lost after each heating step, and testing the bactericidal effect of the heated product, we eliminated many toxins from consideration (e.g., microbes, organic compounds, volatile elements) and identified several redox-sensitive refractory metals that are common among antibacterial clays. We conclude that the pH and oxidation state buffered by the clay mineral surfaces is key to controlling the solution chemistry and redox related reactions occurring at the bacterial cell wall. PMID:20640226

  3. Luceafarul: a Romanian meteor-inspired poem.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBeath, A.; Ghoerghe, A. D.

    1999-10-01

    The poem Luceafarul, written by Mihai Eminescu and first published in 1883, is considered as being the greatest Romanian poetic masterpiece. In commemorating the 110th anniversary of the author's death in 1999, the authors present here a short discussion of the poem's astronomical imagery, which includes the re-using of long-held beliefs about meteors from old Romanian myths and folklore.

  4. Teaching Gender and Geography in Romanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voiculescu, Sorina

    2011-01-01

    The fall of communism in Central-Eastern Europe in 1989 brought major political, social, economic and cultural changes that reshaped the Romanian society as it transitioned from the totalitarian communist regime to a democratic one. The entire process of transition, eventuating in Romanian access to the European Union, brought important changes at…

  5. Teaching Gender and Geography in Romanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voiculescu, Sorina

    2011-01-01

    The fall of communism in Central-Eastern Europe in 1989 brought major political, social, economic and cultural changes that reshaped the Romanian society as it transitioned from the totalitarian communist regime to a democratic one. The entire process of transition, eventuating in Romanian access to the European Union, brought important changes at…

  6. [Determination of 5 heavy metals in Chinese traditional medicines and extraction liquid containing mineral materials].

    PubMed

    Bai, Guo-Yin; Wei, Chao; Ouyang, Li; Xie, Qingi; Liu, Ya-Qiong; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jing-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Chinese traditional medicine (CTM) containing realgar may contain high levels of toxic metals, such as arsenic, etc. The monitoring of trace elements, especially the harmful elements, is closely related to the quality control of the CTM. Three kinds of CTM containing realgar were digested by microwave method and electric heating plate method, and As, Hg, Cu, Cd and Pb were determined using ICP-MS and ICP-AES. In addition, this research determined the content of soluble heavy metals in the human gastrointestinal solution. The results showed that three kinds of CTM contained As of 24 350-68 627 mg x kg(-1); Hg of 0.26-122 313.6 mg x kg(-1); Cu of 2.04-6.95 mg x kg(-1); Cd of 0.02-1.46 mg x kg(-1); Pb of 0.42-40.60 mg x kg(-1). In comparison, the contents of soluble heavy metals in the human gastrointestinal solution are: As of 81-618 mg x L(-1); Hg of 0.34-216 mg x L(-1); Cu of 1.08-215 mg x L(-1), and Pb, Cd were not detected.

  7. Romanian experience on packaging testing

    SciTech Connect

    Vieru, G.

    2007-07-01

    With more than twenty years ago, the Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti (INR), through its Reliability and Testing Laboratory, was licensed by the Romanian Nuclear Regulatory Body- CNCAN and to carry out qualification tests [1] for packages intended to be used for the transport and storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials, generated by Romanian nuclear facilities [2] are packaged in accordance with national [3] and the IAEA's Regulations [1,6] for a safe transport to the disposal center. Subjecting these packages to the normal and simulating test conditions accomplish the evaluation and certification in order to prove the package technical performances. The paper describes the qualification tests for type A and B packages used for transport and storage of radioactive materials, during a period of 20 years of experience. Testing is used to substantiate assumption in analytical models and to demonstrate package structural response. The Romanian test facilities [1,3,6] are used to simulate the required qualification tests and have been developed at INR Pitesti, the main supplier of type A packages used for transport and storage of low radioactive wastes in Romania. The testing programme will continue to be a strong option to support future package development, to perform a broad range of verification and certification tests on radioactive material packages or component sections, such as packages used for transport of radioactive sources to be used for industrial or medical purposes [2,8]. The paper describes and contain illustrations showing some of the various tests packages which have been performed during certain periods and how they relate to normal conditions and minor mishaps during transport. Quality assurance and quality controls measures taken in order to meet technical specification provided by the design there are also presented and commented. (authors)

  8. Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...

  9. Perpetual transitions in Romanian healthcare.

    PubMed

    Spiru, Luiza; Traşcu, Răzvan Ioan; Turcu, Ileana; Mărzan, Mircea

    2011-12-01

    Although Romania has a long-lasting tradition in organized medical healthcare, in the last two decades the Romanian healthcare system has been undergoing a perpetual transition with negative effects on all parties involved. The lack of long-term strategic vision, the implementation of initiatives without any impact studies, hence the constant short-term approach from the policy makers, combined with the "inherited" low allocation from GDP to the healthcare system have contributed significantly to its current evolution. Currently, most measures taken are of the "fire-fighting" type, rather than looking to the broader, long time perspective. There should be no wonder then, that predictive and preventive services do not get the proper attention and support. Patient and physicians should step in and take action in regulating a system that was originally designed for them. But until this happens, the organizations with leadership skills and vision need to take action-and this has already started.

  10. [Corporate defense, xenophobia and anti-semitism in the medical environment. The "Romanian privilege", 1930-1940].

    PubMed

    Nahum, Henri

    2008-01-01

    Because of an agreement between the two governments ("the Romanian privilege"), a large number of students, most of them Jews, were allowed to study medicine in France after the first World War. This situation fed into medical xenophobia and antisemitism and lead up to Vichy laws.

  11. Romanian Educational Seismic Network Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tataru, Dragos; Ionescu, Constantin; Zaharia, Bogdan; Grecu, Bogdan; Tibu, Speranta; Popa, Mihaela; Borleanu, Felix; Toma, Dragos; Brisan, Nicoleta; Georgescu, Emil-Sever; Dobre, Daniela; Dragomir, Claudiu-Sorin

    2013-04-01

    Romania is one of the most active seismic countries in Europe, with more than 500 earthquakes occurring every year. The seismic hazard of Romania is relatively high and thus understanding the earthquake phenomena and their effects at the earth surface represents an important step toward the education of population in earthquake affected regions of the country and aims to raise the awareness about the earthquake risk and possible mitigation actions. In this direction, the first national educational project in the field of seismology has recently started in Romania: the ROmanian EDUcational SEISmic NETwork (ROEDUSEIS-NET) project. It involves four partners: the National Institute for Earth Physics as coordinator, the National Institute for Research and Development in Construction, Urban Planning and Sustainable Spatial Development " URBAN - INCERC" Bucharest, the Babeş-Bolyai University (Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Engineering) and the software firm "BETA Software". The project has many educational, scientific and social goals. The main educational objectives are: training students and teachers in the analysis and interpretation of seismological data, preparing of several comprehensive educational materials, designing and testing didactic activities using informatics and web-oriented tools. The scientific objective is to introduce into schools the use of advanced instruments and experimental methods that are usually restricted to research laboratories, with the main product being the creation of an earthquake waveform archive. Thus a large amount of such data will be used by students and teachers for educational purposes. For the social objectives, the project represents an effective instrument for informing and creating an awareness of the seismic risk, for experimentation into the efficacy of scientific communication, and for an increase in the direct involvement of schools and the general public. A network of nine seismic stations with SEP seismometers

  12. Problems of the Modern Romanian Astronomy: TELEROM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, Valentin; Minti, Harry; Vaduvescu, Ovidiu

    2011-06-01

    The TV broadcast discusses problems of the modernization of the Romanian astronomical infrastructure, the worst in Eastern Europe. It presents the TELEROM project which proposed to establish a new EU-funded robotic 1,3 m telescope, a project finally rejected by the Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy mainly due to the incompetence of the director of this Institute, Dr. Vasile Mioc. It is mentioned that this was the second very promising project failed under the same director, after the project ASTEROS in value of 15 million Euro to establish two modern telescopes was also lost in the recent years. The total cost of the TELEROM project was 1,5 million Euro, according to the agreement with the EU foundation for Regional Development (director Hanns Ruder Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Tübingen, Germany - the TELEROM auto-dimissed project director). The facilities from this implementation were very promising in observations of Solar system objects (asteroids, near Earth asteroids, comets), few hundred millions of faint stars, quasars, exoplanets and galaxies. Initially, the director Vasile Mioc and the governing body of the Romanian Astronomical Institute intended to place the telescope in Romania in very bad astroclimatic conditions, namely in the old Feleac observatory, very close to the very highly polluted and quite clouded city of Cluj-Napoca. Many opposite considerations (Dr. Marian Doru Suran from Bucharest, many Romanian astronomers from the Diaspora and a group of 68 astronomers, professors, public outreach people and students from Romania and Diaspora supporting TELEROM) were totally disregarded! Due to refuse to place the telescope in very good astroclimatic conditions (in Canary Islands or Chile) and also due to the impossibility to establish a decent national astronomical observatory in Romania by the direction of the Institute in agreement with the State body of Romania ("Academia Romana" and "Autoritatea Nationala pentru

  13. Storing Astronomical Information on the Romanian Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, Magda; Mioc, Vasile

    The Romanian astronomy has a more than 2000-year old tradition which is however too little known abroad. The first known archive of astronomical information is the Dacian sanctuary at Sarmizegetusa Regia very similar to that of Stonehenge. After a gap of more than 1000 years sources of astronomical information became to be recovered. They consist mainly of records of astronomical events seen on the Romanian territory. The most safe places to store these genuine archives were the monasteries. We present a classification of the manners of storing astronomical information along with characteristic examples.

  14. Orientation to the patient as a marketing strategy in the Romanian healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Coculescu, B I; Coculescu, E C; Purcărea, V L

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the European political and socio-economic changes of the early 90s, health care reform in Romania has become inevitable, both for patients and for health professionals in the system. The first stage of the health care reform in Romania is focused on decentralization and improving primary health care. The Romanian medical system is currently in the process of changing the mentality, which requires time, patience, and perseverance, despite the unforeseeable or resistance inevitably faced. It is a commonly known and recognized fact that in this painful period of transition, Romanian medicine, like other fields too, has traveled a winding road, with obstacles (medical malpractices, scandals in the press related to the misappropriation of funds or underfunding of the public health system, etc.) often hard to overcome.

  15. Orientation to the patient as a marketing strategy in the Romanian healthcare system

    PubMed Central

    Coculescu, BI; Coculescu, EC; Purcărea, VL

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the European political and socio-economic changes of the early 90s, health care reform in Romania has become inevitable, both for patients and for health professionals in the system. The first stage of the health care reform in Romania is focused on decentralization and improving primary health care. The Romanian medical system is currently in the process of changing the mentality, which requires time, patience, and perseverance, despite the unforeseeable or resistance inevitably faced. It is a commonly known and recognized fact that in this painful period of transition, Romanian medicine, like other fields too, has traveled a winding road, with obstacles (medical malpractices, scandals in the press related to the misappropriation of funds or underfunding of the public health system, etc.) often hard to overcome. PMID:27974940

  16. Romanian Approach to Media Portrayals of Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciot, Melania-Gabriela; Van Hove, Geert

    2010-01-01

    There is a wide range of media representations of disability, but not just because of the societal stigma. They are a function of norms of journalism as well as biases among people with disabilities themselves. This article is a contribution to the issue of social representation of persons with disabilities from a Romanian perspective, which will…

  17. Romanian Approach to Media Portrayals of Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciot, Melania-Gabriela; Van Hove, Geert

    2010-01-01

    There is a wide range of media representations of disability, but not just because of the societal stigma. They are a function of norms of journalism as well as biases among people with disabilities themselves. This article is a contribution to the issue of social representation of persons with disabilities from a Romanian perspective, which will…

  18. Palatalization in Romanian: Experimental and Theoretical Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinu, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Within the larger context of the Romance languages, Romanian stands alone in exhibiting a surface contrast between plain and palatalized consonants (that is, consonants with a secondary palatal articulation). While the properties of secondary palatalization are well known for language families in which the set of palatalized consonants is…

  19. Intercultural Development in the Romanian School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chircu, Elena Sorina; Negreanu, Mirela

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to briefly describe the manner in which intercultural education is perceived in the Romanian school system, as well as the solutions that are being proposed (mainly in the form of activities) for reconsidering and strengthening interculturality as a dimension of education. We report on the results of semi-structured…

  20. Health risks from lost awareness of cultural behaviours rooted in traditional medicine: An insight in geophagy and mineral intake.

    PubMed

    Frazzoli, Chiara; Pouokam, Guy Bertrand; Mantovani, Alberto; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2016-10-01

    The term geophagy is applied to the recurrent intentional eating of soil with multifactorial motivation. Geophagists are generally defined by gender (women), age (children), physical status (e.g. pregnancy, lactation, postpartum), social status (people exposed to significant nutritional deficiencies), and culture, but lost awareness of traditional medical meaning of this practice is changing these consumption patterns and increasing health risks. Moreover, although the holistic anthropological perspective recognizes soil consumption as mineral supplementation under certain circumstances, we should consider how the living environment has changed and is changing, along with diet, nutrition requirements, and habits. Therefore, benefits-to-risks ratio of cultural behaviours initiated centuries ago based on traditional medical practices requires deep revision and assessment. Knowledge on minerals metabolism, bioavailability and interactions is required to properly assess the role of geophagy in a balanced and safe intake of micronutrients. Most important, the risk of unbalanced intake of minerals may be serious since the mineralogy and chemistry of geophagic clays are uncontrolled, variable, and difficult to standardize. In addition, other factors (radioactive materials, organic chemicals and soil pathogens) complicate the risk assessment for population groups consuming soil. Since the geophagic practice is expected to persist despite economic development, the paper discusses the multifaceted spectrum of geophagy to highlight critical aspects for risk management. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Preparation and chemical characteristics of Karunguruvai Khadi used in the traditional Siddha formulation of herbo-mineral-based medicine

    PubMed Central

    Chellakkan, Eleza; Nainarpandian, Chandrasekar; Blessed, Finney; Gnanamanickam, Victor Rajamanickam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Khadi is an extract that has been used in the preparation of Pooneeru (muppu) in Siddha medicine, but it has not been scientifically evaluated for modern medicinal purposes. The present study examines the preparation and chemical composition of Khadi. Materials and methods According to the method of the palm leaf literature, Karunguruvai and Samba paddy grains were selected for the preparation of Khadi. After removing the husk of the paddies, the cleaned Karunguruvai and Samba rice were processed according to the methods of Swami and Ramasamy Khon. The processed Khadi of Karunguruvai and Samba were analyzed for chemical constituents and were microbiologically assessed. The chemical composition of the paddy grains was also evaluated to compare with the Khadi constituents. Results The major elements of the paddy grains of Karunguruvai and Samba were calcium (CaO) and sodium (Na2O). The predominant trace elements in the Samba rice were nickel and cadmium, whereas Karunguruvai rice contained arsenic, nickel, copper, and cadmium. Samba Khadi contained the trace elements mercury, chromium, lead, copper, and cobalt, whereas Karunguruvai Khadi had a high content of mercury, vanadium, arsenic, nickel, copper, cadmium, barium, and strontium. Karunguruvai Khadi also contained silicon dioxide (SiO2), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), iron oxide (FeO), manganese oxide (MnO), calcium oxide (CaO), and sodium carbonate (Na2O). By contrast, Samba Khadi contained only ferrous oxide (FeO), calcium oxide (CaO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon dioxide (CO2), which were chemical constituents of the Samba rice. Discussion The composition of Karunguruvai rice was compared with Samba rice and it is identified the absence of heavy metals in Samba as well as Karunguruvai rice. Both of rice powders have more or less similar chemical compounds except phosphorous content. Karunguruvai rice possesses more CaO than Samba rice. The bacterial and fungal activities were assessed during the

  2. American Terms in the Romanian of Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berceanu, Vera

    Historical conditions determined that the Romanian language developed independently of the other Romance languages; the language thus remains behind in its development. In the eighteenth century the activity of the Transylvanian School of philologists established the Romanian language's own linguistic bases for the assimilation of borrowings from…

  3. American Terms in the Romanian of Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berceanu, Vera

    Historical conditions determined that the Romanian language developed independently of the other Romance languages; the language thus remains behind in its development. In the eighteenth century the activity of the Transylvanian School of philologists established the Romanian language's own linguistic bases for the assimilation of borrowings from…

  4. Determination and Multivariate Analysis of Mineral Elements in the Medicinal Hoelen Mushroom, Wolfiporia extensa (Agaricomycetes), from China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Zhang, Ji; Zhao, Yanli; Wang, Yuanzhong; Li, Wanyi

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of 11 elements (As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn) from the medicinal and edible mushroom Wolfiporia extensa were determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometry (for As and Se) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (for Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn). All the samples were collected from 6 regions of Yuxi in Yunnan Province in the southwest of China and were digested with concentrated nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide in a microwave system. The recovery rates of standard addition ranged from 98.24% to 111.8%; the correlation coefficients were all above 0.999. The amounts of As (0.009-0.41 μg · g-1 dry weight [dw]), Cd (0-0.266 μg · g-1 dw), and Pb (0-2.6 μg · g-1 dw) were below the permissible limits in food that are promulgated by the World Health Organization. All the element concentrations determined in this study were proved at the common level. The result of principal component analysis indicated that 5 principal components were extracted from 11 elements, which revealed 74.7% of all variable information. The results of cluster analysis mainly showed the presence of 3 metal groups.

  5. Relationship between bone mineral density and syndrome types described in traditional chinese medicine in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a preliminary clinical observation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Li, Ting-Qian; Mao, Bing; Wang, Lei; Wang, Lin; Wang, Zeng-Li; Chang, Jing; Xiong, Ze-Yu; Yang, Ding-Zhuo

    2005-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common finding following chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but there are few reports on the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and the syndrome types described in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in patients with COPD. A cross-sectional medical survey was used in this study. Twenty-six male patients with COPD and 26 age-matched male healthy subjects were recruited. The symptom questionnaire survey of TCM was implemented, and thereafter the COPD patients were divided into two subgroups: type of deficiency of the lung and spleen (TDLS) and type of deficiency of the lung, spleen and kidney (TDLSK). BMD of lumbar spine (L2-4), non-dominant femoral neck (Neck), Ward's triangle (Ward's), and great trochanter (Troch) were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. In addition, the other bone turnover markers were also examined. The results showed that BMD was much more decreased in TDLSK than that in TDLS patients (p < 0.05), and BMD in the patients of the TDLS subgroup without symptoms of kidney-vacuity has showed the decreased trend from healthy subjects to TDLS patients. Furthermore, there was a higher incidence of osteoporosis in patients with TDLSK compared with that in TDLS (p < 0.05, OR > 2.0). Therefore, the data suggest that: (1) BMD might be a marker more sensitive than the symptom for the diagnosis of kidney-vacuity in COPD patients; (2) the deficiency of kidney would be the key factor of bone mineral loss; and (3) that invigorating the kidney should be performed in the phase of TDLS in COPD patients in advance.

  6. Romanian Folk Dancing. Romanian Americans in Lake County, Indiana: An Ethnic Heritage Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogolia, Kathleen M.; Leuca, Mary, Ed.

    The booklet provides instructions for five Romanian folk dances. The dances include: the "Hora," one of the oldest, most widely known dances; the "Invirtita" and the "Hategana," Transylvanian celebration dances; the "Sirba," popular in all regions of Romania; and the "Caluserul" (the "Leaping…

  7. Storing Astronomical Information on the Romanian Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, M.; Mioc, V.

    2004-12-01

    Romanian astronomy has a more than 2000-year old tradition, which is, however, little known abroad. The first known archive of astronomical information is the Dacian sanctuary at Sarmizegetusa Regia, erected in the first century AD, having similarities with that of Stonehenge. After a gap of more than 1000 years, more sources of astronomical information become available, mainly records of astronomical events. Monasteries were the safest storage places of these genuine archives. We present a classification of the ways of storing astronomical information, along with characteristic examples.

  8. Replication study of 34 common SNPs associated with prostate cancer in the Romanian population.

    PubMed

    Jinga, Viorel; Csiki, Irma Eva; Manolescu, Andrei; Iordache, Paul; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Radavoi, Daniel; Rascu, Stefan; Badescu, Daniel; Badea, Paula; Mates, Dana

    2016-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the third-most common form of cancer in men in Romania. The Romanian unscreened population represents a good sample to study common genetic risk variants. However, a comprehensive analysis has not been conducted yet. Here, we report our replication efforts in a Romanian population of 979 cases and 1027 controls, for potential association of 34 literature-reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with prostate cancer. We also examined whether any SNP was differentially associated with tumour grade or stage at diagnosis, with disease aggressiveness, and with the levels of PSA (prostate specific antigen). In the allelic analysis, we replicated the previously reported risk for 19 loci on 4q24, 6q25.3, 7p15.2, 8q24.21, 10q11.23, 10q26.13, 11p15.5, 11q13.2, 11q13.3. Statistically significant associations were replicated for other six SNPs only with a particular disease phenotype: low-grade tumour and low PSA levels (rs1512268), high PSA levels (rs401681 and rs11649743), less aggressive cancers (rs1465618, rs721048, rs17021918). The strongest association of our tested SNP's with PSA in controls was for rs2735839, with 29% increase for each copy of the major allele G, consistent with previous results. Our results suggest that rs4962416, previously associated only with prostate cancer, is also associated with PSA levels, with 12% increase for each copy of the minor allele C. The study enabled the replication of the effect for the majority of previously reported genetic variants in a set of clinically relevant prostate cancers. This is the first replication study on these loci, known to associate with prostate cancer, in a Romanian population. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  9. Romanian Experience in The Conditioning of Radium Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Dogaru, Gh.; Dragolici, F.; Rotarescu, Gh.; Nicu, M.

    2008-07-01

    Ra{sup 226} first radionuclide separated from pitchblende in 1898 by Pierre and Marie Curie was successfully used in medicine, industry as in other fields being the only one available radionuclide till 1940 when were produced other radionuclides in accelerators. On long term the use of Ra{sup 226} sealed sources are not any more safe due to: the high specific activity, long half live, decays in Rn{sup 226} gas which increases the internal pressure of capsule leading in time to the leakage, the salts as raw materials from which the sealed sources are manufactured are soluble, there is a leak of information and records on the manufacture and operation. Based on this consideration in Romania regulatory authority did not authorized any more the use of these sealed sources [1]. The paper presents some aspects from Romanian experience related to the collection and conditioning of radium sealed sources. Data relating the radium inventory as well as the arrangements made in order to create a workshop for the conditioning of radium sources are presented. (authors)

  10. Volatile organic compounds and trace metal level in some beers collected from Romanian market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voica, Cezara; Kovacs, Melinda; Vadan, Marius

    2013-11-01

    Beer is one of the most popular beverages at worldwide level. Through this study fifteen different types of beer collected from Romanian market were analysed in order to evaluate their mineral, trace element as well the their organic content. Importance of such characterization of beer samples is supported by the fact that their chemical composition can affect both taste and stability of beer, as well the consumer health. Minerals and trace elements analysis were performed on ICP-MS while organic compounds analysis was done through GC-MS. Through ICP-MS analysis, elements as Ca, Na, K and Mg were evidenced at mgṡkg-1 order while elements as Cr, Ba, Co, Ni were detected at lower level. After GC-MS analysis the major volatile compounds that were detected belong to alcohols namely ethanol, propanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and linalool. Selected fatty acids and esters were evidenced also in the studied beer samples.

  11. [Dutch-Romanian cooperation in the area of family practice].

    PubMed

    van Es, J C

    2001-10-27

    During the years 1992-2000, there was a cooperative programme between the Romanian general practitioners' association (Societatea Nationala de Medicina Generala) in Romania and the Dutch Foundation for the Advancement of Quality in Healthcare in Romania. A succession of programmes were developed and carried out, which were financed by the Dutch government. The purpose of the cooperative programme was to support the development of Romanian general practice in terms of quality and structure. In the first programme, financed by the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, about 200 Romanian general practitioners received continuing education. This was followed by a social transformation programme (MATRA) that had two parts: (a) the general practitioners association was supported and advised with respect to improving its organisational efficiency and (b) about 50 carefully selected Romanian general practitioners were trained, in post-academic research, management or teaching. The Romanian authorities accredited these trainees as teachers. The co-operation is being continued in 2001 with the setting up of a sentinel station programme in which 100 Romanian general practitioners collect relevant, representative data on health, illness and practice.

  12. The international "Balint" Award--a rising opportunity for Romanian medical students.

    PubMed

    Lală, Adrian; Bobîrnac, Geo; Tipa, Raluca

    2010-01-01

    The International "Balint" Award for students, instituted by the Foundation for Psychosomatic and Social Medicine in honor of Michael and Enid Balint, has been a rising opportunity for Romanian medical and psychology students to achieve international fame. Romanian students have been among the winners of this award for the last 10 years, in competition with students from Ivy League and other illustrious universities. The "Ascona model" case presentation debates the psychological side of a medical case, while keeping in focus the diagnostic, pathology and treatment issues. This article focuses on explaining this type of case presentation in correlation with one of the papers submitted in the contest that has received this award in the 15th International Balint Congress. The exposed case is that of a 17-year-old boy presenting with apparent stupor encountered by an emergency mobile unit. The patient was suspected of substance abuse and overdose but these suspicions were denied by the clinical exam. Further encounters led to the conclusion that both the boy and his whole family needed psychotherapy counseling and were referred there with great success.

  13. Examples of Practice: An Intercultural Approach to Translate Romanian Children's Folklore into Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oprica, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Due to the great number of Romanian pupils in Spanish public school, the local administration organises extra-curricular Romanian courses in order to preserve the Romanian language and culture. This is a way to contribute to build and consolidate a bicultural and bilingual profile of the young people. Besides, it is also an opportunity to align…

  14. Examples of Practice: An Intercultural Approach to Translate Romanian Children's Folklore into Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oprica, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Due to the great number of Romanian pupils in Spanish public school, the local administration organises extra-curricular Romanian courses in order to preserve the Romanian language and culture. This is a way to contribute to build and consolidate a bicultural and bilingual profile of the young people. Besides, it is also an opportunity to align…

  15. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get vitamins and minerals ... this section Medication Other Treatments Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Types of Dietary Supplements Side Effects and Drug ...

  16. Tritium level along Romanian Black Sea Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Popescu, I.; Faurescu, I.

    2008-07-15

    Establishing the tritium level along the Romanian Black Sea Coast, after 10 years of exploitation of the nuclear power plant from Cernavoda, is a first step in evaluating its impact on the Black Sea ecosystem. The monitoring program consists of tritium activity concentration measurement in sea water and precipitation from Black Sea Coast between April 2005 and April 2006. The sampling points were spread over the Danube-Black Sea Canal - before the locks Agigea and Navodari, and Black Sea along the coast to the Bulgarian border. The average tritium concentration in sea water collected from the sampling locations had the value of 11.1 {+-} 2.1 TU, close to tritium concentration in precipitation. Although an operating nuclear power plant exists in the monitored area, the values of tritium concentration in two locations are slightly higher than those recorded elsewhere. To conclude, it could be emphasized that until now, Cernavoda NPP did not had any influence on the tritium concentration of the Black Sea Shore. (authors)

  17. Anglicisms in the Romanian business and technology vocabulary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todea, L.; Demarcsek, R.

    2016-08-01

    Multinational companies in Romania have imposed the use of the predominant language, in most cases - English, in professional communication. In contexts related to workplace communication, the main motivation for foreign borrowings is the need to denote concepts and activities. The article focuses on the English language as a wide source for a great number of innovations both at the lexical and the morphological level in the Romanian vocabulary related to business and technology. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate that Romanian language displays a natural disposition towards adopting and adapting foreign words, especially borrowed English terms, in the field of computer science and business without endangering its identity.

  18. Astronomical researches in Poincaré's and Romanian works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, M.; Mioc, V.

    2005-09-01

    Henri Poincaré was not only a honorary member of the Romanian Academy, but also an important collaborator of many Romanian mathematicians and astronomers. It is sufficient to mention Spiru Haret, the first doctor in mathematics at Sorbonne, or Nicolae Coculescu, the first director of the Astronomical Observatory of Bucharest. The 150th anniversary of the birth of the illustrious French personality offered us a good opportunity to study the relations he and two other Poincaré, Raymond and Lucien, had with Romania.

  19. Analysis of some Romanian fruit juices by ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehelean, A.; Magdas, D. A.

    2013-11-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the heavy metal content of 21 Romanian single strength fruit (plum, apple, sour cherry) juices. The samples were collected from five Romanian areas namely: Alba, Maramures, Cluj, Salaj and Moldova. The results indicated macro (Na, Mg, Ca, P) and micro (Fe, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb, etc) elements in the selected samples. The determination was performed by ICP-MS. Our results for fruit juice were compared with allowable limits for drinking water in the United Kingdom (NS30).

  20. Foreign students enrolled in the medicine and pharmacy higher education in Romania (1975–1989)

    PubMed Central

    MAIER, VALENTIN

    2016-01-01

    After 1948 the Romanian higher education entered a period of important developments, controlled by the communist regime, which meant thathigher educationinstitutions autonomy was severely obstructed, while politicalpurges affected the teaching staff and students alike. Nevertheless, new types of higher education were introduced and new institutions of higher education and specializations were established. The number of students and graduates increased accordingly. Also, after 1975, the number of foreign students in Romanian higher education registered a significant increase mainly in medicine and pharmacy. More than half of foreign students attracted by the Romanian higher education were studying medicine and pharmacy. Many interesting aspects of this situation are presented in this article: reasons for this attraction, statistics of total number of students, number of freshmen, number of graduates and the contribution of each institution of medicine and pharmacy higher education in attracting the foreign students. PMID:27152087

  1. Stakeholders' Perception of Sustainability Orientation within a Major Romanian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabija, Dan-Cristian; Postelnicu, Catalin; Dinu, Vasile; Mihaila, Alin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The research attempts to aim to evaluate the perception that different stakeholder groups have of one of the largest and most important Romanian university with respect to its sustainability orientation. The exploratory empirical research reveals some important aspects which must be closely pursued and properly implemented by the…

  2. Some Semantic Properties of Romanian Interrogatives: "Care" and "Cine."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasiliu, E.

    The aim of this paper is to account for some semantic properties of Romanian interrogatives "ce" and "cine" by establishing some definite correlations between various contextual restrictions governing the use of these interrogative particles and the "meaning" which might be assigned to each of these particles in any…

  3. Exploring Sources of Variation in Romanian Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Istrate, Olimpius; Noveanu, Gabriela; Smith, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    The shift from a centrally-controlled to a market-oriented economy in the early 1990s put pressure on the Romanian education system to reform both the curriculum and methods of instruction employed in primary and secondary education. At least part of the pressure to implement educational reforms came from the relatively poor performance of…

  4. Post-Institutional Autistic Syndrome in Romanian Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoksbergen, Rene; ter Laak, Jan; Rijk, Kathinka; van Dijkum, Cor; Stoutjesdijk, Felicia

    2005-01-01

    Romanian adoptees have a background of severe neglect. International research has shown that this can give rise to symptoms of autistic behavior. Rutter "et al." (1999, "Journal of Child Psychology Psychiatry," 40 (4), 537-549.) refers to "quasi-autistic patterns", and Federici (1998, "Help for the hopeless…

  5. Loss of Infinitival Complementation in Romanian Diachronic Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Maria

    2009-01-01

    For the most part, my study is a descriptive analysis of infinitival complement clauses and the corresponding subjunctive clauses in Romanian, that is, obligatory control (OC) structures. OC is a relation of obligatory coreferentiality between a matrix argument (controller) and the null subject of the subordinate (controlee) of the same sentence.…

  6. Fit for a Purpose? The Romanian System of VET

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, John; Serban, Madlen

    2007-01-01

    The Romanian system of initial vocational education and training is examined from three different points of view: its relevance to the labour market; its relationship with other parts of the national education system; and its evolution from the past to the future. While there are some major current mismatches between the school system and the…

  7. Individualism and collectivism: what differences between Portuguese and Romanian adolescents?

    PubMed

    Ciochină, Laura; Faria, Luísa

    2009-11-01

    This article presents the results of a series of preliminary comparisons, between the Portuguese and Romanian cultural contexts, on the individualism-collectivism (IND/COL) cultural dimension. The IND/COL was evaluated with the Individualism-Collectivism Questionnaire - ICQ -, constructed in New Zealand by Shulruf, Hattie and Dixon (2003, Anonymous Questionnaire of Self-Attitudes - AQSA), and adapted to the Portuguese and Romanian contexts by Ciochină and Faria (2007), using studies of confirmatory factor analysis. The ICQ composed by 26 items, 15 evaluating the IND scale--with three subscales (Uniqueness, Competition and Responsibility)--, and 11 evaluating the COL scale--with two subscales (Harmony and Advice)--, was administered to 395 subjects, 200 Portuguese and 195 Romanian, 10th and 12th graders. On the whole, in the Portuguese and Romanian samples, the multivariate and univariate statistical analyses evidenced the existence of two independent variables--gender and cultural context--, with significant effects, main and of interaction, on the scales and subscales of the ICQ. The results were discussed taking into consideration the specificities of the educational systems in the two cultural contexts, which are inevitably shaped by socio-cultural factors characteristic of the two countries considered in the present study--Portugal and Romania.

  8. Exploring Sources of Variation in Romanian Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Istrate, Olimpius; Noveanu, Gabriela; Smith, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    The shift from a centrally-controlled to a market-oriented economy in the early 1990s put pressure on the Romanian education system to reform both the curriculum and methods of instruction employed in primary and secondary education. At least part of the pressure to implement educational reforms came from the relatively poor performance of…

  9. The modernity of the research of Romanian astronomer Constantin Popovic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiruta, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present the model of the photogravitational field proposed by the romanian mathematician Constantin Popovici, basic equations. We give the variation of orbital energy in the photogravitational two bodies problem and energy integral. In this case the orbital energy is not conserved.

  10. Romanian Youths' Civic Identities: 20 Years after the Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obenchain, Kathryn; Bellows, Elizabeth; Bernat, Simona-Elena; Smith, Billy

    2013-01-01

    The study explores the civic identities of Romanian youth. Children born after 1989 have no memory of the communism; yet, they are the children and students of those who were educated under communism. Data sources were small group interviews with 21 youth and results indicate that participants believe "civic engagement is possible and…

  11. Loss of Infinitival Complementation in Romanian Diachronic Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Maria

    2009-01-01

    For the most part, my study is a descriptive analysis of infinitival complement clauses and the corresponding subjunctive clauses in Romanian, that is, obligatory control (OC) structures. OC is a relation of obligatory coreferentiality between a matrix argument (controller) and the null subject of the subordinate (controlee) of the same sentence.…

  12. Parenting Stress in Families Adopting Children from Romanian Orphanages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainemer, Henry; Gilman, Lorraine C.; Ames, Elinor W.

    1998-01-01

    Parenting stress was found to be greater in families that adopted children who had been institutionalized for eight months or more in a Romanian orphanage than those in two comparison groups. Aspects of child behavior and family factors which contributed to stress, and implications for special needs adoptions are discussed. (Author/EMK)

  13. Development of Professional Identity in Romanian Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser-Segura, Daniel A.; Mudge, Suzanne; Bratianu, Constantin; Dumitru, Ionela

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to focus on the role of learning activities on the development of Romanian students making the change from academia to the workplace, specifically focusing on the role of three learning activities: classroom teaching pedagogies ("in-vitro"); field experiences ("in-situ"); and self-development…

  14. The Romanian-English Contrastive Analysis Project; Contrastive Studies in the Syntax and Semantics of English and Romanian, Vol. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitoran, Dumitru, Ed.

    The sixth volume of this series contains eight contrastive studies in the syntax and semantics of English and Romanian. They are: "Criteria for the Contrastive Analysis of English Nouns," by Andrei Bantas; "Adjectives as Noun Modifiers in Post-Verbal Position," by Ioana Poenaru; "Towards a Semantic Description of 'Tense' and 'Aspect' in English…

  15. The Romanian-English Contrastive Analysis Project; Contrastive Studies in the Syntax and Semantics of English and Romanian, Vol. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitoran, Dumitru, Ed.

    The sixth volume of this series contains eight contrastive studies in the syntax and semantics of English and Romanian. They are: "Criteria for the Contrastive Analysis of English Nouns," by Andrei Bantas; "Adjectives as Noun Modifiers in Post-Verbal Position," by Ioana Poenaru; "Towards a Semantic Description of 'Tense' and 'Aspect' in English…

  16. New records of Protura (Entognatha, Arthropoda) from Romania, with an identification key to the Romanian species.

    PubMed

    Shrubovych, Julia; Fiera, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The Romanian Protura were studied based on 175 specimens collected from Romania, along with bibliographic data. The main publication on the Romanian proturans was written by M.A. Ionescu (1951), who described 13 species mainly from soil and forest litter from 15 collecting points. The current paper represents the first study at a national level. Faunal data on Protura were obtained from 22 sites, mostly from forests of the Romanian Carpathians and also from a peri-urban area of Bucharest, which had not been studied before. As a result, the Romanian Protura fauna now consists of 27 known taxa in 6 genera and 4 families. Of the 27 taxa, 15 species are new records for Romanian fauna. An identification key to the Romanian Protura species is provided.

  17. New records of Protura (Entognatha, Arthropoda) from Romania, with an identification key to the Romanian species

    PubMed Central

    Shrubovych, Julia; Fiera, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Romanian Protura were studied based on 175 specimens collected from Romania, along with bibliographic data. The main publication on the Romanian proturans was written by M.A. Ionescu (1951), who described 13 species mainly from soil and forest litter from 15 collecting points. The current paper represents the first study at a national level. Faunal data on Protura were obtained from 22 sites, mostly from forests of the Romanian Carpathians and also from a peri-urban area of Bucharest, which had not been studied before. As a result, the Romanian Protura fauna now consists of 27 known taxa in 6 genera and 4 families. Of the 27 taxa, 15 species are new records for Romanian fauna. An identification key to the Romanian Protura species is provided. PMID:26865814

  18. Mineral Chart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Right Sport for You Healthy School Lunch Planner Mineral Chart KidsHealth > For Teens > Mineral Chart Print A A A en español Tabla ... sources of calcium. You'll also find this mineral in broccoli and dark green, leafy vegetables. Soy ...

  19. Mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  20. A Romanian therapeutic approach to peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Zegrea, I; Chivu, Laura Ioana; Albu, Mădălina Georgiana; Zamfirescu, D; Chivu, R D; Ion, Daniela Adriana; Lascăr, I

    2012-01-01

    The study of nerve regeneration and functional recovery of the injured peripheral nerves represents a worldwide subject of clinical and scientific research. Our team aimed to obtain the first guide for nerve regeneration, bioartificial and biodegradable, using exclusively Romanian resources and having the advantages of price and quality, over the imported nerve conduits already used in clinical practice. First steps of this project consisted in obtaining the prototype of nerve guide conduit and its' testing in vitro and in vivo. Tests of physicochemical characterization, FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) spectrometry, thermal analysis (differential calorimetry, thermo-gravimetry), electron microscopy, water absorption and enzymatic degradation of the obtained prototype were followed by in vivo testing. The first results, obtained on a group of Brown Norway rats who suffered experimental lesions of 1 cm at the level of left sciatic nerve, which have then been repaired using the Romanian conduit prototype, are favorable in terms of biocompatibility, biodegradable capacity and support of nerve regeneration.

  1. The scientific activity of the Romanian Astronomical Society during 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexescu, Matei

    1992-04-01

    The author is overviewing the main activities of the members of the Romanian Astronomical Society during 1992. The main goals include: 1)Observations of solar spots, 2)Proper motions inside solar spots groups, 3)Observations of Mars,Jupiter and Saturn, 4)Photometric and astrometric observations of the asteroid 3674 ERBIS-BUEUL (the work to be given by the Astronomical Institute), 5)Observations of meteors (SARM)

  2. Evaluation of Holocene pollen records from the Romanian Plain.

    PubMed

    Tomescu

    2000-05-01

    This study is a critical review of pollen analyses carried out on Holocene sequences from 15 sites in and near the Romanian Plain. Three sites come from natural sediments, 10 sites are from anthropogenic deposits and two are from both anthropogenic and natural settings. The general reconstruction is of a steppe-forest-steppe vegetation through the Holocene. The nature of the deposits, however, casts doubts on this reconstruction. Deposits of archaeological sites generally yield pollen spectra that are influenced by human activities and thus unsuitable for vegetation reconstructions. Loess deposits are also unfavorable for pollen preservation because of high pH and porosity. Consequently, pollen spectra from loess deposits are strongly biased by selective pollen destruction. Research and experiments carried out by several authors suggest that spectra dominated by Asteraceae, Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae or Pinus pollen in soils and loess are a result of selective pollen destruction, especially if low pollen concentrations, progressive pollen deterioration or high frequencies of deteriorated or unidentifiable pollen are evidenced. The fact that pollen records from the Romanian Plain come from loess, alkaline peat or archaeological sites reduces their reliability for reconstructions of vegetation. The vegetation history of similar regions in Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey suggests that early Holocene steppe vegetation was gradually replaced by forest or forest-steppe vegetation in the late Holocene. Records from lake sediments are required to find out whether the Holocene vegetation history of the Romanian Plain was similar.

  3. Integration Processes of a Romanian Group in a Huelva Village through Family Life Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Díaz-Reales, Antonia-María; Aguaded-Gómez, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the integration of Romanian immigrants in Lucena del Puerto (Huelva, Spain) through the life stories of two families of Romanian origin. The experiences of the groups presented in this study were analyzed. Both families were in the town for work, to grow and harvest strawberries. We observed a contrast between idealistic views…

  4. Comparative Study on Romanian School Science Curricula and the Curriculum of TIMSS 2007 Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciascai, Liliana

    2009-01-01

    The results of Romanian school students in Science PISA and TIMSS testings have been and continue to be systematically slack. In the present paper we intend to do a comparative analysis of Science curriculum TIMSS 2007 and Romanian Science school curricula of 4th and 8th grades. This analysis, based on Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive domain,…

  5. Romanian, Spanish and US Secondary Science Teacher Perceptions of Threats to the Biosphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Michael; Naumescu, Adrienne Kozan; Ives, Bob

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the data from a current study involving 41 Romanian secondary science teachers and a previously published study that compared 89 Spanish and 42 US secondary science teachers. All three groups were convenience samples who answered a two part questionnaire that was given in English, Spanish or Romanian, depending on the sample.…

  6. Quality Improvement of Business Education in Romanian Universities: The Student as Customer and Client

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser-Segura, Daniel A.; Mudge, Suzanne; Bratianu, Constantin; Jianu, Ionela; Valcea, Sorin

    2007-01-01

    This study frames the quality transition of Romanian business education embracing the role of students as clients and customers. In the first part of the study, responses from ninety-four fourth-year Romanian students provided a statistically significant gap between the level of importance of business competences and their level of preparation.…

  7. The Holocaust as Reflected in Communist and Post-Communist Romanian Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbulescu, Ana; Degeratu, Laura; Gusu, Cosmina

    2013-01-01

    Romanian history textbooks were mostly silent about the Holocaust during the Communist era. The authors reconstructed the different models of remembering the Holocaust that are present in post-Communist Romanian textbooks. The analysis revealed the existence of six different models of recollecting this history. The six models of representing the…

  8. The Holocaust as Reflected in Communist and Post-Communist Romanian Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbulescu, Ana; Degeratu, Laura; Gusu, Cosmina

    2013-01-01

    Romanian history textbooks were mostly silent about the Holocaust during the Communist era. The authors reconstructed the different models of remembering the Holocaust that are present in post-Communist Romanian textbooks. The analysis revealed the existence of six different models of recollecting this history. The six models of representing the…

  9. Romanian norms for the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A.

    PubMed

    David, Daniel; Montgomery, Guy; Holdevici, Irina

    2003-01-01

    A Romanian-language version of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) was administered to 340 subjects (218 females and 122 males) recruited from 1998 to 1999 in Romania. Data were collected from three samples of participants to provide greater heterogeneity within the sample. The results from the Romanian version of the HGSHS:A were compared to those from Australian, Canadian, Danish, Finnish, German, Italian, Spanish, and original U.S. samples. The Romanian normative data are consistent with earlier normative studies in score distribution, item difficulty levels, and reliability. The mean score of the Romanian sample did not differ from those in the German and Italian samples but did significantly differ from the remaining samples. The total score reliability (.71) and item reliability of the Romanian sample was also comparable with published reference samples. No differences between women and men were found.

  10. Magnetic Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordua, William S.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses common as well as uncommon minerals that are attracted to a hand magnet. Included in the discussion are answers to the following questions: (1) What causes this attraction? and (2) How many different minerals respond to a hand magnet? (ZWH)

  11. Industrial Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Lawrence L.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses trends in and factors related to the production of industrial minerals during 1982, indicating that, as 1981 marked a downturn in production of industrial minerals, 1982 continued the trend with temporary and permanent cutbacks in mine and plant production. Includes highlights of several conferences/conference papers in this field.…

  12. Mechanical sampling systems for coal quality control in Romanian power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Matei, M.

    1998-12-31

    According to ISO 1988 samples must be taken from moving currents by using certain mechanical devices, and, only, exceptionally, by an understanding between party`s, by manually sampling. The principal requirements when designing and constructing a mechanical sampling system are that: it shall be capable of collecting and preparing increments or samples, as the case may be, that are free from relevant bias; it shall maintain this capability under all such conditions of sampling that are stipulated in the relevant specifications and without necessitating that sampling be interrupted for cleaning or maintenance. Actually, coal quality control in Romanian power plants are usually performed by a manual system. In order to meet ISO 1988 requirements, RENEL-GSCI (formerly ICEMENERG) has designed and achieved a falling stream sampler with cutter bucket in accordance with ISO 9411-1 (solid mineral fuels - Mechanical sampling from moving stream) provisions. This device has been installed in the Oradea 2 cogeneration power plant in the coal falling stream at the end of the belt conveyor. When the mechanical sampling installation was commissioned, experiments to check for precision and bias had been out for the installation as a whole. The method of checking for bias was by comparison with stopped-belt sampling. The mechanical sampling device is still under testing. The paper presents the result obtained during the preliminary test period in order to certify the mechanical sampler.

  13. Study of mineral water resources from the Eastern Carpathians using stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Magdas, Dana A; Cuna, Stela M; Berdea, Petre; Balas, Gabriela; Cuna, Cornel; Dordai, Edina; Falub, Mihaela C

    2009-08-30

    The Eastern Carpathians contain many mineral water springs that feed famous Romanian health resorts such as Borsec, Biborteni and Vatra Dornei. These waters have been used for their different therapeutic effects. In this work, mineral and spring waters from these Romanian regions were investigated by means of chemical and isotopic (deltaD and delta(18)O) analyses in order to understand the recharge mechanisms and also to determine their origins. Most of the investigated springs are of meteoric origin, having the average deuterium content of the local meteoric water. The higher (18)O content with respect to the Meteoric Water Line (MWL) indicated an exchange reaction with crystalline igneous rocks at depth and with other rocks that the water encounters on its journey back to the surface. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Solar eclipses recorded in old Romanian chronicles and notes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, Magda; Mioc, Vasile; Débarbat, Suzanne

    Many solar eclipses observed trough history on Romanian territory have been recorded by the witnesses in chronicles and notes. About 100 such records, covering five hundred years (between 1.I.1386 and 6.III.1867), were collected and the respective eclipses were identified. There are records to be noted for the beautiful description of the phenomenon (6.III.1867). There are also records which prove a remarkable accuracy as regards the moments of the eclipse (5.IX.1793, 19.XI.1816). The importance of the latter for astronomy is obvious. Many records provide rich details about various characteristic aspects: the evolution of the phenomenon during the partial eclipse (25.VII.1748, 11.II.1804), the apparition of the stars in the sky during the totality phase (17.VI.1433, 12.VIII.1654, 25.VII.1748), sight damage affecting the imprudent spectators (22.VI.1656), the reactions of the spectators: fright, collective panic (23.IX.1699). Lots of records connect the celestial event with terrestrial calamities, natural (earthquakes, plague, invasions of grasshoppers, floods) or social (wars, kingdom changes). The solar eclipses of 16.III.1485, 12.VIII.1654, 12.V.1706, 28.VII.1851 constitute such examples. Finally, there are records which prove the astronomical cares of certain scientists of the time. For instance, three eclipses which occurred in 1628 (6.I, 1.VII, 24.XII), all invisible in Romania, were recorded by a Romanian 17th century scientist, Stefan Bachner, on the corresponding pages of a calendar for 1559. All these records prove that the celestial phenomena benefitted from particular and constant interest from the Romanian people throughout their history.

  15. The water mass variability on the Romanian Black Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buga, Luminita; Mihailov, Maria-Emanuela; Malciu, Viorel; Stefan, Sabina

    2013-04-01

    The long-term trends in the water mass thermohaline structure and the effect of Danube River freshwater discharge into the western Black Sea during the last four decades (1971 - 2010) are analyzed using the data collected on the Romanian shelf (NIMRD data base). The variations of the temperature and salinity over the studied period are relatively small. The temperature data reveal a slightly warming trend for the upper mixed layer (UML) while for the shelf cold water (SCW) - identified by the 8˚C upper isotherm depth - thermohaline structure remains practically constant. At the same time the salinity exhibits a decreasing trend in the entire water column.

  16. A strategy to identify opportunities for innovation in Romanian healthcare services

    PubMed Central

    Coculescu, BI; Purcărea, VL; Coculescu, EC

    2015-01-01

    In principle, the development of medicine (including the Romanian health system) is primarily dependent on the level of funding and the efficiency with which this funding is used, the structure of the population and socio-economic development of the geographical area concerned, and not least, the attitudes and expectations of patients, which in turn translate into care taking policies system. Unlike the other services, health services are accessed by a large number of people, which results into high health. As an economic principle, the fewer resources are used to achieve the expected results, the more effective the supplier. However, the introduction of new medical technologies, many of them more reliable yet more expensive, required a reassessment of the way resources are used at the suppliers’ level to produce the expected results, an evaluation based on cost-effectiveness per analysis (or per patient) criteria. Finally, medical services are the tools of the marketing strategy of any medical organizations without which the needs and motivations of the beneficiaries (patients) could not be satisfied. In essence, the entire marketing philosophy is based on the needs and wishes of the people and on concrete solutions to solve them. PMID:26351536

  17. A strategy to identify opportunities for innovation in Romanian healthcare services.

    PubMed

    Coculescu, B I; Purcărea, V L; Coculescu, E C

    2015-01-01

    In principle, the development of medicine (including the Romanian health system) is primarily dependent on the level of funding and the efficiency with which this funding is used, the structure of the population and socio-economic development of the geographical area concerned, and not least, the attitudes and expectations of patients, which in turn translate into care taking policies system. Unlike the other services, health services are accessed by a large number of people, which results into high health. As an economic principle, the fewer resources are used to achieve the expected results, the more effective the supplier. However, the introduction of new medical technologies, many of them more reliable yet more expensive, required a reassessment of the way resources are used at the suppliers' level to produce the expected results, an evaluation based on cost-effectiveness per analysis (or per patient) criteria. Finally, medical services are the tools of the marketing strategy of any medical organizations without which the needs and motivations of the beneficiaries (patients) could not be satisfied. In essence, the entire marketing philosophy is based on the needs and wishes of the people and on concrete solutions to solve them.

  18. Drinking Patterns and Behavioral Consequences: A Cross-Sectional Study among Romanian University Students.

    PubMed

    Nasui, Bogdana Adriana; Popa, Monica; Popescu, Codruta Alina

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol/binge drinking among university students has become a major public health problem. Many of young students will be exposed to substantial changes in living arrangements, socialization groups and social activities during the transitional period. The aim of this study was to analyse the alcohol consumption in Romanian university students, and to describe the behaviours occurring after drinking. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 468 undergraduate students, from a university for medicine and law. Of these students, 35.5% were males and 64.5% were females. The mean age of students was 21.9 ± 3.22 years. Validated anonymous paper questionnaires were completed voluntary by the students. Questionnaires contained demographic items, six questions for determining the level of alcohol consumed in terms of quantity and frequency, and 19 statements or problems resulting from drinking. The findings of the study showed that males drunk more units of alcohol/week than females (p<0.001). The prevalence of abstainers was 10.8% in males and 17.6% in women. Heavy drinkers (drinking 5 or more drinks more than once a week) were more common among male (19.3%) than among female students (16.2%). Most frequently, drinking behaviours are related to academic performance, and the possible link between poor academic performance and alcohol consumption appears tenuous and merits further investigation. Effective intervention strategies should be implemented to prevent students' alcohol consumption and adverse health and social consequences resulting from this behaviour.

  19. Medicinal plants: conception / contraception.

    PubMed

    Chaing, H S; Merino-chavez, G; Yang, L L; Wang, F N; Hafez, E S

    1994-01-01

    Researchers have conducted considerable experiments on the effectiveness and therapeutic values of Chinese herbs and parts of plants. We should not ignore the significance of natural medicine. The Chinese have been perfecting medicinal therapy based on the raw ingredients of plants/herbs and their derivatives for thousands of years. Chinese practitioners of traditional medicine prescribe medicines based on yin and yang. Traditional medicine is communicated in a verb or written form. Natural resources used in traditional medicine to treat diseases are not limited to just medicinal plants but also include animals, shell fish, and minerals. Parts of plants used in traditional medicine are leaves, stems, flowers, bark, and root. Chinese medicine is the world's oldest continuous surviving tradition. The Chinese experimented with local plants, often resulting in mild to violent reactions. This process allowed them to become familiar with poisonous plants and those that could relieve pain or successfully treat illness. Current allopathic medicines are composed of synthetic compounds copied from natural chemical derivatives, which tend to be more potent than the original compound. Some medicinal plants used to effect conception/contraception include Striga astiatica (contraceptive); Eurycoma longifolia (male virility); and a mixture of lengkuas, mengkudu masak, black pepper seeds, ginger, salt, and 2 eggs (increase libido). Women in Malaysia take jamu to preserve their body shape and to provide nutrition during pregnancy. Praneem causes local cell-mediated immunity in the uterus. Clinical trials of Praneem with or without the hCG vaccine are planned.

  20. Conference scene: Summary of the 6th Conference of the Romanian Association of Medical Laboratories with international participation.

    PubMed

    Carasevici, Eugen

    2011-10-01

    The Romanian Association of Medical Laboratories (RAML) conferences have acquired a reputation for standing out as the most prominent and efficient meetings in the national community of laboratory medicine, being a landmark of the development in this field in Romania and an active affiliation to international forums. This year, the conference setting was Piatra Neamt, in the northeast part of Romania, which produced a friendly and stimulating professional environment. As in previous years, leading experts in the fields of laboratory medicine attended the event. This year, we enjoyed the opportunity to have such distinguished guests as the members of the executive board of International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC); Graham Beastall, IFCC President; Päivi Hannele Laitinen, IFCC secretary; and Grazyna Sypniewska, IFCC Communication and Publication Division, and editor of the electronic journal of the IFCC. As usual, the conference program included all aspects of clinical laboratory activity, with a special focus on technology development, instrumentation and laboratory management. Fully aware of the fact that the complexity and depth of laboratory practice have undergone an impressive and rapid evolution, the specific goals of the event were to increase knowledge in the fundamentals of new molecular investigation, areas which show the tendency to become routine in our daily activity. In addition, laboratory management and the place of medical laboratories in the process of translational medicine were subjects of focus. The 6th Conference of the Romanian Association of Medical Laboratories was held from Wednesday 1st to Saturday 4th of June 2011. A total of 273 participants from all local branches of the Association attended. The scientific program included seven plenary sessions where 22 lectures and 18 short communications were delivered, and three poster sessions with 44 poster presentations. Session topics covered issues of

  1. Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Karl T.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Washton, Nancy M.

    2014-03-14

    Clay minerals are important components of the environment and are involved or implicated in processes such as the uptake of pollutants and the release of nutrients and as potential platforms for a number of chemical reactions. Owing to their small particle sizes (typically, on the order of microns or smaller) and mixing with a variety of other minerals and soil components, advanced characterization methods are needed to study their structures, dynamics, and reactivities. In this article, we describe the use of solid-state NMR methods to characterize the structures and chemistries of clay minerals. Early one-pulse magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of 27Al and 29Si have now been enhanced and extended with new studies utilizing advanced methodologies (such as Multiple Quantum MAS) as well as studies of less-sensitive nuclei. In additional work, the issue of reactivity of clay minerals has been addressed, including studies of reactive surface area in the environment. Utilizations of NMR-sensitive nuclides within the clay minerals themselves, and in molecules that react with specific sites on the clay mineral surfaces, have aided in understanding the reactivity of these complex aluminosilicate systems.

  2. Killer clays! Natural antibacterial clay minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, L.B.; Holland, M.; Eberl, D.D.; Brunet, T.; De Courrsou, L. B.

    2004-01-01

    The clay chemical properties that may be important in medicine were investigated. It was found that natural clay minerals can have striking and very specific effects on microbial populations. The effects can range from potentially enhanced microbial growth to complete sterilization. This paper presents evidence that natural clay minerals can be effective antimicrobial agents.

  3. Fragmented Romanian sociology: growth and structure of the collaboration network.

    PubMed

    Hâncean, Marian-Gabriel; Perc, Matjaž; Vlăsceanu, Lazăr

    2014-01-01

    Structural patterns in collaboration networks are essential for understanding how new ideas, research practices, innovation or cooperation circulate and develop within academic communities and between and within university departments. In our research, we explore and investigate the structure of the collaboration network formed by the academics working full-time within all the 17 sociology departments across Romania. We show that the collaboration network is sparse and fragmented, and that it constitutes an environment that does not promote the circulation of new ideas and innovation within the field. Although recent years have witnessed an increase in the productivity of Romanian sociologists, there is still ample room for improvement in terms of the interaction infrastructure that ought to link individuals together so that they could maximize their potentials. We also fail to discern evidence in favor of the Matthew effect governing the growth of the network, which suggests scientific success and productivity are not rewarded. Instead, the structural properties of the collaboration network are partly those of a core-periphery network, where the spread of innovation and change can be explained by structural equivalence rather than by interpersonal influence models. We also provide support for the idea that, within the observed network, collaboration is the product of homophily rather than prestige effects. Further research on the subject based on data from other countries in the region is needed to place our results in a comparative framework, in particular to discern whether the behavior of the Romanian sociologist community is unique or rather common.

  4. Fragmented Romanian Sociology: Growth and Structure of the Collaboration Network

    PubMed Central

    Hâncean, Marian-Gabriel; Perc, Matjaž; Vlăsceanu, Lazăr

    2014-01-01

    Structural patterns in collaboration networks are essential for understanding how new ideas, research practices, innovation or cooperation circulate and develop within academic communities and between and within university departments. In our research, we explore and investigate the structure of the collaboration network formed by the academics working full-time within all the 17 sociology departments across Romania. We show that the collaboration network is sparse and fragmented, and that it constitutes an environment that does not promote the circulation of new ideas and innovation within the field. Although recent years have witnessed an increase in the productivity of Romanian sociologists, there is still ample room for improvement in terms of the interaction infrastructure that ought to link individuals together so that they could maximize their potentials. We also fail to discern evidence in favor of the Matthew effect governing the growth of the network, which suggests scientific success and productivity are not rewarded. Instead, the structural properties of the collaboration network are partly those of a core-periphery network, where the spread of innovation and change can be explained by structural equivalence rather than by interpersonal influence models. We also provide support for the idea that, within the observed network, collaboration is the product of homophily rather than prestige effects. Further research on the subject based on data from other countries in the region is needed to place our results in a comparative framework, in particular to discern whether the behavior of the Romanian sociologist community is unique or rather common. PMID:25409180

  5. Genetic characterization of some Romanian red wine grapevine varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghetea, Ligia Gabriela; Motoc, Rozalia Magda; Niculescu, Ana-Maria; Litescu, Simona Carmen; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Popescu, Carmen Florentina

    2008-04-01

    In our study we have considered three of the most valuable Romanian red wine grapevine cultivars: Feteasca neagra, Feteasca alba and Novac. We have chosen to study grapevine because grapes and wine are an important part of a healthy diet, and because red grapes have the highest content of proanthocyanidins, that act as antioxidants (free radical scavengers) in the human body. Proanthocyanidins possess anti-mutagenic, anti-tumor, anti-viral activities and they present many other confirmed or potential benefits. Genotyping method was applied in order to asses the genetic profile at 14 microsatellite loci, for two cultivars: Feteasca neagra and Feteasca alba. In order to achieve this, the HPLC-DAD method was used. The content of anthocyans in grape skin from two cultivars - Feteasca neagra and Novac - was measured. Microsatellite markers have been certified as powerful tools for assessing genetic identities and genetic relationships between grapevine gene pools. Genetic characterization of grapevine cultivars can certify their authenticity and purity, two features that have a direct effect on the quality and value of the finished product, the wine. In our country, this is the first attempt in order to establish a genetic profile for valuable Romanian origin grapevine varieties. In some of the 14 microsatellitic loci, Feteasca neagra and Feteasca alba cultivars presented allele size variants different from the values cited in the literature, proving that these cultivars belong to a geographical distinct gene pool. The content of anthocyans in Feteasca neagra grape skin was significantly higher than in Novac.

  6. Mineral resource of the month: Mica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willett, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    The mica mineral group includes 34 phyllosilicate minerals, all with a layered, platy texture. The mineral has been known for millennia: Mica was first mined in India about 4,000 years ago, where it was used primarily in medicines. The Mayans used it for decorative effect in stucco to make their temples sparkle in the sun. Today it is used in everything from electrical products to makeup.

  7. Gerota and Brâncuşi: Romanian anatomy and art face to face

    PubMed Central

    Chirculescu, A R M; Panduru, Andra; Chirculescu, Mihaela; Morris, J F

    2010-01-01

    Gerota’s name is associated with two eponyms and two histochemical methods, but he was also Brâncuşi’s teacher and supervisor. When Brâncuşi was a student in Bucharest, he produced an ‘écorché’ (flayed man), of which six plaster replicas still exist, two in apparently the original shape and four which have been modified/‘cosmetized’. The two are in the University of Arts in Bucharest, one in the main hall, the other in the classroom used for teaching students. Of the other four, one is in the Museum of Arts and one in the Museum of Natural Sciences of Carol I National College in Craiova (where Gerota graduated in 1885), and one each in the Faculties of Medicine in Cluj Napoca and Iassy. One more probably existed in the Faculty of Medicine in Bucharest, and one in the Faculty of Fine Arts in Iassy but no trace of them could be found. The original clay model was lost (or destroyed during transportation) in the 1930s or 1956. Two variants of the écorché exist: one ‘artistic’ (slender and smoother) in the University of Arts in Bucharest; the other more ‘anatomical’ (muscular, robust, athletic) in Craiova, Cluj and Iassy. Both variants are a very realistic representation of the human muscular system, but with that extra which only a master artist can add. Interestingly, the head of the écorché bears a striking resemblance in attitude and curves to that of Brâncuşi’s famous head of Mademoiselle Pogany. The replicas appear to have been distributed to embellish the capitals of four of the six historical Romanian provinces: Muntenia (Bucharest), Oltenia (Craiova), Moldavia (Iassy), and Transylvania (Cluj). PMID:20447246

  8. Industrial Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, James C.

    1978-01-01

    The past year is seen as not particularly good for industrial minerals and for industry in general. Environmental concerns continued to trouble the industry with unacceptable asbestos concentrations and chlorofluorocarbon effects on ozone. A halting U.S. economy also affected industrial progress. (MA)

  9. Romanian version of the oral health impact profile-49 questionnaire: validation and preliminary assessment of the psychometrical properties

    PubMed Central

    GRECU, ALEXANDRU-GRATIAN; DUDEA, DIANA; BALAZSI, ROBERT; DUMITRASCU, DAN LUCIAN

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) represents a multidimensional structure, being measured by complex instruments, such as the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP). The aim of this present study is to develop and test the psychometric properties of an initial Romanian (OHIP-49Ro) version. Methods The original OHIP-49 version was translated using a forward-backward technique into the Romanian OHIP-49Ro, which was applied in an interview form to 150 patients of the Second Medical Clinique of Internal Medicine, Cluj-Napoca. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was applied, in order to evaluate the factor structure and construct validity of the OHIP-49Ro. Results The correlations between the OHIP-49Ro subscales were all positive and statistically significant. Cronbach’s Alpha coefficients values are above 0.7 for all subscales, providing support for the internal consistency of OHIP-49Ro scale scores. Regarding the CFA, for the seven factor model, the Bentler scaled chi-square (S–Bχ2) indicated a value of 2193.74 (df=1091; p=0.001), the CFI a value of 0.740, the TLI a value of 0.72 and RMSEA the value of 0.82. Conclusions The results of this study suggest a high internal consistency of the OHIP-49Ro instrument. Due to the correlations between several sets of factors, and the multiple-factorial load for several items, the OHIP-49Ro’s factorial structure requires further research on different samples and in different cultural and educational contexts. PMID:26733752

  10. Multifaceted role of clay minerals in pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Inderpreet Singh; Kaur, Satvinder; Kaur, Harpreet; Khurana, Rajneet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    The desirable physical and physiochemical properties of clay minerals have led them to play a substantial role in pharmaceutical formulations. Clay minerals like kaolin, smectite and palygorskite-sepiolite are among the world's most valuable industrial minerals and of considerable importance. The elemental features of clay minerals which caused them to be used in pharmaceutical formulations are high specific area, sorption capacity, favorable rheological properties, chemical inertness, swelling capacity, reactivity to acids and inconsiderable toxicity. Of course, these are highly cost effectual. This special report on clay minerals provides a bird's eye view of the chemical composition and structure of these minerals and their influence on the release properties of active medicinal agents. Endeavor has been made to rope in myriad applications depicting the wide acceptability of these clay minerals. PMID:28031881

  11. Multifaceted role of clay minerals in pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Inderpreet Singh; Kaur, Satvinder; Kaur, Harpreet; Khurana, Rajneet Kaur

    2015-11-01

    The desirable physical and physiochemical properties of clay minerals have led them to play a substantial role in pharmaceutical formulations. Clay minerals like kaolin, smectite and palygorskite-sepiolite are among the world's most valuable industrial minerals and of considerable importance. The elemental features of clay minerals which caused them to be used in pharmaceutical formulations are high specific area, sorption capacity, favorable rheological properties, chemical inertness, swelling capacity, reactivity to acids and inconsiderable toxicity. Of course, these are highly cost effectual. This special report on clay minerals provides a bird's eye view of the chemical composition and structure of these minerals and their influence on the release properties of active medicinal agents. Endeavor has been made to rope in myriad applications depicting the wide acceptability of these clay minerals.

  12. Optimizing romanian maritime coastline using mathematical model Litpack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, I. A.; Panaitescu, M.; Panaitescu, F. V.

    2017-08-01

    There are many methods and tools to study shoreline change in coastal engineering. LITPACK is a numerical model included in MIKE software developed by DHI (Danish Hydraulic Institute). With this matehematical model we can simulate coastline evolution and profile along beach. Research and methodology: the paper contents location of the study area, the current status of Midia-Mangalia shoreline, protection objectives, the changes of shoreline after having protected constructions. In this paper are presented numerical and graphycal results obtained with this model for studying the romanian maritime coastline in area MIDIA-MANGALIA: non-cohesive sediment transport, long-shore current and littoral drift, coastline evolution, crossshore profile evolution, the development of the coastline position in time.

  13. Stable isotopes determination in some Romanian fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Magdas, Dana Alina; Puscas, Romulus

    2011-09-01

    The characterisation of 45 Romanian single-strength fruit juices (apples, pears, plums and grapes) collected from different Transylvanian areas by means of stable isotope approach are presented and discussed in this study. We measured (2)H/(1)H, (18)O/(16)O ratios from water juice and (13)C/(12)C from pulp and compared these results with those already reported in the literature for single-strength juices, in order to see how the geographical and climatic conditions of Transylvania and the meteorological peculiarities of the year 2010 influence the isotopic composition of the investigated fruit juices. The δ(13)C mean values that we found for apple pulp picked up from different Transylvanian areas show slight differences, probably due to the environmental conditions of the plants. No significant correlation either between the variety of apple or the geographical origin and δ(13)C value was established.

  14. Extra curricular photonics education in Romanian high schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sporea, Dan; Sporea, Adelina; Timus, Clementina

    2007-08-01

    In the frame of the European Union funded Comenius project "Hands-on Science", a network of very active high schools was created, aiming to attract students towards science study by offering them the possibility to learn and to express themselves through experiments. On the other side, our Institute coordinates the project "Science Education and Training in a Knowledge-Based Society - SET 2010", project supported by the Romanian Ministry of Education and Research, which targets the same audience by different means. The paper addresses some of the results of these two projects as they are linked with photonics teaching in high schools through extra curricular activities such as science clubs, science fairs, and national contests for high school students. The project results were introduced to the public at various conferences: ETOP Conference, France), NATO Advanced Workshop, Hungary), Hands-on Science Conference, Greece), Euroscience Forum, Germany), Communicating European Research, Belgium).

  15. Linking landslide susceptibility to sediment yield in the Romanian Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broeckx, Jente; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Bǎlteanu, Dan; Chendeş, Viorel; Sima, Mihaela; Enciu, Petru; Poesen, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies revealed the importance of seismic activity in explaining regional patterns of catchment sediment yield (SY). This relation is often explained by the fact that seismic activity induces landslides that contribute to SY. Nevertheless, only a few studies focused on the effects of landslides on SY and even fewer studies have explored the potential of landslide susceptibility as a predictor for SY. The objective of this study is therefore to explore the potential of landslide susceptibility maps to explain the spatial variation of SY in the Romanian Carpathians, a region with moderate to high seismicity. 133 catchments, covering 63% of Romania, for which SY was measured during a period of at least 10 years and for which SY was not significantly affected by upstream reservoirs, were compiled and selected. 78 of these catchments were 'less disturbed', being covered for at least 50% by forest and semi-natural areas and confined to the Carpathian mountains. Landslide susceptibility in each catchment was assessed, using an earlier published state of the art landslide susceptibility map of Romania. Mean landslide susceptibility for each catchment shows a highly significant correlation with SY (r² = 0.44). This indicates that landslides are an important contributor to SY in Romania and suggests that regional and national landslide susceptibility maps can indeed be a useful tool to predict SY. Nevertheless, the susceptibility map did not explain much more of the observed variance in SY than some other individual catchment characteristics such as seismicity (r² = 0.40) and lithology (r² = 0.33). Also taking into account the spatial patterns of landslide susceptibility within the catchment did not significantly improve the observed correlations. Surprisingly, topography showed a nonsignificant correlation with SY, which can be attributed to the overwhelming effect of seismicity and lithology. Overall, our results suggest that seismicity is indeed a highly

  16. Updates of the prevalence of problem gambling in Romanian teenagers.

    PubMed

    Lupu, Viorel; Todirita, Izabela Ramona

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to find out what is the prevalence of pathological in Romanian teenagers. We questioned one thousand thirty-two teenagers in Cluj-Napoca and Harghita counties. Participants completed a questionnaire with 40 items including gamblers anonymous twenty questions. The sample included teenagers aged 11-19 years; 65.57% were male and 34.43% were female. The subjects were divided into three groups: non-gambling/recreational gambling or occasional gambling (0-1 positive answers -Level 1)-753 subjects (72.96%) [316 females and 437 males]; problem gambling (2-6 points-Level 2)-243 subjects (23.54%) [43 females and 200 males]; pathological gambling (above 7 points-Level 3)-36 subjects (3.48%) [3 females and 33 males]. The mean age of pathological gamblers was 16.48 years. Gender differences were as expected, males engaging in pathological gambling (91.66% from pathological gamblers) more than females did (8.33% from pathological gamblers). Data revealed that the most encountered games practiced weekly were sport bets and slot machines in the case of 36.11% of the pathological gamblers; lotto, internet casino and pool bets each with 25%, followed by roulette and black-jack with 22.22%.From those who reported practicing gambling at a pathological level 66.66% engaged in alcohol consumption, 13.88% illicit drug use and 19.44% licit drugs. Just 16.66% smoke cigarettes. Data revealed higher rates of prevalence in Romanian teenagers than in other Central and Eastern European countries. A prevalence study at a national level should be designed.

  17. [Bone mineralization and mineral status].

    PubMed

    Boivin, Georges

    2003-01-01

    After initial calcification in matrix vesicles or collagen fibrils, bones are continually modified by modelling then remodelling. In bone tissue, the degree of mineralisation of bone structural units is heterogeneous, reflects the rate of bone remodelling, and can be measured using microradiography. Our model is based on the fact that bone remodelling activity and thus the duration of the secondary mineralisation of bone tissue would influence its mineral status (mainly its degree of mineralisation or bone density at tissue level). When the bone remodelling rate increases (menopause, parathyroid hormone), the degree of mineralisation of bone tissue decreases. Conversely, after a diminution of the remodelling rate induced by antiresorptive treatments, the degree of mineralisation of bone tissue increases. Strontium ranelate (PROTELOS) has been tested to date as a potential therapeutic agent in patients suffering from postmenopausal osteoporosis. Recent phase III studies (the Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention [SOTI] study and the TReatment Of Peripheral Osteoporosis Study [TROPOS]) show a decrease in the vertebral and extravertebral fracture risk and an increase in bone mineral density measured at lumbar spine and femoral levels. Strontium ranelate has a unique mechanism of action, since it decreases bone resorption and increases bone formation ('decoupling' agent). Our preliminary observations in animal and man reveal that, because of this dual mechanism of action, the degree of mineralisation of bone tissue and the crystal characteristics of bone mineral are maintained at normal levels. More generally, these data indicate that the mineral status of bone tissue should be systematically taken into account during histomorphometric studies of bone.

  18. Mineral bioprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, A.E.

    1993-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

  19. Fighting for Anatomy. Overview regarding two prestigious Romanian anatomists of the 20th century: Victor Papilian and Grigore T. Popa.

    PubMed

    Bârsu, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    During many centuries, the progress of Anatomy was based on the perseverant and laborious activities done by anatomists. Their work can be considered as a fight for Anatomy. A particular problem arouse when this fight is excessively done and it limits the ability to correctly analyze the contribution made by other scientists in the same domain. This situation was identified at different personalities who lived in the same time and were involved in the same fundamental field of research. If, theoretically, the similarities between scientists should get them closer, in order to have a better communication, the antagonisms can lead them to rivalry. Our paper exemplifies a historical case in which the personages are Victor Papilian (1888-1956) and Grigore T. Popa (1892-1948). The resemblances between these two famous Romanian anatomists from the first half of the 20th century induced an evident scientific rivalry. Papilian and Popa brought a significant contribution in anatomy. Each of them was very much appreciated by his students. It is interesting that both of them had achievements in literature. We present the reasons of their disagreement and its consequences. Paradoxically, not the contrasts, but the resemblances between their strong characters produced a sort of animosity between them. This attitude diminished in time and their successors - Ioan Albu from the Cluj Faculty of Medicine and Ion Iancu from the Jassy Faculty of Medicine - had a long lasting and successful cooperation.

  20. Drinking Patterns and Behavioral Consequences: A Cross-Sectional Study among Romanian University Students

    PubMed Central

    NASUI, Bogdana Adriana; POPA, Monica; POPESCU, Codruta Alina

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol/binge drinking among university students has become a major public health problem. Many of young students will be exposed to substantial changes in living arrangements, socialization groups and social activities during the transitional period. Aim The aim of this study was to analyse the alcohol consumption in Romanian university students, and to describe the behaviours occurring after drinking. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 468 undergraduate students, from a university for medicine and law. Of these students, 35.5% were males and 64.5% were females. The mean age of students was 21.9 ± 3.22 years. Validated anonymous paper questionnaires were completed voluntary by the students. Questionnaires contained demographic items, six questions for determining the level of alcohol consumed in terms of quantity and frequency, and 19 statements or problems resulting from drinking. Results The findings of the study showed that males drunk more units of alcohol/week than females (p<0.001). The prevalence of abstainers was 10.8% in males and 17.6% in women. Heavy drinkers (drinking 5 or more drinks more than once a week) were more common among male (19.3%) than among female students (16.2%). Most frequently, drinking behaviours are related to academic performance, and the possible link between poor academic performance and alcohol consumption appears tenuous and merits further investigation. Conclusion Effective intervention strategies should be implemented to prevent students’ alcohol consumption and adverse health and social consequences resulting from this behaviour. PMID:27647090

  1. Proposed model for a Romanian register of chronic diseases in children.

    PubMed

    Gabor-Harosa, Florina Maria; Stan, Ovidiu Petru; Daina, Lucia; Mocean, Floarea

    2016-07-01

    The prevalence of chronic diseases at children is increasing due to the progress made in medicine, which radically changed the evolution and the prognostics. Disease registers became important tools to register and monitor the chronic patients in order to asses their needs and improve their care. Disease registers are also very important for adjusting to population needs the actions in the public health field. The main objective for this research is to develop a model for a chronic disease register of children in Romania, taking into account the current situation of chronic diseases' registration and reporting, the specific requirements for such medical database and the particularities of the information systems in the Romanian healthcare system. Our study was based on interviews with specialists and Health Ministry representatives, field observations, and analysis of published and unpublished data). We developed a platform for a chronic diseases register of children based on open EHR specifications and architecture, which respects the requirements for data security and the particularities of Romania's healthcare system. The model created is functioning on two levels. The first one is local and corresponds to a medical unit, while the second one represents the connection and the communication method within the entire national medical system. In order to achieve the highest level of interoperability at the semantic level, we used, for the communication module of a National Disease Register system, only EN 13606 or HL7 v3 and / or HL7 v3 CDA. This model is functional and can be applied initially at a clinical level for medical and administrative purposes. Its design allows a future development, integrated with the current informational systems and implemented at regional and national level. This will significantly improve the knowledge that may support good medical practice in this field, will enhance the coherence of data collection and, as a consequence, will

  2. Ethical issues in communication of diagnosis and end-of-life decision-making process in some of the Romanian Roma communities.

    PubMed

    Roman, Gabriel; Enache, Angela; Pârvu, Andrada; Gramma, Rodica; Moisa, Ştefana Maria; Dumitraş, Silvia; Ioan, Beatrice

    2013-08-01

    Medical communication in Western-oriented countries is dominated by concepts of shared decision-making and patient autonomy. In interactions with Roma patients, these behavioral patterns rarely seem to be achieved because the culture and ethnicity have often been shown as barriers in establishing an effective and satisfying doctor-patient relationship. The study aims to explore the Roma's beliefs and experiences related to autonomy and decision-making process in the case of a disease with poor prognosis. Forty-eight Roma people from two Romanian counties participated in semi-structured interviews, conducted by a research team from the University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Iasi. Participants were recruited among the chronically ill patients and caregivers. The Roma community opposes informing the terminal patients about their condition, the "silence conspiracy" being widely practiced. The family fully undertakes the right of decision making, thus minimizing the patient's autonomy. We identified ethical dilemmas concerning autonomy, lack of patients' real decision-making power, and paternalistic attitudes exerted firstly by the family and, on demand, by the physician. Instead, the Roma patient benefits from a very active support network, being accompanied at the hospital by numerous relatives. The patient's right to make autonomous decisions promoted in the Western countries and stipulated by the Romanian law has diminished value in the Roma community. For the Roma, the understanding of dignity is not simply individual and personal, but it is closely related to their cultural particularities. Ignoring their cultural values could create conflicts between healthcare providers and community.

  3. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  4. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  5. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  6. Use of Romanian Seismic Network to monitor nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghica, Daniela; Neagoe, Cristian; Grecu, Bogdan; Popa, Mihaela

    2014-05-01

    During the last decade, three underground nuclear tests were conducted by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK): on October 9, 2006, May 25, 2009, and February 12, 2013. The magnitude of the events, estimated by International Data Centre (IDC) as 4.1, 4.5 and 4.9, indicates that the latest was more powerful than its predecessors. We analyze seismic signals generated by the DPRK tests and recorded with Romanian Seismic Network (RSN). The location estimates performed at Romania National Data Centre (NDC) using RSN data, were compared with those obtained at IDC. As a consequence of the global superior coverage with seismic stations included in the International Monitoring System, IDC locations are better constrained. The signals generated by 2006 DPRK nuclear test were observed on 8 RSN stations, the 2009 test on 33, and the 2013 test on 47. This continuous increase is due to the rise in the number of stations installed during last five years, as well as to the larger magnitude of the 2013 test. The recent development of RSN has enabled NDC to locate the events with more accuracy, based on the higher-quality parameters estimated from data processing. For all three events, a high signal coherency is observed for the data recorded by the Romanian seismic array, BURAR, reconfirming the superiority of the arrays to single stations for detecting and characterizing signals from nuclear explosions. Array processing techniques are applied for signal detection and to estimate the slowness vector (back-azimuth and apparent velocity). The comparison of vertical displacement seismograms recorded at RSN stations shows a remarkably similarity of the signals generated by the three events analyzed. The records are nearly identical, except that the amplitude is directly proportional to the event magnitude. Spectrograms of the recorded RSN data were examined, showing that the nuclear explosions produce seismic signals with a high energy in the 0.5 to 2.0 Hz frequency range

  7. Value and Benefits of European Student Mobility for Romanian Students: Experiences and Perspectives of Participants in the ERASMUS Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salajan, Florin D.; Chiper, Sorina

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the experiences and perspectives of Romanian students participating in the ERASMUS Programme, regarding the benefits and value of academic mobility. It situates their accounts in the framework of internationalization and Europeanization processes occurring in Romanian higher education. The study draws on primary data…

  8. Value and Benefits of European Student Mobility for Romanian Students: Experiences and Perspectives of Participants in the ERASMUS Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salajan, Florin D.; Chiper, Sorina

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the experiences and perspectives of Romanian students participating in the ERASMUS Programme, regarding the benefits and value of academic mobility. It situates their accounts in the framework of internationalization and Europeanization processes occurring in Romanian higher education. The study draws on primary data…

  9. A Three Year Follow-up of Attachment and Indiscriminate Friendliness in Children Adopted from Romanian Orphanages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Assessed attachment/indiscriminate friendliness in children who spent at least eight months in Romanian orphanages (RO); a nonadopted, never-institutionalized Canadian group; and an early-adopted Romanian group. Found that RO children showed more insecure attachment and indiscriminate friendliness than others. Insecure RO children had more…

  10. Romanian Solar Physics Research within the Framework of International Cooperation (1955-2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariş, Georgeta

    2008-09-01

    Valuable results of the Romanian Solar physics research were obtained in the framework of the international collaborations. This contribution reviews the main cooperative programs as well as their results. The regular solar observations began at the Bucharest Solar Station simultaneous with the International Geophysical Year program, on June 1, 1957. At the beginning, there were carried out solar patrol observations. A long cooperation with the World Data Centers was based on the data obtained on active chromospheric phenomena as well as the relative sunspot number and the sunspot positions. A lot of solar observations were made during specific campaigns, in connection with some international programs. Collaboration projects with the solar departments from other countries were set up in the framework of the cooperation between the Romanian Academy and similar institutions from abroad. The Romanian solar physics researchers acceded to JOSO (Joint Organization for Solar Observations) from 1992 and new perspectives to collaborate were open. We also notice the Romanian participation in the COST Action 724 (2004-2007) and Balkan, Black Sea and Caspian Sea Regional Network on Space Weather Studies (2005). On the personal basis, a lot of collaborations were developed with the research centers that offered training grants and PhD or post-doctoral grants to the young Romanian scientists.

  11. Isotopic and elemental determination in some romanian apple fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Magdas, Dana Alina; Dehelean, Adriana; Puscas, Romulus

    2012-01-01

    H, C, O stable isotope ratios and the content of some heavy elements of 31 Romanian single-strength organic apple juices collected from four Transylvanian areas are discussed in this study. The aim of this study was to measure the ²H/¹H, ¹⁸O/¹⁶O, ¹³C/¹²C ratios of these juices and their elemental profile and to establish a database of authentic values to be used for adulteration and authenticity testing. Our results have shown mean values of δ¹⁸O = -4.2‰ and δDδ-46.5‰, respectively, for apples from Transylvania and at the same time the mean value of δ¹³C = -28.2‰. The content of Cd, Pb, U, Zn, As was below the acceptable limits stipulated in US-EPA standard for drinking water. Cu and Cr limits exceeded for one single juice; Ni content for some apple juices from Maramures, Alba, and Cluj was higher than the acceptable value.

  12. Ion beam analysis of golden threads from Romanian medieval textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balta, Z. I.; Csedreki, L.; Furu, E.; Cretu, I.; Huszánk, R.; Lupu, M.; Török, Z.; Kertész, Z.; Szikszai, Z.

    2015-04-01

    In this study, metal threads from Romanian religious embroideries and precious velvet brocades dated from 15th to 18th century were analyzed by using IBA methods (PIXE and RBS) which, in comparison to the traditional analytical techniques (XRF, EDS), allowed the detection of their structures and accurate identification of the trace elements (detection limits of few tens of ppm). PIXE results confirmed that both types of the metal threads studied - wires and strips - have layered structures being made of fine silver, refined by cupellation, and gilded most probably with pure gold, and not of Au-Ag alloy, or gilded Ag-Cu alloy or Au-Ag-Cu alloy, as resulted from the previously performed SEM-EDS analysis. Trace elements of historical interest like lead, mercury and bismuth have been also possible to be detected by PIXE. The resulting elemental maps allowed us to identify the areas from which the metal thread structure and quantitative composition could be accurately determined. RBS measurements revealed that the gilding layer is separated from the silver bulk by an interface layer resulting through atomic diffusion of silver into the gold, which lead to the conclusion that the methods used for gilding were probably either the diffusion bonding or the fire gilding. The gilding layers thicknesses were estimated by PIXE with the GUPIX software and also determined from RBS measurements.

  13. Actual Romanian research in post-newtonian dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mioc, V.; Stavinschi, M.

    2007-05-01

    We survey the recent Romanian results in the study of the two-body problem in post-Newtonian fields. Such a field is characterized, in general, by a potential of the form U(q)=|q|^{-1}+ something (small, but not compulsorily). We distinguish some classes of post-Newtonian models: relativistic (Schwarzschild, Fock, Einstein PN, Reissner-Nordström, Schwarzschild - de Sitter, etc.) and nonrelativistic (Manev, Mücket-Treder, Seeliger, gravito-elastic, etc.). Generalized models (the zonal-satellite problem, quasihomogeneous fields), as well as special cases (anisotropic Manev-type and Schwarzschild-type models, Popovici or Popovici-Manev photogravitational problem), were also tackled. The methods used in such studies are various: analytical (using mainly the theory of perturbations, but also other theories: functions of complex variable, variational calculus, etc.), geometric (qualitative approach of the theory of dynamical systems), and numerical (especially using the Poincaré-section technique). The areas of interest and the general results obtained focus on: exact or approximate analytical solutions; characteristics of local flows (especially at limit situations: collision and escape); quasiperiodic and periodic orbits; equilibria; symmetries; chaoticity; geometric description of the global flow (and physical interpretation of the phase-space structure). We emphasize some special features, which cannot be met within the Newtonian framework: black-hole effect, oscillatory collisions, radial librations, bounded orbits for nonnegative energy, existence of unstable circular motion (or unstable rest), symmetric periodic orbits within anisotropic models, etc.

  14. The Romanian need of postgraduate specialization in dentistry considering the integration to the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Dragos, Stanciu; Alexandru, Bucur; Anca, Temelcea; Radu, Stanciu

    2008-01-01

    Once that Romania became part of the European Union, conditions regarding the activity in dentistry changed, and open borders are now a fact that we have to accept. The Romanian activity in dentistry developed a lot after the 1990, being a result of private dental practice – which covers over 98% and also of material resources of patients that were asking for more performing dental treatments. In order to be able to face all this, the dentists followed many of postgraduate specializations. We have to consider as well that the situation of the Romanian dentists is not the best, because they had to face the dentists that got their certificates in Eastern countries, where they only had to pay a fee and not pass an exam. Also, the Romanians that wanted to specialize abroad were not able to do that because the National Dentists’ Association was protecting their own colleagues. PMID:20108483

  15. Acrylamide in Romanian food using HPLC-UV and a health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Oroian, Mircea; Amariei, Sonia; Gutt, Gheorghe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of acrylamide from coffee, potato chips and French fries in Romanian food. According to the European Food Safety Authority, coffee beans, potato chips and French fries have the highest levels of acrylamide. For this survey, 50 samples of coffee beans, 50 samples of potato chips and 25 samples of French fries were purchased from different producers from the Romanian market. Acrylamide levels have been quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method, using water as mobile phase. Health risk assessment was achieved by computing the average daily intake, hazard quotient, cumulative risk, carcinogenic risk and cancer risk. For coffee, potato chips and French fries, acrylamide was not shown to pose a health risk in Romanian food.

  16. Heart failure - medicines

    MedlinePlus

    CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken ...

  17. Thorium determination in intercomparison samples and in some Romanian building materials by gamma ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pantelica, A; Georgescu, I I; Murariu-Magureanu, M D; Margaritescu, I; Cincu, E

    2001-01-01

    Thorium content in zircon sand, thorium ore and a thorium liquid sample (EU Laboratories Network Intercomparison), as well as in some Romanian building materials: sand, wood, tufa, asbestos-cement. cement mill dust, coal fly ash, bricks, and tile (28 samples) was deterimined by gamma ray spectrometry. For the building materials, 226Ra, 40K and 137Cs specific activities were also measured. The results were compared with the Romanian legal norms concerning the highest admissible levels for 232Th, 226Ra. and 40K radioactivity. and to Th, U, and K concentration values previously determined in our laboratory on similar types of samples.

  18. A system model to integrate the “Green Manufacturing” concept in Romanian manufacturing organisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilină, D. I.; Zapciu, M.; Mohora, C.

    2015-11-01

    In Romania, the large majorities of the manufacturing companies consume natural resources and energy in an unsustainable manner. Over the years, the emissions of greenhouse gases have led not only to many environmental problems but also to important social and economic problems. A real solution to help the Romanian manufacturing companies to adapt to the new legislative requirements is the green manufacturing implementation. Considering the current situation, the purpose of this paper is to present a model that will integrate the green manufacturing concept at the organizational level based on the practices identified in the Romanian manufacturing companies at the operational level in the context of sustainable development.

  19. Romanian MRE Rocket Engines Program - An Early Endeavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugescu, R. E.

    2002-01-01

    (MRE) was initiated in the years '60 of the past century at the Chair of Aerospace Sciences "Elie Carafoli" from the "Politehnica" University in Bucharest (PUB). Consisting of theoretical and experimental investigations in the form of computational methods and technological solutions for small size MRE-s and the concept of the test stand for these engines, the program ended in the construction of the first Romanian liquid rocket motors. Hermann Oberth and Dorin Pavel, were known from 1923, no experimental practice was yet tempted, at the time level of 1960. It was the intention of the developers at PUB to cover this gap and initiate a feasible, low-cost, demonstrative program of designing and testing experimental models of MRE. The research program was oriented towards future development of small size space carrier vehicles for scientific applications only, as an independent program with no connection to other defense programs imagined by the authorities in Bucharest, at that time. Consequently the entire financial support was assured by "Politehnica" university. computerized methods in the thermochemistry of heterogeneous combustion, for both steady and unsteady flows with chemical reactions and two phase flows. The research was gradually extended to the production of a professional CAD program for steady-state heat transfer simulations and the loading capacity analyses of the double wall, cooled thrust chamber. The resulting computer codes were run on a 360-30 IMB machine, beginning in 1968. Some of the computational methods were first exposed at the 9th International Conference on Applied Mechanics, held in Bucharest between June 23-27, 1969. hot testing of a series of storable propellant, variable thrust, variable geometry, liquid rocket motors, with a maximal thrust of 200N. A remotely controlled, portable test bad, actuated either automatically or manually and consisting of a 6-modules construction was built for this motor series, with a simple 8 analog

  20. The smelting of metals in the Romanian Carpathians throughout the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longman, Jack; Ersek, Vasile; Veres, Daniel; Salzmann, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    In Europe the characteristics, distribution and effects of recent pollution are well known, with monitoring observations existing at a continental scale. However, estimates of long-term pollution are restricted to central-western Europe, the British Isles and Scandinavia. In Eastern Europe in particular, the lack of such estimates has led to incomplete understanding of regional differences. When coupled to the insufficient knowledge of past emission sources and isotopic signatures of various ores, it is clear there are gaps in our knowledge of the history of pollution in this area. As a result, the causal relationship between humans and the environment are insufficiently explored, particularly within the Carpathian region- one with mineral wealth and a long history of human presence. Peat bogs have long been used as an archive for environmental and climatic imprints, with research using climate indicators from bogs burgeoning in recent decades, and a range of proxies for past hydrological change have been developed. The potential for utilising the geochemistry of archives such as peat bogs to resolve the input of metals from the atmosphere has long been known, and has been used to distinguish the background levels from the anthropogenic imprint. Here we present initial results from a multi-proxy study into the geochemical history of a collection of ombrotrophic peat bogs located in the Romanian section of the study region. We present elemental concentrations for a number of the base metals associated with metal mining, smelting and subsequent pollution. These data (base metal concentrations) display the first such study in the region and indicate a pollution history hitherto unseen in the records from Western Europe, with peaks in metal production over time periods during which production was thought to be low. This includes a large, likely medieval Pb peak, and extended periods of metal production in the region after the Roman occupation. These early peaks are

  1. Building an educational seismic network in Romanian schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharia, Bogdan; Tataru, Dragos; Grecu, Bogdan; Ionescu, Constantin; Bican-Brisan, Nicoleta; Neagoe, Cristian

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the earthquake phenomena and their effects is an important step toward the education of population and aims to raise the awareness about the earthquake risk and possible mitigation actions. In this sense, The Romanian Educational Seismic Network project represents an efficient communication tool, allowing teaching and learning about the earthquakes and seismic wave impact through experimental practices and educational activities. The seismic network consist of nine SEP seismometers installed in high-schools from the most important seismic areas (Vrancea, Banat, Făgăraş, Dobrogea), vulnerable cities (Bucharest, Iasi) or high populated places (Cluj, Sibiu, Timisoara, Zalău) and is coordinated by the National Institute of Earth Physics from Bucharest. Once installed, the seismic network is the starting point of activities for students through an e-learning platform. Some objectives are aimed: - To train students and teachers how to make analysis and interpretation of seismological data; - To make science more interesting for students; - To improve the participation rates in physical sciences for students; - To raise awareness of geoscience as a scientific discipline for pre-university students; - To promote the installation and effective use of educational seismographs and seismic data; - To reinforce and develop relationships between participating schools and research institutes; - To create an earthquake database this will be used by students and teachers for educational purposes. Different types of practical activities using educational seismometer, designed by researchers for students, are described in educational materials and in the web platform project. Also we encourage the teachers from the participating schools to share their experiences and produce new didactic tools for the classroom. This collaborative work could illustrate the conjugated efforts of researchers and teachers for a better education and awareness of the risk culture

  2. Chemical composition of bioactive pressurized extracts of Romanian aromatic plants.

    PubMed

    Miron, T L; Plaza, M; Bahrim, G; Ibáñez, E; Herrero, M

    2011-07-29

    In this contribution, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) has been employed to isolate bioactive compounds from three native Romanian plants, oregano (Origanum vulgare), tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) and wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum). Different PLE conditions have been tested including extraction with water, ethanol and their mixtures in a wide range of extraction temperatures (50-200°C), and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts was measured using different assays (DPPH radical scavenging, TEAC assay and Folin-Ciocalteau assay to measure total phenols). Moreover, a complete chemical characterization by using LC-MS/MS was carried out to be able to correlate the bioactivity with the particular chemical composition of each extract and plant. The use of PLE with water as a solvent at the highest temperature tested (200°C) always provided the highest extraction yields for the three studied plants, being maximum for oregano (>60%). Besides, oregano's pressurized water extracts at lower temperatures (50°C) presented the highest content on total phenols (184.9 mg gallic acid/g extract) and the best antioxidant activities (EC(50) 6.98 μg/ml). In general, oregano extracts were the most active, followed by wild thyme extracts. The antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH assay was highly correlated with the amount of total phenols. Moreover, the use of a LC-MS/MS method allowed the identification of 30 different phenolic compounds in the different extracts, including phenolic acids, flavones, flavanones and flavonols, which have an important influence on the total antioxidant capacity of the different extracts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Disparities in exposure to tobacco smoke pollution at Romanian worksites.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota; Fronczak, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Differences in the risk of being exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS) in the workplace may occur not only between countries, but also within a country among socio-economic groups. The aim of the study was to examine the associations of exposure to SHS at worksites with selected factors in non-smoking Romanian employees. Data on exposure to SHS at worksites and other characteristics of respondents came from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). GATS is a nationally representative household survey of adults 15 years of age or older, using a standard protocol. Among 4,517 respondents who completed the questionnaire there were 1,333 subjects, including 859 non-smokers who worked in an indoor area outside the home. The prevalence of exposure to SHS was 31.2% among non-smoking male and 23.9% among non-smoking female employees (p<0.05). Employees with primary education had odds of exposure to SHS at work nearly twice as high, compared to the respondents having high education attainment (OR=1.9; 95% CI: 1.2-2.9). Moreover, exposure to SHS at worksites was significantly associated with a low level of support for tobacco control policies among workers (OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2-2.8). In spite of the increasing presence of smoking bans in public and workplaces, enforcement still seems to be unsuccessful in the occupational space in Romania. In order to reduce SHS exposure in workplaces, strengthening support for tobacco control policies is essential.

  4. Assessing oral cancer knowledge in Romanian undergraduate dental students.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, A L; Ibric, S; Ibric-Cioranu, V

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the level of Romanian dental students' knowledge regarding the oral cancer risk and non-risk factors as well as oral cancer signs, symptoms, and diagnostic signs. A total of 192 first- to sixth-year undergraduate dental students (mean age 22.20 ± 2.94 years) who consented to participate in the study filled in a questionnaire enquiring about their knowledge of oral cancer. A score of the oral cancer knowledge was calculated for each participant based on their correct answers. Regarding the knowledge of oral cancer risk factors, the vast majority of the students correctly recognized tobacco (96.8 %), having a prior oral cancer lesion (85.1 %), the consumption of alcohol (77.7 %), and older age (64.2 %). Respectively, 87.7 and 54.3 % knew the tongue and the floor of mouth to be the most common oral cancer sites. Of the students, 71.3 % agreed that oral cancer examinations for those 20 years of age and older should be provided during regular periodic health examinations, 92.9 % considered that patients with suspicious oral lesions should be referred to specialists, and 84.6 % agreed that oral cancer examinations should be a routine part of a comprehensive oral examination. A significant association was found between the year of study in the dental school, age, and knowledge of the oral cancer knowledge scores. Although students' knowledge increased with academic year, there is a clear need to enhance the dental curricula in oral cancer clinical training in oral cancer prevention and examination for dental students.

  5. New Minerals and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, William D.

    1997-01-01

    Defines geodiversity, compares it to biodiversity, and discusses the mineral classification system. Charts the discovery of new minerals in Australia over time and focuses on uses of these minerals in technological advances. (DDR)

  6. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and polishes Some ...

  7. Rocks and Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on rocks and minerals, including the unique characteristics of each. Teaching activities on rock-hunting and identification, mineral configurations, mystery minerals, and growing crystals are provided. Reproducible worksheets are included for two of the activities. (TW)

  8. Rocks and Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on rocks and minerals, including the unique characteristics of each. Teaching activities on rock-hunting and identification, mineral configurations, mystery minerals, and growing crystals are provided. Reproducible worksheets are included for two of the activities. (TW)

  9. Minerals Yearbook Volume 1, Metals and Minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy.  Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.

  10. [Secret medicines].

    PubMed

    Bonnemain, H

    2001-01-01

    Secret medicines had two characteristics: their formula remained unknown and they were prepared by many kinds of people. Before 1728 there were no general laws about these secret medicines but only peculiar rules. From 1728 to 1778, the King edicted rigorous rules in order to limit the number of secret medicines. Between 1778 and 1789, the law became more definite and the Royal Society of Medicine gave advices. The Law of Germinal An-XI forbid secret medicines but since 1805, some compromises took place. Slowly, secret medicines were replaced by pharmaceutics and new set of laws.

  11. [Mineral water as a cure].

    PubMed

    Nocco, Priska Binz

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of diseases with mineral spring water belongs to the oldest medical therapies. The "remedy" mineral water is therefore of importance also within the pharmacy. The present pharmacy historical work examines the impact of the use of mineral waters, as well as of their dried components, as therapeutic agents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, i.e. from approx. 1810 to 1930, as well as the contributions given by pharmacists in the development and analysis of mineral water springs. Beside these aspects, the aim here is also to describe the role played by pharmacists in the production of artificial mineral water as well as in the sale and wholesale of natural and artificial mineral water. In the first part of this work the situation in Switzerland and its surrounding countries, such as Germany, France, Italy and Austria, is discussed. The second part contains a case-study of the particular situation in the Canton Tessin. It is known from the scientific literature published at that time that information on mineral water was frequently reported. Starting from the beginning of the 19th century the number of such publications increased tremendously. The major part of them were publications in scientific journals or contributions to medical and pharmaceutical manuals and reference books. In particular the spa-related literature, such as spa-guides, was of growing interest to a broad public. The inclusion of monographs into the Swiss, the Cantonal as well the foreign pharmacopoeias granted a legal frame for the mineral waters and their dried components. These works are of major importance from a pharmacy historical standpoint and represent a unique proof of historical evidence of the old medicinal drug heritage. The most frequently used therapies based on mineral waters were drinking and bath cures. Several diseases, particularly those of a chronic character, were treated with mineral waters. The positive influence of these cures on the recovery of the patients

  12. How Private Is the Relation with God? Religiosity and Family Religious Socialization in Romanian Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negru, Oana; Haragâs, Cosmina; Mustea, Anca

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the dynamics of religious cognitions, behaviors, and emotions in emerging adult discourse in a sample of Romanian youth of heterogeneous socioeconomic, denominational (Orthodox Christian, Roman Catholic, Neo-protestant), and educational background. Also, from a parent-child dyad perspective, we investigate the role…

  13. The Romanian-English Contrastive Analysis Project; Further Developments in Contrastive Studies, Vol. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitoran, Dumitru, Ed.

    The fifth volume in this series contains ten articles dealing with various aspects of Romanian-English contrastive analysis. They are: "Theoretical Interpretation and Methodological Consequences of 'REGULARIZATION'," by Tatiana Slama-Cazacu; "On Error Analysis," by Charles M. Carlton; "The Contrastive Hypothesis in Second Language Acquisition," by…

  14. Longitudinal Studies Using a "Natural Experiment" Design: The Case of Adoptees from Romanian Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Kumsta, Robert; Schlotz, Wolff; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the advantages and limitations of general population, high-risk and "natural experiment" longitudinal studies for studying psychological change. The English and Romanian Adoptees study is used as an example of a "natural experiment," and detailed findings are provided. Method: What is new is a focus on the young people who…

  15. The health mediators-qualified interpreters contributing to health care quality among Romanian Roma patients.

    PubMed

    Roman, Gabriel; Gramma, Rodica; Enache, Angela; Pârvu, Andrada; Moisa, Ştefana Maria; Dumitraş, Silvia; Ioan, Beatrice

    2013-11-01

    In order to assure optimal care of patients with chronic illnesses, it is necessary to take into account the cultural factors that may influence health-related behaviors, health practices, and health-seeking behavior. Despite the increasing number of Romanian Roma, research regarding their beliefs and practices related to healthcare is rather poor. The aim of this paper is to present empirical evidence of specificities in the practice of healthcare among Romanian Roma patients and their caregivers. Using a qualitative exploratory descriptive design, this study is based on data gathered through three focus groups with 30 health mediators in the counties of Iasi and Cluj (Romania). We identified various barriers to access to healthcare for Roma patients: lack of financial resources and health insurance coverage, lack of cognitive resources or lack of personal hygiene, but also important cultural issues, such as the shame of being ill, family function, disclosure of disease-related information, patient's autonomy, attitudes towards illness and health practices, that should be considered in order to create a culturally sensitive environment in Romanian medical facilities:… The role of the health mediators within the context of cultural diversity is also discussed, as cultural brokers contributing to health care quality among Romanian Roma patients Bridging cultural differences may improve patient-healthcare provider relationships, but may have limited impact in reducing ethnic disparities, unless coupled with efforts of Roma communities to get involved in creating and implementing health policies.

  16. A Comparative Study of Learning Strategies Used by Romanian and Hungarian Preuniversity Students in Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingvay, Mónika; Timofte, Roxana S.; Ciascai, Liliana; Predescu, Constantin

    2015-01-01

    Development of pupils' deep learning approach is an important goal of education nowadays, considering that a deep learning approach is mediating conceptual understanding and transfer. Different performance at PISA tests of Romanian and Hungarian pupils cause us to commence a study for the analysis of learning approaches employed by these pupils.…

  17. Policy and Prediction: The Case of Institutional Diversity in Romanian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlasceanu, Lazar; Hâncean, Marian-Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Presenting key elements of post-1990 historical developments in the Romanian higher education system, the emphasis is put on recent (2011) policies of increasing higher education institutional differentiation. The view is that, in policy design, due attention should be paid to both historical roots and predicted developments. Building on an…

  18. NATO Influence on Romanian National Security in the Post Cold War Era

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    was and will remain a military one. The defense area is a primary concern for NATO and Romania’s reaction in shaping its military policies and forces...Romanian Relations: a Changed Paradigm?, Institute for Security Studies, Western European Union, Paris, 1997 Stephen Fischer- Galati , Twentieth Century

  19. Behavior Problems in Postinstitutionalized Romanian Adoptees: Explanatory Parameters in the Adoptive Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Mare, Lucy; Audet, Karyn

    2014-01-01

    We examined behavior problems in 80 adolescents (39 male; mean age = 15.74 years) adopted in early childhood by Canadians from globally depriving Romanian institutions. Overall, rates of clinically significant behavior problems were comparable to rates found in younger postinstitutionalized adopted children. The association between duration of…

  20. An Outline of the Romanian Special Education Approach. New Attitudes for a New Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buica, Cristian B.

    2004-01-01

    Romanian special education finds its beginnings in the second half of the nineteenth century at the same time as the constitution of the modern state and the efforts of gradual opening to new European reforming ideas. For this period it is worth mentioning the Shelter for children and old people set up by Elena Cuza (1862), the wife of Ruler…

  1. A Comparative Study of Breakfast Habits of Romanian and Spanish Adolescents Enrolled in Southern Spain Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soriano-Ayala, Encarnación; Cala, Verónica C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Globalization has favored intra-European Commission (EC) and extra-EC migration to Spain. One of the most numerous cultural groups that have settled in the southern Spain is from Romania. Coexistence, especially in schools, has made us become interested in knowing the eating habits at breakfast of Romanian and Spanish populations.…

  2. [Differential perception of gender violence by Romanian immigrants resident in the metropolitan area of Madrid].

    PubMed

    Rabito-Alcón, M F; Puente-García, R; Cámara-Blanco, L; De Frutos-Moneo, E; García-Jorge, S; Correas-Lauffer, J

    2013-01-01

    Battered women have poorer health. Immigrant women have a higher risk of suffering abuse by their partner, with the most frequent type being psychological abuse. A large percentage of the population living in the health district of Coslada are of Romanian origin, therefore we designed a study aimed at determining whether there are differences between Spanish and Romanian women regarding the perception of different types of violence, expecting to find significant differences. A total of 93 people (61.26% Romanian) were included in the study, and who were given a questionnaire with sociodemographic variables, family APGAR, and a questionnaire on perceptions of behaviors related to gender violence. Descriptive statistics and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed on the results. Nearly 30% of women from Romania and 10% of Spanish respondents were considering or had considered being victims of abuse. According to the data, the Romanian-born women in the sample identified easier those behaviours involving physical or sexual violence easier; while, like Spanish women had more difficulty recognizing psychological violence. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Realities of Romanian Art. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997. (Romania and Bulgaria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Meredith

    This document consists of a two-page outline and seventeen photographs of Romanian art objects. This unit focuses on advancing the high school student from the art of Western Europe to the art of Eastern Europe. The curriculum projects are geared for the 11th and 12th grade student. Students begin with a study of Rodin and progress toward that of…

  4. Civil Society and Control of Corruption: Assessing Governance of Romanian Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina; Dusu, Andra Elena

    2011-01-01

    Romania is perceived as the most corrupt EU member state according to Transparency International Corruption Perception Index. In 2008-2009, a grassroots coalition of civil society organizations and education stakeholders created the Coalition for Clean Universities which organized the first assessment of integrity of the Romanian higher education…

  5. Civil Society and Control of Corruption: Assessing Governance of Romanian Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina; Dusu, Andra Elena

    2011-01-01

    Romania is perceived as the most corrupt EU member state according to Transparency International Corruption Perception Index. In 2008-2009, a grassroots coalition of civil society organizations and education stakeholders created the Coalition for Clean Universities which organized the first assessment of integrity of the Romanian higher education…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Service Use in Families of Children Adopted from Romanian Orphanages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Mare, Lucy; Audet, Karyn; Kurytnik, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Post-adoption service use and unmet service needs were examined longitudinally in three matched groups of children: children adopted from Romanian orphanages following a minimum of eight months' institutional experience (RO: n = 36); children from Romania who were destined for orphanages but were adopted early in infancy (EA: n = 25); and Canadian…

  7. How Private Is the Relation with God? Religiosity and Family Religious Socialization in Romanian Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negru, Oana; Haragâs, Cosmina; Mustea, Anca

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the dynamics of religious cognitions, behaviors, and emotions in emerging adult discourse in a sample of Romanian youth of heterogeneous socioeconomic, denominational (Orthodox Christian, Roman Catholic, Neo-protestant), and educational background. Also, from a parent-child dyad perspective, we investigate the role…

  8. Variation of the N-acetyltransferase 2 gene in a Romanian and a Kyrgyz population.

    PubMed

    Rabstein, Sylvia; Unfried, Klaus; Ranft, Ulrich; Illig, Thomas; Kolz, Melanie; Rihs, Hans-Peter; Mambetova, Chinara; Vlad, Mariana; Brüning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate

    2006-01-01

    As part of a project on environmental disasters in minority populations, this study aimed to evaluate differences in the sequence of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) as a metabolic susceptibility gene in yet unexplored ethnicities. Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the NAT2 coding region and a variant in the 3' flanking region were analyzed in 290 unrelated Kyrgyz and 140 unrelated Romanians by SNP-specific PCR analysis. The variants 341C, 481T, and 803G were less and 857A more prevalent in Kyrgyz (P < 0.0001). The variant at site 857 indicates Asian descent. 282C>T and 590G>A showed no significant variation by ethnicity. 364G>A and 411A>T turned out to be monomorphic. Database comparisons of the NAT2 minor allele frequencies support that Romanians belong to Caucasians and Kyrgyz are in between Caucasians and East Asians. The distributions of predicted haplotypes differed significantly between the two ethnicities where the Kyrgyz showed a higher genetic diversity. The haplotype without mutations was more common in Kyrgyz (40.1% in Kyrgyz, 29.3% in Romanians). Accordingly, the imputed slow acetylator phenotype was less prevalent in Kyrgyz (35.2% versus 51.4% in Romanians). We found pronounced ethnic differences in NAT2 genotypes with yet unknown effect on the health risks for environmental or occupational exposures in minority populations.

  9. An Outline of the Romanian Special Education Approach. New Attitudes for a New Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buica, Cristian B.

    2004-01-01

    Romanian special education finds its beginnings in the second half of the nineteenth century at the same time as the constitution of the modern state and the efforts of gradual opening to new European reforming ideas. For this period it is worth mentioning the Shelter for children and old people set up by Elena Cuza (1862), the wife of Ruler…

  10. Entrepreneurial University: Concurrent Practices in the US Business Higher Education System A Romanian Fulbright Scholar's View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paunescu, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    The paper addresses a model of entrepreneurial university embraced by American business schools as perceived by a Romanian Fulbright scholar. The purpose of this study was to highlight the practices pursued by the US entrepreneurial universities in their journey towards increasing performance excellence and strengthening the prestige of the…

  11. A Comparative Study of Breakfast Habits of Romanian and Spanish Adolescents Enrolled in Southern Spain Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soriano-Ayala, Encarnación; Cala, Verónica C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Globalization has favored intra-European Commission (EC) and extra-EC migration to Spain. One of the most numerous cultural groups that have settled in the southern Spain is from Romania. Coexistence, especially in schools, has made us become interested in knowing the eating habits at breakfast of Romanian and Spanish populations.…

  12. Romanian Preschool Teachers' Understanding of Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties: Implications for Designing Teacher Trainings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefan, Catrinel A.; Rebega, Oana L.; Cosma, Alina

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have emphasized the role of the teacher-child relationship on children's adjustment. Children lacking such positive relationships are placed at increased risk for emotional and behavioral difficulties (EBD). We propose a qualitative approach to exploring Romanian teachers' knowledge and strategies related to preschoolers who are at…

  13. Romanian Pupils at the Spanish Primary Schools: Continuities and Discontinuities between Former and Current Educational Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ion, Georgeta

    2011-01-01

    During the last few years, East-Europeans, predominantly Romanians, have become the second largest cultural minority in Catalonia (Spain). Spanish educational institutions now have students from more than twenty different cultures. This paper focuses on the educational background and the factors which characterize the educational experience of…

  14. Behavioural Indicators of Perceived Managerial and Leadership Effectiveness within Romanian and British Public Sector Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Robert G.; Patel, Taran

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report the results of a replication study of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness within a Romanian public sector hospital, and to discuss the extent to which they are similar to and different from findings from equivalent studies carried out in two British NHS Trust hospitals. Design/methodology/approach:…

  15. Comparative Analysis of the Mathematics Problems Given at International Tests and at the Romanian National Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2009-01-01

    The results of the Romanian pupils on international tests PISA and TIMSS in Mathematics are below the average. These poor results have many explications. In this article we compare the Mathematics problems given on these international tests with those given on national tests in Romania.

  16. A Three Way Analysis of the Academic Capital of a Romanian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prejmerean, Mihaela Cornelia; Vasilache, Simona

    2008-01-01

    The paper applies three-way analysis (Kroonenberg, 1982, 2008) to the components of academic capital of a Romanian university, over a five-year period, showing the biases and the relations between the various components. The influences from inside the academia are being discussed, together with analyzing their positive or not so positive effect on…

  17. Intercultural Experience in Online Collaboration: A Case of Polish and Romanian Teacher-Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wach, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    This study examines intercultural learning during an email collaboration project carried out as part of an EFL didactics course attended by Polish and Romanian teacher-trainees. Email entries and the results of a final questionnaire were used as sources of data that offered insight into the intercultural dimension of the participants'…

  18. Post-War-History and Unification of Europe in Textbooks. The Romanian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capita, Laura

    This document surveys the changes in the content of history textbooks in Romania from the end of World War II to 1991. Post war Romanian education is examined through the education laws of 1948, 1958, and 1975, and at the syllabi and textbooks used. The textbooks are relevant for such an analysis because they represent the main material support of…

  19. The Romanian-English Contrastive Analysis Project; Further Developments in Contrastive Studies, Vol. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitoran, Dumitru, Ed.

    The fifth volume in this series contains ten articles dealing with various aspects of Romanian-English contrastive analysis. They are: "Theoretical Interpretation and Methodological Consequences of 'REGULARIZATION'," by Tatiana Slama-Cazacu; "On Error Analysis," by Charles M. Carlton; "The Contrastive Hypothesis in Second Language Acquisition," by…

  20. Longitudinal Studies Using a "Natural Experiment" Design: The Case of Adoptees from Romanian Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Kumsta, Robert; Schlotz, Wolff; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the advantages and limitations of general population, high-risk and "natural experiment" longitudinal studies for studying psychological change. The English and Romanian Adoptees study is used as an example of a "natural experiment," and detailed findings are provided. Method: What is new is a focus on the young people who…

  1. Evaluation of a Peer-Led Smoking Prevention Programme for Romanian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotrean, L. M.; Dijk, F.; Mesters, I.; Ionut, C.; De Vries, H.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effects of a school-based smoking prevention programme that used both a video and peer-led discussion groups among Romanian junior high school students aged 13-14 years. The programme embraced the social influence approach and concentrated on enhancing self-efficacy and the acquisition of cigarette refusal…

  2. Behavior Problems in Postinstitutionalized Romanian Adoptees: Explanatory Parameters in the Adoptive Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Mare, Lucy; Audet, Karyn

    2014-01-01

    We examined behavior problems in 80 adolescents (39 male; mean age = 15.74 years) adopted in early childhood by Canadians from globally depriving Romanian institutions. Overall, rates of clinically significant behavior problems were comparable to rates found in younger postinstitutionalized adopted children. The association between duration of…

  3. A Critical Multicultural Analysis of a Romanian Textbook Taught in Elementary International Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoilescu, Dorian

    2014-01-01

    This case study proposes a critical multicultural analysis of a Romanian language textbook used for instructing students in grades one and two in the Elementary Language International Program (ELIP) in Toronto public schools in Ontario, Canada. Based on an analysis developed from Fairclough and Parker's criteria, this paper determined stereotypes…

  4. Web Site Projects Evaluation: A Case Study of Romanian Faculties of Economics Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    vultur, Sidonia Otilia; Marincas, Delia Adriana

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an evaluation of web sites regarded like projects is discussed. We give an overview of the Web Assessment Index (WAI), by presenting a web sites of Romanian Faculties of Economics case study. The WAI contains five categories: accessibility, access speed, navigability, content and reliability. We analyzed and presented a detailed…

  5. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Science Education » Science Topics » Nuclear Medicine SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for General Public Resource ... Related Documents: Nuclear Medicine Fact Sheet.pdf SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for General Public Resource ...

  6. Herbal Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...

  7. [SPORT MEDICINE].

    PubMed

    Constantini, Naama; Mann, Gideon

    2016-06-01

    Sports Medicine is a relatively new subject in medicine and includes a variety of medical and paramedical fields. Although sports medicine is mistakenly thought to be mainly for sports professionals/athletes, it actually encompasses the entire population, including the active and non-active healthy populations, as well as the sick. Sports medicine also engages amateur sportsmen and strives to promote physical activity and quality of life in the general population. Hence, the field involves all ages from childhood to old age, aiming to preserve and support every person at every age. Sports medicine, which started developing in the 19th century, is today a specialty, primary or secondary, in many countries, while in others it is a fellowship or under the jurisdiction of local or sports authorities. In Israel, the field exists since the 1950's and is advanced. The Sports Medicine Society founded a 3-year course of continued education in sport medicine as part of the Tel-Aviv University Faculty of Medicine. Later on, a fellowship in general Sports Medicine and in Orthopedic Sports Medicine were developed within the Israel Medical Association. A year ago, Israel formally became a member of the global "Exercise is Medicine" foundation, and under this title promotes education for health care providers on exercise prescription. The understanding of the importance of physical activity and fitness as part of a healthy lifestyle is increasing in Israel, as well as the number of amateur athletes, and the profession of sports medicine takes a big part in this process.

  8. Social and immigration factors in intimate partner violence among Ecuadorians, Moroccans and Romanians living in Spain.

    PubMed

    Vives-Cases, Carmen; Torrubiano-Domínguez, Jordi; Gil-González, Diana; La Parra, Daniel; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Davó, M Carmen; Pérez-Belda, M Carmen; Martínez-Román, Ma Asunción

    2014-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women occurs in all countries, all cultures and at every level of society; however, some populations may be at greater risk than others. The aim of this study was to explore IPV prevalence among Ecuadorian, Moroccan and Romanian immigrant women living in Spain and its possible association with their personal, family, social support and immigration status characteristics. Cross-sectional study of 1607 adult immigrant women residing in Barcelona, Madrid and Valencia (2011). Prevalence rates and adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were calculated, with current IPV being the outcome. Different women's personal (demographic), family, social support and immigration status characteristics were considered as explicative and control variables. All analyses were separated by women's country of origin. Current IPV prevalence was 15.57% in Ecuadorians, 10.91% in Moroccans and 8.58% in Romanians. Some common IPV factors were found, such as being separated and/or divorced. In Romanians, IPV was also associated with lack of social support [AOR 5.96 (1.39-25.62)] and low religious involvement [AOR 2.17 (1.06-4.43)]. The likelihood of current IPV was lower among women without children or other dependents in this subgroup [AOR 0.29 (0.093-0.92)]. The IPV prevalence rates obtained for Moroccan, Romanian and Ecuadorian women residing in Spain were similar. Whereas the likelihood of IPV appeared to be relatively evenly distributed among Moroccan and Ecuadorian women, it was higher among Romanian women in socially vulnerable situations related to family responsibilities and the lack of support networks. The importance of intervention in the process of separation and divorce was common to all women. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. KRAS, NRAS and BRAF mutations in Greek and Romanian patients with colorectal cancer: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Negru, Serban; Papadopoulou, Eirini; Apessos, Angela; Stanculeanu, Dana Lucia; Ciuleanu, Eliade; Volovat, Constantin; Croitoru, Adina; Kakolyris, Stylianos; Aravantinos, Gerasimos; Ziras, Nikolaos; Athanasiadis, Elias; Touroutoglou, Nikolaos; Pavlidis, Nikolaos; Kalofonos, Haralabos P; Nasioulas, George

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Treatment decision-making in colorectal cancer is often guided by tumour tissue molecular analysis. The aim of this study was the development and validation of a high-resolution melting (HRM) method for the detection of KRAS, NRAS and BRAF mutations in Greek and Romanian patients with colorectal cancer and determination of the frequency of these mutations in the respective populations. Setting Diagnostic molecular laboratory located in Athens, Greece. Participants 2425 patients with colorectal cancer participated in the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures 2071 patients with colorectal cancer (1699 of Greek and 372 of Romanian origin) were analysed for KRAS exon 2 mutations. In addition, 354 tumours from consecutive patients (196 Greek and 161 Romanian) were subjected to full KRAS (exons 2, 3 and 4), NRAS (exons 2, 3 and 4) and BRAF (exon 15) analysis. KRAS, NRAS and BRAF mutation detection was performed by a newly designed HRM analysis protocol, followed by Sanger sequencing. Results KRAS exon 2 mutations (codons 12/13) were detected in 702 of the 1699 Greek patients with colorectal carcinoma analysed (41.3%) and in 39.2% (146/372) of the Romanian patients. Among the 354 patients who were subjected to full KRAS, NRAS and BRAF analysis, 40.96% had KRAS exon 2 mutations (codons 12/13). Among the KRAS exon 2 wild-type patients 15.31% harboured additional RAS mutations and 12.44% BRAF mutations. The newly designed HRM method used showed a higher sensitivity compared with the sequencing method. Conclusions The HRM method developed was shown to be a reliable method for KRAS, NRAS and BRAF mutation detection. Furthermore, no difference in the mutation frequency of KRAS, NRAS and BRAF was observed between Greek and Romanian patients with colorectal cancer. PMID:24859998

  10. Comparative analysis of aerosols elemental distribution in some Romanian regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amemiya, Susumu; Masuda, Toshio; Popa-Simil, Liviu; Mateescu, Liviu

    1996-04-01

    The study's main aim is obtaining aerosols particulate elemental distribution and mapping it for some Romanian regions, in order to obtain preliminary information regarding the concentrations of aerosol particles and networking strategy versus local conditions. For this we used the mobile sampling strategy, but taking care on all local specific conditions and weather. In the summer of 1993, in July we took about 8 samples on a rather large territory of SE Romania which were analysed and mapped. The regions which showed an interesting behaviour or doubts such as Bucharest and Dobrogea were zoomed in near the same period of 1994, for comparing the new details with the global aspect previously obtained. An attempt was made to infer the minimum necessary number of stations in a future monitoring network. A mobile sampler was used, having tow polycarbonate filter posts of 8 and 0.4 μm. PIXE elemental analysis was performed on a 2.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, by using a proton beam. More than 15 elements were measured. Suggestive 2D and 3D representations were drawn, as well as histogram charts for the concentrations' distribution in the specific regions at the specified times. In spite of the poor samples from the qualitative point of view the experiment surprised us by the good coincidence (good agreement) with realities in terrain known by other means long time ago, and highlighted the power of PIXE methods in terms of money and time. Conclusions over the link between industry, traffic, vegetation, wether, surface waters, soil composition, power plant exhaust and so on, on the one hand, and surface concentration distribution, on the other, were drawn. But the method's weak points were also highlighted; these are weather dependencies (especially air masses movement and precipitation), local relief, microclimate and vegetation, and of course localisation of the sampling point versus the pollution sources and their regime. The paper contains a synthesis of the whole

  11. Seasonal seafloor oxygen dynamics on the Romanian Black Sea Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jana; Balan, Sorin; van Beusekom, Justus E.; Naderipour, Celine; Secrieru, Dan

    2017-04-01

    The Black Sea suffers from the combined effects of anthropogenic eutrophication, overfishing and climate forcing. As a result, its broad and shallow western shelf in particular has a history of ecosystem collapse during the 1970s to the mid-1990s, which followed a slow recovery since the late 1990s due to reduction in anthropogenic pressures. Because of eutrophication, increased oxygen consumption caused recurrent widespread seasonal seafloor hypoxia in a system that is already naturally prone to decrease in bottom water oxygen during summer. On the shelf, reduced bottom water ventilation is a strong natural driver for seafloor hypoxia, due to strong seasonal thermohaline stratification as a result of freshwater inflow from the large rivers Danube, Dniester and Dniepro. To understand the present seasonal dynamics of seafloor oxygen on the Romanian shelf, a seafloor mooring was deployed in 2010 and 2016 during summer and autumn, for three and six months, respectively. The mooring, consisting of an Aanderaa SEAGUARD sensor package attached to an acoustic release, was deployed in 30 m water depth in the Portita region - north of Constanta and south of the Danube River Mouths. The in-situ time series of seafloor oxygen, temperature, turbidity, salinity, and current velocities and directions, combined with CTD profiles, benthic oxygen consumption rates based on ex-situ incubations of sediment cores, and pelagic oxygen respiration rates provide a set of information that allows biological and hydrophysical controls on seafloor oxygen to be identified. We observed the built-up of the thermohaline stratification during late spring and early summer, accompanied by steady decrease in bottom water oxygen. Superimposed settling of particles to the seafloor eventually led to the formation of seafloor hypoxia in late summer. Anticyclonic currents resemble diurnal tidal cycles, albeit low in magnitude. The effects of a strong rainstorm and a Danube flood event in late September

  12. Increased copeptin levels in metabolic syndrome from a Romanian population

    PubMed Central

    Vintilă, M; Gheorghiu, ML; Caragheorgheopol, A; Baculescu, N; Lichiardopol, C; Badiu, C; Coculescu, M; Grigorescu, F; Poiană, C

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is secreted under conditions of water deprivation. Since AVP has a low half-life in the plasma, the C-terminal fragment of AVP-precursor (copeptin) was used to estimate the AVP levels. High copeptin levels increase the risk for the development of diabetes mellitus. Aim: This study was aimed to measure copeptin levels in the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Romanians using a competitive enzyme immunoassay. Methods and results: Patients prone to present MetS (n = 63) were compared to controls (n = 42). In the MetS group, the syndrome was confirmed in 93.6%. Affected patients displayed 85.7% obesity and insulin resistance (HOMAIR of 4.9 ± 0.4 versus 1.1 ± 0.8 in controls). Low HDL-cholesterol was less represented (47.5%). Copeptin levels were 0.6 ± 0.0 in MetS versus 0.42 ± 0.0 ng/ mL in controls (P < 0.004). Higher copeptin (0.79 to 1.83 ng/ mL) was associated with MetS, P < 0.0018, OR 20, 95%CI [3.03 – 131.7]. In ANOVA, high copeptin was equally explained by MetS or obesity (P < 0.05,α = 3.8). The best correlation was found with high triglyceride levels (P < 0.013,α = 6.3) while the correlation with HOMAIR remained not significant. Discussion: These data indicated a concordant correlation between increased copeptin and MetS or its components. In the light of epidemiological data, indicating that more than 50% of the European population has a lower daily water intake and a fraction of 25% displaying high copeptin, our data further sustained that copeptin may be a good biomarker for MetS and/ or obesity, which should be further investigated with other members of the osmoregulation pathway at both pathogenesis and genetic levels. PMID:27928437

  13. Minerals in our environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weathers, Judy; Galloway, John; Frank, Dave

    2000-01-01

    Minerals are found everywhere in our daily lives. This poster depicts numerous items found throughout a home, and the mineral(s) or mineral resources used in the ingredients of, or construction/manufacturing of those items. Designed for K-8 Teachers this poster can be scaled and is printable at 36" x 60" and legible at 11" x 17" in size.

  14. Ecological state of the Romanian Black Sea littoral lacustrine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomoiu, M.-T.

    2009-04-01

    The author uses the results of his own researches as well as data from specialty literature to assess the ecological state of some typical lacustrine ecosystems considered, about 50 years ago, of major importance by their functions, services and researches, for the human populations in the settlements nearby. Based on this assessment the author recommends a few criteria which can be taken into account when programs of integrated management of these coastal ecosystems are initiated. The paper focuses on the study cases regarding the following major ecosystems: 1. Razelm-Sinoie Lagoon Complex - tightly linked to the Danube River and Delta systems, 2. Taşaul Lake - interfered in the last two decades by a branch of the DanubeRiver - Black Sea Canal and 3. Techirghiol Lake - for a long time under the sea level, a hyperhaline lake with therapeutic, sapropelic mud, disturbed by huge quantities of freshwaters infiltrated from the irrigation system. At present, the state of the lacustrine ecosystems at the Romanian Black Sea Coast can be characterized, mainly, by the following aspects: · Increase in the quantities of nutrients and chemical toxicants; · Rise in the level and frequency of eutrophication and pollution phenomena; · Drastic reduction of specific diversity; · Simplification of communities' structure - biocoenosis homogeneity; · Decrease in numerical abundance and biomass of benthic populations and consequently, low biofilter power by the decrease of the filter-feeder populations; · Worsening of the qualitative and the quantitative state of the biological benthic resources; · Thriving opportunistic forms (e.g. the worms causing sediment bioturbation); · Invasion by some exotic species, with harmful, unexpected consequences; · All populations undergo quantitative fluctuations; · Decrease in the fish population and in the use values of lacustrine assets, with strong impact on the welfare of the human society. Almost all pressure forms associated with the

  15. Romanian wild boars and Mangalitza pigs have a European ancestry and harbour genetic signatures compatible with past population bottlenecks

    PubMed Central

    Manunza, A.; Amills, M.; Noce, A.; Cabrera, B.; Zidi, A.; Eghbalsaied, S.; de Albornoz, E. Carrillo; Portell, M.; Mercadé, A.; Sànchez, A.; Balteanu, V.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to analyse the genetic diversity of Romanian wild boars and to compare it with that from other wild boar and pig populations from Europe and Asia. Partial sequencing of the mitochondrial encoded cytochrome b (MT-CYB) gene from 36 Romanian wild boars and 36 domestic pigs (Mangalitza, Bazna and Vietnamese breeds) showed that the diversity of Romanian wild boars and Mangalitza pigs is fairly reduced, and that most of the members of these two populations share a common MT-CYB haplotype. Besides, in strong contrast with the Bazna animals, Romanian wild boars and Mangalitza swine did not carry Asian variants at the MT-CYB locus. The autosomal genotyping of 18 Romanian wild boars with the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip revealed that their genetic background is fundamentally European, even though signs of a potential Near Eastern ancestry (~25%) were detectable at K = 4 (the most significant number of clusters), but not at higher K-values. Admixture analysis also showed that two wild boars are of a hybrid origin, which could be explained by the mating of feral animals with domestic pigs. Finally, a number of Romanian wild boars displayed long runs of homozygosity, an observation that is consistent with the occurrence of past population bottlenecks and the raise of inbreeding possibly due to overhunting or to the outbreak of infectious diseases. PMID:27418428

  16. Nuclear medicine annual

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    This book features a state-of-the-art report on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in abdominal imaging, which highlights the emergency of /sup 99m/Tc-red cell imaging as the procedure of choice for diagnosing heptatic hemangioma. In addition, the use of captropril scinitigraphy in the study of suspected renovascular hypertension is reviewed. Articles survey research on radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and assess the clinical experience with bone scanning for osseous metastases from breast carcinoma. An article on the role of nuclear medicine in the management of osteoporosis examines the problems that must be overcome before the bone mineral analysis with dual photon absorptiometry gains widespread clinical acceptance.

  17. [Expedition medicine].

    PubMed

    Donlagić, Lana

    2009-01-01

    Expedition and wildeness medicine is a term that combines rescue medicine, sport medicine as well as more specific branches as polar or high altitude medicine. It is being intensively studied both at the reaserch institutes and on expeditions. Ophtalmologists are concentrated on the reaserch of HARH (High Altitude Retinal Hemorrhage), neurologists on HACE reaserch (High Altitude Cerebral Edema), psychologists are developing tests to decsribe cognitive functions and many physicians are being trained to work in extreme enviroment. The result of all this effort are numerous new findings in pathophysiology and therapy of altitude illness, increased security on expedition and further development of expeditionism.

  18. Substance and materiality? The archaeology of Talensi medicine shrines and medicinal practices

    PubMed Central

    Insoll, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Talensi materia medica is varied, encompassing plant, mineral, and animal substances. Healing, medicines, and medicinal practices and knowledge can be shrine-based and linked with ritual practices. This is explored utilising ethnographic data and from an archaeological perspective with reference to future possibilities for research both on Talensi medicine and, by implication, more generally through considering the archaeology of Talensi medicine preparation, use, storage, spread, and disposal. It is suggested that configuring the archaeology of medicine shrines and practices more broadly in terms of health would increase archaeological visibility and research potential. PMID:21810036

  19. Substance and materiality? The archaeology of Talensi medicine shrines and medicinal practices.

    PubMed

    Insoll, Timothy

    2011-08-01

    Talensi materia medica is varied, encompassing plant, mineral, and animal substances. Healing, medicines, and medicinal practices and knowledge can be shrine-based and linked with ritual practices. This is explored utilising ethnographic data and from an archaeological perspective with reference to future possibilities for research both on Talensi medicine and, by implication, more generally through considering the archaeology of Talensi medicine preparation, use, storage, spread, and disposal. It is suggested that configuring the archaeology of medicine shrines and practices more broadly in terms of health would increase archaeological visibility and research potential.

  20. Adsorption potential of mercury(II) from aqueous solutions onto Romanian peat moss.

    PubMed

    Bulgariu, Laura; Ratoi, Mioara; Bulgariu, Dumitru; Macoveanu, Matei

    2009-06-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the adsorption potential of Romanian peat moss for the removal of mercury(II) from aqueous solutions. The batch system experiments carried out showed that this natural material was effective in removing mercury(II). The analysis of FT-IR spectra indicated that the mechanism involved in the adsorption can be mainly attributed to the binding of mercury(II) with the carboxylic groups of Romanian peat moss. Adsorption equilibrium approached within 60 min. The adsorption data fitted well the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) was 98.94 mg g(-1). Pseudo-second-order kinetic model was applicable to the adsorption data. The thermodynamic parameters indicate that the adsorption process was spontaneous as the Gibbs free energy values were found to be negative (between -17.58 and -27.25 kJ mol(-1)) at the temperature range of 6-54 degrees C.

  1. From punishment to education--juvenile delinquency in Romanian criminal law.

    PubMed

    Ioan, Beatrice; Damian, Simona; Scripcaru, C; Neagu, M; Chirilă, B

    2015-01-01

    For centuries children were considered "mini-adults". Together with expressing the need to educate children and putting a stop to their integration in the work field from the earliest years the 19th century also displayed a new image of the child, which clearly separates him from the adults. In this paper the authors analyze the Romanian legislation addressing juvenile delinquency in criminal temporal evolution. On the one hand the minority age limits are sought and modulation of legislative provisions according to these, and on the other hand, types of penalties for minors are discussed. The authors conclude that the approach to juvenile delinquency in the current Romanian Criminal Code is the result of a long process of reflection of the legislators on adopting a different system of sanctions for juvenile offenders and on creating special regulations concerning the prosecution, trial and enforcement of the decisions regarding them.

  2. Lived Religion as Reproductive Decision-Making Resource Among Romanian Women Who Use Abortion as Contraception.

    PubMed

    Pop, Cristina A

    2017-05-30

    This article draws upon qualitative ethnographic data collected between 2005 and 2013 in southern Romania among women who have been consistently using abortion as a contraceptive method. It particularly considers the role that lived religion might have played in some individuals' strategies to render abortion a justifiable practice. Over the last seven decades, Romanian women's experiences of abortion have often been at odds with both secular and religious regulations. This study shifts the perspective from the biopolitics and the bioethics of abortion toward women's own reproductive decision-making strategies in a context of enduring traditional patriarchy. It explores the fluid and pragmatic ways in which some Romanians use the notions of "God's will," "sin," "redemption," "afterlife," and "Godparenting" to redefine abortion as a partially disembodied reproductive event. As a reproductive decision-making resource, lived religion empowers women to navigate the lived complexities of conception and contraception.

  3. The Management Of Intellectual Property In A Romanian State University Where Research Represents A Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tîţu, Aurel Mihail; Oprean, Constantin; Răulea, Andreea Simina

    2015-07-01

    The transition to the knowledge-based economy and society requires adaptation to constant change that implies intellectual property as a multidimensional concept that continually leaves its mark on generations contributing to their well-being in obvious and undeniable ways. The main objective of this article was to assess the present level of the management of intellectual property in a state university in Romania displaying their strengths and weaknesses. The overall objective of the work is to analyze the state of the art in a Romanian state university in order to find solutions to the current problems that the Romanian scientific environment is facing. The conclusions drawn in the study converge in directions and proposals for improving the way in which the intellectual property is regarded and its management in the state universities of Romania.

  4. Bartering for Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Kathie

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students are assigned occupations that rely on specific minerals. To obtain the needed minerals, students learn how to trade services and commodities. Includes details on preparation, modeling behaviors, and printed materials. (DDR)

  5. Mineral oil overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Mineral oil is not very poisonous, and recovery is likely. How well someone does depends on the amount of mineral oil swallowed and how quickly treatment is received. The faster medical help is given, the ...

  6. Bartering for Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Kathie

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students are assigned occupations that rely on specific minerals. To obtain the needed minerals, students learn how to trade services and commodities. Includes details on preparation, modeling behaviors, and printed materials. (DDR)

  7. Mineral Spirits Purification Process.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    the mineral spirits to decompose 1,2- propanediol dinitrate and remove hydrogen cyandide and other gaseous decomposition produces, and then distill the mineral spirits from the remaining contaminants.

  8. [Vasile Tonoiu and the modern scientific spirit a romanian approach of Gaston Bachelard's work].

    PubMed

    Buse, Ionel

    2013-01-01

    One of the Romanian scholars who studied extensively the work of Bachelard in Romania is Professor Vasile Tonoiu from the University of Bucharest. We analyze in this article some of his thoughts regarding the epistemology of the French philosopher. Even though he lacks a historical vision of the epistemological works of Bachelard, Tonoiu did not fail to understand the spirit of the French neo-rationalism, which he compared to the field of Anglo-American epistemology.

  9. Dyonisius Exiguus - the Father of the Christian Era Was Born in Romanian Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, Magda

    In "Liber de Paschal", written in the 6th century, was introduced the new calendar, having as origin the year of Jesus' birth. This idea belongs to Dionysius Exiguus, born in Tomis, in Romanian territory. He established the rules for a new calendar, which was accepted by the whole civilized world. Now, at the threshold of a new millennium, is the moment to know the personality of this erudite monk better and the manner he established the calendar, which became universal.

  10. [Sport medicine].

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram

    2012-02-01

    It is only since the late 20th century that Sport and Exercise Medicine has emerged as a distinct entity in health care. In Israel, sports medicine is regulated by a State Law and a sport physician is certified after graduating a structured program. In the past, sports medicine was related to the diagnosis and treatment of injuries encountered by top athletes. In recent years, the scope of sport medicine has broadened to reflect the awareness of modern society of the dangers of physical inactivity. In this perspective the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM) recently launched a program--"Exercise is Medicine", to promote physical activity in order to improve health and well-being and prevention of diseases through physical activity prescriptions. This program is from doctors and healthcare providers, adjusted to the patient or trainee. The sport physician does not replace a medical specialist, but having a thorough understanding about the etiology of a sport-related injury enables him to better focus on treatment and prevention. Therefore, Team Physicians in Elite Sport often play a role regarding not only the medical care of athletes, but also in the physiological monitoring of the athlete and correcting aberrations, to achieve peak physical performance. The broad spectrum of issues in sport and exercise medicine cannot be completely covered in one issue of the Journal. Therefore, the few reports that are presented to enhance interest and understanding in the broad spectrum of issues in sports and exercise medicine are only the tip of the iceberg.

  11. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract describes the content of a presentation for ground rounds at Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. The presentation contains three sections. The first describes the history of aerospace medicine beginning with early flights with animals. The second section of the presentation describes current programs and planning for future missions. The third section describes the medical challenges of exploration missions.

  12. Behavioral Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfield, Sol L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Contains 18 articles discussing the uses of behavioral medicine in such areas as obesity, smoking, hypertension, and headache. Reviews include discussions of behavioral medicine and insomnia, chronic pain, asthma, peripheral vascular disease, and coronary-prone behavior. Newly emerging topics include gastrointestinal disorders, arthritis,…

  13. Vulnerable Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bochner, Arthur P.

    2009-01-01

    In "Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness," Rita Charon paints an original and humane portrait of what it can mean to be a doctor, to live a life immersed in sickness and dedicated to wellness. Charon drops the veil, inviting readers to look at the secret, subjective, emotional face of medicine, a zone of self-censored feelings and…

  14. Behavioral Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfield, Sol L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Contains 18 articles discussing the uses of behavioral medicine in such areas as obesity, smoking, hypertension, and headache. Reviews include discussions of behavioral medicine and insomnia, chronic pain, asthma, peripheral vascular disease, and coronary-prone behavior. Newly emerging topics include gastrointestinal disorders, arthritis,…

  15. Vulnerable Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bochner, Arthur P.

    2009-01-01

    In "Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness," Rita Charon paints an original and humane portrait of what it can mean to be a doctor, to live a life immersed in sickness and dedicated to wellness. Charon drops the veil, inviting readers to look at the secret, subjective, emotional face of medicine, a zone of self-censored feelings and…

  16. Complementary medicine.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E

    2003-03-01

    Complementary medicine has become an important subject for rheumatologists, not least because many patients try complementary treatments. Recent clinical trials yield promising results. In particular, evidence suggests that several herbal medicines and dietary supplements can alleviate the pain of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Clearly, rigorous testing of complementary treatments is possible, and considering their popularity, should be encouraged.

  17. Use Medicines Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicines Safely Print This Topic En español Use Medicines Safely Browse Sections The Basics Overview Prescription Medicines ... Medicines 1 of 7 sections The Basics: Prescription Medicines There are different types of medicine. The 2 ...

  18. Possible uranium mineralization, Mineral Mountains, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, W. Roger; McHugh, John B.; Ficklin, Walter H.

    1979-01-01

    The Mineral Mountains block in west-central Utah is a horst whose core stands structurally high relative to all nearby basin-and-range fault blocks. Rocks of the Mineral Mountains range from Precambrian to Quaternary in age, but mostly consist of Tertiary granitic rocks. The range lies with the Wah Wah-Tusher mineral belt. Lead, silver, gold, and tungsten have been mined commercially. During a geochemical survey conducted in the summer of 1978, 30 water samples and 29 stream-sediment samples were collected from the Mineral Mountains area. The interpretation of simple plots of uranium concentrations and the results of a Q-mode factor analysis indicate that potential exists for uranium mineral deposits within the Mineral Mountains. The most favorable areas are in the granitic pluton near its contacts with sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The most likely source of the uranium anomalies is uraninite-bearing epigenic veins along faults and fractures within the pluton. Three hypothetical models are proposed to account for the uranium mineralization.

  19. Seroprevalence study of anti diphtheria antibodies in two age-groups of Romanian adults.

    PubMed

    Dragomirescu, Cristiana Cerasella; Coldea, Ileana-Luminiţa; Ilie, Anamaria; Stănescu, Aurora; Ungureanu, Vasilica; Popa, Mircea Ioan

    2014-01-01

    Diphtheria represents a serious infectious disease with high epidemic potential. It is a vaccine preventable disease (a minimum vaccine coverage of 95% for children of 1 year and 90% in adults could prevent the disease). Diphtheria vaccination is included in the National Immunization Program (NIP). Complete vaccination for children consists in DTaP (diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine) vaccine administration from the age of 2 months until 4 years and dT vaccine (tetanus toxoid and a reduced dose of diphtheria toxoid) at 14 years old. The aim of this paper was to highlight the protection against diphtheria of an age segment of the Romanian adult population (20 to 39 years old) using a seroprevalence study. The Romanian subjects were selected from two age groups: 20-29 years (n = 219) and 30-39 years (n = 229), representative for all counties of Romania. The commercial kit Anti-Diphtheria Toxoid ELISA (IgG) (EUROIMMUN) was used to detect the antibodies of IgG class against diphtheria toxoid in the sera obtained from our subjects. We detected a 56.6% rate of positive sera (> 0.1 IU/ml--protection level) for the 20-29 age group and 31.7% positivity for the 30-39 age group. These data show a low protection level against diphtheria of the Romanian adult population, which decreases with age. The serologic data on preventable vaccine diseases are useful in order to evaluate the success of the immunization programs.

  20. Emotion displays in media: a comparison between American, Romanian, and Turkish children's storybooks.

    PubMed

    Wege, Briana Vander; Sánchez González, Mayra L; Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; Mihalca, Linda M; Goodrich, Erica; Corapci, Feyza

    2014-01-01

    Children's books may provide an important resource of culturally appropriate emotions. This study investigates emotion displays in children's storybooks for preschoolers from Romania, Turkey, and the US in order to analyze cultural norms of emotions. We derived some hypotheses by referring to cross-cultural studies about emotion and emotion socialization. For such media analyses, the frequency rate of certain emotion displays can be seen as an indicator for the salience of the specific emotion. We expected that all children's storybooks would highlight dominantly positive emotions and that US children's storybooks would display negative powerful emotions (e.g., anger) more often and negative powerless emotions (e.g., sadness) less often than Turkish and Romanian storybooks. We also predicted that the positive and negative powerful emotion expressions would be more intense in the US storybooks compared to the other storybooks. Finally, we expected that social context (ingroup/outgroup) may affect the intensity emotion displays more in Turkish and Romanian storybooks compared to US storybooks. Illustrations in 30 popular children's storybooks (10 for each cultural group) were coded. Results mostly confirmed the hypotheses but also pointed to differences between Romanian and Turkish storybooks. Overall, the study supports the conclusion that culture-specific emotion norms are reflected in media to which young children are exposed.

  1. Smoking cessation for free: outcomes of a study of three Romanian clinics

    PubMed Central

    Trofor, Antigona Carmen; Marginean, Corina; Dumitru, Filipeanu; Trofor, Letitia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In 2007, Romania implemented a national program for smoking cessation, providing medication and counseling, entirely for free. The present study focuses on the results of the program among participating smokers treated in three smoking cessation centers from three main cities of Romania: Iasi, Targu Mures and Cluj. Telephone interviews of 832 subjects from three databases of the Romanian cessation clinics of Iasi, Cluj and Targu Mures cities were conducted. These interviews were based on a standard Romanian guideline follow-up questionnaire. At 3 months follow up, abstinence was quite high (53.4%); at 12 months post quit date the study found 18.6% still abstinent subjects. More severely addicted smokers have quit with varenicline and the most difficult category of patients was represented by heavy smokers with respiratory co-morbidities. 61.5% of smokers and 97.2% of non-smokers were willing to receive relapse prevention counseling. Many subjects achieved a long duration partial abstinence (154 days ± 180 SD abstinence days). This is the first study in Romanian smoking cessation centers to analyze the long term impact of fully reimbursed smoking cessation, covering three months pharmacotherapy and counseling. Providing smoking cessation for free had a positive long term impact on program participants. PMID:28352853

  2. Emotion displays in media: a comparison between American, Romanian, and Turkish children's storybooks

    PubMed Central

    Wege, Briana Vander; Sánchez González, Mayra L.; Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; Mihalca, Linda M.; Goodrich, Erica; Corapci, Feyza

    2014-01-01

    Children's books may provide an important resource of culturally appropriate emotions. This study investigates emotion displays in children's storybooks for preschoolers from Romania, Turkey, and the US in order to analyze cultural norms of emotions. We derived some hypotheses by referring to cross-cultural studies about emotion and emotion socialization. For such media analyses, the frequency rate of certain emotion displays can be seen as an indicator for the salience of the specific emotion. We expected that all children's storybooks would highlight dominantly positive emotions and that US children's storybooks would display negative powerful emotions (e.g., anger) more often and negative powerless emotions (e.g., sadness) less often than Turkish and Romanian storybooks. We also predicted that the positive and negative powerful emotion expressions would be more intense in the US storybooks compared to the other storybooks. Finally, we expected that social context (ingroup/outgroup) may affect the intensity emotion displays more in Turkish and Romanian storybooks compared to US storybooks. Illustrations in 30 popular children's storybooks (10 for each cultural group) were coded. Results mostly confirmed the hypotheses but also pointed to differences between Romanian and Turkish storybooks. Overall, the study supports the conclusion that culture-specific emotion norms are reflected in media to which young children are exposed. PMID:24987384

  3. Minerals leasing for landowners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This report delineates the provisions of the legal codes of the 13 Southeastern states relating to minerals leasing. The introduction explains land ownership and land leasing in terms of mineral rights, and describes the basic elements which a lease conveyance must contain to be valid. A checklist gives the terms which must be included in all mineral leases.

  4. Wilderness medicine

    PubMed Central

    Sward, Douglas G.; Bennett, Brad L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human activity in wilderness areas has increased globally in recent decades, leading to increased risk of injury and illness. Wilderness medicine has developed in response to both need and interest. METHODS: The field of wilderness medicine encompasses many areas of interest. Some focus on special circumstances (such as avalanches) while others have a broader scope (such as trauma care). Several core areas of key interest within wilderness medicine are discussed in this study. RESULTS: Wilderness medicine is characterized by remote and improvised care of patients with routine or exotic illnesses or trauma, limited resources and manpower, and delayed evacuation to definitive care. Wilderness medicine is developing rapidly and draws from the breadth of medical and surgical subspecialties as well as the technical fields of mountaineering, climbing, and diving. Research, epidemiology, and evidence-based guidelines are evolving. A hallmark of this field is injury prevention and risk mitigation. The range of topics encompasses high-altitude cerebral edema, decompression sickness, snake envenomation, lightning injury, extremity trauma, and gastroenteritis. Several professional societies, academic fellowships, and training organizations offer education and resources for laypeople and health care professionals. CONCLUSIONS: The future of wilderness medicine is unfolding on multiple fronts: education, research, training, technology, communications, and environment. Although wilderness medicine research is technically difficult to perform, it is essential to deepening our understanding of the contribution of specific techniques in achieving improvements in clinical outcomes. PMID:25215140

  5. Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Cholerton, Brenna; Larson, Eric B.; Quinn, Joseph F.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Mata, Ignacio F.; Keene, C. Dirk; Flanagan, Margaret; Crane, Paul K.; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Montine, Kathleen S.; Montine, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Three key elements to precision medicine are stratification by risk, detection of pathophysiological processes as early as possible (even before clinical presentation), and alignment of mechanism of action of intervention(s) with an individual's molecular driver(s) of disease. Used for decades in the management of some rare diseases and now gaining broad currency in cancer care, a precision medicine approach is beginning to be adapted to cognitive impairment and dementia. This review focuses on the application of precision medicine to address the clinical and biological complexity of two common neurodegenerative causes of dementia: Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. PMID:26724389

  6. Medicines management.

    PubMed

    Pegram, Anne; Bloomfield, Jacqueline

    2015-04-15

    All newly registered graduate nurses are required to have the appropriate knowledge and understanding to perform the skills required for patient care, specifically the competencies identified in the Nursing and Midwifery Council's essential skills clusters. This article focuses on the fifth essential skills cluster – medicines management. Nursing students should work to attain the knowledge and skills required for effective medicines management throughout their pre-registration education. The roles and responsibilities of the newly registered graduate nurse in the area of medicines management are discussed in this the final article of the essential skills cluster series.

  7. Mineral particles, mineral fibers, and lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Churg, A.; Wiggs, B.

    1985-08-01

    The total fibrous and nonfibrous mineral content of the lung has been analyzed in a series of 14 men with lung cancer but no history of occupational dust exposure, and in a series of 14 control men matched for age, smoking history, and general occupational class. The lung cancer patients had an average of 525 +/- 369 X 10(6) exogenous mineral particles and 17.4 +/- 19.6 X 10(6) exogenous mineral fibers/g dry lung, while the controls had averages of 261 +/- 175 mineral particles and 4.7 +/- 3.2 X 10(6) mineral fibers/g dry lung. These differences are statistically significant for both particles and fibers. Kaolinite, talc, mica, feldspars, and crystalline silica comprised the majority of particles of both groups. Approximately 90% of the particles were smaller than 2 micron in diameter and approximately 60% smaller than 1 micron. In both groups, patients who had smoked more than 35 pack years had greater numbers of particles than patients who had smoked less than 35 pack years. It is concluded that, in this study, lungs from patients with lung cancer had statistically greater numbers of mineral particles and fibers than lungs from controls, and that smoking influences total long-term retention of particles from all sources.

  8. Measuring Computer Science Knowledge Level of Hungarian Students Specialized in Informatics with Romanian Students Attending a Science Course or a Mathematics-Informatics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiss, Gabor

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of Information Technology knowledge of Hungarian and Romanian students was made with the help of a self developed web based Informatics Test. The goal of this research is an analysis of the Computer Science knowledge level of Hungarian and Romanian students attending a Science course or a Mathematics-Informatics course. Analysed was…

  9. In search of racial types: soldiers and the anthropological mapping of the Romanian nation, 1914–44

    PubMed Central

    TURDA, MARIUS

    2013-01-01

    Turda’s article explores the diverse ways in which racial research conducted on prisoners-of-war (POWs) and soldiers contributed to the emergence of anthropological narratives of national identity in Romania between 1914 and 1944. It first discusses racial typologies produced by Austrian, German, Italian and Polish anthropologists investigating POWs during the First World War, and then examines how Romanian physicians and anthropologists engaged with these typologies while refining their own scientific and nationalist agendas. An essential corollary to this development was a strong commitment to the cultivation of distinct Romanian racial types. The interwar and Second World War periods witnessed the full flowering of a Romanian race science that accommodated a racial hierarchy as the basis for national difference. Moreover, by identifying the racial types purportedly constituting the Romanian nation, anthropologists not only hoped to develop a systematic racial inventory of Romania’s ethnic communities, but also to reinforce the myth of ethnogenesis, which described the Romanians as worthy of their noble European origins and legitimized their territorial claims. PMID:24363459

  10. In search of racial types: soldiers and the anthropological mapping of the Romanian nation, 1914-44.

    PubMed

    Turda, Marius

    2013-02-01

    Turda's article explores the diverse ways in which racial research conducted on prisoners-of-war (POWs) and soldiers contributed to the emergence of anthropological narratives of national identity in Romania between 1914 and 1944. It first discusses racial typologies produced by Austrian, German, Italian and Polish anthropologists investigating POWs during the First World War, and then examines how Romanian physicians and anthropologists engaged with these typologies while refining their own scientific and nationalist agendas. An essential corollary to this development was a strong commitment to the cultivation of distinct Romanian racial types. The interwar and Second World War periods witnessed the full flowering of a Romanian race science that accommodated a racial hierarchy as the basis for national difference. Moreover, by identifying the racial types purportedly constituting the Romanian nation, anthropologists not only hoped to develop a systematic racial inventory of Romania's ethnic communities, but also to reinforce the myth of ethnogenesis, which described the Romanians as worthy of their noble European origins and legitimized their territorial claims.

  11. Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Insulin, Medicines, & Other Diabetes Treatments Taking insulin or other ... medication plan. What are the different types of insulin? Several types of insulin are available. Each type ...

  12. COPD Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Training Home Treatment & Programs Medications COPD Medications COPD Medications Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer ... control the symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Most people with COPD take long-acting medicine ...

  13. Study of the history of medicine in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Shengelia, R

    1999-03-01

    There are different approaches to teaching the history of medicine in different countries. Teaching the history of medicine in Georgia is bound to its traditional medicine. Georgian medicine originated at the crossroads of the East and West and thus integrates the principles of both medical traditions. The Research Department of the History of Georgian Medicine and Traditional Medicine at Experimental and Clinical Medical Institute of Tbilisi State University has, over 40 years, collected a unique material on Georgian folk medicine, including thousands of recipes and hundreds of active components of herbal, animal, and mineral origin. Our project for the future is to prepare National Formulary of Georgian Medicine. In the work with students, we aim to teach them the basis of Chinese, Indian, Caucasian, Arabian, American, Australian, and African folk medicine, the basis of homeopathy and antroposophy, paleopathology, and bioarcheology so that they incorporate them into modern medicine and clinical practice.

  14. Magnetic susceptibilities of minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenblum, Sam; Brownfield, I.K.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic separation of minerals is a topic that is seldom reported in the literature for two reasons. First, separation data generally are byproducts of other projects; and second, this study requires a large amount of patience and is unusually tedious. Indeed, we suspect that most minerals probably are never investigated for this property. These data are timesaving for mineralogists who concentrate mono-mineralic fractions for chemical analysis, age dating, and for other purposes. The data can certainly be used in the ore-beneficiation industries. In some instances, magnetic-susceptibility data may help in mineral identification, where other information is insufficient. In past studies of magnetic separation of minerals, (Gaudin and Spedden, 1943; Tille and Kirkpatrick, 1956; Rosenblum, 1958; Rubinstein and others, 1958; Flinter, 1959; Hess, 1959; Baker, 1962; Meric and Peyre, 1963; Rojas and others, 1965; and Duchesne, 1966), the emphasis has been on the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic ranges of extraction. For readers interested in the history of magnetic separation of minerals, Krumbein and Pettijohn (1938, p. 344-346) indicated nine references back to 1848. The primary purpose of this paper is to report the magnetic-susceptibility data on as many minerals as possible, similar to tables of hardness, specific gravity, refractive indices, and other basic physical properties of minerals. A secondary purpose is to demonstrate that the total and best extraction ranges are influenced by the chemistry of the minerals. The following notes are offered to help avoid problems in separating a desired mineral concentrate from mixtures of mineral grains.

  15. Mineral lung burden of an urban population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoletti, L.; Falchi, M.; Batisti, D.; Carrieri, M. P.; Petrelli, M. G.; Ciallella, C.; Donelli, G.

    A study was carried out on mineral lung burden in 85 autopsy cases who died accidentally. Subjects of both sexes aged from 15 to 70 years were selected from all the autopsies performed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Rome. These subjects were living in an urban area and were not affected by neoplasm diseases. All selected subjects were residing in Rome at the time of their death. Information on years of legal residence in urban areas, smoking habits and occupational history were obtained by interviews with relatives. Lung parenchyma samples were obtained from the right upper lobe. The mineral particulate matter present in the tissue samples was studied by means of analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) techniques: 16 mineral varieties and 22 metallic elements were identified. Smoke, age and residence seem to have influence on the lung burden.

  16. [Mineral metabolism in man under altered gravitation].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, A I; Volozhin, A I; Stupakov, G P

    1994-01-01

    The book contains data about the functions and the metabolism of mineralized tissues, and the results of investigations of bone tissue and calcium metabolism during manned space missions and ground-based simulations. Consideration is given to the bone strength characteristics under experimental hypo- and hypergravity. The role of hormonal and physical/chemical factors in the mechanisms of iron control alterations in man during space missions of various lengths is analyzed. Evaluated is the efficiency of different countermeasures opposing the shifts in electrolyte exchange and bone mineral losses in these conditions. A concept is proposed for hypogravity-induced changes in the mineral metabolism and bone tissue status. The book is addressed to biologists, physiologists, biochemists, specialists in space biology and aerospace medicine.

  17. OTC Medicines: Know Your Risks, and Reduce Them

    MedlinePlus

    ... something for just a short time. Include any herbal supplements, vitamins, and minerals you take. At least once ... doctor about all of the medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements you take. Your doctor can tell you whether ...

  18. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

  19. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National...

  20. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National...

  1. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National...

  2. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National...

  3. Mineral Processing Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the nonmetallic mineral processing sector (NAICS 327), including NESHAPs for asbestos and hazardous waste, and wastewater permit information.

  4. Reagan issues mineral policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

  5. Travel medicine

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

  6. Mesopotamian medicine.

    PubMed

    Retief, F P; Cilliers, L

    2007-01-01

    Although the Mesopotamian civilisation is as old as that of Egypt and might even have predated it, we know much less about Mesopotamian medicine, mainly because the cuneiform source material is less well researched. Medical healers existed from the middle of the 3rd millennium. In line with the strong theocratic state culture, healers were closely integrated with the powerful priestly fraternity, and were essentially of three main kinds: barû (seers) who were experts in divination, âshipu (exorcists), and asû (healing priests) who tended directly to the sick. All illness was accepted as sent by gods, demons and other evil spirits, either as retribution for sins or as malevolent visitations. Treatment revolved around identification of the offending supernatural power, appeasement of the angry gods, for example by offering amulets or incantations, exorcism of evil spirits, as well as a measure of empirical therapy aimed against certain recognised symptom complexes. Medical practice was rigidly codified, starting with Hammurabi's Code in the 18th century BC and persisting to the late 1st millennium BC. Works like the so-called Diagnostic Handbook, the Assyrian Herbal and Prescription Texts describe the rationale of Mesopotamian medicine, based predominantly on supernatural concepts, although rudimentary traces of empirical medicine are discernible. There is evidence that Egyptian medicine might have been influenced by Mesopotamian practices, but Greek rational medicine as it evolved in the 5th/4th centuries BC almost certainly had no significant Mesopotamian roots.

  7. Nuclear Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Streek, Penny Vande; Carretta, Robert; Weiland, Frederick L.

    1994-01-01

    The Council on Scientific Affairs of the California Medical Association presents the following epitomes of progress in nuclear medicine. Each item, in the judgment of a panel of knowledgeable physicians, has recently become reasonably firmly established, both as to scientific fact and clinical importance. The items are presented in simple epitome, and an authoritative reference, both to the item itself and to the subject as a whole, is generally given for those who may be unfamiliar with a particular item. The purpose is to assist busy practitioners, students, researchers, and scholars to stay abreast of progress in medicine, whether in their own field of special interest or another. The epitomes included here were selected by the Advisory Panel to the Section on Nuclear Medicine of the California Medical Association, and the summaries were prepared under the direction of Dr Lyons and the panel. PMID:7529452

  8. Medical bribery and the ethics of trust: the Romanian case.

    PubMed

    Manea, Teodora

    2015-02-01

    Medical bribery seems to be a global problem from Eastern Europe and the Balkans to China, a diffuse phenomenon, starting with morally acceptable gratitude and ending with institutional bribery. I focus my attention on Romania and analyze similar cases in Eastern European and postcommunist countries. Medical bribery can be regarded as a particular form of human transaction, a kind of primitive contract that occurs when people do not trust institutions or other forms of social contract that are meant to guarantee their rights and protect their interests. Concluding with strategies to fight medical bribery, I will underline better public policies for financing health and social care, and an ethic of trust that may help to restore trustworthiness of institutions and to rebuild interpersonal trust. This should be complemented by an educational program dedicated to understanding the negative consequences and mechanisms of corruption and the importance of ethical behavior. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Metal contamination in environmental media in residential areas around Romanian mining sites.

    PubMed

    Neamtiu, Iulia A; Al-Abed, Souhail R; McKernan, John L; Baciu, Calin L; Gurzau, Eugen S; Pogacean, Anca O; Bessler, Scott M

    2017-03-01

    Hard-rock mining for metals, such as gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron and others, is recognized to have a significant impact on the environmental media, soil and water, in particular. Toxic contaminants released from mine waste to surface water and groundwater is the primary concern, but human exposure to soil contaminants either directly, via inhalation of airborne dust particles, or indirectly, via food chain (ingestion of animal products and/or vegetables grown in contaminated areas), is also, significant. In this research, we analyzed data collected in 2007, as part of a larger environmental study performed in the Rosia Montana area in Transylvania, to provide the Romanian governmental authorities with data on the levels of metal contamination in environmental media from this historical mining area. The data were also considered in policy decision to address mining-related environmental concerns in the area. We examined soil and water data collected from residential areas near the mining sites to determine relationships among metals analyzed in these different environmental media, using the correlation procedure in the SAS statistical software. Results for residential soil and water analysis indicate that the average values for arsenic (As) (85 mg/kg), cadmium (Cd) (3.2 mg/kg), mercury (Hg) (2.3 mg/kg) and lead (Pb) (92 mg/kg) exceeded the Romanian regulatory exposure levels [the intervention thresholds for residential soil in case of As (25 mg/kg) and Hg (2 mg/kg), and the alert thresholds in case of Pb (50 mg/kg) and Cd (3 mg/kg)]. Average metal concentrations in drinking water did not exceed the maximum contaminant level (MCL) imposed by the Romanian legislation, but high metal concentrations were found in surface water from Rosia creek, downstream from the former mining area.

  10. Serological evidence for avian H9N2 influenza virus infections among Romanian agriculture workers.

    PubMed

    Coman, Alexandru; Maftei, Daniel N; Krueger, Whitney S; Heil, Gary L; Friary, John A; Chereches, Razvan M; Sirlincan, Emanuela; Bria, Paul; Dragnea, Claudiu; Kasler, Iosif; Gray, Gregory C

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, wild birds have introduced multiple highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus infections in Romanian poultry. In 2005 HPAI infections were widespread among domestic poultry and anecdotal reports suggested domestic pigs may also have been exposed. We sought to examine evidence for zoonotic influenza infections among Romanian agriculture workers. Between 2009 and 2010, 363 adult participants were enrolled in a cross-sectional, seroepidemiological study. Confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) swine workers in Tulcea and small, traditional backyard farmers in Cluj-Napoca were enrolled, as well as a non-animal exposed control group from Cluj-Napoca. Enrollment sera were examined for serological evidence of previous infection with 9 avian and 3 human influenza virus strains. Serologic assays showed no evidence of previous infection with 7 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses or with HPAI H5N1. However, 33 participants (9.1%) had elevated microneutralization antibody titers against avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), 5 with titers ≥ 1:80 whom all reported exposure to poultry. Moderate poultry exposure was significantly associated with elevated titers after controlling for the subjects' age (adjusted OR = 3.6; 95% CI, 1.1-12.1). There was no evidence that previous infection with human H3N2 or H2N2 viruses were confounding the H9N2 seroreactivity. These data suggest that H9N2 virus may have circulated in Romanian poultry and occasionally infected man.

  11. Hydrogeochemical and stable isotopic investigations on CO2-rich mineral waters from Harghita Mts. (Eastern Carpathians, Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kis, Boglárka-Mercedesz; Baciu, Călin; Kármán, Krisztina; Kékedy-Nagy, Ladislau; Francesco, Italiano

    2013-04-01

    There is a worldwide interest on geothermal, mineral and groundwater as a resource for energy, drinking water supply and therapeutic needs. The increasing trend in replacing tap water with commercial bottled mineral water for drinking purposes has become an economic, hydrogeologic and medical concern in the last decades. Several investigations have been carried out worldwide on different topics related to geothermal and mineral waters, dealing with mineral water quality assessment, origin of geothermal and mineral waters, geochemical processes that influence water chemistry and water-rock interaction In Romania, the Călimani-Gurghiu-Harghita Neogene to Quaternary volcanic chain (Eastern Carpathians) is one of the most important areas from the point of view of CO2-rich mineral waters. These mineral water springs occur within other post-volcanic phenomena like dry CO2 emissions, moffettes, bubbling pools, H2S gas emissions etc. Mineral waters from this area are used for bottling, local spas and drinking purposes for local people. The number of springs, around 2000 according to literature data, shows that there is still a significant unexploited potential for good quality drinking water in this area. Within the youngest segment of the volcanic chain, the Harghita Mts., its volcaniclastic aprons and its boundary with the Transylvanian Basin, we have carried out an investigation on 23 CO2-rich mineral water springs from a hydrogeochemical and stable isotopic point of view. The mineral waters are Ca-Mg-HCO3 to Na-Cl type. Sometimes mixing between the two types can be observed. We have detected a great influence of water-rock interaction on the stable isotopic composition of the mineral waters, shown by isotopic shifts to the heavier oxygen isotope, mixing processes between shallow and deeper aquifers and local thermal anomalies. Acknowledgements: The present work was financially supported by the Romanian National Research Council, Project PN-II-ID-PCE-2011-3-0537 and by

  12. Wilderness Medicine.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Whitney; Bright, Steven; Burns, Patrick; Townes, David

    2016-03-01

    Wilderness medicine encompasses prevention and treatment of illness and injury, education and training, emergency medical services, and search and rescue in the wilderness. Although traumatic injuries, including minor injuries, outnumber medical illness as the cause of morbidity in the wilderness, basic understanding of the prevention and management of injury and illness, including recognition, identification, treatment, initial management, and stabilization, is essential, in addition to the ability to facilitate evacuation of affected patients. An important theme throughout wilderness medicine is planning and preparation for the best- and worst-case scenarios, and being ready for the unexpected.

  13. [Medicinal cannabis].

    PubMed

    Van der Meersch, H; Verschuere, A P; Bottriaux, F

    2006-01-01

    Pharmaceutical grade cannabis is available to Dutch patients from public pharmacies in the Netherlands. The first part of this paper reviews the pharmaceutical and pharmacological properties of medicinal cannabis. Detailed information about its composition and quality, potential applications, methods of administration, adverse reactions, drug interactions and safety during pregnancy or breastfeeding are given. The second part deals with the legal aspects of dispensing medicinal cannabis through pharmacies in view of the Belgian and Dutch legislation. The last part discusses the present Belgian regulation about the possession of cannabis.

  14. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  15. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  16. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  17. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  18. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  19. Romanian adolescents' knowledge and attitudes towards human papillomavirus infection and prophylactic vaccination.

    PubMed

    Maier, Călina; Maier, Traian; Neagu, Cristina E; Vlădăreanu, Radu

    2015-12-01

    Since licensure of HPV vaccine in 2006, HPV vaccine coverage among Romanian adolescents remains worryingly low. The objectives of the study were to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards HPV infection and vaccination among Romanian adolescents and to explore the barriers to HPV vaccination with a view to developing strategies for expanding primary HPV infection prevention. This study was conducted in Bucharest between April and June 2015. A total of 524 adolescents aged 16-18 years old were recruited from the first two general highschools in Bucharest (according to the admission grade) and completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographics, HPV related and Papanicolau smear test knowledge. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were used to identify the strength of association. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the effect of demographic characteristics on the level of knowledge and HPV vaccination rate. Associations were considered statistically significant at p<0.05. Of the adolescents interviewed, a very small proportion had heard of HPV infection, HPV vaccine and Papanicolau smear test, that is, 20.22%, 67.92% and 22.9%, respectively. The overall vaccination rate for this group was 2.3%. The most common reason for not receiving the HPV vaccine was the lack of information (80.6%) followed by parents' concerns regarding safety (11%), fear of pain (5.59%) and not being sexually active (2.7%). However, 97.7% of the respondents declared interest in receiving more information about HPV. According to demographic characteristics, age at first sexual intercourse over 16 years old, monthly household income over one thousand euros and self-perceived good relationship with family members were statistically associated on a multivariate logistic regression analysis with a high HPV knowledge score and rate of vaccination. This study shows a low level of knowledge about HPV infection and prophylactic vaccination among Romanian adolescents

  20. Twenty american families' stories of adaptation: adoption of children from Russian and Romanian institutions.

    PubMed

    Linville, Deanna; Lyness, Anne Prouty

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand how 20 families have adapted after adopting children between the ages of 3 and 5 years from eastern European institutions. The researcher visited a Romanian orphanage and then interviewed 20 families about their experiences with the adoption process and with family adaptation postadoption. Several themes emerged from the parents' stories regarding their search for support and resources to aid in parenting their children. Family therapists who are interested in working with families who adopt internationally from institutional settings can learn from the stories of parents.

  1. Is old medicine new medicine?

    PubMed

    Montaocean, K

    1991-07-01

    By the year 2000, over 90% of cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are expected in Third World countries where Western medicine is often unavailable, unaffordable, or culturally unacceptable. Thus, there is a need for greater attention to the potential role of traditional medicine and healers in the prevention and treatment of AIDS. A US-based nongovernmental organization, Green Cross Inc, is examining cross-cultural healing traditions and seeking areas of convergence between scientific bio-medicine and indigenous traditional healing systems. At a street clinic operated by Green Cross in Washington DC, both Western medicine and traditional Chinese practices such as acupuncture, herbal remedies, and meditation are offered to AIDS patients at those at risk of infection. Although the individualized nature of Chinese medicine makes it difficult to evaluate through use of Western research methods, there is anecdotal evidence that it reduces the stress, anxiety, depression, and fatigue that accompany AIDS. Health care systems in all parts of the world could benefit from the concept that illness cannot be treated in isolation from individuals and communities.

  2. Mineral commodity summaries 2017

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2017-01-31

    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2016 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials.

  3. Mineral commodity summaries 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2016-01-01

    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2015 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials

  4. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  5. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  6. The Miner's Canary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinier, Lani

    2005-01-01

    Miners used canaries as early warning signals: when a canary gasped for breath, the miners knew there was a problem with the atmosphere in the mine. The experience of people of color in higher education can be used similarly as a diagnostic tool.

  7. Digging into Minnesota Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul.

    This publication presents students with facts about geology and several learning activities. Topics covered include rocks and minerals, volcanoes and earthquakes, fossils, exploration geology, mining in Minnesota, environmental issues related to mining, mineral uses, mining history, and the geology of Minnesota's state parks. A geologic timetable…

  8. Mineral Fiber Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical and physical properties of different forms of mineral fibers impact biopersistence and pathology in the lung. Fiber chemistry, length, aspect ratio, surface area and dose are critical factors determining mineral fiber-associated health effects including cancer and as...

  9. Mineral Fiber Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical and physical properties of different forms of mineral fibers impact biopersistence and pathology in the lung. Fiber chemistry, length, aspect ratio, surface area and dose are critical factors determining mineral fiber-associated health effects including cancer and as...

  10. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2002-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  11. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  12. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  13. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  14. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  15. Mineral Commodity Summaries 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  16. Mineral Commodity Summaries 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials

  17. Mineral Commodity Summaries 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  18. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  19. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2004-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  20. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  1. Mineral physics abroad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebermann, Robert

    During the 1983-1984 academic year, I spent a sabbatical leave in France, during which I had the opportunity to visit several mineral physics laboratories in Europe and meet many of our colleagues there. The purpose of this item is to report briefly on developments of interest to the U.S. mineral physics community.

  2. Digging into Minnesota Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul.

    This publication presents students with facts about geology and several learning activities. Topics covered include rocks and minerals, volcanoes and earthquakes, fossils, exploration geology, mining in Minnesota, environmental issues related to mining, mineral uses, mining history, and the geology of Minnesota's state parks. A geologic timetable…

  3. Mineral Wool Insulation Binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowatsch, Stefan

    Mineral wool is considered the best known insulation type among the wide variety of insulation materials. There are three types of mineral wool, and these consist of glass, stone (rock), and slag wool. The overall manufacturing processes, along with features such as specifications and characteristics for each of these types, as well as the role of the binder within the process are described.

  4. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  5. Nutritive quality of romanian hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L.) with special focus on oil and metal contents of seeds

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The study aims to determine the nutritional value of hemp seed expressed by the oil content and by the concentration of metals (Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cd), for five varieties of monoecious and dioecious hemp seeds approved in Romania, comparative with the concentration of these metals in the soil. Results The content of oil in hempseed registers a slight decrease in the production records of 2011, losses due to drought and low levels of precipitation during the growth period. The greatest loss is found in Diana monoecious variety (26.54-20.82%) followed by Zenit varieties (27.37-22.97%), Armanca (29.27-25.32%), Silvana (28.89-25.04%) and Denise (26.96-25.30%). Siccative hemp oil has a yellowish green color and an iodine index of 140–156 g I2/100 g oil. Hemp seed are rich in mineral based Ca (144–955 mg/100 g seed), Mg (237–694 mg/100 g seed), K (463–2821 mg/100 g seed), Fe (1133-2400 mg.kg-1), Mn (63–110 mg.kg-1) and Zn (42-94 mg.kg-1). For the soil the following macroelements concentrations were determined: Ca (2100–2520 mg.kg-1), Mg (320–376 mg.kg-1) and K (232–257 mg.kg-1). Mn (156–197 mg.kg-1) and Zn (54–67 mg.kg-1) remain within normal limits for Romania. The soils in the experience area contain large amounts of Fe (19000–20430 mg.kg-1). The presence of K in large quantities determines the accumulation of large quantities of Fe in the soil. Conclusion Hempseed belonging to the five Romanian varieties are rich source of nutrients (Ca, Mg, K) and unsaturated oil easily digestible by the body, but the presence of Cd concentrations above the upper limit puts a question mark over the use of seeds in various food products. Hemp extracts easily certain metals from the soil. Significant amounts of Fe (1133–2400 mg.kg-1), Mn (63–110 mg.kg-1), Zn (42–94 mg.kg-1) and Cd (1.3-4.0 mg.kg-1) are found in hemp seeds. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is included among plants suitable for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium

  6. Nutritive quality of romanian hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L.) with special focus on oil and metal contents of seeds.

    PubMed

    Mihoc, Marcela; Pop, Georgeta; Alexa, Ersilia; Radulov, Isidora

    2012-10-23

    The study aims to determine the nutritional value of hemp seed expressed by the oil content and by the concentration of metals (Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cd), for five varieties of monoecious and dioecious hemp seeds approved in Romania, comparative with the concentration of these metals in the soil. The content of oil in hempseed registers a slight decrease in the production records of 2011, losses due to drought and low levels of precipitation during the growth period. The greatest loss is found in Diana monoecious variety (26.54-20.82%) followed by Zenit varieties (27.37-22.97%), Armanca (29.27-25.32%), Silvana (28.89-25.04%) and Denise (26.96-25.30%). Siccative hemp oil has a yellowish green color and an iodine index of 140-156 g I2/100 g oil. Hemp seed are rich in mineral based Ca (144-955 mg/100 g seed), Mg (237-694 mg/100 g seed), K (463-2821 mg/100 g seed), Fe (1133-2400 mg.kg-1), Mn (63-110 mg.kg-1) and Zn (42-94 mg.kg-1). For the soil the following macroelements concentrations were determined: Ca (2100-2520 mg.kg-1), Mg (320-376 mg.kg-1) and K (232-257 mg.kg-1). Mn (156-197 mg.kg-1) and Zn (54-67 mg.kg-1) remain within normal limits for Romania. The soils in the experience area contain large amounts of Fe (19000-20430 mg.kg-1). The presence of K in large quantities determines the accumulation of large quantities of Fe in the soil. Hempseed belonging to the five Romanian varieties are rich source of nutrients (Ca, Mg, K) and unsaturated oil easily digestible by the body, but the presence of Cd concentrations above the upper limit puts a question mark over the use of seeds in various food products. Hemp extracts easily certain metals from the soil. Significant amounts of Fe (1133-2400 mg.kg-1), Mn (63-110 mg.kg-1), Zn (42-94 mg.kg-1) and Cd (1.3-4.0 mg.kg-1) are found in hemp seeds. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is included among plants suitable for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium, zinc and iron.

  7. Medicine Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    A reference guide to laws, rules, and regulations that govern medical practice in New York State is presented. After an overview of professional regulation in the state, licensing requirements/procedures for medicine are described including education and postgraduate training requirements, state licensing examinations, and application…

  8. Medicine Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    New York State education law, rules, and regulations concerning the practice of medicine are presented, along with requirements and procedures for obtaining licensure and first registration as a physician. State statutory provisions cover: duration and registration of a license, practice and regulation of the profession, supervision by the Board…

  9. [Disaster medicine].

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, J A; Badosa, A M; Usandizaga, I; Zurita, M; Muñoz, J

    1989-01-01

    The authors have reviewed the concept of catastrophe from the health care stand-point as well as, that concerning medicine in catastrophies. The basic outlines for planning adequate health care when a massive number of victims have to be attended are pointed-out as well as, the prevention means for possible flare ups of transmissible diseases.

  10. Medicinal Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  11. Maritime Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, J. Worth

    1996-01-01

    Presents a fascinating look at the practice of medicine aboard commercial and military ships in the 18th and early 19th centuries. Contemporary medical practice believed all diseases were created by one of four "humors." In spite of this, and the constant presence of disease, most seamen led relatively healthy lives. (MJP)

  12. Medicine Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    New York State education law, rules, and regulations concerning the practice of medicine are presented, along with requirements and procedures for obtaining licensure and first registration as a physician. State statutory provisions cover: duration and registration of a license, practice and regulation of the profession, supervision by the Board…

  13. Medicine Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    A reference guide to laws, rules, and regulations that govern medical practice in New York State is presented. After an overview of professional regulation in the state, licensing requirements/procedures for medicine are described including education and postgraduate training requirements, state licensing examinations, and application…

  14. Nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-10-17

    In 1985 and 1986 nuclear medicine became more and more oriented toward in vov chemistry, chiefly as a result of advances in positron emission tomography (PET). The most important trend was the extension of PET technology into the care of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and heart disease. A second trend was the increasing use of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

  15. Medicinal Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  16. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2010-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2010 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2009 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. National reserves information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported reserves information carried for years without alteration because no new information is available; historically reported reserves reduced by the amount of historical production; and company reported reserves. International minerals availability studies conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM), before 1996, and estimates of identified resources by an international collaborative effort (the

  17. Why Mineral Interfaces Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnis, Andrew; Putnis, Christine V.

    2015-04-01

    While it is obvious that reactions between a mineral and an aqueous solution take place at the mineral-fluid interface it is only relatively recently that high spatial resolution studies have demonstrated how the local structure of the mineral surface and the chemical composition of the fluid at the interface control both the short-range and the long-range consequences of mineral-fluid interaction. Long-range consequences of fluid-mineral interaction control element cycles in the earth, the formation of ore-deposits, the chemical composition of the oceans through weathering of rocks and hence climate changes. Although weathering is clearly related to mineral dissolution, to what extent do experimentally measured dissolution rates of minerals help to understand weathering, especially weathering mechanisms? This question is related to the short-range, local reactions that take place when a mineral, that is not stable in the fluid, begins to dissolve. In this case the fluid composition at the interface will become supersaturated with respect to a different phase or phases. This may be a different composition of the same mineral e.g. a Ca-rich feldspar dissolving in a Na-rich solution results in a fluid at the interface which may be supersaturated with respect to an Na-rich feldspar. Alternatively, the interfacial fluid could be supersaturated with respect to a different mineral e.g. an Na-rich zeolite, depending on the temperature. Numerous experiments have shown that the precipitation of a more stable phase at the mineral-fluid interface results in a coupling between the dissolution and the precipitation, and the replacement of one mineral by another. This process separates the short-range mechanisms which depend only on the composition of the interfacial solution, and the long-range consequences that depend on the composition of the residual fluid released from the reacting parent mineral. Typically such residual fluids may carry metal ions tens to hundreds of

  18. Minerals yearbook, 1993. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This edition of the Mineral Yearbook discusses the performance of the worlwide minerals and materials industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume 1, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on survey methods with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals, and a chapters on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are also included.

  19. Minerals Yearbook, centennial edition 1981. Volume I. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook Marks the centennial of the first annual publication of comprehensive mineral industry statistics by the Federal Government. This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 71 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  20. Mineral facilities of Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  1. Elastic properties of minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, K.S.; Prodaivoda, G.T.

    1993-09-01

    Investigations of the elastic properties of the main rock-forming minerals were begun by T.V. Ryzhova and K.S. Aleksandrov over 30 years ago on the initiative of B.P. Belikov. At the time, information on the elasticity of single crystals in general, and especially of minerals, was very scanty. In the surveys of that time there was information on the elasticity of 20 or 30 minerals. These, as a rule, did not include the main rock-forming minerals; silicates were represented only by garnets, quartz, topaz, tourmaline, zircon, beryl, and staurolite, which are often found in nature in the form of large and fairly high-quality crystals. Then and even much later it was still necessary to prove a supposition which now seems obvious: The elastic properties of rocks, and hence the velocities of elastic (seismic) waves in the earth`s crust, are primarily determined by the elastic characteristics of the minerals composing these rocks. Proof of this assertion, with rare exceptions of mono-mineralic rocks (marble, quartzite, etc.) cannot be obtained without information on the elasticities of a sufficiently large number of minerals, primarily framework, layer, and chain silicates which constitute the basis of most rocks. This also served as the starting point and main problem of the undertakings of Aleksandrov, Ryzhova, and Belikov - systematic investigations of the elastic properties of minerals and then of various rocks. 108 refs., 7 tabs.

  2. The relevance of paternity analysis in Romanian population using the D1S80 locus.

    PubMed

    Ceacăreanu, A C; Ceacăreanu, B

    1999-01-01

    At present, DNA fingerprinting for human identification and paternity testing is a necessary and usual procedure. D1S80 is one of the best known polymorphic loci showing a VNTR, and exhibiting a high heterozygosity. This genetic locus, with a Tsp 509 I polymorphism of its 5' flanking sequence (1, 9), have been successfully amplified from human genomic DNA isolated from blood. The Tsp 509 I polymorphism was detected by restriction after PCR amplification. We tested the relevance of paternity analysis using the D1S80 locus considering the allele frequency distribution characteristic for our country. Paternal and maternal bands were compared with the children's DNA patterns. Our data include a comparison between D1S80 alleles amplified from mother, child and the supposed father for three tested families. This study was the first of this type made in Romania. We concluded a good power of discrimination and exclusion for this locus. It can be used successfully in the case of subtypes with low frequencies, and this is frequent for our population because of the high heterozygosity of D1S80 subtypes in Romanian population. We recommend the D1S80 use for exclusion paternity tests in Romanian population, as a very useful molecular tool, but we also recommend a complete set of molecular markers for confirmation paternity test in the same population.

  3. Identification and prevalence of swine pasivirus 1 in eastern Romanian pig farms.

    PubMed

    Zaulet, Mihaela; Petrovan, Vlad; Birladeanu, Andrada M; Stoian, Ana Maria M; Kevorkian, Steliana E M; Nichita, Cornelia; Eloit, Marc; Buburuzan, Laura

    2017-05-01

    Swine pasivirus 1 (SPaV-1) was first detected in the feces of healthy pigs in France as a new species in family Picornaviridae. We investigated the presence, distribution, and genetic variability of this virus in 7 geographic areas with intensive pig breeding farms in eastern Romania. A total of 564 porcine specimens, including 82 fecal specimens and 482 pools of organs, were collected from healthy pigs in different stages of production from pathogen-free swine farming units. The virus was found in 6 of 7 areas investigated. Of the 564 samples analyzed, 218 were positive for SPaV-1, with the highest prevalence of the virus in organ homogenates (39% positive) followed by feces (37% positive). The highest susceptibility to infection was found in nurseries (50% positive in both the first and second months of feeding). Sequencing analysis of VP0 revealed 3 different Romanian sequences. The phylogenetic investigations suggest that the Romanian sequences cluster with other Pasivirus strains selected from the GenBank database, forming a separate clade from other Picornaviridae genera and defining the described Pasivirus.

  4. Barriers to the provision of smoking cessation assistance: a qualitative study among Romanian family physicians

    PubMed Central

    Panaitescu, Catalina; Moffat, Mandy A; Williams, Siân; Pinnock, Hilary; Boros, Melinda; Oana, Cristian Sever; Alexiu, Sandra; Tsiligianni, Ioanna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Smoking cessation is the most effective intervention to prevent and slow down the progression of several respiratory and other diseases and improve patient outcomes. Romania has legislation and a national tobacco control programme in line with the World Health Organization Framework for Tobacco Control. However, few smokers are advised to quit by their family physicians (FPs). Aim: To identify and explore the perceived barriers that prevent Romanian FPs from engaging in smoking cessation with patients. Methods: A qualitative study was undertaken. A total of 41 FPs were recruited purposively from Bucharest and rural areas within 600 km of the city. Ten FPs took part in a focus group and 31 participated in semistructured interviews. Analysis was descriptive, inductive and themed, according to the barriers experienced. Results: Five main barriers were identified: limited perceived role for FPs; lack of time during consultations; past experience and presence of disincentives; patients’ inability to afford medication; and lack of training in smoking cessation skills. Overarching these specific barriers were key themes of a medical and societal hierarchy, which undermined the FP role, stretched resources and constrained care. Conclusions: Many of the barriers described by the Romanian FPs reflected universally recognised challenges to the provision of smoking cessation advice. The context of a relatively hierarchical health-care system and limitations of time and resources exacerbated many of the problems and created new barriers that will need to be addressed if Romania is to achieve the aims of its National Programme Against Tobacco Consumption. PMID:25010432

  5. Sharper detection of winter temperature changes in the Romanian higher-elevations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croitoru, Adina-Eliza; Drignei, Dorin; Dragotă, Carmen Sofia; Imecs, Zoltan; Burada, Doina Cristina

    2014-11-01

    This paper investigates winter temperature trends in the Romanian higher-altitude areas, for three types of topographies: depression, slope and summit. The main challenge is that some winter temperature trends, by comparison with the other seasons, are milder and harder to detect. We used a change-point regression model with statistically dependent errors and compared it with a standard change-point model with independent errors. Statistical theory ensures that the former model gives a more accurate trend analysis than the latter. The model with statistically dependent errors detects change-points in the mid 70s and statistically significant increasing trends both before and after the change-point. On the other hand, the model with independent errors does not detect statistically significant increasing trends after the change-points for the winter series. These general results occur for all topography types. A separate multiple regression model reveals that the winter temperature trend changes in the Romanian higher-elevations can be described by a linear additive effect of several global atmospheric circulation patterns.

  6. Opinions and practices regarding electronic cigarette use among Romanian high school students.

    PubMed

    Lotrean, Lucia Maria; Varga, Bianca; Popa, Monica; Loghin, Cornel Radu; Man, Milena Adina; Trofor, Antigona

    2016-01-01

    The study assessed awareness, opinions, practices regarding electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and factors associated with their use among Romanian high school students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 in two major Romanian cities, distributing anonymous questionnaires to 342 high school students aged 16-18. 52.3% of the smokers, 29.2% of the ex-smokers and 7% of the never-smokers had tried e-cigarettes at least once in their life; 7.8% of the smokers and 4.6% of the ex-smokers had used e-cigarettes in the last month. Among smokers, e-cigarette use was associated with lower participation in school health education regarding e-cigarettes and with having parents using e-cigarettes.. Among ex-smokers and never-smokers, e-cigarette use was associated with intention to use e-cigarettes in the next year and with having friends who use e-cigarettes. Health education programmes and regulatory interventions addressing e-cigarettes are needed in Romania. More research is necessary on how to develop effective public health messages. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  7. Bilingual and Trilingual Codeswitching between Hungarian, Romanian and English in the Speech of Two Transylvanians Living in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Iulia

    2008-01-01

    This case study investigates the bilingual and trilingual codeswitching patterns of two multilinguals who grew up in a Hungarian-Romanian two-language family in Transylvania, and whose bilingual codeswitching changed into trilingual codeswitching after they moved to North America. An analysis of the speakers' discourse reveals the amounts of…

  8. Emotions on the Move: Belonging, Sense of Place and Feelings Identities among Young Romanian Immigrants in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcu, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the experiences in terms of belonging and sense of place among young Romanian immigrants who came to Spain in search of opportunities for professional development. The research detects and analyses the process of mobility, the search for job opportunities and the necessity of working below one's level of training or…

  9. Emotions on the Move: Belonging, Sense of Place and Feelings Identities among Young Romanian Immigrants in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcu, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the experiences in terms of belonging and sense of place among young Romanian immigrants who came to Spain in search of opportunities for professional development. The research detects and analyses the process of mobility, the search for job opportunities and the necessity of working below one's level of training or…

  10. Mitigating Effects of the Adoptive Caregiving Environment on Inattention/Overactivity in Children Adopted from Romanian Orphanages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audet, Karyn; Le Mare, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    We examined inattention/overactivity (I/O) over time and in relation to caregiving in three matched groups: (1) Romanian Orphans (RO) with a minimum of eight months' deprivation prior to adoption, (2) Early Adopted (EA) children adopted from Romania prior to age four months, and (3) Canadian Born (CB) non-adopted children. Comparisons among groups…

  11. Mitigating Effects of the Adoptive Caregiving Environment on Inattention/Overactivity in Children Adopted from Romanian Orphanages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audet, Karyn; Le Mare, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    We examined inattention/overactivity (I/O) over time and in relation to caregiving in three matched groups: (1) Romanian Orphans (RO) with a minimum of eight months' deprivation prior to adoption, (2) Early Adopted (EA) children adopted from Romania prior to age four months, and (3) Canadian Born (CB) non-adopted children. Comparisons among groups…

  12. Ghid Pentru Stabilirea Romanilor in Statele Unite = Resettlement Guide, Romanian. A Guide for Refugees Resettling in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC.

    The resettlement guide, in Romanian, describes the initial stage of resettlement and the processes that refugees undergo as new arrivals. The information is intended to prepare refugees for the first few weeks in an American community and to explain fundamental aspects of American life. An initial chapter outlines issues and procedures in…

  13. Dyadic Coping in an Eastern European Context: Validity and Measurement Invariance of the Romanian Version of Dyadic Coping Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusu, Petruta P.; Hilpert, Peter; Turliuc, Maria N.; Bodenmann, Guy

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the psychometric properties of the Romanian version of the Dyadic Coping Inventory with data from 510 married couples. The results confirm the theoretical factorial structure of the Dyadic Coping Inventory for both partners, indicating convergent validity, discriminate validity, and measurement invariance (across genders…

  14. Dyadic Coping in an Eastern European Context: Validity and Measurement Invariance of the Romanian Version of Dyadic Coping Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusu, Petruta P.; Hilpert, Peter; Turliuc, Maria N.; Bodenmann, Guy

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the psychometric properties of the Romanian version of the Dyadic Coping Inventory with data from 510 married couples. The results confirm the theoretical factorial structure of the Dyadic Coping Inventory for both partners, indicating convergent validity, discriminate validity, and measurement invariance (across genders…

  15. A Comparison of the Turkish and Romanian Students' Willingness to Communicate and Its Affecting Factors in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asmali, Mehmet; Bilki, Ufuk; Duban, Carina Adriana

    2015-01-01

    The present study attempts to offer a small-scale investigation of the willingness to communicate and its key antecedents, namely the self-perceived communication competence and the communication apprehension in Turkish and Romanian contexts. A total of 130 participants took part in this quantitative approach based study. The data suggested…

  16. Psychometric Evaluation of Romanian Translations of the "Behavior Problems Inventory-01" and the "Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mircea, Camelia E.; Rojahn, Johannes; Esbensen, Anna J.

    2010-01-01

    Psychometric properties of Romanian translations of the "Behavior Problems Inventory-01" ("BPI-01"; Rojahn, Matson, Lott, Esbensen, & Smalls, 2001) and the "Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form" ("NCBRF"; Aman, Tasse, Rojahn, & Hammer, 1996) were explored. Respondents completed the instruments for 115…

  17. The Shift towards Family Reunification in Romanian Child Welfare Policy: An Analysis of Changing Forms of Governmental Intervention in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the transition in Romanian child welfare policy from a paternalistic attitude of taking responsibility for "abandoned" children to a capitalist orientation of reinstating responsibility for "abandoned" children to the private sphere. While this shift in child policy is often seen to reflect a withdrawal of…

  18. Definitions of Health Terms: Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/definitions/mineralsdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms : Minerals To use the sharing features on this page, ... National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Minerals Minerals are those elements on the earth and ...

  19. Mineral resources of Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Compiled and edited by Wright, Nancy A.; Williams, Paul L.

    1974-01-01

    Although the existence of mineral deposits in Antarctica is highly probable, the chances of finding them are quite small. Minerals have been found there in great variety but only as occurrences. Manganese nodules, water (as ice), geothermal energy, coal, petroleum, and natural gas are potential resources that could perhaps be exploited in the future. On the basis of known mineral occurrences in Antarctica and relationships between geologic provinces of Antarctica and those of neighboring Gondwana continents, the best discovery probability for a base-metal deposit in any part of Antarctica is in the Andean orogen; it is estimated to be 0.075 (75 chances in 1,000).

  20. Detection of changes in snow line elevation from MODIS imagery in the Romanian Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micu, Mihai; Micu, Dana; Sandric, Ionut; Mihalache, Sorin

    2015-04-01

    Mountain snow cover is particularly sensitive to the observed shifts in the regime of its two determinants (air temperature and precipitation), in response to climate warming. The climate of the Romanian Carpathians became warmer particularly in winter, spring and summer, exibiting an increasing frequency of hot extremes and a decrease of freezing days. There is also an obvious trend towards a late snowpack onset in Autumn, more evident in the areas below 1,700 m, and towards an earlier Spring snowmelting, generalized across the entire region. The observed changes in the timing of snowmelt due to milder winters, are explaining most of the decline of snow cover duration in the areas below 2,000 m. Snow line, separating snow covered from snow free areas, is considered a key indicator for monitoring the changes in snow coverage under the changing climate behavior. This study aims at deriving and analysing the changes in snowline elevation (SLE) using the multi-temporal Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) reflectance products (MYD10 and MOD10 daily and 8-day composite) and a high-resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the Romanian Carpathians (30 m). The changes in SLE were analyzed in relation to the shifts in freezing height (FH) across the Romanian Carpathians, derived from MYD11A1, MYD11A2, MOD11A1 and MOD11A2 daily and 8-day composite products, available at a spatial resolution of 1 km. Python batch scripts using Esri ArcPy were developed and applied to download, subset, reproject and mask each MODIS product. The analyses were focused on producing and using daily and 8-day composites time series from both Terra and Aqua MODIS products for a period of about 12 years, starting from 2002 up to present day. The variability of snow cover persistence was investigated at both monthly and seasonal time steps, allowing to identify the trends in SLE and FH, as well as the changes in the timing of snow melt across the region. The paper is revealing the

  1. Snow line analysis in the Romanian Carpathians under the influence of winter warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micu, Dana; Cosmin Sandric, Ionut

    2013-04-01

    The Romanian Carpathians are subject to winter warming as statistically proved by station measurements over a 47 year period (1961-2007). Herein, the snow season is considered to last from the 1st of November to the 30th of April, when snowpack usually reaches the highest stability and thickness. This paper investigates the signals of winter temperature and precipitation change at 17 mountain station located above 1,000 m, as being considered the main triggering factors of large fluctuations in snow amount and duration in these mountains. Fewer snowfalls were recorded all over the Romanian Carpathians after the mid 80s and over large mountain areas (including the alpine ones) the frequency of positive temperature extremes became higher (e.g. winter heat waves). Late Fall snowfalls and snowpack onsets (mainly in mid elevation areas, located below 1,700 m) and particularly the shifts towards early Spring snowmelts (at all the sites) were statistically proved to explain the decline of snow cover duration across the Carpathians. However, the sensitivity of snow cover duration to recent winter warming is still blurred in the high elevation areas (above 2,000 m). The trends in winter climate variability observed in the Romanian Carpathians beyond 1,000 m altitude are fairly comparable to those estimated in other European mountain ranges from observational data (e.g. the Swiss Alps, the French Alps and the Tatra Mts.). In relation to the climate change signals derived from observational data provided by low density mountain meteorological network (of about 3.3 stations per km2 in the areas above 1,000 m), the paper analysis the spatial probability and evolution trends of snow line in each winter season across the Romanian Carpathians, based on Landsat satellite data (MSS, TM and ETM+), with sufficiently high spatial (30 to 60 m) and temporal resolutions (850 images), over the 1973-2011 period. The Landsat coverage was considered suitable enough to enable an objective

  2. The importance of a border: Medical, veterinary, and wild food ethnobotany of the Hutsuls living on the Romanian and Ukrainian sides of Bukovina.

    PubMed

    Sõukand, Renata; Pieroni, Andrea

    2016-06-05

    applications and less in the taxa used. The influence of the Soviet State Pharmacopeia on present ethnomedicine on the Ukrainian side is minimal. Hutsul herbal ethnomedicine on the Ukrainian side of the border has continued to evolve (the abandonment of some uses and the adoption of others), whereas on the Romanian side it has undergone significant erosion with a proportionally smaller adoption of new uses and the leaving behind of possibly more "traditional" uses than on the Ukrainian side. In sum, current ethnomedicinal practices of Hutsuls living on both sides of the border are more extensive than those reported in historical sources. Yet the unknown sampling method employed to collect the historical data and possible skipping of "ordinary" uses by folklorists and ethnographers does not allow for definitive conclusions to be drawn. Cross-cultural and cross-border ethnobotany represents one of the most powerful means for addressing the issue of change and variability of medicinal plant uses and heritage, and further studies in other areas of Eastern Europe and beyond need to address the trajectory proposed by the present study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Minerals Management Service: Strategic plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-30

    This plan addresses the management of the mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf in an environmentally sound and safe manner and the timely collection, verification, and distribution of mineral revenues from Federal and Indian lands. The Minerals Management Service (MMS) manages the Nation`s natural gas, oil and other mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), and collects, accounts for, and disburses revenues from offshore federal mineral leases and from onshore mineral leases on Federal and Indian lands.

  4. [Theriac: medicine and antidote].

    PubMed

    Parojcic, Dusanka; Stupar, Dragan; Mirica, Milica

    2003-06-01

    Theriac was an ancient multi-ingredient preparation; originating as a cure for the bites of serpents, mad dogs and wild beasts, it later became an antidote to all known poisons. The name theriac (treacle), (Greek theriake, Latin theriaca, French thériaque) was derived from the Greek for wild beast - theriakos. The first formula was created by Mithridates Vl, King of Pontus, a skillful ruler but a monster of cruelty, who, living in such a fear of being poisoned, took a great interest in toxicology. In the 1st century AD, Nero's personal physician Andromachus improved the formula of Antidotum Mithridatium by adding flesh of vipers, which was commonly believed to be the best antidote against snakebite, and by increasing the proportion of opium. It became known as Theriac of Andromachus, and contained 64 ingredients including various minerals, herbals, poisons and animal flesh and blood, all combined with honey in the form of electuarium. Later it became the cure-all medicine which, accumulating all the simples into one form, was supposed to be a universal panacea against all diseases. In the Middle Ages this famous electuarium become a patent medicine and entered official dispensaries and pharmacopoeias. The most famous and expensive Theriac in Europe was that of Venice. It was not until the l8th century that it was excluded from medical use.

  5. Wilderness medicine.

    PubMed

    Townes, David Andrew

    2002-12-01

    Wilderness medicine is not a single entity. It encompasses clinical practice, instruction, and research as they pertain to wilderness settings. Clinical practice often takes place in removed settings far from traditional medical resources and facilities. Many of the conditions treated are unique to wilderness medicine. Decisions commonly are based on limited information. Practitioners of wilderness medicine must combine specialized training, resourcefulness, and improvisation. Instruction and research in wilderness medicine often are directed at clinical practice, with the focus on maximizing patient outcome. Preparation and planning are the best methods of reducing illness and injury; these involve conditioning and choosing clothing and equipment, including the medical kit. Conditioning should mimic the type of trip or activity, because choice will depend on the type, complexity, and duration of the trip, the anticipated environmental conditions, and specific needs of the group. Equipment should be designed for the type of activity, in good working condition, and familiar to the members of the group. The medical kit should include basic medical supplies, with additional supplies and equipment depending on the specific trip, the anticipated needs of the group, and their level of medical training and expertise. Once in the wilderness, the focus shifts from preparation and planning to prevention of illness and injury. This includes the use of safety equipment, appropriate shelter, water treatment, and location knowledge. The most common methods of water treatment are mechanical filters, chemicals, and heat. When an injury or illness does occur in the wilderness, proper assessment of the patient is essential to determine both the appropriate treatment and the need for evacuation to definitive care. This is best accomplished with an organized, systematic approach. The decision of what treatment should be initiated and if the patient requires evacuation to definitive

  6. Transfusion medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Murawski, K.; Peetoom, F.

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings contain 24 selections, including papers presented at the conference of American Red Cross held in May 1985, on the Subject of transfusion medicine. Some of the titles are: Fluosol/sup R/-DA in Radiation Therapy; Expression of Cloned Human Factor VIII and the Molecular Basis of Gene Defects that Cause Hemophilia; DNA-Probing Assay in the Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Genome in Human Peripheral Blood Cells; and Monoclonal Antibodies: Convergence of Technology and Application.

  7. [Travel medicine].

    PubMed

    Schubert, S; Grimm, M

    2009-07-01

    Travel medicine deals with travellers' diseases. The target group is therefore distinct from tropical medicine. It has gained in significance due to the increase in tourism and professional work abroad in the last 50 years. Dangerous and widespread diseases in tropical countries, in particular tropical malaria, have come into focus in industrialized countries because of their appearance in travellers. Travel medicine deals not only with infectious or transmittable diseases, but also with the ability of patients with chronic diseases to travel, the medical aspects of flying, as well as the health hazards of professional work or high-risk sports abroad. The risk of disease as a result of travelling can be minimized by advice and prophylactic measures, such as vaccinations and drug prophylaxis against malaria, if indicated. On return, medical symptoms should be investigated promptly to ensure early detection of life-threatening disease courses, particularly tropical malaria, as well as to prevent the occurrence of small-scale epidemics. A small number of diseases can also emerge after several years, such as benign types of malaria, amoebic liver abscess and visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). Aids also belongs to these diseases. Therefore, in this era of HIV pandemic travellers concerned should be made aware of the risks.

  8. Medicine safety and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep purses or bags containing medicine on a high shelf, out of reach. Get rid of any old or expired medicines. Call your city government and ask where you can drop off unused medicines. DO NOT flush medicines down ...

  9. ADHD Medicines (for Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Kids > ADHD Medicines A A A ... doctor can decide if ADHD medicine is needed. Medicine and the Mind There are a lot of ...

  10. Biological effects of minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr.

    1991-09-01

    In general, clay materials exhibit a range of biological activities, from apparently inactive or slightly active, such as hematite, to highly fibrogenic and carcinogenic, such as fibrous brucite (nemalite). The zeolites also exhibit such as range, with some mordenite being slightly active and erionite being highly active; however, erionite is the only zeolite that has been studied extensively. The diversity of mineral species holds great potential for probing these mechanisms, especially when mineralogical data are integrated with biological data. Unfortunately, many of the studies reporting data on the biological effects of clays and zeolites fail to report detailed mineralogical information; hence, it is difficult at present to interpret the biological activities of minerals in terms of their physical and chemical properties. Important mineralogical data that are only rarely considered in biological research include exact mineralogy of the specimen (i.e., identification and abundance of contaminants), physical and chemical properties of minerals, and surface properties of minerals. 141 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  11. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, B.M.; Turney, W.R. |

    1995-06-01

    This paper briefly lists the various literature reviews dealing with (a) Environmental regulations and impacts, and (b) Characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation, with respect to minerals and mine drainage. 47 refs.

  12. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, B.M.; Turney, W.R.

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of wastewater related to minerals and mine drainage. Topics covered include: environmental regulations and impacts; and characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation. 65 refs.

  13. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... vitamins or minerals. You can also satisfy your taste buds without sacrificing nutrition while eating out: Vegetable ... breakfast cereals. Vegans (vegetarians who eat no animal products at all, including dairy products) may need to ...

  14. Australian Mineral Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides details on the philosophy and operation of the Australian Mineral Foundation, established in 1970 to update professionals in the mining and petroleum industries. Services in continuing education courses and to secondary school teachers and students are described. (CS)

  15. Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam L.

    2000-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences Committee on Space Biology and Medicine points out that space medicine is unique among space sciences, because in addition to addressing questions of fundamental scientific interest, it must address clinical or human health and safety issues as well. Efforts to identify how microgravity affects human physiology began in earnest by the United States in 1960 with the establishment of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA's) Life Sciences program. Before the first human space missions, prediction about the physiological effects of microgravity in space ranged from extremely severe to none at all. The understanding that has developed from our experiences in space to date allows us to be guardedly optimistic about the ultimate accommodations of humans to space flight. Only by our travels into the microgravity environment of space have we begun to unravel the mysteries associated with gravity's role in shaping human physiology. Space medicine is still at its very earliest stages. Development of this field has been slow for several reasons, including the limited number of space flights, the small number of research subjects, and the competition within the life sciences community and other disciplines for flight opportunities. The physiological changes incurred during space flight may have a dramatic effect on the course of an injury or illness. These physiological changes present an exciting challenge for the field of space medicine: how to best preserve human health and safety while simultaneously deciphering the effects of microgravity on human performance. As the United States considers the future of humans in long-term space travel, it is essential that the many mysteries as to how microgravity affects human systems be addressed with vigor. Based on the current state of our knowledge, the justification is excellent indeed compelling- for NASA to develop a sophisticated capability in space medicine. Teams of physicians

  16. Fluorescent minerals, a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Modreski, P.J.; Aumente-Modreski, R.

    1996-01-01

    Fluorescent minerals are more than just an attractive novelty, and collecting them is a speciality for thousands of individuals who appreciate their beauty, rarity, and scientific value. Fluorescent properties can be used as an aid to mineral identification, locality determination, and distinction between natural and synthetic gemstones. This article gives an overview of those aspects of fluorescence that are of most interest to collectors, hobbyists, and mineralogists. -from Authors

  17. [Synthetic mineral fibers].

    PubMed

    Boillat, M A

    1999-03-27

    The group of man-made mineral fibres includes slagwool, glasswool, rockwool, glass filaments and microfibres, as well as refractory ceramic fibres. The toxicity of mineral fibres is determined by several factors such as the diameter (< or = 3-3.5 microns) and the length of the fibres (< 100 microns), their biopersistence, which is much shorter for man-made mineral fibres than for asbestos fibres, their physicochemical structure and surface properties, and the exposure level. The chemical composition of the various types of man-made mineral fibres depends directly on the raw material used to manufacture them. While naturally occurring fibres are crystalline in structure, most man-made mineral fibres are amorphous silicates combined with various metal oxides and additives. Observations using intracavitary administration have provided evidence that some types of man-made mineral fibres are bioactive in cellular and animal experiments and may induce lung tumours and mesothelioma. It is difficult to extrapolate these results to humans since they bypass inhalation, deposition, clearance and translocation mechanisms. Inhalation studies show more realistic results but differences are observed between animal species regarding their sensibility to tumours. There is no firm evidence that exposure to various wools is associated with lung fibrosis, pleural lesions or nonspecific respiratory disease in humans. A possible exception may be mentioned for refractory ceramic fibres. A slightly elevated standard mortality ratio for lung cancer has been documented in large cohorts of workers (USA, Europe and Canada) exposed to man-made mineral fibres, especially in the early technological phase. It is not possible to determine from these data whether the risk of lung cancer is due to the man-made mineral fibres themselves, in particular due to the lack of data on smoking habits. No increased risk of mesothelioma has been demonstrated in these cohorts. Epidemiological data are

  18. Minerals: the resource gap

    SciTech Connect

    Velocci, T.

    1980-10-01

    US imports of important non-fuel minerals may have contributed to a false sense of security that could have serious economic and defense consequences. Imports account for over 90 percent of the chromite, manganese ore, and cobalt, and 90 percent of the platinum group metals. The primary sources for many of these minerals are the Soviet Union and Africa, a price and supply vulnerability which rivals Middle East oil and of which the American public is unaware. The Soviet shift to a net minerals importer will intensify competition for minerals and could lead to confrontation. The decline in US mineral production is blamed on escalating costs, largely from regulations, that prevent plant and equipment modernization and land withdrawal policies. A strategic stockpile planned for over 90 materials was established in 1939 for defense purposes, but eratic goals and planning as well as economic changes have kept the plan from being implemented. The first steps of an appropriate policy would promote domestic minerals production and open up Federal lands for exploration and development. (DCK)

  19. Mineral commodity summaries 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2013 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2012 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2013 are welcomed.

  20. Mineral commodity summaries 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2013 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2014 are welcomed.

  1. Biomineralization of magnetic minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskowitz, Bruce M.

    1995-07-01

    New developments and discoveries in biomineralization have occurred almost continuously in the intervening decade since the previous IUGG quadrennial report on biomineralization and biomagnetism was published [Kirschvink, 1983]. Biomineralization is widespread in the biosphere and over 60 different inorganic minerals are produced by a variety of organisms from bacteria to humans [Lowenstam and Weiner, 1989]. The literature on biomineralization is interdisplinary, combining research in microbiology, biotechnology, physics, geology, and paleomagnetism. For paleomagnetism and rock magnetism, iron biomineralization of magnetic minerals is of prime importance. From a paleomagnetism perspective, biogenic magnetic minerals can be deposited in sediments and acquire a natural remanent magnetization that preserves a record of the ancient geomagnetic field. From a rock magnetism perspective, biogenic magnetic minerals provide novel sources of magnetic material for experimental studies in fine particle magnetism. Both perspectives are interrelated through a common goal of developing magnetic techniques to detect biogenic magnetic minerals in sediments and soils. For example, the extent to which iron biominerals contribute to the fine-grained magnetic mineral assemblages in freshwater and marine sediments is important for identifying and interpreting the magnetic record of environmental change [Oldfield, 1992; Reynolds and King, this issue].

  2. Minerals yearbook, 1982. volume 1. metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 73 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  3. Minerals yearbook, 1983. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 73 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  4. Minerals Yearbook, 1989. Volume i. Metals and Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide mineral industry during 1989 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on advanced materials also has been added to the Minerals Yearbook series beginning with the 1989 volume. In addition, a chapter on survey methods used in data collection with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are included.

  5. [Psychiatric medicine].

    PubMed

    Ibañez Dominguez, J

    1984-06-01

    The author, after a short historical introduction which shows the Medicine, especially the Neurology, as the predecessor of the Psychiatry, intents to relate in a theorico-practical way the anxiety and the depression within a bio-chemical and endocrinological frame. He presents the hipo and hipercalcemia signals and symptoms demonstrating with a casuistic from his clinical practice the similitude between anxiety and depression respectively. Finally he realizes a theorical analysis about the investigations published over the AMP-ciclic and infers about the hormonal interference and the clinical data linked with the manic-depressive disease.

  6. Vitamin D Status: A Different Story in the Very Young versus the Very Old Romanian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Socolov, Demetra; Haivas, Carmen; Calapiș, Anca; Gheorghiu, Cristina; Puiu, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background In Romania (latitude 48°15’N to 43°40’N), vitamin D supplementation is common practice mostly in infants 0-1 year old. No published information is available regarding epidemiological data on vitamin D status in the Romanian population for a wide age range and geographical territory. In this context, we aimed to evaluate the seasonal and age variation of vitamin D status in a large Romanian population. Methods 6631 individuals from across Romania had performed 7544 vitamin D assessments (2012-2014) in a chain of private laboratories. Vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3) was measured using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Vitamin D levels were classified as severe deficiency<10ng/mL, deficiency 10-20ng/mL, insufficiency 21-29ng/mL, sufficiency≥30ng/mL and potentially harmful>100ng/ml. Results Male to female ratio was 1:2.9. Age ranged from 0 to 85 years. Mean vitamin D levels increased from April (26.3ng/ml) to September (35.6ng/ml) and decreased from October (33.5ng/ml) to March (24.4 ng/ml). Overall 40% had sufficient vitamin D, while the rest were insufficient 33%, deficient 22%, severely deficient 4% and 1% potentially harmful (of them 81% under 1 year old). Males compared to females showed higher percentages of sufficiency (47% vs. 38%). Children 0- 2 years presented the highest percentage of vitamin D sufficiency (77%). Lowest percentages (21%) of sufficiency were in people 80-84 years. Conclusion In Romania, suboptimal vitamin D levels are common (59%), especially in older age, wintertime and in women. Vitamin D supplementation would be most warranted from January to April in the Romanian population. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels>100ng/ml were relatively prevalent in children 0-1 year old (17.3%). This was attributed to supplementation errors and the fact that high-risk individuals were more likely to visit for medical check-up. Nonetheless, it stresses the need to increase awareness of the importance of preventing

  7. Linking glacial deposits and lake sediments for paleoclimate studies in the Northern Romanian Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamosteanu, Andrei; Mindrescu, Marcel; Anselmetti, Flavio; Akçar, Naki; Lowick, Sally E.; Vogel, Hendrik

    2015-04-01

    Timing and extent of glaciations in the Carpathian mountains are still controversely discussed, mostly due to the lack of well dated geomorphological and geochronological studies. We present the preliminary results of geomorphological and sedimentological analyses of glacial and lacustrine deposits in Bistricioara Valley located in the Rodna Mountains (Northern Romanian Carpathians). Most of the glacial deposits in the Romanian Carpathians, such as moraines, typically occur above 1600 m a.s.l. marking the maximum lowering of past glaciations. Most of the glacial lakes occur between 1800 and 2000 m a.s.l. Field surveys included mapping of moraines and erratic boulders using detailed topographical maps and aerial photos. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was derived using GIS (ArcMap 10.1) from 1:25000 topographic maps, which was further completed by field survey data. The resulting geomorphological map shows a series of moraines, which indicate the occurrence of several glacial phases in the study area. Sediment samples were collected from a peat bog (1630 m a.s.l.) dammed by a large lateral moraine within Bistricioara Mare, one of the largest glacial cirques in the Romanian Carpathians. A Russian corer was used to extract the sediment profile from the peat bog (approx. 5 m long sediment core). A X-ray computed tomography (CT) system was employed for the study of sedimentary and deformation structures and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) for multi-element analysis at high resolution. Glacial deposits from the lateral moraine in front of the peat bog were also sampled, as well as from the frontal moraines, upstream and downstream of the peat bog. This set of samples from multiple archives allows to link and merge the chronologies and the paleoenvironmental records of glacial deposits and lake sediments. Moreover, we employed cosmogenic nuclide dating for the reconstruction of glacial stages and their paleoclimatic implications during deglaciation in this area of

  8. Space-time analysis of snow cover change in the Romanian Carpathians (2001-2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micu, Dana; Cosmin Sandric, Ionut

    2017-04-01

    Snow cover is recognized as an essential climate variable, highly sensitive to the ongoing climate warming, which plays an important role in regulating mountain ecosystems. Evidence from the existing weather stations located above 800 m over the last 50 years points out that the climate of the Romanian Carpathians is visibly changing, showing an ongoing and consistent warming process. Quantifying and attributing the changes in snow cover on various spatial and temporal scales have a great environmental and socio-economic importance for this mountain region. The study is revealing the inter-seasonal changes in the timing and distribution of snow cover across the Romanian Carpathians, by combining gridded snow data (CARPATCLIM dataset, 1961-2010) and remote sensing data (2001-2016) in specific space-time assessment at regional scale. The geostatistical approach applied in this study, based on a GIS hotspot analysis, takes advantage of all the dimensions in the datasets, in order to understand the space-time trends in this climate variable at monthly time-scale. The MODIS AQUA and TERRA images available from 2001 to 2016 have been processed using ArcGIS for Desktop and Python programming language. All the images were masked out with the Carpathians boundary. Only the pixels with snow have been retained for analysis. The regional trends in snow cover distribution and timing have been analysed using Space-Time cube with ArcGIS for Desktop, according with Esri documentation using the Mann-Kendall trend test on every location with data as an independent bin time-series test. The study aimed also to assess the location of emerging hotspots of snow cover change in Carpathians. These hotspots have been calculated using Getis-Ord Gi* statistic for each bin using Hot Spot Analysis implemented in ArcGIS for Desktop. On regional scale, snow cover appear highly sensitive to the decreasing trends in air temperatures and land surface temperatures, combined with the decrease in

  9. The performance of the stations of the Romanian seismic network in monitoring the local seismic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardeleanu, Luminita Angela; Neagoe, Cristian

    2014-05-01

    The seismic survey of the territory of Romania is mainly performed by the national seismic network operated by the National Institute for Earth Physics of Bucharest. After successive developments and upgrades, the network consists at present of 123 permanent stations equipped with high quality digital instruments (Kinemetrics K2, Quantera Q330, Quantera Q330HR, PS6-24 and Basalt digitizers) - 102 real time and 20 off-line stations - which cover the whole territory of the country. All permanent stations are supplied with 3 component accelerometers (episenzor type), while the real time stations are in addition provided with broadband (CMG3ESP, CMG40T, KS2000, KS54000, KS2000, CMG3T, STS2) or short period (SH-1, S13, Mark l4c, Ranger, GS21, L22_VEL) velocity sensors. Several communication systems are currently used for the real time data transmission: an analog line in UHF band, a line through GPRS (General Packet Radio Service), a dedicated line through satellite, and a dedicated line provided by the Romanian Special Telecommunication Service. During the period January 1, 2006 - June 30, 2013, 5936 shallow depth seismic events - earthquakes and quarry blasts - with local magnitude ML ≥ 1.2 were localized on the Romanian territory, or in its immediate vicinity, using the records of the national seismic network; 1467 subcrustal earthquakes (depth ≥ 60 km) with magnitude ML ≥ 1.9 were also localized in the Vrancea region, at the bend of the Eastern Carpathians. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the individual contribution of the real time seismic stations to the monitoring of the local seismicity. The performance of each station is estimated by taking into consideration the fraction of events that are localised using the station records, compared to the total number of events of the catalogue, occurred during the time of station operation. Taking into account the nonuniform space distribution of earthquakes, the location of the site and the recovery

  10. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  11. Minerals yearbook, 1993. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. It contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on survey methods with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals, and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are also included.

  12. Minerals yearbook, 1994. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1994 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. The volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. The volume also contains chapters on Survey Methods, a Statistical Summary of Nonfuel Minerals, and Trends in Mining and Quarrying.

  13. Animal...Vegetable...or Mineral?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Eugene

    1973-01-01

    Outlines the problems facing the United States with mineral reserves being depleted, and the consumption of minerals outstripping production. Expresses concern about the deteriorating mineral position, and the ignorance and confusion of the public with respect to mineral production and supply, energy requirements, and environmental consequences.…

  14. Measuring the Hardness of Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushby, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses Moh's hardness scale, a comparative scale for minerals, whereby the softest mineral (talc) is placed at 1 and the hardest mineral (diamond) is placed at 10, with all other minerals ordered in between, according to their hardness. Development history of the scale is outlined, as well as a description of how the scale is used…

  15. Animal...Vegetable...or Mineral?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Eugene

    1973-01-01

    Outlines the problems facing the United States with mineral reserves being depleted, and the consumption of minerals outstripping production. Expresses concern about the deteriorating mineral position, and the ignorance and confusion of the public with respect to mineral production and supply, energy requirements, and environmental consequences.…

  16. Automated georeference of the 1: 20,000 Romanian maps under Lambert-Cholesky (1916-1959) projection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rus, I.; Balint, C.; Craciunescu, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Ovejanu, I.; Bartos-Elekes, Zs.

    2009-04-01

    Before the 1918 Union, the Romanian territories were subject of several dominations, for which reason the cartographic data base for each Romanian province was different from an area to another. Starting from the second half of the 19th century, Valachia, Moldavia and Dobrogea (Dacia Pontica or Scitia Minor) field mapping was made, implicitly cartographic representations, different as structure. The projection systems used, the chosen geoid, the nomenclature and the distribution of the map pages were not uniform. For an example, the Bessel ellipsoid and the Cassini cross cylindrical projection were used especially to the eastern side of the Zimnicea central meridian (23 degree east from Paris), while to its western side the Bonne conic equivalent projection was used, as defined on the Clarke ellipsoid (Năstase, 1975, pages 86-87). In the other Romanian provinces, such as Transylvania, Romanian Banat, Bessarabia (Moldavia Republic) and Southern Bucovina, the major part of the cartographic products (surface contour maps) were made as polyhedral projections. During the World War I, when artillery was a redoubtable weapon a necessary idea was born to articulate an unitary cartographic projection concerning the entire Romanian territory, which should respond to the principle of conformity. Between 1916-1917, pursuant to the above argumented measure, a new datum/location surface, a new projection system and a new nomenclature were introduced. The Lambert projection system was used as modified by the French land surveyor, the mathematician and officer Andre Louis Cholensky. He was born in 1875 in Mont Guyon and passed away on the battle field in Northern France in the month of August 1918. During September 1916 up to February 1918, following the Franco-Romanian military convention, he was a Commander of the Geographic Department of the Romanian Army (Brezinsky-Gross-Cholensky, 1996). The calculations for passing from the various projections (as previously mentioned

  17. American Strategic Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeYoung, John H., Jr.; Chidester, Alfred H.

    American Strategic Minerals is a collection of six papers that were presented in December 1982 at a conference organized by the Center for the Study of Marine Policy at the University of Delaware. According to editor Gerard J. Mangone, director of the center, the papers were commissioned “to investigate not only the objective resource situation, but also past United States policy on strategic minerals and future options open to Washington.” The authors and their chapter titles are John C. Kraft, University of Delaware: “Strategic minerals and world stability” V. Anthony Cammarota, Jr., U.S. Bureau of Mines: “America's dependence on strategic minerals” John D. Morgan, U.S. Bureau of Mines: “Future demands of the United States for strategic minerals” J. Robert Moore, University of Texas: “Alternative sources of strategic minerals from the seabed” Allan I. Mendelowitz and John E. Watson, U.S. General Accounting Office: “U.S. mining investments in developing countries” and James W. Curlin, Nautilus Press: “The political dimensions of strategic minerals.”

  18. Is there a universal understanding of vulnerability? Experiences with Russian and Romanian trainees in research ethics.

    PubMed

    Loue, Sana; Loff, Bebe

    2013-12-01

    Vulnerability of participants in research and the provision of special protections for vulnerable research participants are key concepts in research ethics. Despite international consensus requiring special protections for vulnerable research participants, both the concept of vulnerability and the nature and adequacy of strategies to reduce vulnerability remain vague and, consequently, are subject to varying interpretations. We report on observations of the challenges faced in understanding this key concept by 20 Russian and Romanian trainees participating in a one-year M.A. training program in research ethics from 2000 through 2011. We describe how trainees' understanding of and appreciation for the need for special protections of vulnerable research participants was nurtured. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center's International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development program.

  19. Determination of formaldehyde in Romanian cosmetic products using coupled GC/MS system after SPME extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feher, I.; Schmutzer, G.; Voica, C.; Moldovan, Z.

    2013-11-01

    In this study we have made a quick review of some Romanian cosmetic products (shampoo, conditioner, face wash) in order to determine the formaldehyde content as well as other substances called "formaldehyde releasers". The process was performed based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. Prior to SPME extraction we used a derivation step of formaldehyde using pentafluorophenyl hydrazine. The obtained product was adsorbed on SPME devices, then injected and desorbed into the GC/MS injection port. The concentration of formaldehyde (as derived compound) was calculated using calibration curve, having a regression coefficient of 0.9938. The performance parameters of the method were calculated using samples of standard concentration. The method proved to be sensitive, having a quantification limit (LOQ) of 0.15 μg/g.

  20. Are there biological programming effects for psychological development? Findings from a study of Romanian adoptees.

    PubMed

    Rutter, Michael; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2004-01-01

    Associations between experiences and outcomes could be due to (a) continuation of adversity or (b) organismic changes, including experience-expectant and experience-adaptive developmental programming. The adoption into British families of children who had been reared in profoundly depriving institutions in Romania presented an opportunity to test mechanisms. Romanian children reared from infancy in very depriving institutions for periods up to 42 months were compared with 52 nondeprived UK-born children placed into adoptive families before the age of 6 months. The results at 6 years of age showed substantial normal cognitive and social functioning after the provision of family rearing but also major persistent deficits in a substantial minority. The pattern of findings suggests some form of early biological programming or neural damage stemming from institutional deprivation, but the heterogeneity in outcome indicates that the effects are not deterministic.

  1. Is There a Universal Understanding of Vulnerability? Experiences with Russian and Romanian Trainees in Research Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Loue, Sana; Loff, Bebe

    2014-01-01

    Vulnerability of participants in research and the provision of special protections for vulnerable research participants are key concepts in research ethics. Despite international consensus requiring special protections for vulnerable research participants, both the concept of vulnerability and the nature and adequacy of strategies to reduce vulnerability remain vague and, consequently, are subject to varying interpretations. We report on observations of the challenges faced in understanding this key concept by 20 Russian and Romanian trainees participating in a one-year M.A. training program in research ethics from 2000 through 2011. We describe how trainees’ understanding of and appreciation for the need for special protections of vulnerable research participants was nurtured. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center's International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development program. PMID:24384513

  2. Green Clay Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velde, B.

    2003-12-01

    Color is a problem for scientific study. One aspect is the vocabulary one used to describe color. Mint green, bottle green, and Kelly green are nice names but not of great utility in that people's physical perception of color is not always the same. In some industries, such as colored fabric manufacture, current use is to send a set of standard colors which are matched by the producer. This is similar to the use of the Munsell color charts in geology. None of these processes makes use of physical optical spectral studies. The reason is that they are difficult to obtain and interpret. For a geologist, color is very important but we rarely have the possibility to standardize the method of our color perception. One reason is that color is both a reflective and transmission phenomenon. The thickness of the sample is critical to any transmission characteristics. Hence, a field color determination is different from one made by using a petrographic microscope. Green glauconite in a hand specimen is not the same color in 30 μm thick thin section seen with a microscope using transmitted light.A second problem is that color in a spectral identification is the result of several absorption emissions,with overlapping signal, forming a complicated spectrum. Interpretation depends very greatly on the spectrum of the light source and the conditions of transmission-reflection of the sample. As a result, for this text, we will not attempt to analyze the physical aspect of green in green clays. In the discussion which follows, reference is made concerning color, to thin section microscopic perception.Very briefly, green clay minerals are green, because they contain iron. This is perhaps not a great revelation to mineralogists, but it is the key to understanding the origin and stability of green clay minerals. In fact, iron can color minerals either red or green or in various shades of orange and brown. The color most likely depends upon the relative abundance of the iron ion valence

  3. Thorium in mineral products.

    PubMed

    Collier, D E; Brown, S A; Blagojevic, N; Soldenhoff, K H; Ring, R J

    2001-01-01

    Many ores contain low levels of thorium. When these ores are processed, the associated radioactivity can be found in mineral concentrates, intermediates and final products. There is an incentive for industries to remove radioactivity from mineral products to allow the movement and sale of these materials, both nationally and internationally, without the need for licensing. Control of thorium in various products involves the development and optimisation of process steps to be able to meet product specifications. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has undertaken a range of R & D programmes targeting the treatment of thorium-bearing minerals. This paper discusses the application of a microprobe technique for siting radioactivity in zircon and ilmenite and the problems experienced in measuring the concentrations in solid rare earth products.

  4. Mineral mining installations

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, G.; Wisniewski, P.

    1983-12-15

    A mineral mining installation serves to win mineral by explosive blasting. The installation employs a shuttle conveyor arranged alongside a mineral face. Roof supports stand side-by-side at the side of the conveyor remote from the conveyor. The roof supports are connected to the conveyor through shifting rams and have roof-engageable caps or the like supported on hydraulic props. The pans of the conveyor have upstanding walls at the rear side nearest the roof supports which carry rails at their upper ends. The roof caps have wall components pivoted thereto and hydraulic piston and cylinder units serve to swing the wall components up and down. When explosive blasting takes place the wall components are swung down to engage on the walls of the conveyor pans to form a screen between the winning region and the access region of the working.

  5. An Increasing Trend of Illicit Drug use among Romanian University Students from 1999 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    LOTREAN, Lucia Maria; SANTILLAN, Edna Arillo; THRASHER, James; LAZA, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Aim The present study investigates the evolution of illicit drug use among Romanian university students from 1999 to 2011. Methods The study was performed in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, in three phases: in 1999 (T1), in 2003 (T2) and in 2011 (T3). The study was carried out by means of anonymous questionnaires among university students aged 19–24. Results The results show that among girls the lifetime illicit drugs use increased statistically significantly from 2.5% in 1999 to 7.5% in 2003 and to 15% in 2011. Among boys the trend was also increasing, the prevalence of illicit drug use was 14.2% at T1, 18.1% at T2, and it increased dramatically to 30.6% at T3. The percentage of students reporting cannabis use was almost identical with the total prevalence of illicit drug use. Ecstasy was the second most frequent drug used by the students; its consumption had also an increasing trend during the examined periods (from 0 to 5.6% among girls and from 0.8% to 11.2% among boys). The results of the bivariate correlation analyses show that lifetime illicit drug use was associated with having friends who experimented with illicit drugs both among boys and girls. Moreover, girls who declared stress management problems and depressive episodes were more likely to try illicit drugs, while among boys illicit drug use was associated with poorer academic performance. Conclusions The data pointed out by our study call for comprehensive actions regarding the prevention of illicit drug use among Romanian young people. PMID:27647089

  6. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and birth outcomes in a sample of Romanian women.

    PubMed

    Meghea, Cristian I; Rus, Ioana A; Cherecheş, Răzvan M; Costin, Nicolae; Caracostea, Gabriela; Brinzaniuc, Alexandra

    2014-09-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is causally associated with reduced birth weight and is strongly related to preterm birth. Smoking cessation in early pregnancy seems to reduce these risks, although the research evidence is limited. In a sample of Romanian women, differences in birth outcomes were assessed between non-smokers and women who continued to smoke during pregnancy and non-smokers and women who stopped smok- ing when they found out about the pregnancy. Pregnant women were recruited in two urban clinics (N= 474). A baseline questionnaire collected information on their smoking status, depressive symptoms, stress, demographics, and other characteristics at recruitment. The women reported the newborn weight and birth term by phone in the first weeks following birth. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regressions were used to ana- lyze the relationship between smoking status during pregnancy and birth outcomes. Over 61% (N = 290) women were non-smokers, 15% (N= 72) smoked during pregnancy, and 24% (N= 112) quit smoking when they found out about the pregnancy. Compared to non-smokers, continuous smokers delivered babies 165 grams lighter (95% CI -313, -17). Women who stopped smoking when they ascertained the pregnancy had higher odds of delivering a newborn who was small for gestational age compared to non-smokers (OR= 2.16, 95% CI 1.05, 4.43). Elevated maternal stress was associated with reduced birth weight (-113 grams, 95% CI -213, -11), and higher odds of a preterm birth (OR=2.8, 95% CI 1.17, 6.76). In a predominantly urban sample of Romanian women, continuous maternal smoking during pregnancy was a risk factor for restricted foetal growth. Smoking cessation when the pregnancy was ascertained did not seem to reduce this risk. Smoking prevention efforts should therefore begin before pregnancy and should integrate psychological components, addressing maternal stress in particular.

  7. Romanian Experience for Enhancing Safety and Security in Transport of Radioactive Material - 12223

    SciTech Connect

    Vieru, Gheorghe

    2012-07-01

    The transport of Dangerous Goods-Class no.7 Radioactive Material (RAM), is an important part of the Romanian Radioactive Material Management. The overall aim of this activity is for enhancing operational safety and security measures during the transport of the radioactive materials, in order to ensure the protection of the people and the environment. The paper will present an overall of the safety and security measures recommended and implemented during transportation of RAM in Romania. Some aspects on the potential threat environment will be also approached with special referring to the low level radioactive material (waste) and NORM transportation either by road or by rail. A special attention is given to the assessment and evaluation of the possible radiological consequences due to RAM transportation. The paper is a part of the IAEA's Vienna Scientific Research Contract on the State Management of Nuclear Security Regime (Framework) concluded with the Institute for Nuclear Research, Romania, where the author is the CSI (Chief Scientific Investigator). The transport of RAM in Romania is a very sensible and complex problem taking into consideration the importance and the need of the security and safety for such activities. The Romanian Nuclear Regulatory Body set up strictly regulation and procedures according to the Recommendation of the IAEA Vienna and other international organizations. There were implemented the adequate regulation and procedures in order to keep the environmental impacts and the radiological consequences at the lower possible level and to assure the effectiveness of state nuclear security regime due to possible malicious acts in carrying out these activities including transport and the disposal site at the acceptable international levels. The levels of the estimated doses and risk expectation values for transport and disposal are within the acceptable limits provided by national and international regulations and recommendations but can increase

  8. Interpretive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the

  9. Minerals Yearbook 1989: Boron

    SciTech Connect

    Lyday, P.A.

    1990-08-01

    U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The United States continued to provide essentially all of its own supply while maintaining a strong position as a source of sodium borate products and boric acid exported to foreign markets. Supplementary U.S. imports of Turkish calcium borate and calcium-sodium borate ores, borax, and boric acid, primarily for various glass uses, continued.

  10. Advancements for continuous miners

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-06-15

    Design changes and new technology make the modern continuous miner more user friendly. Two of the major manufacturers, Joy Mining Machinery and DBT, both based near Pittsburgh, PA, USA, have recently acquired other OEMs to offer a greater product line. Joy's biggest development in terms of improving cutting time is the FACEBOSS Control System which has an operator assistance element and Joy Surface Reporting Software (JSRP). Joy's WetHead continuous miners have excellent performance. DBT is researching ways to make the machines more reliable with new drive systems. It has also been experimenting with water sprays to improve dust suppression. 4 photos.

  11. Mineral find highlights cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Heavy minerals with potential commercial value were discovered last month by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in seafloor deposits off the coasts of Virginia and Georgia. The USGS sent the research vessel J. W. Powell on a 25-day cruise along the East Coast to assess the concentrations of commercially important minerals in that segment of the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).Assistant Secretary of the Interior Robert Broadbent called the findings of the Powell “promising” and said they served as a “reminder of just how little we do know about the seafloor resources just a few miles offshore.”

  12. Minerals as ergogenic aids.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella Lucia

    2008-01-01

    Chromium, magnesium, zinc, and selenium are essential minerals for humans. They all are involved in a number of metabolic reactions in the body; many of these reactions are involved in energy metabolism, and hence it is thought that they may exert an ergogenic effect. However, the data on their effects as ergogenic aids have been equivocal. Longitudinal research is required (including supplementation studies) to follow athletes over time and properly evaluate effects of these minerals upon performance. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the ergogenic effects of chromium, magnesium, zinc, and selenium.

  13. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  14. Medicinal cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Murnion, Bridin

    2015-01-01

    Summary A number of therapeutic uses of cannabis and its derivatives have been postulated from preclinical investigations. Possible clinical indications include spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, cancer-associated nausea and vomiting, cancer pain and HIV neuropathy. However, evidence is limited, may reflect subjective rather than objective outcomes, and is not conclusive. Controversies lie in how to produce, supply and administer cannabinoid products. Introduction of cannabinoids therapeutically should be supported by a regulatory and educational framework that minimises the risk of harm to patients and the community. The Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014 is under consideration in Australia to address this. Nabiximols is the only cannabinoid on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods at present, although cannabidiol has been recommended for inclusion in Schedule 4. PMID:26843715

  15. Diving medicine.

    PubMed

    Benton, P J; Glover, M A

    2006-01-01

    Recreational diving developed in the late 1940s when self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) first became available for civilian use. At the same time the development of the commercial airliner, in particular the jet airliner, made possible the concept of international travel for pleasure as opposed to business. Over the past 50 years the number of international tourists has increased by over 2500% from a mere 25 million in 1950 to over 700 million in 2002 (Treadwell TL. Trends in travel. In: Zuckerman JN, editor. Principles and practice of travel medicine, 2001; p. 2-6). The popularity of recreational diving has also increased over the same period from an activity experienced by a small number of individuals in the early 1950s to an activity today enjoyed by many millions. The combination of increased international travel and the means by which to enter and explore the underwater world has led to diving becoming increasingly popular as a tourist activity.

  16. Medicinal cannabis.

    PubMed

    Murnion, Bridin

    2015-12-01

    A number of therapeutic uses of cannabis and its derivatives have been postulated from preclinical investigations. Possible clinical indications include spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, cancer-associated nausea and vomiting, cancer pain and HIV neuropathy. However, evidence is limited, may reflect subjective rather than objective outcomes, and is not conclusive. Controversies lie in how to produce, supply and administer cannabinoid products. Introduction of cannabinoids therapeutically should be supported by a regulatory and educational framework that minimises the risk of harm to patients and the community. The Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014 is under consideration in Australia to address this. Nabiximols is the only cannabinoid on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods at present, although cannabidiol has been recommended for inclusion in Schedule 4.

  17. Identification of Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Diane

    2005-01-01

    The lab described in this article was developed to satisfy two major goals. First, the activity is designed to show students the proper techniques used to identify the seven characteristics of all minerals. Second, the lab gives students a glimpse into the life of a professional field geologist. The author has students complete this lab at the end…

  18. New mineral physics panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The AGU Committee on Mineral Physics has formed itself into six panels. The committee chairman is Orson L. Anderson of the Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles; foreign secretary is Robert Liebermann, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, State University of New York, Stony Brook. The six panels are as follows.

  19. Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotomácio, J. G.; Silva, P. S. C.; Mazzilli, B. P.

    2008-08-01

    Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and 40K in these clay minerals. The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay. Measurement for the determination of 238U and 232Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906±340 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 40±9 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 75±9 Bq kg-1 for 228Ra, 197±38 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb, 51±26 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 55±24 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, considering both kinds of clay.

  20. Identification of Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Diane

    2005-01-01

    The lab described in this article was developed to satisfy two major goals. First, the activity is designed to show students the proper techniques used to identify the seven characteristics of all minerals. Second, the lab gives students a glimpse into the life of a professional field geologist. The author has students complete this lab at the end…

  1. Inland wetland mineral soils

    Treesearch

    Kimberly P. Wickland; Alex V. Krusche; Randall K. Kolka; Ayaka W. Kishimoto-Mo; Rodney A. Chimner; Stephen Ogle; Nalin. Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides supplementary guidance for estimating and reporting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals from managed lands with Inland Wetland Mineral Soils (IWMS) for all land-use categories (see Chapter 1 and decision tree in Chapter 1 in this supplement for what is specifically covered in this chapter in relationship to other chapters in this...

  2. Marine mineral resources

    SciTech Connect

    Fillmore, E.

    1990-01-01

    This book includes the following topics: law of the sea; minerals of the deep seabed; placers and subseabed metallics; industrial chemical materials and coal; the United State exclusive economic zone: the management challenge; and the United Kingdom and Norway: offshore petroleum development policies.

  3. First Report of Avian Metapneumovirus Subtype B Field Strain in a Romanian Broiler Flock During an Outbreak of Respiratory Disease.

    PubMed

    Franzo, Giovanni; Tucciarone, Claudia Maria; Enache, Mirel; Bejan, Violeta; Ramon, Gema; Koutoulis, Konstantinos C; Cecchinato, Mattia

    2017-06-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) represents one of the most prevalent diseases of turkey, especially in combination with other pathogens, and its frequency is also increasing among chickens. Despite this evidence, epidemiologic data are poor and scattered, severely preventing control of the disease even in highly developed areas such as Europe. In the present study, the detection and characterization of an aMPV subtype B strain circulating in a vaccinated but symptomatic Romanian broiler flock is reported for the first time. The phylogenetic analysis based on the partial G gene sequence demonstrates the close relationship of the Romanian virus with a group of recently emerged Italian field strains for which vaccine-induced protection was experimentally proven to be partial. These preliminary results allow us to hypothesize the spreading of vaccine-escaping aMPV subtype B strains through Europe and, consequently, dictate the carrying out of a more systematic survey to confirm this theory and enforce adequate countermeasures.

  4. MTRR polymorphism and the risk for colorectal and breast cancer in Romanian patients--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Burcoş, T; Toma, M; Stavarachi, M; Cimponeriu, D; Apostol, P; Popa, E; Stăñilescu, S; Popa, I; Radu, I; Serafinceanu, C; Panduru, N; Beluşică, L; Gavrilă, L

    2010-01-01

    The risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and breast cancer (BC) is influenced by polymorphisms located in the genes encoding enzymes of the folate pathway. The aim of this study was to evaluate if A66G MTRR (rs1801394) polymorphism is involved in predisposition for colorectal and breast carcinogenesis in Romanian patients. In the present case-control study, 300 individuals divide in four groups: sporadic CRC patients (n = 120), control CRC (n = 60), BC patients (n = 60) and control BC (n = 60), were genotyped by PCR-RFLP method. Frequency of genotype AA was 11.7% in CRC control and 5% respectively in BC control. For cancer groups the frequency of genotype AA was 9.2% in CRC and 0% in BC. Study results do not demonstrate an association between A66G MTRR polymorphism and CRC or BC in Romanian patients.

  5. The mitochondrial DNA makeup of Romanians: A forensic mtDNA control region database and phylogenetic characterization.

    PubMed

    Turchi, Chiara; Stanciu, Florin; Paselli, Giorgia; Buscemi, Loredana; Parson, Walther; Tagliabracci, Adriano

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the pattern of Romanian population from a mitochondrial perspective and to establish an appropriate mtDNA forensic database, we generated a high-quality mtDNA control region dataset from 407 Romanian subjects belonging to four major historical regions: Moldavia, Transylvania, Wallachia and Dobruja. The entire control region (CR) was analyzed by Sanger-type sequencing assays and the resulting 306 different haplotypes were classified into haplogroups according to the most updated mtDNA phylogeny. The Romanian gene pool is mainly composed of West Eurasian lineages H (31.7%), U (12.8%), J (10.8%), R (10.1%), T (9.1%), N (8.1%), HV (5.4%),K (3.7%), HV0 (4.2%), with exceptions of East Asian haplogroup M (3.4%) and African haplogroup L (0.7%). The pattern of mtDNA variation observed in this study indicates that the mitochondrial DNA pool is geographically homogeneous across Romania and that the haplogroup composition reveals signals of admixture of populations of different origin. The PCA scatterplot supported this scenario, with Romania located in southeastern Europe area, close to Bulgaria and Hungary, and as a borderland with respect to east Mediterranean and other eastern European countries. High haplotype diversity (0.993) and nucleotide diversity indices (0.00838±0.00426), together with low random match probability (0.0087) suggest the usefulness of this control region dataset as a forensic database in routine forensic mtDNA analysis and in the investigation of maternal genetic lineages in the Romanian population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microsatellite and Mitochondrial DNA Study of Native Eastern European Cattle Populations: The Case of the Romanian Grey.

    PubMed

    Ilie, Daniela Elena; Cean, Ada; Cziszter, Ludovic Toma; Gavojdian, Dinu; Ivan, Alexandra; Kusza, Szilvia

    2015-01-01

    The Eastern European Grey cattle are regarded as the direct descendants of the aurochs (Bos taurus primigenius). Nowadays in Romania, less than 100 Grey animals are being reared and included in the national gene reserve. We examined the genetic diversity among Romanian Grey, Brown, Spotted and Black and White cattle breeds, with a particular focus on Romanian Grey through the use of (i) 11 bovine specific microsatellite markers on 83 animals and (ii) 638 bp length of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region sequence data from a total of 81 animals. Both microsatellite and mtDNA analysis revealed a high level of genetic variation in the studied breeds. In Romanian Grey a total of 100 alleles were found, the mean number of observed alleles per locus was 9.091; the average observed heterozygosity was 0.940; the Wright's fixation index (FIS) was negative (-0.189) and indicates that there is no inbreeding and no selection pressure. MtDNA analysis revealed 52 haplotypes with 67 variable sites among the Romanian cattle breeds without any insertion or deletion. Haplotype diversity was 0.980 ± 0.007 and ranged from 0.883 ± 0.056 (Brown) to 0.990 ± 0.028 (Spotted and Black and White). The highest genetic variability of the mtDNA was recorded in the Grey breed, where 18 haplotypes were identified. The most frequent mtDNA D-loop region belonged to T3 haplogroup (80.247%), which was found across all studied breeds, while T2 haplotypes (16.049%) was only found in Grey, Spotted and Black and White genotypes. The T1 haplotypes (3.704%) were found in the Grey and Spotted. The current results contribute to the general knowledge on genetic diversity found in Eastern European cattle breeds and could prove a valuable tool for the conservation efforts of animal genetic resources (FAnGR).

  7. Improving the quality of Health Care in the Romanian public health system--a priority in the reform process.

    PubMed

    Purcărea, V L; Coculescu, B I; Coculescu, E C

    2015-01-01

    To meet the shortfalls caused by the economic crisis, the Romanian medical system needed an objective analysis of the quality of medical care as a whole, of the entire package of health services as well as accountable joint efforts to identify system problems and, especially, firm action without compromising resolution, regardless of any limitations or emotional picture. In addition, last but not least, the judicious use of available resources.

  8. Improving the quality of Health Care in the Romanian public health system - a priority in the reform process

    PubMed Central

    Purcărea, VL; Coculescu, BI; Coculescu, EC

    2015-01-01

    To meet the shortfalls caused by the economic crisis, the Romanian medical system needed an objective analysis of the quality of medical care as a whole, of the entire package of health services as well as accountable joint efforts to identify system problems and, especially, firm action without compromising resolution, regardless of any limitations or emotional picture. In addition, last but not least, the judicious use of available resources. PMID:25866573

  9. Minerals yearbook 1977. Volume I. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report contains chapters on virtually all metallic and nonmetallic mineral commodities important to the domestic economy. In addition, it includes a general review chapter on the mineral industries, a chapter on mining and quarrying trends, and a statistical summary.

  10. Depression - stopping your medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ...

  11. Medicines by Design

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search the NIGMS Website NIGMS Home Research Funding Research Training News & Meetings Science Education About NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Medicines By Design Medicines By Design Spotlight Nature's Medicine Cabinet A ...

  12. Storing your medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000534.htm Storing your medicines To use the sharing features on this page, ... child latch or lock. Do not use Damaged Medicine Damaged medicine may make you sick. DO NOT ...

  13. Taking multiple medicines safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000883.htm Taking multiple medicines safely To use the sharing features on this ... directed. Why You May Need More Than One Medicine You may take more than one medicine to ...

  14. Managing Your Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Managing Your Medicines Updated:Oct 27,2016 If you have heart ... Weight • Tools & Resources Heart Insight Supplement: Know Your Medicines Keeping track of your medicines can be overwhelming. ...

  15. Medicines for osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Evista); Teriparatide (Forteo); Denosumab (Prolia); Low bone density - medicines; Osteoporosis - medicines ... Your doctor may prescribe certain medicines to help lower your ... make the bones in your hips, spine, and other areas less likely ...

  16. Complementary and Integrative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical treatments that are not part of mainstream medicine. When you are using these types of care, it may be called complementary, integrative, or alternative medicine. Complementary medicine is used together with mainstream medical ...

  17. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... use practices like acupuncture in medicine. But until recently, most Western hospitals didn't provide any alternative ... medicine is often used instead of conventional medical techniques. Complementary medicine is used in addition to conventional ...

  18. High blood pressure medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - medicines ... blood vessel diseases. You may need to take medicines to lower your blood pressure if lifestyle changes ... blood pressure to the target level. WHEN ARE MEDICINES FOR HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE USED Most of the ...

  19. Minerals yearbook, 1985. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This volume of the 1985 Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 72 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends, a chapter discussing the statistical surveying methods used by the Bureau of Mines, and a statistical summary.

  20. Minerals yearbook, 1984. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 72 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends, a chapter discussing the statistical surveying methods used by the Bureau of Mines, and a statistical summary.

  1. Minerals Yearbook, 1988. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Volume I of the 1988 Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 79 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the U.S. Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains chapters on mining and quarrying trends and on the statistical surveying methods used by the Bureau of Mines and a statistical summary.

  2. Motivational Values, Parental Influences and the Experience of Discrimination among Romanian and Moroccan Young Immigrants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Pablo; Clemente, Miguel; Uña, Octavio

    2016-11-08

    This study examines the role that motivational values play in the experience of discrimination in young immigrants in Spain and how this role is mediated by parental values. Participants in the study were 193 dyads of pre-adolescent to young adult first and second generation immigrants and one of their parents. All participants were either of Moroccan or Romanian ascent, the two largest immigrant groups in Spain. The proposed SEM model had an adequate fit, χ2(2, N = 193) = 2.272, p = .321, RMSEA = .027, CFI = .999, NFI = .994, and yielded a large R 2, both for the Moroccan group (R 2 = .79, p < .01), and the Romanian group (R 2 = .80, p < .01). It showed that the value dimension openness to change vs. conservation is positively related to their experience of discrimination (β = .35, p < .01, for Moroccans group; and β = .29, p < .001, for Romanians). This relationship was mediated by parental values and their parents' experience of discrimination. A possible explanation is that immigrants high in openness to change are likely to pursue contact with the host culture more intensely, and thus increase the probability of interactions involving discrimination. Additionally, parental values and their own experience of discrimination influences their children, making them more vulnerable to discrimination stress and more likely to perceive discrimination. While most research is focused on external or environmental variables, this study highlights the importance of value orientations and parental influences in immigrants' experience of discrimination.

  3. [Disaster medicine].

    PubMed

    Carli, Pierre; Telionri, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    For over 30 years, the French hospital and pre-hospital medical teams are trained in disaster medicine. In fact, they are regularly confronted with the management of multiple casualties in accidents or even terrorist attacks, and more rarely to large-scale disasters. The intervention of physicians of the EMS system (SAMU-SMUR) in the field allows an original healthcare organization: in an advanced medical post, the victims are triaged according to their severity and benefit if needed of initial resuscitation. SAMU medical regulating center then organize their transport and repartition in several hospitals put on alert. To cope with a mass casualty situation, the hospital also has a specific organization, the White Plan. This plan, initiated by the director, assisted by a medico-administrative cell crisis can mobilize all the resources of the institution. Personnel are recalled and the ability of emergency units is increased. Care, less urgent, other patients are postponed. There are many plans for responding to disasters. ORSEC plans of the ministry of Interior articulate with the ORSAN plans of the ministry of Health. This complementarity allows a global mobilization of public services in disasters or exceptional medical situations.

  4. Medicine organizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Ricardo; Belchior, Ismael

    2015-04-01

    In the last year of secondary school, students studying physics and chemistry are incentivized to do a project where they must put in practice their improvement of scientific knowledge and skills, like observation of phenomena and analysis of data with scientific knowledge. In this project a group of students, tutored by the teacher, wanted to build an instrument that helps people to take their medical drugs at the right time. This instrument must have some compartments with an alarm and an LED light where the people can put their medical drugs. The instrument must be easily programed using an android program that also registers if the medicine has been taken. The students needed to simulate the hardware and software, draw the electronic system and build the final product. At the end of the school year, a public oral presentation was prepared by each group of students and presented to the school community. They are also encouraged to participate in national and international scientific shows and competitions.

  5. Adsorption of RNA on mineral surfaces and mineral precipitates

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, Elisa; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kawai, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The prebiotic significance of laboratory experiments that study the interactions between oligomeric RNA and mineral species is difficult to know. Natural exemplars of specific minerals can differ widely depending on their provenance. While laboratory-generated samples of synthetic minerals can have controlled compositions, they are often viewed as "unnatural". Here, we show how trends in the interaction of RNA with natural mineral specimens, synthetic mineral specimens, and co-precipitated pairs of synthetic minerals, can make a persuasive case that the observed interactions reflect the composition of the minerals themselves, rather than their being simply examples of large molecules associating nonspecifically with large surfaces. Using this approach, we have discovered Periodic Table trends in the binding of oligomeric RNA to alkaline earth carbonate minerals and alkaline earth sulfate minerals, where those trends are the same when measured in natural and synthetic minerals. They are also validated by comparison of co-precipitated synthetic minerals. We also show differential binding of RNA to polymorphic forms of calcium carbonate, and the stabilization of bound RNA on aragonite. These have relevance to the prebiotic stabilization of RNA, where such carbonate minerals are expected to have been abundant, as they appear to be today on Mars. PMID:28382177

  6. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  7. General Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Biopsies - Overview Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) Alzheimer's Disease X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ...

  8. Medicines for sleep

    MedlinePlus

    Benzodiazepines; Sedatives; Hypnotics; Sleeping pills; Insomnia - medicines; Sleep disorder - medicines ... are commonly used to treat allergies. While these sleep aids are not addictive, your body becomes used ...

  9. Mineral oil soluble borate compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Dulat, J.

    1981-09-15

    Alkali metal borates are reacted with fatty acids or oils in the presence of a low hlb value surfactant to give a stable mineral oil-soluble product. Mineral oil containing the borate can be used as a cutting fluid.

  10. Mineral springs and miracles.

    PubMed

    Forster, M M

    1994-04-01

    Development of hot springs in the Canadian Rockies was closely linked to their reputed medicinal value. In 1885, the federal government created a small reserve around the springs at Sulphur Mountain, an area later enlarged to become Banff National Park, in recognition of the "great sanitary and curative advantage to the public."

  11. Mineral adequacy of vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Freeland-Graves, J

    1988-09-01

    The bioavailability of a number of minerals may be altered by the special characteristics of vegetarian diets. Concern has centered on both inadequate and high dietary levels of specific minerals as well as reduced bioavailability because of a variety of dietary components. The possibility that plant-based diets may compromise mineral status is briefly reviewed for the following minerals: zinc, calcium, iron, manganese, selenium, and copper.

  12. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, H.C.; Thomson, B.M.

    2009-09-15

    A review of literature published in 2008 and early 2009 on research related to the production of acid mine drainage and/or in the dissolution of minerals as a result of mining, with special emphasis on the effects of these phenomena on the water quality in the surrounding environment, is presented. This review is divided into six sections: 1) Site Characterization and Assessment, 2) Protection, Prevention, and Restoration, 3) Toxicity Assessment, 4) Environmental Fate and Transport, 5) Biological Characterization, and 6) Treatment Technologies. Because there is much overlap in research areas associated with minerals and mine drainage, many papers presented in this review can be classified into more than one category, and the six sections should not be regarded as being mutually-exclusive, nor should they be thought of as being all-inclusive.

  13. Mineral bridges in nacre.

    PubMed

    Checa, Antonio G; Cartwright, Julyan H E; Willinger, Marc-Georg

    2011-12-01

    We confirm with high-resolution techniques the existence of mineral bridges between superposed nacre tablets. In the towered nacre of both gastropods and the cephalopod Nautilus there are large bridges aligned along the tower axes, corresponding to gaps (150-200nm) in the interlamellar membranes. Gaps are produced by the interaction of the nascent tablets with a surface membrane that covers the nacre compartment. In the terraced nacre of bivalves bridges associated with elongated gaps in the interlamellar membrane (>100nm) have mainly been found at or close to the edges of superposed parental tablets. To explain this placement, we hypothesize that the interlamellar membrane breaks due to differences in osmotic pressure across it when the interlamellar space below becomes reduced at an advanced stage of calcification. In no cases are the minor connections between superimposed tablets (<60nm), earlier reported to be mineral bridges, found to be such.

  14. Mixtures and Mineral Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumble, D.

    The monograph Mixtures and Mineral Reactions contains a large amount of information of value to mineralogists, petrologists, and geochemists. The first four chapters are a succinct account of the thermodynamic description of crystalline solutions. In these early chapters a comparison is made between different mathematical treatments of activitycomposition models, there is a discussion of the unmixing by exsolution of a single solution into two phases, and methods of computing phase equilibria in assemblages of different minerals are given. If the reader is perplexed by the discussion of standard states (cf. Figure 1.3), not to worry. That is a normal condition for anyone forced to choose between equivalent reference frames yet knowing, somewhere down the line, that the choice will ultimately make one's computational life more or less difficult.

  15. Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cotomacio, J. G.; Silva, P. S. C.; Mazzilli, B. P

    2008-08-07

    Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and {sup 40}K in these clay minerals.The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay.Measurement for the determination of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906{+-}340 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K, 40{+-}9 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 75{+-}9 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra, 197{+-}38 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb, 51{+-}26 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U and 55{+-}24 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, considering both kinds of clay.

  16. An Evidence-Based Review on medicinal value of clays in traditional Persian medicine.

    PubMed

    Hosseinkhani, Ayda; Montaseri, Hashem; Hosamo, Ammar; Zarshenas, Mohammad M

    2016-10-07

    The use of earths and clays for medical purposes dates back to antiquity. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in researches on traditional remedies in the hope of discovering new drug. Iran is an ancient country with a medical backbone acquired from the experiences of ancient Persian scholars, who had made a great contribution to the development of the medical sciences. Many medical and pharmaceutical books by early Persian scientists still exist and may have the potential of leading researchers to new drug discoveries. Owing to the emergence of new and antimicrobial-resistant infections, present-day medicine has recently begun focusing on medicinal earths and clays especially as mineral antimicrobials. The current study is, therefore, aimed at gathering information regarding medicinal clays in traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Five main Persian materia medica with the key word 'tin' (clay) and current databases such as PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar were searched by key words 'white, green, red, maroon, violet, black, grey and pink clays' and 'pharmacological effects'. Twenty three clays were found in Persian manuscripts. Although their mineralogical compositions are unknown, different pharmacological properties have been attributed to these mineral medicaments. Clay's properties were widely used in medieval times for the treatment of infections to poisoning. They were also used in compound formulations, possibly for their pharmaceutical formulation modifying effects. Modern scientific proofs have also been found of many of the medicinal clays reported in Persian manuscripts. Although many of reported clays are still unknown, their characterization may lead to new medicinal developments. Novel analytical methods available today makes it possible to elucidate the chemical compositions of these minerals as parameters responsible for their medicinal effects.

  17. Major issues in miner health.

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, S

    1998-01-01

    As recently as the last few decades, thousands of miners died in explosions, roof collapses, fires, and floods each year, and lung disease caused by inhaling mineral dusts was ubiquitous. Miners worked virtually unprotected, and were often treated as expendable bodies fulfilling critical roles in this important industry, which in the United States comprises about 5% of the gross domestic product. PMID:9799195

  18. 76 FR 6110 - Conflict Minerals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    .... 34-63793; File No. S7-40-10] RIN 3235-AK84 Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... 1934 (the ``Exchange Act'') and would require any such issuer for which conflict minerals are necessary... that issuer to disclose in the body of its annual report whether its conflict minerals originated...

  19. The Indian Mineral Development Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Antoinette

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the objectives of the Indian Mineral Development Act of 1982 (IMDA) and the possible effects it may have on Indian mineral development. Explains how the provisions of IMDA work to provide Indian tribes with greater flexibility for the development and sale of their mineral resources. (ML)

  20. The Indian Mineral Development Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Antoinette

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the objectives of the Indian Mineral Development Act of 1982 (IMDA) and the possible effects it may have on Indian mineral development. Explains how the provisions of IMDA work to provide Indian tribes with greater flexibility for the development and sale of their mineral resources. (ML)

  1. Culture systems: mineral oil overlay.

    PubMed

    Morbeck, Dean E; Leonard, Phoebe H

    2012-01-01

    Mineral oil overlay microdrop is commonly used during in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures. Though mineral oil appears homogeneous, it is an undefined product that can vary in quality. Here, we describe the history, chemistry, processing, and optimal use of mineral oil for IVF and embryo culture.

  2. Reducing miner absenteeism

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.H.; Clingan, M.R.; Randolph, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The U. S. Bureau of Mines has prepared this report on strategies for maintaining high job attendance among underground coal miners because high absenteeism is a threat to miners' safety and seriously hampers productivity. A substantial number of research studies on the effectiveness of various strategies for reducing absenteeism among the employees of nonmining industries have been reported in the literature. These strategies have aimed at improving job attendance through one or more of the following: (1) improving employment procedures, (2) overcoming problems that adversely affect one's ability to attend work, and (3) increasing miners' motivation to attend work. Many of these strategies appear applicable to the mining industry, and are reviewed in the first half of this report. The second half of this report describes how one could develop and implement a program for maintaining high attendance at underground coal mines. The steps include measuring and evaluating attendance levels, formulating attendance goals and an absenteeism policy, developing and implementing an attendance promotion program and periodically going through the preceding steps (known as recycling).

  3. Speciation and bioavailability of lead in complementary medicines.

    PubMed

    Bolan, S; Naidu, R; Kunhikrishnan, A; Seshadri, B; Ok, Y S; Palanisami, T; Dong, M; Clark, I

    2016-01-01

    Complementary medicines have associated risks which include toxic heavy metal(loid) and pesticide contamination. The objective of this study was to examine the speciation and bioavailability of lead (Pb) in selected complementary medicines. Six herbal and six ayurvedic medicines were analysed for: (i) total heavy metal(loid) contents including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), Pb and mercury (Hg); (ii) speciation of Pb using sequential fractionation and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) techniques; and (iii) bioavailability of Pb using a physiologically-based in vitro extraction test (PBET). The daily intake of Pb through the uptake of these medicines was compared with the safety guidelines for Pb. The results indicated that generally ayurvedic medicines contained higher levels of heavy metal(loid)s than herbal medicines with the amount of Pb much higher than the other metal(loid)s. Sequential fractionation indicated that while organic-bound Pb species dominated the herbal medicines, inorganic-bound Pb species dominated the ayurvedic medicines. EXAFS data indicated the presence of various Pb species in ayurvedic medicines. This implies that Pb is derived from plant uptake and inorganic mineral input in herbal and ayurvedic medicines, respectively. Bioavailability of Pb was higher in ayurvedic than herbal medicines, indicating that Pb added as a mineral therapeutic input is more bioavailable than that derived from plant uptake. There was a positive relationship between soluble Pb fraction and bioavailability indicating that solubility is an important factor controlling bioavailability. The daily intake values for Pb as estimated by total and bioavailable metal(loid) contents are likely to exceed the safe threshold level in certain ayurvedic medicines. This research demonstrated that Pb toxicity is likely to result from the regular intake of these medicines which requires further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Minerals yearbook, 1992. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide mineral and materials industry during 1992 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Yearbook volumes follows: Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on advanced materials, nonrenewable organic materials, and nonferrous metals recycling also were added to the Minerals Yearbook series beginning with the 1989, 1990, and 1991 volumes, respectively. A new chapter on materials recycling has been initiated in this 1992 volume. In addition, a chapter on survey methods used in data collection with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are included.

  5. Minerals yearbook, 1991. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    This edition of the Mineral Yearbook discusses the performance of the worlwide minerals and materials industry during 1991 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume 1, Metals and Mineral, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on advanced materials and nonrenewable organic materials also were added to the Minerals Yearbook series beginning with the 1989 and 1990 volumes, respectively. A new chapter on nonferrous metals recycling has been initiated in this 1991 volume. In addition, a chapter on survey methods used in data collection with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are included.

  6. Site characterization of the Romanian Seismic Network stations: a national initiative and its first preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecu, Bogdan; Zahria, Bogdan; Manea, Elena; Neagoe, Cristian; Borleanu, Felix; Diaconescu, Mihai; Constantinescu, Eduard; Bala, Andrei

    2017-04-01

    The seismic activity in Romania is dominated by the intermediate-depth earthquakes occurring in Vrancea region, although weak to moderate crustal earthquakes are produced regularly in different areas of the country. The National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) built in the last years an impressive infrastructure for monitoring this activity, known as the Romanian Seismic Network (RSN). At present, RSN consists of 122 seismic stations, of which 70 have broadband velocity sensors and 42 short period sensors. One hundred and eleven stations out of 122 have accelerometer sensors collocated with velocity sensors and only 10 stations have only accelerometers. All the stations record continuously the ground motion and the data are transmitted in real-time to the Romanian National Data Center (RoNDC), in Magurele. Last year, NIEP has started a national project that addresses the characterization of all real-time seismic stations that constitute the RSN. We present here the steps that were undertaken and the preliminary results obtained since the beginning the project. The first two activities consisted of collecting all the existent technical and geological data, with emphasize on the latter. Then, we performed station noise investigations and analyses in order to characterize the noise level and estimate the resonances of the sites. The computed H/V ratios showed clear resonant peaks at different frequencies which correlate relatively well with the thickness of the sedimentary package beneath the stations. The polarization analysis of the H/V ratios indicates for some stations a strong directivity of the resonance peak which suggests possible topographic effects at the stations. At the same time, special attention was given to the estimation of the site amplification from earthquake data. The spectral ratios obtained from the analysis of more than 50 earthquakes with magnitudes (Mw) larger than 4.1 are characterized by similar resonance peaks as those obtained from

  7. Listeria monocytogenes isolated from food samples from a Romanian black market show distinct virulence profiles.

    PubMed

    Ciolacu, Luminita; Nicolau, Anca Ioana; Wagner, Martin; Rychli, Kathrin

    2015-09-16

    Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular foodborne pathogen responsible for listeriosis. In a recent study, in which we investigated neglected exogenous routes of transmission of foodborne pathogens into the European Union, we have isolated 15 L. monocytogenes strains in food products, which were imported from the Republic of Moldavia to Romania and illegally sold at a local market. The aim of this study was to characterize the subtype and virulence potential of these 15 L. monocytogenes strains. Multilocus sequence typing revealed that these L. monocytogenes strains belong to six different sequence types (ST2, ST8, ST9, ST20, ST121 and ST155). In addition, in vitro virulence assays using human intestinal epithelial Caco2 and macrophage-like THP1 cells showed a high strain variability regarding the invasion efficiency in Caco2 cells (0.98-2.78%) and the intracellular growth rate in both cell types. Both ST121 strains and the ST9 isolate were unable to invade Caco2 cells, and all ST155 strains showed no proliferation inside macrophages and revealed low cytotoxicity. Furthermore we performed sequence analysis of three main virulence factors: PrfA, internalin A (InlA) and listeriolysin O (LLO). The Romanian food isolates showed a high diversity in the InlA and LLO amino acid sequences, whereas the amino acid sequence of PrfA of all strains was identical. Overall, the amino acid sequences of PrfA, InlA and LLO were identical for strains belonging to the same ST. We detected in total 30 different amino acid substitutions, resulting in seven different InlA variants, two of which have not yet been described. The three strains, which were unable to invade Caco2 cells, harboured a premature stop codon resulting in truncated InlA. Furthermore, we detected four different amino acid substitutions in the LLO sequence, which are present in four variants. The number of LLO mutations correlates negatively with intracellular growth in Caco2 and THP1 cells and

  8. Plate tectonics on the Romanian territory as inferred from geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besutiu, L.; Zugravescu, D.

    2003-04-01

    Plate tectonics on the Romanian territory still represents a challenge to geoscientists. Several previous models were mainly based on geological arguments (ophiolitic scares) and almost never on the geophysical behavior of a plate boundary. Starting from the potential field information, the paper represents an attempt to outline plate wedges and their dynamics based on geophysical data interpretation. Gravity, and geomagnetic maps, heat flow, geomagnetic induction vector, earthquakes, and deep seismic (DSS) and magnetotelluric (MTS) data were used on purpose. Consequently, a three-plate tectonic model has been considered. East European Plate (EEP), Moesian microplate (MoP), and Intracarpathian microplate (IaP) seem to meet into the Vrancea area, which active seismicity has been considered to be due to the presence of a continental unstable transform-transform-compression triple-junction. They are separated by Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone (TTZ), Trans-Getica Fault (TGF) and Peceneaga-Camena Fault (PCF). The SE extension of TTZ, as the contact between EEP and IaP, was revealed on the Romanian territory. Its Moho “keel”, pointed out by DSS on Polish and Ukrainian territories, was MTS confirmed from the northern state border to the Vrancea area, and well reflected in the gravity data too. The sharp end of the geomagnetic pattern of the buried North Dobrogea structures toward Carpathians, and the presence of an important electric discontinuity separating two compartments with distinct lithosphere thickness (220/150 km) support the hypothesis. Unlike previous models, the authors consider that TTZ does not extend towards the Black Sea. Instead, it might be broken and shifted westward along a second major lithosphere contact, TGF, the northern wedge of MoP. TGF was sharply outlined at least at the basement level, in the filtered images of the geomagnetic anomaly in the southern part of South Carpathians. The divergence of Wiese vectors along it advocates for the presence

  9. Enzymatic mineralization of silk scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Samal, Sangram K; Dash, Mamoni; Declercq, Heidi A; Gheysens, Tom; Dendooven, Jolien; Van Der Voort, Pascal; Cornelissen, Ria; Dubruel, Peter; Kaplan, David L

    2014-07-01

    The present study focuses on the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mediated formation of apatitic minerals on porous silk fibroin protein (SFP) scaffolds. Porous SFP scaffolds impregnated with different concentrations of ALP are homogeneously mineralized under physiological conditions. The mineral structure is apatite while the structures differ as a function of the ALP concentration. Cellular adhesion, proliferation, and colonization of osteogenic MC3T3 cells improve on the mineralized SFP scaffolds. These findings suggest a simple process to generate mineralized scaffolds that can be used to enhanced bone tissue engineering-related utility.

  10. Water, mineral waters and health.

    PubMed

    Petraccia, Luisa; Liberati, Giovanna; Masciullo, Stefano Giuseppe; Grassi, Marcello; Fraioli, Antonio

    2006-06-01

    The authors focus on water resources and the use of mineral waters in human nutrition, especially in the different stages of life, in physical activity and in the presence of some morbid conditions. Mineral water is characterized by its purity at source, its content in minerals, trace elements and other constituents, its conservation and its healing properties recognized by the Ministry of Health after clinical and pharmacological trials. Based on total salt content in grams after evaporation of 1l mineral water dried at 180 degrees C (dry residues), mineral waters can be classified as: waters with a very low mineral content, waters low in mineral content, waters with a medium mineral content, and strongly mineralized waters. Based on ion composition mineral waters can be classified as: bicarbonate waters, sulfate waters, sodium chloride or saltwater, sulfuric waters. Based on biological activity mineral waters can be classified as: diuretic waters, cathartic waters, waters with antiphlogistic properties. Instructions for use, doses, and current regulations are included.

  11. Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide is a compilation of X-ray tables and spectra recorded from various mineral matrices. Spectra were obtained using electron microprobe, equipped with LiF geared, curved crystal X-ray spectrometers, utilizing typical analytical operating conditions: 15 Kv acceleration potential, 0.02 microampere sample current as measured on a clinopyroxene standard (CP19). Tables and spectra are presented for the majority of elements, fluorine through uranium, occurring in mineral samples from lunar, meteoritic and terrestrial sources. Tables for each element contain relevant analytical information, i.e., analyzing crystal, X-ray peak, background and relative intensity information, X-ray interferences and a section containing notes on the measurement. Originally intended to cover silicates and oxide minerals the tables and spectra have been expanded to cover other mineral phases. Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide is intended as a spectral base to which additional spectra can be added as the analyst encounters new mineral matrices.

  12. Calcium concentration dependent collagen mineralization.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xufeng; Fan, Rui; Tian, Feng; Guo, Xiaolin; Li, Ping; Feng, Qingling; Fan, Yubo

    2017-04-01

    Mineralization of collagen fibrils is a regular combination process of organic and mineral components mainly involving calcium, phosphate and collagen. We report the influence of calcium to the self-assembly of collagen by changing the concentration of calcium ion in the process of mineralization. Low concentration of calcium results in the well collagen self-assembly while poor mineral crystallization. Relatively, high concentration of calcium can hinder collagen self-assembly, whereas it is benefited to mineral crystallization. We also reveal that collagen self-assembly happens in advance of the formation of better mineral crystals. These results interpret the mechanism of collagen mineralization further. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Systems genetics of mineral metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fleet, James C; Replogle, Rebecca; Salt, David E

    2011-03-01

    Minerals are essential and toxic elements that have an impact on human health. Although we have learned a tremendous amount about the metabolism, biological roles, and health effects of minerals with the tools of biochemistry, cell biology, and molecular genetics, there are gaps in our knowledge of mineral biology that will benefit from new approaches. Forward genetics, whereby variations in phenotypes are mapped to natural genetic variation in the genome, has been successfully used to increase our understanding of many biologically important traits but has not yet been used extensively for mineral metabolism. In addition, the well-appreciated existence of interactions between minerals justifies a broader, systems approach to the study of mineral metabolism, i.e., ionomics. This short review will explain the value of forward genetics and ionomics as tools for exploring mammalian mineral metabolism.

  14. Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Asim A.; Trask, Jennifer; Ali, Ather

    2016-01-01

    During 2012, the USDHHS’s Health Resources and Services Administration funded 12 accredited preventive medicine residencies to incorporate an evidence-based integrative medicine curriculum into their training programs. It also funded a national coordinating center at the American College of Preventive Medicine, known as the Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education (IMPriME) Center, to provide technical assistance to the 12 grantees. To help with this task, the IMPriME Center established a multidisciplinary steering committee, versed in integrative medicine, whose primary aim was to develop integrative medicine core competencies for incorporation into preventive medicine graduate medical education training. The competency development process was informed by central integrative medicine definitions and principles, preventive medicine’s dual role in clinical and population-based prevention, and the burgeoning evidence base of integrative medicine. The steering committee considered an interdisciplinary integrative medicine contextual framework guided by several themes related to workforce development and population health. A list of nine competencies, mapped to the six general domains of competence approved by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education, was operationalized through an iterative exercise with the 12 grantees in a process that included mapping each site’s competency and curriculum products to the core competencies. The competencies, along with central curricular components informed by grantees’ work presented elsewhere in this supplement, are outlined as a roadmap for residency programs aiming to incorporate integrative medicine content into their curricula. This set of competencies adds to the larger efforts of the IMPriME initiative to facilitate and enhance further curriculum development and implementation by not only the current grantees but other stakeholders in graduate medical education around integrative medicine

  15. Mineral springs and miracles.

    PubMed Central

    Forster, M. M.

    1994-01-01

    Development of hot springs in the Canadian Rockies was closely linked to their reputed medicinal value. In 1885, the federal government created a small reserve around the springs at Sulphur Mountain, an area later enlarged to become Banff National Park, in recognition of the "great sanitary and curative advantage to the public." Images p730-a p731-a p732-a p733-a p734-a p736-a PMID:8199525

  16. How Do Asthma Medicines Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches How Do Asthma Medicines Work? KidsHealth > For Kids > How Do Asthma Medicines ... long-term control medicines . What Are Quick-Relief Medicines? Quick-relief medicines (also called rescue or fast- ...

  17. How Do Asthma Medicines Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? How Do Asthma Medicines Work? KidsHealth > For Kids > How Do Asthma Medicines ... of medicines for treating asthma: 1. Quick-relief Medicines Quick-relief medicines (also called rescue or fast- ...

  18. Sloping beach with wave breaking and moving shoreline on Romanian Black Sea coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaitescu, F. V.; Panaitescu, M.; Anton, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    Purpose of the work: wave breaking and wave run-up on a gently sloping plane beach from Romanian Black Sea Coast. That coast has a length of 244 km and an almost linear configuration with the exception of build-up areas. The paper concentrates on shoaling of regular waves and spilling type of wave breaking running with a simulation on software MIKE 21. Research and methodology: the paper contents the measurements for spilling and plunging type of breakers on a plane sloping beach with a slope of 1/45 starting in depth of 0.23 m to 0.46 m. A moving shoreline is included in the simulations. With respect to the parameters of the breaker model the standard values are applied. An explicit filter is introduced near the still water shoreline to remove short-wave instabilities and to dissipate the wave energy in the model. Results: the obtained values indicate the wave breaking and wave run-up processes, the spatial variation of a number of phase-averaged quantities and the shoreline motion converted intro a vertical and a horizontal displacement.

  19. Evidence-Based Practice among Romanian Social Workers: Attitudes, Utilization, and Barriers.

    PubMed

    Iovu, Mihai-Bogdan; Goian, Cosmin; Runcan, Patricia-Luciana

    2015-01-01

    In this article the authors report on a small survey of Romanian social workers regarding their attitudes toward evidence-based practice (EBP) and thoughts on the factors affecting its implementation in their clinical work. Eighty social workers were asked to complete a pen-and-paper questionnaire on their attitudes toward EBP, the use of research, and perceived barriers on implementation. Social workers have generally positive attitudes toward EBP. Insufficient time surfaced as the greatest barrier to successful implementation. Previous training during academic programs on the EBP foundations was associated with more positive attitudes and beliefs and also with stronger commitment toward implementation. Given the constant pressure that the limited resources pose on the social services, practitioners from the social work field must assure that their clients will have access to the best available programs and interventions. However, as the transfer of research into practice appears more complex than EBP suggests, the authors sought to understand how professionals construct their attitudes, level of commitment, and barriers.

  20. Comparative overview of primary sedimentation-based mechanical stage in some Romanian wastewater treatment systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharia, C.

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, wastewater (WW) treatment facilities are considered significant exposure pathways for solid particles, and also significant concerns of any quality conscious manufacturer. Most solid particles have some forms of organic coating either used as active material or to suspend and/or stabilize different present solid materials, having increase in toxicity that must be reduced, or sometimes even totally eliminated, especially if effluent is either discharged directly to surface water, or distributed through industrial water supplies. Representatives providing innovative technologies, comprehensive supports and expertise in wastewater and sludge treatment field are known, each one using modern treatment technology and facilities. Mechanical treatment is indispensable in primary treatment steps of both municipal and industrial WW applications, its main goal being separation of floating, settling and suspended materials (especially into a primary sedimentation-based treatment step). The aim of this work is to present comparatively the performance in solids removal of conventional mechanical WW treatment stages, especially those based on primary sedimentation, or sedimentation-like operations applied for Romanian urban WW treatment plants (serving two towns with ca 18,000 inhabitants), industrial WW treatment plants (deserving industries of vegetal food processing and organic chemicals’ manufacturing) and additional information on valorisation of separated solid material and improvement possibilities.

  1. Epidemiology of ascariasis, enterobiasis and giardiasis in a Romanian western county (Timis), 1993-2006.

    PubMed

    Neghina, Raul; Dumitrascu, Victor; Neghina, Adriana Maria; Vlad, Daliborca Cristina; Petrica, Ligia; Vermesan, Dinu; Tirnea, Livius; Mazilu, Octavian; Olariu, Tudor Rares

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to bring new and important data regarding the epidemiology of ascariasis, enterobiasis and giardiasis in the Romanian largest county during a 14-year period. We have performed a retrospective collection and analysis of the available information provided by the general practitioners to the Statistics Department database of the Timis County Public Health Authority. The mean annual incidence of the studied parasitic diseases during 1993-2006 was the following: 194 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (range: 90-304) for ascariasis, 777 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (range: 417-1241) for enterobiasis and 1076 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (range: 93-1770) for giardiasis. Noteworthy is that Romania reported 90.8% of the total cases of giardiasis at the European Union's level during 2006-2008. The general trend of the incidences throughout the studied period was constant for ascariasis (R(2)=0.192, p=0.1), showed no statistically significant variation (R(2)=0.025, p=0.6) for enterobiasis and was upward for giardiasis (R(2)=0.6, p=0.001). Intestinal parasitoses represent an important public health concern in Romania due to the extremely high incidence rates reported. Special attention should be paid to the young population (0-14 years), where the negative disease consequences on children's health and their educational process may be traced for a long-term. Therefore, efficient educational programs and campaigns should be timely implemented.

  2. Detrital events and hydroclimate variability in the Romanian Carpathians during the mid-to-late Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longman, Jack; Ersek, Vasile; Veres, Daniel; Salzmann, Ulrich

    2017-07-01

    The Romanian Carpathians are located at the confluence of three major atmospheric pressure fields: the North Atlantic, the Mediterranean and the Siberian. Despite its importance for understanding past human impact and climate change, high-resolution palaeoenvironmental reconstructions of Holocene hydroclimate variability, and in particular records of extreme precipitation events in the area, are rare. Here we present a 7500-year-long high-resolution record of past climatic change and human impact recorded in a peatbog from the Southern Carpathians, integrating palynological, geochemical and sedimentological proxies. Natural climate fluctuations appear to be dominant until 4500 years before present (yr BP), followed by increasing importance of human impact. Sedimentological and geochemical analyses document regular minerogenic deposition within the bog, linked to periods of high precipitation. Such minerogenic depositional events began 4000 yr BP, with increased depositional rates during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP), the Little Ice Age (LIA) and during periods of societal upheaval (e.g. the Roman conquest of Dacia). The timing of minerogenic events appears to indicate a teleconnection between major shifts in North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and hydroclimate variability in southeastern Europe, with increased minerogenic deposition correlating to low NAO index values. By linking the minerogenic deposition to precipitation variability, we state that this link persists throughout the mid-to-late Holocene.

  3. The Role of Values in Attitudes towards Violence: Discrimination against Moroccans and Romanian Gypsies in Spain.

    PubMed

    Álvaro, José Luis; Morais de Oliveira, Thiago; Torres, Ana Raquel Rosas; Pereira, Cicero; Garrido, Alicia; Camino, Leoncio

    2015-08-25

    The first objective of this study was to investigate whether police violence is more tolerated when the victim is a member of a social minority (e.g., Moroccan immigrants and Romanian Gypsies in Spain) than when the victim is a member of the social majority (e.g., Spaniards). The second objective was to use Schwartz value theory to examine the moderating role of values on attitudes towards tolerance of police violence. The participants were 207 sociology and social work students from a public university in Madrid. Overall, in this study, police violence was more accepted when the victim was a member of a social minority; F(2, 206) = 77.91, p = .001, ηp 2 = 0.433, and in general, values moderated this acceptance. Thus, greater adherence to the conservation and self-promotion values subsystems would strengthen support for police violence towards a social minority member. On the other hand, greater adherence to the openness to change and self-transcendence subsystems diminish this support.

  4. Stress state reassessment of Romanian offshore structures taking into account corrosion influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joavină, R.; Zăgan, S.; Zăgan, R.; Popa, M.

    2017-08-01

    Progressive degradation analysis for extraction or exploration offshore structure, with appraisal of failure potential and the causes that can be correlated with the service age, depends on the various sources of uncertainty that require particular attention in design, construction and exploitation phases. Romanian self erecting platforms are spatial lattice structures consist of tubular steel joints, forming a continuous system with an infinite number of dynamic degrees of freedom. Reassessment of a structure at fixed intervals of time, recorrelation of initial design elements with the actual situation encountered in location and with structural behaviour represents a major asset in lowering vulnerabilities of offshore structure. This paper proposes a comparative reassessment of the stress state for an offshore structure Gloria type, when leaving the shipyard and at the end of that interval corresponding to capital revision, taking into account sectional changes due to marine environment corrosion. The calculation was done using Newmark integration method on a 3D model, asses of the dynamic loads was made through probabilistic spectral method.

  5. New diphtheria toxin repressor types depicted in a Romanian collection of Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates.

    PubMed

    Dinu, Sorin; Damian, Maria; Badell, Edgar; Dragomirescu, Cristiana Cerasella; Guiso, Nicole

    2014-10-01

    Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the etiological agent of diphtheria, a potential fatal disease caused by a corynephage toxin. The expression of this diphtheria toxin is controlled via an iron-dependent repressor with various functions (DtxR). Some mutations in the dtxR gene are associated with diminished activity or even with total loss of DtxR function. We conducted a molecular study to characterize the dtxR alleles harbored by 34 isolates of C. diphtheriae recovered from Romanian patients between 1961 and 2007. Three of the seven alleles identified in this study have not previously been described. Two new DtxR types were identified, one of which has an unusual polypeptide length. All the new DtxR types were found in toxigenic isolates, suggesting that they effectively regulate the expression of diphtheria toxin. Furthermore, one of the new DtxR identified was also found in a non-toxigenic isolate, making it a potential source of toxigenic isolates after lysogenic conversion. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The demand for policy analysis in health reform: the view from the Romanian partnership.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, E F

    1998-01-01

    Health reform initiatives in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) assume the existence of two kinds of infrastructure: 1) health care resources that can be mobilized to provide services in a market context and 2) intellectual resources that can be mobilized to plan, design, analyze, implement and evaluate new policy. Considerable attention has been devoted to the requirements for management in health sector reform in the CEE (JHAE, Fall 1994). Relatively little attention has been paid to the intellectual and workforce requirements for policy analysis and leadership in the health sector as well as related policy areas (Berman 1995). This paper begins with an overview of the broad contours and expectations for health reform in the CEE region. It then asks what analytic and public management capital is necessary to guide these policy changes within countries. A specific example of the need for analytic and management capacity is drawn out of the recent Romanian proposal to create health insurance houses (plans) in the 40 judets (districts) across the country. Finally, the paper examines the obstacles and issues involved in expanding the role and number of policy analysts in the CEE.

  7. The role of stakeholder attitudes in managing contaminated sites: survey of Romanian stakeholder awareness.

    PubMed

    Stezar, I C; Ozunu, A; Barry, D L

    2014-01-01

    The past decade has seen substantial policy effort directed at promoting the reclamation and reuse of urban brownfield or potentially contaminated land. This paper is based on the results of a survey regarding the role of stakeholder attitudes in managing contaminated sites at the Romanian level. Findings indicate that effective policies and programmes need to be framed within an understanding of the different needs of national development. While different perceptions were identified in regard to the meanings of several concepts and terms used in this field, important aspects related to the need for developing a correctly ranked and coordinated decision-making process were also identified. Additional findings indicate gaps in the legal mechanisms intended to promote brownfield rehabilitation in the course of redevelopment. At the same time, the survey respondents suggested several recommendations such as the necessity of developing a risk assessment to establish the level and extent of contamination that can endanger human health and the environmental integrity on a site and also the need for greater compatibility between land-use planning processes and environmental legislation related to contaminated site management. The paper presents general conclusions engaging all the recommendations drawn from the survey questionnaire as well as from the general current situation in Romania.

  8. Lack of association between ACE ID polymorphism and colorectal cancer in Romanian patients.

    PubMed

    Toma, M; Cimponeriu, D; Apostol, P; Stavarachi, M; Cojocaru, M; Belusică, L; Crăciun, A M; Radu, I; Gavrilă, L

    2009-01-01

    The insertion/deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has recently been linked to the pathogenesis of human cancers. The goal of this study was to analyze the possible association between ACE gene I/D polymorphism and colorectal cancer in Romanian patients. Blood samples were obtained, after informed consent, from individuals with colorectal cancer (n=108, M:W = 64:44), and healthy persons (n=150, M:W = 84:66). Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes using commercial kits and the insertion (I) / deletion (D) polymorphism was assessed by PCR. Statistical analysis was done using the chi2 test. We determined the odds ratio using the genotype II as risk factor. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The distribution of ACE II: ID: DD genotypes was 23.1%: 46.3%: 30.6% in patients and respectively 20%: 48.7%: 31.3% in controls. The distribution of genotype (chi2 0.37, p = 0.54) and alleles (chi2 0.19, p = 0.65) did not differ significantly between cancer patients and control. Study results do not demonstrate an association between ACE ID polymorphism and colorectal cancer in our patients.

  9. Salmonella in raw chicken meat from the Romanian seaside: frequency of isolation and antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Tîrziu, Emil; Lazăr, Romeu; Sala, Claudia; Nichita, Ileana; Morar, Adriana; Şereş, Monica; Imre, Kálmán

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella in raw chicken meat samples collected at the Romanian seaside and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. In 2012, 317 chicken meat samples from slaughterhouses (n = 289) and retail markets (n = 28) were evaluated. Overall, 13.2% (42) of the samples contained Salmonella; 12.8% (37) and 17.8% (5) from the chicken carcasses at slaughterhouses and the fresh meat from retail markets, respectively. Eight serotypes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica were identified: Infantis (18 isolates), Bredeney (7), Virchow (6), Djugu (4), Grampian (4), Brandenburg (1), Derby (1), and Ruzizi (1). The isolates were resistant to tetracycline (66.6% of isolates), nalidixic acid (64.3%), sulfamethoxazole (64.3%), ciprofloxacin (61.9%), streptomycin (59.5%), trimethoprim (33.3%), ampicillin (9.5%), chloramphenicol (7.1%), and gentamicin (2.4%). No resistance was found to cefotaxime and ceftazidime. Thirty (71.4%) of the 42 tested isolates had multidrug resistance patterns to at least two antimicrobials. This survey highlighted a multidrug-resistant Salmonella contamination rate in raw chicken meat in this area of Romania, which can seriously threaten human health.

  10. Hearing protection for miners

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, T.

    2008-10-15

    A NIOSH analysis showed that at age 50 approximately 90% of coal miners have a hearing impairment, yet noise included hearing loss is 100% preventable. The article discusses requirements of the MSHA regulations, 30 CFR Part 62 - occupational noise exposure (2000) and a 2008-MSHA document describing technologically achievable and promising controls for several types of mining machinery. Hearing protection is still required for exposure to greater than 90 dBA. These are now commercially available ways to determine how much attenuation an individual gets from a given hearing protector, known as 'fit testing'. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  11. Mineral mining installation

    SciTech Connect

    Plevak, L.; Weirich, W.

    1982-04-20

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a longwall conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side at the goaf side of the conveyor. The hydraulic appliances of the roof support units, such as their hydraulic props, hydraulic advance rams and hydraulic control valves, are supplied with pressurized hydraulic fluid from hydraulic supply lines which run along the goaf side of the conveyor. A plurality of flat, platelike intermediate members are provided at the goaf side of the conveyor. These intermediate members are formed with internal ducts for feeding the hydraulic fluid from the supply lines to the hydraulic appliances of the roof support units.

  12. Detection of trisomy 7 in bronchial cells from uranium miners

    SciTech Connect

    Lechner, J.F.; Neft, R.E.; Belinsky, S.A.

    1995-12-01

    New Mexico was the largest producer of uranium in the western world during 1960s and 1970s. Investigators at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine`s Epidemiology and Cancer Control Program have been conducting epidemiological studies on uranium miners over the past 2 decades. Currently, this cohort includes more than 3600 men who had completed at least 1 y of underground work experience in New Mexico by December 31, 1976. These miners, who are now in their 5th through 7th decades, the age when lung cancer incidence is highest, are at high risk for developing this disease because they were exposed to high levels of radon progeny in the mines, and they also smoked tobacco. However, not all people comparably exposed develop lung cancer; in fact, the lifetime risk of lung cancer for the smoking uranium miners has been projected by epidemiological analyses to be no higher than 50%. Therefore, the identification of gene alterations in bronchial epithelium would be a valuable tool to ascertain which miners are at greatest risk for lung cancer. The underlying significance of the current effort confirms the hypothesis that chronic exposure to high concentrations of {alpha}-particles and tobacco smoke produces genetically altered lung epithelial cells throughout the respiratory tract of some susceptible individuals before they develop clinical disease.

  13. Pheromone trap and population model-based control of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., in Romanian apple culture.

    PubMed

    Iordanescu, O; Micu, R; Angelache, I; Blidaru, A; Snejana, D; Simeria, G; Draganescu, E; Beyers, T; Verberne, A; Aerts, R

    2007-01-01

    Like in most parts of the world, the codling moth, Cydia pomonello (L.), is one of the most important pests in apple orchards in the Romanian Banat region. There, the control of this pest is often inadequate and the damage and economic losses are therefore enormous. This lack of control is caused by structural problems such as the absence of an advanced distribution network for phytopharmaceutical products, obsolete spraying equipment and the insufficient exchange of knowledge and expertise of those products and the pest itself between the local research facilities and the apple growers. The purpose of this research project is rather demonstrative, because a change in the Romanian pome culture's attitude is urgently needed. Pheromone trapping and the computerized population model RIMpro Cydia, which predicts important phenological events such as adult flight and egg hatch, were used to determine the optimal spray timing. These modern pest management techniques would not only minimize pressure on the environment, but also on the income of the Romanian apple grower, for whom phytopharmaceuticals are a high-priced investment. In July 2006 a comparative study between the supervised pest control program using Calypso, Runner and Reldan, all easily obtainable and commercially available insecticides in the region, and a conventional Romanian management programme was conducted. The control plot and the two test plots were all three located in a high codling moth pressure orchard in Timişoara. In the control plot 9,44 % of the fruits were damaged by codling moth larvae. In the plot containing the trees that were treated according to the traditional Romanian management programme 5,56 % damage was recorded, while the supervised management plot showed only 1,1% damage. Additionally damage was measured in another orchard in Periam, about 60 km away from the other plots. There, an intensive control program using Reldan, Calypso, Actare, Karate and Insegar was applied and damage

  14. Miner's view of the wilderness

    SciTech Connect

    Joklik, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    The mineral industry wants access to high-grade ores on public lands if it is to compete in world markets and reduce US dependence on imported minerals. The US mineral industry is losing markets because other countries subsidize mineral production to keep prices down. The US has overmined its available sites, and US environmental, employment, and modernization costs are high. Federal regulations that close valuable mineral lands to exploration and extraction need to be eased, according to Mr. Joklik, who outlines six recommendations: (1) complete the withdrawal review program by 1985; (2) extend Congressional oversight of public land withdrawal to areas of 2500 acres; (3) allow leasing and development on public lands withdrawn from mineral entry; (4) release areas that have been reviewed but not designated as wilderness; (5) establish prediscovery rights; and (6) amend the Clean Air Act. (DCK)

  15. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese minerals.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi Reddy, S; Padma Suvarna, K; Udayabhaska Reddy, G; Endo, Tamio; Frost, R L

    2014-01-03

    Manganese minerals ardenite, alleghanyite and leucopoenicite originated from Madhya Pradesh, India, Nagano prefecture Japan, Sussex Country and Parker Shaft Franklin, Sussex Country, New Jersey respectively are used in the present work. In these minerals manganese is the major constituent and iron if present is in traces only. An EPR study of on all of the above samples confirms the presence of Mn(II) with g around 2.0. Optical absorption spectrum of the mineral alleghanyite indicates that Mn(II) is present in two different octahedral sites and in leucophoenicite Mn(II) is also in octahedral geometry. Ardenite mineral gives only a few Mn(II) bands. NIR results of the minerals ardenite, leucophoenicite and alleghanyite are due to hydroxyl and silicate anions which confirming the formulae of the minerals.

  16. Reflections on preventive medicine.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Olli S

    2014-10-01

    Having thought much about medicine in my career-long effort to understand it and the research for its advancement, I have come to views rather different form the now-prevailing ones in respect to what preventive medicine is about; what epidemiology is in relation to preventive medicine; what distinguishes preventive medicine in preventive healthcare at large; the relation of preventive medicine to public health; the concept of health promotion; and also the core principles of preventive medicine. All of these views I set forth in this article, for the readers' critical reflection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neurocognitive functioning in a Romanian cohort of young adults with parenterally-acquired HIV-infection during childhood

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Donald R.; Burlacu, Ruxandra; Luca, Anca E.; Blaglosov, Andreea G.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Alexander, Terry J.; Umlauf, Anya; Grant, Igor; Duiculescu, Dan C.; Achim, Cristian L.; Marcotte, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    The Romanian cohort can provide valuable information about the effect of chronic HIV-infection and exposure to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on the developing brain, based on its unique characteristics: young adults infected parenterally with HIV clade F in the late 1980s and exposed to cART for a decade. We conducted a prospective study using a neuropsychological test battery validated in other international HIV cohorts, in order to evaluate the rate and severity of neurocognitive impairment in a group of young Romanian adults. The 49 HIV-infected (HIV+) participants and the 20 HIV negative (HIV−) controls were similar for age and gender, although the HIV− group tended to be more educated. We found higher cognitive impairment prevalence in the HIV+ group (59.1 %) versus the HIV− group (10 %), and the impairment rate remained significantly higher even when the groups were matched based on the educational level (38.7 % for the HIV+ group vs. 10.0 % for the HIV− controls; p=0.025). The nadir CD4 count was <200 in 71.4 % of patients, but at the time of neurocognitive assessment, 89.5 % of patients had normal immunological status and 81.8 % undetectable HIV load. Among the HIV-impaired group, 26 % of the participants had syndromic impairment while the other 74 % had asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment. We found a high prevalence of neurocognitive dysfunction in the Romanian young adults growing-up with HIV. The greatest HIV-related cognitive deficits were in the domains of executive and motor functioning, consistent with a frontosubcortical pattern. PMID:25185868

  18. Mineral Time Capsules on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schirber, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Like dinosaur-age insects trapped in amber, biomolecules sequestered in million-year-old sulfate minerals could provide a glimpse into the past, say researchers who've recently analyzed such minerals from N orth America. The same minerals have recently been discovered on Mars , so they may be a good place to look for traces of past life on the red planet, the researchers say.

  19. Microelectrophoresis of selected mineral particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herren, B. J.; Tipps, R. W.; Alexander, K. D.

    1982-01-01

    Particle mobilities of ilmenite, labradorite plagioclase, enstatite pyroxene, and olivine were measured with a Rank microelectrophoresis system to evaluate indicated mineral separability. Sodium bicarbonate buffer suspension media with and without additives (0.0001 M DTAB and 5 percent v/v ethylene glycol) were used to determine differential adsorption by mineral particles and modification of relative mobilities. Good separability between some minerals was indicated; additives did not enhance separability.

  20. Some Medicinal Plants Used in Chinese Medicine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1960-09-27

    consisting of the following^plants: Panax ginseng C.A.ivio, Lycium chinense Mill«, Cornus officinalis Sieb, et Zucc, Rehmannia glutinosa (Gaertn.) Libosch...medicine. As an example of combined therapy with drugs from modern and Chinese popular medicine we might cite the use of ginseng as a factor which

  1. Minerals Bill introduced in House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    A bill that aims to strengthen a national minerals policy and to establish a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of this policy was introduced in the House of Representatives on April 30 by James D. Santini (D-Nev.). Entitled the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), the legislation, if passed, also would amend tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic minerals; it would provide the means for the Secretary of the Interior to make withdrawn public lands available for mineral development; and it would create a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals.Santini estimates that 4 billion tons of minerals are needed annually to sustain the nation's economy. Much of the minerals are supplied by other nations, however; Santini wants to see an end to the United States' dependence on foreign countries, especially those that seem relatively unstable politically. ‘The U.S. has placed its national security in the hands of a few foreign nations,’ Santini said in a recent press conference. ‘We are heavily dependent on the region of southern Africa for 76% of our cobalt, 93% of our platinum, 48% of our chromium, and a host of other strategic and critical minerals. Without these minerals, we cannot build jet aircraft, weapons, or other military hardware vitally important to our national security.’

  2. Clay minerals for advanced ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, H.H. )

    1989-11-01

    The author describes new and improved beneficiation techniques available to allow the production of clay minerals of exceptionally high purity. This is particularly true for kaolins and smectites. Wet processing techniques include particle size separation, high intensity magnetic separation, chemical leaching, flotation, and selective flocculation. The blending of clay minerals with other minerals provides opportunities to make special ceramic materials such as cordierite and other minerals that have very special ceramic properties including low heat expansion, high fired strength, low absorption, and other desired qualities.

  3. New AGU mineral physics committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A new Committee on Mineral Physics consisting of Orson Anderson (chairman), Peter Bell, Raymond Jeanloz, Robert Lieberman, Murli Manghnani, Alexandra Navrotsky, Tom Shankland, Joseph E. Smith, and Donald Weidner has been approved by the AGU Executive Committee.The increasing number of research groups in an area that combines the study of mineral properties and solid state sciences (materials research) created the impetus for this new committee. At AGU meetings, mineral physics studies have been included in recent years in sessions of Volcanology, Petrology, and Geochemistry and sessions of Tectonophysics. A portion of the charter for the new committee includes arranging special sessions for mineral physics that would bridge the two sections.

  4. Adoption of romanian children in The Netherlands: behavior problems and parenting burden of upbringing for adoptive parents.

    PubMed

    Hoksbergen, René; Rijk, Kathinka; Van Dijkum, Cor; Ter Laak, Jan

    2004-06-01

    Seventy-two Dutch adoptive parents of 80 Romanian children completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Nijmegen Questionnaire for the Upbringing Situation (NQUS), and participated in a semistructured interview (response 83%). Thirty-four percent of the adopted children scored in the clinical range on Externalizing and 36 % on Total Problems scales. Significantly more children who were at least two years at placement and had stayed less than five years in the adoptive family received scores in the clinical range on almost all CBCL clinical clusters. Nevertheless, the adoptive parents judge their upbringing situation positive (NQUS).

  5. Association of age-of-onset groups with GWAS significant schizophrenia and bipolar disorder loci in Romanian bipolar I patients.

    PubMed

    Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Maria; Diaconu, Carmen C; Heilmann-Heimbach, Stefanie; Neagu, Ana Iulia; Becker, Tim

    2015-12-30

    We investigated the influence of the age-of-onset (AO) on the association of 45 loci conferring risk for bipolar disorder (BP) and schizophrenia with BP-type-I in a Romanian sample (461 patients, 436 controls). The AO-analysis implicated the EGFR gene, as well as loci in other genes, in the AO variation of BP-type-I and revealed for the first time the link between BP-type-I and risk variants considered specific to schizophrenia (polymorphisms in MMP16/RIPK2 and CNNM2 genes).

  6. The Mineral Physics Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineral Physics Committee members for the period July 1, 1986, to J ne 30, 1988, have been announced. They are Murli H. Manghnani (Hawaii Institute of Geophysics, Honolulu), and Orson L. Anderson (University of California, Los Angeles), Thomas J. Ahrens (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif.), Subir K. Banerjee (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis), William A. Bassett (Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.), Gordon E. Brown, Jr. (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.), Michael Brown (University of Washington, Seattle), Robert M. Hazen (Geophysical Laboratory, Washington, D.C.), Raymond F. Jeanloz (University of California, Berkeley), Robert C. Liebermann (State University of New York (SUNY),(Stony Brook), Alexandra Navrotsky (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.), Robert N. Schock (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif.), and Donald J. Weidner (SUNY Stony Brook).

  7. The Brazilian mineral resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beurlen, Hartmut; Cassedanne, Jacques Pierre

    1981-04-01

    The activity of the first generation of Brazilian geologists began in the early sixties. Systematic exploration work since then has evidenced some important new mineral reserves in Brazil. The most important examples are the 18 × 10 9 tons of high-grade iron ore (Carajás District), formed by supergene enrichment on iron formations older than 1800 m.y., the 2.5 × 10 9 tons of bauxite and similar reserves of kaolinite as residual enrichment in Cenozoic sediments in the Amazonas Basin (Oriximina, Capim); the potash and magnesium-rich evaporites near Aracajú(Sergipe); the large residual concentrations of phosphate, anatase, pyrochlore and rare earths related to Cretaceous alkaline complexes with carbonatites; and some garnierite and asbestos deposits related to ultramafic rocks in the states of Goiás and Piauí.

  8. Protein- mediated enamel mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Enamel is a hard nanocomposite bioceramic with significant resilience that protects the mammalian tooth from external physical and chemical damages. The remarkable mechanical properties of enamel are associated with its hierarchical structural organization and its thorough connection with underlying dentin. This dynamic mineralizing system offers scientists a wealth of information that allows the study of basic principals of organic matrix-mediated biomineralization and can potentially be utilized in the fields of material science and engineering for development and design of biomimetic materials. This chapter will provide a brief overview of enamel hierarchical structure and properties as well as the process and stages of amelogenesis. Particular emphasis is given to current knowledge of extracellular matrix protein and proteinases, and the structural chemistry of the matrix components and their putative functions. The chapter will conclude by discussing the potential of enamel for regrowth. PMID:22652761

  9. Pneumoconiosis of shale miners.

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, A; Lamb, D; Brown, W R; Sclare, G; Middleton, W G

    1981-01-01

    Four patients are described in whom pneumoconiosis was diagnosed towards the end of a lifetime's work in shale mines. All developed complicated pneumoconiosis, diagnosed in two cases at necropsy, in one by lobectomy, and in one radiologically. Two of the patients were found at necropsy also to have peripheral squamous lung cancer.The clinical and histological features of the disease resembled the pneumoconioses of coalminers and kaolin workers and the lungs of three of the patients were shown to contain dust composed predominantly of kaolinite, mica, and silica. Shale miners' complicated pneumoconiosis has not previously been described. Although the British shale industry is now defunct, oil production from shale is expanding in other countries, notably the USA. It is suggested that control should be exercised over dust exposure levels in this industry and that epidemiological studies should be carried out to quantify the risks of both pneumoconiosis and bronchial carcinoma. Images PMID:7314011

  10. Mineralization by nanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajander, E. Olavi; Bjorklund, Michael; Ciftcioglu, Neva

    1998-07-01

    Nanobacteria are the smallest cell-walled bacteria, only recently discovered in human and cow blood and in commercial cell culture serum. In this study, we identified with energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis and chemical analysis that all growth phases of nanobacteria produce biogenic apatite on their cell envelope. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed the mineral as carbonate apatite. Previous models for stone formation have lead to a hypothesis that an elevated pH due to urease and/or alkaline phosphatase activity are important lithogenic factors. Our results indicate that carbonate apatite can be formed without these factors at pH 7.4 at physiological phosphate and calcium concentrations. Due to their specific macromolecules, nanobacteria can produce apatite very efficiency in media mimicking tissue fluids and glomerular filtrate and rapidly mineralizing most of available calcium and phosphate. This can be also monitored by (superscript 85)Sr incorporation and provides a unique model for in vitro studies on calcification. Recently, bacteria have been implicated in the formation of carbonate (hydroxy)fluorapatite in marine sediments. Apatite grains are found so commonly in sedimentary rocks that apatite is omitted in naming the stone. To prove that apatite and other minerals are formed by bacteria would implicate that the bacteria could be observed and their actions followed in stones. We have started to approach this in two ways. Firstly, by the use of sensitive methods for detecting specific bacterial components, like antigens, muramic acid and nucleic acids, that allow for detecting the presence of bacteria and, secondly, by follow-up of volatile bacterial metabolites observed by continuous monitoring with ion mobility spectrometry, IMCELL, working like an artificial, educatable smelling nose. The latter method might allow for remote real time detection of bacterial metabolism, a signature of life, in rocks via fractures of drillholes with or without

  11. Thermodynamic properties of minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, Richard A.

    1962-01-01

    In the ten years since the publication of the national Bureau of Standards comprehensive tables of thermochemical properties, by Rossini and other (1952), a very large body of modern calorimetric and equilibrium data has become available. Because of the complex interrelations among many thermochemical data and the necessity for internal consistency among these values, a complete revision of this standard reference is required. This is also true of the summaries of thermochemical data for the sulfides (Richardson and Jeffes 1952) and for the oxides (Coughlin 1954). The following tables present critically selected values for the heat and free energy of formation, the logarithm of the equilibrium constant of formation Log Kf, the entropy and the molar volume, at 298.15°K (25.0°C) and one atmosphere for minerals.

  12. Minerals yearbook, 1988: Thorium

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Mine production of monazite, the principal source of thorium, decreased slightly in 1988. Associated Minerals (USA) Inc. was the only domestic monazite producer. Monazite produced in the United States was exported, and the thorium products used domestically were derived from imported materials, existing company stocks, and thorium nitrate released from the National Defense Stockpile. Major nonenergy uses were in refractory applications, ceramics, and mantles for incandescent lanterns. The only energy use of thorium in the United States was in the high-temperature gas-cooled (HTGC) nuclear reactor at Fort St. Vrain, CO. Topics discussed in the report include domestic data coverage, legislation and government programs, domestic production, consumption and uses, stocks, prices, foreign trade, world capacity, and world review--(Australia, Brazil, Madagascar, Mozambique).

  13. The minerals of milk.

    PubMed

    Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    The salt of milk constitutes a small part of milk (8-9 g.L(-1)); this fraction contains calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium for the main cations and inorganic phosphate, citrate and chloride for the main anions. In milk, these ions are more or less associated between themselves and with proteins. Depending on the type of ion, they are diffusible (cases of sodium, potassium and chloride) or partially associated with casein molecules (cases of calcium, magnesium, phosphate and citrate), to form large colloidal particles called casein micelles. Today, our knowledge and understanding concerning this fraction is relatively complete. In this review, the different models explaining (i) the nature and distribution of these minerals (especially calcium phosphate) in both fractions of milk and (ii) their behaviour in different physico-chemical conditions, are discussed.

  14. pH-Dependent Metal Ion Toxicity Influences the Antibacterial Activity of Two Natural Mineral Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Tanya M.; Koehl, Jennifer L.; Summers, Jack S.; Haydel, Shelley E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent studies have demonstrated that several mineral products sold for medicinal purposes demonstrate antimicrobial activity, but little is known about the physicochemical properties involved in antibacterial activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Using in vitro mineral suspension testing, we have identified two natural mineral mixtures, arbitrarily designated BY07 and CB07, with antibacterial activity against a broad-spectrum of bacterial pathogens. Mineral-derived aqueous leachates also exhibited antibacterial activity, revealing that chemical, not physical, mineral characteristics were responsible for the observed activity. The chemical properties essential for bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli were probed by testing antibacterial activity in the presence of metal chelators, the hydroxyl radical scavenger, thiourea, and varying pH levels. Chelation of the BY07 minerals with EDTA or desferrioxamine eliminated or reduced BY07 toxicity, respectively, suggesting a role of an acid-soluble metal species, particularly Fe3+ or other sequestered metal cations, in mineral toxicity. This conclusion was supported by NMR relaxation data, which indicated that BY07 and CB07 leachates contained higher concentrations of chemically accessible metal ions than leachates from non-bactericidal mineral samples. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the acidic environment of the hydrated minerals significantly contributes to antibacterial activity by increasing the availability and toxicity of metal ions. These findings provide impetus for further investigation of the physiological effects of mineral products and their applications in complementary antibacterial therapies. PMID:20209160

  15. Herbal medicinal oils in traditional Persian medicine.

    PubMed

    Hamedi, Azadeh; Zarshenas, Mohammad M; Sohrabpour, Maryam; Zargaran, Arman

    2013-09-01

    In Iran, conventional production methods of herbal oils are widely used by local practitioners. Administration of oils is rooted in traditional knowledge with a history of more than 3000 years. Scientific evaluation of these historical documents can be valuable for finding new potential use in current medicine. The current study (i) compiled an inventory of herbal oils used in ancient and medieval Persia and (ii) compared the preparation methods and therapeutic applications of ancient times to current findings of medicinal properties in the same plant species. Information on oils, preparation methods and related clinical administration was obtained from ancient Persian documents and selected manuscripts describing traditional Persian medicine. Moreover, we investigated the efficacy of medicinal plant species used for herbal oils through a search of the PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases. In Iran, the application of medicinal oils date back to ancient times. In medieval Persian documents, 51 medicinal oils produced from 31 plant species, along with specific preparation methods, were identified. Flowers, fruits and leaves were most often used. Herbal oils have been traditionally administered via oral, topical and nasal routes for gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and neural diseases, respectively. According to current investigations, most of the cited medicinal plant species were used for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Medicinal oils are currently available in Iranian medicinal plant markets and are prepared using traditional procedures for desirable clinical outcomes. Other than historical clarification, the present study provides data on clinical applications of the oils that should lead to future opportunities to investigate their potential medicinal use.

  16. Crustal thickness variation beneath the Romanian seismic network from Rayleigh wave dispersion and receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tataru, Dragos; Grecu, Bogdan; Zaharia, Bogdan

    2014-05-01

    Variations in crustal thickness in Romania where determined by joint inversion of P wave receiver functions (RFs) and Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion. We present new models of shear wave velocity structure of the crust beneath Romanian broad band stations. The data set consist in more than 500 teleseismic earthquake with epicentral distance between 30° and 95°, magnitude greater than 6 and a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 3 for the P-wave pulse. Most epicenters are situated along the northern Pacific Rim and arrive with backazimuths (BAZs) between 0° and 135° at the Romanian seismic network. We combine receiver functions with fundamental-mode of the Rayleigh wave group velocities to further constrain the shear-wave velocity structure.To extract the group velocities we applied the Multiple Filter Technique analysis to the vertical components of the earthquakes recordings. This technique allowed us to identify the Rayleigh wave fundamental mode and to compute the dispersion curves of the group velocities at periods between 10 and 150 s allowing us to resolve shear wave velocities to a depth of 100 km. The time-domain iterative deconvolution procedure of Ligorrıa and Ammon (1999) was employed to deconvolve the vertical component of the teleseismic P waveforms from the corresponding horizontal components and obtain radial and transverse receiver functions at each broadband station. The data are inverted using a joint, linearized inversion scheme (Hermann, 2002) which accounts for the relative influence of each set of observations, and allows a trade-off between fitting the observations, constructing a smooth model, and matching a priori constraints. The results show a thin crust for stations located inside the Pannonian basin (28-30 km) and a thicker crust for those in the East European Platform (36-40 km). The stations within the Southern and Central Carpathian Orogen are characterized by crustal depths of ~35 km. For stations located in the Northern

  17. Chinese herbal medicines for treating osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Jian Ping; Xia, Yun

    2014-03-06

    , Zhuangguqiangjin tablets and Shujinbogu tablets plus calcitonin ampoule versus calcitonin ampoule. The results were inconsistent.One trial showed that Bushenhuoxue therapy plus calcium carbonate tablets and alfacalcidol had a better effect on quality of life score (scale 0 to 100, higher is better) than calcium carbonate tablets and alfacalcidol (mean difference (MD) 5.30; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.67 to 6.93).Compared with placebo in three separate trials, Chinese herbal medicines (Migu decoction, Bushen Yigu soft extract, Kanggusong capsules) showed a statistically significant increase in bone mineral density (BMD) (e.g. Kanggusong capsules, MD 0.06 g/cm(3); 95% CI 0.02 to 0.10). Compared with no intervention in five trials, only two showed that Chinese herbal medicines had a statistically significant effect on increase in BMD (e.g. Shigu yin, MD 0.08 g/cm(3); 95% CI 0.03 to 0.13). Compared with conventional medicine in 61 trials, 23 showed that Chinese herbal medicines had a statistically significant effect on increase in BMD. In 48 trials evaluating Chinese herbal medicines plus western medication against western medication, 26 showed better effects of the combination therapy on increase in BMD.No trial reported death or serious adverse events of Chinese herbal medicines, while some trials reported minor adverse effects such as nausea, diarrhoea, etc. Current findings suggest that the beneficial effect of Chinese herbal medicines in improving BMD is still uncertain and more rigorous studies are warranted.

  18. Individualized medicine, health medicine, and constitutional theory in Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi

    2012-03-01

    The patterns of modern science and changes in the medical model can result in the transformation of the current state of individualized and health medicines into being the primary trend in medical development. Chinese and Western medical systems are dissimilar in terms of value orientations, thinking style, and research directions because of their different historical and cultural backgrounds. Individualized treatment in modern medicine is mainly established based on individual genome information and the differences in mononucleotide polymorphisms. However, such treatment method is expensive, creates an uncertain genetic marker, and leads to different result interpretations, among other problems. The Chinese constitutional theory developed in the 1970s expresses the principle behind Chinese health medicine and individual treatment and provides the corresponding methods. The Chinese constitutional theory divides the constitution of the Chinese population into nine categories based on established classification criteria. It promotes the study of the relationship of each constitution to diseases and Chinese medicine preparation toward adjusting the constitution and preventing diseases. The theory also provides methods and tools for individualized treatment. Constitution identification shows the direction and provides the core technology for the evaluation of the health status. By combining the developments in modern biotechnology, new diagnostic techniques and treatment models of constitution-differentiation, disease-differentiation, and syndrome-differentiation can be established for the development of individualized Chinese medicine treatment and health medicine for the international medical community.

  19. Veterinary medicines: product update.

    PubMed

    2014-04-05

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues.

  20. Veterinary medicines: product update.

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues.