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Sample records for rome italy including

  1. Indoor PAHs at schools, homes and offices in Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romagnoli, P.; Balducci, C.; Perilli, M.; Gherardi, M.; Gordiani, A.; Gariazzo, C.; Gatto, M. P.; Cecinato, A.

    2014-08-01

    Indoor and outdoor concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with PM2.5 particles were monitored in three microenvironments (schools, homes and offices) in the city of Rome, Italy, between winter 2011 and summer 2012. Molecular signatures and indoor/outdoor concentration ratios of PAHs were investigated, with special emphasis on carcinogenic congeners. At indoor locations, total PAHs ranged, on average, from 1.8 to 8.4 ng/m3 in winter and from 0.30 to 1.35 ng/m3 in spring/summer. Outdoors, total PAH concentrations were found to reach 6.3-17.9 ng/m3 in winter and 0.42-1.74 ng/m3 in spring-summer. Indoors, the concentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was as high as 1.1 ng/m3 in winter and below 0.1 ng/m3 in the warm season, independently of site type; the yearly average remained below the European guideline value. The indoor/outdoor concentration ratios of individual compounds were lower than one for most of congeners, suggesting that outdoor sources were predominant. Nonetheless, the percentages of PAH compounds changed with sites and seasons; in particular, in spring/summer, the concentration of BaP at our sites was more than twice that recorded at the regional network stations.

  2. [Validation of a questionnaire to assess consumer satisfaction with mammography screening, Rome (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Semyonov, Leda; Boggi, Roberto; Napoli, Massimo; Ravelli, Giuliana; Fulgenzi, Roberta; Landi, Adelaide; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Only 40% of women in the territory of the Local Health Unit RMA (Rome, Italy) adhere to the local breast cancer screening programme. A questionnaire was administered to participating women, to assess their level of satisfaction with the programme. A descriptive analysis, logistic regression and reliability analysis using the Cronbach's alpha as a measure of internal consistency, were performed. Most women who adhere to mammography screening are employers, retired, and with a low education. Factors that affect adherence include receiving a letter of invitation, intent to participate, age, and low education. The questionnaire is reliable for evaluating reasons affecting participation.

  3. Rome: sinkhole events and network of underground cavities (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisio, Stefania; Ciotoli, Giancarlo

    2016-04-01

    The anthropogenic sinkholes in the city of Rome are closely linked to the network of underground cavities produced by human activities in more than two thousand years of history. Over the past fifteen years the increased frequency of intense rainfall events, favors sinkhole formation. The risk assessment induced by anthropogenic sinkhole is really difficult. However, a susceptibility of the territory to sinkholes can be more easily determined as the probability that an event may occur in a given space, with unique geological-morphological characteristics, and in an infinite time. A sinkhole susceptibility map of the Rome territory, up to the ring road, has been constructed by using Geographically Weighted Regression technique and geostatistics. The spatial regression model includes the analysis of more than 2700 anthropogenic sinkholes (recorded from 1875 to 2015), as well as geological, morphological, hydrological and predisposing anthropogenic characteristics of the study area. The numerous available data (underground cavities, the ancient entrances to the quarry, bunkers, etc.) facilitate the creation of a series of maps. The density map of the cavity, updated to 2015, showed that more than 20 km2 of the Roman territory are affected by underground cavities. The census of sinkholes (over 2700) shows that over 30 km2 has been affected by sinkholes. The final susceptibility map highlights that inside the Ring Road about 40 km2 of the territory (about 11%) have a very high probability of triggering a sinkhole event. The susceptibility map was also compared with the data of ground subsidence (InSAR) to obtain a predictive model.

  4. Air pollution and daily mortality in Rome, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Michelozzi, P.; Forastiere, F.; Fusco, D.; Perucci, C. A.; Ostro, B.; Ancona, C.; Pallotti, G.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the relation between several daily indicators of air pollution (particulates and gases) and daily mortality in the metropolitan area of Rome and in the central part of the city. METHODS: Time series analysis. The associations between daily concentrations of pollutants (particles, SO2, NO2, CO, O3) recorded by five fixed monitors and daily total mortality in the period from January 1992 to June 1995 were evaluated. The analysis included examination of the pollution effect on mortality by place of residence within the metropolitan area, by season, age, place of death (in and out a hospital), and cause of death (cardiovascular and respiratory disease). The Poisson model included loses smooth functions of the day of study, mean temperature, mean humidity, and indicator variables for day of the week and holidays. RESULTS: The mean daily number of deaths was 56.9 (44.8 among people > or = 65 years old). A mean of 36.3 deaths occurred in the city centre; 37.3 deaths a day were recorded in a hospital. Total mortality was significantly associated with a 10 micrograms/m3 increase in particles (0.4%) on that day (log 0), and with a 10 micrograms/m3 increase in NO2 at lag 1 (0.3%) and lag 2 (0.4%) (1 and 2 days before, respectively). The effect of particles (lag 0) and of NO2 (lag 2) on total mortality was higher among those living in the city centre (0.7% and 0.5%, respectively). The risk estimates were higher in the warmer season (1.0% and 1.1%, respectively), whereas no difference was found for those dying in or out of the hospital. The effect of particles was robust to a sensitivity analysis and to the inclusion of NO2 in the regression model. CONCLUSIONS: Increase in particulates and NO2, generated by the same mobile combustion sources, is associated with a short term increase in mortality in Rome. The effect is more evident among residents in the city centre, where the levels of exposure to pollutants recorded by fixed monitors are probably more

  5. Biologically effective surface UV climatology at Rome and Aosta, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siani, Anna Maria; Modesti, Sarah; Casale, Giuseppe Rocco; Diemoz, Henri; Colosimo, Alfredo

    2013-05-01

    Given the beneficial and harmful effects of UV radiation on human health, our study aims to provide a characterization of erythemal and vitamin D dose rates at two Italian sites, Rome and Aosta, subject to quite different environmental conditions. Based on the respective UV climatologies, exposure times needed to induce erythema or vitamin D photoproduction are provided as a function of the UV index.

  6. Earthquake prediction rumors can help in building earthquake awareness: the case of May the 11th 2011 in Rome (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, A.; Arcoraci, L.; Casarotti, E.; Cultrera, G.; Di Stefano, R.; Margheriti, L.; Nostro, C.; Selvaggi, G.; May-11 Team

    2012-04-01

    Banner headlines in an Italian newspaper read on May 11, 2011: "Absence boom in offices: the urban legend in Rome become psychosis". This was the effect of a large-magnitude earthquake prediction in Rome for May 11, 2011. This prediction was never officially released, but it grew up in Internet and was amplified by media. It was erroneously ascribed to Raffaele Bendandi, an Italian self-taught natural scientist who studied planetary motions and related them to earthquakes. Indeed, around May 11, 2011, there was a planetary alignment and this increased the earthquake prediction credibility. Given the echo of this earthquake prediction, INGV decided to organize on May 11 (the same day the earthquake was predicted to happen) an Open Day in its headquarter in Rome to inform on the Italian seismicity and the earthquake physics. The Open Day was preceded by a press conference two days before, attended by about 40 journalists from newspapers, local and national TV's, press agencies and web news magazines. Hundreds of articles appeared in the following two days, advertising the 11 May Open Day. On May 11 the INGV headquarter was peacefully invaded by over 3,000 visitors from 9am to 9pm: families, students, civil protection groups and many journalists. The program included conferences on a wide variety of subjects (from social impact of rumors to seismic risk reduction) and distribution of books and brochures, in addition to several activities: meetings with INGV researchers to discuss scientific issues, visits to the seismic monitoring room (open 24h/7 all year), guided tours through interactive exhibitions on earthquakes and Earth's deep structure. During the same day, thirteen new videos have also been posted on our youtube/INGVterremoti channel to explain the earthquake process and hazard, and to provide real time periodic updates on seismicity in Italy. On May 11 no large earthquake happened in Italy. The initiative, built up in few weeks, had a very large feedback

  7. Landscape changes and natural hazards affecting the Pincio hill (Rome, Italy) in historical times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarino, Paolo Maria; Lucarini, Mauro; Spizzichino, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses on preliminary results achieved by means of a research project carried out by ISPRA in collaboration with Soprintendenza Capitolina (the Cultural Heritage Capitoline Superintendence), aimed at defining an interpretative model of natural and anthropic evolution of the Pincio Hill (Rome, Italy) during the last 2,500 years. The study area is located in the NE sector of the city of Rome and includes the Pincio hill Cultural Heritage site and the surrounding area of the Tiber River flood plain. The Pincio Hill is a very interesting case of interplay among: i) natural landscape setting; ii) historical urban transformations; iii) human activity and recurrence of natural hazard events impacting heavily on the territory since ancient times. During the last decades, designs of new areas to be allocated for underground parking jointly with new archaeological excavations surveys have allowed the acquisition of a large amount of new data. The study has been carried out through a new reinterpretation of recently drilled boreholes stratigraphic logs and the conspicuous related archaeological literature. The main outcome of the research activities are summarized as below. Concerning the top of the hill, latest archaeological excavations brought to the light traces of ancient structures and settlements dating from the Archaic period until the fourth century AD, highlighting the facto the character of strong agricultural and landscape appeal that have involved the western sector of the Pincio hill since the ancient times, without evidence of relevant alterations of the original landscape. In the slope sector, the information coming from geotechnical survey allowed the reconstruction of isochronous surfaces inside of landfills, divided according to their age. The profile of the slope below the landfill from the Roman period seems very steep and irregular, in strong contrast to the medieval one and the current one, characterized by multiple succession of terraces. In

  8. Molecular characterization of hepatitis A outbreak in the province of Rome, Lazio region, Italy, January-July 2013.

    PubMed

    Capobianchi, Maria R; Garbuglia, Anna Rosa; Agrati, Chiara; Rianda, Alessia; Noto, Pasquale; Corpolongo, Angela; Cataldo, Maria Adriana; Rosati, Silvia; Zaccaro, Paola; Loffredo, Mariarosaria; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Girardi, Enrico; Scognamiglio, Paola; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    Reduced circulation of hepatitis A virus lead to an increase of susceptible individuals, and outbreaks occurred recently. In Northern Italy an outbreak is ongoing, attributed to a monophyletic genotype IA strain, with mixed frozen berries as probable source. From 01/01/2013 to 07/15/2013, 30 cases were diagnosed at National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Rome, Italy, representing about twice the number of cases in whole 2012. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that most, although not all, infections were attributable to the same monophyletic genotype IA strain identified in the contemporary Northern Italy outbreak. This strain is also very similar to previous isolates from Venezuela.

  9. Molecular epidemiology of Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases isolated in Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Carattoli, Alessandra; García-Fernández, Aurora; Varesi, Paola; Fortini, Daniela; Gerardi, Serena; Penni, Adriano; Mancini, Carlo; Giordano, Alessandra

    2008-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are a major problem in many different hospitals worldwide, causing outbreaks as well as sporadic infections. The prevalence of Escherichia coli ESBL producers was analyzed in a surveillance study performed on the population attending the Policlinico Umberto I, the largest university hospital in Rome, Italy. We also investigated genotypes, pathogenicity islands, and plasmids in the ESBL-positive E. coli isolates as further markers that are useful in describing the epidemiology of the infections. In this survey, 163 nonreplicate isolates of Escherichia coli were isolated from patients from 86 different wards, and 28 were confirmed as ESBL producers. A high prevalence (26/28) of CTX-M-15 producers was observed within the bacterial population circulating in this hospital, and the dissemination of this genetic trait was associated with the spread of related strains; however, these do not have the characteristics of a single epidemic clone spreading. The dissemination was also linked to horizontal transfer among the prevalent E. coli genotypes of multireplicon plasmids showing FIA, FIB, and FII replicons in various combinations, which are well adapted to the E. coli species. The analysis of related bacteria suggests a probable interpatient transmission occurring in several wards, causing small outbreaks. PMID:17959756

  10. Antitoxin use and pediatric intensive care for viper bites in Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Marano, M; Pisani, M; Stoppa, F; Di Nardo, M; Pirozzi, N; Luca, E; Pulitanò, S; Conti, G; Marzano, L; De Luca, D; Valentini, P; Pietrini, D; Piastra, M

    2014-01-01

    In Italy viper bites represent an uncommon event, though envenomation can cause severe complications, more in children than adults, because of dose/body size ratio. We present a case series within a selected population: 10 Italian cases (from Rome surroundings) of viperbites requiring PICU admission, over a 5-year interval. Five children showed a systemic involvement, whereas the remaining patients showed a damage. All were managed and closely monitored in an ICU setting. Relevant clinical findings and therapeutic approach, ICU course and complications have been recorded. Age range was 3-15 years with mean age of 6,9 (SD±4,58) years; 2 patients needed respiratory support beyond oxygen supplementation. Most patients underwent fluid loading, while hemodynamic support was given to4/10. Median PICU stay was 60 hours (IQR=24.0-75.5). No mortality was reported. Indications and precautions for administration of antivenom in the last years have been reviewed: early treatment seems to reduce mortality/morbidity, though representing a threat for children. Current recommendations for the treatment of viper envenomation have been described, based on a literature's review and the application of these knowledges to clinical reality of our PICUs. Therefore, paediatric patients with systemic or rapidly evolving symptoms should be monitored carefully for the development of bite-related complications in an ICU setting mostly in younger children.

  11. Causes of death in dogs in the province of Rome (Italy).

    PubMed

    Eleni, Claudia; Scholl, Francesco; Scaramozzino, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Dogs share with humans several zoonotic diseases as well as some important determinants of degenerative syndromes and tumours. For this reason, systematic surveillance on small animal disease carried out through the collection and analysis of necropsy records could be helpful to public health. To describe the causes of death in dogs from the province of Rome (Italy) submitted to the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Lazio e della Toscana for necropsy during 2003-2007, a retrospective study was conducted on diagnostic data of 870 dogs. The final diagnosis was established by anatomo-histopathological examinations and, when needed, by ancillary laboratory tests. The most common causes of death were 'infectious disease' (23%) and 'poisoning' (17%). In 5% of the cases, the cause remained undetermined. The frequency of 'poisoning' was higher (39%) in stray dogs, while 'infectious disease' was more frequent (49%) in dogs from breeding farms. Parvovirosis was the most frequent infectious disease (33%) while anticoagulants accounted for 30% of the cases involving toxicity. Death by neoplastic lesions was quite infrequent (7%). Findings from this study provide veterinarians with an overview of the causes of death in dogs and it could provide public health authorities with new data about both novel and re-emerging threats.

  12. Petrographic, biological, and chemical techniques used to characterize two tombs in the Protestant Cemetery of Rome (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Russa, M. F.; Ruffolo, S. A.; Malagodi, M.; Barca, D.; Cirrincione, R.; Pezzino, A.; Crisci, G. M.; Miriello, D.

    2010-09-01

    In this multidisciplinary contribution, several diagnostic tests were carried out in order to characterize the stone materials, forms of alteration, and protective products applied in the past to two monumental tombs located in the Protestant Cemetery of Rome (Italy). The Protestant Cemetery is a very important historic site, and has been included in the List of 100 Most Endangered Sites in the World since 2005. In this work, two of its tombs were studied: those of Karl (or Charles) Brjullov, a Russian painter who lived in the first half of the nineteenth century, and of Lady Elisa Temple, wife of the artist Sir Grenville Temple. The tombs are both made of white marble and travertine, and the same forms of alteration and degradation, such as blackish biological patinas, black crusts, and chromatic alterations, were found on both monuments. Petrographic analysis of the different lithotypes made it possible to determine textural characteristics, evaluate the state of preservation, and formulate some hypotheses about their provenance by means of oxygen and carbon isotopic ratios, and evaluation of maximum grain size (MGS) and shape preferred orientation (SPO) of calcite grains. Laboratory culture analysis identified autotrophic species and, in some cases, black patinas caused by fungal species were found. Lastly, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed that some synthetic protective products had been used in previous, undocumented restoration processes on some portions of both graves.

  13. Indoor air quality at life and work environments in Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, P; Balducci, C; Perilli, M; Vichi, F; Imperiali, A; Cecinato, A

    2016-02-01

    The air quality of three different microenvironments (school, dwelling, and coffee bar) located in the city of Rome, Italy, was assessed. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with PM2.5 particles were determined during an intensive 3-week sampling campaign conducted in March 2013. In interiors, total particulate PAHs ranged from 1.53 to 4.96 ng/m(3) while outdoor air contained from 2.75 to 3.48 ng/m(3). In addition, gaseous toxicants, i.e., NO2, NOx , SO2, O3, and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene isomers), were determined both in internal and external air. To solve the origin of indoor and outdoor PAHs, several source apportionment methods were applied. Multivariate analysis revealed that emissions from motor vehicles, biomass burning for heating purposes, and soil resuspension were the major sources of PAHs in the city. No linear correlation was established between indoor and outdoor values for PM2.5 and BTEX; the respective indoor/outdoor concentration ratios exceed unity except for PM2.5 in the no smoking home and benzene in all school floors. This suggests that important internal sources such as tobacco smoking, cleaning products, and resuspension dust contributed to indoor pollution. Using the monitoring stations of ARPA Lazio regional network as reference, the percentage within PAH group of benzo[a]pyrene, which is the WHO marker for the carcinogenic risk estimates, was ca. 50% higher in all locations investigated.

  14. Indoor air quality at life and work environments in Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, P; Balducci, C; Perilli, M; Vichi, F; Imperiali, A; Cecinato, A

    2016-02-01

    The air quality of three different microenvironments (school, dwelling, and coffee bar) located in the city of Rome, Italy, was assessed. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with PM2.5 particles were determined during an intensive 3-week sampling campaign conducted in March 2013. In interiors, total particulate PAHs ranged from 1.53 to 4.96 ng/m(3) while outdoor air contained from 2.75 to 3.48 ng/m(3). In addition, gaseous toxicants, i.e., NO2, NOx , SO2, O3, and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene isomers), were determined both in internal and external air. To solve the origin of indoor and outdoor PAHs, several source apportionment methods were applied. Multivariate analysis revealed that emissions from motor vehicles, biomass burning for heating purposes, and soil resuspension were the major sources of PAHs in the city. No linear correlation was established between indoor and outdoor values for PM2.5 and BTEX; the respective indoor/outdoor concentration ratios exceed unity except for PM2.5 in the no smoking home and benzene in all school floors. This suggests that important internal sources such as tobacco smoking, cleaning products, and resuspension dust contributed to indoor pollution. Using the monitoring stations of ARPA Lazio regional network as reference, the percentage within PAH group of benzo[a]pyrene, which is the WHO marker for the carcinogenic risk estimates, was ca. 50% higher in all locations investigated. PMID:26490929

  15. Meeting report: 28th International Conference on Antiviral Research in Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Vere Hodge, R Anthony

    2015-11-01

    The 28th International Conference on Antiviral Research (ICAR) was held in Rome, Italy from May 11 to 15, 2015. This article summarizes the principal invited lectures. Phillip Furman, the Elion award recipient, described the research leading to sofosbuvir. Dennis Liotta, who received the Holý award, described how an investigation into HIV entry inhibitors led to a new therapy for cancer patients. Erica Ollmann Saphire, winner of the Prusoff Young Investigator award, explored the world of viral proteins and how they remodel to perform different essential roles in viral replication. The keynote addresses, by Raffaele De Francesco and Michael Manns, reported on the remarkable progress made in the therapy of chronic HCV infections. A third keynote address, by Armand Sprecher, related the difficulties and successes of Médicins Sans Frontières in West Africa ravaged by the Ebola outbreak. There were three mini-symposia on RNA Viruses, Antiviral Chemistry and Emerging Viruses. There was a good collection of talks on RNA viruses (norovirus, rabies, dengue, HEV, HCV, and RSV). A highlight of the chemistry was the preparation of prodrugs for nucleotide triphosphates as this opens a door to new options. The third mini-symposium emphasized how research work in the antiviral area is continuing to expand and needs to do so with a sense of urgency. Although this meeting report covers only a few of the presentations, it aims to illustrate the great diversity of topics discussed at ICAR, bringing together knowledge and expertise from the whole spectrum of antiviral research.

  16. Behaviours of psychotropic substances in indoor and outdoor environments of Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Romagnoli, Paola; Perilli, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    The intensive campaign conducted in March 2013 in Rome, Italy, at one coffee bar, one primary school and two homes revealed that in indoor environments, drugs can reach concentration levels exceeding orders of magnitude those recorded outdoors, even when the same substances are not consumed there. At homes, the gross average of cocaine reached 0.13 ng/m3 indoors and 0.09 ng/m3 outdoors (ratio~1.6); Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol was 6.6 ng/m3 indoors and 1.1 ng/m3 outdoors (ratio~7); cannabidiol reached 0.30 and 0.07 ng/m3, respectively (ratio~6); and cannabinol 2.3 ng/m3 indoors and 0.7 ng/m3 outdoors (ratio~3). At the coffee bar, the average drug burdens were even higher, namely 0.33, 4.7, 14.3 and 2.5 ng/m3, respectively, for cocaine, cannabidiol, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol. The school presented a special behaviour: the indoor/outdoor concentration ratios of cocaine, cannabidiol, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol accounting for ~1.5, ~0, ~4 and ~0.5, in the order. Cocaine was more abundant on weekdays at all sites except one home indoors, whilst total cannabinoids prevailed on weekends at the other home and the school. Using the regional network stations as reference, all indoor locations except one were more contaminated by cocaine by a factor≥1.5, whilst cannabinoids were, aside from the school, up to 100 times higher.

  17. View of northeastern Italy including Venice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A near vertical view of northeastern Italy including the Venice (Venezia) area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The mountainous area is the Dolomite Alps. The most conspicuous stream northeast of Venice is the Piave River. The city near the center of the picture on the Brenta River is Bassano del Grappa. The large city of Padua (Padova) is on the western bank of the Grenta near the clock.

  18. Development of a computerized equipment management program at Children's Hospital "Bambino Gesù" of Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Branca, F P; Cappa, P

    1993-01-01

    The main activities of the Clinical Engineering Service at the Children's Hospital "Bambino Gesù" of Rome, Italy and the computerized system developed in-house for electromedical equipment management are described here. The approach recently adopted and implemented for an objective cost/benefit evaluation of the equipment installed at the hospital is also described. The program outputs appear to be effective tools, both in evaluating maintenance costs and workload increases from new equipment installations and, more relevantly, in comparing similar equipment from different manufacturers during prepurchase evaluation.

  19. [Burnout in healthcare workers of a university teaching hospital in Rome, Italy: a cross-sectional study].

    PubMed

    Agostinelli, Alessandro; La Torre, Giuseppe; Bevilacqua, Francesca; Chiaradia, Giacomina; Specchia, Maria Lucia; Ricciardi, Walter

    2008-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the frequency of burnout in healthcare workers of a university teaching hospital in Rome (Italy), by means of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. In total 142 healthcare workers participated in the study. Average levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization were observed in the study population. Working in emergency care services was found to be correlated with lower levels of personal accomplishment with respect to working in other services. Monitoring burnout in social service and healthcare workers is an effective tool for identifying critical situations in the workplace. PMID:18379605

  20. A newly-emerged (August 2013) artificially-triggered fumarole near the Fiumicino airport, Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sella, Pio; Billi, Andrea; Mazzini, Ilaria; De Filippis, Luigi; Pizzino, Luca; Sciarra, Alessandra; Quattrocchi, Fedora

    2014-06-01

    Early in the morning of 24 August, 2013, following by hours the drilling of a shallow borehole in the same spot, a new fumarole producing emissions of CO2-rich gas, water, and mud suddenly appeared at a crossroad along the fenced area of the Fiumicino international airport of Rome, Italy. Similar episodes have been scientifically documented or simply reported in recent and past years. To understand why gases are easily entrapped in the shallow subsurface of the Fiumicino area, we used five borehole cores drilled by us, analyzed the stratigraphy of these and other nearby cores, acquired a 2D seismic refraction tomogram, and performed chemical and isotopic analyses of water samples collected from aquifers intercepted by two drilled boreholes. Our boreholes were realized with proper anti-gas measures as, while drilling, we recorded the presence of pressurized gases at a specific permeable gravel level. Results show that, in the study area, gases become mainly entrapped in a mid-Pleistocene gravel horizon at about 40-50 m depth. This horizon contains a confined aquifer that stores the endogenous upwelling gases. The gravel is interposed between two silty-clayey units. The lower unit, very hard and overconsolidated, is affected by fractures that allow ascending gases to bypass the otherwise impermeable shale, permeate the gravel, and dissolve into the aquifer. In contrast, the upper unit is impermeable to fluids and seals the gas-pressurized aquifer, which therefore constitutes a source of hazard during human activities such as well drilling, quarrying, and various building-related excavations. As the stratigraphy of the Fiumicino area is very common in large portions of the densely populated Roman area and as the adjacent volcanic districts are hydrothermally active, we conclude that phenomena similar to that observed at Fiumicino could again occur both at Fiumicino and elsewhere in the surrounding region. As a prompt confirmation of our conclusion, we signal that

  1. Evidence of active tectonics on a Roman aqueduct system (II-III century A.D.) near Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Fabrizio; Montone, Paola; Pirro, Mario; Boschi, Enzo

    2004-04-01

    In this paper we describe evidence of strong tectonic deformation affecting two aqueducts of Roman age (II-III century A.D.). The channels are located approximately 20 km northeast of Rome along the ancient Via Tiburtina. Brittle and ductile deformation affects these two structures, including extensional joint systems, NE-oriented faults, and horizontal distortion. This deformation is consistent with right-lateral movement on major N-striking faults, and represents the first evidence that tectonic deformation took place in historical times in the vicinity of Rome, with local strike-slip movement superimposed on a regional extensional fault system.

  2. Occurrence of selected pharmaceuticals in the principal sewage treatment plants in Rome (Italy) and in the receiving surface waters.

    PubMed

    Patrolecco, Luisa; Capri, Silvio; Ademollo, Nicoletta

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides data on the occurrence of selected human pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, clofibric acid, diclofenac, fenofibrate, fenoprofen, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen) including steroid hormones (17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, and estrone) in influents/effluents to/from the four principal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) serving the city of Rome (Italy), in two different sampling campaigns. Target compounds were also analyzed in the receiving River Tiber and River Aniene. Analytical determination was carried out by LC-MS/MS after sample cleanup and concentration by off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE). The aim of the study was to increase the information currently available on the presence and persistence of pharmaceuticals in Italian urban wastewaters and to evaluate the environmental impact of the pharmaceutical residues discharged through effluents into the receiving rivers. Results indicated that after the treatment processes, most of pharmaceuticals were not completely eliminated, as average removal efficiencies were in the 14-100% wide range during both sampling periods, with higher yields in spring than in winter. Levels detected in overall samples ranged from 5 to 2,230 ng/L in influents and from 5 to 1,424 ng/L in effluents. Carbamazepine, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and gemfibrozil showed the highest persistence to removal. Concentrations in the receiving waters were about one order of magnitude lower than in effluents, with a tendency to increase progressively through the urban tract of the river. Finally, an environmental risk analysis showed that carbamazepine, gemfibrozil, and estrone can pose a high risk at the concentrations detected in effluents and a medium risk in rivers, highlighting their potential hazard for the health of the aquatic ecosystem.

  3. Particulate matter concentration and chemical composition in the metro system of Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Perrino, C; Marcovecchio, F; Tofful, L; Canepari, S

    2015-06-01

    Air quality at the main station of the metro system of Rome (Termini hub) has been characterized by the point of view of particulate matter (PM) concentration and chemical composition. Indoor air in different environments (underground train platform and shopping center, metro carriages with and without air conditioning system) has been studied and compared with outdoor air at a nearby urban site. Air quality at the railway station, located outdoor at surface level, has been also considered for comparison. PM chemical characterization included ions, elemental carbon, organic carbon, macro-elements, and the bio-accessible and residual fractions of micro- and trace elements. Train platform and carriages without air conditioning resulted to be the most polluted environments, with indoor/outdoor ratio up to two orders of magnitude for many components. PM mass concentration was determined on filter membranes by the gravimetric procedure as well as from the optical particle counter (OPC) number concentration measurements. The OPC results, taken with the original calibration factor, were below 40 % of the value obtained by the gravimetric measurements. Only a chemical and morphological characterization of the collected dust could lead to a reconciliation of the results yielded by the two methods. Macro-components were used to estimate the strength of the main macro-sources. The most significant contribution is confirmed to derive from wheels, rails, and brakes abrasion; from soil re-suspension (over 50 % at the subway platform); and from organics (about 25 %). The increase in the concentration of elements was mostly due to the residual fraction, but also the bio-accessible fraction showed a remarkable enrichment, particularly in the case of Ba, Zn, Cd, and Ni. PMID:25586611

  4. Particulate matter concentration and chemical composition in the metro system of Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Perrino, C; Marcovecchio, F; Tofful, L; Canepari, S

    2015-06-01

    Air quality at the main station of the metro system of Rome (Termini hub) has been characterized by the point of view of particulate matter (PM) concentration and chemical composition. Indoor air in different environments (underground train platform and shopping center, metro carriages with and without air conditioning system) has been studied and compared with outdoor air at a nearby urban site. Air quality at the railway station, located outdoor at surface level, has been also considered for comparison. PM chemical characterization included ions, elemental carbon, organic carbon, macro-elements, and the bio-accessible and residual fractions of micro- and trace elements. Train platform and carriages without air conditioning resulted to be the most polluted environments, with indoor/outdoor ratio up to two orders of magnitude for many components. PM mass concentration was determined on filter membranes by the gravimetric procedure as well as from the optical particle counter (OPC) number concentration measurements. The OPC results, taken with the original calibration factor, were below 40 % of the value obtained by the gravimetric measurements. Only a chemical and morphological characterization of the collected dust could lead to a reconciliation of the results yielded by the two methods. Macro-components were used to estimate the strength of the main macro-sources. The most significant contribution is confirmed to derive from wheels, rails, and brakes abrasion; from soil re-suspension (over 50 % at the subway platform); and from organics (about 25 %). The increase in the concentration of elements was mostly due to the residual fraction, but also the bio-accessible fraction showed a remarkable enrichment, particularly in the case of Ba, Zn, Cd, and Ni.

  5. Children and elders exposure assessment to particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the city of Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Maria Pia; Gariazzo, Claudio; Gordiani, Andrea; L'Episcopo, Nunziata; Gherardi, Monica

    2014-12-01

    It has been amply demonstrated that exposure to fine particulate matter, containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), may have adverse effects on human health, affecting especially the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Among population, school-age children and elders present particular susceptibilities and unique exposures to environmental factors. The study presented in this paper belongs to the Project EXPAH, founded by the European (EU) LIFE+ instrument, and consists of the personal monitoring of five elementary school children and four elders during the spring and the summer/autumn of the year 2012 in the city of Rome, Italy. The average exposure, expressed as the sum of eight high-molecular-weight PAHs, resulted equal to 0.70 ng/m(3) (SD = 0.37) for children and 0.59 ng/m(3) (SD = 0.23) for the elderly people. The mean levels of gravimetric PM2.5 were equal to 23 μg/m(3) (SD = 10) and 15 μg/m(3) (SD = 4) for children and elders, respectively. During spring and summer seasons, personal BaPeq resulted well below the EU Air Quality reference value of 1 ng/m(3). The personal monitoring average values were in the same order of magnitude with available indoor and outdoor environmental data in Rome during the same periods, for both PAHs and PM2.5. The results suggest that, during non-heating seasons, the personal exposure to PAHs in the city of Rome can be mainly ascribed to the urban background, especially traffic emissions and road dust resuspension; secondhand cigarette smoke can be also considered another possible source of PAHs personal exposure.

  6. Stability and subsidence across Rome (Italy) in 2011-2013 based on COSMO-SkyMed Persistent Scatterer Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francesca, Cigna; Lasaponara, Rosa; Nicola, Masini; Pietro, Milillo; Deodato, Tapete

    2015-04-01

    Ground stability of the built environment of the city of Rome in central Italy has been extensively investigated in the last years by using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), with focus on deformation of both the monuments of the historic centre (e.g., [1-2]) and the southern residential quarters (e.g., [3]). C-band ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT ASAR time series deformation analyses brought evidence of overall stability across the town centre, except for localized deformation concentrated in areas geologically susceptible to instability (e.g. western slope of the Palatine Hill), whereas clear subsidence patterns were detected over the compressible alluvial deposits lying in proximity of the Tiber River. To retrieve an updated picture of stability and subsidence across the city, we analysed a time series of 32 COSMO-SkyMed StripMap HIMAGE, right-looking, ascending mode scenes with an image swath of 40 km, 3-m resolution and HH polarization, acquired between 21 March 2011 and 10 June 2013, with repeat cycle mostly equal to 16 days. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) processing was undertaken by using the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) as detailed in [4], and more than 310,000 radar targets (i.e. PS) were identified, with an average target density of over 2,800 PS/km2. The performance of StaMPS to retrieve satisfactory PS coverage over the urban features of interest was assessed against their orientation and visibility to the satellite Line-Of-Sight, as well as their conservation history throughout the biennial investigated (2011-2013). In this work we discuss effects due to local land cover and land use by exploiting the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) European Urban Atlas (IT001L) of Rome at 1:10,000 scale, thereby also evaluating the capability of the X-band to spatially resolve targets coinciding with man-made structures in vegetated areas. Based on this assessment, our PSI results highlight those environmental

  7. Gaseous ammonia in the urban area of Rome, Italy and its relationship with traffic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrino, C.; Catrambone, M.; Di Menno Di Bucchianico, A.; Allegrini, I.

    The atmospheric concentration of gaseous ammonia has been measured during selected field campaigns from the spring of 2001 to the spring of 2002 in the urban area of Rome, at many traffic sites and at an urban background site. The concentration level at the traffic sites was in all cases about five times the background level and always much higher than the concentration in a rural near-city area. The time trend of ammonia is well correlated with the trend of a primary low-reactivity pollutant such as carbon monoxide. The concentration values of both pollutants depend on the intensity of traffic emission and on the atmospheric mixing in the boundary layer. Ammonia concentration is also dependent on the air temperature. A close link between NH 3 and CO air values has been confirmed at all the measurement stations of the Air Quality Network of Rome. These results indicate that the emissions from petrol-engine vehicles equipped with catalytic converters can be an important source of ammonia in urban areas. The implications of these findings for the chemistry of the urban atmosphere need to be carefully considered.

  8. [The Day Service as a tool to reduce inappropriateness of care: the experience of a research hospital in Rome (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Cadeddu, Chiara; Specchia, Maria Lucia; Principi, Francesca; Marchini, Raffaele; Cerimele, Marina; Ricciardi, Walter; Cavuto, Costanza

    2015-01-01

    The Day Service was established in Italy to promote appropriateness of care and consists in the delivery of packages of complex outpatient services. A Working Group for the continuous improvement of pre-hospitalization activities of the Regina Elena Scientific Institute in Rome, Italy, established that the outpatient management of surgical patients in the hospital would occur in a Day Service, through a package of services identified at the regional level or appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic pathways. This article describes the experience of the hospital's Day Service and compares results from the last four months of 2013 with those of the first four months of 2014. The introduction of a Day Service has led to a reduction in the number of inappropriate pre-admission tests (mainly computerized tomography, magnetic resonance and Positron emission scans and scintigraphy) and this has had a positive impact not only in terms of organization, reduction of hospital stay and overall hospitalization-related activities, but also from an economic standpoint. The implementation of a Day Service has also improved the overall patient experience, from an organizational point of view, and this is an important aspect, considering that patients at the Regina Elena Scientific Institute are oncological patients, they are often elderly and most reside in other Italian regions.

  9. Turning the rumor of May 11, 2011 earthquake prediction In Rome, Italy, into an information day on earthquake hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, A.; Cultrera, G.; Margheriti, L.; Nostro, C.; Selvaggi, G.; INGVterremoti Team

    2011-12-01

    A devastating earthquake had been predicted for May 11, 2011 in Rome. This prediction was never released officially by anyone, but it grew up in the Internet and was amplified by media. It was erroneously ascribed to Raffaele Bendandi, an Italian self-taught natural scientist who studied planetary motions. Indeed, around May 11, 2011, a planetary alignment was really expected and this contributed to give credibility to the earthquake prediction among people. During the previous months, INGV was overwhelmed with requests for information about this supposed prediction by Roman inhabitants and tourists. Given the considerable mediatic impact of this expected earthquake, INGV decided to organize an Open Day in its headquarter in Rome for people who wanted to learn more about the Italian seismicity and the earthquake as natural phenomenon. The Open Day was preceded by a press conference two days before, in which we talked about this prediction, we presented the Open Day, and we had a scientific discussion with journalists about the earthquake prediction and more in general on the real problem of seismic risk in Italy. About 40 journalists from newspapers, local and national tv's, press agencies and web news attended the Press Conference and hundreds of articles appeared in the following days, advertising the 11 May Open Day. The INGV opened to the public all day long (9am - 9pm) with the following program: i) meetings with INGV researchers to discuss scientific issues; ii) visits to the seismic monitoring room, open 24h/7 all year; iii) guided tours through interactive exhibitions on earthquakes and Earth's deep structure; iv) lectures on general topics from the social impact of rumors to seismic risk reduction; v) 13 new videos on channel YouTube.com/INGVterremoti to explain the earthquake process and give updates on various aspects of seismic monitoring in Italy; vi) distribution of books and brochures. Surprisingly, more than 3000 visitors came to visit INGV

  10. Deformation of a Roman Aqueduct (II-III Century A.D.) near Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montone, P.; Florindo, F.; Marra, F.

    2002-12-01

    Along the modern trace of the Tiburtina road, approximately 20 km north-east of the city of Rome, recent archaeological diggings have brought to light a system of aqueduct galleries constructed by roman engineers (II-III century A.D). Two narrow water channels (A and B) of this aqueduct system were strongly deformed by tectonic movement that occurred subsequent to their construction. The archaeological site falls inside the Acque Albule basin (AAB): a travertine plateau, upper Pleistocene in age with a medium thickness of approximately 60 m. The AAB has been interpreted as a rhomb-shaped pull-apart basin (7 km long, 4 km wide) created by strike-slip faulting within a N-S shear zone that crosses the Rome area. Its evolution is attributed to Middle-Upper Pleistocene times. The principal N-S water channel (A) evidences both brittle (extensive) and ductile (compressive) deformations, whereas the shorter channel (B) to the south-west reveals predominantly ductile deformations associated with compression. A detailed survey of the A channel indicates a segmented course along the length of the entire structure, with orientations ranging between N10°E and N10°W, and with one section oriented at N35°W. The smaller B channel situated to the south-west of the principal excavation indicates that deformation can be linked to transverse compression resulting in a restriction and rotation of the structure. The geometry of the deformation pattern and the brittle structures affecting the surrounding rock, the presence of sections deformed in a ductile manner, the segmentation of the two channels into tracts rotated in different directions, the narrowing of an internal section of the B channel orientated N15°W, are all elements compatible with strike-slip tectonics. To provide additional quantitative support for these observations, 3 sites (35 samples) were drilled, for paleomagnetic and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility analyses, in the "Pozzolane Rosse" Formation (457

  11. [Vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella in a Roma people camp in Rome, Italy].

    PubMed

    Spadea, A; Morciano, L; Serino, L; Franco, E

    2011-01-01

    The immunization strategy aimed to the elimination of Measles and the prevention of Congenital Rubella failed to reach the planned objectives in Europe; in Italy the renewed National Elimination Plan (PNEMoRc 2010-2015) has been recently approved. The evaluation of a preventive intervention to avoid the spread of measles in a Roma people camp confirm the importance of specific vaccination in high risk populations, like nomads, in which low coverage rates are responsible for the maintenance of the disease.

  12. Testing the Potential of Integrated Field-Emission Electron Microscopy and Magnetic Analyses to Assess Airborne Particulate Matter Pollution in Rome (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagnotti, L.; Taddeucci, J.

    2008-12-01

    Recent environmental magnetic studies on airborne particulate matter (PM) in Rome (Italy) proved that rock magnetic parameters may be useful proxies to delineate the degree and extent of air pollution. These studies also indicated that the main source of magnetic PM is represented by circulating vehicles and that the concentration of fine magnetic PM particles decrease rapidly away from high traffic roads. Rock magnetic data reveal that the main PM magnetic particles in Rome consist of magnetite-like grains with a uniform composition and grain size distribution. However, the rock magnetic data also show that the assumption that pure magnetite is the only magnetic phase on anthropogenic magnetic PM is overly simplistic and suggest that the chemical composition and structure of anthropogenic ferrimagnetic particles may be different from those of natural particles. To better constrain the nature and origin of these magnetic particles, we carried out coupled Field-Emission Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and magnetic hysteresis analyses on PM specimens from Quercus ilex leaves and from possible sources in motor vehicles. FE-SEM analysis reveals that Fe-rich particles are generally 0.1-5 microns in size and are mostly irregularly-shaped, occasionally rounded, aggregated, or flaky, and almost invariably with a rough, moss-like surface. These morphologies are remarkably different from the typical spherical shapes of magnetic fly ashes originated by industrial combustion of black and brown coal. The composition of these particles is similar to that of stoichiometric magnetite, with FeO accounting for more than 70 wt %, but also include a variety of other elements (mostly SiO22, SO3, CuO and ZnO). Overall, the data show that the magnetic PM in Rome is composed by a mixture of particles resulting from various vehicle-derived sources. Fe-rich particles coming from three studied vehicle-derived sources (i.e., powders collected around disk brakes, and from diesel and gasoline

  13. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in fish collected from the urban tract of the river Tiber in Rome (Italy).

    PubMed

    Miniero, Roberto; Guandalini, Emilio; Dellatte, Elena; Iacovella, Nicola; Abate, Vittorio; De Luca, Silvia; Iamiceli, Anna Laura; di Domenico, Alessandro; De Felip, Elena

    2011-01-01

    European eel and chub samples were analyzed to determine the levels of non-dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (NDL-PCBs), polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs), and brominated polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in order to evaluate the extent of contamination of the river Tiber along the urban tract through the city of Rome (Italy). All samples presented detectable levels of the chemicals analyzed, and exhibited species-specific differences in terms of congener composition and total concentrations. On average the European eel presented the highest values. In this species the dioxin-like compound sums (WHO-TEQs) exceeded the pertinent maximum levels (MLs). Non-ortho PCBs constituted approximately 80% of WHO-TEQ toxicological potential whereas NDL-PCB and PBDE concentrations appeared to match values determined in other polluted aquatic ecosystems where non-point contamination sources were present. The contamination patterns determined in fish tissues seemed to reflect the impact of generic contamination source(s).

  14. Aircraft mass budgeting to measure CO2 emissions of Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Gioli, Beniamino; Carfora, Maria F; Magliulo, Vincenzo; Metallo, Maria C; Poli, Attilio A; Toscano, Piero; Miglietta, Franco

    2014-04-01

    Aircraft measurements were used to estimate the CO2 emission rates of the city of Rome, assessed against high-resolution inventorial data. Three experimental flights were made, composed of vertical soundings to measure Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) properties, and circular horizontal transects at various altitudes around the city area. City level emissions and associated uncertainties were computed by means of mass budgeting techniques, obtaining a positive net CO2 flux of 14.7 ± 4.5, 2.5 ± 1.2, and 10.3 ± 1.2 μmol m(-2) s(-1) for the three flights. Inventorial CO2 fluxes at the time of flights were computed by means of spatial and temporal disaggregation of the gross emission inventory, at 10.9 ± 2.5, 9.6 ± 1.3, and 17.4 ± 9.6 μmol m(-2) s(-1). The largest differences between the two dataset are associated with a greater variability of wind speed and direction in the boundary layer during measurements. Uncertainty partitioned into components related to horizontal boundary flows and top surface flow, revealed that the latter dominates total uncertainty in the presence of a wide variability of CO2 concentration in the free troposphere (up to 7 ppm), while it is a minor term with uniform tropospheric concentrations in the study area (within 2 ppm). Overall, we demonstrate how small aircraft may provide city level emission measurements that may integrate and validate emission inventories. Optimal atmospheric conditions and measurement strategies for the deployment of aircraft experimental flights are finally discussed.

  15. Parameterization, sensitivity analysis, and inversion: an investigation using groundwater modeling of the surface-mined Tivoli-Guidonia basin (Metropolitan City of Rome, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Vigna, Francesco; Hill, Mary C.; Rossetto, Rudy; Mazza, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    With respect to model parameterization and sensitivity analysis, this work uses a practical example to suggest that methods that start with simple models and use computationally frugal model analysis methods remain valuable in any toolbox of model development methods. In this work, groundwater model calibration starts with a simple parameterization that evolves into a moderately complex model. The model is developed for a water management study of the Tivoli-Guidonia basin (Rome, Italy) where surface mining has been conducted in conjunction with substantial dewatering. The approach to model development used in this work employs repeated analysis using sensitivity and inverse methods, including use of a new observation-stacked parameter importance graph. The methods are highly parallelizable and require few model runs, which make the repeated analyses and attendant insights possible. The success of a model development design can be measured by insights attained and demonstrated model accuracy relevant to predictions. Example insights were obtained: (1) A long-held belief that, except for a few distinct fractures, the travertine is homogeneous was found to be inadequate, and (2) The dewatering pumping rate is more critical to model accuracy than expected. The latter insight motivated additional data collection and improved pumpage estimates. Validation tests using three other recharge and pumpage conditions suggest good accuracy for the predictions considered. The model was used to evaluate management scenarios and showed that similar dewatering results could be achieved using 20 % less pumped water, but would require installing newly positioned wells and cooperation between mine owners.

  16. Parameterization, sensitivity analysis, and inversion: an investigation using groundwater modeling of the surface-mined Tivoli-Guidonia basin (Metropolitan City of Rome, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Vigna, Francesco; Hill, Mary C.; Rossetto, Rudy; Mazza, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    With respect to model parameterization and sensitivity analysis, this work uses a practical example to suggest that methods that start with simple models and use computationally frugal model analysis methods remain valuable in any toolbox of model development methods. In this work, groundwater model calibration starts with a simple parameterization that evolves into a moderately complex model. The model is developed for a water management study of the Tivoli-Guidonia basin (Rome, Italy) where surface mining has been conducted in conjunction with substantial dewatering. The approach to model development used in this work employs repeated analysis using sensitivity and inverse methods, including use of a new observation-stacked parameter importance graph. The methods are highly parallelizable and require few model runs, which make the repeated analyses and attendant insights possible. The success of a model development design can be measured by insights attained and demonstrated model accuracy relevant to predictions. Example insights were obtained: (1) A long-held belief that, except for a few distinct fractures, the travertine is homogeneous was found to be inadequate, and (2) The dewatering pumping rate is more critical to model accuracy than expected. The latter insight motivated additional data collection and improved pumpage estimates. Validation tests using three other recharge and pumpage conditions suggest good accuracy for the predictions considered. The model was used to evaluate management scenarios and showed that similar dewatering results could be achieved using 20 % less pumped water, but would require installing newly positioned wells and cooperation between mine owners.

  17. Fully exploitation of SBAS-DInSAR deformation time series for assessing structural damage: the case study of Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonano, Manuela; Arangio, Stefania; Calò, Fabiana; Di Mauro, Maria; Marsella, Maria; Manunta, Michele

    2014-05-01

    Remote sensing techniques have demonstrated to be effective tools to support natural and man-made risk mitigation activities. Among these, the Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry (DInSAR) technology is largely exploited in geoscience, oil and gas extraction, and landslide fields. Recently, thanks to the large availability of high resolution SAR systems (10 m or less), as well as to the development of advanced data processing techniques, DInSAR products have also started to be effectively used for applications in urban areas to detect localized displacements affecting single buildings and infrastructures. The advanced DInSAR technique referred to as Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) (Lanari et al., 2004) allows us to generate very long deformation time series, by exploiting large SAR datasets spanning up to 20 years (Bonano et al., 2012). Thanks to its capability to investigate wide areas, the SBAS-DInSAR technique is particularly suitable to remotely analyse the structural conditions of buildings located in densely urbanized zones. In this work, we fully exploit the results achieved over the city of Rome, Italy, through the well-established SBAS-DInSAR approach, aimed at performing a quantitative assessment of structural damage in urban areas affected by ground deformation (Arangio et al., 2013). More in details, we present an innovative methodology that integrates the SBAS-DInSAR measurements within an existing model, in order to assess the damage, and possibly estimate the future structural conditions, of single buildings affected by significant foundation settlements. In particular, a semi-empirical approach, based on a laminated beam model (Finno et al., 2005), is applied to investigate the damage of buildings located in the southern part of the city. The obtained results are in substantial agreement with in situ surveys, proving that the presented approach is an effective tool for the preliminary evaluation of the structural conditions in

  18. Conditions for long-lasting gas eruptions: The 2013 event at Fiumicino International Airport (Rome, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, G.; Carapezza, M. L.; Monica, G. Della; Todesco, M.; Tuccimei, P.; Carlucci, G.; De Benedetti, A. A.; Gattuso, A.; Lucchetti, C.; Piersanti, M.; Ranaldi, M.; Tarchini, L.; Pagliuca, N. M.; Ricci, T.; Facchini, S.; D'Ambrosio, F.; Misuraca, M.; Bonamico, A.; Geshi, N.

    2016-10-01

    A hazardous gas eruption from two very close shallow boreholes occurred near the Fiumicino International Airport of Roma (Italy) from August to December 2013. The erupted gas was mostly CO2 of deep origin and gas output was high and sustained over time reaching values of nearly 20 t day- 1. After 3 months, the gas flux was still above 5 t day- 1 and was only stopped in December 2013 by long and expensive works of closure of the boreholes. The gas eruption was uncommon as being associated with the building of two mud volcanoes. This style of sustained deep CO2 eruptions contrasts with the more common short-lived eruptions of shallow biogenic methane-dominated gas pockets. In this work, we present the chronology of the event, the results of geological, geochemical, and geophysical monitoring and a numerical modeling. We propose that the August-December 2013 sustained and prolonged event does not relate to the simple degassing of a shallow, isolated pocket of gas. On the contrary, it reflects very specific conditions in a shallow reservoir (hosted in a 10 m thick gravel layer at - 40 m within the Tiber river delta deposits), related to the interplay between the total pressure and the fraction of free CO2 initially present, across very narrow value ranges around 0.59 MPa and 0.18, respectively. The coexistence of short-lived and long-lived eruptions from the same reservoir suggest that these conditions are not achieved everywhere in the gas reservoir, despite its homogeneous properties. This consideration implies either a pressure compartmentalization of the reservoir, or the occurrence of a transient, possibly associated with an impulsive release of gas from greater depths. The involvement of deeper and larger gas reservoirs connected along faults is evidenced by geophysical investigations. This conceptual model bears significant implications for gas hazard studies.

  19. Hydraulic Binding Between Structural Elements and Groundwater Circulation in a Volcanic Aquifer : Insights from Riano Quarries District (Rome Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, David; Preziosi, Elisabetta; Ghergo, Stefano; Parrone, Daniele; Amalfitano, Stefano; Bruna Petrangeli, Anna; Zoppini, Annamaria

    2016-04-01

    A field survey and laboratory analysis of fracture systems crosscutting volcanic rocks was performed in the North-East of Rome urban area (Central Italy) to assess the hydraulic binding between structural elements, groundwater circulation and geochemistry. Fracture features (orientation, density, apertures, length and spacing) as well as groundwater heads and geochemical characteristics of rock and groundwater were analysed. We present and discuss the macro and mesostructural deformation pattern of the Riano quarries district (Central Italy) to highlight the close relationships between geological heterogeneity and water circulation. Laboratory analyses were carried out on rock samples: using XRF, microwave acid digestion and diffractometer to identify the chemical and mineralogical characters of the outcropping rock samples with a special focus on altered bands of fractures. On water samples using ICP-OES for major cations, ICP-MS for trace elements, IC for major anions and Spectrophotometry for NO2, PO4, NH4 . A total of 26 quarries with different dimension, shape and depth were examined by both remote and field analyses. Despite all the quarries were realized within the same tuff formation interval, a different fracture spatial distribution was recognized. From North to South a progressively increment of fracture density was observed. It was possible to observe a close relationship between orientation, spatial distribution and length. For each single fractured set, a 5° max orientation variation was observed, suggesting that fracture genesis was likely related to an extensional/transtensional tectonic process. Most of the fractures directly examined show an alteration band with different colors and thickness around the whole fracture shape. A preliminary overview of the laboratory results highlights that altered and unaltered tuffs (belonging to the same formation) show different chemical compositions. In particular, an enrichment of Mn, accompanied by a

  20. Epidemic multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii related to European clonal types I and II in Rome (Italy).

    PubMed

    D'Arezzo, S; Capone, A; Petrosillo, N; Visca, P; Ballardini, M; Bartolini, S; Bordi, E; Di Stefano, A; Galiè, M; Minniti, R; Meledandri, M; Pacciani, L; Parisi, G; Prignano, G; Santini, C; Valmarin, M; Venditti, M; Ziantoni, S

    2009-04-01

    The molecular epidemiology and the genetic basis of antibiotic resistance in 88 multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated during 18 months from infected patients in seven intensive care units (ICUs) in Rome were investigated. Random amplified polymorphic DNA and macrorestriction analysis identified two predominant clonal types, genetically related to the European epidemic clones I (type 2) and II (type 1), accounting for 98.9% of A. baumannii ICU isolates. Type 1 was isolated from all ICUs under survey. Class 1 integrons of 2.2 and 2.5 kb were detected in type 1 and type 2 isolates, respectively. The integron structures were similar to those previously determined for epidemic A. baumannii strains from various European countries, and suggestive of integron rearrangement/exchange among isolates related to the European epidemic clones I and II. Carbapenem resistance was associated with the presence of the bla(OXA-58) gene in type 1 isolates. The results indicate that the A. baumannii type 1 clone has a high potential of spreading among hospitals. PMID:19431222

  1. Plants as bioindicators for archaeological prospection: a case of study from Domitian's Stadium in the Palatine (Rome, Italy).

    PubMed

    Ceschin, S; Caneva, G

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we analyzed the relationship between buried archaeological remains (masonries, pavements, and ancient ruins) and spontaneous vegetation growing above them. We carried out several vegetation surveys in the Domitian's Stadium at the archaeological site of the Palatine (Rome). Vegetation data were collected using the Braun-Blanquet approach and elaborated using statistical analyses (cluster analysis) to assess the similarity among surveys. Structural, chorological, and ecological features of the plant communities were analyzed. Results showed that the vegetation responds significantly to the presence of sub-emerging ancient remains. The plant bioindication of this phenomenon occurs through the following floristic-vegetation variations: phenological alterations in single individuals (reduction in height, displacement of flowering/fruiting period), increase of annual species and decrease of perennial ones, decrease of total plant coverage, reduction of maturity level of the vegetation which remains blocked at a pioneer evolutive stage. The presence of sub-surfacing ruins manifests itself through the dominant occurrence of xerophilous and not-nitrophilous species (e.g., Hypochaeris achyrophorus L., Aira elegantissima Schur, Trifolium scabrum L. ssp. scabrum, Trifolium stellatum L., Plantago lagopus L., Medicago minima (L.) L., and Catapodium rigidum (L.) C.E. Hubb. ex Dony ssp. rigidum) and in a rarefaction of more mesophilous and nitrophilous species (e.g., Plantago lanceolata L., Trifolium pratense L. ssp. pratense, Trifolium repens L. ssp. repens, and Poa trivialis L.). Therefore, the vegetation can be used as bioindicator for the detection of buried ruins, contributing in the archaeological prospection for a general, fast, and inexpensive interpretation of the underground.

  2. Geochemistry of the Albano and Nemi crater lakes in the volcanic district of Alban Hills (Rome, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carapezza, M. L.; Lelli, M.; Tarchini, L.

    2008-12-01

    Lake Albano, located 20 km to the SE of Rome, is hosted within the most recent crater of the quiescent Alban Hills volcanic complex that produced hydromagmatic eruptions in Holocene times. Stratigraphic, archaeological and historical evidence indicates that the lake level underwent important variations in the Bronze Age. Before the IV century B.C. several lahars were generated by water overflows from the lake and in the IV century B.C. Romans excavated a drainage tunnel. The lake is located above a buried carbonate horst that contains a pressurized medium-enthalpy geothermal reservoir from which fluids escape to the surface to produce many important gas manifestations of mostly CO 2. Previous studies recognized the presence of gas emissions also from the crater bottom. In 1997 the possibility of a Nyos-type event triggered by a lake rollover was considered very low, because the CO 2 water concentration at depth was found to be far from saturation. However, considering the high population density nearby, the Italian Civil Protection Department recommended that periodical monitoring be carried out. To this scope we initiated in 2001 a systematic geochemical study of the lake. Thirteen vertical profiles have been repeatedly carried out in 2001-2006, especially in the deepest part of the lake (167 m in 2006), measuring T, pH, dissolved O 2 and electrical conductivity. Water samples were collected from various depths and chemically and isotopically analysed. Two similar profiles have been measured also in the nearby Nemi crater lake. Results indicate that in the 4.5 years of monitoring the pressure of gas dissolved in the Lake Albano deep waters remained much lower than the hydrostatic pressure. A CO 2 soil survey carried out on the borders of the two lakes, indicates the presence of some zones of anomalous degassing of likely magmatic origin. A water overturn or a heavy mixing of deep and shallow waters likely occurred in winter 2003-2004, when cold rainfall cooled the

  3. [What are the competencies that public health physician should have today? A proposal for a shared training program at three Hygiene and Preventive Medicine residency training schools in Rome (Italy)].

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Elvira; Lucaroni, Francesca; Parente, Paolo; Damiani, Gianfranco; La Torre, Giuseppe; Mancinelli, Sandro; Bucci, Roberto; De Vito, Corrado; Maurici, Massimo; De Vito, Elisabetta; Franco, Elisabetta; Villari, Paolo; Ricciardi, Walter

    2016-01-01

    To acquire essential knowledge and skills for Public Health practice, residents in Hygiene and Preventive Medicine programs should be provided with excellent training. On behalf of the Roman Public Health Academy (ARSP), the authors, representing the three Hygiene and Preventive Medicine residency training programs in Rome (Italy) aimed to propose a training program to be shared by the above three schools. Firstly, they performed a scientific literature review to identify the core competencies that a public health specialist should have acquired at the end of training. Ten areas (macro-areas or domains) relevant to Public Health practice were defined. The authors then identified the main characteristics that the proposed training program should have, which include: enhancement of community healthcare services and optimization of local resources to create/strengthen exchange and cooperation networks; possibility to adapt the training proposal to an international setting; adoption of a training approach that can respond effectively to a changing health system; customization of training on the basis of residents' individual abilities and motivations, so that their individual strengths can be enhanced; achievement of educational excellence, in compliance with ethical requirements. PMID:27336955

  4. [What are the competencies that public health physician should have today? A proposal for a shared training program at three Hygiene and Preventive Medicine residency training schools in Rome (Italy)].

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Elvira; Lucaroni, Francesca; Parente, Paolo; Damiani, Gianfranco; La Torre, Giuseppe; Mancinelli, Sandro; Bucci, Roberto; De Vito, Corrado; Maurici, Massimo; De Vito, Elisabetta; Franco, Elisabetta; Villari, Paolo; Ricciardi, Walter

    2016-01-01

    To acquire essential knowledge and skills for Public Health practice, residents in Hygiene and Preventive Medicine programs should be provided with excellent training. On behalf of the Roman Public Health Academy (ARSP), the authors, representing the three Hygiene and Preventive Medicine residency training programs in Rome (Italy) aimed to propose a training program to be shared by the above three schools. Firstly, they performed a scientific literature review to identify the core competencies that a public health specialist should have acquired at the end of training. Ten areas (macro-areas or domains) relevant to Public Health practice were defined. The authors then identified the main characteristics that the proposed training program should have, which include: enhancement of community healthcare services and optimization of local resources to create/strengthen exchange and cooperation networks; possibility to adapt the training proposal to an international setting; adoption of a training approach that can respond effectively to a changing health system; customization of training on the basis of residents' individual abilities and motivations, so that their individual strengths can be enhanced; achievement of educational excellence, in compliance with ethical requirements.

  5. How Dramatic is the Unrest at Colli Albani, the Volcanic District 20 km from Rome (Italy)? Insights from SAR Interferometry and Gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trasatti, E.; Di Filippo, M.; Di Nezza, M.; Florindo, F.; Marra, F.; Moro, M.; Polcari, M.; Stramondo, S.; Ventura, G.

    2015-12-01

    Colli Albani (Italy) is an alkali-potassic volcanic district located about 20 km SE of Rome (3 M inhabitants) and lastly erupted 36 ka ago. Its eruptive activity is characterized by well-clustered, regularly spaced time cycles, with an average recurrence time of 45±5 ka. Since the modern volcanic activity at Colli Albani seems not particularly intense, scientists have interpreted this volcano to be quiescent. Therefore, unlike other Italian volcanoes, the area has not undergone extensive monitoring. However, a seismic swarm during 1989-1990 has been related to a local uplift of ca. 30 cm since the 1950's along a line crossing the western side of the volcano, giving rise to a debate about its possible interpretation in terms of unrest. Furthermore, recent geological investigations indicate a coupling of eruption history, uplift history, and changes in the regional stress field, pointing to the conclusion that Colli Albani is in unrest. As a result, an evaluation of the volcanic hazard of such a strongly inhabited and vulnerable area is needed. We present the results from the analysis of 20 years of SAR interferometry. The time series show a linear trending displacement (3 mm/yr maximum ground velocity) affecting the western flank of the volcano. In addition, results from gravimetric surveys conducted during 2005-2007 reveal a different behavior between the eastern and western sectors. In an attempt of understanding the dynamics of Colli Albani from the available geodetic and gravimetric data, we build a finite element model incorporating local structural and lithological features, such as mapped faults and elastic discontinuities. Our results suggest that magma is accumulating beneath the Colli Albani western flank, where uplift and positive microgravity anomalies are observed and where the recent seismic swarm took place. Our model constrains the location and geometry of the magmatic source, which is below the vents responsible for the last eruptive activity

  6. Independent 40Ar/39Ar and 14C age constraints on the last five glacial terminations from the aggradational successions of the Tiber River, Rome (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, F.; Rohling, E. J.; Florindo, F.; Jicha, B.; Nomade, S.; Pereira, A.; Renne, P. R.

    2016-09-01

    We use 13 new 40Ar/39Ar and 4 new 14C datings of volcanic deposits and organic material found within near-coastal aggradational successions deposited by the Tiber River near Rome, Italy, to integrate a larger dataset previously achieved in order to offer independent age constraints to the sea-level fluctuations associated with Late Quaternary glacial cycles during the last 450 ka. Results are compared with the chronologically independently constrained Red Sea relative sea-level curve, and with the astronomically tuned deep-sea benthic δ18O record. We find good agreements for the timings of change, and in several cases for both the amplitudes and timings of change during glacial terminations T-1, T-2, T-3, and T-5. There is one striking exception, namely for glacial termination T-4 that led into interglacial Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 9. T-4 in our results is dated a full 18 ka earlier than in the Red Sea and deep-sea benthic δ18O records (which are in good agreement with each other in spite of their independent chronological constraints). The observed discrepancy is beyond the scale of the combined age uncertainties. One possible explanation is that the documented aggradation represents an early phase, triggered by a smaller event in the sea-level record, but the thickness of the aggradational sediment sequence then suggests that the amplitude of this earlier sea-level rise is underestimated in the Red Sea and benthic δ18O records. Also, this would imply that the aggradational succession of the main T-4 deglaciation has not yet been located in the study region, which is hard to reconcile with our extensive fieldwork and borehole coverage, unless unlikely non-deposition or complete erosion. Resolving this discrepancy will improve understanding of the timing of deglaciations relative to the orbitally modulated insolation forcing of climate and will require further focused research, both into the nature and chronology of the Tiber sequences of this period, and into

  7. Epidemiologic determinants affecting cigarette smoking cessation: a retrospective study in a National Health System (SSN) treatment service in Rome (Italy).

    PubMed

    Marino, Maria Giulia; Fusconi, Elisabetta; Magnatta, Rosanna; Panà, Augusto; Maurici, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective study aims to evaluate epidemiologic characteristics of patients attending stop smoking courses, based on group therapy, testing their influence on smoking cessation in univariate and multivariate model. A total of 123 patients were included in this study. Mean age was 53 (+/-11). Sixty-seven percent were women. At the end of the courses 66% of patients stopped smoking, after 12 months only 39% remained abstinent. Patients younger than 50 years statistically tended to continue smoking 6 months (P = .02-R.R. = 1.49, C.I. 95%: 1.06-2.44) and 12 months (P = .03-R.R. = 1.37, C.I. 95%: 1.02-2.52) after the end of the courses. A low self-confidence in quitting smoking was significantly related to continuing tobacco consumption after 6 months (P = .016-R.R. = 1.84, C.I. 95%: 1.14-2.99). Low adherence to therapeutic program was statistically associated to maintenance of tobacco use at 6 months (P = .006-R.R. = 1.76, C.I. 95%: 1.32-2.35) and 12 months (P = .050-R.R. = 1.45, C.I. 95%: 1.11-1.88). This association was confirmed at 6 months in the analysis performed on logistic regression model (P = .013).

  8. Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves and Down-Hole Tests in the Archeological "Palatine Hill" Area (Rome, Italy): Evaluation and Influence of 2D Effects on the Shear Wave Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Fiore, V.; Cavuoto, G.; Tarallo, D.; Punzo, M.; Evangelista, L.

    2016-05-01

    A joint analysis of down-hole (DH) and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) measurements offers a complete evaluation of shear wave velocity profiles, especially for sites where a strong lateral variability is expected, such as archeological sites. In this complex stratigraphic setting, the high "subsoil anisotropy" (i.e., sharp lithological changes due to the presence of anthropogenic backfill deposits and/or buried man-made structures) implies a different role for DH and MASW tests. This paper discusses some results of a broad experimental program conducted on the Palatine Hill, one of the most ancient areas of the city of Rome (Italy). The experiments were part of a project on seismic microzoning and consisted of 20 MASW and 11 DH tests. The main objective of this study was to examine the difficulties related to the interpretation of the DH and MASW tests and the reliability limits inherent in the application of the noninvasive method in complex stratigraphic settings. As is well known, DH tests provide good determinations of shear wave velocities (Vs) for different lithologies and man-made materials, whereas MASW tests provide average values for the subsoil volume investigated. The data obtained from each method with blind tests were compared and were correlated to site-specific subsurface conditions, including lateral variability. Differences between punctual (DH) and global (MASW) Vs measurements are discussed, quantifying the errors by synthetic comparison and by site response analyses. This study demonstrates that, for archeological sites, VS profiles obtained from the DH and MASW methods differ by more than 15 %. However, the local site effect showed comparable results in terms of natural frequencies, whereas the resolution of the inverted shear wave velocity was influenced by the fundamental mode of propagation.

  9. Local geological dust in the area of Rome (Italy): linking mineral composition, size distribution and optical properties to radiative transfer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrodangelo, Adriana; Salzano, Roberto; Bassani, Cristiana; Pareti, Salvatore; Perrino, Cinzia

    2015-04-01

    Airborne mineral dust plays a key role in the energy balance of the Earth - atmosphere coupled system. The microphysical and optical properties of dust drive the direct radiative effects and are in turn influenced by the dust mineralogical composition. The latter varies largely, depending on the geology of the source region. Knowledge gaps still exist about relationships between the scattering and absorption of solar and terrestrial radiation by mineral dust and its mineralogical, size distribution and particle morphology features; this also affects the reliability of radiative transfer (RT) modelling estimates (Hansell et al., 2011). In this study, these relationships were investigated focusing on the crustal suspended PM10 dust, sourced from outcropping rocks of the local geological domains around Rome (Latium, Italy). The mineral composition variability of the Latium rocks ranges from the silicate-dominated (volcanics domain) to the calcite-dominated (travertine), through lithological materials composed in different proportions by silicates, silica and calcite, mainly (limestone series, siliciclastic series) (Cosentino et al., 2009). This peculiarity of the Latium region was thus exploited to investigate the behavior of the size distribution, optical properties and radiative transfer at BOA (Bottom Of Atmosphere) of the suspended dust PM10 fraction with the variability of mineral composition. Elemental source profiles of the same dust samples were previously determined (Pietrodangelo et al., 2013). A multi-faceted analysis was performed, and outcomes from the following approaches were merged: individual-particle scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray energy-dispersive microanalysis (SEM XEDS), bulk mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), size distribution fit of the individual-particle data set and modelling of the dust optical and radiative properties. To this aim, the 6SV atmospheric radiative transfer code (Kotchenova et al., 2008

  10. [Comparison of conventional culture methods and quantitative real-time PCR methods for the detection of Legionella pneumophila in water samples in a large University teaching hospital in Rome, Italy].

    PubMed

    Boccia, Stefania; Laurenti, Patrizia; Leoncini, Emanuele; Amore, Rosarita; Vincenti, Sara; Arzani, Dario; Berloco, Filippo; Boninti, Federica; Bruno, Stefania; Celani, Fabrizio; Damiani, Gianfranco; Di Giannantonio, Paolo; Moscato, Umberto; Posteraro, Brunella; Sezzatini, Romina; Vecchioni, Alessia; Wachocka, Malgorzata; Ricciardi, Walter; Quaranta, Gianluigi; Ficarra, Maria Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the best threshold value for the real-time PCR method in detecting the presence of Legionella pneumophila in water samples, and to evaluate the prognostic significance of negative results obtained with the molecular method. From 2011 to 2014, 77 water samples were collected from hospital wards of a large University teaching hospital in Rome (Italy) and screened for L.pneumophila by the standard culture method and by real-time PCR. The high sensitivity and negative predictive value of real-time PCR make this method suitable as a quick screening tool to exclude the presence of L. pneumophila in water samples in the hospital setting.

  11. Through the steps of history: a report from the Annual European Congress of Rheumatology (EULAR) (June 16-19, 2010 - Rome, Italy).

    PubMed

    Rabasseda, X

    2010-10-01

    Rome is an open book to human history, and traveling from the city center to the Nuova Fiera da Roma, as most of this year's attendees to EULAR had to do to reach the congress site, is a voyage from the remains of the Roman Empire throughout the middle ages and across most of human history to the modern architecture that characterizes the new exposition facilities next to the airport of Fiumicino. EULAR offers a yearly development on therapies for diseases with a clear, direct negative impact on physical functioning of the sufferers, and this report will review most of the therapeutic novelties discussed this year.

  12. Italy

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Rice Cultivation in Northwest Italy     View Larger Image The lowlands of Lombardy and Piedmont in northwest Italy are some of the most highly developed irrigation areas in the world. ...

  13. Airborne remote sensing in precision viticolture: assessment of quality and quantity vineyard production using multispectral imagery: a case study in Velletri, Rome surroundings (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramontana, Gianluca; Papale, Dario; Girard, Filippo; Belli, Claudio; Pietromarchi, Paolo; Tiberi, Domenico; Comandini, Maria C.

    2009-09-01

    During 2008 an experimental study aimed to investigate the capabilities of a new Airborne Remote sensing platform as an aid in precision viticulture was conducted. The study was carried out on 2 areas located in the town of Velletri, near Rome; the acquisitions were conducted on 07-08-2008 and on 09-09-2008, using ASPIS (Advanced Spectroscopic Imager System) the new airborne multispectral sensor, capable to acquire 12 narrow spectral bands (10 nm) located in the visible and near-infrared region. Several vegetation indices, for a total of 22 independent variables, were tested for the estimation of different oenological parameters. Anova test showed that several oenochemical parameters, such as sugars and acidity, differ according to the variety taken into consideration. The remotely sensed data were significantly correlated with the following oenochemical parameters: Leaf Surface Exposed (SFE) (correlation coefficient R2 ~ 0.8), wood pruning (R2 ~ 0.8), reducing sugars (R2 ~ 0.6 and Root Mean Square Error ~ 5g/l), total acidity (R2 ~ 0.6 and RMSE ~ 0.5 g/l), polyphenols (R2~ 0.9) and anthocyanins content (R2 ~ 0.89) in order to provide "prescriptives" thematic maps related to the oenological variables of interest, the relationships previously carried out have been applied to the vegetation indices.

  14. Exploring an urban system's dependence on the environment as a source and a sink: the city of Rome (Italy) across space and time scales.

    PubMed

    Ascione, Marco; Bargigli, Silvia; Campanella, Luigi; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2011-05-23

    The material, energy and environmental flows supporting the growth and welfare of the city of Rome, during a recent forty-year period (from 1962 to 2002) were investigated in order to understand the resource basis of its present welfare and lifestyle. The study focused on the local scale of the urban system (resources actually used within the system's boundary) as well as on the larger regional and national scales where resources come from. Assessing the resource use change over time allowed to understand what are the main drivers of lifestyle changes of the local population. In particular, while the direct, local-scale use of the main material and energy resources exhibits a quadratic growth over time, the total (direct+indirect) consumption on the scale of the global economy is always 3-4 times higher, is so highlighting how much of a city's growth depends on economic and production activities that develop outside of its boundaries. Water use shows an even more alarming trend, in that the indirect consumption grows much faster, suggesting a shift from the use of a less water-intensive mix of products to a different mix that requires much more water in its industrial production. Such trend calls for increased awareness of the water footprint of goods used as well as increased efficiency in water management by both industries and households. The evolution of resource use and standard of living also affects the release of airborne emissions, an issue that is becoming crucial due to concerns for climate change and urban air pollution. The extent of such additional environmental burden is also explored in the present paper.

  15. When in Rome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Anne Ellen

    2011-01-01

    In the summers of 2007 and 2008 St. John's University's faculty arrived in Rome and spent two weeks working together at the university's campus in the Prati section of Rome as participants in a program that was half faculty writing retreat and half writing across the curriculum faculty development workshop. The focus of the St. John's University…

  16. Italy.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    For "Background Notes" on Italy, the U.S. State Department, Bureau of Public Affairs, covers geography, people, history, government, politics, economy, defense and foreign relations. Italy had 57.3 million persons in 1986, with a growth rate of 2.3%. The life expectancy is 73 years; the infant mortality rate is 14.3/1000 live births. 98% of the people are literate. The current constitutional republic has existed since 1948. Mean per capita income is $6,447. The people work mainly in services (60%), industry (30%) and agriculture (10%). Most of the country is mountainous, without significant food, energy or natural resources, so Italy's central position in the Mediterranean has influenced economic development since ancient times. The nation is highly homogeneous, as the government is centralized. Although there are several influential political parties, the diverse structure of the Christian Democrats has given them power since the war. The current prime minister, Bettino Craxi, is a member of the centralist Italian Socialist Party. The Italian Communist Party is the largest such party in the free world, polling 30% of the vote in 1983. Italy is a member of NATO.

  17. Faculty Responsibility in Contemporary Society. Proceedings of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities La Sapienza Conference (Rome, Italy, June, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingfield, Clyde J., Ed.

    The 10 U.S. papers included in this collection discuss the organization, governance, problems, values, and faculty role of higher education in institutions of higher education in the United States. Major differences are identified in the introduction (Clyde Wingfield), including tendencies for American universities to be more integrated into…

  18. Did Rome Fall or Was It Pushed? Sixth Grade Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, David

    In this interdisciplinary grade 6 world history and language arts unit, students examine the fall of Rome (Italy). Working in teams to research the causes of Rome's demise, participants develop a theory explaining why Rome fell. The student guide provides detailed instructions on how to complete the activity, a list of resources, and includes…

  19. John Ray in Italy: lost manuscripts rediscovered

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper discloses the content of two manuscripts of John Ray that have hitherto been unknown to Ray scholars. The manuscripts survive in the Hampshire Record Office, having descended through the Prideaux-Brune family. They record information about Ray's tour of Italy in the 1660s that does not appear in his Observations … made in a journey through … the Low-countries, Germany, Italy and France (1673), including a visit to the museum of Athanasius Kircher in Rome, and provide clues concerning the composition of Ray's 1673 book. PMID:24921104

  20. The Rome Paris collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signore, M.

    2007-03-01

    Since the first "Twinning CEE Project" between the Group of Francesco Mechiorri and our Laboratory at Observatoire de Paris and Ecole Normale Supérieure, and then through several European Networks and NASA Collaborations on the Cosmic Microwave Background, a long-term and fruitful cooperation has existed between Rome and Paris. This contribution will focus on the human story, the principal results and the possible prospects of this wonderful collaboration.

  1. Simplicity, Harmony Essential to Club of Rome Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepkowski, Wil

    1979-01-01

    This interview with Aurelio Peccei details the next phase in the Club of Rome's goal of reeducating mankind to global threats. Peccei discusses a variety of topics relating to science and the human condition, including his plans for the implementation of the Club of Rome activities. (BT)

  2. PREFACE: Young Researcher Meeting in Rome 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, Fabio; Cattani, Giordano; Mazzaferro, Luca; Migliaccio, Marina; Pietrobon, Davide; Ricci Pacifici, Daniel; Stellato, Francesco; Veneziani, Marcella

    2012-10-01

    Conference logo At its third edition, the Young Researcher Meeting in Rome (YRMR) proves to be a growing event in the Italian scientific panorama. The high-quality content of the abstracts submitted to the scientific committee resulted in an exciting conference, held, for the second time, at the University of Rome 'Tor Vergata' on 20 January 2012. A busy schedule covered a large variety of cutting-edge science topics: fundamental interactions, particle physics, cosmology, astrophysics, condensed matter and biomedical physics. The broad range of the subjects discussed is the distinctive feature of the YRMR, a meeting aimed at enhancing the synergy among complementary branches of science by stimulating a fruitful exchange between theoretical, experimental and computational physics. Promoting collaborations between PhD students, postdoctoral fellows and young researchers creates a solid scientific network with an open-minded approach to discovery. In this volume, we collect the contributions that have been presented both in the form of talks and of posters. YRMR Organising and Editorial Committee Fabio Agostini (fabio.agostini@roma2.infn.it) Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma 'Tor Vergata' Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma Italy Giordano Cattani (giordano.cattani@roma2.infn.it) Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma 'Tor Vergata' INFN sezione di Roma 'Tor Vergata' Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma Italy Luca Mazzaferro (luca.mazzaferro@roma2.infn.it) Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma 'Tor Vergata' INFN sezione di Roma 'Tor Vergata' Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma Italy Marina Migliaccio (migliaccio@ifca.unican.es) Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Edificio Juan Jorda, Avenida de los Castros, E-39005 Santander, Cantabria Spain Davide Pietrobon (davide.pietrobon@jpl.nasa.gov) Jet Propulsion Laboratory - California Institute of Technology 4800 Oak Grove Drive 169-237 91109 Pasadena, CA USA Daniel Ricci Pacifici

  3. Is variation management included in regional healthcare governance systems? Some proposals from Italy.

    PubMed

    Nuti, Sabina; Seghieri, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    The Italian National Health System, which follows a Beveridge model, provides universal healthcare coverage through general taxation. Universal coverage provides uniform healthcare access to citizens and is the characteristic usually considered the added value of a welfare system financed by tax revenues. Nonetheless, wide differences in practice patterns, health outcomes and regional usages of resources that cannot be justified by differences in patient needs have been demonstrated to exist. Beginning with the experience of the health care system of the Tuscany region (Italy), this study describes the first steps of a long-term approach to proactively address the issue of geographic variation in healthcare. In particular, the study highlights how the unwarranted variation management has been addressed in a region with a high degree of managerial control over the delivery of health care and a consolidated performance evaluation system, by first, considering it a high priority objective and then by actively integrating it into the regional planning and control mechanism. The implications of this study can be useful to policy makers, professionals and managers, and will contribute to the understanding of how the management of variation can be implemented with performance measurements and financial incentives. PMID:24050981

  4. Reconstruction of The Extreme Flood Series of The Tiber River In Rome From The Xv Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calenda, G.; Calvani, L.; Mancini, C. P.; Volpi, E.

    The stage measurements of extreme flood events of the Tiber River in Rome constitute one of the longer available hydrologic records. In fact we are fairly sure of knowing the peak stages of all the extreme floods which flooded the town of Rome since the XV century. It is an almost complete record covering more than 500 years. An effort to evaluate the peak flow of the observed events may be very helpful for the understanding of the long term behaviour of the extreme flood events. The case of the Tiber River in Rome is particularly favourable, since several informations are available: a) a long record of daily stage measurements up to the XVIII century; b) several records of daily rainfall depth measurement at rain gauges in the Tiber catchment extending at least up to the middle of the XIX century; c) detailed surveys executed immediately after the great flood of 1870, that flooded the town of Rome, before the extensive modifications of the town and of the river bed, following the annexation of the town to the kingdom of Italy, including: the town and of the river bed, maximum flood levels in the river and in the town, the food hydrograph; d) a less detailed survey of the river bed executed in 1744; e) an extremely rich iconography, showing the conditions of the Tiber banks starting from the XVI century; f) contemporary description of several extreme floodings; g) a rich series of flow measurements and bed surveys after the great flood of 1870 to present days. Using a monodimensional steady state model to compute flow profiles in the river bed, a bidimensional hydrodinamic model to simulate the flooding of the town, and correlating the estimated flows and rainfall records for control purposes, a reasonable reconstruction of a five century long extreme flood series has been attempte.

  5. Club of Rome

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Le Club de Rome s'est fait connaître du grand public par la publication du premier ouvrage "Halte à la croissance" qui a fait l'object d'un débat, il y a 2 ans. Le Prof. Tinbergen a commencé par s'adonner à la physique, il est docteur en physique et très tôt il s'est tourné vers les problèmes sociaux économiques. Il est expert auprès des nombreux gouvernements et organisations internationales et il a vu ses travaux couronnés par le prix Nobel en 1969.

  6. All Roads Lead to Rome: Update on Rome III Criteria and New Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Shih, David Q.; Kwan, Lola Y.

    2010-01-01

    The recently published Rome III criteria reflect current understanding of functional gastrointestinal disorders. These criteria include definitions of these conditions and their pathophysiologic subtypes and offer guidelines for their management. At the 2006 Annual Scientific Meeting of the American College of Gastroenterology, a panel of experts discussed these criteria as they pertain to irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia, and chronic constipation. This article reviews the panel’s findings, highlights the differences between the Rome II and III criteria, and summarizes best treatment options currently available to practitioners and their patients. PMID:21544252

  7. Salvador Da Bahia: A "Modern" Imperial Rome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Vivian L.

    2004-01-01

    The city of Rome is situated on seven hills along the Tiber River. It developed from a series of small villages into numerous city-states, then to a Republic, and finally into an Empire, which covered several million miles. Thousands of miles away from Rome on another continent is Brazil, which measures 3,268,470 square miles in area. This article…

  8. Editorial: Reflux, dyspepsia, and Rome III (or Rome IV?).

    PubMed

    Stanghellini, Vincenzo; Frisoni, Chiara

    2010-12-01

    The paper by Xiao et al. in this issue of American Journal of Gastroenterology reports that patients with functional dyspepsia (FD) complaining of epigastric burning have a higher probability to present abnormal gastroesophageal acid reflux, as well as response to proton pump inhibitor therapy than those complaining of epigastric pain, bothersome postprandial fullness, or early satiety. No differences in the above parameters were detected when comparing patients with epigastric pain syndrome and postprandial distress syndrome, as proposed by the Rome III classification of FD. If confirmed, these results contribute to clarify the relationship between FD and gastroesophageal reflux disease and, at the same time, highlight the importance of analyzing individual symptoms rather than clusters of symptoms, when managing patients complaining of upper gastrointestinal symptoms.

  9. PREFACE: Proceedings of the International School and Workshop 'Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 2006' (University of Rome Tor Vergata and the Catholic University of Rome, 6 9 November 2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, Stefano

    2007-10-01

    what they are, how does one go about them, what purposes can they serve. In tutorial sessions the nature of nanotechnology, the instruments of current use in its characterizations and the possible applicative uses have been described at an introductory level. The Conference covered a large range of topics of current interest in nanoscience and nanotechnology, including aerospace, defence, national security, biology, medicine, electronics. The program for the first two sessions devoted to Aerospace, Defence and National Security has been setup in collaboration with the University of Rome 'La Sapienza', Department of Aerospace and Astronautics Engineering. The opening address was delivered by Giancarlo Grasso, Central Technical Director of the Finmeccanica Group, in representation of the President, Pier Francesco Guarguaglini while the first tutorial lecture was given by Milind Pimprikar, CANEUS' founder and chairman, who will illustrate its mission, ie: 'to provide a platform for the coordinated investment and development of MNT by identifying and nurturing complementary core competencies within government, private sector and academic organizations from the CANEUS participating countries'. CANEUS is a non-profit organization catering primarily to the needs of the aerospace community by fostering the coordinated, international development of MNT (Micro-Nano- Technologies) for aerospace applications. As a 'hands on' organization, CANEUS is focused on the practical aspects of transitioning MNT rapidly and efficiently into aerospace systems. In achieving this goal, CANEUS brings together MNT developers, aerospace end-users, governmental policy makers and investors from across Canada, Europe, US, and Japan. Then, A Ortona (FN SpA, Italy) offered an overview on composite materials with ceramics matrix. This kind of materials turns out to be of particular interest in aerospace applications, as it conjugates a good behavior with respect to fracture, similar to that of metals

  10. Seismic response of a deep continental basin including velocity inversion: the Sulmona intramontane basin (Central Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giulio, Giuseppe; de Nardis, Rita; Boncio, Paolo; Milana, Giuliano; Rosatelli, Gianluigi; Stoppa, Francesco; Lavecchia, Giusy

    2016-01-01

    The Sulmona plain (central Italy) is an intramontane basin of the Abruzzi Apennines that is known in the literature for its high seismic hazard. We use extensive measurements of ambient noise to map the fundamental frequency and to detect the presence of geological heterogeneities in the basin. We perform noise measurements along two basin-scale orthogonal transects, in conjunction with 2-D array experiments in specific key areas. The key areas are located in different positions with respect to the basin margins: one at the eastern boundary (fault-controlled basin margin) and one in the deepest part of the basin. We also collect independent data by using active seismic experiments (MASW), down-hole and geological surveys to characterize the near-surface geology of the investigated sites. In detail, the H/V noise spectral ratios and 2-D array techniques indicate a fundamental resonance (f0) in the low-frequency range (0.35-0.4 Hz) in the Sulmona Basin. Additionally, our results highlight the important role that is played by the alluvial fans near the edge-sectors of the basin, which are responsible for a velocity inversion in the uppermost layering of the soil profile. The H/V ratios and the dispersion curves of adjacent measurements strongly vary over a few dozens of meters in the alluvial fan area. Furthermore, we perform 1-D numerical simulations that are based on a linear-equivalent approach to estimate the site response in the key areas, using realistic seismic inputs. Finally, we perform a 2-D simulation that is based on the spectral element method to propagate surface waves in a simple model with an uppermost stiff layer, which is responsible for the velocity inversion. The results from the 2-D modelling agree with the experimental curves, showing deamplified H/V curves and typical shapes of dispersion curves of a not normally dispersive site.

  11. PREFACE: Proceedings of the International School and Workshop 'Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 2006' (University of Rome Tor Vergata and the Catholic University of Rome, 6 9 November 2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, Stefano

    2007-10-01

    what they are, how does one go about them, what purposes can they serve. In tutorial sessions the nature of nanotechnology, the instruments of current use in its characterizations and the possible applicative uses have been described at an introductory level. The Conference covered a large range of topics of current interest in nanoscience and nanotechnology, including aerospace, defence, national security, biology, medicine, electronics. The program for the first two sessions devoted to Aerospace, Defence and National Security has been setup in collaboration with the University of Rome 'La Sapienza', Department of Aerospace and Astronautics Engineering. The opening address was delivered by Giancarlo Grasso, Central Technical Director of the Finmeccanica Group, in representation of the President, Pier Francesco Guarguaglini while the first tutorial lecture was given by Milind Pimprikar, CANEUS' founder and chairman, who will illustrate its mission, ie: 'to provide a platform for the coordinated investment and development of MNT by identifying and nurturing complementary core competencies within government, private sector and academic organizations from the CANEUS participating countries'. CANEUS is a non-profit organization catering primarily to the needs of the aerospace community by fostering the coordinated, international development of MNT (Micro-Nano- Technologies) for aerospace applications. As a 'hands on' organization, CANEUS is focused on the practical aspects of transitioning MNT rapidly and efficiently into aerospace systems. In achieving this goal, CANEUS brings together MNT developers, aerospace end-users, governmental policy makers and investors from across Canada, Europe, US, and Japan. Then, A Ortona (FN SpA, Italy) offered an overview on composite materials with ceramics matrix. This kind of materials turns out to be of particular interest in aerospace applications, as it conjugates a good behavior with respect to fracture, similar to that of metals

  12. The papal anatomist: Eustachius in renaissance Rome.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Donald

    2011-12-01

    Bartholomeo Eustachi, usually latinized as Eustachius, was an important anatomist in the 16th century, arguably second only to his contemporary and rival Andreas Vesalius. He was the first to identify several important anatomical structures, including the suprarenal glands, though he was probably not the first to describe the Eustachian tube. However, it has been hard to evaluate his achievements, because during his lifetime he published only some short monographs, and his career as a teacher in Rome is not well documented. He and his assistant P.M. Pini were the first to use copper plate engravings to illustrate human and animal anatomy, but most of their engravings were not published in their time, and the original plates were lost for some 140 years after the death of Eustachius. Early in the 18th century, these plates were rediscovered by the anatomist and papal physician G.M. Lancisi; he published the engravings in a book which aroused much interest and many reprintings. In 1744, Bernhard Siegfried Albinus of Leiden University published a version of these engravings, with commentaries by himself. The engraved illustrations prepared by Eustachius and Pini are clear and largely accurate. They idealize the findings of actual dissections, and have a diagrammatic quality that facilitates understanding and memory. They are the ancestors of later anatomical atlases, which have helped generations of surgeons in teaching and in planning operations. PMID:22507418

  13. Mass Storage and Retrieval at Rome Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kann, Joshua L.; Canfield, Brady W.; Jamberdino, Albert A.; Clarke, Bernard J.; Daniszewski, Ed; Sunada, Gary

    1996-01-01

    As the speed and power of modern digital computers continues to advance, the demands on secondary mass storage systems grow. In many cases, the limitations of existing mass storage reduce the overall effectiveness of the computing system. Image storage and retrieval is one important area where improved storage technologies are required. Three dimensional optical memories offer the advantage of large data density, on the order of 1 Tb/cm(exp 3), and faster transfer rates because of the parallel nature of optical recording. Such a system allows for the storage of multiple-Gbit sized images, which can be recorded and accessed at reasonable rates. Rome Laboratory is currently investigating several techniques to perform three-dimensional optical storage including holographic recording, two-photon recording, persistent spectral-hole burning, multi-wavelength DNA recording, and the use of bacteriorhodopsin as a recording material. In this paper, the current status of each of these on-going efforts is discussed. In particular, the potential payoffs as well as possible limitations are addressed.

  14. How socioeconomic status influences road traffic injuries and home injuries in Rome.

    PubMed

    Camilloni, Laura; Farchi, Sara; Chini, Francesco; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Borgia, Piero; Guasticchi, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTI) and home injuries (HI) are a relevant public health problem, especially among people living in deprived areas. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between morbidity, hospitalisation, mortality from RTI and HI, and socioeconomic status (SES) of the area of residence. RTI and HI surveillance based on the Emergency Information System, the Hospital Information System and the Mortality Registry of Lazio region are the three sources of this study to create a unique surveillance system. For each subject, the SES index (5 levels) of its census tract of residence was obtained. The study population included emergency department admissions (year 2005) of residents in Rome, Italy. Incidence Rate Ratios (IRRs) have been estimated using Poisson Regression. The rates of RTI and HI emergency department visits were higher among the most deprived level of SES (IRR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.24-1.30; IRR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.29-1.37, respectively) compared to the most privileged ones; a similar result was found for hospitalisation (IRR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.08-1.32; IRR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.01-1.22). A strong relation was found between RTI mortality rates and poor level of SES. The study concluded that RTI and HI incidence were associated to sociodemographic factors.

  15. Non Tuberculous Cutaneous Mycobacteriosis in a primary school in Rome: epidemiological and microbiological investigation.

    PubMed

    D'Ancona, F P; Kanitz, E E; Marinelli, L; Sinagra, J L; Prignano, G; Cerocchi, C; Bonadonna, L; Tortoli, E; Capitanio, B; Cottarelli, A; De Giusti, M

    2014-01-01

    During the school years 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 a total of 25 cases of Non Tuberculous Cutaneous Mycobacteriosis (NTCM) were notified in children attending the same school with a swimming pool in Rome. Environmental microbiological and epidemiological investigations (only for suspected outbreaks in 2009-2010) were conducted. We screened students with skin lesions, and environmental samples were collected from the school area and the swimming pool. During the school year 2009-10 18 cases were clinically identified among 514 primary school children (3.50%) and all cases attended the swimming pool. Only 2 out of 18 cultures were positive for Mycobacterium chelonae complex (Group III, M. abscessus). Attack Rate for swimming pool use was 13,10% (17/130), with a Relative Risk 54,70 (95% CI: 9,4 - ∞). In February 2011 additional 7 cases of cutaneous NTM among children - who attended the same primary school and swimming pool were notified to the local public health authority followed by environmental microbiological investigation. Environmental samples were positive for NTM but not for M. abscessus. Mycobacteria are not included in water-quality criteria in Italy for this reason it is important to collect evidences of NTM cases caused by these infrequent pathogens, to be able to perform rapid risk assessment and to identify the best practices in prevention and management of such a risk.

  16. Lead in ancient Rome's city waters.

    PubMed

    Delile, Hugo; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Goiran, Jean-Philippe; Keay, Simon; Albarède, Francis

    2014-05-01

    It is now universally accepted that utilization of lead for domestic purposes and water distribution presents a major health hazard. The ancient Roman world was unaware of these risks. How far the gigantic network of lead pipes used in ancient Rome compromised public health in the city is unknown. Lead isotopes in sediments from the harbor of Imperial Rome register the presence of a strong anthropogenic component during the beginning of the Common Era and the Early Middle Ages. They demonstrate that the lead pipes of the water distribution system increased Pb contents in drinking water of the capital city by up to two orders of magnitude over the natural background. The Pb isotope record shows that the discontinuities in the pollution of the Tiber by lead are intimately entwined with the major issues affecting Late Antique Rome and its water distribution system.

  17. Lead in ancient Rome's city waters.

    PubMed

    Delile, Hugo; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Goiran, Jean-Philippe; Keay, Simon; Albarède, Francis

    2014-05-01

    It is now universally accepted that utilization of lead for domestic purposes and water distribution presents a major health hazard. The ancient Roman world was unaware of these risks. How far the gigantic network of lead pipes used in ancient Rome compromised public health in the city is unknown. Lead isotopes in sediments from the harbor of Imperial Rome register the presence of a strong anthropogenic component during the beginning of the Common Era and the Early Middle Ages. They demonstrate that the lead pipes of the water distribution system increased Pb contents in drinking water of the capital city by up to two orders of magnitude over the natural background. The Pb isotope record shows that the discontinuities in the pollution of the Tiber by lead are intimately entwined with the major issues affecting Late Antique Rome and its water distribution system. PMID:24753588

  18. The December 2008 flood event in Rome: Was it really an extreme event?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastoria, B.; Mariani, S.; Casaioli, M.; Bussettini, M.

    2009-04-01

    In mid December 2008, Italy suffered bad weather with heavy snowfall blanketing the north and strong winds and downpours pelting the centre-south. In particular, during the period between 10th and 12th December, intense precipitation struck the Tyrrhenian Sea side of the peninsula, inducing a flood event, which captured the attention of the national and international media, on the Tiber river and on its tributary, the Aniene. The relevance of the event was caused by the actual damages occurred in several zones over Rome area, in particular due to the downpours and to damages which would have occurred if Tiber river had overflowed its banks. The event, which was initially considered as extreme, was indeed severe but not so exceptional as shown by the meteo-hydrological post-event analysis. The peak water level of 12.55 m, recorded on 13th December at 1:30 a.m. (local time) at the Ripetta station, which is situated along the Tiber river in the centre of Rome, was higher than those observed during the last ten years (which to the utmost reached 11.41 m in December 2005). However, it did not reach the historical maximum of 16.90 m observed in 1937. Moreover, on the basis of the Ripetta historical series, such a level is associated to an ordinary flood event. Even if the flood was ordinary, a state of emergency was declared by the Rome's Mayor, since the event caused severe damages by disrupting flight and train services, blocking off major roads leading into Rome, flooding underpasses and sealing off industrial activities sited in the flooded areas, in particular nearby the confluence of the Aniene river with the Tiber river. In addition, hundreds of people were evacuated and a woman died in a her car which was submerged by a wave of water and mud in an underpass. Given these premises, the present work examines the relation between a severe, but not extraordinary, event and the considerable damages that occurred as a consequence. First, the meteorological evolution of

  19. The ancient city of Rome, its empire, and the spread of tuberculosis in Europe.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Jared J

    2015-06-01

    The formation of the Roman Empire constituted an unprecedented joining of Mediterranean and European lands and peoples, centering on the capital of Rome. During the late Roman Republic and early Roman Empire (ca. 200B.C.-ca. 200 A.D.) urbanization and population growth led to conditions favorable to the spread of tuberculosis throughout Italy and especially within Rome itself. Trade and military expansion would have acted as vehicles for the further extension of tuberculosis to the provinces via direct transmission from Italian-born Romans to the native populations. However, an alternative explanation may better explain the increase in the number of archeological cases of tuberculosis with the start of the Roman era. A literature review of Roman-era cases and their locations suggests that the development of an urban, Roman way of life resulted in significant increases in prevalence in regions where tuberculosis had previously been endemic only at a low level.

  20. The beginnings of theoretical condensed matter physics in Rome: a personal remembrance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Castro, Carlo; Bonolis, Luisa

    2014-02-01

    This oral history interview provides a personal view on how theoretical condensed matter physics developed in Rome starting in the sixties of the last century. It then follows along the lines of research pursued by the interviewee up to the date of the interview, in March 2006. The topics considered range from the phenomenology of superfluid helium and superconductors, critical phenomena and renormalisation group approach, quantum fluids to strongly correlated electron systems and high temperature superconductors. Within these topics, fundamental problems of condensed matter physics are touched upon, such as the microscopic derivation of scaling, the metal-insulator transition and the interaction effects on disordered electron systems beyond the Anderson localisation, and the existence of heterogeneous states in cuprates. The English text presented here and revised by the authors is based on the original oral history interview recorded in Italian at Carlo Di Castro's office, Physics Department of Sapienza University, Rome, Italy, March 2006.

  1. Temperature dependence of Brewer UV measurements at Rome station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siani, Anna M.; Benevento, Giuseppe; Casale, Giuseppe R.

    2003-11-01

    Decreasing trends of total ozone affect mainly solar ultraviolet (UV) levels at ground level with adverse effects on the biosphere. Highly accurate measurements of solar UV irradiance have become an important issue to assess UV trends. To detect these trends stations with well calibrated instruments, with long-term stability and Quality Assurance (QA)/ Quality Control (QC) carefully followed procedures, are necessary. The Solar Radiometry Observatory of Rome, University "La Sapienza" (city center) is one of the stations regularly measuring UV irradiance in Italy. Measurements of UV spectral (290-325 nm) irradiance started in 1992, using Brewer MKIV 067. Measurements of total irradiance contained in the 280 - 320 nm waveband begun in 2000 with the YES UVB-1 broad-band radiometer. An investigation of the internal temperature dependence of the spectral responsivity to improve the quality of the Brewer UV data was carried out. The study was based on the analysis of responsivity files recorded during the years 2000-2002. Responsivities are provided by specific tests through a set of five 50 W quartz tungsten-halogen lamps, traceable to the standards of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The lamp tests allow to measure any changes in the instrument response over time. It was observed that a decrease in the instrument's responsivity resulted from an increase of the internal temperature. A methodology based on a family of responsivity files at different temperature intervals is proposed to allow correction of UV irradiances using the responsivity file at the corresponding temperatures. The mean percentage differnce between temperature corrected and non-corrected Brewer data varies from 0.8% to 1.5% over an internal temperature of 8°C-42°C. In addition the results of a field evaluation in Rome between Brewer 067 and two temperature stabilized instruments, a broad-band radiometer (YES UVB-1) and a moderate bandwidth multichannel radiometer

  2. Multiwavelength Lidar Observation of the Atmospheric Response to the 20th March 2015 Partial Solar Eclipse in Rome Tor Vergata: Preliminary Results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberti, Gian Luigi; Dionisi, Davide; Federico, Stefano; Congeduti, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    This study reports some preliminary analyses of multichannel lidar measurements taken in Rome Tor Vergata (Italy) during the 20th March 2015 partial solar eclipse. The objective is assessing the capability of the instrument to document the effect of the eclipse in the lower troposphere, with a particular emphasis on the information content at relatively small temporal and spatial scales.

  3. Growing cannabis with naphthalene in Rome.

    PubMed

    Fucci, Nadia

    2003-12-17

    A young Italian male was investigated for possession of illicit marijuana in Rome. In his house, police found 80 cannabis plants, the plants were different sizes and located in a room with ultraviolet light, naphthalene, as a grey-white powder, was also found in his house. The man indicated that he used it for cannabis cultivation.

  4. Microorganic pollutants in the outskirts of Rome.

    PubMed

    Sbrilli, Andrea; Guerriero, Ettore; Bianchini, Massimo; Rotatori, Mauro; Cecinato, Angelo

    2003-01-01

    A short field campaign was performed in the outskirts of Rome at four sites located pretty along the four rose wind directions to city centre. Both chlorinated (PCB and PCDD/F) and non-chlorinated (n-alkanes, PAH, nitrated-PAH, n-alkanoic acids) organic micropollutants were investigated for their contents in the atmosphere. Concentrations reached by these pollutants in the outskirts were compared to those found in downtown Rome, both inside and outside of its largest city garden. Although concentrations of organic pollutants found in the outskirts were quite low, however they seemed enough high to induce some health risk in humans. Rural sites were less affected than industrial and waste disposal/treatment areas.

  5. Eternal Rome: Guardian of the Heavenly Gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latura, G.

    2016-01-01

    The power of the Roman Empire did not come solely by way of brutal force. A spiritual vision inherited from the Greeks inspired the Romans—an ascent through the classical Planets to the intersections with the Milky Way, where stood the gates of heaven. This vision stretches back, through Macrobius and Cicero, to Plato's Republic and Timaeus. The Eternal City, capital of the Empire for four centuries, claimed control over the celestial portals, a tradition that is traced on Roman coins and medals over thousands of years. Julius Caesar borrowed enormous sums to campaign for the office of Pontifex Maximus—high priest of Rome—spending a fortune on “bread and circuses” to secure the support of the masses. Consolidating power at every turn, Caesar as dictator-for-life became absolute master of Rome, the city that, according to its coins, ruled the cosmos. Though his mortal frame fell to the knives of the senators, Caesar's soul was seen ascending to heaven as a comet. Thus was born the myth of Divvs Ivlivs—the divine avatar of the Roman Empire, whose name would become synonymous with the title of emperor over millennia (German Kaiser, Hungarian Csaszar, Russian Tsar, to name a few). Caesar's heir, Octavian, piously waited for Lepidus to die of old age before grabbing the office of Pontifex Maximus for himself, a title that would define the celestial authority of the ruler of Rome until Gratian renounced it four centuries later. Ambrose, bishop of Milan, convinced Gratian that such a pagan title was not fit for a Christian. Once the Roman emperor discarded the title Pontifex Maximus, the bishop of Rome picked it up and placed it above his own head, as can be seen on coins and medals of the Vatican to this day. In Jubilee years, the Pope knocks down the brick wall that has kept closed the Holy Door for a generation, a ceremony that reaffirms Rome's control of the celestial gates.

  6. [Atmospheric asbestos pollution in the urban environment: Rome, Orbassano and a control locality (II)].

    PubMed

    Chiappino, G; Todaro, A; Blanchard, O

    1993-01-01

    To complete our previous study which evaluated by TEM the atmospheric concentrations of asbestos in the urban areas of Milan, Casale Monferrato, Brescia, Ancona, Bologna and Florence, the concentrations measured in Rome, Orbassano and in two mountain test locations, one with serpentine rock (Valle di Susa) and the other with granitic rock (Adamello), are now reported. Compared with the towns in northern Italy, which had already shown decreasing pollution levels from Casale Monferrato to Milan, Brescia, Ancona, Bologna and Florence, the levels measured in Rome were extremely low, about ten times lower than those measured in Florence, which were in turn ten times lower than those measured in Milan. In Orbassano the levels near serpentine quarries were slightly higher than the geologic background values. The geologic background level in Valle di Susa was approximately 1 fibre/litre (> 5 microns) and 2.5 fibres/litre (total fibres); asbestos fibres were totally absent in the mountain area with granitic rock. The clearly decreasing values of pollution starting from the northern cities down to Rome lead to the exclusion of motor vehicle traffic as one of the "primary" sources of fibre dispersion. In fact, traffic becomes significant in producing pollution only in the presence of other dispersion sources since it gives rise to "secondary" pollution consisting of ultra-thin fibres through grinding of coarse fibres dispersed from other sources and sedimented on the ground. The authors attribute the main responsibility in maintaining comparatively high concentrations of asbestos fibres in the urban areas of northern Italy to weathered asbestos-cement coverings which act as "primary" sources.

  7. Bangladeshi immigrants in Italy: from geopolitics to micropolitics.

    PubMed

    Knights, M

    1996-01-01

    "Bangladeshis are one of a wide variety of recently established immigrant groups in Italy, analysed here as an example of the interaction of geopolitics, employment and survival strategies, and the micropolitics of the community's organization in Italy. The geopolitics involves events in Bangladesh (change of government), Italy (the Martelli Law and other legislation), Europe (EU and other European policies, and the opening of eastern Europe as a routeway) and the Gulf. The micropolitics concerns mechanisms of immigration, migration sponsorship, connections to Italian political groups and clientelistic relationships within the community. Micropolitics also governs to a large extent the types of mostly informal work done by Bangladeshis in Rome."

  8. Bangladeshi immigrants in Italy: from geopolitics to micropolitics.

    PubMed

    Knights, M

    1996-01-01

    "Bangladeshis are one of a wide variety of recently established immigrant groups in Italy, analysed here as an example of the interaction of geopolitics, employment and survival strategies, and the micropolitics of the community's organization in Italy. The geopolitics involves events in Bangladesh (change of government), Italy (the Martelli Law and other legislation), Europe (EU and other European policies, and the opening of eastern Europe as a routeway) and the Gulf. The micropolitics concerns mechanisms of immigration, migration sponsorship, connections to Italian political groups and clientelistic relationships within the community. Micropolitics also governs to a large extent the types of mostly informal work done by Bangladeshis in Rome." PMID:12157827

  9. Nitrous acid in the urban area of Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acker, Karin; Febo, Antonio; Trick, Sebastian; Perrino, Cinzia; Bruno, Paolo; Wiesen, Peter; Möller, Detlev; Wieprecht, Wolfgang; Auel, Renate; Giusto, Marco; Geyer, Andreas; Platt, Ulrich; Allegrini, Ivo

    Nitrous acid (HNO 2) and a large variety of other components were simultaneously measured in the city centre of Rome (Italy) during the NITROCAT ground based field experiment in May/June 2001. The highest HNO 2 concentrations were found under high-pressure conditions with high nocturnal atmospheric stability and high values of pollutants. After night time formation and accumulation up to 2 ppb HNO 2 were observed. The measurements confirm that during the first hours after sunrise, when hydroxyl radical (OH) production rates from other sources (photolysis of ozone and formaldehyde (HCHO)) are slow, HNO 2 photolysis is the most important primary OH source in the lowest part of the troposphere; up to 1-4×10 7 OH cm -3 s -1 were estimated for that time from this source. This contributes considerably to the initiation of the photochemistry for the day. The unexpected high daytime concentrations of few hundred ppt observed by DOAS as well as by the two in situ wet collection techniques (wet denuder/IC, coil sampling/HPLC) possibly influence ozone chemistry during the entire day. The heterogeneous on-surface production of HNO 2 (and consequently of HNO 3) provides also a new-type acidity formation influencing directly the biosphere and the materials. About 20% of the total nitrite was found on atmospheric aerosols. The HNO 2 measurements agree well for the different in situ measurement techniques and the spatial integration DOAS simultaneously performed over several weeks in the real atmosphere and during reaction chamber experiments.

  10. Overview of laser communication technologies at Rome Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Timothy E.; Oleski, Paul J.; Dorrian, Kevin W.; Nicholson, Donald J.

    1994-08-01

    Space based optical communications offer several advantages over traditional RF systems. They include: smaller beam divergence, smaller antennas, higher data rates, low probability of intercept, reduced EMI, and low probability of jamming. Additionally, the potentials for light weight, small volume and low power terminals make laser communications a consideration for several potential DOD programs. There have been may proposed configurations for both the laser communication terminal and the satellite network but architectures have remained fairly fluid. Despite these changes, there are several enabling technologies that must be fostered to meet program requirements. Efforts at Rome Lab are currently directed to the development of higher powered laser transmitters; rapid and accurate pointing, acquisition, and tracking systems; multiple channel operation; and sensitive low noise receivers. This paper will provide an overview of these efforts.

  11. Gas potential of the Rome Trough in Kentucky: Results of recent Cambrian exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.C.; Drahovzal, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    A recent gas discovery in the Rome Trough suggests the need to re-evaluate the deep Cambrian potential of eastern Kentucky. A new phase of Cambrian exploration began in mid-1994 with a new pool discovery by the Carson Associates No. 1 Kazee well in Elliott County, Ky. This well blew out and initially flowed 11 MMcfd of gas from the upper Conasauga Group/Rome Formation at 6,258 to 6,270 feet. After this discovery, a second exploratory well (the Blue Ridge No. 1Greene) was drilled on a separate structure in Elliott County in late 1995. The Blue Ridge well was temporarily abandoned, but had shows of gas and condensate. In early 1996, Carson Associates offset their initial discovery well with the No. 33 Lawson Heirs well. This activity follows a frustrating exploration history in the Rome Trough that is marked by numerous gas and oil shows, but rare commercial production. Only three single-well pools have produced commercial gas from the trough, including the recent Kazee well. Stratigraphic units below the Cambrian-Ordovician Knox Group in the Rome Trough are dramatically thicker than their equivalents on the shelf to the north. The interval in the trough is thought to include rocks as old as Early Cambrian, consisting of a basal sandstone, equivalents of the Shady/Tomstown Dolomite, the Rome Formation, and the Conasauga Formation. Sandstones and fractured shales have been responsible for most of the production to date, but dolostone intervals may also have potential. Limited seismic data indicate possible fan-delta and basin-floor fan deposits that may have reservoir potential.

  12. Ionospheric precursors for crustal earthquakes in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, L.; Korsunova, L. P.; Mikhailov, A. V.

    2010-04-01

    Crustal earthquakes with magnitude 6.0>M≥5.5 observed in Italy for the period 1979-2009 including the last one at L'Aquila on 6 April 2009 were considered to check if the earlier obtained relationships for ionospheric precursors for strong Japanese earthquakes are valid for the Italian moderate earthquakes. The ionospheric precursors are based on the observed variations of the sporadic E-layer parameters (h'Es, fbEs) and foF2 at the ionospheric station Rome. Empirical dependencies for the seismo-ionospheric disturbances relating the earthquake magnitude and the epicenter distance are obtained and they have been shown to be similar to those obtained earlier for Japanese earthquakes. The dependences indicate the process of spreading the disturbance from the epicenter towards periphery during the earthquake preparation process. Large lead times for the precursor occurrence (up to 34 days for M=5.8-5.9) tells about a prolong preparation period. A possibility of using the obtained relationships for the earthquakes prediction is discussed.

  13. Insects found on a human cadaver in central Italy including the blowfly Calliphora loewi (Diptera, Calliphoridae), a new species of forensic interest.

    PubMed

    Vanin, S; Gherardi, M; Bugelli, V; Di Paolo, M

    2011-04-15

    In the case of unidentified bodies the estimation of the period since death or of the season of death plays an important role to focus the attention on a reduced number of people among the ones reported missing. Forensic entomology can be one of the most important methods for these estimations, as occurred in this case. Flies are typically the first insects to colonize a dead body. The case reported here concerns the colonisation by insects of a male body in advanced decay found during the winter in Central Italy. This case is of particular interest as few data are available on the entomological evidence in the cold season. In particular, in this case we recovered Calliphora loewi (Calliphoridae), a species never collected before on dead bodies in Southern Europe. Larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (Stratiomyidae), pupae and larvae belonging to genus Hydrothea (Muscidae), and Necrobia rufipes (Cleridae) specimens were also collected. The estimated PMI enabled identification of the cadaver, confirmed by DNA analysis. PMID:21282022

  14. Insects found on a human cadaver in central Italy including the blowfly Calliphora loewi (Diptera, Calliphoridae), a new species of forensic interest.

    PubMed

    Vanin, S; Gherardi, M; Bugelli, V; Di Paolo, M

    2011-04-15

    In the case of unidentified bodies the estimation of the period since death or of the season of death plays an important role to focus the attention on a reduced number of people among the ones reported missing. Forensic entomology can be one of the most important methods for these estimations, as occurred in this case. Flies are typically the first insects to colonize a dead body. The case reported here concerns the colonisation by insects of a male body in advanced decay found during the winter in Central Italy. This case is of particular interest as few data are available on the entomological evidence in the cold season. In particular, in this case we recovered Calliphora loewi (Calliphoridae), a species never collected before on dead bodies in Southern Europe. Larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (Stratiomyidae), pupae and larvae belonging to genus Hydrothea (Muscidae), and Necrobia rufipes (Cleridae) specimens were also collected. The estimated PMI enabled identification of the cadaver, confirmed by DNA analysis.

  15. Virtualizing ancient Rome: 3D acquisition and modeling of a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, Gabriele; Frischer, Bernard; De Simone, Monica; Cioci, Andrea; Spinetti, Alessandro; Carosso, Luca; Micoli, Laura L.; Russo, Michele; Grasso, Tommaso

    2004-12-01

    Computer modeling through digital range images has been used for many applications, including 3D modeling of objects belonging to our cultural heritage. The scales involved range from small objects (e.g. pottery), to middle-sized works of art (statues, architectural decorations), up to very large structures (architectural and archaeological monuments). For any of these applications, suitable sensors and methodologies have been explored by different authors. The object to be modeled within this project is the "Plastico di Roma antica," a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome (16x17 meters) created in the last century. Its overall size therefore demands an acquisition approach typical of large structures, but it also is characterized extremely tiny details typical of small objects (houses are a few centimeters high; their doors, windows, etc. are smaller than 1 centimeter). This paper gives an account of the procedures followed for solving this "contradiction" and describes how a huge 3D model was acquired and generated by using a special metrology Laser Radar. The procedures for reorienting in a single reference system the huge point clouds obtained after each acquisition phase, thanks to the measurement of fixed redundant references, are described. The data set was split in smaller sub-areas 2 x 2 meters each for purposes of mesh editing. This subdivision was necessary owing to the huge number of points in each individual scan (50-60 millions). The final merge of the edited parts made it possible to create a single mesh. All these processes were made with software specifically designed for this project since no commercial package could be found that was suitable for managing such a large number of points. Preliminary models are presented. Finally, the significance of the project is discussed in terms of the overall project known as "Rome Reborn," of which the present acquisition is an important component.

  16. Virtualizing ancient Rome: 3D acquisition and modeling of a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, Gabriele; Frischer, Bernard; De Simone, Monica; Cioci, Andrea; Spinetti, Alessandro; Carosso, Luca; Micoli, Laura L.; Russo, Michele; Grasso, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    Computer modeling through digital range images has been used for many applications, including 3D modeling of objects belonging to our cultural heritage. The scales involved range from small objects (e.g. pottery), to middle-sized works of art (statues, architectural decorations), up to very large structures (architectural and archaeological monuments). For any of these applications, suitable sensors and methodologies have been explored by different authors. The object to be modeled within this project is the "Plastico di Roma antica," a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome (16x17 meters) created in the last century. Its overall size therefore demands an acquisition approach typical of large structures, but it also is characterized extremely tiny details typical of small objects (houses are a few centimeters high; their doors, windows, etc. are smaller than 1 centimeter). This paper gives an account of the procedures followed for solving this "contradiction" and describes how a huge 3D model was acquired and generated by using a special metrology Laser Radar. The procedures for reorienting in a single reference system the huge point clouds obtained after each acquisition phase, thanks to the measurement of fixed redundant references, are described. The data set was split in smaller sub-areas 2 x 2 meters each for purposes of mesh editing. This subdivision was necessary owing to the huge number of points in each individual scan (50-60 millions). The final merge of the edited parts made it possible to create a single mesh. All these processes were made with software specifically designed for this project since no commercial package could be found that was suitable for managing such a large number of points. Preliminary models are presented. Finally, the significance of the project is discussed in terms of the overall project known as "Rome Reborn," of which the present acquisition is an important component.

  17. Analysis of Geomagnetic Disturbances and Cosmic Ray Intensity Variations in Relation to Medical Data from Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannaropoulou, E.; Papailiou, M.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Tsipis, A.

    2010-07-01

    Over the last few years many studies have been conducted concerning the possible influence of geomagnetic and solar activity and cosmic ray activity on human physiological state and in particular on human cardio - health state. As it is shown the human organism is sensitive to environmental changes and reacts to them through a series of variations of its physiological parameters such as heart rate, arterial systolic and diastolic blood pressure, etc. In this paper daily mean values of heart rate, as they were registered for a group of 2.028 volunteers during medical examinations in the Polyclinico Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy are analyzed in relation to daily cosmic ray intensity variations, as measured by the Neutron Monitor of the University of Athens and daily variations of the geomagnetic indices Dst, Ap and Kp. The results from this study show that geomagnetic activity changes and cosmic rays intensity variations may regulate the human homeostasis.

  18. [Gynecology and obstetrics in Ancient Rome].

    PubMed

    Dumont, M

    1992-10-01

    Gods and Goddesses were invoked by the Romans for the termination of a good delivery. Diana, Juno, Lucina and Cybele were the preferred ones. Sterility was sometimes treated by the whip of the Lupercali of ministers of Pan. The first doctors in Rome were coming from Greece. Celsus, Pliny the Elder were encyclopedists, Rufus an anatomist, Dioscorides a pharmacologist. Archigenes, Aretaeus and Antyllus surgeons. Soranus from Ephesus, was the first to recommend podalic version. His works was a long time buried in a profound oblivion and discovered by scholars during the nineteenth century. Galen was looked as the most famous medical man after Hippocrates. During the Roman Empire of Occident (Byzantine Empire), Oribasius, Aurelianus Caelius, Moschion and above all Aetius and Paul of Aegina wrote many works which were many times plagiarized. Roman laws concerning public health were severe. Midwives took an important action in the care of pregnant women. Roman poets as Plautus, Terence, Lucilius, Catullus, Virgil, Tibullus, Ovid and Martial were many times concerned in their writings with gynecologic or obstetric subjects. Children were easily forsaken. Three Emperors, Trajan, Marcus-Aurelius and Alexander Severius, a writer, Aulu-Gelles, and a rhetor, Quintilian, took protection of them.

  19. [The teaching of microbiology in the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Rome. Memories of the Institute].

    PubMed

    Orsi, N

    2008-01-01

    The Author describes the various phases of the teaching of microbiology in the Faculty of Medicine of the University, of Rome, from the unity of Italy to the end of the twentieth century. A regular course of Bacteriology was started only in the academic year 1905/1906 as separate teaching from that of Hygiene and the Institute of Bacteriology was created in 1924. It was centered in Piazza del Viminale in Rome, in the same building as the Institute of Hygiene. Prof Vittorio Puntoni was the first Director of the Institute, also in its new site of the Città Universitaria which was inaugurated in 1935. In the meantime the old name of Bacteriology was changed to Microbiology and prof Puntoni remained as Director until 1943. The bombing during the war produced heavy damage to the new Institute and with the appointment of prof Aldo Cimmino as a new Director in 1946 the Institute of Microbiology began a long period of reconstruction and development. An astonishing improvement was achieved in the availability of human and technical resources, many groups of research workers were created and several pupils became professor of Microbiology in different Italian Universities. In 1981 prof Cimmino definitely retired, leaving, the teaching of Microbiology in the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Rome "La Sapienza" to five of his pupils. One of them, prof Garaci, a few years later passed to the new University of Rome "Tor Vergata", becoming also Rector. The other four professor (Orsi, Filadoro, Pezzi, del Piano) continued their teaching in the successive years, with the collaboration of several associate professors, whose status was created by the law 382 in 1980. A later law on the short degree course required also the official participation of many researchers to the new teaching. Finally in 2001 the official activity of the Institute of Microbiology ceased and was incorporated in the Department of Public Health Sciences.

  20. Cutting Edge Research in Homeopathy: HRI's second international research conference in Rome.

    PubMed

    Tournier, Alexander L; Roberts, E Rachel

    2016-02-01

    Rome, 3rd-5th June 2015, was the setting for the Homeopathy Research Institute's (HRI) second conference with the theme 'Cutting Edge Research in Homeopathy'. Attended by over 250 delegates from 39 countries, this event provided an intense two and a half day programme of presentations and a forum for the sharing of ideas and the creation of international scientific collaborations. With 35 oral presentations from leaders in the field, the scientific calibre of the programme was high and the content diverse. This report summarises the key themes underpinning the cutting edge data presented by the speakers, including six key-note presentations, covering advancements in both basic and clinical research. Given the clear commitment of the global homeopathic community to high quality research, the resounding success of both Barcelona 2013 and Rome 2015 HRI conferences, and the dedicated support of colleagues, the HRI moves confidently forward towards the next biennial conference.

  1. The HyMeX Special Observation Period in Central Italy: Precipitation Measurements, Retrieval Techniques and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, Patrick; Wingo, Matt; Petersen, Walt; Marzano, Frank Silvio; Baldini, Luca; Picciotti, Errico; Colantonio, Matteo; Barbieri, Stefano; Di Fabio, Saverio; Montopoli, Mario; Roberto, Nicoletta; Adirosi, Elisa; Gorgucci, Eugenio; Anagnostou, Emmanoil N..; Ferretti, Rossella

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean area concentrates the major natural risks related to the water cycle, including heavy precipitation and flash-flooding during the fall season. The capability to predict such high-impact events remains weak because of the contribution of very fine-scale processes and their non-linear interactions with the larger scale processes. These societal and science issues motivate the HyMeX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment, http://www.hymex.orgl) experimental programme. HyMeX aims at a better quantification and understanding of the water cycle in the Mediterranean with emphasis on intense events. The observation strategy of HyMEX is organized in a long-term (4 years) Enhanced Observation Periods (EOP) and short-term (2 months) Special Observation Periods (SOP). HyMEX has identified 3 main Mediterranean target areas: North-West (NW), Adriatic (A) and South-East (SE). Within each target area several hydrometeorological sites for heavy rainfall and flash flooding have been set up. The hydrometeorological sire in Central Italy (CI) is interested by both western and eastern fronts coming from the Atlantic Ocean and Siberia, respectively. Orographic precipitations play an important role due to the central Apennine range, which reaches nearly 3000 m (Gran Sasso peak). Moreover, convective systems commonly develop in CI during late summer and beginning of autumn, often causing localized hailstorms with cluster organized cells. Western fronts may heavily hit the Tiber basin crossing large urban areas (Rome), whereas eastern fronts can cause flash floods along the Adriatic coastline. Two major basins are involved within Cl region: Tiber basin (1000 km long) and its tributary Aniene and the Aterno-Pescara basin (300 km long). The first HyMeX SOP1.1 was carried out from Sept. till Nov. 2012 in the NW target area The Italian SOP1.1 was coordinated by the Centre of Excellence CETEMPS, University of L'Aquila, a city located in the CI heart. The CI area

  2. [Rome: capital of an empire under the banner of political biology (1936-1942)].

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the symbolic conformation of Rome and Romanism as important factors in the affirmation of the power of fascism, especially after the proclamation of the Empire in 1936. Within this framework, it explores the role of science in legitimizing the direct correlation of this symbolic universe with a praxis that exalted racial superiority inherited from Ancient Rome. It investigates the links between the eugenic discourse and the exercise of power behind the "biology policy", including fascist organicism and racism. In fact, Rome was the essence of an empire that was reborn after fifteen centuries and, between its historical legacy and the new scenarios created by fascism for disciplining the population, Romanism had to condense all of the merits of the race, encouraging military conquests and promoting responsibility for maintaining racial purity and avoiding "unwanted miscegenation" with conquered peoples. The idea of Romanism also encouraged a continuation of the persecution of Jews started in Germany. Hence, science ratified a widespread idea of the Romanization as a crusade to impose a force, exaggerated on racial grounds, which integrated confidence in environmental factors with a crude biological determinism.

  3. [Rome: capital of an empire under the banner of political biology (1936-1942)].

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the symbolic conformation of Rome and Romanism as important factors in the affirmation of the power of fascism, especially after the proclamation of the Empire in 1936. Within this framework, it explores the role of science in legitimizing the direct correlation of this symbolic universe with a praxis that exalted racial superiority inherited from Ancient Rome. It investigates the links between the eugenic discourse and the exercise of power behind the "biology policy", including fascist organicism and racism. In fact, Rome was the essence of an empire that was reborn after fifteen centuries and, between its historical legacy and the new scenarios created by fascism for disciplining the population, Romanism had to condense all of the merits of the race, encouraging military conquests and promoting responsibility for maintaining racial purity and avoiding "unwanted miscegenation" with conquered peoples. The idea of Romanism also encouraged a continuation of the persecution of Jews started in Germany. Hence, science ratified a widespread idea of the Romanization as a crusade to impose a force, exaggerated on racial grounds, which integrated confidence in environmental factors with a crude biological determinism. PMID:22849218

  4. The Club of Rome and its computer.

    PubMed

    Chase, S

    1973-03-01

    When the Club of Rome, an assemblage of 75 scientists and businessmen gathered to study the ''predicament of mankind in the face of technology growing at an exponential rate,'' issued its computer study it launched a battle between proponents of gross national product and those favoring quality of life. The computer simulation studied the interaction of population growth, food supply, inductrial production, resource use, and pollution under varying conditions. It concluded that our industrial system is headed for too many people in relation to food and living space, too much production in relation to natural resources, and for too much pollution. This will affect all countries. The traditional economists say the continued growth of the gross national product is the only way to ensure better living conditions while the ecologists point out that quality of life is being destroyed. The author cites arguments both for and against the quality-of-life view. The problem is that continued industrial growth creates wants as well as satisfying them and leads to waste as well as needful consumption. John Stuart Mill stated 100 years ago that the world could not support continued technological expansion and society must reach an equilibrium. 8 steps must be taken if the planet is to reach such an equilibrium, which is essential to the survival of all: 1) a zero rate of population growth, although there may be variations between countries with some over and some under; 2) a zero rate of industrial output with overall new investment equal to overall rate of industrial depreciation; 3) a policy of recycling and conserving material resources; 4) an adequate budget of food, shelter, clothing, health services, and education for every human being (a budget which does not allow for autos and air conditioning); 5) a sharp decline in consumption of material goods in affluent societies with a corresponding shift to more services and an increase in material goods for low energy societies

  5. The Club of Rome and its computer.

    PubMed

    Chase, S

    1973-03-01

    When the Club of Rome, an assemblage of 75 scientists and businessmen gathered to study the ''predicament of mankind in the face of technology growing at an exponential rate,'' issued its computer study it launched a battle between proponents of gross national product and those favoring quality of life. The computer simulation studied the interaction of population growth, food supply, inductrial production, resource use, and pollution under varying conditions. It concluded that our industrial system is headed for too many people in relation to food and living space, too much production in relation to natural resources, and for too much pollution. This will affect all countries. The traditional economists say the continued growth of the gross national product is the only way to ensure better living conditions while the ecologists point out that quality of life is being destroyed. The author cites arguments both for and against the quality-of-life view. The problem is that continued industrial growth creates wants as well as satisfying them and leads to waste as well as needful consumption. John Stuart Mill stated 100 years ago that the world could not support continued technological expansion and society must reach an equilibrium. 8 steps must be taken if the planet is to reach such an equilibrium, which is essential to the survival of all: 1) a zero rate of population growth, although there may be variations between countries with some over and some under; 2) a zero rate of industrial output with overall new investment equal to overall rate of industrial depreciation; 3) a policy of recycling and conserving material resources; 4) an adequate budget of food, shelter, clothing, health services, and education for every human being (a budget which does not allow for autos and air conditioning); 5) a sharp decline in consumption of material goods in affluent societies with a corresponding shift to more services and an increase in material goods for low energy societies

  6. Water supply of Rome in antiquity and today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bono, P.; Boni, C.

    1996-03-01

    In ancient Rome, water was considered a deity to be worshipped and most of all utilized in health and art. The availability of huge water supplies was considered a symbol of opulence and therefore an expression of power. The countryside around Rome offered a spectacular view: it was adorned with an incalculable number of monuments, temples, and villas, and it was crossed by sturdy aqueducts with magnificent arcades. The aqueduct as a superelevated monumental work is a typical concept of the Roman engineering, although it is possible to recognize that the inspiration and the basic ideas came from Etruscan technology. The Etruscans did not construct real aqueducts, even though they built hydraulic works as irrigation channels, drainage systems, dams, etc. The Greeks had also built similar hydraulic structures, before the Roman influence. Interesting aqueduct remains are in Rome, Segovia (Spain), Nimes (France), and Cologne (Germany), among other places.

  7. Report on the international colloquium on cardio-oncology (rome, 12-14 march 2014).

    PubMed

    Ewer, Michael; Gianni, Luca; Pane, Fabrizio; Sandri, Maria Teresa; Steiner, Rudolf K; Wojnowski, Leszek; Yeh, Edward T; Carver, Joseph R; Lipshultz, Steven E; Minotti, Giorgio; Armstrong, Gregory T; Cardinale, Daniela; Colan, Steven D; Darby, Sarah C; Force, Thomas L; Kremer, Leontien Cm; Lenihan, Daniel J; Sallan, Stephen E; Sawyer, Douglas B; Suter, Thomas M; Swain, Sandra M; van Leeuwen, Flora E

    2014-01-01

    Cardio-oncology is a relatively new discipline that focuses on the cardiovascular sequelae of anti-tumour drugs. As any other young adolescent discipline, cardio-oncology struggles to define its scientific boundaries and to identify best standards of care for cancer patients or survivors at risk of cardiovascular events. The International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology was held in Rome, Italy, 12-14 March 2014, with the aim of illuminating controversial issues and unmet needs in modern cardio-oncology. This colloquium embraced contributions from different kind of disciplines (oncology and cardiology but also paediatrics, geriatrics, genetics, and translational research); in fact, cardio-oncology goes way beyond the merging of cardiology with oncology. Moreover, the colloquium programme did not review cardiovascular toxicity from one drug or the other, rather it looked at patients as we see them in their fight against cancer and eventually returning to everyday life. This represents the melting pot in which anti-cancer therapies, genetic backgrounds, and risk factors conspire in producing cardiovascular sequelae, and this calls for screening programmes and well-designed platforms of collaboration between one key professional figure and another. The International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology was promoted by the Menarini International Foundation and co-chaired by Giorgio Minotti (Rome), Joseph R Carver (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States), and Steven E Lipshultz (Detroit, Michigan, United States). The programme was split into five sessions of broad investigational and clinical relevance (what is cardiotoxicity?, cardiotoxicity in children, adolescents, and young adults, cardiotoxicity in adults, cardiotoxicity in special populations, and the future of cardio-oncology). Here, the colloquium chairs and all the session chairs briefly summarised what was said at the colloquium. Topics and controversies were reported on behalf of all members of the working group of

  8. Myth and Historical Facts about Rome and the Huns Leader Attila

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadyrova, Anar T.; Imangazinov, Muratbek M.; Kozhagulov, Saylauhan K.; Suleimenova, Gulmira S.; Amanzholova, Arailym A.

    2016-01-01

    The article reviewed the history of Rome and Attila, their influence on the political and social situation in Europe. The aim of the article is to study the origins of Rome, its crisis and destruction. It also considers the impact on the collapse of the Empire, the impact that Attila had on the destruction of Rome and the analysis of Attila as a…

  9. Ancient Rome: The Latin Teacher and Life in the Big City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramage, Edwin S.

    This paper attempts to answer the question of what life was really like in ancient Rome, with a view to using this kind of information as cultural background for teaching Latin language and literature. There were many problems associated with daily living in ancient Rome. Writings of some inhabitants of ancient Rome attest to the fact that these…

  10. 78 FR 65554 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Rome, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish controlled airspace at Rome, OR (78 FR 45475). Interested parties...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not...

  11. [Introduction of Greek medicine to Rome: political and ideologic discord].

    PubMed

    Marasco, G

    1995-01-01

    The opposition of Cato the Elder and other traditionalists to the introduction of Greek medicine in Rome by Archagathus was the result of several factors: political strife in the Roman nobility, hostility against Greek culture, fear of Archagathus' surgical and pharmaceutical treatments, and loathing for the mercenary character of the medical profession, which was regarded as a sign of luxury.

  12. GeoguideRome, urban geotourism offer powered by mobile application technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pica, Alessia; Grangier, Lucien; Reynard, Emmanuel; Kaiser, Christian; Del Monte, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Geoheritage studies have been highly intensified and diversified in recent years. This field of research has a strong applicability, especially in interdisciplinary and sustainable forms of tourism. For this purpose the most modern technologies are used for supporting the dissemination of research results, in particular for educational purposes (Kenteris et al., 2011 and references therein). This is the case of smartphone and tablet applications developed by the Institute of Geography and Sustainability of Lausanne University (IGD), devoted to geotourist itineraries. This work presents the application developed for the city of Rome, based on the itinerary proposed by the Earth Sciences Department of the Sapienza University (Del Monte et al., 2013; Pica et al., 2015). The Aeterna Urbs, with more than 3000 years of historical development, is a very good place to develop urban geotourism, especially because most of the cultural places are related to morphological features (Pica et al., 2015). As shown by the Geoguide Lausanne (Reynard et al., 2015) - a virtual itinerary showing the relationships between geology/geomorphology, climate/hydrology, and urban development in Lausanne (Switzerland) - and TOURinSTONES - a virtual guide on the rocks used for the construction of urban monuments and infrastructures in the city of Turin (Italy) - the urban context has the advantage of easily showing the links between natural features and human activities. From a technical point of view the application is an updated version of Geoguide Lausanne using jQuery Mobile as development framework, which allowed for increasing the usability and solved some gaps of the previous versions. The contents are organized the same way as for the Geoguide Lausanne, proposing three educational themes, an itinerary arranged in georeferenced stops shown by images and described in their characterizing aspects. The themes are Geology, History and Legends. By means of the relationships between them they

  13. Italy seeks a strategy.

    PubMed

    Owen, M

    1988-01-01

    Italy now ranks 8th in the list of countries worst hit by AIDS. The relatively low figures for homosexual AIDS cases give no cause for complacency. It is not known yet if the message about 'safe sex' has got across to homosexuals, or if there has been underreporting and the numbers with AIDS will start soon to show the same rising curve as that for drug users. The Vatican, as was always expected, has said 'no' to the use of condoms to combat the spread of HIV, even though its use would not be to avoid conception but to prevent disease. Many doctors working in the field resent the lack of consultation and communication between Rome and the regions. But Italian health services are decentralized; the 21 regional health authorities are autonomous bodies. They have never looked to central government for specific directions, but they do desperately need extra funding. Their literature has been important as means of countering 'disinformation' from the press, often prone to sensationalism. Discrimination against children of parents infected with HIV has occured in schools and frequently seropositive employees have been fired. Local authorities are now making great efforts to impart the correct information. The Italian family planning association, UNICEMP, plays a supportive role in the education and information campaign. Many voluntary organizations provide counseling. The government national commission on AIDS set up a free telephone service where experts are available to answer questions from the public. But although 18,000 calls were made in the 1st 6 weeks of opening, hardly any inqueries at all came from those most at risk--the drug users. PMID:12281142

  14. A new database of cloudiness for Italy from instrumental time series since the late 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manara, Veronica; Brunetti, Michele; Maugeri, Maurizio; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2015-04-01

    Italy has a very important role in the development of meteorological observations. Consequently, a heritage of data of enormous value has been accumulated in Italy over the last three centuries. However, only a small fraction of Italian data is available in computer readable form and the available records mainly concern temperature, precipitation and pressure. Within this context, we set up a project to recover as much as possible cloudiness Italian records. The goal is to consider total cloud cover (TCC), low and middle cloud cover, and cloud types. The data source we are using include the former national central office for meteorology (now CRA-CMA), the national air force meteorological and climatological service and some of the oldest Italian observatories as Milan, Rome, Turin and Venice. The database contains sub-daily (from 3 to 8 observations per day for each station) information about TCC but also about the amount and the type of low, middle and high cloud in the sky. The oldest records start at about 1858 and about 30 records start in the 1880s. Currently quality check and test for temporal homogeneity is in progress. Then the monthly records will be completed by means of the neighboring records and averaged in order to get national and regional records for Italy and its main climatic areas. This new dataset will be presented and the results of the first analyses will be discussed. The study of cloudiness records for Italy is important also to better understand the behavior of sunshine duration, which shows a rather peculiar behaviour, especially in northern Italy. In this area, in fact, we observe a statistically significant increasing tendency during the period 1936-2103, that most publications do not report, as a consequence of a strong increase starting from the 1980 and a less evident decrease in the previous period.

  15. [Unperfect, handicapped persons: for a history of didactics of neuro and psychomotor rehabilitation of children in Italy].

    PubMed

    Gazzaniga, Valentina

    2004-01-01

    The history of paediatrics disability and of the attempts at creating a "rehabilitation strategy" for disabled children, in Italy, has yet to be written. This contribution is part of a project involving medical historians, psychologists and neurologists, all from Rome University "La Sapienza".

  16. Making Meaning of Everyday Practices: Parents' Attitudes toward Children's Extracurricular Activities in the United States and in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremer-Sadlik, Tamar; Izquierdo, Carolina; Fatigante, Marilena

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on children's engagement in extracurricular activities from the perspective of middle-class parents in Rome, Italy, and Los Angeles, California. Analysis of parents' accounts captured in interviews and ethnographic fieldwork reveals that both sets of parents perceive activities as important for children's success. Yet Roman…

  17. The flaminio obelisk in Rome: vibrational characteristics as part of preservation efforts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bongiovanni, G.; Celebi, M.; Clemente, P.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to study the vibrational characteristics of the Flaminio Obelisk in Rome as part of general studies being performed for preservation purposes. The state of preservation of the monument is described as well as the sonic method used to evaluate the integrity of the sections. The results of the sonic tests are used to determine reductions in the cross-sectional properties. A stick model including two rotational frequency independent soil springs at the basement level of the obelisk is developed. A response spectrum and stress analysis according to the Italian Seismic Code is performed considering and evaluating the degraded characteristics of sections. -from Authors

  18. Active Tuberculosis Case Finding Interventions Among Immigrants, Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Schepisi, Monica Sañé; Gualano, Gina; Piselli, Pierluca; Mazza, Marta; D’Angelo, Donatella; Fasciani, Francesca; Barbieri, Alberto; Rocca, Giorgia; Gnolfo, Filippo; Olivani, Piefranco; Ferrarese, Maurizio; Codecasa, Luigi Ruffo; Palmieri, Fabrizio; Girardi, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    In Italy tuberculosis (TB) is largely concentrated in vulnerable groups such as migrants and in urban settings. We analyzed three TB case finding interventions conducted at primary centers and mobile clinics for regular/irregular immigrants and refugees/asylum seekers performed over a four-year period (November 2009-March 2014) at five different sites in Rome and one site in Milan, Italy. TB history and presence of symptoms suggestive of active TB were investigated by verbal screening through a structured questionnaire in migrants presenting for any medical condition to out-patient and mobile clinics. Individuals reporting TB history or symptoms were referred to a TB clinic for diagnostic workup. Among 6347 migrants enrolled, 891 (14.0%) reported TB history or symptoms suggestive of active TB and 546 (61.3%) were referred to the TB clinic. Of them, 254 (46.5%) did not present for diagnostic evaluation. TB was diagnosed in 11 individuals representing 0.17% of those screened and 3.76% of those evaluated. The overall yield of this intervention was in the range reported for other TB screening programs for migrants, although we recorded an unsatisfactory adherence to diagnostic workup. Possible advantages of this intervention include low cost and reduced burden of medical procedures for the screened population. PMID:27403270

  19. Active Tuberculosis Case Finding Interventions Among Immigrants, Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Italy.

    PubMed

    Schepisi, Monica Sañé; Gualano, Gina; Piselli, Pierluca; Mazza, Marta; D'Angelo, Donatella; Fasciani, Francesca; Barbieri, Alberto; Rocca, Giorgia; Gnolfo, Filippo; Olivani, Piefranco; Ferrarese, Maurizio; Codecasa, Luigi Ruffo; Palmieri, Fabrizio; Girardi, Enrico

    2016-06-24

    In Italy tuberculosis (TB) is largely concentrated in vulnerable groups such as migrants and in urban settings. We analyzed three TB case finding interventions conducted at primary centers and mobile clinics for regular/irregular immigrants and refugees/asylum seekers performed over a four-year period (November 2009-March 2014) at five different sites in Rome and one site in Milan, Italy. TB history and presence of symptoms suggestive of active TB were investigated by verbal screening through a structured questionnaire in migrants presenting for any medical condition to out-patient and mobile clinics. Individuals reporting TB history or symptoms were referred to a TB clinic for diagnostic workup. Among 6347 migrants enrolled, 891 (14.0%) reported TB history or symptoms suggestive of active TB and 546 (61.3%) were referred to the TB clinic. Of them, 254 (46.5%) did not present for diagnostic evaluation. TB was diagnosed in 11 individuals representing 0.17% of those screened and 3.76% of those evaluated. The overall yield of this intervention was in the range reported for other TB screening programs for migrants, although we recorded an unsatisfactory adherence to diagnostic workup. Possible advantages of this intervention include low cost and reduced burden of medical procedures for the screened population. PMID:27403270

  20. Influence of air pollution on chronic obstructive respiratory diseases: comparison between city (Rome) and hillcountry environments and climates.

    PubMed

    Avino, Pasquale; De Lisio, Vincenzo; Grassi, Marcello; Lucchetra, Maria C; Messina, Baldassare; Monaco, Giorgio; Petraccia, Luisa; Quartieri, Giuseppe; Rosentzwig, Rivka; Russo, Mario V; Spada, Sebastiano; Valenzi, Vincenzo I

    2004-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPDs) constitute a social problem of widespread interest. These diseases increase slowly and constantly. Air pollution and its impact on public health continually repropose certain absolute priorities, such as the pin-pointing of strategies to control the pollution sources, the planning of observational studies and the epidemic control. This work shows that a climate marked by always windy weather and low humidity and with low chemical pollutant concentrations (Pietracupa; Molise, Italy) is connected to smaller prevalence of COPDs in comparison with big cities like Rome. Living in non-polluted areas, the benefits of a healthy climate in terms of an improvement in breathing and bronchial hyperactivity reduction, may only in part be backed up by epidemic evidence; however, they are a solid base on which to build definite research projects which can effectively validate it even from an experimental point of view supported by statistics.

  1. An epidemiological survey of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in gynaecological outpatients, Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Verteramo, R; Patella, A; Calzolari, E; Recine, N; Marcone, V; Osborn, J; Chiarini, F; Degener, A M

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis infections and to investigate associations between their presence in the lower female genital tract and lifestyle characteristics. The study was performed on a population of 3115 women, comparing the demographic and behavioural characteristics of 872 women with U. urealyticum infection and 142 women with M. hominis with uninfected women, using univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of infection with U. urealyticum was 28% and M. hominis was 4.6%. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, intrauterine device, number of sexual partners and age (<35 years) were significantly associated with U. urealyticum while previous induced abortion, condom use and young age at first intercourse (<16 years) were associated with M. hominis infection. U. urealyticum infection presents the same demographic and behavioural characteristics of a sexually transmitted disease. The unprotective role of condom use suggests a non-sexual mode of transmission of M. hominis infection.

  2. [Elevated blood pressure in adolescents from Rome, Italy. Nutritional risk factors and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Cairella, G; Menghetti, E; Scanu, A; Bevilacqua, N; Censi, L; Martone, D; Sonni, L; Rosano, A; Spagnolo, A; D'Addesa, D

    2007-01-01

    Aim of the study was to detect the prevalence of hypertension among 11-14 years old schoolchildren (n. 487, mean age 12.7 +/- 0.9). The influence on blood pressure (BP) of body mass index (BMI), dietary habits (frequency of breakfast and food items consumption) and life-style was also investigated. Hypertension was defined according to blood pressure tables for children and adolescents of the NIH-Fourth Report (systolic and diastolic BP >95th percentile for age and sex). Overweight and obesity were determined according to the International Obesity Task Force Dietary habits and life-style were investigated by specific questionnaires. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was respectively 31.8% and 10.3% of the subjects studied. Moreover 10.3% of them showed BP values between 90th and 95th percentile and 10.1% was hypertensive. In general the prevalence of overweight (p < 0.05), obesity (p < 0.001) and sedentary activity (p < 0.05) was higher in hypertensive adolescents. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a direct association between obesity (OR = 4.35; IC 95% = 2.24-8.44), sedentary life-style (OR = 2.38; IC 95% = 1.17-4.63) and hypertension. Food habits were not associated with BP levels. The results confirmed that an increase of cardiovascular risk in early age was correlated with the increase of the prevalence of obesity and sedentary life-style. Regular measurement of BP together with healthy dietary and life-style indications are recommended to overweight/obese children and adolescents.

  3. [THE HISTORY OF A VANISHED PHARMACY IN ROME].

    PubMed

    Serarcangeli, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Starting from archive documents, the present article aims to retrace the history of a once well-known pharmacy based in S. Eustachio square, in Rome, and then commonly denominated Corsi's. Thanks to the information gathered in Roman archives, it is possible to throw light on the events related to this apothecary, whose activity, as found out, lasted since the XVIII until the first decades of the XX century, under the property of two families, first the Conti and then the Corsi. Notwithstanding its long establishment, this pharmacy seems to have suddenly vanished from the official documents registered within the archives. Nevertheless the importance of its history is actually related to some of the instruments, being part of its original inventory, and nowadays held in the collection of the Museum of History of Medicine in Rome. These specimens particularly jars and boxes, are valuable in order to describe how in the past professionals used to take care of most of the diseases.

  4. Securitarian healing: Roma mobility and health care in Rome.

    PubMed

    Alunni, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, Roma populations in Europe have been the object of strict securitarian policies. The Rome case is particularly interesting due to the continued shift from securitarian to humanitarian discourses and actions led by local institutions. The specific health care system implemented in the legal and illegal Roma camps was one of the tools used. The ethnographic fieldwork behind this article involved following the daily activities of a mobile medical unit dedicated to Roma camps in Rome and monitoring a health care project led by a nongovernmental organization. This analysis focuses on one particular dimension of precarious forms of Roma citizenship that the health care policies have developed to address Roma issues: the international mobility dynamics relating to health issues, which drive subjects into a forced integration of multiple, incomplete, and fragmentary medical approaches.

  5. Coin hoards speak of population declines in Ancient Rome

    PubMed Central

    Turchin, Peter; Scheidel, Walter

    2009-01-01

    In times of violence, people tend to hide their valuables, which are later recovered unless the owners had been killed or driven away. Thus, the temporal distribution of unrecovered coin hoards is an excellent proxy for the intensity of internal warfare. We use this relationship to resolve a long-standing controversy in Roman history. Depending on who was counted in the early Imperial censuses (adult males or the entire citizenry including women and minors), the Roman citizen population of Italy either declined, or more than doubled, during the first century BCE. This period was characterized by a series of civil wars, and historical evidence indicates that high levels of sociopolitical instability are associated with demographic contractions. We fitted a simple model quantifying the effect of instability (proxied by hoard frequency) on population dynamics to the data before 100 BCE. The model predicts declining population after 100 BCE. This suggests that the vigorous growth scenario is highly implausible. PMID:19805043

  6. Coin hoards speak of population declines in Ancient Rome.

    PubMed

    Turchin, Peter; Scheidel, Walter

    2009-10-13

    In times of violence, people tend to hide their valuables, which are later recovered unless the owners had been killed or driven away. Thus, the temporal distribution of unrecovered coin hoards is an excellent proxy for the intensity of internal warfare. We use this relationship to resolve a long-standing controversy in Roman history. Depending on who was counted in the early Imperial censuses (adult males or the entire citizenry including women and minors), the Roman citizen population of Italy either declined, or more than doubled, during the first century BCE. This period was characterized by a series of civil wars, and historical evidence indicates that high levels of sociopolitical instability are associated with demographic contractions. We fitted a simple model quantifying the effect of instability (proxied by hoard frequency) on population dynamics to the data before 100 BCE. The model predicts declining population after 100 BCE. This suggests that the vigorous growth scenario is highly implausible. PMID:19805043

  7. Childbirth in ancient Rome: from traditional folklore to obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Todman, Donald

    2007-04-01

    In ancient Rome, childbirth was a hazardous event for both mother and child with high rates of infant and maternal mortality. Traditional Roman medicine centred on folklore and religious practices, but with the development of Hippocratic medicine came significant advances in the care of women during pregnancy and confinement. Midwives or obstetrices played an important role and applied rational scientific practices to improve outcomes. This evolution from folklore to obstetrics was a pivotal point in the history of childbirth.

  8. Medical competence, anatomy and the polity in seventeenth-century Rome

    PubMed Central

    De Renzi, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    At the centre of this article are two physicians active in Rome between 1600 and 1630 who combined medical practice with broader involvement in the dynamic cultural, economic and political scene of the centre of the Catholic world. The city's distinctive and very influential social landscape magnified issues of career-building and allows us to recapture physicians’ different strategies of self-fashioning at a time of major social and religious reorganization. At one level, reconstructing Johannes Faber and Giulio Mancini's medical education, arrival in Rome and overlapping but different career trajectories contributes to research on physicians’ identity in early modern Italian states. Most remarkable are their access to different segments of Roman society, including a dynamic art market, and their diplomatic and political role, claimed as well as real. But following these physicians from hospitals to courts, including that of the Pope, and from tribunals to the university and analysing the wide range of their writing – from medico-legal consilia to political essays and reports of anatomical investigations – also enriches our view of medical practice, which included, but went beyond, the bedside. Furthermore, their activities demand that we reassess the complex place of anatomical investigations in a courtly society, and start recovering the fundamental role played by hospitals – those quintessential Catholic institutions – as sites of routine dissections for both medical teaching and research. (pp. 551–567) PMID:21949463

  9. Radar-disdrometer comparison during rain events over the urban area of Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracciolo, C.; Porcù, F.; D'Adderio, L. P.; Prodi, F.; Baldini, L.; Gorgucci, E.

    2009-04-01

    Pludix, a rain-gauge disdrometer in X-band (9.5 GHz), has been installed in September 2007 in the La Sapienza University area, at about 13 Km far from the C-band (5.5 GHz) polarimetric Doppler radar Polar55C. The radar is located in the south-east of the city of Rome (Italy), in the Tor Vergata research area. One-minute disdrometer data, representing the number of drops per 21 class diameter, have been continuously recorded since then, allowing the retrieval of the reflectivity and the rain rate at the ground level. PPI radar scans were done over the full 360° in azimuth and at six elevations. The time interval between the PPI scans is 5 minutes. In the first part of the work, some convective and stratiform events have been selected using disdrometer and radar data. The events microphysics were analysed using the disdrometer, in terms of drop size distribution (DSD) parameters and rainfall integral parameters. In the second part of the work, the disdrometer DSD, rain rate (R) and reflectivity (Z) measurements were compared to co-located radar measurements for a number of rain events and analysed in terms of Z-R relationship (also used for the radar calibration). Finally, the synergy of a radar hydrometeor classification method and of the disdrometer data is used for the microphysical characterization of some rain events.

  10. Flood risk changes over centuries in Rome: an empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Saccà, Smeralda; Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Crisci, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    Over centuries, the development of the historical city of Rome -close to one of the largest Italian rivers, the Tiber- has been intertwined with the magnitude and frequency of flooding events. The ancient Rome mostly developed on the (seven) hills, while the Tiber's floodplain was mainly exploited for agricultural purposes. A few small communities did settle in the riparian areas of the Tiber, but they had a relatively peaceful relationships with the frequent occurrence of flooding events. Nowadays, numerous people live in modern districts in the Tiber's floodplain, unaware of their exposure to potentially catastrophic flooding. The main goal of this research is to explore the dynamics of changing flood risk over the centuries between these two extreme pictures of the ancient and contemporary Rome. To this end, we carried out a socio-hydrological study by exploiting long time series of physical (flooding, river morphology) and social (urbanization, population dynamics) processes together with information about human interactions with the environment (flood defense structures). This empirical analysis showed how human and physical systems have been co-evolving over time, while being abruptly altered by the occurrence of extreme events. For instance, a large flooding event occurred in 1870 and contributed to the constructions of levees, which in turn facilitated the development of new urban areas in the Tiber's floodplain, while changed the societal memory of floods as well as the communities' perception of risk. This research work was also used to test the hypotheses of recent-developed models conceptualizing the interplay between floods and societies and simulating the long-term behavior of coupled human-water systems. The outcomes of this test provided interesting insights about the dynamics of flood risk, which are expected to support a better anticipation of future changes.

  11. Detection and molecular characterization of human rotaviruses isolated in Italy and Albania.

    PubMed

    Annarita, Petrinca; Grassi, Tiziana; Donia, Domenica; De Donno, Antonella; Idolo, Adele; Alfio, Cristaldi; Alessandri, Claudia; Alberto, Spanò; Divizia, Maurizio

    2010-03-01

    Rotaviruses are one of the most important causes of gastroenteritis in children under 5 years old. Analysis of G and P rotavirus genotypes in circulation is crucial in evaluating the appropriacy of mass vaccination of children worldwide. Overall, 592 stool samples were collected in Tirana (Albania), the Salento peninsula (South Italy), and three different hospitals in Rome (Central Italy). Of the total samples, 31.3% were rotavirus positive in Albania, 78.3% in the Salento, and 40.3% in Rome. The samples collected in Tirana and Rome were G-P typed, whereas the samples collected in the Salento were only G typed. Overall, in Italy the most frequent combinations were G4 P[8] (54.5%), G1 P[8] (27.3%), and G2 P[4] (18.2%); in Albania they were G9 P[8] (72.1%), G4 P[8] (8.8%), G1 P[8] (5.9%), and G2 P[4] (2.9%). The prevalence in Albania of atypical combinations was 7.4% for G4 P[4] and 2.9% for G9 P[4]. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed to assess the genetic relatedness of the strains. J. Med. Virol. 82:510-518, 2010. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Venice, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast Italy. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading Italy at that time.

    This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne

  13. [THE HISTORY OF A VANISHED PHARMACY IN ROME].

    PubMed

    Serarcangeli, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Starting from archive documents, the present article aims to retrace the history of a once well-known pharmacy based in S. Eustachio square, in Rome, and then commonly denominated Corsi's. Thanks to the information gathered in Roman archives, it is possible to throw light on the events related to this apothecary, whose activity, as found out, lasted since the XVIII until the first decades of the XX century, under the property of two families, first the Conti and then the Corsi. Notwithstanding its long establishment, this pharmacy seems to have suddenly vanished from the official documents registered within the archives. Nevertheless the importance of its history is actually related to some of the instruments, being part of its original inventory, and nowadays held in the collection of the Museum of History of Medicine in Rome. These specimens particularly jars and boxes, are valuable in order to describe how in the past professionals used to take care of most of the diseases. PMID:26946820

  14. Doubtful outcome of the validation of the Rome II questionnaire: validation of a symptom based diagnostic tool

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Questionnaires are used in research and clinical practice. For gastrointestinal complaints the Rome II questionnaire is internationally known but not validated. The aim of this study was to validate a printed and a computerized version of Rome II, translated into Swedish. Results from various analyses are reported. Methods Volunteers from a population based colonoscopy study were included (n = 1011), together with patients seeking general practice (n = 45) and patients visiting a gastrointestinal specialists' clinic (n = 67). The questionnaire consists of 38 questions concerning gastrointestinal symptoms and complaints. Diagnoses are made after a special code. Our validation included analyses of the translation, feasibility, predictability, reproducibility and reliability. Kappa values and overall agreement were measured. The factor structures were confirmed using a principal component analysis and Cronbach's alpha was used to test the internal consistency. Results and Discussion Translation and back translation showed good agreement. The questionnaire was easy to understand and use. The reproducibility test showed kappa values of 0.60 for GERS, 0.52 for FD, and 0.47 for IBS. Kappa values and overall agreement for the predictability when the diagnoses by the questionnaire were compared to the diagnoses by the clinician were 0.26 and 90% for GERS, 0.18 and 85% for FD, and 0.49 and 86% for IBS. Corresponding figures for the agreement between the printed and the digital version were 0.50 and 92% for GERS, 0.64 and 95% for FD, and 0.76 and 95% for IBS. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for GERS was 0.75 with a span per item of 0.71 to 0.76. For FD the figures were 0.68 and 0.54 to 0.70 and for IBS 0.61 and 0.56 to 0.66. The Rome II questionnaire has never been thoroughly validated before even if diagnoses made by the Rome criteria have been compared to diagnoses made in clinical practice. Conclusion The accuracy of the Swedish version of the Rome II is of

  15. Foodborne outbreaks caused by Salmonella in Italy, 1991-4.

    PubMed Central

    Scuderi, G.; Fantasia, M.; Filetici, E.; Anastasio, M. P.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes studies on 1699 foodborne outbreaks, in Italy, reported to the Istituto Superior di Sanità (ISS) (the National Institute of Health of Italy, Rome) during the period 1991-4. The most frequently reported foodborne outbreaks were caused by salmonellae (81%), in particular by Salmonella enteritidis and non-serotyped group D salmonella (34% and 33% of the total salmonella outbreaks, respectively). A vehicle was implicated in 69% of the salmonella outbreaks; eggs were implicated in 77% of the outbreaks for which a vehicle was identified or suspected. Salmonella strains isolated in 54 outbreaks were studied for phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The isolates belonged to S. enteritidis (50 outbreaks), S. typhimurium (three outbreaks) and S. hadar (one outbreak). In the S. enteritidis outbreaks, phage type 4 was most frequently isolated (64.8%), followed by phage type 1 (14.8%). The virulence plasmid of 38 megadaltons was found in many different phage types of S. enteritidis. PMID:8666068

  16. The fabbrica della penicillina in postwar Italy: an institutionalist approach.

    PubMed

    Taroni, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the motives and long-term effects of the momentous decision to build a world-class biomedical research laboratory, the International Center for Chemical Microbiology, at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità in Rome, rather than develop domestic production of penicillin to meet the needs of a destitute postwar Italy. An institutionalist approach will provide a richer vision of the intersections of scientific and national political history in postwar Italy and the Cold War. The Center failed in its modernising mission due to an insular mentality producing an 'enclosure effect' against the State, the healthcare system and the pharmaceutical industry. The absence of a scientific base together with an economic policy of 'liberal protectionism' that placed premiums on import tariffs and the licensing of foreign products explains the path dependency of the pharmaceutical industry during the postwar years and its demise in the 1960s. PMID:26054217

  17. Rock-fall hazard in the Etruscan archaeological site of Norchia (Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele; Argento, Alessia; Russo, Alfonsina

    2016-04-01

    The ancient Etruscan town of Norchia (Central Italy, 80 km North of Rome) is situated on a long volcanic plateau surrounded by steep slopes, at the confluence of rivers Pile and Acqua Alta into the river Biedano. It has been constructed along the ancient Via Clodia, a short-range route intended for commercial traffic between Rome and the colonies in Etruscan lands. The flourishing of the town, evidenced by the beautiful necropolis, is placed between the end of the fourth and half of the second century BC. With its necropolis Norchia is the most significant example of funerary architecture rock Hellenistic period (IV-II century BC.). Its rock-cut tombs, are among the most important archaeological sites of Etruscan civilisation. They are an important and rare example of rock architecture and one of the few preserved in Italy. Also, the necropolis, with an extension of more than 100 hectares, is composed of rock-cut tombs of various types (façade, half-cube, false-cube and temple type) and dimensions (4-10 m in height), exhibiting a remarkable similarity with Asian tombs. From geological point of view, the area is exhibiting the overly of rigid volcanic products from both Vico and Volsini volcanic apparatus; as a bedrock, a plastic clay formation is positioned. The rock-cut tombs were excavated on two main volcanic levels, following the natural profile of tuff outcrops. The tombs located in the upper part of the necropolis have been excavated in a Red Tuff from Vico volcanic district, while those in lower level are dug in a grey tuff (Nenfro) from Vulsini volcanic apparatus. Recent investigations revealed the presence of many threats affecting the conservation of the site, that are including: surface rock weathering, water percolation and infiltration, surface vegetation and biological colonisation, instability and collapse of the cliff. The purpose of this study is mainly focused to verify whether the geological, geomorphological and geomechanical processes that

  18. [New goals for the Sapienza University of Rome Museums].

    PubMed

    Aruta, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    New technologies allow scientific museums to partecipate in a more general development nowadays characterizing both science and society. New technological devices have been studied to reduce the 'physical distance' between culture and the public and to create innovative patterns of cooperation, useful to traditionally non-related scientific fields. In this perspective, Italian university museums are organizing their work aiming to create a 'system'. Recently, La Sapienza University of Rome build a 'Museological Pole' gathering twenty-one university museums, so to supply a valid example of museological coordination and management to all those who are interested in developing integrated museological systems. Some of these Roman University Museums, such as the Museum of History of Medicine, are involved in a project of renewal and re-arrangement of spaces and contents. "La Sapienza - Museological Pole" could be a first step towards constructing an international integrated system of University Museums.

  19. Strange history: the fall of Rome explained in Hereditas.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Bengt O

    2014-12-01

    In 1921 Hereditas published an article on the fall of Rome written by the famous classical scholar Martin P:son Nilsson. Why was a paper on this unexpected topic printed in the newly founded journal? To Nilsson, the demise of the Roman Empire was explained by the "bastardization" occurring between "races" from different parts of the realm. Offspring from mixed couples were of a less stable "type" than their parents, due to the breaking up by recombination of the original hereditary dispositions, which led to a general loss of competence to rule and govern. Thus, the "hardness" of human genes, together with their recombination, was - according to Nilsson - the main cause of the fall of Rome. Nilsson's argument is not particularly convincingly presented. Human "races" are taken to have the same genetic structure as inbred crop strains, and Nilsson believes in a metaphysical unity between the individual and the race to which it belongs. However, in my view, Martin P:son Nilsson and his friend Herman Nilsson-Ehle had wider aims with the article than to explain a historical event. The article can be read as indicating strong support from the classical human sciences to the ambitious new science of genetics. Support is also transferred from genetics to the conservative worldview, where the immutability and inflexibility of the Mendelian genes are used to strengthen the wish for greater stability in politics and life. The strange article in Hereditas can, thus, be read as an early instance in the - still ongoing - tug-of-war between the conservative and the liberal ideological poles over how genetic results best are socially interpreted.

  20. Water resources of the Utica-Rome area, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halberg, Henry N.; Hunt, O.P.; Pauszek, F.H.

    1963-01-01

    The Utica-Rome area is along the Mohawk River and New York State Erie (Barge) Canal about midway between Lake Ontario and Albany. It encompasses about 390 square miles centered around the industrial cities of Utica and Rome. The Mohawk River, its tributary West Canada Creek, and a system of reservoirs and diversions to maintain the flow in the barge-canal system, assure an ample water supply for the foreseeable needs of the area. The water from these sources is generally of good chemical quality requiring little treatment, although that from the Mohawk River is only fair and may require some treatment for sensitive industrial processes. Additional surface water is available from smaller streams in the area, particularly Oriskany and Sauquoit Creeks, but the water from these sources is hard, and has a dissolved-solids content of more than 250 ppm (parts per million). Ground water is available in moderate quantities from unconsolidated sand and gravel deposits in the river valleys and buried bedrock channels, and in small quantities from bedrock formations and less permeable unconsolidated deposits. The quality of water from sand and gravel, and bedrock ranges from good to poor. However, where necessary, the quality can be improved with treatment. The Mohawk River is the source of the largest quantity of water in the area. The flow of the stream below Delta Dam equals or exceeds 108 mgd (million gallons per day) 90 percent of the time, and at Little Falls it equals or exceeds 560 mgd 90 percent of the time. The flow between these two points is increased by additions from Oriskany, Sauquoit, and West Canada Creeks and from many smaller tributary streams. The flow is also increased by diversions from outside the area, from the Black and Chenango Rivers and West Canada Creek for improvement of navigation in the Erie (Barge) Canal, and from West Canada and East Branch Fish Creeks for the public supplies of Utica and Rome. Much of the public-supply water eventually

  1. Imported malaria at Italy's National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani, 1984-2003.

    PubMed

    Spinazzola, F; Nicastri, E; Vlassi, C; Ghirga, P; De Marco, M; Pittalis, S; Paglia, M G; Ferrari, C; Narciso, P

    2007-03-01

    Imported malaria is the most common cause of fatal infections in returning travellers. The increased amount of both tourist movement and migration has resulted in a growing number of people at risk of infection. In the present study, 507 malaria patients admitted to Italy's National Institute for Infectious Diseases in Rome between January 1984 and December 2003 were studied. Overall, 445 cases, or 87.7%, were acquired in Africa, of which 55% were acquired in five sub-Saharan countries. Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 393 (77.5%) of the imported cases. Patients consisted of short-term travellers (n = 213, 42%), long-term visitors (n = 134, 26.4%), and immigrants from endemic areas (n = 137, 27%). Malaria chemoprophylaxis was completed in less than one-quarter of all patients, with immigrants having the lowest rate of completion: only 3.6% of immigrants fully completed chemoprophylaxis compared to 31% of short-term travellers and 29.1% of long-term visitors (p < 0.001). Upon multivariate analysis, the lack of chemoprophylaxis was independently associated with the occurrence of severe malaria (p = 0.009). Severe malaria was reported in 59 (11.6%) individuals: all 11 deaths due to severe P. falciparum infection occurred in patients from sub-Saharan countries, two of whom were immigrants from countries where malaria is endemic. Malaria poses a serious health threat to individuals visiting endemic areas. Ensuring the correct chemoprophylaxis for all travellers, including immigrants from endemic areas, and providing prompt access to healthcare providers for unhealthy returning travellers are major points still to be addressed in Italy.

  2. Interaction of marine and fluvial clastic sedimentation, central Italy, Tyrrhenian coast

    SciTech Connect

    Evangelista, S.; Full, W.E.; Tortora, P.

    1989-03-01

    An integrated approach was used to study the interaction of fluvial, beach, and marine processes on sedimentation at the west-central coast of Italy along the Tyrrhenian Sea. The study area, 120 km northwest of Rome, is bounded on the north by Mt. Argentario, on the east by Pleistocene volcanics, on the south by the St. Augustine River, and on the west by the 50-mn bathymetric isopleth. The primary tools used included field work, textural analysis, high-resolution marine seismic, SEM, and Fourier shape analysis. Field work revealed incised streams, potentially relict beach ridges and lagoons, and relatively steep nearshore marine slopes in the northern portions of the study area. The result of the shape analysis performed on 56 samples was the definition of four end members. Each end member reflects a sedimentation process. Three end members were directly associated with fluvial sedimentation, and the fourth reflected marine processes. The seismic data along with the SEM analysis strongly supported the interpretation of four processes that dominate the recent sedimentation history. The sand interpreted to be associated with marine processes was found to represent the smoothest end member. SEM analysis suggests that the smoothing is not due to abrasion but to plastering associated with biologic processes (digestion.) and/or with silica precipitation associated with clay alteration at the freshwater/saltwater interface.

  3. Soil quality and vulnerability in a Mediterranean natural ecosystem of Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Francaviglia, R; Gataleta, L; Marchionni, M; Trinchera, A; Aromolo, R; Benedetti, A; Nisini, L; Morselli, L; Brusori, B; Olivieri, P; Bernardi, E

    2004-04-01

    Wet and dry atmospheric depositions and soil chemical and microbiological properties were determined in a Mediterranean natural ecosystem of Central Italy near Rome (Castelporziano Estate). The monitoring of depositions permitted us to quantify the exceedances of S and N compounds (expressed as eqH(+)ha(-1)year(-1)) over the critical loads of acidity. Critical loads, i.e. the quantity of a substance which a part of the environment can tolerate without adverse effects occurring, were determined adopting the level 0 methodology following the UN/ECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. Deposition data were available for the period 1992-1997, and acidity exceedances were referred to the main vegetation types present in the area. Results showed that most part of the Estate has a medium degree of vulnerability to acidification, and the corresponding risk of acidification deriving from the exceedances of atmospheric deposition was rather low. The study of soil chemical and microbiological properties included mainly total soil organic carbon (SOC), microbial biomass-C, biomass-C/SOC, soil respiration, and metabolic quotient (qCO2). Soil organic C metabolism has been discussed on the basis of the results from eight sampling sites.

  4. Search for correlations between the University of Maryland and the University of Rome gravitational radiation antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrari, V.; Pizzella, G.; Lee, M.; Weber, J.

    1982-05-15

    Results are presented for analyses of the outputs of gravitational radiation antennas in Rome and in Maryland during July 1978. These data give evidence for an external background exciting both antennas.

  5. [The scientific contributions by the Roman School of Hygiene on the microbiological quality of the surface waters of Rome and her County from 1890 to 2010. A systemic review].

    PubMed

    Palazzo, C; Montacutelli, R; Del Vecchio, R; Solimini, A G; Marinelli, L; Lombardi, A M; De Giusti, M; Fara, G M; Boccia, A

    2011-01-01

    Research on quality of surface waters has been performed also in Italy during the development of the large urban areas, and in Rome this has been the duty of the Istituto di Igiene of the Sapienza University since 1890. Using MedLine--and also traditional consultation for papers printed before 1968--we identified 100 articles printed in the period 1890-2010. Thirty of them met the inclusion criteria (to have been written by researchers belonging to the Rome universities and to contain microbiological informations about the surface waters of Rome). The majority of papers identified (46.6%) were produced during the years Sixties and Seventies of the 20th century, and 30% in the twenty years to follow (1980-1999). The most frequent microbiological descriptors were "Total coliforms" and "Streptococci". The waterbodies most investigated were the Tiber river and the coastal waters around Fiumicino, where the Tiber flows into the Tyrrhenian sea. The quality of surface waters has always been a central interest of the research performed by the Hygienists of the Roman School. The good quality of the past research and the renovated interest of International Organizations and of the European Union should encourage the public health researchers toward a strategic field of investigation which has strong interconnections with the protection of the individual and community health and also with the protection of the environment. PMID:22509614

  6. Indicators reflecting local and transboundary sources of PM2.5 and PMCOARSE in Rome - Impacts in air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2014-10-01

    The keystone of this paper was to calculate and interpret indicators reflecting sources and air quality impacts of PM2.5 and PMCOARSE (PM10-PM2.5) in Rome (Italy), focusing on potential exogenous influences. A backward atmospheric trajectory cluster analysis was implemented. The likelihood of daily PM10 exceedances was studied in conjunction with atmospheric patterns, whereas a Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) based on air mass residence time was deployed on a grid of a 0.5° × 0.5° resolution. Higher PM2.5 concentrations were associated with short/medium range airflows originated from Balkan Peninsula, whereas potential PMCOARSE sources were localized across the Mediterranean and coastal North Africa, due to dust and sea spray transportation. According to the outcome of a daily Pollution Index (PI), a slightly increased degradation of air quality is induced due to the additional quantity of exogenous PM but nevertheless, average levels of PI in all trajectory clusters belong in the low pollution category. Gaseous and particulate pollutants were also elaborated by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which produced 4 components: [Traffic], [photochemical], [residential] and [Secondary Coarse Aerosol], reflecting local sources of air pollution. PM2.5 levels were strongly associated with traffic, whereas PMCOARSE were produced autonomously by secondary sources.

  7. Completeness of the dog registry and estimation of the dog population size in a densely populated area of Rome.

    PubMed

    Caminiti, Antonino; Sala, Marcello; Panetta, Valentina; Battisti, Sabrina; Meoli, Roberta; Rombolà, Pasquale; Spallucci, Valentina; Eleni, Claudia; Scaramozzino, Paola

    2014-01-01

    In most European countries, registration and identification of dogs is compulsory. In Italy, the national dog registry is composed of regional dog registries. Although dog registries have been established for many years, the issue related to completeness of data has not been addressed so far. The objective of this study was twofold: first to assess the completeness of data of the dog registry through telephone interview of a sample of dog owners drawn from the dog registry, then to estimate the total owned dog population in 4 boroughs of Rome. For the second objective, a capture-recapture method was applied using data from the dog registry and data from a face-to-face questionnaire submitted to people waiting in the sitting room of 5 points of access for booking and payment of primary and specialist care. Different scenarios are proposed to verify the assumptions of the estimation procedure and potential biases are discussed. The completeness of data of the dog registry was 88.9% (95% CI: 85.8-91.9%) and the owned-dog population was estimated at 26,244 dogs (95% CI: 24,110-28,383). The dog registry is an important source of information especially when it is properly updated and completeness of data is known.

  8. [Tools and methods to improve clinical training of undergraduate nursing students: the experience of "Tor Vergata" University or Rome].

    PubMed

    Alvaro, Rosaria; Vellone, Ercole; Fierro, Antonia; Faia, Aldo; Petrone, Fabrizio; Miliani, Roberto; Venturini, Giulia

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. The evolution of nursing profession in Italy and the modification of university currilula have stimulated the adoption of new didactic methods according to the new educational needs. In the present study the developement of tools and methods for evaluating and measuring clinical competences of undergraduate nursing students at Tor Vergata University of Rome are presented. These methods and tools have been developed by all professionals involved in nursing education.Methods. The new didactic methods have been implemented from the Academic Year 2006/2007. The developed methods and tools have been: the educational web site, the objectives and plans of clinical training for each year of course, the coordinators of clinical activities, the training diary and task, and the in-progress and final evaluation per each year.Results and Discussion. After the two-year experimentation, the distributed training diaries have been 185; all the training tasks with a positive outcome have been 637; students who passed the exam with the new methods and tools have been 294. Conclusion. The preliminary results of the present study do not allow yet to demonstrate all the competencies acquired by the students (this will be possible after November 2009), but show that they more adhere to the clinical education. In addition, the new educational methods and tools implemented in this study demonstrate as the students progress in nursing education.

  9. [Lancisi, Baglivi and the medical academies in Rome].

    PubMed

    Angeletti, L R

    2000-01-01

    Many medical academies were active in Rome during the 17th century; they were promoted by noble patrons, ecclesiastics or eminent physicians, and equipped with libraries. Their role was important in the spreading of the new biomedical thought, founded on the comparison between ideas and experimental data. As an epistemological heritage of Marcello Malpighi and as a connection to the new scientific European ideas, Baglivi directed his efforts towards a leading role of the experimental observations, whereas his predecessor Lancisi was bound to the theorical "ipse dixit" role of the masters of medicine. The analysis of the statutes of the Roman Academies bring to light the new experimentalism, due to the "virtuosi" (vituous men) and "curiosoni" (inquisitive/odd persons) of the Academies: Baglivi, in his De praxi medica, invites the princes to establish in every Metropolitan Hospital an Academy - Medicorum Collegium, in which discussion on clinical aspects should be performed: extraordinary importance is devoted to the epistemological difference between "experientia" (guided in the profession by a membrum - litteratum, thought the direct comparison on the texts) and "experimentum" (following the clinical observation, guided by a membrum historicum-practicum).

  10. Analysis of pottery from the Palatine Hills of Rome

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberger, S.; Wisseman, S.; Desena, E.; Hostetter, E.; Pena, T.

    1994-12-31

    During the past several summers the Soprintendenza Archeologica di Roma and the American Academy in Rome have carried out collaborative excavations on the late Roman complex located on the northeastern slope of the Palatine Hill. The late Roman complex is situated on the lower slopes of the area commonly known as Vigna Barberini, after its 17th century owners. Because this area, as well as most of the east slope of the Palatine, has never been systematically explored, it remains from an archaeological point of view essentially unknown. The overall aim of the excavations is to investigate layout, function, and occupational history of a mid-to-late imperial building complex located just southwest of the Arch of Constatine. Part of this international project is the chemical characterization of Roman fineware pottery from archaeological excavations on the site of the imperial palaces. Excavation has yielded more than 8 t of Late Roman and Early Medieval pottery (circa 3rd to 10th centuries A.D.). Many classes of pottery have already been classified by their provenance based on distribution patterns, but others require chemical characterization to separate similar clays. To that end routine neutron activation analysis (NAA) methods have been used to analyze {approximately}200 pieces of pottery.

  11. Requests for electromyography in Rome: a critical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Di Fabio, Roberto; Castagnoli, Claudio; Madrigale, Andrea; Barella, Massimo; Serrao, Mariano; Pierelli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    To date, there exist no data reporting the level of suitability of requests for electromyography examinations (EMGs) in Rome. The records of 1,220 consecutive patients (age: 57.6±15.0 years; 400 M, 820 F) in two neurophysiology laboratories were collected and analyzed. In total, 1,317 EMGs were requested, mainly by general practitioners (GPs) (57%) and orthopedic specialists (18%). The most common diagnoses were L4-L5 radiculopathy (22%) and carpal tunnel syndrome (21%); 332 examinations (25%) were normal. 68% of requests were not accompanied by any specific query. The concordance between initial hypothesis/final post-EMG diagnosis was low (<20%). When a specific query was indicated, the initial suspicion was confirmed by EMG in 54% of GP requests and 64% of requests by specialists (p=0.03). No difference in diagnostic ability was found between specialists (p>0.05). In 17% of cases, the EMG was deemed diagnostically useless by the neurophysiologist, which seems to indicate potentially suboptimal prescription of EMGs.

  12. A canopy layer model and its application to Rome.

    PubMed

    Bonacquisti, V; Casale, G R; Palmieri, S; Siani, A M

    2006-07-01

    An urban canopy layer model based on four energy balance equations at ground level and at building level was developed to simulate and describe the urban climate and the heat storage in an urban setting. Thermal and radiative characteristics of urban and rural surfaces as well as atmospheric parameters related to the general synoptic conditions were used as data input. In addition, buildings were modelled as parallelepipeds and the hysteresis of materials was taken into account. The model provides as output skin temperature of buildings, air temperature and humidity within the canopy layer and hence the mean surface temperature and the air temperature at 2 m above surface. The latter parameter was used for the comparison with in situ temperature observations. The model was applied to Rome in radiative summer and winter episodes. The results, which agree with observations, show that the Urban Heat Island (UHI) is a nocturnal phenomenon, present both in winter (the greatest difference between urban and rural temperatures is about 2 degrees C) and summer (the temperature difference is about 5 degrees C), mainly resulting from the urban geometry and the thermal properties of materials. The anthropogenic heat does not play an important role in the UHI development. A monthly nocturnal behaviour of temperature differences between urban and surrounding rural areas shows that the maximum mean value of 4.2 degrees C occurs in August. Moreover, the parks in the city centre, where temperatures are lower, define two distinct heat islands, east and west.

  13. The application of SRF vs. RDF classification and specifications to the material flows of two mechanical-biological treatment plants of Rome: Comparison and implications.

    PubMed

    Di Lonardo, Maria Chiara; Franzese, Maurizio; Costa, Giulia; Gavasci, Renato; Lombardi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This work assessed the quality in terms of solid recovered fuel (SRF) definitions of the dry light flow (until now indicated as refuse derived fuel, RDF), heavy rejects and stabilisation rejects, produced by two mechanical biological treatment plants of Rome (Italy). SRF classification and specifications were evaluated first on the basis of RDF historical characterisation methods and data and then applying the sampling and analytical methods laid down by the recently issued SRF standards. The results showed that the dry light flow presented a worst SRF class in terms of net calorific value applying the new methods compared to that obtained from RDF historical data (4 instead of 3). This lead to incompliance with end of waste criteria established by Italian legislation for SRF use as co-fuel in cement kilns and power plants. Furthermore, the metal contents of the dry light flow obtained applying SRF current methods proved to be considerably higher (although still meeting SRF specifications) compared to those resulting from historical data retrieved with RDF standard methods. These differences were not related to a decrease in the quality of the dry light flow produced in the mechanical-biological treatment plants but rather to the different sampling procedures set by the former RDF and current SRF standards. In particular, the shredding of the sample before quartering established by the latter methods ensures that also the finest waste fractions, characterised by higher moisture and metal contents, are included in the sample to be analysed, therefore affecting the composition and net calorific value of the waste. As for the reject flows, on the basis of their SRF classification and specification parameters, it was found that combined with the dry light flow they may present similar if not the same class codes as the latter alone, thus indicating that these material flows could be also treated in combustion plants instead of landfilled. In conclusion, the

  14. Counseling in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remley, Theodore P.; Bacchini, Eugenio; Krieg, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The counseling profession in Italy is in an early stage of development. No university preparation programs exist, and counselors are not employed in schools. Counselors maintain private practices, work in agencies, and are employed by the government. Counselors receive their preparation in Italy from professional associations in programs that…

  15. Italy: Mt. Etna

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... shook the eastern edge of Sicily and parts of mainland Italy during September and October. The eruption of Etna sent a thick blanket ... date:  Oct 27, 2002 Images:  Italy: Mt. Etna location:  Europe thumbnail:  ...

  16. Italy: Mt. Etna

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... the eastern coast of Sicily, to the southwest of mainland Italy. Major eruptions have been issuing from both summit and flank vents. Fine ... volcanism. For more information on Etna, refer to  Italy's Volcanoes  and to the  Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism ...

  17. Recent Transmission Clustering of HIV-1 C and CRF17_BF Strains Characterized by NNRTI-Related Mutations among Newly Diagnosed Men in Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    Orchi, Nicoletta; Gori, Caterina; Bertoli, Ada; Forbici, Federica; Montella, Francesco; Pennica, Alfredo; De Carli, Gabriella; Giuliani, Massimo; Continenza, Fabio; Pinnetti, Carmela; Nicastri, Emanuele; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Girardi, Enrico; Andreoni, Massimo; Antinori, Andrea; Santoro, Maria Mercedes; Perno, Carlo Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased evidence of relevant HIV-1 epidemic transmission in European countries is being reported, with an increased circulation of non-B-subtypes. Here, we present two recent HIV-1 non-B transmission clusters characterized by NNRTI-related amino-acidic mutations among newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected men, living in Rome (Central-Italy). Methods Pol and V3 sequences were available at the time of diagnosis for all individuals. Maximum-Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic-trees with bootstrap and Bayesian-probability supports defined transmission-clusters. HIV-1 drug-resistance and V3-tropism were also evaluated. Results Among 534 new HIV-1 non-B cases, diagnosed from 2011 to 2014, in Central-Italy, 35 carried virus gathering in two distinct clusters, including 27 HIV-1 C and 8 CRF17_BF subtypes, respectively. Both clusters were centralized in Rome, and their origin was estimated to have been after 2007. All individuals within both clusters were males and 37.1% of them had been recently-infected. While C-cluster was entirely composed by Italian men-who-have-sex-with-men, with a median-age of 34 years (IQR:30–39), individuals in CRF17_BF-cluster were older, with a median-age of 51 years (IQR:48–59) and almost all reported sexual-contacts with men and women. All carried R5-tropic viruses, with evidence of atypical or resistance amino-acidic mutations related to NNRTI-drugs (K103Q in C-cluster, and K101E+E138K in CRF17_BF-cluster). Conclusions These two epidemiological clusters provided evidence of a strong and recent circulation of C and CRF17_BF strains in central Italy, characterized by NNRTI-related mutations among men engaging in high-risk behaviours. These findings underline the role of molecular epidemiology in identifying groups at increased risk of HIV-1 transmission, and in enhancing additional prevention efforts. PMID:26270824

  18. Ancient Rome Worldwide Links: Sharing Knowledge to Preserve the Roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolini, P.; Allegrini Simonetti, F.; Forti, G.; Corrao, A.

    2013-07-01

    Following the collaboration agreement between the SAPIENZA, S.D.R.A. Department and the "Collectivité territoriale de Corse, secteur Archéologie", this project tried to set, accomplished on the archaeological site of the ancient roman city of Aléria, a complex program of selected dataset structured for many different uses and fruitions. As for any kind of survey, the initial project definition, described in this paper, constitutes the most delicate part of the work, in this instance a certain additional significance it has to be given to it, cause of the multiple interests focalized on the Aléria site, where a new digging season is expected after a sixty years long interruption. The process can be synthesized as follows: various surveying technologies were applied on the site, as 3D Laser scanning, Topography, and GPS; Dense Stereo Matching was accomplished on a sample object there excavated and actually exposed in the local Carcopino Museum, while Computational Photography techniques were realized on an object exposed in Rome in the Etruscan Museum of "Villa Giulia" as the other twin found and exposed in Aléria, to be a purpose for future collaborations. A GIS and WEBGIS workflow followed, using a specific application in its latest version, thus collecting all of the actual and previous documents, providing to build up a complete 3D geo-database with a space and time referenced 3D Web scene to share in the GIS online Cloud Platform. These applied procedures aim to spread the complex results, articulated in different sets on the social media world.

  19. Management of fractures of the humerus in Ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome: an historical review.

    PubMed

    Brorson, Stig

    2009-07-01

    Fractures of the humerus have challenged medical practitioners since the beginning of recorded medical history. In the earliest known surgical text, The Edwin Smith Papyrus (copied circa 1600 BC), three cases of humeral fractures were described. Reduction by traction followed by bandaging with linen was recommended. In Corpus Hippocraticum (circa 440-340 BC), the maneuver of reduction was fully described: bandages of linen soaked in cerate and oil were applied followed by splinting after a week. In The Alexandrian School of Medicine (third century BC), shoulder dislocations complicated with fractures of the humerus were mentioned and the author discussed whether the dislocation should be reduced before or after the fracture. Celsus (25 BC-AD 50) distinguished shaft fractures from proximal and distal humeral fractures. He described different fracture patterns, including transverse, oblique, and multifragmented fractures. In Late Antiquity, complications from powerful traction or tight bandaging were described by Paul of Aegina (circa AD 625-690). Illustrations from sixteenth and seventeenth century surgical texts are included to show the ancient methods of reduction and bandaging. The richness of written sources points toward a multifaceted approach to the diagnosis, reduction, and bandaging of humeral fracture in Ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome. PMID:19002538

  20. Distinct aetiopathogenesis in subgroups of functional dyspepsia according to the Rome III criteria

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yu-Jen; Liou, Jyh-Ming; Chen, Chieh-Chang; Lee, Ji-Yuh; Hsu, Yao-Chun; Chen, Mei-Jyh; Tseng, Ping-Huei; Chen, Chien-Chuan; Chang, Chi-Yang; Yang, Tsung-Hua; Chang, Wen-Hsiung; Wu, Jeng-Yi; Wang, Hsiu-Po; Luo, Jiing-Chyuan; Lin, Jaw-Town; Shun, Chia-Tung; Wu, Ming-Shiang

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Whether there is distinct pathogenesis in subgroups of functional dyspepsia (FD), the postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) and epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) remains controversial. We aimed to identify the risk factors of FD and its subgroups in the Chinese population. Methods Patients with dyspepsia and healthy subjects who underwent gastric cancer screening were enrolled in this multicentre study from 2010 to 2012. All patients were evaluated by questionnaire, oesophagoduodenoscopy, histological examination and Helicobacter pylori tests. Subgroups of FD were classified according to the Rome III criteria. Psychiatric stress was assessed by the short form Brief Symptom Rating Scale. CagA and VacA genotypes were determined by PCR. Results Of 2378 patients screened for eligibility, 771 and 491 fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of uninvestigated dyspepsia and FD, respectively. 298 (60.7%) and 353 (71.9%) individuals were diagnosed with EPS and PDS, respectively, whereas 169 (34.4%) had the overlap syndrome. As compared with 1031 healthy controls, PDS and EPS shared some common risk factors, including younger age (OR 0.95; 99.5% CI 0.93 to 0.98), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (OR 6.60; 99.5% CI 3.13 to 13.90), anxiety (OR 3.41; 99.5% CI 2.01 to 5.77) and concomitant IBS (OR 6.89; 99.5% CI 3.41 to 13.94). By contrast, H. pylori (OR 1.86; 99.5% CI 1.01 to 3.45), unmarried status (OR 4.22; 99.5% CI 2.02 to 8.81), sleep disturbance (OR 2.56; 99.5% CI 1.29 to 5.07) and depression (OR 2.34; 99.5% CI 1.04 to 5.36) were associated with PDS. Moderate to severe antral atrophy and CagA positive strains were also more prevalent in PDS. Conclusions Different risk factors exist among FD subgroups based on the Rome III criteria, indicating distinct aetiopathogenesis of the subdivisions that may necessitate different therapeutic strategies. PMID:25406127

  1. foF2 vs solar indices for the Rome station: Looking for the best general relation which is able to describe the anomalous minimum between cycles 23 and 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, L.; Pezzopane, M.

    2016-10-01

    Analyses of the dependence of the F2layer critical frequency, foF2, on five widely used solar activity indices (F10.7, Lym-α, MgII, R and EUV0.1-50)are carried out considering noon values manually validated at the ionospheric station of Rome (41.8°N, 12.5°E, Italy) between January 1976 and December 2013, a period of time covering the last three solar cycles and including the prolonged and anomalous minimum of solar cycle 23/24 (years 2008-2009). After applying a 1-year running mean to both foF2 and solar activity indices time series, a second order polynomial fitting proves to perform better than a linear one, and this is specifically due to the very low solar activity of the last solar minimum and to the remaining saturation effect characterizing the high solar activity. A comparison between observed and synthetic foF2 values, the latter calculated by using the analytical relations found for every index, and some considerations made on the R parameter introduced by Solomon et al. (2013), suggest that MgII is the best index to describe the dependence of foF2 on the solar activity. Three main reasons justify this result: (1) the good sensibility of MgII to the variations of foF2 for low solar activity; (2) the reduced saturation effect characterizing MgII at high solar activity; (3) the poor influence of the hysteresis effect characterizing MgII at medium solar activity. On the other hand, the F10.7 index, widely used as input parameter for numerous ionospheric models, does not represent properly the last minimum; specifically, it is not able to describe the variations of foF2 under a solar activity level of F10.7=82·10-22 [J Hz-1 s-1 m-2].

  2. Renaissance Neurosurgery: Italy's Iconic Contributions.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Anil; Khan, Imad Saeed; Apuzzo, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Various changes in the sociopolitical milieu of Italy led to the increasing tolerance of the study of cadavers in the late Middle Ages. The efforts of Mondino de Liuzzi (1276-1326) and Guido da Vigevano (1280-1349) led to an explosion of cadaver-centric studies in centers such as Bologna, Florence, and Padua during the Renaissance period. Legendary scientists from this era, including Leonardo Da Vinci, Andreas Vesalius, Bartolomeo Eustachio, and Costanzo Varolio, furthered the study of neuroanatomy. The various texts produced during this period not only helped increase the understanding of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology but also led to the formalization of medical education. With increased understanding came new techniques to address various neurosurgical problems from skull fractures to severed peripheral nerves. The present study aims to review the major developments in Italy during the vibrant Renaissance period that led to major progress in the field of neurosurgery.

  3. Renaissance Neurosurgery: Italy's Iconic Contributions.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Anil; Khan, Imad Saeed; Apuzzo, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Various changes in the sociopolitical milieu of Italy led to the increasing tolerance of the study of cadavers in the late Middle Ages. The efforts of Mondino de Liuzzi (1276-1326) and Guido da Vigevano (1280-1349) led to an explosion of cadaver-centric studies in centers such as Bologna, Florence, and Padua during the Renaissance period. Legendary scientists from this era, including Leonardo Da Vinci, Andreas Vesalius, Bartolomeo Eustachio, and Costanzo Varolio, furthered the study of neuroanatomy. The various texts produced during this period not only helped increase the understanding of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology but also led to the formalization of medical education. With increased understanding came new techniques to address various neurosurgical problems from skull fractures to severed peripheral nerves. The present study aims to review the major developments in Italy during the vibrant Renaissance period that led to major progress in the field of neurosurgery. PMID:26585723

  4. Mental disabilities in Western civilization from Ancient Rome to the Prerogativa Regis.

    PubMed

    Berkson, Gershon

    2006-02-01

    A preliminary survey of formal concepts of disability from the Twelve Tables of Rome of the 5th century BCE to the Prerogativa Regis in English law of the late 13th century CE is presented. Firm conclusions are restricted by problems in translation and other limitations in available data. However, it appears that the concept of intellectual disability and its distinction from episodic mental illness first emerged in several subcultures of Western civilization during the height of ancient imperial Rome and during the early medieval period in Northern European and Arabic civilization.

  5. Mental disabilities in Western civilization from Ancient Rome to the Prerogativa Regis.

    PubMed

    Berkson, Gershon

    2006-02-01

    A preliminary survey of formal concepts of disability from the Twelve Tables of Rome of the 5th century BCE to the Prerogativa Regis in English law of the late 13th century CE is presented. Firm conclusions are restricted by problems in translation and other limitations in available data. However, it appears that the concept of intellectual disability and its distinction from episodic mental illness first emerged in several subcultures of Western civilization during the height of ancient imperial Rome and during the early medieval period in Northern European and Arabic civilization. PMID:16405385

  6. Needs and Challenges of Daily Life for People with Down Syndrome Residing in the City of Rome, Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertoli, M.; Biasini, G.; Calignano, M. T.; Celani, G.; De Grossi, G.; Digilio, M. C.; Fermariello, C. C.; Loffredo, G.; Luchino, F.; Marchese, A.; Mazotti, S.; Menghi, B.; Razzano, C.; Tiano, C.; Zambon Hobart, A.; Zampino, G.; Zuccala, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Population-based surveys on the quality of life of people with Down syndrome (DS) are difficult to perform because of ethical and legal policies regarding privacy and confidential information, but they are essential for service planning. Little is known about the sample size and variability of quality of life of people with DS living…

  7. Tiber delta CO2-CH4 degassing: A possible hybrid, tectonically active Sediment-Hosted Geothermal System near Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciotoli, G.; Etiope, G.; Marra, F.; Florindo, F.; Giraudi, C.; Ruggiero, L.

    2016-01-01

    Fiumicino town in the Tiber River delta, near Rome International Airport (Italy), is historically affected by large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ground and gas eruptions triggered by shallow drilling. While it is known that CO2 originates from carbonate thermometamorphism and/or mantle degassing, the origin of methane (CH4) associated with CO2 is uncertain and the outgassing spatial distribution is unknown. Combining isotope gas geochemistry, soil gas, and structural-stratigraphic analyses, we provide evidence for a hybrid fluid source system, classifiable as Sediment-Hosted Geothermal System (SHGS), where biotic CH4 from sedimentary rocks is carried by deep geothermic CO2 through active segments of a half-graben. Molecular and isotopic composition of CH4 and concentration of heavier alkanes (ethane and propane), obtained from gas vents and soil gas throughout the delta area, reveal that thermogenic CH4 (up to 3.7 vol% in soil gas; δ13CCH4: -37 to -40‰ VPDB-Vienna Peedee Belemnite, and δ2HCH4: -162 to -203‰ VSMOW - Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water in gas vents) prevails over possible microbial and abiotic components. The hydrocarbons likely result from known Meso-Cenozoic petroleum systems of the Latium Tyrrhenian coast. Overmaturation of source rocks or molecular fractionation induced by gas migration are likely responsible for increased C1/C2+ ratios. CO2 and CH4 soil gas anomalies are scattered along NW-SE and W-E alignments, which, based on borehole, geomorphologic, and structural-stratigraphic analyses, coincide with active faults of a half-graben that seems to have controlled the recent evolution of the Tiber delta. This SHGS can be a source of considerable greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere and hazards for humans and buildings.

  8. Continuous increase in HIV-1 incidence after the year 2000 among men who have sex with men in Rome: insights from a 25-year retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, M; Vescio, M F; Latini, A; Palamara, G; Pimpinelli, F; Dona, M G; Stivali, F; Carduccelli, F; Ensoli, F; Di Carlo, A; Rezza, G

    2014-11-27

    To assess trends in HIV-1 incidence and risk factors for seroconversion among men who have sex with men (MSM) resident in Rome, Italy, a retrospective longitudinal cohort study was conducted over 25 years. Incidence rates and trends were modelled using Poisson regression and risk factors were assessed by multivariate Cox models. Of 1,862 HIV-1-negative individuals, 347 seroconverted during follow-up. HIV-1 incidence rates increased from 5.2/100 persons/year (p/y) in 1986 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.3–11.5) to 9.2/00 p/y in 1992 (95% CI: 6.4–13.0), decreased to 1.3/100 p/y in 2001 and increased until 2009 (11.7/100 p/y; 95% CI: 7.4–18.6). The risk of HIV-1 seroconversion increased during the study period in younger MSM (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 17.18; 95% CI: 9.74–30.32 in 16–32 year-olds and IRR = 5.09; 95% CI: 2.92–8.87 in 33–41 year-olds) and in those who acquired syphilis (IRR = 7.71; 95% CI: 5.00–11.88). In contrast, the risk of seroconversion decreased among highly educated MSM (IRR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.35–0.82) and those without Italian citizenship (IRR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.28–0.71). The HIV epidemic in MSM living in Rome continues to expand. Targeted prevention programmes against sexually transmitted infections to enhance knowledge transfer and behavioural skills are urgently required.

  9. Aerodynamics and mathematics in National Socialist Germany and Fascist Italy: a comparison of research institutes.

    PubMed

    Epple, Moritz; Karachalios, Andreas; Remmert, Volker R

    2005-01-01

    The article is concerned with the mathematical sciences in National Socialist Germany and Fascist Italy, with special attention to research important to the war effort. It focuses on three institutional developments: the expansion of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Fluid Dynamics in Göttingen, the foundation of the Reich Institute for Mathematics in Oberwolfach (Black Forest), and the work of the Istituto Nazionale per le Applicazioni del Calcolo in Rome. All three developments are embedded in the general political background, thus providing a basis for comparative conclusions about the conditions of the mathematical sciences and military-related research in Germany and Italy. It turns out that in both countries, the increasing demand for mathematical knowledge in modern warfare led to the establishment of "extra-university" national institutions specifically devoted to mathematical research.

  10. Bristol Stool Form Scale reliability and agreement decreases when determining Rome III stool form designations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rater reproducibility of the Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS), which categorizes stools into one of seven types, is unknown. We sought to determine reliability and agreement by individual stool type and when responses are categorized by Rome III clinical designation as normal or abnormal (constipatio...

  11. Mental Disabilities in Western Civilization from Ancient Rome to the Prerogativa Regis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkson, Gershon

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary survey of formal concepts of "disability" from the Twelve Tables of Rome of the 5th century BCE to the Prerogativa Regis in English law of the late 13th century CE is presented. Firm conclusions are restricted by problems in translation and other limitations in available data. However, it appears that the concept of intellectual…

  12. Development and Validation of the Korean Rome III Questionnaire for Diagnosis of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kyung Ho; Min, Byung-Hoon; Youn, Young Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Keum, Bo Ra; Huh, Kyu Chan

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims A self-report questionnaire is frequently used to measure symptoms reliably and to distinguish patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) from those with other conditions. We produced and validated a cross-cultural adaptation of the Rome III questionnaire for diagnosis of FGIDs in Korea. Methods The Korean version of the Rome III (Rome III-K) questionnaire was developed through structural translational processes. Subsequently, reliability was measured by a test-retest procedure. Convergent validity was evaluated by comparing self-reported questionnaire data with the subsequent completion of the questionnaire by the physician based on an interview and with the clinical diagnosis. Concurrent validation using the validated Korean version of the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) was adopted to demonstrate discriminant validity. Results A total of 306 subjects were studied. Test-retest reliability was good, with a median Cronbach's α value of 0.83 (range, 0.71-0.97). The degree of agreement between patient-administered and physician-administered questionnaires to diagnose FGIDs was excellent; the κ index was 0.949 for irritable bowel syndrome, 0.883 for functional dyspepsia and 0.927 for functional heartburn. The physician's clinical diagnosis of functional dyspepsia showed the most marked discrepancy with that based on the self-administered questionnaire. Almost all SF-36 domains were impaired in participants diagnosed with one of these FGIDs according to the Rome III-K. Conclusions We developed the Rome III-K questionnaire though structural translational processes, and it revealed good test-retest reliability and satisfactory construct validity. These results suggest that this instrument will be useful for clinical and research assessments in the Korean population. PMID:24199012

  13. A reduced-order meshless energy (ROME) model for the elastodynamics of mistuned bladed disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chih

    A careful Monte Carlo simulation of the statistical mechanics of a randomly mistuned bladed disk requires, in the ideal sense, a Reduced-Order Meshless Energy (ROME) model that captures the three-dimensional (3-D) elastodynamical physics of the bladed disk at a reasonable cost. Such a modeling technique has been unavailable until now. In this work, a significant order reduction of the elastodynamics of a bladed disk assembly has been achieved. The system studied was regarded as a 3-D annulus of shroudless, arbitrarily-shaped and randomly mistuned blades attached to a flexible disk for interblade mechanical coupling. Specifically, the annulus was modeled as a meshless continuum structure utilizing only nodal data to describe the arbitrary volume in which the system's dynamical energy was minimized. An extended Ritz variational procedure was used to minimize this energy, subjected to constraints imposed by an assumed 3-D displacement field of mathematically complete, orthonormal "blade-disk" polynomials newly constructed for the title problem. From this the governing equations of motion were yielded and recasted into their usual forms to calculate the free and forced responses of bladed disks. The ROME model, which required no conventional finite elements and element connectivity or component substructuring data, employed constituted a considerable advantage over conventionally used finite element methods and component mode synthesis techniques, and even emerging element-free Galerkin methods. The present work outlines the theoretical foundation of the ROME model, and through fundamental case studies, establishes the analytical basis and predictive accuracy of the approach. Hence, an idealized 20-bladed disk was created and modeled to analyze their free and forced responses and to compare the predictive capability and computational efficiency of the ROME technology to general-purpose finite element technology. The ROME model was also used to examine the effect of

  14. What happened in Italy? A brief summary of studies conducted in Italy to evaluate the impact of the smoking ban.

    PubMed

    Gorini, G; Chellini, E; Galeone, D

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this short report is to give a brief summary of the studies conducted in Italy in order to evaluate the impact of the ban on smoking in enclosed public places that came into force on 10 January 2005. Support of Italians for the smoking ban increased once the policy was introduced, and is still increasing. Surveys conducted among the Italian population and owners of hospitality premises report that the ban is generally respected. After the ban, environmental nicotine concentrations in four pubs and three discos in Florence and concentrations of particulate matter with diameter <2.5 microm in 50 hospitality premises in Milan, Trieste and Rome dropped to 70-97% of the concentrations recorded before the ban. In 2005 total sales of cigarettes in Italy decreased by 6.1% in comparison to 2004, from 98.8 to 92.8 million kg. In 2006 sales increased by 1.1% in comparison to 2005, partly attributed to the covered outdoor smoking places available in many restaurants and bars from the winter of 2005-2006. Smoking prevalence decreased from 2004 to 2006 by 7.3%, from 26.2% to 24.3%.

  15. Beginning Reading in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutolo, Daniel

    Teaching practices in Italy, where teachers combine three different methods for teaching reading, may provide insight into ways to improve methodologies in the United States. The first method is the natural method, which, unlike American methods, teaches reading and writing simultaneously with the emphasis on writing. The teacher writes as…

  16. Italy. [CME Country Reports].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    Ever since 1946, increased emigration in Italy has been paralleled by a slow but steady increase in educational activity. In 1971, Law No. 153 was adopted which provides for special educational arrangements to be made for migrant workers and their spouses adopted by the Italian Government are based on the need for Italian children to: (1) be…

  17. Marking Strategies in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattullo, Mario

    1987-01-01

    Three types of student evaluation strategies used in Italy are described: (1) teacher's free comments; (2) standardized adjectives used as rating scales; and (3) numeric scores based on tests and other evaluation criteria. Implications of the third approach, which was implemented according to legislation in 1977, are discussed. (GDC)

  18. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-05-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects.

  19. Personal Identity in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Sica, Luigia Simona

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses specifics of identity formation in Italian adolescents and emerging adults. We review consistent evidence illustrating that, in Italy, a progressive deferral of transition to adulthood strongly impacts youth identity development by stimulating identity exploration and postponement of identity commitments. We also consider…

  20. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-01-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects. PMID:10350509

  1. Return migration to Italy and labour migration.

    PubMed

    Calvaruso, C

    1983-01-01

    The problems caused by large-scale return migration to Italy in recent years are considered. The importance of the additional skills and capital acquired by these migrants while abroad is stressed. Extensive data on the volume of return migration in the 1970s are included.

  2. Assessing land take by urban development and its impact on carbon storage: Findings from two case studies in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Sallustio, L.; Quatrini, V.; Geneletti, D.; Corona, P.; Marchetti, M.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • We tested a new methodology for monitoring land take and its effects on C storage. • The ecological impact of urban growth derives from the previous land use. • C loss increases with the naturalness of the territory. • Different urban assets may imply different forms of land take containment. Land take due to urbanization triggers a series of negative environmental impacts with direct effects on quality of life for people living in cities. Changes in ecosystem services are associated with land take, among which is the immediate C loss due to land use conversion. Land use change monitoring represents the first step in quantifying land take and its drivers and impacts. To this end, we propose an innovative methodology for monitoring land take and its effects on ecosystem services (in particular, C loss) under multi-scale contexts. The devised approach was tested in two areas with similar sizes, but different land take levels during the time-span 1990–2008 in Central Italy (the Province of Rome and the Molise Region). The estimates of total coverage of built up areas were calculated using point sampling. The area of the urban patches including each sampling point classified as built up areas in the year 1990 and/or in the year 2008 is used to estimate total abundance and average area of built up areas. Biophysical and economic values for carbon loss associated with land take were calculated using InVEST. Although land take was 7–8 times higher in the Province of Rome (from 15.1% in 1990 to 20.4% in 2008) than in Molise region, our findings show that its relative impact on C storage is higher in the latter, where the urban growth consistently affects not only croplands but also semi-natural land uses such as grasslands and other wooded lands. The total C loss due to land take has been estimated in 1.6 million Mg C, corresponding to almost 355 million €. Finally, the paper discusses the main characteristics of urban growth and their

  3. 77 FR 1894 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Rome; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ...EPA is proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the State of Georgia on October 27, 2009. The emissions inventory is part of the Rome, Georgia PM2.5 attainment demonstration that was submitted for the 1997 annual PM2.5 National Ambient Air......

  4. Identification of oil residues in Roman amphorae (Monte Testaccio, Rome): a comparative FTIR spectroscopic study of archeological and artificially aged samples.

    PubMed

    Tarquini, Gabriele; Nunziante Cesaro, Stella; Campanella, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The application of Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy to the analysis of oil residues in fragments of archeological amphorae (3rd century A.D.) from Monte Testaccio (Rome, Italy) is reported. In order to check the possibility to reveal the presence of oil residues in archeological pottery using microinvasive and\\or not invasive techniques, different approaches have been followed: firstly, FTIR spectroscopy was used to study oil residues extracted from roman amphorae. Secondly, the presence of oil residues was ascertained analyzing microamounts of archeological fragments with the Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFT). Finally, the external reflection analysis of the ancient shards was performed without preliminary treatments evidencing the possibility to detect oil traces through the observation of the most intense features of its spectrum. Incidentally, the existence of carboxylate salts of fatty acids was also observed in DRIFT and Reflectance spectra of archeological samples supporting the roman habit of spreading lime over the spoil heaps. The data collected in all steps were always compared with results obtained on purposely made replicas.

  5. Mount Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  6. Italy: pluralism takes root.

    PubMed

    Mori, Maurizio

    1987-06-01

    Mori gives an overview of biomedical ethics in Italy in one of four Hastings Center Report country reports. Public policy on issues like in vitro fertilization, sterilization and abortion, passive euthanasia, and organ transplantation reflects the declining influence of the Catholic Church and the increasing cultural pluralism of Italian society. The government has appointed advisory bodies on reproductive technologies and AIDS to study the issues and make recommendations. Bills regulating technologies such as in vitro fertilization or liberalizing restrictive laws such as those on contraception are introduced regularly in Parliament, if not always enacted. Mori concludes that general interest in and formal study and discussion of biomedical ethics is increasing in Italy. He sees a danger that the field of bioethics will develop a dual identity, with little progress made in resolving the issues, unless serious dialogue between Catholics and non-Catholics increases. PMID:11644031

  7. Conscientious objection in Italy.

    PubMed

    Minerva, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The law regulating abortion in Italy gives healthcare practitioners the option to make a conscientious objection to activities that are specific and necessary to an abortive intervention. Conscientious objectors among Italian gynaecologists amount to about 70%. This means that only a few doctors are available to perform abortions, and therefore access to abortion is subject to constraints. In 2012 the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) lodged a complaint against Italy to the European Committee of Social Rights, claiming that the inadequate protection of the right to access abortion implies a violation of the right to health. In this paper I will discuss the Italian situation with respect to conscientious objection to abortion and I will suggest possible solutions to the problem.

  8. Conscientious objection in Italy.

    PubMed

    Minerva, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The law regulating abortion in Italy gives healthcare practitioners the option to make a conscientious objection to activities that are specific and necessary to an abortive intervention. Conscientious objectors among Italian gynaecologists amount to about 70%. This means that only a few doctors are available to perform abortions, and therefore access to abortion is subject to constraints. In 2012 the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) lodged a complaint against Italy to the European Committee of Social Rights, claiming that the inadequate protection of the right to access abortion implies a violation of the right to health. In this paper I will discuss the Italian situation with respect to conscientious objection to abortion and I will suggest possible solutions to the problem. PMID:24861043

  9. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress. PMID:26401793

  10. [Status and development of psychiatric care in Italy. 22 years after Franco Basaglia's reform regulation no. 180].

    PubMed

    Hinterhuber, H; Liensberger, D; Tasser, A; Schwitzer, J; Rizzuti, E; Meise, U

    2001-07-01

    Since reforms were introduced in 1978, the treatment of mental illness in Italy is less uniform than ever before. The essential and core aspects of these reforms were not implemented in many southern provinces, but there are flourishing private clinics in Rome and other metropolitan areas, and in the highly developed regions of northern and central Italy there are institutions meeting very high standards of complementary care. However, reforms in these areas had begun as early as in 1968 in accordance with Act 431 passed that year, and in these regions the newer reforms functioned only as a catalyst. The extremely high goals set by the "Italian experiment" were not realized, but the achievements of several Italian provinces in the areas of ambulant and supporting psychiatric care can certainly be viewed as exemplary. A general trend toward increased critical examination of ways of dealing with the mentally ill from the medicinal, humanitarian, and social points of view is emerging. PMID:11478220

  11. Jurisdiction and applicable law in cases of damage from space in Europe—The advent of the most suitable choice—Rome II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Lesley Jane; Doldirina, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Liability for space activities is a much discussed subject and the advent of commercial space operations has only added to its importance. Articles VI and VII Outer Space Treaty, together with Articles II and III Liability Convention, remain the main entry level for state liability for damage arising from private space activities. Few space-faring nations have introduced national space statutes that include a flow down of their international obligations. The European Union (EU) Regulation on the law applicable to non-contractual obligations—hereinafter Rome II Regulation—could harbour developments for liability law in the context of damage resulting from space operations. Space activities were not the main focus of the Regulation but may well turn out to be an interesting spin-off. The Regulation prescribes general rules that will determine the law applicable to damage scenarios where more than one legal system applies. It is important for trans-national tort cases in that it does not limit the rules of applicable law to EU Member States only. This paper focuses on the common rules applicable to damage actions based on torts or other non-contractual obligations as they apply to damage caused by space activities. After an assessment of the relevant international and national law norms, the impact of the Rome II Regulation will be addressed.

  12. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    PubMed

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  13. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    PubMed

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  14. Human Papilloma Virus prevalence and type-specific relative contribution in invasive cervical cancer specimens from Italy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer represents an important global public health problem. It is the 2nd most common cancer among women worldwide. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is now well-established as a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) development. Only a few studies on HPV prevalence and type-specific distribution in ICC have been conducted in Italy. Aim To describe the prevalence of HPV and the HPV type-specific distribution in ICC cases identified in Rome, Italy. Methods 140 paraffin embedded tissue blocks of primary ICC diagnosed between 2001 and 2006 were identified at the Regina Elena Cancer Institute in Rome (Italy). HPV was detected through amplification of HPV DNA using SPF-10 HPV broad-spectrum primers followed by DEIA and then genotyping by LiPA25 (version 1). Results 134 cases were considered suitable for HPV DNA detection after histological evaluation; and overall, 90.3% (121/134) HPV prevalence was detected. 111 cases had a single HPV type, 4 cases had an uncharacterized type (HPVX) and 6 cases had multiple HPV infections. The five most common single HPV types among positive cases were: HPV16 (71/121; 58.7%), HPV18 (12/121; 9.9%), HPV31, HPV45 and HPV58 (5/121; 4.1% each). 2 (1.5%) of the single infections and 2 (1.5%) of the multiple infections contained low risk types. Statistically significant differences in the relative contribution of HPV18 were found when comparing squamous cell carcinomas with adenocarcinomas. Conclusions HPV16 and HPV18 accounted for almost 70% of all the HPV positive ICC cases. The study provides baseline information for further evaluation on the impact of recently introduced HPV vaccines in Italy. PMID:20525370

  15. The Bologna Process in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballarino, Gabriele; Perotti, Loris

    2012-01-01

    Italy was among the promoters of the Bologna Process and the early adopters of the reform. If one looks at its impact on the formal structure of curricula and study programmes, the reform undertaken under the Bologna banner seems to have been one of the major educational reforms ever achieved in Italy. This article describes how the Bologna…

  16. Pinhole Solar Monitor tests in the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    A pinhole camera has the advantage of undistorted field of view. Its imaging capability is limited by random (diffraction and atmospheric seeing) and systematic (penumbra) effects. The Pinhole Solar Monitor, PSM, measures the solar angular diameter by timing meridian transits. Meridian transits have been videorecorded with UTC synchronization at the pinhole gnomon of Santa Maria degli Angeli church in Rome. The tarature of this Clementine Gnomon is outlined with its accuracy as PSM. On the Moon an array of such PSM equipped with 1000 lines for parallel transits can monitor 0.1” variations of solar diameter.

  17. Hyperspectral fluorescence lidar imaging at the Colosseum, Rome: elucidating past conservation interventions.

    PubMed

    Palombi, L; Lognoli, D; Raimondi, V; Cecchi, G; Hällström, J; Barup, K; Conti, C; Grönlund, R; Johansson, A; Svanberg, S

    2008-05-12

    Fluorescence lidar techniques offer considerable potential for remote, non-invasive diagnostics of stone cultural heritage in the outdoor environment. Here we present the results of a joint Italian-Swedish experiment, deploying two hyperspectral fluorescence lidar imaging systems, for the documentation of past conservation interventions on the Colosseum, Rome. Several portions of the monument were scanned and we show that it was possible to discriminate among masonry materials, reinforcement structures and protective coatings inserted during past conservation interventions, on the basis of their fluorescence signatures, providing useful information for a first quick, large-scale in situ screening of the monument. PMID:18545382

  18. Twenty-five years of cytochrome oxidase research in Rome with Maurizio Brunori.

    PubMed

    Antonini, Giovanni; Malatesta, Francesco; Sarti, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase has been for a long time one of the central topics studied in Rome by Maurizio Brunori. The authors of this paper have had the unique opportunity of collaborating with him and his friends worldwide for many years. Among the very large number of papers on this enzyme produced by Maurizio Brunori, just a few have been selected here which are particularly representative for the three of us. Topics deal mostly with the interplay between the electrochemical potential gradient in its components and the electron transfer and the proton translocation reactions of this fascinating enzyme.

  19. [Functional dyspepsia: the past, the present and the Rome III classification].

    PubMed

    Buzás, György Miklós

    2007-08-19

    The author summarizes the historical development of our knowledge about functional dyspepsia and overviews the so-called "road to Rome" process. Between 1988 and 2006, expert committees developed using the Delphi method subsequent classifications of functional gastrointestinal disorders (Rome I-III). The Rome III classification reassessed the diagnostic criteria for functional dyspepsia and distinguished new subgroups as the postprandial distress and epigastric pain syndrome. The rationale for the proposed new classification was based on the inadequacy of prior approaches such as the predominant symptom, the results of factor analyses in tertiary care and in the general population, clinical experience and new observations in the peer-reviewed literature. Epidemiologic data suggest that dyspeptic symptoms date back to the 1730s and their prevalence increased markedly subsequently, remaining the commonest diagnosis even in the endoscopic era. The current worldwide prevalence of functional dyspepsia is 7-45%, with large geographic variations. The role of Helicobacter pylori and Salmonella infection as etiologic factors is discussed. Amongst the pathophysiological features, the recent data on the role of phenotypic changes of acid secretion, alterations of fundic accommodation and antro-duodenal motility and gastric emptying, gastric hypersensitivity and hormonal disturbances are presented, but all these abnormalities are present only in a small part of the patients. The possible role of the polymorphism of alpha-adrenoceptor gene was also raised. The treatment of functional dyspepsia led to equivocal results and the high rate of placebo response makes difficult any interpretation. According to the recent meta-analyses, proton pump inhibitors and H 2 -histamine receptor blockers are superior to placebo. In spite of good results, cisapride was withdrawn in 2004. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori can induce sustained remission in a small but significant minority of

  20. Stratigraphic framework of Cambrian and Ordovician rocks across Rome Trough, central Appalachian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ryder, R.T.

    1987-09-01

    Restored stratigraphic cross sections drawn primarily through the subsurface of parts of Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee provide new detailed information to further the understanding of Cambrian and Ordovician sedimentation and tectonics associated with the Rome trough sector of the Appalachian basin. Drilled thickness of the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence ranges from a maximum of about 14,500 ft (4.5 km) along the axis of the trough to a minimum of about 3500 ft (1 km) on the western flank.

  1. Hidden sinkholes and karst cavities in the travertine plateau of a highly-populated geothermal seismic territory (Tivoli, central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billi, Andrea; De Filippis, Luigi; Poncia, Pier Paolo; Sella, Pio; Faccenna, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    Sinkholes and other karst structures in settled carbonate lands can be a significant source of hazard for humans and human works. Acque Albule, the study area of this work, is a Plio-Pleistocene basin near Rome, central Italy, superficially filled by a large and thick deposit of late Pleistocene thermogene travertine. Human activities blanket large portions of the flat territory covering most evidence from geological surface processes and potentially inducing scientists and public officials to underestimate some natural hazards including those connected with sinkholes. To contribute to the proper assessment of these hazards, a geomorphologic study of the basin was performed using digital elevation models (DEMs), recent aerial photographs, and field surveys. Historical material such as old aerial photographs and past geomorphologic studies both pre-dating the most part of quarrying and village building was also used together with memories of the elderly population. This preliminary study pointed out the presence of numerous potentially active sinkholes that are at present largely masked by either quarrying or overbuilding. Where this first study pointed out the apparent absence of sinkholes in areas characterized by high density of buildings, a detailed subsurface study was performed using properly-calibrated electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and dynamic penetration measurements (DPSH), together with some borehole logs made available from the local municipality. This second study highlighted the presence of sinkholes and caves that are, this time, substantially hidden to the resolution of standard methods and materials such as aerial photographs, DEMs, and field surveys. Active sinkhole subsidence in the Acque Albule Basin may explain, at least in part, the frequent damages that affect numerous buildings in the area. The main conclusion from this study is that the mitigation of sinkhole hazard in highly populated areas has to pass through a thorough search of

  2. Cultural Heritage exposed to landslide and flood risk in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spizzichino, Daniele; Cacace, Carlo; Iadanza, Carla; Trigila, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Italy is the country that owns most of the world cultural heritage as it's clear from the list of sites of inestimable value to humanity, prepared by UNESCO under the Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage ratified in 1972. The Italian territory is also particularly prone to natural hazards such as landslides, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, subsidence and coastal erosion which undermine the protection and preservation of cultural heritage. Aim of the present work is to provide an estimate of architectural, monumental and archaeological heritage exposed to landslide and flood risk at national scale. The input data are: the Italian Cultural Heritage database (Carta del Rischio del patrimonio culturale) realized by ISCR (Central Institute for the Conservation and Restoration); the Italian Landslide Inventory (Progetto IFFI) developed by ISPRA (Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research) and the Regions and Self-Governing Provinces of Italy and the flood hazard zones defined by the Italian River Basin Authorities. Italian landslide inventory contains more than 486,000 landslides affecting an area of about 20,800 km2, equal to 6.9% of Italian territory. In order to estimate the number and type of cultural heritage at risk some GIS processing have been carried out, overlapping information from the above mentioned databases. The analysis provided the following results: Cultural Heritage exposed to landslide risk were estimated to 5.511 (6.6%) while the ones exposed to flood risk results 9.859 (11.7%). Two case studies concerning landslide phenomena affecting important Italian municipalities and the flood risk of historical centre of Rome, have been also analyzed. These results could be used to identify priorities and plan field surveys, detailed studies and monitoring systems, allowing job scheduling of cultural heritage maintenance. This need becomes more and more a necessity taking into account

  3. Slavery and the social dynamics of male homosexual relations in ancient Rome.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, B C

    1980-01-01

    More than any other institution, slavery placed its stamp on male homosexual relations in ancient Rome. While the pervasive Hellenization of Roman society in the second and first centuries B.C. mitigated the traditional hostility towards homosexuality and homosexual relations and even, in cultured circles, fostered an idealizing acceptance of male pederastic relations patterned after the model of classical Greece, this transformation of attitudes would have produced less concrete effects had Rome not concurrently become a slave-owning society on a large scale, due to overseas conquests. The strictures of Roman law and tradition applied only to sexual relations among free men and women; sexual relations between freemen and female or male slaves were unlikely to incur much social stigma. Although there is evidence that some Romans did indeed exploit their slaves, fortunately the great lacuna within the law and tradition, together with the emergence of more humane values regarding slavery and sexual relations, allowed genuine love-relationships (both heterosexual and homosexual) to receive a large measure of social sanction as a form of concubinage. Roman culture, however, unlike classical Green civilization, made little contribution to an informed acceptance of homosexual relations grounded in an understanding of human ethics and psychology.

  4. Substance Use in the Club Scene of Rome: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Vento, Alessandro Emiliano; Martinotti, Giovanni; Cinosi, Eduardo; Acciavatti, Tiziano; Carrus, Dario; Chillemi, Eleonora; di Giannantonio, Massimo; Corazza, Ornella; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Over the last few years, a wide number of unregulated substances have been marketed on the Web and in smart and head shops; they are usually advertised as legal alternatives to commonly known drugs and are defined as “smart drugs,” “legal highs,” and “novel psychoactive substances” (NPS). Aim of our work is to describe use habits and distribution of NPS in a population of young adults in Rome club scene. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was proposed to subjects over 18 years of age at the entrance of 5 nightclubs in Rome. Socioeconomic characteristics and substance use were investigated. Results. Preliminary results give evidence that 78% of respondents have a lifetime history of NPS use. In addition, 56% of the sample has consumed illicit drugs in the past and 39% has used psychoactive substances in the 12 hours preceding the questionnaire administration. Conclusions. A significant proportion of subjects report use of novel psychoactive substances; traditional illicit drugs consumption, particularly cocaine, appears to be very high as well in the club scene. These data highlight a serious public health challenge, since pharmacological, toxicological, and psychopathological effects linked to interactions among all these substances may be unpredictable and sometimes fatal in vulnerable individuals. PMID:25243163

  5. The Cucurbit Images (1515–1518) of the Villa Farnesina, Rome

    PubMed Central

    JANICK, JULES; PARIS, HARRY S.

    2006-01-01

    • Background The gorgeous frescoes organized by the master Renaissance painter Raphael Sanzio (1483–1520) and illustrating the heavenly adventures of Cupid and Psyche were painted between 1515 and 1518 to decorate the Roman villa (now known as the Villa Farnesina) of the wealthy Sienese banker Agostino Chigi (1466–1520). Surrounding these paintings are festoons of fruits, vegetables and flowers painted by Giovanni Martini da Udine (1487–1564), which include over 170 species of plants. A deconstruction and collation of the cucurbit images in the festoons makes it possible to evaluate the genetic diversity of cucurbits in Renaissance Italy 500 years ago. • Findings The festoons contain six species of Old World cucurbits, Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), Cucumis melo (melon), Cucumis sativus (cucumber), Ecballium elaterium (squirting cucumber), Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd) and Momordica balsamina (balsam apple), and two or three species of New World cucurbits, Cucurbita maxima, C. pepo and, perhaps, C. moschata (pumpkin, squash, gourd). The images of C. maxima are the first illustrations of this species in Europe. PMID:16314340

  6. Geotechnical Seismic Hazard Evaluation At Sellano (Umbria, Italy) Using The GIS Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Capilleri, P.; Maugeri, M.

    2008-07-08

    A tool that has been widely-used in civil engineering in recent years is the geographic information system (GIS). Geographic Information systems (GIS) are powerful tools for organizing, analyzing, and presenting spatial data. The GIS can be used by geotechnical engineers to aid preliminary assessment through to the final geotechnical design. The aim of this work is to provide some indications for the use of the GIS technique in the field of seismic geotechnical engineering, particularly as regards the problems of seismic hazard zonation maps. The study area is the village of Sellano located in the Umbrian Apennines in central Italy, about 45 km east of Perugia and 120 km north-east of Rome The increasing importance attributed to microzonation derives from the spatial variability of ground motion due to particular local conditions. The use of GIS tools can lead to an early identification of potential barriers to project completion during the design process that may help avoid later costly redesign.

  7. Epidemiology of Imported Leishmaniasis in Italy: Implications for a European Endemic Country

    PubMed Central

    Di Muccio, Trentina; Scalone, Aldo; Bruno, Antonella; Marangi, Massimo; Grande, Romualdo; Armignacco, Orlando; Gradoni, Luigi; Gramiccia, Marina

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the number of imported leishmaniasis cases has increased in countries of Western Europe. The trend is associated with increasing travels, ecotourism activity, military operations and immigration. While in endemic countries leishmaniasis is usually well diagnosed, accurate patient history and parasite identification are necessary to distinguish between autochthonous and imported cases. This is particularly important, as new Leishmania species/genotypes may be introduced and transmitted by local phlebotomine vectors without appropriate surveillance, with unpredictable consequences. We report on the surveillance of imported leishmaniasis performed by the Leishmania Identification Reference Centre of Rome from 1986 through 2012, involving health care centres from 16/20 Italian regions. Suspected imported cases were analyzed and conclusions were based on clinical, epidemiological and diagnostic findings. Over the years, different parasite identification methods were employed, including MultiLocus Enzyme Electrophoresis and molecular techniques combining disease diagnosis (SSU rDNA nested-PCR) and Leishmania typing (nuclear repetitive sequence and ITS-1 PCR-RFLPs). A total of 105 imported cases were recorded (annual range: 0-20) of which 36 were visceral (VL) (16 HIV-coinfections) and 69 cutaneous (CL) cases; 85 cases (52 CL) were from the Old World and 20 (17 CL) from the New World. Eight Leishmania species were identified, of which 7 were exotic to Italy. VL importation until 1995 was associated with the spread of Mediterranean Leishmania-HIV co-infections in early 1990s. Following the introduction of HAART treatment, such cases became occasional in Italians but relatively frequent among immigrants. In contrast, a steady increase of CL cases was observed from different areas of the Old and New Worlds, that in recent years included mainly immigrants ‘visiting friends and relatives’ and Italian tourists. This positive trend likely depends on

  8. Epidemiology of Imported Leishmaniasis in Italy: Implications for a European Endemic Country.

    PubMed

    Di Muccio, Trentina; Scalone, Aldo; Bruno, Antonella; Marangi, Massimo; Grande, Romualdo; Armignacco, Orlando; Gradoni, Luigi; Gramiccia, Marina

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the number of imported leishmaniasis cases has increased in countries of Western Europe. The trend is associated with increasing travels, ecotourism activity, military operations and immigration. While in endemic countries leishmaniasis is usually well diagnosed, accurate patient history and parasite identification are necessary to distinguish between autochthonous and imported cases. This is particularly important, as new Leishmania species/genotypes may be introduced and transmitted by local phlebotomine vectors without appropriate surveillance, with unpredictable consequences. We report on the surveillance of imported leishmaniasis performed by the Leishmania Identification Reference Centre of Rome from 1986 through 2012, involving health care centres from 16/20 Italian regions. Suspected imported cases were analyzed and conclusions were based on clinical, epidemiological and diagnostic findings. Over the years, different parasite identification methods were employed, including MultiLocus Enzyme Electrophoresis and molecular techniques combining disease diagnosis (SSU rDNA nested-PCR) and Leishmania typing (nuclear repetitive sequence and ITS-1 PCR-RFLPs). A total of 105 imported cases were recorded (annual range: 0-20) of which 36 were visceral (VL) (16 HIV-coinfections) and 69 cutaneous (CL) cases; 85 cases (52 CL) were from the Old World and 20 (17 CL) from the New World. Eight Leishmania species were identified, of which 7 were exotic to Italy. VL importation until 1995 was associated with the spread of Mediterranean Leishmania-HIV co-infections in early 1990s. Following the introduction of HAART treatment, such cases became occasional in Italians but relatively frequent among immigrants. In contrast, a steady increase of CL cases was observed from different areas of the Old and New Worlds, that in recent years included mainly immigrants 'visiting friends and relatives' and Italian tourists. This positive trend likely depends on better

  9. Epidemiology of Imported Leishmaniasis in Italy: Implications for a European Endemic Country.

    PubMed

    Di Muccio, Trentina; Scalone, Aldo; Bruno, Antonella; Marangi, Massimo; Grande, Romualdo; Armignacco, Orlando; Gradoni, Luigi; Gramiccia, Marina

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the number of imported leishmaniasis cases has increased in countries of Western Europe. The trend is associated with increasing travels, ecotourism activity, military operations and immigration. While in endemic countries leishmaniasis is usually well diagnosed, accurate patient history and parasite identification are necessary to distinguish between autochthonous and imported cases. This is particularly important, as new Leishmania species/genotypes may be introduced and transmitted by local phlebotomine vectors without appropriate surveillance, with unpredictable consequences. We report on the surveillance of imported leishmaniasis performed by the Leishmania Identification Reference Centre of Rome from 1986 through 2012, involving health care centres from 16/20 Italian regions. Suspected imported cases were analyzed and conclusions were based on clinical, epidemiological and diagnostic findings. Over the years, different parasite identification methods were employed, including MultiLocus Enzyme Electrophoresis and molecular techniques combining disease diagnosis (SSU rDNA nested-PCR) and Leishmania typing (nuclear repetitive sequence and ITS-1 PCR-RFLPs). A total of 105 imported cases were recorded (annual range: 0-20) of which 36 were visceral (VL) (16 HIV-coinfections) and 69 cutaneous (CL) cases; 85 cases (52 CL) were from the Old World and 20 (17 CL) from the New World. Eight Leishmania species were identified, of which 7 were exotic to Italy. VL importation until 1995 was associated with the spread of Mediterranean Leishmania-HIV co-infections in early 1990s. Following the introduction of HAART treatment, such cases became occasional in Italians but relatively frequent among immigrants. In contrast, a steady increase of CL cases was observed from different areas of the Old and New Worlds, that in recent years included mainly immigrants 'visiting friends and relatives' and Italian tourists. This positive trend likely depends on better

  10. Italy INAF Data Center Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Italian INAF VLBI Data Center. Our Data Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics.

  11. Non-destructive mapping of dampness and salts in degraded wall paintings in hypogeous buildings: the case of St. Clement at mass fresco in St. Clement Basilica, Rome.

    PubMed

    Di Tullio, Valeria; Proietti, Noemi; Gobbino, Marco; Capitani, Donatella; Olmi, Roberto; Priori, Saverio; Riminesi, Cristiano; Giani, Elisabetta

    2010-03-01

    As is well known, the deterioration of wall paintings due to the capillary rise of water through the walls is a very widespread problem. In this paper, a study of microclimate monitoring, unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and evanescent-field dielectrometry (EFD) was applied to map non-destructively, in situ, and in a quantitative way the distribution of the moisture in an ancient deteriorated wall painting of the eleventh century. Both unilateral NMR and EFD are quite new, fully portable, and non-destructive techniques, and their combination is absolutely new. The approach reported here is proposed as a new analytical protocol to afford the problem of mapping, non-destructively, the moisture in a deteriorated wall painting in a hypogeous building such as that of the second level of St. Clement Basilica, Rome (Italy), where the use of IR thermography is impaired due to the environmental conditions, and the gravimetric tests are forbidden due to the preciousness of the artifact. The moisture distribution was mapped at different depths, from the very first layers of the painted film to a depth of 2 cm. It has also been shown how the map obtained in the first layers of the artwork is affected by the environmental conditions typical of a hypogeous building, whereas the maps obtained at higher depths are representative of the moisture due to the capillary rise of water from the ground. The quantitative analysis of the moisture was performed by calibrating NMR and EFD signals with purposely prepared specimens. This study may be applied before and after performing any intervention aimed at restoring and improving the state of conservation of this type of artwork and reducing the dampness or extracting salts (driven by the variation of moisture content) and monitoring the effectiveness of the performed interventions during the time. This protocol is applicable to any type of porous material.

  12. Paleo-surfaces of glacio-eustatically forced aggradational successions in the coastal area of Rome: Assessing interplay between tectonics and sea-level during the last ten interglacials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Fabrizio; Florindo, Fabio; Anzidei, Marco; Sepe, Vincenzo

    2016-09-01

    Recently acquired geochronological and stratigraphic data provide new information on the sedimentary successions deposited by the Paleo-Tiber River in the coastal and near-coastal area of Rome in consequence of the glacio-eustatic changes, allowing to better define their inner geometry and palaeogeographic spatial distribution. In the present work we use this revised sedimentary dataset to provide a geochronologically constrained and tectonically adjusted record of paleo sea-level indicators. Aimed at this scope, we review literature data acquired in the last 35 years and using the new geochronological constraints we pinpoint the coastal-to-fluvial terraces of MIS 5 and MIS 7, mapping their relic surfaces in an area of 30 km along the coast north and south of the Tiber River mouth, and 20 km inland of the fluvial valleys of Tiber and Aniene rivers. The geometry of these paleo-surfaces provides constraints on the relative elevation of the sea-level during the last interglacials and on the uplift rates in this region during the last 200 ka. In particular, we recognize the previously undetected terraces of MIS 5.3 and MIS 5.1 interstadials, and we assess their spatial relationship with respect to MIS 5.5, providing important information on sea-level oscillations during this time span. Comparison with sea-level indicators provided by previous aggradational successions deposited during past interglacials spanning MIS 9 through MIS 21 in the coastal area of Rome, also allows us to reconstruct the tectonic history and investigate its relationships with the Middle-Pleistocene volcanic activity of the Roman Comagmatic Region along the Tyrrhenian Sea margin of Italy in the last 900 ka.

  13. Lake Garda, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This ASTER image was acquired on July 29, 2000 and covers an area of 30 by 57 km in northern Italy. Lake Garda was formed by glaciers during the last Ice Age, and is Italy's largest lake. Lago di Garda lies in the provinces of Verona, Brescia, and Trento, and is 51 kilometers (32 miles) long and from 3 to 18 kilometers (2 to 11 miles) wide. The Sarca is its chief affluent, and the lake is drained southward by the Mincio, which discharges into the Po River. Many villas are situated on its shores. On the peninsula of Sirmione, at the southern end of the lake, are the ruins of a Roman villa and a castle of the Scaligers, an Italian family of the 16th century. The RIGHT image has the land area masked out, and a harsh stretch was applied to the lake values to display variations in sediment load. Also visible are hundreds of boats and their wakes, criss-crossing the lake.

    The image is centered at 45.6 degrees north latitude, 10.6 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for

  14. Development, Translation and Validation of Enhanced Asian Rome III Questionnaires for Diagnosis of Functional Bowel Diseases in Major Asian Languages: A Rome Foundation-Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association Working Team Report

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Uday C; Gwee, Kok-Ann; Chen, Minhu; Gong, Xiao R; Pratap, Nitesh; Hou, Xiaohua; Syam, Ari F; Abdullah, Murdani; Bak, Young-Tae; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Gonlachanvit, Sutep; Chua, Andrew S B; Chong, Kuck-Meng; Siah, Kewin T H; Lu, Ching-Liang; Xiong, Lishou; Whitehead, William E

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The development-processes by regional socio-cultural adaptation of an Enhanced Asian Rome III questionnaire (EAR3Q), a cultural adaptation of the Rome III diagnostic questionnaire (R3DQ), and its translation-validation in Asian languages are presented. As English is not the first language for most Asians, translation-validation of EAR3Q is essential. Hence, we aimed to culturally adapt the R3DQ to develop EAR3Q and linguistically validate it to show that the EAR3Q is able to allocate diagnosis according to Rome III criteria. Methods After EAR3Q was developed by Asian experts by consensus, it was translated into Chinese, Hindi-Telugu, Indonesian, Korean, and Thai, following Rome Foundation guidelines; these were then validated on native subjects (healthy [n = 60], and patients with irritable bowel syndrome [n = 59], functional dyspepsia [n = 53] and functional constipation [n = 61]) diagnosed by clinicians using Rome III criteria, negative alarm features and investigations. Results Experts noted words for constipation, bloating, fullness and heartburn, posed difficulty. The English back-translated questionnaires demonstrated concordance with the original EAR3Q. Sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaires were high enough to diagnose respective functional gastrointestinal disorders (gold standard: clinical diagnoses) in most except Korean and Indonesian languages. Questionnaires often uncovered overlapping functional gastrointestinal disorders. Test-retest agreement (kappa) values of the translated questionnaires were high (0.700–1.000) except in Korean (0.300–0.500) and Indonesian (0.100–0.400) languages at the initial and 2-week follow-up visit. Conclusions Though Chinese, Hindi and Telugu translations were performed well, Korean and Indonesian versions were not. Questionnaires often uncovered overlapping FGIDs, which were quite common. PMID:25537673

  15. The landslide susceptibility map of Italy at 1:1 Million scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigila, A.; Catani, F.; Casagli, N.; Crosta, G.; Esposito, C.; Frattini, P.; Iadanza, C.; Lagomarsino, D.; Lari, S.; Scarascia Mugnozza, G.; Segoni, S.; Spizzichino, D.; Tofani, V.

    2012-04-01

    Landslides are among the most problematic natural hazards in Italy, in terms of both casualties and economic losses. Landslide susceptibility maps are key tools for land use planning, management and risk mitigation. The aim of the work is to present the methodology adopted by ISPRA (Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research), University of Florence, University of Milano-Bicocca and University of Rome "La Sapienza" for the development of a Landslide susceptibility map of Italy at 1:1,000,000 scale. The Landslide susceptibility map of Italy has been realized by using the Italian Landslide Inventory - Progetto IFFI which contains more than 486,000 landslides, and a set of contributing factors such as surface parameters derived from 20x20 m DEM, lithological map obtained from the Geological map of Italy 1:500,000, and land use map (Corine Land Cover). These databases have been subjected to a quality analysis with the aim of assessing the completeness, homogeneity and reliability of data, and identifying representative areas which may be used as training and test areas for the implementation of landslide susceptibility models. Physiographic domains of homogeneous geology and geomorphology have been identified, and landslides have been divided into three main classes in order to take into account specific sets of conditioning factors: a) rockfalls and rock-avalanches; b) slow mass movements, c) debris flows. Bivariate statistical analyses have been performed to assess the frequency distribution of contributing factors on the landslide area. The tests of different techniques (Discriminant Analysis, Logistic Regression, Bayesian Tree Random Forest) have been performed in selected areas of Italy in order to assess advantages, disadvantages and applicability of the models at the scale of analysis. The modelling tests provided good performance with all techniques, once applied with the appropriate selection of training and validations sets and with

  16. The interpretation of Rome II criteria and method of assessment affect the irritable bowel syndrome classification of children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pediatric classification of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is complicated by the potential discrepancy, between parent and child report and by the interpretation of pain-stool relations in the Rome III classification system. The aim of this study was to compare IBS classification by diary and by chi...

  17. The Limits of Growth. A Report for The Club of Rome's Project on the Predicament of Mankind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Donella H.; And Others

    Reviewed in this report is a project undertaken by The Club of Rome entitled Project on the Predicament of Mankind. Its intent is to examine the complex of problems troubling men of all nations. The predicament is that man can perceive the problem, yet, despite his considerable knowledge and skills, he does not understand the origins,…

  18. The Nature of Beauty: The Arts in Greece, Rome and the Medieval Period. Program for Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garton, Harry A.; Woodbury, Virginia Garton

    One in a series of instructional units designed for gifted students, the booklet focuses on the arts in Greece, Rome, and the Medieval period. Narrative information on Greek pottery, sculpture, architecture, music, and dance is followed by lists of suggested activities for students and reference lists of texts and media. A similar unit on the…

  19. [Pharmaceutical pottery in the Museum of History of Medicine of Rome "La Sapienza"].

    PubMed

    De Santis, Ilaria; Del Busso, Mariagrazia

    2006-01-01

    Chemist's and pharmaceutical vases are a historical, aesthetic, cultural, often careless, patrimony that evokes numerous suggestions. It is not possible to distinguish their history from the history of general ceramics in order to reconstruct the context in which these manufactured object were made. Even though manufacture presents a peculiarity of its own it interlaces with the objects of everyday use and with the production designed to any specific and different uses. Ceramics is one of the most flourishing art in Italy; a revival of its techniques arose just in relation with the 'rebirth' of spices commercial trading in Italy.

  20. Nardo Ring, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Nardo Ring is a striking visual feature from space, and astronauts have photographed it several times. The Ring is a race car test track; it is 12.5 kilometers long and steeply banked to reduce the amount of active steering needed by drivers. The Nardo Ring lies in a remote area on the heel of Italy's 'boot,' 50 kilometers east of the naval port of Taranto. The Ring encompasses a number of active (green) and fallow (brown to dark brown) agricultural fields. In this zone of intensive agriculture, farmers gain access to their fields through the Ring via a series of underpasses. Winding features within the southern section of the Ring appear to be smaller, unused race tracks.

    The image covers an area of 18.8 x 16.4 km, was acquired on August 17. 2007, and is located at 49.3 degrees north latitude, 17.8 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  1. [Survey of disinfectant usage in a polyclinic in Rome: preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Leoni, V; Urso, M; Materazzo, F; Rossini, A

    2001-03-01

    The authors describe the survey that was conducted in the largest hospital in Rome. The aim was to estimate the disinfectants and chemical sterilizers employed and asses possible hazards for patients and workers arising from the use of disinfectants, together with the problem of waste disposal. The study was conducted by means of a survey form that was distributed to 39 departments/institute in the whole hospital of which 24 (61%) responded. Overall 635 charts were collected listing 886 usage procedures and 110 formulations with 40 different active ingredients. The disinfection fields of use were: skin(52.4%) environment (28.8%) and hospital equipment (20.8%) This study shows that a modern hospital should select very few disinfectants and prepare a handbook that can explain disinfectant usage procedures and concentrations. In the guidelines the problem of waste disposal and employee safety should also be considered.

  2. An investigation into the ancient abortion laws: comparing ancient Persia with ancient Greece and Rome.

    PubMed

    Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Zargaran, Arman; Vatanpour, Azadeh; Abedini, Ehsan; Adhami, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    Since the dawn of medicine, medical rights and ethics have always been one of mankind's concerns. In any civilisation, attention paid to medical laws and ethics depends on the progress of human values and the advancement of medical science. The history of various civilisations teaches that each had its own views on medical ethics, but most had something in common. Ancient civilisations such as Greece, Rome, or Assyria did not consider the foetus to be alive and therefore to have human rights. In contrast, ancient Persians valued the foetus as a living person equal to others. Accordingly, they brought laws against abortion, even in cases of sexual abuse. Furthermore, abortion was considered to be a murder and punishments were meted out to the mother, father, and the person performing it. PMID:24304111

  3. [Musculoskeletal diseases among musicians of the "teatro dell'Opera" of Rome].

    PubMed

    Monaco, Edoardo; Vicaro, Vincenzo; Catarinozzi, Elena; Rossi, Marina; Prestigiacomo, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Musculo-skeletal injuries represent a significant medical problem in professional musicians for which was coined the following acronym PRMDs (that stands for Playing Related Musculoskeletal disorders). A little osteo-articular problem in the professional musicians can impact on a real decreasing performance activity. The purpose of this study is to quantify prevalence of PRMDs syntoms among the professional musicians and to verify their relative impact on quality lives. This study has investigated the orchestral staff of the principal lyric theatre of Rome to which it was distributed DASH OUTCOME and SF-36 questionnaires to identify the presence of musculoskeletal complaints for cervical brachial syndrome and the general quality of life respectively. The employment of the above methodology furnish statistically significant results, pointing out that the musicians quality life suffering from musculo-skeletal symptomatology (DASH SF > or = 15) was lower than ones without a clinical symptomatology. Subsequently these results were compared with the Italian population benchmarking values. PMID:22888726

  4. The Rome-GSFC magnetic field experiment for Helios A and B /E 3/. [geomagnetic measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scearce, C.; Ness, N.; Burlaga, L.; Cantarano, S.; Terenzi, R.; Mariani, F.

    1975-01-01

    The Rome-GSFC magnetic field experiment utilizes a triaxial fluxgate (saturable inductor) magnetometer. The sensor unit is mounted on the end of a boom approximately four meters from the spacecraft spin axis. The three analog outputs of the magnetometer are converted into three 9 bit digital words. The experiment utilizes an automatic inflight range switch to select the optimum dynamic range out of 4 ranges. A nonmagnetic thermally oscillating actuator is used to reorient the sensor unit by 90 deg to determine all three axes zero levels. The accuracy should be approximately plus or minus 0.1 gamma. The vector measurements are made at equal intervals in time ranging from 16 per second down to 1 per second depending on the telemetry bit rate.

  5. [Mammography and prevention of breast carcinoma. Epidemiological considerations concerning female population of a Rome district].

    PubMed

    Cruciani, P; Sonnino, A; Biagi, L; Casile, S; Mancini, R; Gigli, M

    1999-01-01

    At the present time breast cancer represents the primary reason of death caused by cancer amongst the female population of the western countries. Since the actuation of primary prevention programmes results impossible, the aim that must be considered primary is to attain a diagnosis of such tumour as precociously as possible. This research proposes to value the inclination of the female population of a District in Rome, of different classes of age, to have a mammography test in a state of spontaneous screening, in view of a next institution of a structured program of secondary prevention in the area of reference. The results have been examined with relation to the age limits considered as optimum for a correct application of this diagnostic methodology, in line with technical and epidemiological considerations.

  6. An investigation into the ancient abortion laws: comparing ancient Persia with ancient Greece and Rome.

    PubMed

    Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Zargaran, Arman; Vatanpour, Azadeh; Abedini, Ehsan; Adhami, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    Since the dawn of medicine, medical rights and ethics have always been one of mankind's concerns. In any civilisation, attention paid to medical laws and ethics depends on the progress of human values and the advancement of medical science. The history of various civilisations teaches that each had its own views on medical ethics, but most had something in common. Ancient civilisations such as Greece, Rome, or Assyria did not consider the foetus to be alive and therefore to have human rights. In contrast, ancient Persians valued the foetus as a living person equal to others. Accordingly, they brought laws against abortion, even in cases of sexual abuse. Furthermore, abortion was considered to be a murder and punishments were meted out to the mother, father, and the person performing it.

  7. Day care cataract surgery in Central and Southern Italy: a multicentric survey

    PubMed Central

    Cillino, Salvatore; Casuccio, Alessandra; Di Pace, Francesco; Pillitteri, Francesco; Cillino, Giovanni; Lodato, Gaetano

    2007-01-01

    Background Cataract day surgery has rapidly gained worldwide acceptance, because the new surgical techniques and costs are generally lower than those involved in ordinary hospitalization. Cataract surgery serves as a proxy indicator of the trend towards day surgery hospitalization in Italy and, therefore, of regional variability in health-care delivery and cost. The aim of this study was to update the diffusion of cataract day surgery through various surgical ophthalmological centers in central and southern Italy during 2005. Methods A two-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to draw a sample of Cataract Surgery Unit from Ophthalmic Units of central and southern Italy. A questionnaire was sent to 25 cataract surgery centers in nine health districts that represented the range of establishments (public, private, accredited or otherwise) in which cataract surgery is performed. Data were collected on numbers of procedures performed in 2005, hospital admission type, time from the onset of cataract day surgery, surgical procedure, and presence of other surgical centers. Results The response rate was 42% (10 surveys), resulting in at least one completed questionnaire for each of these 9 districts. There is a positive trend towards day surgery hospitalization in all surgical centers. The percentage of patients treated as outpatients during 2005 varied from 50–60% (Avellino, Naples, Campobasso), to 80–90% (Rome, Bari), up to 90–100% (Catania, Palermo, Siracusa and Trapani), with an increasing trend in all the centers studied. Few differences were found in surgical procedures, and these were statistically insignificant. Conclusion Our results confirm a positive trend towards day surgery in place of hospital inpatient admission for cataract surgery. This trend is expected to close the existing regional gap in Italy. Increased efficiency is an overriding need for the National Health Service in order to improve the rationalization of resources. PMID:17270040

  8. Celiac Disease in Patients Fulfilling the Rome III Criteria for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Attending Gastroenterology Department of A Tertiary Care Hospital in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, M K; Chakraborty, R; Gope, S; Rahman, M A; Miah, A R; Raihan, A S; Sarkar, S; Paul, B K; Ferdousi, K R

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal disorder that substantially affects patients' quality of life and is associated with a considerable drain of health-care resources and economic burden. But some IBS patients may have celiac disease that could be treated by gluten-free diet which will subsequently improve their quality of life. This study was done to see the prevalence of celiac disease among the IBS patients fulfilling Rome III criteria. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Gastroenterology at BSMMU, Dhaka from July 2010 to September 2011. A total of 107 patients aged ranging between 16-60 years clinically labeled as IBS and fulfilled Rome III criteria were included as study sample. The test statistics used to analyze the data were descriptive statistics. The mean age of the patients was 31.5±10.3 years and male to female ratio was roughly 6:1. The mean duration of IBS was 32.0±2.1 months. All of the patients had abdominal discomfort or pain in the preceding 6 months and had a history of loose (mushy) or watery stool, 99.1% had pain or discomfort relieved with defaecation. The prevalence of diarrhoea was found in 78.5% and mixed 21.5% of the patients. About 5% of the patients had raised ESR and majority (86.9%) of the patients had normal level of hemoglobin. Ten (9%) of 107 patients were found positive for anti-t TG (IgA). These findings suggest that an around one-tenth of IBS especially diarrhoea predominant patients may have celiac disease who will respond to simple gluten-free diet thus minimizing the morbidity and mortality. So, all clinically diagnosed IBS patients especially diarrhoea predominant cases should be suggested for the screening for celiac disease. PMID:26931258

  9. Celiac Disease in Patients Fulfilling the Rome III Criteria for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Attending Gastroenterology Department of A Tertiary Care Hospital in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, M K; Chakraborty, R; Gope, S; Rahman, M A; Miah, A R; Raihan, A S; Sarkar, S; Paul, B K; Ferdousi, K R

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal disorder that substantially affects patients' quality of life and is associated with a considerable drain of health-care resources and economic burden. But some IBS patients may have celiac disease that could be treated by gluten-free diet which will subsequently improve their quality of life. This study was done to see the prevalence of celiac disease among the IBS patients fulfilling Rome III criteria. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Gastroenterology at BSMMU, Dhaka from July 2010 to September 2011. A total of 107 patients aged ranging between 16-60 years clinically labeled as IBS and fulfilled Rome III criteria were included as study sample. The test statistics used to analyze the data were descriptive statistics. The mean age of the patients was 31.5±10.3 years and male to female ratio was roughly 6:1. The mean duration of IBS was 32.0±2.1 months. All of the patients had abdominal discomfort or pain in the preceding 6 months and had a history of loose (mushy) or watery stool, 99.1% had pain or discomfort relieved with defaecation. The prevalence of diarrhoea was found in 78.5% and mixed 21.5% of the patients. About 5% of the patients had raised ESR and majority (86.9%) of the patients had normal level of hemoglobin. Ten (9%) of 107 patients were found positive for anti-t TG (IgA). These findings suggest that an around one-tenth of IBS especially diarrhoea predominant patients may have celiac disease who will respond to simple gluten-free diet thus minimizing the morbidity and mortality. So, all clinically diagnosed IBS patients especially diarrhoea predominant cases should be suggested for the screening for celiac disease.

  10. Geological and geophysical activities at Spallanzani Science Department (Liceo Scientifico Statale "Lazzaro Spallanzani" - Tivoli, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favale, T.; De Angelis, F.; De Filippis, L.

    2012-04-01

    The high school Liceo Scientifico "Lazzaro Spallanzani" at Tivoli (Rome) has been fully involved in the study of geological and geophysical features of the town of Tivoli and the surrounding area in the last twelve years. Objective of this activity is to promote the knowledge of the local territory from the geological point of view. Main activities: • School year 2001-2002: Setting up inside the school building of a Geological Museum focusing on "Geological Evolution of Latium, Central Italy" (in collaboration with colleagues M. Mancini, and A. Pierangeli). • March, 15, 2001: Conference of Environmental Geology. Lecturer: Prof. Raniero Massoli Novelli, L'Aquila University and Società Italiana di Geologia Ambientale. • School years 2001-2002 and 2002-2003: Earth Sciences course for students "Brittle deformation and tectonic stress in Tivoli area". • November, 2003: Conference of Geology, GIS and Remote Sensing. Lecturers: Prof. Maurizio Parotto and Dr Alessandro Cecili (Roma Tre University, Rome), and Dr Stefano Pignotti (Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sulla Montagna, Rome). • November, 2003, 2004 and 2005: GIS DAY, organized in collaboration with ESRI Italia. • School year 2006-2007: Earth Sciences course for students "Acque Albule basin and the Travertine of Tivoli, Latium, Central Italy" (focus on travertine formation). • School year 2010-2011: Earth Sciences course for students "Acque Albule basin and the Travertine of Tivoli. Geology, Hydrogeology and Microbiology of the basin, Latium, Central Italy" (focus on thermal springs and spa). In the period 2009-2010 a seismic station with three channels, currently working, was designed and built in our school by the science teachers Felice De Angelis and Tomaso Favale. Our seismic station (code name LTTV) is part of Italian Experimental Seismic Network (IESN) with identification code IZ (international database IRIS-ISC). The three drums are online in real time on websites http

  11. [Epidemiologic surveillance of pleural mesothelioma in Italy].

    PubMed

    Vetrugno, T; Comba, P; Savelli, D; Belli, S; Magnani, C

    1991-01-01

    A collaborative study has been performed in order to detect cases of pleural mesothelioma diagnosed or treated in Italy in the years 1984-88. Cases have been notified to ISS by 88 centres (clinics of thoracic surgery and respiratory diseases, oncologic centres, institutes of pathology), active in 14 Italian regions. Altogether, 575 cases (415 males and 160 females) have been included in the study. Information on occupation and/or on non occupational exposure to asbestos was available for 65% of the subjects, and the occurrence of definite or possible exposure to asbestos was estimated for 58% of them.

  12. Biophysical science in Italy: SIBPA turns 40.

    PubMed

    Giacomazza, Daniela; Musio, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    This Special Issue of Biophysical Chemistry includes a selection of the papers presented at the XXI Congress of the Italian Society of Pure and Applied Biophysics (i.e., SIBPA, Società Italiana di Biofisica Pura ed Applicata) held on September 2012 at the University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy. Topics cover all biophysical disciplines, from molecular to cellular, to integrative biophysics giving an almost comprehensive view of the interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approaches, proper of the modern biophysics. SIBPA, which celebrates its 40th anniversary in 2013, has steadily grown and appeals to both specialists and a wider general audience.

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes in school adolescents, Italy.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Paola; Sulis, Giorgia; Renna, Giovanna; Gargiulo, Franco; Zanotti, Paola; Capelli, Michela; De Francesco, Maria Antonia; Donato, Francesco; Pecorelli, Sergio; Matteelli, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genogroups using ompA and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were determined in consecutive isolates from school students aged 18 or older in the district of Brescia, Italy, 2012-2013. Among 40 samples, 4 ompA genovars and 18 STs were identified. Genovar E predominated (70 %) including five STs derived from ST59 (29 % of all isolates). This study, combining ompA and MLST typing of C. trachomatis school teenagers, suggests limited mixing and sexual interchange in this population.

  14. Detection of Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis, and rickettsiae in ticks removed from dogs living in Italy.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Michele; Nicetto, Martina; Fogliazza, Alessandro; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Caldin, Marco; Furlanello, Tommaso; Solano-Gallego, Laia

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to determine natural infections by Anaplasma phagocytophilum/Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae, Ehrlichia canis, Leishmania infantum, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., and Hepatozoon spp. by molecular methods in ticks (n=91) removed from dogs with clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities compatible with tick-borne diseases (n=22) living in Italy and to assess the distribution and species of ticks encountered. Ticks from dogs living in southern Italy were all identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n=25), ticks from central Italy included Rh. sanguineus (n=8) and Ixodes ricinus (n=9), ticks from northern Italy included Rh. sanguineus (n=45), Dermacentor marginatus (n=3), and one I. ricinus. Leishmania infantum, Rickettsia spp., and Babesia canis were the only pathogens detected in 7 (8%), 4 (4%), and 2 (2%) out of 91 ticks, respectively. L. infantum was detected in I. ricinus from central Italy and in Rh. sanguineus from northern and central Italy. Rickettsia conorii and Ri. massiliae were detected in Rh. sanguineus ticks from central and southern Italy (Sicily), respectively. Bab. canis was detected in D. marginatus ticks from northern Italy.

  15. Fluorine in the rocks and sediments of volcanic areas in central Italy: total content, enrichment and leaching processes and a hypothesis on the vulnerability of the related aquifers.

    PubMed

    De Rita, Donatella; Cremisini, Carlo; Cinnirella, Alessandro; Spaziani, Fabio

    2012-09-01

    Rock, sediment and water samples from areas characterised by hydrothermal alterations in the Sabatini and Vico Volcanic Districts, near Rome and the large city of Viterbo, respectively, were collected and analysed to determine the total fluorine (F) content and to understand the F geochemical background level in the volcanic districts of central Italy. Leaching and alteration processes controlling the high concentration of F in water were also investigated. Fluorine concentrations were directly determined (potentiometrically) by an F selective electrode in water samples, while the procedure for rock samples included preliminary F dissolution through alkaline fusion. F concentrations higher than 800 mg kg(-1) were commonly found in the analysed rocks and sediments; the concentration depended on the lithology and on the distance from the alteration areas. A specific successive sampling campaign was conducted in three areas where the F content in sediments was particularly high; in the same areas, measurements of CO(2) flux were also performed to investigate the possible deep origin of F. To verify the relationships among the high F contents in rocks and sediments, the leaching processes involved and the presence of F in the aquifer, we also collected water samples in the western sector of the Sabatini Volcanic District, where hydrothermal manifestations and mineral springs are common. The data were processed using a GIS system in which the F distribution was combined with morphological and geological observations. The main results of our study are that (1) F concentrations are higher in volcanic and recently formed travertine (especially in hydrothermally altered sediments) than in sedimentary rocks and decrease with distance from hydrothermal alteration areas, (2) F is more easily leached from hydrothermally altered rocks and from travertine and (3) sediments enriched with F may indicate the presence of deep regional fractures that represent direct pathways of

  16. Fluorine in the rocks and sediments of volcanic areas in central Italy: total content, enrichment and leaching processes and a hypothesis on the vulnerability of the related aquifers.

    PubMed

    De Rita, Donatella; Cremisini, Carlo; Cinnirella, Alessandro; Spaziani, Fabio

    2012-09-01

    Rock, sediment and water samples from areas characterised by hydrothermal alterations in the Sabatini and Vico Volcanic Districts, near Rome and the large city of Viterbo, respectively, were collected and analysed to determine the total fluorine (F) content and to understand the F geochemical background level in the volcanic districts of central Italy. Leaching and alteration processes controlling the high concentration of F in water were also investigated. Fluorine concentrations were directly determined (potentiometrically) by an F selective electrode in water samples, while the procedure for rock samples included preliminary F dissolution through alkaline fusion. F concentrations higher than 800 mg kg(-1) were commonly found in the analysed rocks and sediments; the concentration depended on the lithology and on the distance from the alteration areas. A specific successive sampling campaign was conducted in three areas where the F content in sediments was particularly high; in the same areas, measurements of CO(2) flux were also performed to investigate the possible deep origin of F. To verify the relationships among the high F contents in rocks and sediments, the leaching processes involved and the presence of F in the aquifer, we also collected water samples in the western sector of the Sabatini Volcanic District, where hydrothermal manifestations and mineral springs are common. The data were processed using a GIS system in which the F distribution was combined with morphological and geological observations. The main results of our study are that (1) F concentrations are higher in volcanic and recently formed travertine (especially in hydrothermally altered sediments) than in sedimentary rocks and decrease with distance from hydrothermal alteration areas, (2) F is more easily leached from hydrothermally altered rocks and from travertine and (3) sediments enriched with F may indicate the presence of deep regional fractures that represent direct pathways of

  17. Accidental Thawing of Embryos, Cryopreserved for Transfer. Two Italian cases, Milan and Rome.

    PubMed

    Busardò, Francesco P; Vergallo, Gianluca Montanari; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Bolino, Giorgio; Vullo, Annamaria; Frati, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The bioethical and juridical debate on the status of frozen embryos sometimes adds new issues arising from new scientific evidence or by accidental occurrences that bring to the attention of the scientific community the need for new practical solutions. Within this scenario, there have been, in recent years, episodes concerning the accidental thawing of embryos, which have been cryopreserved for transfer. Two Italian cases (the Milan and the Rome cases) are here reported: the Milan case involves a couple undergoing artificial insemination. Three eggs were collected for insemination and two of them had been fertilized. During the night of 8/9 May 2007 a short circuit occurred, resulting in an electricity blackout, which caused the loss of the embryos in culture, which should have been transferred to the woman's uterus on 9 May. The couple applied for damage compensation from the hospital following the loss of the embryos. The case went to Court and the result was a judgment issued by the Milan civil court, which recognized that the centre was to blame for irreparable damage to the embryos. The Rome case, involves two couples (A and B) affected by sterility who applied to an authorized public centre to undergo an ART program. Following the medical procedures, two of the embryos produced were transferred to the woman in couple A and five were frozen, whereas three embryos produced by couple B were transferred to the uterus of the woman and six eggs were cryopreserved in the centre. Two years after the procedure there was an electricity blackout, and the backup electricity generator failed to function, causing the loss of the gametes and the embryos cryopreserved in the centre. Legal proceedings begun by the couples to obtain compensation for damages are still underway. The above reported cases have significantly intensified the bioethical debate on the lawfulness of such practices and on the fate of the cryopreserved embryos, at the same time opening new frontiers in

  18. Italy's Intelligent Educational Training Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    The Intelligent Educational Training Station has been developed in Italy to meet emerging school building needs. The project, for schools from the primary to upper secondary level, proposes flexible architecture for an "intelligent school" network, and was developed by CISEM, the Centre for Educational Innovation and Experimentation of Milan.

  19. Fatal Naegleria fowleri Meningoencephalitis, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Scaglia, Massimo; Gatti, Simonetta; Rossetti, Flavio; Alaggio, Rita; Laverda, Anna Maria; Zhou, Ling; Xiao, Lihua; Visvesvara, Govinda S.

    2004-01-01

    We report the first case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis in Italy, in a 9-year-old boy. Clinical course was fulminant, and diagnosis was made by identifying amebas in stained brain sections and by indirect immunofluorescence analysis. Naegleria fowleri was characterized as genotype I on the basis of polymerase chain reaction test results. PMID:15504272

  20. Fatal Naegleria fowleri meningoencephalitis, Italy.

    PubMed

    Cogo, Paola E; Scagli, Massimo; Gatti, Simonetta; Rossetti, Flavio; Alaggio, Rita; Laverda, Anna Maria; Zhou, Ling; Xiao, Lihua; Visvesvara, Govinda S

    2004-10-01

    We report the first case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis in Italy, in a 9-year-old boy. Clinical course was fulminant, and diagnosis was made by identifying amebas in stained brain sections and by indirect immunofluorescence analysis. Naegleria fowleri was characterized as genotype I on the basis of polymerase chain reaction test results.

  1. Living in Italy. Intercultural Exchange Series. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkinson, Annie

    The guide provides a brief introduction to the culture and language of Italy, and is designed for visitors, students, and business travelers. It offers practical information on various aspects of daily living, including: money; food; restaurants; hotels; postal and telecommunications services; transportation; shopping; health and medical care;…

  2. Italy Presses Forward in Educating Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giangreco, Michael F.; Doyle, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Italy has a long history of including students with disabilities in general education classes. Their efforts offer unique perspectives and practices from which other countries may benefit. The article highlights four notable attributes about the Italian approach and discusses implications for American schools.

  3. Preliminary Seismic Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Map for Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorito, Stefano; Selva, Jacopo; Basili, Roberto; Grezio, Anita; Molinari, Irene; Piatanesi, Alessio; Romano, Fabrizio; Tiberti, Mara Monica; Tonini, Roberto; Bonini, Lorenzo; Michelini, Alberto; Macias, Jorge; Castro, Manuel J.; González-Vida, José Manuel; de la Asunción, Marc

    2015-04-01

    We present a preliminary release of the first seismic probabilistic tsunami hazard map for Italy. The map aims to become an important tool for the Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC), as well as a support tool for the NEAMTWS Tsunami Service Provider, the Centro Allerta Tsunami (CAT) at INGV, Rome. The map shows the offshore maximum tsunami elevation expected for several average return periods. Both crustal and subduction earthquakes are considered. The probability for each scenario (location, depth, mechanism, source size, magnitude and temporal rate) is defined on a uniform grid covering the entire Mediterranean for crustal earthquakes and on the plate interface for subduction earthquakes. Activity rates are assigned from seismic catalogues and basing on a tectonic regionalization of the Mediterranean area. The methodology explores the associated aleatory uncertainty through the innovative application of an Event Tree. Main sources of epistemic uncertainty are also addressed although in preliminary way. The whole procedure relies on a database of pre-calculated Gaussian-shaped Green's functions for the sea level elevation, to be used also as a real time hazard assessment tool by CAT. Tsunami simulations are performed using the non-linear shallow water multi-GPU code HySEA, over a 30 arcsec bathymetry (from the SRTM30+ dataset) and the maximum elevations are stored at the 50-meter isobath and then extrapolated through the Green's law at 1 meter depth. This work is partially funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839, and by the Italian flagship project RITMARE.

  4. Understanding the acoustics of Papal Basilicas in Rome by means of a coupled-volumes approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martellotta, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    The paper investigates the acoustics of the four World-famous Papal Basilicas in Rome, namely Saint Peter's, St. John Lateran's, St. Paul's outside the Walls, and Saint Mary's Major. They are characterized by different dimensions, materials, and architectural features, as well as by a certain number of similarities. In addition, their complexity determines significant variation in their acoustics depending on the relative position of source and receivers. A detailed set of acoustic measurements was carried out in each church, using both spatial (B-format) and binaural microphones, and determining the standard ISO 3382 descriptors. The results are analyzed in relation to the architectural features, pointing out the differences observed in terms of listening experience. Finally, in order to explain some of the results found in energy-based parameters, the churches were analyzed as a system of acoustically coupled volumes. The latter explained most of the anomalies observed in the distribution of acoustic parameters, while showing at the same time that secondary spaces (aisles, chapels) play a different role depending on the amount of sound absorption located in the main nave.

  5. [Hand washing: comparison between professionals and students behaviours in a large University hospital of Rome].

    PubMed

    Sansoni, Julita; Mariani, Paola; De Caro, Walter; Sorrentino, Milena; Marucci, Anna Rita; Giammarco, Enrichetta; Di Foggia, Fernanda; Cristofaro, Domenico; van de Mortel, Thea

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the study is assessing knowledge, opinions and compliance with the procedures of health professionals (physician, nurses, medical and nursing students) about Hand Hygiene (HH). There is a number of research which indicates that physicians respect less than nurses Hand Hygiene, there are a smaller number which investigates the differences in the attitude of the aforementioned subjects during their studies. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 756 participants (252 doctors, 268 nurses, 117 nursing students and 119 students of medicine) at a large University Hospital in Rome, to determine their knowledge, compliance and procedures with Hand Hygiene. Knowledge of medical students is lower than that of nursing students, as well as they have lower values in adherence to practice. In both HH Beliefs Scale (HBS) and HH Practices Inventory (HHPI) questionnaires, nursing students have higher scores than nurses, doctors and medical students. The questions on the use of alcohol-based cleaners have been those where there was the lowest number of correct responses, across all professions. Physicians compared to nurses have a lower adherence to Hand Hygiene. Future research should clarify what the differences are in the construction of the study on the practice of washing hands, what are the barriers to health professionals and best methods for teaching habits, namely the effectiveness of hand washing. Professionals should be more involved in the fight against Healthcare-associated infections.

  6. Prevalence of HIV infection and risk behaviour among street prostitutes in Rome, 1997-1998.

    PubMed

    Verster, A; Davoli, M; Camposeragna, A; Valeri, C; Perucci, C A

    2001-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey was carried out between April 1997 and February 1998 among street prostitutes in Rome. The study population (n = 142) consisted of 102 women and 40 transsexuals: 20% from Western Europe, 38% Eastern Europe, 23% Latin America and 17% Africa. Two-thirds of the population had more than 20 clients during the last week and most respondents (95%) reported always using condoms with clients. Eight per cent of the women and 2% of the transsexuals report a history of injecting drug use. Only 38% of the women with a stable partner reported use of contraceptives and 33% of them had undergone a voluntary abortion during the last year. Only 38% of the women had been checked for STDs during the last year, compared with 80% of the transsexuals. The HIV-prevalence was 6% among the women and 20% among the transsexuals. Four out of the six positive women and one of the positive transsexuals had a history of injecting drug use. Five out of the six HIV-positive women were Italian. Transsexual prostitutes seem to pay more attention to their medical wellbeing compared with females who rarely go for medical check-ups and only a minority uses efficient contraceptive methods.

  7. Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: research on 2295 women in Rome and its province.

    PubMed

    Leone, F; Allori, B; Antognoli, A; Catania, S; Cerri, B; Cicalini, S; Lanzalone, C M; Miglietta, A S; Rossi, F; Ilardi, I

    1996-01-01

    The authors report the data concerning 2295 women tested for toxoplasmosis immunodiagnosis, in the Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases of "La Sapienza" University of Rome in the years 1993-1994. Four hundred eleven cases (17.9%) were positive for IgG only; 2 cases (0.1%) for IgM only; 15 cases (0.6%) for both IgG and IgM while 1867 cases (81.4%) were negative. 1668 women were pregnant. In this group 260 (15.6%) were positive for IgG only, 2 (0.1%) for IgM only, and 10 (10.6%) for both IgG and IgM; in one case there was a spontaneous absorption in the 10th week of pregnancy, in another case a still-birth in the 20th week with brain lesions; a child was born with phocomelia of the right arm and one with a clubfoot. While it is possible to explain the absorption and the still-birth with the toxoplasma infection, it is difficult to understand the causes of the abnormality of the limbs.

  8. Seasonal dynamics of tick species in an urban park of Rome.

    PubMed

    Di Luca, Marco; Toma, Luciano; Bianchi, Riccardo; Quarchioni, Elisa; Marini, Luca; Mancini, Fabiola; Ciervo, Alessandra; Khoury, Cristina

    2013-12-01

    Regular collections were obtained in the Natural Reserve of the Insugherata of Rome during 2011 in order to obtain the tick species composition and the respective seasonal dynamics of the area. A total of 325 ticks was collected in selected sites by means of drag sampling. Among the identified species, Rhipicephalus turanicus was the most abundant (72.3%), followed by Ixodes ricinus (19.7%), Dermacentor marginatus (6.5%), Haemaphysalis punctata (1.2%), and Rhipicephalus bursa (0.3%). R. turanicus occurred mainly in pastures, showing a mono-modal seasonal activity pattern from spring to early summer. Questing I. ricinus were prevalent in woodland from October to May, and the seasonal trend of specimens showed a weak peak in winter. Although adult D. marginatus exhibited seasonal dynamics similar to I. ricinus, with an activity period from October to April, this species occurred in a different environment (pasture) and with considerably lower densities. Haemaphysalis punctata and R. bursa were rare, with an apparent autumn and autumn-winter seasonal activity, respectively. While the species diversity recorded appears as an unequivocal consequence of the natural state of the park, the remarkable R. turanicus density could be a direct effect of the recent introduction of wild boar, as carriers, from the close Veio Park. The presence of the species, a proven vector of various diseases in humans and domestic animals, is discussed in the light of the possible risk of tick-bite exposure of park workers and visitors.

  9. [Aspects of senile dementia in ancient Rome: literary fiction and factual reality].

    PubMed

    Moog, Ferdinand Peter; Schäfer, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Old people and their pecularities have been the object of writers since the beginning of Western literature. The aim of this study is to verify the social and juridical significance of senile dementia in ancient Rome. Among the few relevant sources the 10th satire of Juvenal attracts attention. It describes a demented patient who revises his succession in favour of a lady with bad reputation. Logically, we wonder whether such dispositions were possible and after all legally binding. Or did Juvenal exaggerate? A look at the Roman legislation shows: Since the Twelve Tablet Law there were instruments to control or to help demented people. This meant care in the sense of the today's curatorship or guardianship. These measures were supposed to prevent extravagancy or doing business and legal acts like marriages or last wills in the state of diminished responsibility. Nevertheless, it must be assumed that there was a considerable discrepancy between juridical theory and daily practice, because the position of the "pater familias" was virtually untouchable, the individual freedom of the full citizen was firmly underlined and the Roman civil law allowed only little executive interferences. Juvenal's bizarre example should not only be taken as good literary fiction. It might reflect the sad, but nevertheless probable reality of the people directly concerned. Apart from that it has to be said that senile dementia played only a minor role in Roman legislation. Mainly because there were considerably less very old people--and in particular people with senile dementia--than today.

  10. [Aspects of senile dementia in ancient Rome: literary fiction and factual reality].

    PubMed

    Moog, Ferdinand Peter; Schäfer, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Old people and their pecularities have been the object of writers since the beginning of Western literature. The aim of this study is to verify the social and juridical significance of senile dementia in ancient Rome. Among the few relevant sources the 10th satire of Juvenal attracts attention. It describes a demented patient who revises his succession in favour of a lady with bad reputation. Logically, we wonder whether such dispositions were possible and after all legally binding. Or did Juvenal exaggerate? A look at the Roman legislation shows: Since the Twelve Tablet Law there were instruments to control or to help demented people. This meant care in the sense of the today's curatorship or guardianship. These measures were supposed to prevent extravagancy or doing business and legal acts like marriages or last wills in the state of diminished responsibility. Nevertheless, it must be assumed that there was a considerable discrepancy between juridical theory and daily practice, because the position of the "pater familias" was virtually untouchable, the individual freedom of the full citizen was firmly underlined and the Roman civil law allowed only little executive interferences. Juvenal's bizarre example should not only be taken as good literary fiction. It might reflect the sad, but nevertheless probable reality of the people directly concerned. Apart from that it has to be said that senile dementia played only a minor role in Roman legislation. Mainly because there were considerably less very old people--and in particular people with senile dementia--than today. PMID:17564159

  11. Acarological studies in two protected areas of Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Iori, A; Di Paolo, M

    1999-09-01

    In the present note are reported the results of preliminary studies on tick distribution in two wildlife areas of Abruzzo (National Park of Abruzzo, a mountainous area, approximately 40,000 ha, in Central Apennines, interesting Abruzzo, Latium and Molise regions) and Latium (Capocotta-Castel Porziano Presidential reserve, on the Tyrrhenian coast, 30 km from Rome). Sampling of ticks from domestic and wild mammals as well as from vegetation, was performed in three different areas of the National Park in 1995. Tick species identified include Rhipicephalus bursa, R. sanguineus, Hyalomma marginatum, Haemaphysalis punctata, Dermacentor marginatus, Ixodes ricinus, I. hexagonus. The presence of I. ricinus was discontinuous and sporadic. In Capocotta estate, samplings were performed bimonthly from March to November 1997 in an restricted area (1 ha) with typical Mediterranean flora and fauna. The following species were collected: I. ricinus, Haemaphysalis concinna, D. marginatus, R. bursa, Hy. marginatum. There was a high dominance of I. ricinus and H. concinna. PMID:11071544

  12. First space debris optical detection campaign in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfilio, M.; Piergentili, F.; Graziani, F.

    In the recent years more and more countries around the world have been concerned with space debris detection and monitoring. In Italy, although satellites and debris have been definitely, though not intentionally, detected by astronomers in the last decades, dedicated observations have never been performed before April 2002. In this month the Group of Astrodynamics of the University of Rome "La Sapienza" (GAUSS) started an optical survey of the geostationary ring from the Campo Catino Astronomical Observatory. This observatory, owned by the "Associazione Astronomica Frusinate" (Frosinone Astronomical Society), is one of the best amateur astronomers' facilities in Italy: his dome hosts an 80 cm aperture Ritchey- Chrétien telescope, a 25 cm Baker-Schmidt and a 15 cm refractor, while a 40 cm Ritchey-Chrétien is going to be operated in another dome; two CCD sensors are available for such telescopes. For this first GEO campaign, the 25 cm Baker-Schmidt device was chosen, in order to have a wide field of view: the telescope was coupled with an AP-8 1024×1024 CCD, resulting in a 1° 50' FOV. The first nights of observation were dedicated to a survey of the GEO ring: about 90 degrees of right ascension were spanned, collecting several hundreds images and detecting about 100 objects; as the CCD read-out time is about 35 seconds, a relatively long exposure time (20 seconds) was selected, to improve the ratio of exposure time to gap time between frames. The telescope was pointed in a star- tracking mode, so the Earth satellites are easily detected as stripes on a dot-shaped background of stars; hence, two points of the track (lead and trailing edges) per image are generally identified in terms of topocentric right ascension and declination. Moreover, the observed star field is kept constant along some hours of observation, letting the GEO ring cross such field. The data processing, presently managed off-line, is now being carried out, in order to identify the objects and

  13. TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE AND JOB CHANGE. PAPER PRESENTED AT THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AUTOMATION, FULL EMPLOYMENT, AND A BALANCED ECONOMY (ROME, ITALY, JUNE 27, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HABER, WILLIAM

    THIS PAPER SKETCHES RECENT TRENDS AND PROBLEMS THAT HAVE EMERGED IN PUBLIC TRAINING EFFORTS IN THE UNITED STATES DURING THE 1960S. IT CITES SHIFTS IN EMPHASIS FROM TRAINING WORKERS FOR EXISTING JOBS TO REFOCUSING ON YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT AND TO PREPARING THE HARD-CORE UNEMPLOYED FOR WORK, AND FROM CONCERN WITH JOB TRAINING TO JOB CREATION. IT POINTS…

  14. The family in Italy: cultural changes and implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Mario; Sampogna, Gaia; del Vecchio, Valeria; Giacco, Domenico; Mulè, Alice; de Rosa, Corrado; Fiorillo, Andrea; Maj, Mario

    2012-04-01

    In Italy family is characterized by strong ties and is based on mutual aid of all its members. In the last 20 years, the structure of families has been significantly influenced by demographic, economic and professional changes, determining a transition from a patriarchal to a nuclear family model, with a higher number of single-parent families, single-person households, childless couples, same-sex couples. However, this transition has been slower than that occurring in other countries, probably as an ongoing impact of prevalent Catholic ideology. Major demographic changes in Italian families include, 1) a decrease in the number of marriages, delays in getting married and an high number of civil ceremonies, 2) a reduced birth rate; Italy is becoming one of the European countries with lowest growth rate, and with an increasing number of births out of wedlock, 3) an increased marital instability, with a constantly growing number of legal separations. Like many countries, relatives in Italy are highly involved in the care of patients with physical and mental disorders. There are a number of psychosocial interventions used in Italy including the 'Milan Systemic Approach' and family psycho-educational interventions. However, there are difficulties in implementing these interventions which are highlighted in this paper. We recommend research strategies to identify the best options to involve families in the care of mentally ill patients and to adequately support them.

  15. Introducing the advanced burn life support (ABLS) course in Italy.

    PubMed

    D'Asta, F; Homsi, J; Clark, P; Buffalo, M C; Melandri, D; Carboni, A; Pinzauti, E; Graziano, A; Masellis, A; Bussolin, L; Messineo, A

    2014-05-01

    Systematic education based on internationally standardized programs is a well-established practice in Italy, especially in the emergency health care system. However, until recently, a specific program to treat burns was not available to guide emergency physicians, nurses, or volunteers acting as first responders. In 2010, two national faculty members, acting as ABA observers, and one Italian course coordinator, trained and certified in the United States, conducted a week-long training program which fully certified 10 Italian instructors. Authorized ABLS provider courses were conducted in Italy between 2010 and 2012, including one organized prior to the 20th annual meeting of the Italian Society of Burns (SIUst). In order to increase the effectiveness and diffusion of the course in Italy, changes were approved by the ABA to accommodate societal differences, including the translation of the manual into Italian. The ABA has also approved the creation and publication of a bilingual ABLS Italian website for the purpose of promoting the ABLS course in Italy. In response to high demand, a second ABLS Instructor course was organized in 2012 and has been attended by physicians and nurses from several Italian burn centers. In the following discourse the experiences of the first 15 Italian ABLS courses will be discussed.

  16. Introducing the advanced burn life support (ABLS) course in Italy.

    PubMed

    D'Asta, F; Homsi, J; Clark, P; Buffalo, M C; Melandri, D; Carboni, A; Pinzauti, E; Graziano, A; Masellis, A; Bussolin, L; Messineo, A

    2014-05-01

    Systematic education based on internationally standardized programs is a well-established practice in Italy, especially in the emergency health care system. However, until recently, a specific program to treat burns was not available to guide emergency physicians, nurses, or volunteers acting as first responders. In 2010, two national faculty members, acting as ABA observers, and one Italian course coordinator, trained and certified in the United States, conducted a week-long training program which fully certified 10 Italian instructors. Authorized ABLS provider courses were conducted in Italy between 2010 and 2012, including one organized prior to the 20th annual meeting of the Italian Society of Burns (SIUst). In order to increase the effectiveness and diffusion of the course in Italy, changes were approved by the ABA to accommodate societal differences, including the translation of the manual into Italian. The ABA has also approved the creation and publication of a bilingual ABLS Italian website for the purpose of promoting the ABLS course in Italy. In response to high demand, a second ABLS Instructor course was organized in 2012 and has been attended by physicians and nurses from several Italian burn centers. In the following discourse the experiences of the first 15 Italian ABLS courses will be discussed. PMID:23992873

  17. [Murder. Italy-USA comparative profiles].

    PubMed

    Palermo, George B; Mastronardi, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    This paper, through illustrative cases of homicidal typologies, examines the generally accepted theories on the subject: 1) sociological ones by Lorenz to Sutherland and Cressey, by Berkowitz to Wolfgang and Ferracuti and others; 2) neurobiological ones, which include the involvement of the limbic, hippocampal and parietal lobes of the brain; 3) the psychological (psychodynamic) ones which are not disjoint from the types of individual criminal homicide and related aspects. In the discussion of the types of murders, family and extrafamilial murders are then taken into consideration, with the various meanings of revenge, challenge, other reasons linked to robbery, theft, settling scores leading to youth gangs and drive-by-shootings of marginalized adolescents, crimes related to drugs and to mental disorders. Infanticide and multiple murder, including mass murder and serial killer, conclude the work together with the statistics of murders and family murders in Italy compared to USA, specifically to the crime clock.

  18. An overview on the history of pedology and soil mapping in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzolari, C.

    2012-04-01

    In Italy, the word pedology (pedologia) was introduced in a text book as synonym of soil science for the first time in 1904 by Vinassa de Regny. In the literature, the term cohabitates with the words agrology (agrologia), agro-geology (agro-geologia), agricultural geognostic (geognostica agraria), geopedology (geo-pedologia) used in different historical moments by differently rooted soil scientists. When early pedologists started with systematic studies of soils, their characteristics and geography, they were strongly influenced by their cultural background, mainly geology and agro-chemistry. Along the time, the soil concept evolved, as did the concept of pedology, and this is somehow witnessed by the use of different Italian words with reference to soil: suolo, terreno, terra. Differently from agro-chemists, early pedologists based the soil study on the field description of soil profile. This was firstly based on the vertical differentiation between humus rich layers and "inactive" layers and later on, as long as the discipline evolved, on the presence of genetic horizons. The first complete soil map of Italy is dated 1928. Its Author, the geologist De Angelis d'Ossat, was the president of the organising committee of the 1924 International Soil Conference of Rome, where the International Society of Soil Science was founded. The map was based on the geological map of Italy, drafted in scale 1:1,000,000 after the creation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861. The internal disputes within the Geological Society, together with the scarce interest of most of geologists for soil, did not facilitate the birth of a central soil survey. Soil mapping was mainly conducted by universities and research institutes, and we had to wait until 1953 for a new soil map (scale 1:3,125,000) at national level to be realised by Paolo Principi, based on literature data. In 1966 a new 1:1,000,000 soil map of Italy was eventually published by a national committee, led by Fiorenzo Mancini. This

  19. Primary care psychiatry in Italy.

    PubMed

    Berardi, Domenico; Ferrannini, Luigi; Menchetti, Marco; Vaggi, Marco

    2014-06-01

    In Italy, the importance of integrating primary care and mental health has only recently been grasped. Several reasons may explain this delay: a) until 2005, primary care physicians worked individually instead of in group practices, without any functional network or structured contacts with colleagues; b) community mental health centers with multiprofessional teams were well structured and widespread in several regions but focused on people with severe and persistent mental disorders; and c) specific national government health policies were lacking. Only two regions have implemented explicit policies on this issue. The "G. Leggieri" program started by the Emilia-Romagna region health government in 1999 aims to coordinate unsolicited bottom-up cooperation initiatives developing since the 1980s. In Liguria, a regional work group was established in 2010 to boost the strategic role of collaborative programs between primary care and mental health services. This article describes the most innovative experiences relating to primary care psychiatry in Italy.

  20. Southern Italy, Instrument Pointing Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This view of the 'heel' of the 'boot' of Southern Italy (40.5N, 18.0E) shows the rich an varied detail of the Salentina peninsula. This southern promontory, projecting into the Mediterranean Sea, is known for its year round mild climate and agricultural produce. The typical European cluster city and town plan wherein the farming population lives in communities and commutes to the fields can be observed throughout the peninsula.

  1. Italy INAF Analysis Center Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activity of the Italian INAF VLBI Analysis Center. Our Analysis Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics. IRA runs the observatories of Medicina and Noto, where two 32-m VLBI AZ-EL telescopes are situated. This report contains the AC's VLBI data analysis activities and shortly outlines the investigations into the co-locations of space geodetic instruments.

  2. Seismic risk perception in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Risk perception is a fundamental element in the definition and the adoption of preventive counter-measures. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. This paper presents results of a survey on seismic risk perception in Italy conducted from January 2013 to present . The research design combines a psychometric and a cultural theoretic approach. More than 7,000 on-line tests have been compiled. The data collected show that in Italy seismic risk perception is strongly underestimated; 86 on 100 Italian citizens, living in the most dangerous zone (namely Zone 1), do not have a correct perception of seismic hazard. From these observations we deem that extremely urgent measures are required in Italy to reach an effective way to communicate seismic risk. Finally, the research presents a comparison between groups on seismic risk perception: a group involved in campaigns of information and education on seismic risk and a control group.

  3. [Plinius and Greek physicians in Rome: the concept of nature and medical critique in Naturalis Historia].

    PubMed

    Hahn, J

    1991-01-01

    Pliny's historical outline of the development of medicine, in Natural History 29.1-27, is our primary source concerning the reception of scientific medicine at Rome during the later Republic and early Empire. Here, as elsewhere, Pliny handles Greek doctors and their medical practices with vehement disapproval. But this attitude, at first glance anti-Hellene, traditionalistic, and critical of his coevals, arises from more deeply rooted notions: a specific conception of nature which can be shown to be the basis of Pliny's critique of medicine and his own times. Reconstruction of this "Plinean" conception reveals a view of nature marked by Stoic terminology and categories, though in fact derivate from various sources, idiosyncratic and characterized by a genuine love of and respect for nature and her creations. True comprehension of the lessons offered by nature, resulting in concrete mores of behaviour and moral categories, as opposed to theory and speculation, is the proper modus operandi for Pliny. And thus, with regard to the human process of self-discovery in the natural world, medicine plays a decisive role--for providential nature displays herself most clearly in the production of healing substances. Pliny notes among the proponents of scientific medicine, a general disregard for nature and her rules, while he finds just the opposite in traditional medicine. His own accomplishment resides not only in the safeguarding of numberless recipies from the world of folk medicine, but also in the facts that he under-pins these traditional methods of healing, and their basic principles, with a specific conception of nature, and that he marks out an exceptionally important place for traditional methods of healing in the canon of general knowledge.

  4. Lessons learned on the road to a smoke-free Italy.

    PubMed

    Croghan, I; Muggli, M; Zagà, V; Lockhart, N; Ebbert, J; Mangiaracina, G; Hurt, R

    2011-01-01

    In the face of strong and protracted opposition by the Tobacco Industry (TI) and its allies, Italy's national smoke-free legislation came into force in 2005 prohibiting smoking in all indoor public places and workplaces including offices, bars, and restaurants. Using internal TI documents made public through US litigation, we reveal the industry's nearly 40-year effort to influence health policy related to secondhand smoke, including attempts to block Italy's national smoke-free legislation. Strategies included manipulating hospitality groups and establishing front organizations, manipulating journalists and media, and manipulating the science and direct lobbying against smoking restrictions. The TI's extensive plan to thwart smoke-free efforts in Italy can be used to inform other countries about the industry's tactics and Italy's experience in overcoming them by ultimately implementing a comprehensive workplace smoke-free law. PMID:21770229

  5. [The miraculous minerals of Michele Mercati. Natural history between medicine and the clergy in Rome in the second half of the Sixteenth century].

    PubMed

    Touber, Jetze

    2006-01-01

    Many Italian scholars in the sixteenth century studied minerals. This was not only for the sake of increasing geological knowledge. Minerals, like all other natural phenomena, reflected divine order. Minerals were thought of as a broader category than the lifeless substances found beneath the crust of the earth. Stones, generated in animal and human bodies, were included among minerals, as well. The appearance of kidney stones, gall stones and bladder stones in early modern mineral collections point to the religious motives of the scholars that studied them. In this article, I will examine the mineralogical collection brought together and described by Michele Mercati (1541-1593), the so-called Metallotheca. I will map the circles of physicians, scholars and ecclesiastics in which Mercati lived and functioned. I will then investigate Mercati's descriptions of stones, grown inside animals and men. The specific connections between Mercati and the members of the Oratory of Rome, an influential religious organisation of the Sixteenth century, direct us towards a proper understanding of the significance of Mercati's minerals. Certain minerals, including stones originating in animate bodies, were thought of as approaching the supernatural. The proper attitude for the scholar of nature would then be to turn from curiosity into awe and even veneration. PMID:17153168

  6. Carbon Release in Italy through Volcanic, Tectonic and Other Styles of Degassing: Implication for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Storage.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigi, S.; Lombardi, S.; Beaubien, S.; Graziani, S.; Tartarello, M. C.; Ruggiero, L.; Ciotoli, G.; Sacco, P.; De Angelis, D.; Annunziatellis, A.

    2014-12-01

    One of the key criteria for successful geological storage of CO2 is that the target reservoir must not leak the stored gases over extended periods. Due to the peculiarity of its geological and geodynamic setting, which results in the production, accumulation, and leakage of large volumes of natural CO2, the Italian peninsula can be used as a natural laboratory as it provides to study gas migration mechanisms in large-scale geological systems, as well as to determine whether and how much sequestered CO2 could hypothetically leak from a subsurface reservoir. Moving from west to east, the Italian peninsula includes several geodynamic settings: the Tyrrhenian back arc basin and associated volcanic arcs, the Apennines fold and thrust belt, and the Adriatic foredeep. All of them are characterized by a diffuse and/or massive degassing of deeply derived CO2, which is usually emitted by vents or dissolved and transported by large aquifers. In the volcanic islands, in the south of the Tyrrhenian Sea, large areas are characterized by leakage from the sea floor. Based on the statistical and geo-spatial interpretation of more than 40,000 soil gas samples collected in central and southern Italy by the Fluid Chemistry Laboratory of "La Sapienza" University of Rome over more than 30 years of activity, different migration patterns related to the different geodynamic settings are distinguished and described. This very large database has been organised and managed in a GIS environment that allows the calculation of fundamental statistical parameters, the analysis of distribution patterns, the study of spatial autocorrelation and spatial heterogeneity, and the elaboration of maps. The interpretation of these data allow us to define background values of CO2, strongly related to geological setting, and other minor (CH4) and trace gases (He and Rn), that characterise the different geological scenarios. A common feature is that anomalous gas concentrations occur in restricted zones, both

  7. A new age within MIS 7 for the Homo neanderthalensis of Saccopastore in the glacio-eustatically forced sedimentary successions of the Aniene River Valley, Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Fabrizio; Ceruleo, Piero; Jicha, Brian; Pandolfi, Luca; Petronio, Carmelo; Salari, Leonardo

    2015-12-01

    Field observations as well as borehole, sedimentological and geochronologic data allow us to reconstruct the geologic setting of the Aniene River Valley in northern Rome, framing it within the recently recognized picture of temporally constrained, glacio-eustatically forced aggradational successions of this region. The sedimentary successions cropping out in this area include those described in the literature of the early 20th century in Saccopastore, where two skulls of Homo neanderthalensis were recovered. Based on the geometry, elevation and sedimentologic features of the investigated sedimentary deposits, the stratigraphic record of Saccopastore is correlated with the aggradational succession deposited in response to sea-level rise during glacial termination III at the onset of MIS 7 (i.e. ˜250 ka), corresponding to the local Vitinia Formation, as opposed to previous correlation with the MIS 5 interglacial and a locally defined "Tyrrhenian" stage (˜130 ka). This previous attribution was based on the interpretation of the sedimentary succession of Saccopastore, occurring between 15 and 21 m a.s.l., as a fluvial terrace formed around 130 ka during the Riss-Würm interglacial, ca. 6 m above the present-day alluvial plain of the Aniene River. In contrast to this interpretation, a 40Ar/39Ar age of 129 ± 2 ka determined for this study on a pyroclastic-flow deposit intercalated in a fluvial-lacustrine sequence forming a terrace ˜37 m a.s.l. near the coast of Rome constrains the aggradational succession in this area to MIS 5, precluding the occurrence of an equivalent fluvial terrace at lower elevation in the inland sector of Saccopastore. We therefore interpret the stratigraphic record of Saccopastore as the basal portion of the aggradational succession deposited in response to sea-level rise during MIS 7, whose equivalent fluvial terrace occurs around 55 m a.s.l. in this region. We also review the published paleontological and paleoethnological records recovered

  8. 75 FR 67108 - Cut-To-Length Carbon Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, and Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... orders on imports of CTL carbon steel plate from India, Indonesia, Italy, and Korea (65 FR 6587) and... that corresponds to Commerce's scope description, including grade X-70 plate, micro-alloy steel plate... COMMISSION Cut-To-Length Carbon Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, and Korea AGENCY:...

  9. Translation and Validation of Enhanced Asian Rome III Questionnaires in Bengali Language for Diagnosis of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M Masudur; Ghoshal, Uday C; Rowshon, A H M; Ahmed, Faruque; Kibria, Md Golam; Hasan, Mahmud; Gwee, Kok-Ann; Whitehead, William E

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), diagnosed by symptom-based criteria due to lack of biomarkers, need translated-validated questionnaires in different languages. As Bengali, the mother tongue of Bangladesh and eastern India, is the seventh most spoken language in the world, we translated and validated the Enhanced Asian Rome III questionnaire (EAR3Q) in this language. Methods The EAR3Q was translated in Bengali as per guideline from the Rome Foundation. The translated questionnaire was validated prospectively on Bengali-speaking healthy subjects (HS, n = 30), and patients with functional dyspepsia (FD, n = 35), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, n = 40) and functional constipation (FC, n = 12) diagnosed by clinicians using the Rome III criteria. The subjects were asked to fill-in the questionnaire again after 2 weeks, to check for its reproducibility. Results During translation, the original and the backward translated English versions of the questionnaire demonstrated high concordance. Sensitivity of the Bengali questionnaire to diagnose patients with FD, IBS, FC, and HS was 100%, 100%, 75%, and 100%, respectively, considering diagnosis by the clinicians as the gold standard. On test-retest reliability analysis, Kappa values for FD, IBS, FC, and HS were 1.0, 1.0, 0.83, and 1.0, respectively. The Bengali questionnaire detected considerable overlap of FD symptoms among patients with IBS, IBS among patients with FD, and FD among patients with FC, which were not detected by the clinicians. Conclusions We successfully translated and validated the EAR3Q in Bengali. We believe that this translated questionnaire will be useful for clinical evaluation and research on FGIDs in the Bengali-speaking population. PMID:26690730

  10. Measures of the Earth obliquity during the 1701 winter solstice at the Clementine meridian line in Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, A.; Sigismondi, C.; Regoli, V.

    2015-08-01

    The great meridian line in the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Rome was built in 1701/1702 with the scope of measuring the obliquity of the Earth's orbit in the following eight centuries, upon the will of Pope Clement XI. During the winter solstice of 1701 the first measurements of the obliquity were taken by Francesco Bianchini. He was the astronomer who designed the meridian line, upgrading the similar instrument realized by Giandomenico Cassini in San Petronio, Bolonia. The accuracy of the data is discussed from the point of view of the use of the pinhole.

  11. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS...

  12. Italy: An Open Air Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Imagine if you could see the River Styx, bathe in the Fountain of Youth, collect water which enhances fertility, wear a gem that heals bodily ailments, understand how our health is affected by geomagnetic fields, venture close to the flames of Hell on Earth and much, much, more. Know something? These things exist - on Earth - today - in Italy and you can visit them because Italy is an open air museum. Ann C. Pizzorusso, in her recent book, reveals how Italy's geology has affected its art, literature, architecture, religion, medicine and just about everything else. She explores the geologic birth of the land, describing the formation of the Alps and Apennines, romantic bays of Tuscany and Lazio, volcanoes of the south and Caribbean-like beaches of Puglia. But that's not all, from the first pages of this visually stunning book, the reader has the impression of being in an art museum, where one can wander from page to page to satisfy one's curiosity-- guided from time to time by the Etruscan priests, Virgil, Dante, Goethe or Leonardo da Vinci himself. Pizzorusso stitches together widely diverse topics - such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion - using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. Wonderfully illustrated with many photos licensed from Italian museums, HRH Elizabeth II and the Ministero Beni Culturali the book highlights the best works in Italian museums and those outside in the "open air museums." This approach can be used in any other country in the world and can be used for cultural tourism (a tour following the book has been organized for cultural and university groups), an ideal way of linking museums to the surrounding landscape.

  13. Midlatitude cirrus classification at Rome Tor Vergata through a multichannel Raman-Mie-Rayleigh lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionisi, D.; Keckhut, P.; Liberti, G. L.; Cardillo, F.; Congeduti, F.

    2013-12-01

    A methodology to identify and characterize cirrus clouds has been developed and applied to the multichannel-multiwavelength Rayleigh-Mie-Raman (RMR) lidar in Rome Tor Vergata (RTV). A set of 167 cirrus cases, defined on the basis of quasi-stationary temporal period conditions, has been selected in a data set consisting of about 500 h of nighttime lidar sessions acquired between February 2007 and April 2010. The derived lidar parameters (effective height, geometrical and optical thickness and mean back-scattering ratio) and the cirrus mid-height temperature (estimated from the radiosonde data of Pratica di Mare, WMO, World Meteorological Organization, site no. 16245) of this sample have been analyzed by the means of a clustering multivariate analysis. This approach identified four cirrus classes above the RTV site: two thin cirrus clusters in mid- and upper troposphere and two thick cirrus clusters in mid-upper troposphere. These results, which are very similar to those derived through the same approach at the lidar site of the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP), allows characterization of cirrus clouds over the RTV site and attests to the robustness of such classification. To acquire some indications about the cirrus generation methods for the different classes, analyses of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio, LReff, in terms of frequency distribution functions and dependencies on the mid-height cirrus temperature, have been performed. A preliminary study relating some meteorological parameters (e.g., relative humidity, wind components) to cirrus clusters has also been conducted. The RTV cirrus results, recomputed through the cirrus classification by Sassen and Cho (1992), show good agreement with other midlatitude lidar cirrus observations for the relative occurrence of subvisible (SVC), thin and opaque cirrus classes (10%, 49% and 41%, respectively). The overall mean value of cirrus optical depth is 0.37 ± 0.18, while most retrieved LReff values

  14. Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of human rhinovirus affecting hospitalized children in Rome.

    PubMed

    Pierangeli, Alessandra; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Chiavelli, Stefano; Concato, Carlo; Giovanetti, Marta; Cella, Eleonora; Spano, Lucia; Scagnolari, Carolina; Moretti, Corrado; Papoff, Paola; Muraca, Maurizio; Midulla, Fabio; Antonelli, Guido

    2013-08-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRV) have been re-classified into three species (A-C), but the recently discovered HRV-C strains are not fully characterized yet. This study aimed to undertake a molecular and epidemiological characterization of HRV strains infecting children hospitalized over one year in two large research hospitals in Rome. Nasal washings from single HRV infections were retrospectively subjected to phylogenetic analysis on two genomic regions: the central part of the 5'Untranslated Region (5'UTR) and the Viral Protein (VP) 4 gene with the 5' portion of the VP2 gene (VP4/2). Forty-five different strains were identified in 73 HRV-positive children: 55 % of the cases were HRV-A, 38 % HRV-C and only 7 % HRV-B. HRV-C cases were less frequent than HRV-A during summer months and more frequent in cases presenting wheezing with respect to HRV-A. Species distribution was similar with respect to patient age, and seasonality differed during summer months with fewer HRV-C than HRV-A cases. On admission, a significantly higher number of HRV-C cases presented with wheezing with respect to HRV-A. The inter- and intra-genotype variability in VP4/2 was higher than in 5'UTR; in particular, HRV-A patient VP4/2 sequences were highly divergent (8-14 %) at the nucleotide level from those of their reference strains, but VP4 amino acid sequence was highly conserved. In HRV-C isolates, the region preceding the initiator AUG, the amino acids involved in VP4 myristoylation, the VP4-VP2 cleavage site and the cis-acting replication element were highly conserved. Differently, VP4 amino acid conservation was significantly lower in HRV-C than in HRV-A strains, especially in the transiently exposed VP4 N-terminus. This study confirmed the high number of different HRV genotypes infecting hospitalized children over one year and reveals a greater than expected variability in HRV-C VP4 protein, potentially suggestive of differences in replication.

  15. [Knowledge of oral hygiene amongst adolescents in Lombardy, Italy].

    PubMed

    Camoni, Nicole; Arpesella, Marisa; Cutti, Sara; Livieri, Monica; Lanati, Niccolò; Tenconi, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated oral hygiene knowledge among a group of 12-year-old students in Lombardy, Italy (n=182). Two different questionnaires were administered, respectively to adolescents and to their parents. Results indicate a low level of general knowledge on this topic. Factors influencing knowledge include the number of learning sources and yearly access to a dental clinic. The described situation highlights the need to implement school-based educational interventions. PMID:26722825

  16. Accuracy of death certification of pleural mesothelioma in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bruno, C; Comba, P; Maiozzi, P; Vetrugno, T

    1996-08-01

    In order to provide estimates of the accuracy of death certification of malignant pleural mesothelioma in Italy, the causes of death of a series of ascertained cases were investigated. The study included 523 cases of pleural mesothelioma diagnosed in 1984-1988 by 88 hospital departments and clinics. Vital status at 7 May 1990 was ascertained for 92.7% of subjects. The overall concordance between pathological diagnosis and death certification was about 75%.

  17. The effect of wind and eruption source parameter variations on tephra fallout hazard assessment: an example from Vesuvio (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedonio, Giovanni; Costa, Antonio; Scollo, Simona; Neri, Augusto

    2015-04-01

    Uncertainty in the tephra fallout hazard assessment may depend on different meteorological datasets and eruptive source parameters used in the modelling. We present a statistical study to analyze this uncertainty in the case of a sub-Plinian eruption of Vesuvius of VEI = 4, column height of 18 km and total erupted mass of 5 × 1011 kg. The hazard assessment for tephra fallout is performed using the advection-diffusion model Hazmap. Firstly, we analyze statistically different meteorological datasets: i) from the daily atmospheric soundings of the stations located in Brindisi (Italy) between 1962 and 1976 and between 1996 and 2012, and in Pratica di Mare (Rome, Italy) between 1996 and 2012; ii) from numerical weather prediction models of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Furthermore, we modify the total mass, the total grain-size distribution, the eruption column height, and the diffusion coefficient. Then, we quantify the impact that different datasets and model input parameters have on the probability maps. Results shows that the parameter that mostly affects the tephra fallout probability maps, keeping constant the total mass, is the particle terminal settling velocity, which is a function of the total grain-size distribution, particle density and shape. Differently, the evaluation of the hazard assessment weakly depends on the use of different meteorological datasets, column height and diffusion coefficient.

  18. Hospital preparedness and management of patients affected by viral haemorrhagic fever or smallpox at the Lazzaro Spallanzani Institute, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, G; Nicastri, E; Capobianchi, M; Di Caro, A; Petrosillo, N; Puro, V

    2005-03-01

    The US cases of anthrax in 2001 and the recent severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak have heightened the need for preparedness and response to naturally emerging and re-emerging infections or deliberately released biological agents. This report describes the response model of the Istituto Nazionale per le Malattie Infettive Lazzaro Spallanzani (INMI), Rome, Italy for managing patients suspected of or affected by smallpox or viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF) either in the context of an intentional release or natural occurrence. The INMI is Italy's leading hospital in its preparedness and response plan to bioterrorism-related infectious agents. All single and double rooms of INMI are equipped with negative air pressure, sealed doors, high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and a fully-equipped anteroom; moreover, a dedicated high isolation unit with a laboratory next door for the initial diagnostic assays is available for admission of sporadic patients requiring high isolation. For patient transportation, two fully equipped ambulances and two stretcher isolators with a negative pressure section are available. Biomolecular and traditional diagnostic assays are currently performed in the biosafety level 3/4 (BSL 3/4) laboratories. Continuing education and training of hospital staff, consistent application of infection control practices, and availability of adequate personnel protective equipment are additional resources implemented for the care of highly infectious patients and to maintain the readiness of an appropriately trained workforce to handle large scale outbreaks.

  19. Numerous Iron-Rich Particles Lie on the Surface of Erionite Fibers from Rome (Oregon, USA) and Karlik (Cappadocia, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Croce, Alessandro; Allegrina, Mario; Rinaudo, Caterina; Gaudino, Giovanni; Yang, Haining; Carbone, Michele

    2015-10-01

    Erionite samples from Rome, Oregon (USA) and Karlik, Cappadocia (Turkey) were analyzed by environmental scanning electron microscopy (E-SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to verify the chemical composition of this mineral phase, and the presence of iron in particular. By means of backscattered electron images, a large number of particles/grains were observed on the surface of the erionite fibers from both locations. The particles were found to be micrometric on samples from Rome and submicrometric on samples from Karlik, and always lighter than the hosting crystal in appearance. In different areas of the same fiber or bundle of fibers, several EDS spectra were recorded. Iron was detected only when a light particle was lying in the path of the electron beam. Iron was never identified in the EDS spectra acquired on the flat erionite surface. The results from E-SEM/EDS were confirmed by micro-Raman spectroscopy, showing bands ascribing to hematite—Fe2O3, goethite—FeO(OH), or jarosite—KFe3(3+)(SO4)2(OH)6 when the laser beam was addressed on the light particles observed on the fiber surface. The evidence that iron is on the surface of erionite fibers, rather than being part of the crystalline structure, may be relevant for the carcinogenic potential of these fibers.

  20. Editing Newton in Geneva and Rome: The Annotated Edition of the Principia by Calandrini, Le Seur and Jacquier.

    PubMed

    Guicciardini, Niccolò

    2015-07-01

    This contribution examines the circumstances of composition of the annotated edition of Newton's Principia that was printed in Geneva in 1739-1742, which ran to several editions and was still in print in Britain in the mid-nineteenth century. This edition was the work of the Genevan Professor of Mathematics, Jean Louis Calandrini, and of two Minim friars based in Rome, Thomas Le Seur and François Jacquier. The study of the context in which this edition was conceived sheds light on the early reception of Newtonianism in Geneva and Rome. By taking into consideration the careers of Calandrini, Le Seur and Jacquier, as authors, lecturers and leading characters of Genevan and Roman cultural life, I will show that their involvement in the enterprise of annotating Newton's Principia answered specific needs of Genevan and Roman culture. The publication and reception of the Genevan annotated edition has also a broader European dimension. Both Calandrini and Jacquier were in touch with the French république des lettres, most notably with Clairaut and Du Châtelet, and with the Bernoulli family in Basel. Therefore, this study is also relevant for the understanding of the dissemination of Newton's ideas in Europe.

  1. Dead infants, cruel mothers, and heroic popes: the visual rhetoric of foundling care at the hospital of Santo Spirito, Rome.

    PubMed

    Presciutti, Diana Bullen

    2011-01-01

    The fresco cycle painted at the behest of Pope Sixtus IV in the late 1470s in the main ward of the hospital of Santo Spirito in rome comprises an extended pictorial biography of Sixtus, prefaced by scenes representing the legendary foundation of the hospital by his predecessor Innocent III. The legend, which tells how Innocent established Santo Spirito as a foundling hospital in response to the discovery of victims of infanticide in the Tiber River, positions the pope as the savior of the city's unwanted children. This article elucidates how the construction and renovation of the hospital is presented in the cycle as a generative product of papal will, with the care of foundlings situated as an integral part of the image of the pope as both Father of the Church and restorer of past glory to the city of Rome. While the frescoes engage with both widespread conventions for representing infanticide and commonplace notions of the social value of caring for abandoned children, I demonstrate that the ideologically potent visual rhetoric of foundling care was also flexible, and could be adapted to meet the specific needs of a particular institutional and patronal context.

  2. Measurement of organic and elemental carbon in downtown Rome and background area: physical behavior and chemical speciation.

    PubMed

    Avino, Pasquale; Manigrasso, Maurizio; Rosada, Alberto; Dodaro, Alessandro

    2015-02-01

    A significant portion of the particulate matter is the total carbonaceous fraction (or total carbon, TC), composed of two main fractions, elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC), which shows a large variety of organic compounds, e.g. aliphatic, aromatic compounds, alcohols, acids, etc. In this paper, TC, EC and OC concentrations determined in a downtown Rome urban area are discussed considering the influence of meteorological conditions on the temporal-spatial aerosol distribution. Similar measurements were performed at ENEA Casaccia, an area outside Rome, which is considered as the ome background. Since 2000, TC, EC and OC measurements have been performed by means of an Ambient Carbon Particulate Monitor equipped with a NDIR detector. The EC and OC concentrations trends are compared with benzene and CO trends, which are specific indicators of autovehicular traffic, for identifying the primary EC and OC contributions and the secondary OC fraction origin. Further, a chemical investigation is reported for investigating how the main organic (i.e., n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and nitro-polyaromatic hydrocarbons) and inorganic (i.e., metals, ions) fractions vary their levels during the investigated period in relationship to new regulations and/or technological innovations.

  3. Ground motions recorded in Rome during the April 2009 L’Aquila seismic sequence: site response and comparison with ground‐motion predictions based on a global dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caserta, Arrigo; Boore, David; Rovelli, Antonio; Govoni, Aladino; Marra, Fabrizio; Monica, Gieseppe Della; Boschi, Enzo

    2013-01-01

    The mainshock and moderate‐magnitude aftershocks of the 6 April 2009 M 6.3 L’Aquila seismic sequence, about 90 km northeast of Rome, provided the first earthquake ground‐motion recordings in the urban area of Rome. Before those recordings were obtained, the assessments of the seismic hazard in Rome were based on intensity observations and theoretical considerations. The L’Aquila recordings offer an unprecedented opportunity to calibrate the city response to central Apennine earthquakes—earthquakes that have been responsible for the largest damage to Rome in historical times. Using the data recorded in Rome in April 2009, we show that (1) published theoretical predictions of a 1 s resonance in the Tiber valley are confirmed by observations showing a significant amplitude increase in response spectra at that period, (2) the empirical soil‐transfer functions inferred from spectral ratios are satisfactorily fit through 1D models using the available geological, geophysical, and laboratory data, but local variability can be large for individual events, (3) response spectra for the motions recorded in Rome from the L’Aquila earthquakes are significantly amplified in the radial component at periods near 1 s, even at a firm site on volcanic rocks, and (4) short‐period response spectra are smaller than expected when compared to ground‐motion predictions from equations based on a global dataset, whereas the observed response spectra are higher than expected for periods near 1 s.

  4. Health systems, quality of health care, and translational cancer research: the role of the Istituto Superiore Sanità - Rome.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Faced with the challenge of ensuring high-quality and cost-effective health systems in the context of persistent financial crisis, a global strategy for cancer prevention and treatment represents a priority for public health bodies and governments. The key goals for the initiative are to define standards of cancer prevention and care while leveraging the continuous progress of biomedical research in the interest of public health. In Italy, the establishment of a network of Comprehensive Cancer Centres (CCC) named the Alliance Against Cancer (ACC) is an important initiative taken by the Ministry of Health to foster common strategies for enhancing the quality of oncology research and care at the national level. The Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) has played an important role in supporting ACC activities through a special national program called ISS for ACC, launched by the Italian Ministry of Health in 2006. A similar role has been pursued in subsequent initiatives, including ISS support for a project aimed at providing international accreditation of the CCC of the ACC, funded by the Italian Ministry of Health. The results of this initiative, reported in the current issue of Tumori, are especially significant since specific indicators of quality for research and cancer care have been successfully defined for all the participating institutes. As the leading technical and scientific body of the Italian National Health Service, the ISS will continue to play a proactive role in supporting national networks and strategic national and international initiatives aimed at promoting public health. PMID:27096278

  5. Health systems, quality of health care, and translational cancer research: the role of the Istituto Superiore Sanità - Rome.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Faced with the challenge of ensuring high-quality and cost-effective health systems in the context of persistent financial crisis, a global strategy for cancer prevention and treatment represents a priority for public health bodies and governments. The key goals for the initiative are to define standards of cancer prevention and care while leveraging the continuous progress of biomedical research in the interest of public health. In Italy, the establishment of a network of Comprehensive Cancer Centres (CCC) named the Alliance Against Cancer (ACC) is an important initiative taken by the Ministry of Health to foster common strategies for enhancing the quality of oncology research and care at the national level. The Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) has played an important role in supporting ACC activities through a special national program called ISS for ACC, launched by the Italian Ministry of Health in 2006. A similar role has been pursued in subsequent initiatives, including ISS support for a project aimed at providing international accreditation of the CCC of the ACC, funded by the Italian Ministry of Health. The results of this initiative, reported in the current issue of Tumori, are especially significant since specific indicators of quality for research and cancer care have been successfully defined for all the participating institutes. As the leading technical and scientific body of the Italian National Health Service, the ISS will continue to play a proactive role in supporting national networks and strategic national and international initiatives aimed at promoting public health.

  6. Short History of Malaria and Its Eradication in Italy With Short Notes on the Fight Against the Infection in the Mediterranean Basin

    PubMed Central

    Majori, Giancarlo

    2012-01-01

    In Italy at the end of 19th Century, malaria cases amounted to 2 million with 15,000–20,000 deaths per year. Malignant tertian malaria was present in Central-Southern areas and in the islands. Early in the 20th Century, the most important act of the Italian Parliament was the approval of laws regulating the production and free distribution of quinine and the promotion of measures aiming at the reduction of the larval breeding places of Anopheline vectors. The contribution from the Italian School of Malariology (Camillo Golgi, Ettore Marchiafava, Angelo Celli, Giovanni Battista Grassi, Amico Bignami, Giuseppe Bastianelli) to the discovery of the transmission’s mechanism of malaria was fundamental in fostering the initiatives of the Parliament of the Italian Kingdom. A program of cooperation for malaria control in Italy, supported by the Rockefeller Foundation started in 1924, with the establishment of the Experimental Station in Rome, transformed in 1934 into the National Institute of Public Health. Alberto Missiroli, Director of the Laboratory of Malariology, conducted laboratory and field research, that with the advent of DDT brought to Italy by the Allies at the end of the World War II, allowed him to plan a national campaign victorious against the secular scourge. PMID:22550561

  7. Stable isotopic evidence for fluid flow and fluid/rock interaction during thrust faulting in Pumpkin Valley shale and Rome Formation, east Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, B.K.; Haase, C.S. )

    1989-08-01

    The Pumpkin Valley Shale and the underlying Rome Formation form the lower portions of the Copper Creek and White Oak Mountain thrust sheets in east Tennessee. The Pumpkin Valley Shale consists of shale and mudstone with subordinate amounts of interbedded siltstone. The Rome Formation is composed predominantly of sandstone with interbedded shale and siltstone toward the base of the formation. The percentage of illite increases from 20% to over 80% of the bulk clay mineralogy toward the base of the section. Porosity is occluded by quartz, phyllosilicate, and calcite cements. Both formations contain calcite-filled and, less commonly, quartz-filled Alleghenian fractures and joints.

  8. A preliminary attempt to determine the landslide hazard in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Determining landslide hazard at the national scale remains a difficult task. However, such a complex task needs to be accomplished to mitigate the landslide consequences, including loss of lives and economic and environmental damages. For administrative purposes, the Italian territory (303,000 km sq.) is subdivided in 20 regions that cover a large variety of natural environments, most of which are subject to landslide hazards. To determine landslide hazard in such a complex and diversified territory, the many natural and anthropogenic variables, and their variations, must be considered. In Italy, the Italian national Civil Protection Department (DPC), an office of the Prime Minister, is in charge of managing natural and human-made hazards, and the associated risk. For landslide (and flood) hazards, the DPC has subdivided the Italian territory into 134 "alert zones" (AZ), decided based on administrative and hydrological criteria. Here, we describe the results of a preliminary effort made by our research group - in the framework of a larger effort to forecast landslide hazard and risk in Italy - to describe landslide hazard in each AZ. For the purpose, we summarized in a specifically designed form the geographical, morphological, geological and landslide information available for each AZ. The form also contains general information on past landslide events and on the vulnerability to landslides of the AZ. We obtained the morphological information from the SRTM DEM with a grid resolution of 90 m × 90 m, and the geological and lithological information from the Geological Map of Italy, at the 1:500,000 scale, published by the Italian Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale (ISPRA). We used the morphological (terrain elevation and terrain gradient) and the lithological information to subdivide the Italian territory in three main morphological domains (plains, hills and mountains), and we computed the proportion of the three domains in each AZ. We

  9. Patterns of Y-STR variation in Italy.

    PubMed

    Brisighelli, F; Blanco-Verea, A; Boschi, I; Garagnani, P; Pascali, V L; Carracedo, A; Capelli, C; Salas, A

    2012-12-01

    The 17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) included in the AmpFlSTR Yfiler Amplification Kit (AB Applied Biosystems) (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385ab, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and GATA H4.1) were typed in 292 samples from seven Italian regions. Population comparisons with other European samples were undertaken; for this purpose, two databases were collated from the literature: (a) 19 population samples including >2900 Yfiler profiles, and (b) 67 population samples including >15,000 minimum haplotype profiles. A total of 276 different Yfiler haplotypes were observed in Italy, and only one of them was shared among our seven population samples. The overall haplotype diversity (0.9996) was comparable to other European samples. AMOVA indicates that among population variance depends on the amount of Y-STRs used, being higher when using minimal haplotypes. This is probably due to the fact that Yfiler profiles are represented by singleton haplotypes in all the population samples raising the diversity values to the maximum theoretical value. AMOVA results seems to depend even more strongly on the amount of population samples used, the among population variance in Italy ranging from 2.82% to 11.03% (using 15 and 32 Italian populations samples, respectively). Variance is not as strongly stratified geographically within Italy, although it is notorious that latitude is more important than longitude in the distribution of variance. The results also indicated that Italy is less stratified than other European samples. The present study contributes to enrich the Y-chromosome databases regarding high-resolution Y-chromosome data sets and demonstrates that extended Y-STR profiles substantially increases the discriminatory capacity in individual identification for forensic purposes. PMID:22487686

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in donkeys (Equus asinus) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Machacova, Tereza; Bartova, Eva; Di Loria, Antonio; Sedlak, Kamil; Mariani, Ugo; Fusco, Giovanna; Fulgione, Domenico; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Dubey, Jitender P

    2014-03-01

    Toxoplasmosis, an important zoonosis, can be transmitted by eating meat or drinking milk of animals infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Samples were collected from 238 donkeys in the year 2010 in Italy, which included 207 females and 31 males of five breeds and crossbreeds with the average age 9 years (1 month-24 years). Sera were tested for T. gondii antibodies using a latex agglutination test and the indirect fluorescent antibody test; 5 and 8% seropositivity were recorded, respectively. We found significant correlation between the presence of T. gondii antibodies and sex, age, grazing and presence of cats on the farms and their access to donkey feed. This is the first detection of T. gondii antibodies in donkeys in Italy.

  11. Hyperspectral proximal sensing of Salix Alba trees in the Sacco river valley (Latium, Italy).

    PubMed

    Moroni, Monica; Lupo, Emanuela; Cenedese, Antonio

    2013-10-29

    Recent developments in hardware and software have increased the possibilities and reduced the costs of hyperspectral proximal sensing. Through the analysis of high resolution spectroscopic measurements at the laboratory or field scales, this monitoring technique is suitable for quantitative estimates of biochemical and biophysical variables related to the physiological state of vegetation. Two systems for hyperspectral imaging have been designed and developed at DICEA-Sapienza University of Rome, one based on the use of spectrometers, the other on tunable interference filters. Both systems provide a high spectral and spatial resolution with low weight, power consumption and cost. This paper describes the set-up of the tunable filter platform and its application to the investigation of the environmental status of the region crossed by the Sacco river (Latium, Italy). This was achieved by analyzing the spectral response given by tree samples, with roots partly or wholly submerged in the river, located upstream and downstream of an industrial area affected by contamination. Data acquired is represented as reflectance indices as well as reflectance values. Broadband and narrowband indices based on pigment content and carotenoids vs. chlorophyll content suggest tree samples located upstream of the contaminated area are 'healthier' than those downstream.

  12. Hyperspectral Proximal Sensing of Salix Alba Trees in the Sacco River Valley (Latium, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, Monica; Lupo, Emanuela; Cenedese, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in hardware and software have increased the possibilities and reduced the costs of hyperspectral proximal sensing. Through the analysis of high resolution spectroscopic measurements at the laboratory or field scales, this monitoring technique is suitable for quantitative estimates of biochemical and biophysical variables related to the physiological state of vegetation. Two systems for hyperspectral imaging have been designed and developed at DICEA-Sapienza University of Rome, one based on the use of spectrometers, the other on tunable interference filters. Both systems provide a high spectral and spatial resolution with low weight, power consumption and cost. This paper describes the set-up of the tunable filter platform and its application to the investigation of the environmental status of the region crossed by the Sacco river (Latium, Italy). This was achieved by analyzing the spectral response given by tree samples, with roots partly or wholly submerged in the river, located upstream and downstream of an industrial area affected by contamination. Data acquired is represented as reflectance indices as well as reflectance values. Broadband and narrowband indices based on pigment content and carotenoids vs. chlorophyll content suggest tree samples located upstream of the contaminated area are ‘healthier’ than those downstream. PMID:24172281

  13. Soil gas radon assessment and development of a radon risk map in Bolsena, Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Cinelli, G; Tositti, L; Capaccioni, B; Brattich, E; Mostacci, D

    2015-04-01

    Vulsini Volcanic district in Northern Latium (Central Italy) is characterized by high natural radiation background resulting from the high concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium in the volcanic products. In order to estimate the radon radiation risk, a series of soil gas radon measurements were carried out in Bolsena, the principal urban settlement in this area NE of Rome. Soil gas radon concentration ranges between 7 and 176 kBq/m(3) indicating a large degree of variability in the NORM content and behavior of the parent soil material related in particular to the occurrence of two different lithologies. Soil gas radon mapping confirmed the existence of two different areas: one along the shoreline of the Bolsena lake, characterized by low soil radon level, due to a prevailing alluvial lithology; another close to the Bolsena village with high soil radon level due to the presence of the high radioactive volcanic rocks of the Vulsini volcanic district. Radon risk assessment, based on soil gas radon and permeability data, results in a map where the alluvial area is characterized by a probability to be an area with high Radon Index lower than 20 %, while probabilities higher than 30 % and also above 50 % are found close to the Bolsena village.

  14. Clinical features and treatment of dermatosis papulosa nigra in migrants to Italy.

    PubMed

    Calcaterra, Roberta; Franco, Gennaro; Valenzano, Mariacarla; Fazio, Raffaella; Morrone, Aldo

    2010-01-01

    Dermatosis papulosa nigra (DPN) is a benign epithelial tumor that is common in dark-skinned people. Although the diagnosis is easily made on medical examination, DPN is characterized by a chronic and worsening course. Therefore, even if DPN is a benign disease, the lesions are unaesthetic and the therapeutic options are quite inefficient. A prospective study was carried out during a period of 24 months (January 2006 to December 2007) at the Department for Preventive Medicine for Migration, Tourism and Tropical Dermatology of San Gallicano Dermatological Institute in Rome. Among 58 patients, 41 (71%) were women and 17 (29%) were men. The mean age was 33.5 years (range, 8-45 years). One pediatric patient was observed. This study is the first in Italy that, in recent years, has observed an important growth of the migration. The classic female predominance, family predisposition, and photodistribution of the lesion were found. DPN is frequently associated with patient discomfort, therefore the education of patients to reduce self-treatment is important.

  15. Clinical features and treatment of dermatosis papulosa nigra in migrants to Italy.

    PubMed

    Calcaterra, Roberta; Franco, Gennaro; Valenzano, Mariacarla; Fazio, Raffaella; Morrone, Aldo

    2010-01-01

    Dermatosis papulosa nigra (DPN) is a benign epithelial tumor that is common in dark-skinned people. Although the diagnosis is easily made on medical examination, DPN is characterized by a chronic and worsening course. Therefore, even if DPN is a benign disease, the lesions are unaesthetic and the therapeutic options are quite inefficient. A prospective study was carried out during a period of 24 months (January 2006 to December 2007) at the Department for Preventive Medicine for Migration, Tourism and Tropical Dermatology of San Gallicano Dermatological Institute in Rome. Among 58 patients, 41 (71%) were women and 17 (29%) were men. The mean age was 33.5 years (range, 8-45 years). One pediatric patient was observed. This study is the first in Italy that, in recent years, has observed an important growth of the migration. The classic female predominance, family predisposition, and photodistribution of the lesion were found. DPN is frequently associated with patient discomfort, therefore the education of patients to reduce self-treatment is important. PMID:21137605

  16. When in Rome: factors associated with changes in drinking behavior among American college students studying abroad.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Larimer, Mary E; Lee, Christine M

    2010-09-01

    Study abroad programs have the potential to promote cultural, experiential, and personal development for escalating numbers of American college students each year. Despite reports that study abroad students may be at particular risk for increased and problematic alcohol use, there is limited empirical documentation of this risk. Thus, the present study used a longitudinal design to examine the factors associated with changes in alcohol use among college students studying in foreign countries. A sample of 177 students completed measures of demographics, drinking behavior, and perceived peer drinking behavior 1 month before departure and 1-month postreturn from study abroad trips. Analyses revealed that participants more than doubled their drinking during study abroad trips and those who drank at heavier levels while abroad returned home drinking at significantly elevated levels. This pattern of increased use while abroad was moderated by several factors, with participants studying abroad in Europe (e.g., Italy, France) and Oceania (e.g., Australia, New Zealand), those under the age of 21, those with higher intentions of drinking while abroad, and those with higher drinking perceptions of other study abroad students in their host country increased their alcohol consumption to a greater extent than other participants. Results suggest drinking while abroad is a concern warranting further investigation, especially regarding how changes in drinking may contribute to the experience of alcohol-related consequences abroad. Continued identification of the risk factors associated with increased drinking can help inform targeted predeparture preventive interventions with these students. PMID:20853940

  17. When in Rome: Factors associated with changes in drinking behavior among American college students studying abroad

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Larimer, Mary E.; Lee, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    Study abroad programs have the potential to promote cultural, experiential, and personal development for escalating numbers of American college students each year. Despite reports that study abroad students may be at particular risk for increased and problematic alcohol use, there is limited empirical documentation of this risk. Thus, the present study used a longitudinal design to examine the factors associated with changes in alcohol use among college students studying in foreign countries. A sample of 177 students completed measures of demographics, drinking behavior, and perceived peer drinking behavior one month prior to departure and one-month post-study abroad return. Analyses revealed that participants more than doubled their drinking during study abroad trips and those who drank at heavier levels while abroad returned home drinking at significantly elevated levels. This pattern of increased use while abroad was moderated by several factors, with participants studying abroad in Europe (e.g., Italy, France) and Oceania (e.g., Australia, New Zealand), those under the age of 21, those with higher intentions of drinking while abroad, and those with higher drinking perceptions of other study abroad students in their host country increased their alcohol consumption to a greater extent than other participants. Results suggest drinking while abroad is a concern warranting further investigation, especially regarding how changes in drinking may contribute to the experience of alcohol-related consequences abroad. Continued identification of the risk factors associated with increased drinking can help inform targeted pre-departure preventive interventions with these students. PMID:20853940

  18. When in Rome: factors associated with changes in drinking behavior among American college students studying abroad.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Larimer, Mary E; Lee, Christine M

    2010-09-01

    Study abroad programs have the potential to promote cultural, experiential, and personal development for escalating numbers of American college students each year. Despite reports that study abroad students may be at particular risk for increased and problematic alcohol use, there is limited empirical documentation of this risk. Thus, the present study used a longitudinal design to examine the factors associated with changes in alcohol use among college students studying in foreign countries. A sample of 177 students completed measures of demographics, drinking behavior, and perceived peer drinking behavior 1 month before departure and 1-month postreturn from study abroad trips. Analyses revealed that participants more than doubled their drinking during study abroad trips and those who drank at heavier levels while abroad returned home drinking at significantly elevated levels. This pattern of increased use while abroad was moderated by several factors, with participants studying abroad in Europe (e.g., Italy, France) and Oceania (e.g., Australia, New Zealand), those under the age of 21, those with higher intentions of drinking while abroad, and those with higher drinking perceptions of other study abroad students in their host country increased their alcohol consumption to a greater extent than other participants. Results suggest drinking while abroad is a concern warranting further investigation, especially regarding how changes in drinking may contribute to the experience of alcohol-related consequences abroad. Continued identification of the risk factors associated with increased drinking can help inform targeted predeparture preventive interventions with these students.

  19. Dispersion of volcanic particles during Etna eruption in December 2015. Detection by ceilometer networks (Switzerland, Italy and Germany) and in situ measurements at Alpine high-altitude sites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervo, Maxime; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Collaud Coen, Martine; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Gysel, Martin; Haefele, Alexander; Henne, Stephan; Herrmann, Erik; Martucci, Giovanni; Mattis, Ina; Steinbacher, Martin; Wagner, Frank; Di Liberto, Luca; Holla, Robert

    2016-04-01

    In December 2015, the Mount Etna volcano in Sicily endured the strongest eruptions in 20 years. Volcanic ashes and gases were injected up to the top of the troposphere (˜10km). The ashes provoked the closure of the Catania airport close to the volcano, and some particles and gases were also transported over longer distance to the North, including continental Italy, Switzerland and Germany. On 8th of December 2015, an aerosol layer was detected at about 4000m by a CHM15k ceilometer above the Kleine Scheidegg in the Swiss Alps. This layer is compatible with air masses originating at Mt. Etna during the December 4th eruptions. This layer was also measured by the in-situ instrumentation at the Sphinx Observatory on the Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.). The observed mass of volcanic particle measured as PM10 was more than 3μg.m-3. Many observations confirmed the volcanic origin of these particles. First, the increase in particle mass was associated with enhanced Sulphur dioxide (SO2) levels. This enhancement was the highest SO2 value measured in 2015. The volcanic origin was also reflected in an increased aerosol volume in the accumulation mode size range as well as a dominant nucleation mode (with respect to number), indicating that a significant fraction of the SO2 was converted to particulate sulphate. Then, no black carbon increase was detected, suggesting that the SO2 and the particle did not come from combustion. Furthermore, the coarse mode particle size distributions suggested the presence of an ash mode around 2-4 micrometers in optical particle diameter. The volcanic rather than Saharan origin of the coarse mode was confirmed by the Angstrom exponent of the single scattering albedo higher than zero. At Schneefernerhaus observatory (close to Zugspitze), in-situ measurements were similar to the observations at the Jungfraujoch. Similar layers were detected by the ceilometers of the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) network in Germany (Zugspitze, Garmisch

  20. Dispersion of volcanic particles during Etna eruption in December 2015. Detection by ceilometer networks (Switzerland, Italy and Germany) and in situ measurements at Alpine high-altitude sites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervo, Maxime; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Collaud Coen, Martine; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Gysel, Martin; Haefele, Alexander; Henne, Stephan; Herrmann, Erik; Martucci, Giovanni; Mattis, Ina; Steinbacher, Martin; Wagner, Frank; Di Liberto, Luca; Holla, Robert

    2016-04-01

    In December 2015, the Mount Etna volcano in Sicily endured the strongest eruptions in 20 years. Volcanic ashes and gases were injected up to the top of the troposphere (˜10km). The ashes provoked the closure of the Catania airport close to the volcano, and some particles and gases were also transported over longer distance to the North, including continental Italy, Switzerland and Germany. On 8th of December 2015, an aerosol layer was detected at about 4000m by a CHM15k ceilometer above the Kleine Scheidegg in the Swiss Alps. This layer is compatible with air masses originating at Mt. Etna during the December 4th eruptions. This layer was also measured by the in-situ instrumentation at the Sphinx Observatory on the Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.). The observed mass of volcanic particle measured as PM10 was more than 3μg.m‑3. Many observations confirmed the volcanic origin of these particles. First, the increase in particle mass was associated with enhanced Sulphur dioxide (SO2) levels. This enhancement was the highest SO2 value measured in 2015. The volcanic origin was also reflected in an increased aerosol volume in the accumulation mode size range as well as a dominant nucleation mode (with respect to number), indicating that a significant fraction of the SO2 was converted to particulate sulphate. Then, no black carbon increase was detected, suggesting that the SO2 and the particle did not come from combustion. Furthermore, the coarse mode particle size distributions suggested the presence of an ash mode around 2-4 micrometers in optical particle diameter. The volcanic rather than Saharan origin of the coarse mode was confirmed by the Angstrom exponent of the single scattering albedo higher than zero. At Schneefernerhaus observatory (close to Zugspitze), in-situ measurements were similar to the observations at the Jungfraujoch. Similar layers were detected by the ceilometers of the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) network in Germany (Zugspitze, Garmisch

  1. Ebola virus disease: Case management in the Institute of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Sassari, Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Bertoli, Giulia; Mannazzu, Marco; Madeddu, Giordano; Are, Riccardo; Muredda, Alberto; Babudieri, Sergio; Calia, Giovanna; Lovigu, Carla; Maida, Ivana; Contini, Luciana; Miscali, Anna; Rubino, Salvatore; Delogu, Fiorenzo; Mura, Maria Stella

    2016-01-01

    Since the onset of the worst epidemic of Ebola virus disease in December 2013, 28,637 cases were reported as confirmed, probable, or suspected. Since the week of 3 January 2016, no more cases have been reported. The total number of deaths have amounted to 11,315 (39.5%). In developed countries, seven cases have been diagnosed: four in the United States, one in Spain, one in the United Kingdom, and one in Italy. On 20 July 2015, Italy was declared Ebola-free. On 9 May 2015, an Italian health worker came back to Italy after a long stay in Sierra Leone working for a non-governmental organization. Forty-eight hours after his arrival, he noticed headache, weakness, muscle pains, and slight fever. The following day, he was safely transported to the Infectious Diseases Unit of University Hospital of Sassari. The patient was hospitalized for 19 hours until an Italian Air Force medical division transferred him to Rome, to the Lazzaro Spallanzani Institute. Nineteen people who had contacts with the patient were monitored daily for 21 days by the Public Health Office of Sassari and none presented any symptoms. So far, neither vaccine nor treatment is available to be proposed on an international scale. Ebola is considered a re-emerging infectious disease which, unlike in the past, has been a worldwide emergency. This case study aimed to establish a discussion about the operative and logistic difficulties to be faced and about the discrepancy arising when protocols clash with the reality of facts.

  2. Ebola virus disease: Case management in the Institute of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Sassari, Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Bertoli, Giulia; Mannazzu, Marco; Madeddu, Giordano; Are, Riccardo; Muredda, Alberto; Babudieri, Sergio; Calia, Giovanna; Lovigu, Carla; Maida, Ivana; Contini, Luciana; Miscali, Anna; Rubino, Salvatore; Delogu, Fiorenzo; Mura, Maria Stella

    2016-01-01

    Since the onset of the worst epidemic of Ebola virus disease in December 2013, 28,637 cases were reported as confirmed, probable, or suspected. Since the week of 3 January 2016, no more cases have been reported. The total number of deaths have amounted to 11,315 (39.5%). In developed countries, seven cases have been diagnosed: four in the United States, one in Spain, one in the United Kingdom, and one in Italy. On 20 July 2015, Italy was declared Ebola-free. On 9 May 2015, an Italian health worker came back to Italy after a long stay in Sierra Leone working for a non-governmental organization. Forty-eight hours after his arrival, he noticed headache, weakness, muscle pains, and slight fever. The following day, he was safely transported to the Infectious Diseases Unit of University Hospital of Sassari. The patient was hospitalized for 19 hours until an Italian Air Force medical division transferred him to Rome, to the Lazzaro Spallanzani Institute. Nineteen people who had contacts with the patient were monitored daily for 21 days by the Public Health Office of Sassari and none presented any symptoms. So far, neither vaccine nor treatment is available to be proposed on an international scale. Ebola is considered a re-emerging infectious disease which, unlike in the past, has been a worldwide emergency. This case study aimed to establish a discussion about the operative and logistic difficulties to be faced and about the discrepancy arising when protocols clash with the reality of facts. PMID:27249532

  3. All Roads Lead to Rome: Exploring Human Migration to the Eternal City through Biochemistry of Skeletons from Two Imperial-Era Cemeteries (1st-3rd c AD).

    PubMed

    Killgrove, Kristina; Montgomery, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Migration within the Roman Empire occurred at multiple scales and was engaged in both voluntarily and involuntarily. Because of the lengthy tradition of classical studies, bioarchaeological analyses must be fully contextualized within the bounds of history, material culture, and epigraphy. In order to assess migration to Rome within an updated contextual framework, strontium isotope analysis was performed on 105 individuals from two cemeteries associated with Imperial Rome-Casal Bertone and Castellaccio Europarco-and oxygen and carbon isotope analyses were performed on a subset of 55 individuals. Statistical analysis and comparisons with expected local ranges found several outliers who likely immigrated to Rome from elsewhere. Demographics of the immigrants show men and children migrated, and a comparison of carbon isotopes from teeth and bone samples suggests the immigrants may have significantly changed their diet. These data represent the first physical evidence of individual migrants to Imperial Rome. This case study demonstrates the importance of employing bioarchaeology to generate a deeper understanding of a complex ancient urban center. PMID:26863610

  4. Ancient Rome I: Government and Politics; the Military; Trade and the Economy; Aqueducts, Baths, and Sewers; the Arena. Volume 7. Teaching with Primary Sources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Rosalie F.; Baker, Charles F., III

    This unit on Ancient Rome (covering a time period from 753 B.C. until A.D. 476) contains the following elements: a list of documents, with a description of each document and a brief synopsis of its historical significance to the unit's theme; the documents; and a set of activities. The unit's documents are grouped under the five categories listed…

  5. Political and Legal Framework for the Development of Training Policy in the European Union. Part I--From the Treaty of Rome to the Treaty of Maastricht.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bainbridge, Steve; Murray, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the history of vocational training policy from the establishment of the European Economic Community in the Treaty of Rome in 1957 to the Treaty of Maastricht, which created the European Union in 1992. Discusses the evolution from a centralized legislative approach to a more user-oriented approach promoting mobility. (Contains 40…

  6. All Roads Lead to Rome: Exploring Human Migration to the Eternal City through Biochemistry of Skeletons from Two Imperial-Era Cemeteries (1st-3rd c AD).

    PubMed

    Killgrove, Kristina; Montgomery, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Migration within the Roman Empire occurred at multiple scales and was engaged in both voluntarily and involuntarily. Because of the lengthy tradition of classical studies, bioarchaeological analyses must be fully contextualized within the bounds of history, material culture, and epigraphy. In order to assess migration to Rome within an updated contextual framework, strontium isotope analysis was performed on 105 individuals from two cemeteries associated with Imperial Rome-Casal Bertone and Castellaccio Europarco-and oxygen and carbon isotope analyses were performed on a subset of 55 individuals. Statistical analysis and comparisons with expected local ranges found several outliers who likely immigrated to Rome from elsewhere. Demographics of the immigrants show men and children migrated, and a comparison of carbon isotopes from teeth and bone samples suggests the immigrants may have significantly changed their diet. These data represent the first physical evidence of individual migrants to Imperial Rome. This case study demonstrates the importance of employing bioarchaeology to generate a deeper understanding of a complex ancient urban center.

  7. Demoiselles and Drafts from Italy and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, M. Dane

    1988-01-01

    Recounts the adventures of a journey taken through France and Italy. Makes an analogy of this trip to that of the one Charles Dickens took in 1844. Describes silicified horizons of the southern Paris Basin, moraines, outcrops, and "Hoodoos." (RT)

  8. [Injuries: preventive approach and progress of injuries in the construction of the line B1 of the underground of Rome].

    PubMed

    Saggio, G; Conti, E; Valentini, F; De Sio, L; Capano, M Perrone

    2010-01-01

    The line B1 is a branch of the existing Metro line B in Rome. The route is long about 5 km, is completely underground and involves the construction of four new stations: Annibaliano, Libia /Gondar, Conca d'Oro and Jonio. The line will have a capacity of transport of 24,000 people/hour in each direction. The works started in 2006 involve about 500 workers. The report provides a statistical analysis of the events that occurred in the period 2005/2010 and aims to introduce the starting and management of this study, also on the basis of the "Operating procedures" issued by the acquisition of OSHAS 18001 certification from the agent of Metro B) / R.I.M.A.T.I. This analysis aims to provide to supervisors, to social security institutions and to workers, a usefull analysis tool in the prevention of the monitored events. PMID:21438207

  9. A Trip to Rome: Physical Replicas of Historical Objects Created in a Fully Automated Way from Photos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barazzetti, Luigi

    It is normal for tourists to take photos during their holidays, which are then printed, loaded into digital frames or shared on the Internet. This paper describes a new methodology to obtain accurate 3D digital models and material replicas of real objects, starting from digital images acquired with consumer and professional cameras. The implemented software is completely automatic and provides detailed reconstructions. It stands out from other existing approaches for the high metric accuracy of the final product, the level of detail obtainable, the speed of the algorithms and its adaptability under different viewing conditions. Several examples relating to an actual trip to Rome are reported and discussed, showing what a tourist can obtain with this package. Obviously, the method can be used for many other applications in which accurate models are needed.

  10. [Rosenfeld in Italy (1978 to 1985)].

    PubMed

    de Masi, Franco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I try to throw some light on Rosenfeld's thought and his way of working when he came to Italy. I would like to show, in a sketchy way, the evolution of his thought and in particular the new way he looked at clinical practice at that time. My point is that the Rosenfeld we met in Italy was able to open new horizons in clinical practice, implicitly questioning some of his own or his circle's previous viewpoints. PMID:26595987

  11. Robotic surgery in Italy national survey (2011).

    PubMed

    Santoro, Eugenio; Pansadoro, Vito

    2013-03-01

    Robotic surgery in Italy has become a clinical reality that is gaining increasing acceptance. As of 2011 after the United States, Italy together with Germany is the country with the largest number of active Robotic centers, 46, and da Vinci Robots installed, with at least 116 operators already trained. The number of interventions performed in Italy in 2011 exceeded 6,000 and in 2010 were 4,784, with prevalence for urology, general surgery and gynecology, however these interventions have also begun to be applied in other fields such as cervicofacial, cardiothoracic and pediatric surgery. In Italy Robotic centers are mostly located in Northern Italy, while in the South there are only a few centers, and four regions are lacking altogether. Of the 46 centers which were started in 1999, the vast majority is still operational and almost half handle over 200 cases a year. The quality of the work is also especially high with large diffusion of radical prostatectomy in urology and liver resection and colic in general surgery. The method is very well accepted among operators, over 80 %, and among patients, over 95 %. From the analysis of world literature and a survey carried out in Italy, Robotic surgery, which at the moment could be better defined as telesurgery, represents a significant advantage for operators and a consistent gain for the patient. However, it still has important limits such as high cost and non-structured training of operators.

  12. Bluetongue in Italy: Part II.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, A; Calistri, P; Nannini, D; Paladini, C; Santucci, U; Patta, C; Caporale, V

    2004-01-01

    In summer 2000, bluetongue (BT) infection was reported in Italy and caused a widespread epidemic involving a total of ten southern and central regions and is still in progress after three years. From the date of the first case (18 August 2000) to 14 May 2001, when the lowpoint in the first epidemic curve was reached, a total of 310,234 animals in 6,869 flocks of three regions had been involved. From 15 May 2001 to 14 April 2002, when a second epidemic wave swept through central and southern Italy, a total of 323,635 animals in 6,807 flocks in seven regions were involved. During 2000 and 2001 virtually no susceptible ruminants were vaccinated. On 11 May 2001, the Italian Ministry of Health ordered the vaccination of all susceptible domestic ruminant species (i.e. sheep, goats, cattle and water buffalo) in the infected and surrounding areas. The vaccination strategy stemmed from a risk assessment that demonstrated the possibility of such a strategy preventing most of the direct economic losses and decreasing the level of virus circulation. Vaccination of the target populations commenced in January 2002. In July 2002, when the new epidemic peak was reached, the percentage of vaccinated populations varied between the regions with direct consequences on the spread of BT. The relationship between vaccination coverage of the target populations and animal losses due to disease and virus circulation, and as detected by the sentinel surveillance system, was analysed. The effectiveness of the vaccination campaign in limiting virus circulation and consequently indirect losses due to animal movement restrictions was analysed and evaluated. At the end of 2002, a second risk assessment led to the authorization of the movement of vaccinated animals from infected areas (where at least 80% of the susceptible population was vaccinated) directly to slaughter in unvaccinated areas free from infection. This risk assessment also generated new criteria to define zones where animal

  13. Cancer risk and social inequalities in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Faggiano, F; Zanetti, R; Costa, G

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To investigate social differences in cancer incidence in Turin, Italy in 1985-87. DESIGN--A cancer incidence follow up study of the turin population in relation to socioeconomic characteristics was performed through record linkage between the 1981 census and the cancer registry. A case-control study nested in the cohort was analysed, where cases were subjects with a new diagnosis of cancer in 1985-87 and controls were a sample of the Turin population, frequency matched by sex and age group. Incidence odd ratios (ORs) were calculated for social classes (defined by education, housing tenure, and socioeconomic group) using a logistic regression model. SETTING--The study population comprised subjects included in the 1981 Turin census (n approximately equal to 1,100,000) who were still alive, 20-69 years old, and were resident in Turin in the middle of study period. PARTICIPANTS--The analyses were based on 4215 male and 3451 female cases, and on 16,913 male and 13,838 female controls. MAIN RESULTS--Compared with the highest educational level, the men in the lowest one showed an OR > 2 for respiratory cancers; OR = 1.48 for stomach cancer; and ORs < 0.7 for skin, colorectal, and prostate cancers. Women with a primary school education were protected against colorectal (OR = 0.71), skin (OR = 0.59), and breast cancer (OR = 0.66) compared with university degree women, but were at risk for cancer of the cervix (OR = 2.33) and stomach cancer (OR = 2.84). The association between educational level (primary school v university) and lung cancer risk is negative for men (OR = 2.47) and positive for women (OR = 0.62), while the association with housing tenure is negative for both sexes (OR = 1.44). CONCLUSIONS--The socioeconomic distribution of some risk factors (for example smoking, alcohol, and diet) in Italy can partially explain the differences in respiratory and digestive cancers. "Unbalanced" health promotion interventions, targeted at social groups with the

  14. CBRN mobile laboratories in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Giorgio; Giraudi, Giampaolo; Bellino, Mariarosa; Pazienza, Michele; Garibaldi, Claudio; Lancia, Corrado

    2009-05-01

    The paper describes the experiences in Italy with the CBRN (Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear) defense mobile laboratories. These laboratories were constructed by the Italian Army and the Italian Fire Brigades. The purpose of these mobile laboratories is to allow quick transport of the labs to the area of crisis in order to support emergency response in case of CBRN events. The differences between two alternative solutions will be developed in the paper. The first solution is when the lab is to be located in the "dangerous area" (this solution was chosen by the Italian Army) and the alternative approach is to place the mobile lab just outside the dangerous area (this approach was selected by the Italian Fire Brigades). One of the most important devices inside the lab is the isolator (also called "glove box") which allows safe ingress and handling of the "suspicious" samples from the external environment. The isolator has a special chamber for transfer of the sample from the outside. The pressure of the isolator is permanently kept below the air pressure inside the lab by means of one (or more) fan. The operators perform the sample preparations or part of the analysis by handling the sample with the gloves. The material flow inside the lab will be described depending on the kind of identification analysis to be done on the samples. Other devices installed on the mobile CBRN laboratories are: biohazard hood (UE regulation, containment level 2); autoclave; freezer; cleaning skid (tanks, pumps, etc.).

  15. New CALLISTO Station in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monstein, Chr.

    2013-10-01

    A new CALLISTO station is now active in Triest/Italy at the Astronomical Observatory premises located in Basovizza. It has been recently installed and set into operation on the 6th September 2013. The antenna has been installed on an old bunker named "Sissi" and is based on a commercial log-periodic antenna from RKB(http://www.rkb./articoli.asp?id=26), operating frequency 130-1000 MHz, gain of about 6-7 dBi. Beam&-width is of 103 degrees in the V plane and of 61 degrees in the H plane. Considering the site location, sun path variations during the year and beam-width, the antenna is installed fixed-mounted pointing towards South with an angle of 45 degrees in the V plane. This should cover all declination of solar path throughout the year with about 7 hours observation time centered around 12.00, local time. The front-end aerial is connected to a low noise preamplifier Mini-Circuits ZX60-33LN with 20dB of gain and 1.1dB of noise figure.

  16. Fukushima fallout at Milano, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ioannidou, Alexandra; Manenti, Simone; Gini, Luigi; Groppi, Flavia

    2012-12-01

    The radionuclides (131)I, (137)Cs and (134)Cs were observed in the Milano region (45°) of Italy early after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan. Increased atmospheric radioactivity was observed on an air filter taken on 30 March 2011, while the maximum activity of 467 μBq m(-3) for (131)I was recorded at April 3-4, 2011. The first evidence of Fukushima fallout was confirmed with (131)I and (137)Cs measured in precipitation at two sampling sites at Milano on 28 March, 2011, with the concentrations of (131)I and (137)Cs in the rainwater equal to 0.89 Bq L(-1) and 0.12 Bq L(-1), respectively. A sample of dry deposition that was collected 9 days after the first rainfall event of 27-28 March, 2011 showed that the dry deposition was more effective in the case of (137)Cs than it was for (131)I, probably because iodine was mainly in gaseous form whereas caesium was rapidly bound to aerosols and thus highly subject to dry deposition. The relatively high observed values of (137)Cs in grass, soil and fresh goat and cow milk samples were probably from Chernobyl fallout and global fallout from past nuclear tests rather than from the Fukushima accident. Finally, a dose assessment for the region of investigation showed clearly that the detected activities in all environmental samples were very far below levels of concern.

  17. The new pharmaceutical policy in Italy.

    PubMed

    Fattore, G; Jommi, C

    1998-10-01

    Pressed by an impressive series of corruption scandals and by a change of attitude towards cost-containment, the Italian pharmaceutical sector's regulatory environment was radically changed in 1994. Regulatory power was concentrated on a national technical body (CUF) and a new set of measures was taken, including a nationwide drug expenditure budget, a redefinition of both the positive list and the cost-sharing rules, and new price-setting models. As a result, in the period 1993-1996, nominal expenditures decreased by about L 1600 billion (ECU 83.6 billion at 1997 exchange rate), that is from 13.3% to 11.0% of current National Health Service (NHS) expenditure. While in the 1980s Italy was one of the most generous countries in funding pharmaceuticals, it is now one of the most parsimonious. Although the overall pharmaceutical market shrank in 1994 and 1995, a substantial part of NHS drug-bill savings resulted from cost-shifting from the public sector to patients, mainly because physicians have not aligned their prescribing behaviour to the new positive list. The new Italian approach to containing pharmaceutical costs has been certainly effective, at least in the short run. However, new relevant issues are emerging regarding the fall of NHS pharmaceutical coverage, the centralised nature of the Italian pharmaceutical policy and the gap between scientific based policies and actual prescribing behaviours.

  18. What is the fault that has generated the earthquake on 8 September 1905 in Calabria, Italy? Source models compared by tsunami data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnoni, Gianluca; Armigliato, Alberto; Tinti, Stefano; Loreto, Maria Filomena; Facchin, Lorenzo

    2014-05-01

    The earthquake that the 8 September 1905 hit Calabria in southern Italy was the second Italian earthquake for magnitude in the last century. It destroyed many villages along the coast of the Gulf of Sant'Eufemia, caused more than 500 fatalities and has also generated a tsunami with non-destructive effects. The historical reports tell us that the tsunami caused major damage in the villages of Briatico, Bivona, Pizzo and Vibo Marina, located in the south part of the Sant'Eufemia gulf and minor damage to Tropea and to Scalea, this one being village located about 100 km far from the epicenter. Other reports include accounts of fishermen at sea during the tsunami. Further, the tsunami is visible on tide gauge records in Messina, Sicily, in Naples and in Civitavecchia, a harbour located to the north of Rome (Platania, 1907) In spite of the attention devoted by researchers to this case, until now, like for other tsunamigenic Italian earthquakes, the genetic structure of the earthquake is still not identified and debate is still open. In this context, tsunami simulations can provide contributions useful to find the source model more consistent with observational data. This approach was already followed by Piatanesi and Tinti (2002), who carried out numerical simulations of tsunamis from a number of local sources. In the last decade studies on this seismogenic area were int ensified resulting in new estimates for the 1905 earthquake magnitude (7.1 according to the CPTI11 catalogue) and in the suggestion of new source models. By using an improved tsunami simulation model, more accurate bathymetry data, this work tests the source models investigated by Piatanesi and Tinti (2002) and in addition the new fault models proposed by Cucci and Tertulliani (2010) and by Loreto et al. (2013). The simulations of the tsunami are calculated by means of the code, UBO-TSUFD, that solves the linear equations of Navier-Stokes in approximation of shallow water with the finite

  19. Soil organic carbon and biological fertility in a Mediterranean forest area (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francaviglia, Rosa; Benedetti, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The study was performed at Castelporziano Estate, a natural ecosystem with high environmental value, and not concerned with any direct sources of pollution. However, it is situated near the city of Rome, some industrial plants, the international airport of Fiumicino, and some highways that can represent an external source of pollutants. Castelporziano lies in Central Italy at the western outskirts of Rome, about 20 km from the city centre and in front of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Soil morphology is mainly plain (30 m mean elevation) with sandy materials of alluvial nature, and only the inner part is formed of volcanic and alluvial materials with a slight elevation above the sea level (85 m). The total area is about 6000 ha, the climate is Mediterranean, total rainfall is 700 mm, and mean temperatures range from 4 ° C in winter and 30 ° C in summer. The vegetation is typically Mediterranean, mainly oaks, mixed broadleaf groves, and Mediterranean maquis along the seacoast. Areas with reforestation of pines, as well as corkwoods, pastures, and small agricultural fields are also present. Soils were sampled at five different sites: QI, forest of Quercus ilex L.; MM, Mediterranean maquis; PP, Pinus pinea L. reforestation (60 years old); MF, mixed hygrophilous back-dune forest; AR, arable land. Five soil samples from each site were collected (0-20 cm of depth), about 2 m far from each other. Soil organic carbon (SOC), total N (Ntot), microbial biomass carbon (Cmic), basal and cumulative respiration (Cbas and Ccum), the metabolic quotient (qCO2), and the mineralisation quotient (qM) were determined. The index of biological fertility (IBF), a comprehensive indicator considering SOM, Cbas, Ccum, Cmic, qCO2 and qM was also calculated for the different land uses. Five intervals of values have been set for each parameter, and a score increasing from 1 to 5 has been assigned to each interval; the algebraic sum of the score for each parameter gives the classes of biological fertility.

  20. Tuberculosis and leprosy in Italy: new skeletal evidence.

    PubMed

    Rubini, Mauro; Zaio, Paola; Roberts, Charlotte

    2014-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy are infections caused by Mycobacteria. This paper documents new skeletal evidence in Italy from the Iron Age site of Corvaro (Central Italy; 5th century BCE) and the Roman site of Palombara (Central Italy; 4th-5th century CE), and briefly reviews the extant evidence for these infections in Italy. The skeletal evidence for TB in Italy is more ancient than for leprosy, and is more common. The oldest evidence for both mycobacterial diseases is in the North of Italy, but this could be by chance, even if biomolecular models suggest a land route from the East to central Europe, especially for leprosy.

  1. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    SciTech Connect

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  2. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  3. Pollen-related allergy in Italy.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Dal Bo, S; Bonini, S

    1992-05-01

    Pollen-related allergies are very common in Italy and pollinosis is the commonest allergic disease. The type of allergenic plants and the prevalence of hay fever varies among regions. In the Mediterranean area there are characteristic climatic conditions (mildness of winter, summer dryness) that facilitate the growth of a typical vegetation with its associated various types of allergenic pollen grains, some of them very different from those of central and northern Europe. Italy has a central position in the Mediterranean basin, but because of its geographic characteristics, there are different climatic aspects with different vegetation between northern, central, and southern areas. Gramineae are the most common allergenic plants in northern and central Italy, where more than 60% of patients with pollinosis are grass-pollen sensitive. Parietaria is the most important pollinating plant in southern Italy and Liguria. Olea europaea, the olive tree with cultivation widespread in the whole Mediterranean basin, is responsible for frequently severe pollinosis, particularly in some regions of the southern Italy.

  4. The site of the Varian Temple of Elagabal in Rome: topographical and astronomical approach to the question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Arrizabalaga y Prado, L.; de La Fuente Marcos, R.

    2005-03-01

    Ancient historians refer to a temple in Rome, dedicated to the Syrian sun god Elagabal, by his high priest, the Roman emperor called Varius (204-222AD, commonly called Elagabalus or Heliogabalus). On the basis of their texts, it has been thought that Varius either built a new temple, or rededicated an existing one, expropriated from some other deity, in order to house his god's principal cult object: a large black meteorite, or baetyl, which Varius brought from its temple at Emesa, in Syria, to Rome. In this paper we analyze the hypothesis that the site of the Varian Temple of Elagabal may have been that now known as the Vigna Barberini. A stratigraphic analysis shows that the Vigna Barberini is an artificial platform, built on the rubble of earlier hillside structures, dating from prehistoric times to the Julio-Claudian period. The platform, with more or less its present shape, is of Flavian date, and at that time contained a portico surrounding a central garden. On top of these, a Severan level corresponds to the base of the foundations of a temple that are very solid and go very deep. The azimuth of the temple wall oriented south-east is about 113°. Using a computer program, we have thoroughly scan ned the night sky in AD 1-250, looking for celestial objects that may have been worshipped in the temple. After taking into account the effects of precession, the main candidate for a celestial body worshipped from this site appears to be the star Sirius. In several Mediterranean cultures, the heliacal ortus, or earliest pre-dawn sighting of Sirius (when Sirius again rises into visibility after being hidden by the Sun's light for about 70 days) was thought to have astrological significance. We have compiled the relevant astronomical data for the heliacal ortus of Sirius in the time span 0-250 AD. During that period of time, it falls between 18th and 20th July. The azimuth angle of Sirius, when rising on the heliacal ortus day ci rca 150 AD, is about 111°. Being

  5. D Survey and Augmented Reality for Cultural Heritage. The Case Study of Aurelian Wall at Castra Praetoria in Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canciani, M.; Conigliaro, E.; Del Grasso, M.; Papalini, P.; Saccone, M.

    2016-06-01

    The development of close-range photogrammetry has produced a lot of new possibility to study cultural heritage. 3D data acquired with conventional and low cost cameras can be used to document, investigate the full appearance, materials and conservation status, to help the restoration process and identify intervention priorities. At the same time, with 3D survey a lot of three-dimensional data are collected and analyzed by researchers, but there are a very few possibility of 3D output. The augmented reality is one of this possible output with a very low cost technology but a very interesting result. Using simple mobile technology (for iPad and Android Tablets) and shareware software (in the case presented "Augment") it is possible to share and visualize a large number of 3D models with your own device. The case study presented is a part of an architecture graduate thesis, made in Rome at Department of Architecture of Roma Tre University. We have developed a photogrammetric survey to study the Aurelian Wall at Castra Praetoria in Rome. The surveys of 8000 square meters of surface have allowed to identify stratigraphy and construction phases of a complex portion of Aurelian Wall, specially about the Northern door of Castra. During this study, the data coming out of 3D survey (photogrammetric and topographic), are stored and used to create a reverse 3D model, or virtual reconstruction, of the Northern door of Castra. This virtual reconstruction shows the door in the Tiberian period, nowadays it's totally hidden by a curtain wall but, little and significative architectural details allow to know its original feature. The 3D model of the ancient walls has been mapped with the exact type of bricks and mortar, oriented and scaled according to the existing one to use augmented reality. Finally, two kind of application have been developed, one on site, were you can see superimposed the virtual reconstruction on the existing walls using the image recognition. On the other hand

  6. The incidence of fragility fractures in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ratti, Chiara; Vulcano, Ettore; La Barbera, Giuseppe; Canton, Gianluca; Murena, Luigi; Cherubino, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    Osteoporosis can significantly impact on the risk of developing a fracture. Thus, fragility fractures represent a challenge for health professionals and decision makers of the twenty-first century. The aim of this work is to review the literature concerning osteoporotic fractures in Italy in terms of incidence, rate of hospitalization, relative risk of a new fragility fracture, and costs for the national health system. It was estimated that the costs of treating proximal femur fragility fractures in 2002 summed up to 1 billion Euros. The number of fragility fractures in Italy was calculated as follows: 91.494 hip fractures, 61.009 clinical vertebral fractures, 57.401 humeral fragility fractures, and 94.045 forearm/wrist fragility fractures. The incidence of fragility fractures in Italy is very high, and osteoporosis is the leading cause of morbidity in the Italian population. PMID:24046040

  7. Relationship between Latitude and Melanoma in Italy.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Chiarugi, Alessandra; Nardini, Paolo; Pimpinelli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Evaluate the ecological relationship between skin melanoma epidemiology and latitude in Italy. Methods. We used data from the Italian network of cancer registries (Airtum). In a Poisson model, we evaluated the effect on incidence, mortality, and survival of latitude, adjusting for some demographic, social, phenotypic, and behavioural variables. Results. Incidence increased in Italy by 17% for each degree of increase in latitude. The effect of latitude was statistically significantly present also adjusting for other variables (incidence rate ratio = 1.08). The effect of latitude on increasing mortality (mortality rate ratio = 1.27) and improving survival (relative excess risk of death = 0.93) was no longer present in the multivariate model. Conclusion. Melanoma incidence, mortality, and survival vary in Italy according to latitude. After adjustment for several confounders, incidence still grows with growing latitude. Presumably, latitude expresses other variables that might be related to individual susceptibility and/or local care.

  8. Second-hand smoke in Italy.

    PubMed

    Gallus, S

    2015-12-01

    Second-hand smoke (SHS) has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) [IARC, 2004]. Of the 5.7 million deaths attributable each year to tobacco smoking, more than 600,000 (i.e., around 1% of all deaths worldwide) refer to subjects who never smoked and that prematurely die due to their lifetime exposure to SHS [WHO, 2012]. Italy has been one of the pioneering countries - and the first large country worldwide - to enact a comprehensive smoke-free legislation in 2005. The law, introduced in order to reduce SHS exposure, banned smoking in indoor public places, including restaurants and bars, and in all workplaces [Gallus et al., 2006]. This legislation has had an undisputed success from a public health perspective: it was widely supported and strongly observed, restaurant and bar owners did not experience any dreaded decline in their business, and tobacco smoking (and its detrimental health effects) substantially decreased [Gallus et al., 2006; Gorini et al., 2007]. More importantly, the regulation has been effective in dramatically reducing SHS exposure [Gorini et al., 2007; Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2012]. Most high- income countries followed Italy in the adoption of similar comprehensive smoking ban legislations over the last decade [IARC, 2009]. These regulations and the information campaigns conducted for their enforcement had also the effect to increase the social unacceptability of SHS and consequently the adoption of voluntary home smoking bans [Ferketich et al., 2014; Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2014]. This notwithstanding, in 2010 specific Italian subpopulations were still frequently exposed to SHS, both in public and private places. In particular, 54% of the young (i.e., age 15-24 years) were still exposed to SHS in any settings, 27% in private houses, and 33% in private cars [Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2012]. The relatively high SHS exposure in private cars is of

  9. Second-hand smoke in Italy.

    PubMed

    Gallus, S

    2015-12-01

    Second-hand smoke (SHS) has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) [IARC, 2004]. Of the 5.7 million deaths attributable each year to tobacco smoking, more than 600,000 (i.e., around 1% of all deaths worldwide) refer to subjects who never smoked and that prematurely die due to their lifetime exposure to SHS [WHO, 2012]. Italy has been one of the pioneering countries - and the first large country worldwide - to enact a comprehensive smoke-free legislation in 2005. The law, introduced in order to reduce SHS exposure, banned smoking in indoor public places, including restaurants and bars, and in all workplaces [Gallus et al., 2006]. This legislation has had an undisputed success from a public health perspective: it was widely supported and strongly observed, restaurant and bar owners did not experience any dreaded decline in their business, and tobacco smoking (and its detrimental health effects) substantially decreased [Gallus et al., 2006; Gorini et al., 2007]. More importantly, the regulation has been effective in dramatically reducing SHS exposure [Gorini et al., 2007; Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2012]. Most high- income countries followed Italy in the adoption of similar comprehensive smoking ban legislations over the last decade [IARC, 2009]. These regulations and the information campaigns conducted for their enforcement had also the effect to increase the social unacceptability of SHS and consequently the adoption of voluntary home smoking bans [Ferketich et al., 2014; Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2014]. This notwithstanding, in 2010 specific Italian subpopulations were still frequently exposed to SHS, both in public and private places. In particular, 54% of the young (i.e., age 15-24 years) were still exposed to SHS in any settings, 27% in private houses, and 33% in private cars [Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2012]. The relatively high SHS exposure in private cars is of

  10. Listening to Include

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veck, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to make important connections between listening and inclusive education and the refusal to listen and exclusion. Two lines of argument are advanced. First, if educators and learners are to include each other within their educational institutions as unique individuals, then they will need to listen attentively to each other.…

  11. Foreign children with cancer in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been a noticeable annual increase in the number of children coming to Italy for medical treatment, just like it has happened in the rest of the European Union. In Italy, the assistance to children suffering from cancer is assured by the current network of 54 centres members of the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (AIEOP), which has kept records of all demographic and clinical data in the database of Mod.1.01 Registry since 1989. Methods We used the information stored in the already mentioned database to assess the impact of immigration of foreign children with cancer on centres' activity, with the scope of drawing a map of the assistance to these cases. Results Out of 14,738 cases recorded by all centres in the period from 1999 to 2008, 92.2% were born and resident in Italy, 4.1% (608) were born abroad and living abroad and 3.7% (538) were born abroad and living in Italy. Foreign children cases have increased over the years from 2.5% in 1999 to. 8.1% in 2008. Most immigrant children came from Europe (65.7%), whereas patients who came from America, Asia and Oceania amounted to 13.2%, 10.1%, 0.2%, respectively. The immigrant survival rate was lower compared to that of children who were born in Italy. This is especially true for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients entered an AIEOP protocol, who showed a 10-years survival rate of 71.0% vs. 80.7% (p < 0.001) for immigrants and patients born in Italy, respectively. Conclusions Children and adolescents are an increasingly important part of the immigration phenomenon, which occurs in many parts of the world. In Italy the vast majority of children affected by malignancies are treated in AIEOP centres. Since immigrant children are predominantly treated in northern Italy, these centres have developed a special expertise in treating immigrant patients, which is certainly very useful for the entire AIEOP network. PMID:21923939

  12. In A Queer Place in Time: Fictions of Belonging in Italy 1890-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, Christopher Burke

    In a Queer Place in Time: Fictions of Belonging in Italy 1890-2010 maps the "elsewheres"---spatial, temporal and intertextual--- that authorize same-sex desire in modern Italy. Tracing a genealogy that spans from nineteenth century travel writing about Italy to contemporary Italian novels, I argue that texts exported from the Northern Europe and the U.S. function as vital site of affiliation and vexing points of discrepancy for Italy's queers. Pier Vittorio Tondelli's Camere separate (1989), for instance, cites the British novelist Christopher Isherwood as proof that -- somewhere else -- silence did not yoke homosexuality. Rather than defining sexuality as a constant set of desires, I demonstrate it to be a retroactive fiction. It is the fleeting affinity that the reading of inherited texts can evoke. In examining the reception of transnational gay narratives in the national context of Italy, this dissertation argues that the concept of "Western" homosexuality is internally riven. Ultimately, In a Queer Place in Time illuminates how local histories -- including affective differences like shame, estrangement and backwardness -- continue to haunt gay culture's global fictions. !

  13. Evaluation of flood and landslide risk to the population of Italy.

    PubMed

    Guzzetti, Fausto; Stark, Colin P; Salvati, Paola

    2005-07-01

    We have compiled a database of floods and landslides that occurred in Italy between AD 1279 and 2002 and caused deaths, missing persons, injuries, and homelessness. Analysis of the database indicates that more than 50,593 people died, went missing, or were injured in 2580 flood and landslide events. Harmful events were inventoried in 26.3% of the 8103 Italian municipalities. Fatal events were most frequent in the Alpine regions of northern Italy and were caused by both floods and landslides. In southern Italy, landslides were the principal agents of fatalities and were most numerous in the Campania region. Casualties were most frequent in the autumn. Fast-moving landslides, including rock falls, rockslides, rock avalanches, and debris flows, caused the largest number of deaths. In order to assess the overall risk posed by these processes, we merged the historical catalogs and identified 2682 "hydrogeomorphological" events that triggered single or multiple landslides and floods. We estimated individual risk through the calculation of mortality rates for both floods and landslides and compared these rates to the death rates for other natural, medical, and human-induced hazards in Italy. We used the frequency distribution of events with fatalities to ascertain the magnitude and frequency of the societal risks posed by floods and landslides. We quantified these risks in a Bayesian model that describes the probabilities of fatal flood and landslide events in Italy.

  14. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (JAN 2002) (a) The Contractor represents that...

  15. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c)(1), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (MAR 2012) (a) As the Contractor represented in its...

  16. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c)(1), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (MAR 2012) (a) As the Contractor represented in its...

  17. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c)(1), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (MAR 2012) (a) As the Contractor represented in its...

  18. 76 FR 4936 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... on granular PTFE resin from Italy and Japan (75 FR 67082-67083 and 67105-67108, November 1, 2010... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade... antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``granular PTFE resin'') from Italy....

  19. 76 FR 39896 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to... Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin from Italy: Investigation No. 731-TA-385 (Third Review). By order...

  20. Campland: Racial Segregation of Roma in Italy. Country Reports Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahn, Claude; Carlisle, Kathryn D.; Fregoli, Claudia; Kiuranov, Deyan; Petrova, Dimitrina

    This report addresses racial segregation and human rights abuses against Roma in Italy, focusing on: "Anti-Gypsyism in Italy"; "Roma in Italy: Racial Segregation"; "Abuses by Police and Judicial Authorities" (e.g., abusive raids and evictions, abusive use of firearms, torture and physical abuse, discriminatory targeting of Roma by police, theft by…

  1. All Roads Lead to Rome: Exploring Human Migration to the Eternal City through Biochemistry of Skeletons from Two Imperial-Era Cemeteries (1st-3rd c AD)

    PubMed Central

    Killgrove, Kristina; Montgomery, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Migration within the Roman Empire occurred at multiple scales and was engaged in both voluntarily and involuntarily. Because of the lengthy tradition of classical studies, bioarchaeological analyses must be fully contextualized within the bounds of history, material culture, and epigraphy. In order to assess migration to Rome within an updated contextual framework, strontium isotope analysis was performed on 105 individuals from two cemeteries associated with Imperial Rome—Casal Bertone and Castellaccio Europarco—and oxygen and carbon isotope analyses were performed on a subset of 55 individuals. Statistical analysis and comparisons with expected local ranges found several outliers who likely immigrated to Rome from elsewhere. Demographics of the immigrants show men and children migrated, and a comparison of carbon isotopes from teeth and bone samples suggests the immigrants may have significantly changed their diet. These data represent the first physical evidence of individual migrants to Imperial Rome. This case study demonstrates the importance of employing bioarchaeology to generate a deeper understanding of a complex ancient urban center. PMID:26863610

  2. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Micro Economic Activities in Rome Reveals Patterns of Mixed-Use Urban Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Fiasconaro, Alessandro; Strano, Emanuele; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Porta, Sergio; Latora, Vito

    2016-01-01

    Understanding urban growth is one with understanding how society evolves to satisfy the needs of its individuals in sharing a common space and adapting to the territory. We propose here a quantitative analysis of the historical development of a large urban area by investigating the spatial distribution and the age of commercial activities in the whole city of Rome. We find that the age of activities of various categories presents a very interesting double exponential trend, with a transition possibly related to the long-term economical effects determined by the oil crisis of the Seventies. The diversification of commercial categories, studied through various measures of entropy, shows, among other interesting features, a saturating behaviour with the density of activities. Moreover, different couples of commercial categories exhibit over the years a tendency to attract in space. Our results demonstrate that the spatio-temporal distribution of commercial activities can provide important insights on the urbanisation processes at work, revealing specific and non trivial socio-economical dynamics, as the presence of crisis periods and expansion trends, and contributing to the characterisation of the maturity of urban areas. PMID:26982028

  3. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Micro Economic Activities in Rome Reveals Patterns of Mixed-Use Urban Evolution.

    PubMed

    Fiasconaro, Alessandro; Strano, Emanuele; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Porta, Sergio; Latora, Vito

    2016-01-01

    Understanding urban growth is one with understanding how society evolves to satisfy the needs of its individuals in sharing a common space and adapting to the territory. We propose here a quantitative analysis of the historical development of a large urban area by investigating the spatial distribution and the age of commercial activities in the whole city of Rome. We find that the age of activities of various categories presents a very interesting double exponential trend, with a transition possibly related to the long-term economical effects determined by the oil crisis of the Seventies. The diversification of commercial categories, studied through various measures of entropy, shows, among other interesting features, a saturating behaviour with the density of activities. Moreover, different couples of commercial categories exhibit over the years a tendency to attract in space. Our results demonstrate that the spatio-temporal distribution of commercial activities can provide important insights on the urbanisation processes at work, revealing specific and non trivial socio-economical dynamics, as the presence of crisis periods and expansion trends, and contributing to the characterisation of the maturity of urban areas. PMID:26982028

  4. Accumulation of organic matter in the in the Rome trough of the Appalachian basin and its subsequent thermal history

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, J.B.; Faure, G.

    1997-03-01

    We used geochemical data to examine the origin and preservation of organic matter contained in the lower part of the Huron Member of the Ohio Shale formation and the Rhinestreet Shale Member of the West Falls Formation (Devonian) in Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The thermal history of the organic matter was determined by relating relative temperatures experienced by the organic matter to the geologic setting. The organic matter in these formations is predominantly marine in origin and was most probably derived largely from algal organisms. Although the rate of production of marine organic matter may have been uniform within the basin, its preservation apparently was controlled by the existence of a set of fault-bounded anoxic subbasins associated with the Rome trough, a Cambrian structural complex. These subbasins apparently were anoxic because they limited oxygen recharge by circulating waters. Preservation of organic matter was also enhanced by periodic blooms of the alga Tasmanites and similar organisms in the waters above the subbasins during both early Huron and Rhinestreet deposition. A significant negative correlation was identified between the vitrinite reflectance peak temperature, and integrated measure of the thermal history of a rock, and the hydrogen index, a measure of the remaining hydrocarbon-generation potential of kerogen. Although peak temperatures were controlled by burial depth, excess heating occurred locally, perhaps by hot brines rising from depth through fractures associated with major structures in the study area.

  5. A Comparison of Rome Observatory Sunspot Area and Sunspot Number Determinations With International Measures, 1958-1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2005-01-01

    Two changes in recording the sunspot record have occurred in recent years. First, in 1976, the longer-than-100-yr daily photographic record of the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO), used for determination of numbers and positions of sunspot groups and sunspot areas ended, and second, at the end of 1980, after more than 130 years, Zurich s Swiss Federal Observatory stopped providing daily sunspot numbers. To extend the sunspot record beyond 1976, use of United States Air Force/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (USAF/NOAA) sunspot drawing observations from the Solar Optical Observing Network began in 1977, and the combined record of sunspot activity from RGO/USAF/NOAA was made accessible at http://science.nasa.gov/ssl/PAD/SOLAR/greenwch.htm. Also, in 1981, the task of providing daily sunspot numbers was taken up by the Royal Observatory of Belgium s Solar Influences and Data analysis Center, and the combined Zurich/International sunspot number database was made available at http://sidc.oma.be/index.php3. In this study, Rome Observatory 1958-1998 photographic records of sunspot areas, numbers of groups, and derived sunspot numbers are compared against same-day international values to determine relative behaviors and to evaluate whether any potential changes might have been introduced in the overall sunspot record, due to the aforementioned changes.

  6. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Micro Economic Activities in Rome Reveals Patterns of Mixed-Use Urban Evolution.

    PubMed

    Fiasconaro, Alessandro; Strano, Emanuele; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Porta, Sergio; Latora, Vito

    2016-01-01

    Understanding urban growth is one with understanding how society evolves to satisfy the needs of its individuals in sharing a common space and adapting to the territory. We propose here a quantitative analysis of the historical development of a large urban area by investigating the spatial distribution and the age of commercial activities in the whole city of Rome. We find that the age of activities of various categories presents a very interesting double exponential trend, with a transition possibly related to the long-term economical effects determined by the oil crisis of the Seventies. The diversification of commercial categories, studied through various measures of entropy, shows, among other interesting features, a saturating behaviour with the density of activities. Moreover, different couples of commercial categories exhibit over the years a tendency to attract in space. Our results demonstrate that the spatio-temporal distribution of commercial activities can provide important insights on the urbanisation processes at work, revealing specific and non trivial socio-economical dynamics, as the presence of crisis periods and expansion trends, and contributing to the characterisation of the maturity of urban areas.

  7. Present Status and Future Prospects of Geothermal Development in Italy with an Appendix on Reservoir Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldi, R.; Calamai, A.; Neri, G.; Manetti, G.

    1983-12-15

    This paper consists of two parts and an appendix. In the first part a review is made of the geothermal activity in Italy from 1975 to 1982, including electrical and non-electrical applications. Remarks then follow on the trends that occurred and the operational criteria that were applied in the same period, which can be considered a transitional period of geothermal development in Italy. Information on recent trends and development objectives up to 1990 are given in the second part of the paper, together with a summary on program activities in the various geothermal areas of Italy. The appendix specifically reviews the main reseroir engineering activities carried out in the past years and the problems likely to be faced in the coming years in developing Itallian fields.

  8. Analysis of the damage caused by natural and anthropogenic sinkholes in Italy, on the basis of a nation-wide chronological catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennari, Carmela; Guzzetti, Fausto; Marchesini, Ivan; Parise, Mario; Salvati, Paola

    2013-04-01

    Sinkholes of both natural or anthropogenic origin are widespread phenomena in Italy, and locally constitute the main hazard. Notwithstanding the potential threat they represent to the built-up environment, sinkholes are rarely considered in the assessment of the geological hazards, and are generally underrated when compared to other hazards such as floods and landslides. Using a variety of information sources we have recently compiled a chronological catalogue of about 700 events that occurred in Italy. Mandatory for including a sinkhole in the catalogue is the knowledge of the date of occurrence. This is considered to be complete when hour/day/month/year of the event are all available, which corresponds to high accuracy of the record. When the information about time of occurrence is more limited (for instance, comprising only month and year, or a few generic information), the accuracy is considered of progressively lower degree (medium, medium-low or low). The documented sinkholes in the catalogue cover a time span from 276 B.C. to the present day. For any event the location (precise or approximate) is also included, ranked in different levels of certainty, according to the information provided by the sources or derived from our direct surveys. More than 50 % of the sinkholes in the catalogue are related to man-made cavities, excavated in different rock types, including limestones, calcarenites, and volcanic rocks. This is due to the complex history of the country, and the many phases of underground constructions that had occurred during the different epochs, with a variety of purposes (working places, rupestrian settlements, hydraulic works, quarries, worship sites, etc.). Location of these cavities often got lost in time, so that they were later on included in the expansion of newly developed towns, thus increasing the related risk. Natural sinkholes, on the other hand, are generally located in areas where soluble rocks (carbonates, evaporites) crop out, or

  9. "Intelligent" Primary School Project in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    Construction work is about to begin on a new "intelligent" primary school for 300 students (later to be expanded for 600) in the Municipality of Solaro in the province of Milan. This is the first primary school building in Italy designed according to the principles of the "intelligent school" as defined by the Centre for Educational Innovation and…

  10. An Urban Renewal School Project in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    The restoration of an historic school building in Battipaglia, Italy, will provide new public facilities and is hoped to boost urban renewal. The municipality of Battipaglia, in the province of Salerno, held an architectural competition for renovating the E. De Amicis Primary School and the surrounding area. The winning project, submitted by a…

  11. Gastroenteritis outbreak at holiday resort, central Italy.

    PubMed

    Migliorati, Giacomo; Prencipe, Vincenza; Ripani, Alessandro; Di Francesco, Cristina; Casaccia, Claudia; Crudeli, Silvia; Ferri, Nicola; Giovannini, Armando; Marconi, Maria Maddalena; Marfoglia, Cristina; Melai, Valeria; Savini, Giovanni; Scortichini, Giampiero; Semprini, Primula; Ruggeri, Franco Maria

    2008-03-01

    During the summer of 2003, a gastroenteritis outbreak spread throughout a holiday resort in central Italy. Fecally contaminated groundwater and seawater were leaking into the non-drinking-water system, which was found to be connected to the drinking-water system of a large resort. This contamination had a primary role in the onset of the outbreak and spread of the infection.

  12. Italy's Treasures Are in Their Hands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocca, Francis X.

    2007-01-01

    Each year more than 300 applicants vie for 18 slots at the Central Institute of Restoration, the program responsible for the restoration of many of Italy's greatest works of art, and the training of experts in the repair of objects of artistic and/or cultural significance. Successful candidates must demonstrate knowledge of art history, chemistry,…

  13. School Quality and Family Background in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunello, G.; Checchi, D.

    2005-01-01

    We study whether the combined significant reduction in the pupil-teacher ratio and increase in parental education observed in Italy between the end of the second World War and the end of the 1980s have had a significant impact on the educational attainment and the labor market returns of a representative sample of Italians born between 1941 and…

  14. Education for Older People in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principi, Andrea; Lamura, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    This article provides information on trends in formal and informal adult education in Italy, with a particular focus on the older learners (over 65). Main providers, programs, objectives/motivations, and financial and legal framework are described. In general, over-65-year-old people were found to be underrepresented in participation. They were…

  15. Actors in Corruption: Business Politicians in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    della Porta, Donatella

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the development of political corruption brings about important changes in the political system and in the characteristics of the political class. Describes the emergence and activities of a group of "business politicians" in Italy who have transformed political parties into socializing agencies for illicit activities. (MJP)

  16. Education in Italy. Bulletin, 1919, No. 36

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Walter A.

    1919-01-01

    The economic and social exigencies brought about for Italy by her entrance into the war in May, 1915, inevitably led her educational thinkers to submit her traditional system of education to more careful scrutiny than ever before, and to recognize how inadequate it was along certain lines to meet the demands thrust upon it by the new conditions.…

  17. Bio-social and environmental factors of premature births and stillbirths in Italy.

    PubMed

    Pinnelli, A; Zannella, F

    1981-01-01

    An examination of a number of biological and social aspects of infant survival in Italy is presented, with particular reference to regional differences in premature births and stillbirths. Factors examined include birth order, mother's age, mother's educational background, father's occupation, and the economic, hygienic, and health care conditions of the province of residence. Data are for 1974-1975. (summary in FRE, ITA)

  18. Promoting Health and Preventing Chronic Degenerative Pathologies for Elders: The Empirical Scenario in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucchetti, Maria; Mazzoni, Ermanna; Principi, Andrea; Greco, Cosetta

    2007-01-01

    The article provides an overview of health prevention programs implemented by local authorities to target the needs of older people in Italy. Interventions include health promotion and primary prevention, secondary prevention, and tertiary prevention. The most important characteristics of the interventions are described in terms of type, targets,…

  19. Changing Occupational Profiles in the Hotel Industry: Case Studies in France, Italy and Spain. Synthesis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatti, Mario; Grazia Mereu, Maria; Tagliaferro, Claudio

    Changing occupational profiles in the hotel industry in France, Italy, and Spain were examined in case studies that included interviews with hotel managers, human resource managers, and individuals employed in hotel occupations identified as new or entailing new skills. The study focused on the following topics: (1) changes in the hotel industry…

  20. Albanian: The Albanian Language in Education in Italy. Regional Dossiers Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belluscio, Giovanni, Comp.

    2010-01-01

    This regional dossier aims to provide concise, descriptive information and basic educational statistics about minority language education in a specific region of Europe--"Arberishtja" of Italy. Aspects that are addressed include features of the education system, recent educational policies, main actors, legal arrangements, and support structures,…

  1. Fire regime characterization in Mediterranean ecosystems of Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanorte, A.; Lasaponara, R.

    2009-04-01

    This paper addresses the wildfire regime in Mediterranean ecosystems of Southern Italy. Fire regimes refer to average fire conditions (including fire size, fire density, fire frequency, fire seasonality, fire intensity, fire severity, fire thresholds, etc.) occurring over a long period of time. Information on spatial pattern of forest fire locations is a key point in the study of the dynamics of fire disturbance, and allows us to improve the knowledge of past and current role of fire. Historical evidence clearly shows what did happen and this can fruitfully help to understand what is happening and what could happen in the next future. Mapping fire regimes is very challenging, because fire ocurrence features are the expression of the interactions between climate, fire, vegetation, topography, social factors. The main objective of this work is to provide a comprehensive characterization of the fire regime in Italy based on a recently updated national wildfire database. Fire data were obtained from the Italian National Forestry Service. This national database is comprised of information contained in individual fire reports completed for every fire that occurs on public lands in the Italian peninsula. Complete data were only available for 1996-2006 at the time we accessed the database, which determined the years we analysed. The primary fire history variables that we reported were number of fires, area burned, burning time and duration, and fire size (average size of individual fires) The wildfire records (wildfire area, location, time, vegetation) were analysed with other environmental (fuel availability and type), topographic features, and meteorological/climatological data. Results of our analysis could help better understand the different factors on the wildfire regime in Mediterranean ecosystems of Southern Italy.

  2. Hepatitis E Virus Circulation in Italy: Phylogenetic and Evolutionary Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Montesano, Carla; Giovanetti, Marta; Ciotti, Marco; Cella, Eleonora; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Grifoni, Alba; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Angeletti, Silvia; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a major cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries, has been classified into four main genotypes and a number of subtypes. New genotypes have been recently identified in various mammals, including HEV genotype 3, which has a worldwide distribution. It is widespread among pigs in developed countries. Objectives This study investigated the genetic diversity of HEV among humans and swine in Italy. The date of origin and the demographic history of the HEV were also estimated. Materials and Methods A total of 327 HEV sequences of swine and humans from Italy were downloaded from the national centre for biotechnology information. Three different data sets were constructed. The first and the second data set were used to confirm the genotype of the sequences analyzed. The third data set was used to estimate the mean evolutionary rate and to determine the time-scaled phylogeny and demographic history. Results The Bayesian maximum clade credibility tree and the time of the most common recent ancestor estimates showed that the root of the tree dated back to the year 1907 (95% HPD: 1811 - 1975). Two main clades were found, divided into two subclades. Skyline plot analysis, performed separately for human and swine sequences, demonstrated the presence of a bottleneck only in the skyline plot from the swine sequences. Selective pressure analysis revealed only negatively selected sites. Conclusions This study provides support for the hypothesis that humans are probably infected after contact with swine sources. The findings emphasize the importance of checking the country of origin of swine and of improving sanitary control measures from the veterinary standpoint to prevent the spread of HEV infection in Italy. PMID:27226798

  3. Societal landslide and flood risk in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvati, P.; Bianchi, C.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.

    2010-03-01

    We assessed societal landslide and flood risk to the population of Italy. The assessment was conducted at the national (synoptic) and at the regional scales. For the assessment, we used an improved version of the catalogue of historical landslide and flood events that have resulted in loss of life, missing persons, injuries and homelessness in Italy, from 1850 to 2008. This is the recent portion of a larger catalogue spanning the 1941-year period from 68 to 2008. We started by discussing uncertainty and completeness in the historical catalogue, and we performed an analysis of the temporal and geographical pattern of harmful landslide and flood events, in Italy. We found that sites affected by harmful landslides or floods are not distributed evenly in Italy, and we attributed the differences to different physiographical settings. To determine societal risk, we investigated the distribution of the number of landslide and flood casualties (deaths, missing persons, and injured people) in Italy, and in the 20 Italian Regions. Using order statistics, we found that the intensity of a landslide or flood event - measured by the total number of casualties in the event - follows a general negative power law trend. Next, we modelled the empirical distributions of the frequency of landslide and flood events with casualties in Italy and in each Region using a Zipf distribution. We used the scaling exponent s of the probability mass function (PMF) of the intensity of the events, which controls the proportion of small, medium, and large events, to compare societal risk levels in different geographical areas and for different periods. Lastly, to consider the frequency of the events with casualties, we scaled the PMF obtained for the individual Regions to the total number of events in each Region, in the period 1950-2008, and we used the results to rank societal landslide and flood risk in Italy. We found that in the considered period societal landslide risk is largest in Trentino

  4. Romans: A Simulation of the History and Culture of Ancient Rome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staneart, Chuck; Baral, Wanda

    This simulation allows students to learn about and participate in many of the aspects of ancient Roman life that have influenced present institutions and way of life. The phases of the unit include: (1) "Daily Life"; (2) "Forum of Roma"; (3) "Temple of Apollo"; (4) "Pax Romana"; (5) "History/Mystery: 'Who Killed Mama Roma?'"; (6) "Circus Maximus"…

  5. Regional frequency analysis of extreme precipitation for Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestieri, Angelo; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley; Lo Conti, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of extreme precipitation has always been included among most relevant hydrological applications because of the several important activities linked to the availability of tools for the estimation of extreme rainfall quantiles. These activities include the design of hydraulic civil structures and the evaluation and management of hydraulic and hydrological risk. In this study a frequency analysis of annual maxima precipitation measurements has been carried out for the area of Sicily (Italy). A typical hierarchical regional approach has been adopted for the parameter estimation procedure based on the L-moments method. The identification of homogeneous regions within the procedure has been pursued with a data driven procedure constituted by a principal component analysis of an ensemble of selected auxiliary variables, and a K-means cluster analysis algorithm. Auxiliary variables comprise meteo-climatic information and a representation of the average seasonal distribution of intense events. Results have been evaluated by means of a Monte Carlo experiment based on the comparison between at-site and regional fitted frequency distributions. Moreover, results have been compared with previous analyses performed for the same area. The study provides an updated tool for the modelling of extreme precipitation for the area of Sicily (Italy), with different features respect to previous tools both in terms of definition of homogeneous zones and in terms of parameters of the frequency distribution. Meteo-climatic information and the seasonality of extreme events retrieved from the dataset has been proficuously exploited in the analysis.

  6. Assessing landscape health: a case study from northeastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bertollo, P

    2001-03-01

    This article investigates the concept of biophysical landscape health for what are termed "highly governed landscapes." It proposes a definition of landscape health along with a preliminary diagnostic model and methods. The idea of landscape health derives from the emerging integrative science of ecosystem health, which seeks to diagnose ecosystem condition as humans diagnose human health. Highly governed landscapes, such as the reclaimed areas of coastal northeastern Italy, are landscapes that have been subject to even greater degrees of human manipulation than normal cultural landscapes. These highly altered landscapes are not easily served by existing environmental paradigms and concepts of health are seen to have numerous advantages. This paper condenses a broader investigation of landscape health into three main sections. A brief review of the literature is followed by a case study, which details two different phases of landscape transformation in the Lower Piave area of northeastern Italy. A definition and general parameters of biophysical landscape health are then presented after this background stage. Some key parameters of biophysical health include absence of distress and risk factors, sustainability, biodiversity, resilience, and balance. For certain parameters, a preliminary landscape health diagnostic framework is presented that includes potential diagnostic methods and thresholds based on findings from this case study. At the paper's conclusion, a summary diagnostic model is presented, which suggests a process needed to implement landscape health assessment into practice. PMID:11148762

  7. Variability of DTM-derived, morphometric parameters versus cell size. An example of application in Calabria (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rago, Valeria; Caloiero, Paola; Pellegrino, Annamaria Daniela; Iovine, Giulio G. R.; Terranova, Oreste G.; Pascale, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    , G. Gullà, G. Iovine, O. Petrucci, P. Salvador Sanchis, M. Sorriso-Valvo, O. Terranova, D. Torri, V. Bagarello, C. Di Stefano, V. Ferro, G. Buttafuoco, G. Callegari, P. Porto, B. Betrò, A. Bodini, C. Brambilla (2010) - Relazione Finale Contratto Lotto 2 Pericolosità legata ai fenomeni di intensa erosione idrica areale e lineare- POR Calabria 2000-2006, Azione. 1.4c. Rapporto per Autorità di Bacino Regione Calabria. Iovine G., Greco R., Gariano S.L., Pellegrino A.D., Terranova O.G. (2014) - Shallow-landslide susceptibility in the Costa Viola mountain ridge (southern Calabria, Italy) with considerations on the role of causal factors. Natural Hazards, 73(1), pp.111-136. In: G. Iovine & D. Cohen (Eds.), Advanced methods in landslide modelling. Iovine G., Greco R., Gariano S.L., Iaquinta P., Pellegrino A.D., Terranova O.G. (2013) - Shallow-landslide susceptibility in the Costa Viola mountain ridge (Italia). In: Landslide Science and Practice, Claudio Margottini, Paolo Canuti, Kyoji Sassa (Editors), Volume 3: Spatial Analysis and Modelling, pp.81-87. Proc. Second World Landslide Forum, 3-7 October 2011, Rome.

  8. [Microbiological quality of haemodialysis water in various hospitals and private clinics in the Lazio region (Italy): 2000-2004].

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Patrizia; Spitaleri, Giuliana; Damiani, Francesco; Panà, Augusto

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of dialysis water used in dialysis units of various hospitals and private clinics in Rome and the Lazio region (Italy). The study was performed between January 2000 and December 2004. A total of 507 samples were analysed, 205 of which obtained from public hospitals and 302 from privately-owned medical facilities. Microbiological analysis was performed as specified by the 1995 Decree of the Lazio Region n degrees 1650, which also sets threshold values for bacterial contamination and minimum frequency of inspections. The decree also specifies the modalities and frequency of disinfection of dialysis water treatment and distribution systems. The findings show a superior microbiological quality of dialysis water in privately-owned dialysis units. This may be due to several factors but especially to a more regular maintenance and disinfection of the water treatment systems. Overall, over half of the samples analysed, in both types of facilities, showed bacterial loads well below the set limits. In our view, however, bacterial limits for dialysis water are too high especially considering the fact that they are the same limits set by previous regulations for drinkable water. Haemodialysis patients are exposed to large volumes of water used for the production of dialysis fluids during a treatment session. It is therefore clearly important that more stringent limits for bacterial contamination be introduced. PMID:17401447

  9. Genotypic heterogeneity based on 18S-rRNA gene sequences among Acanthamoeba isolates from clinical samples in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Cave, David; D' Alfonso, Rossella; Dussey Comlavi, Kodjo A; D' Orazi, Carlo; Monno, Rosa; Berrilli, Federica

    2014-11-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is an ocular disease caused by members of a genus of free-living amoebae and it is associated predominantly with contact lens (CL) use. This study reports 55 cases of AK diagnosed in Italy. Genotype identification was carried out by PCR assay followed by sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene using the genus specific primers JDP1 and JDP2. Genotype assignment was based on phenetic analysis of the ASA.S1 subset of the small-subunit rRNA gene sequences. The material has been collected at the Polyclinic Tor Vergata of Rome for a total of 19 isolates and at the Polyclinic Hospital of Bari (36 isolates). Thirty-three out of the 55 genetically characterized isolates were assigned to the genotype T4. Ten isolates were identified as belonging to the genotype T15 thus confirming the first association between the genotype T15 and human amoebic keratitis previously described from the same area. We underline the occurrence of the genotype T3 and T11 identified for the first time in the country.

  10. Sinuosity change of the Po River near Cremona (Northern Italy) - a result of neotectonic activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovszki, Judit; Timár, Gábor

    2010-05-01

    In the map sheets of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire, Lombardia, Parma, Modena and Venice also can be seen (Timár et al., 2006). This area was surveyed between 1818 and 1829. In these map sheets, we can also follow the river Po from Vaccarizza to the delta. This river reach is about 350 km long. This river reach was digitized and sinuosity values were calculated with different window sizes, and displayed in a spectrum-like diagram (sinuosity spectra; after van Balen et al., 2008). At Cremona, a significante sinuosity change were identified. The sinuosity increasing, and we have high sinuosity values. In the summarizing geological map of Italy (Compagnoni and Calluzzo, 2004), at this place, a tectonic line was identified. So probably this fault line invokes the sinuosity change on the river. The vertical movements indicated on the maps are just the opposite like they would be according to the flume experiments of Ouchi (1985). In the case of the Po River at Cremona, the decrease of the channel slope results higher sinuosity. The reason is that the rate of the slope and water discharge is higher than it is required by the self-organized meandering and the river parameters fell to the range of the unorganized meandering (cf. Timár, 2003). Another possible explanation could be that the northern tributary, the Adda River has significant sediment load that lowers the sinuosity of the trunk river at the confluence. Compagnoni, B., Galluzzo, F. (eds., 2004): Geological Map of Italy. Agenzia per la Protezione dell'Ambiente per I Servizi Tecnici - Dipartimento Difesa del Suolo, Servizio Geologico d'Italia, Rome-Florence-Genoa. Map, scale=1:1250000, especially printed for the 32nd International Geological Congress. Ouchi, S. (1985): Response of alluvial rivers to slow active tectonic movement. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 96: 504-515. Timár, G. (2003): Controls on channel sinuosity changes: a case study of the Tisza River, the Great Hungarian Plain. Quaternary

  11. A snapshot of workplace drug testing in Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Paolo Emilio; De Nardis, Isabella; Fronterrè, Pietrangelo; Felli, Marialinda; Martello, Simona; Bergamaschi, Antonio; Chiarotti, Marcello

    2012-02-01

    The Italian Decree on Health and Safety at Work (81/08) prescribes mandatory drug tests for jobs which pose safety hazards to others. Workplace drug testing is performed in accordance with the Provision of the Government-Regions Conference, 2008. The aim of our survey was to examine the prevalence of drug use and the main drug findings in a sample of Italian workers performing hazardous jobs. From September 2009 to February 2011, 551 urine samples were collected in 42 Italian companies. Sample collection was carried out at the workplace by qualified laboratory personnel sent from the Institute of Occupational Medicine of the Catholic University (UCSC) of Rome. The workers to be tested were informed the day before, as the law requires. The samples were checked for adulteration, coded, and sent immediately to the laboratory of the UCSC Forensic Toxicology Analytical Unit. The screening test was an immunoassay. The positive samples proceeded to the confirmatory analysis with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The urine samples were analyzed for cannabis, opiates, amphetamines, methamphetamines, cocaine, methadone, and MDMA. Out of 16 samples .9% screened positive; only 4 of them (0.7%) were confirmed with the LC-MS/MS. Confirmed results included cocaine (2 samples), cannabis (1 sample), both cocaine and cannabis (1 sample). The prevalence of positive samples was lower than expected. Such finding cannot be explained by a low reliability of the testing procedure but could be due to test scheduling. More positive cases might be found performing short-notice random testing.

  12. A snapshot of workplace drug testing in Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Paolo Emilio; De Nardis, Isabella; Fronterrè, Pietrangelo; Felli, Marialinda; Martello, Simona; Bergamaschi, Antonio; Chiarotti, Marcello

    2012-02-01

    The Italian Decree on Health and Safety at Work (81/08) prescribes mandatory drug tests for jobs which pose safety hazards to others. Workplace drug testing is performed in accordance with the Provision of the Government-Regions Conference, 2008. The aim of our survey was to examine the prevalence of drug use and the main drug findings in a sample of Italian workers performing hazardous jobs. From September 2009 to February 2011, 551 urine samples were collected in 42 Italian companies. Sample collection was carried out at the workplace by qualified laboratory personnel sent from the Institute of Occupational Medicine of the Catholic University (UCSC) of Rome. The workers to be tested were informed the day before, as the law requires. The samples were checked for adulteration, coded, and sent immediately to the laboratory of the UCSC Forensic Toxicology Analytical Unit. The screening test was an immunoassay. The positive samples proceeded to the confirmatory analysis with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The urine samples were analyzed for cannabis, opiates, amphetamines, methamphetamines, cocaine, methadone, and MDMA. Out of 16 samples .9% screened positive; only 4 of them (0.7%) were confirmed with the LC-MS/MS. Confirmed results included cocaine (2 samples), cannabis (1 sample), both cocaine and cannabis (1 sample). The prevalence of positive samples was lower than expected. Such finding cannot be explained by a low reliability of the testing procedure but could be due to test scheduling. More positive cases might be found performing short-notice random testing. PMID:22362571

  13. Flood and Landslide Fatalities and Evaluation of Geo-hydrological Risk in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzetti, F.; Salvati, P.

    2003-04-01

    A database of floods which occurred in Italy between 1900 and 2002 and caused deaths, missing people, injuries and homelessness was compiled from a variety of different sources. These included the archive of the National Research Council's AVI (Damaged Urban Areas) project, which collected together information on foods and landslides in the 20th century in Italy. The existing database of landslides with human consequences in Italy was updated with information on recent landslide events that caused dead, missing, injuries and homeless people. Joint analysis of the two databases indicates that in Italy a total of 9,195 people have been killed or are missing due to floods or landslides between 1900 and 2002. In the 103-years period, floods have caused 3,382 deaths or missing people in a total of 969 flooding events, corresponding to a frequency of 9.5 flood events with fatalities each year. In the same period, analysis of the landslide database indicates that 5,813 people died in a total of 1882 landslide events, corresponding to a frequency of 18.4 landslide events with fatalities every year. The average number of fatalities caused by flood or landslide events is 3.5, and 3.1, respectively. Problems encountered in collecting the historical information and in building the catalogues of flood and landslide events with human consequences are discussed. Completeness of the two databases is ascertained by analyzing the trend of the cumulative number of landslide and flood fatalities. The temporal pattern of flood and landslide events with human consequences is investigated. The frequencies of flood and landslide events are plotted against their consequences (i.e., number of deaths and missing people caused by floods or landslides), and an attempt to ascertain geo-hydrological risk to people in Italy is shown. Mortality rates for landslide and flood events are estimated, and compared to mortality rates for other natural, medical, and human-induced hazards in Italy.

  14. Intestinal parasite infections in immigrant children in the city of Rome, related risk factors and possible impact on nutritional status

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Parasitic diseases can represent a social and economic problem among disadvantaged people - even in developed countries. Due to the limited data available concerning Europe, the aims of the present study were to evaluate the presence of parasites in immigrant children and the risk factors favouring the spread of parasites. Subsequently, the possible correlation between nutritional status and parasitic infections was also investigated. Findings A convenience sample of two hundred and forty seven immigrant children (aged 0–15) attending the Poliambulatorio della Medicina Solidale in Rome was examined. Data were collected using structured questionnaires, and parasitological and anthropometric tests were applied. Chi-squared test and binary logistic multiple-regression models were used for statistical analysis. Thirty-seven children (15%) tested positive to parasites of the following species: Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, Giardia duodenalis, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Strongyloides stercoralis. A monospecific infection was detected in 30 (81%) out of 37 parasitized children, while the others (19%) presented a polyparasitism. The major risk factors were housing, i.e. living in shacks, and cohabitation with other families (p<0.01). Children classified in the lower height Z-scores had a significantly greater prevalence of parasites (30.9%) than the others (p<0.01). Conclusions This study shows that parasite infection in children is still quite common, even in a developed country and that children’s growth and parasitism may be related. Extensive improvements in the living, social and economic conditions of immigrants are urgently needed in order to overcome these problems. PMID:23168023

  15. Analysis of Gastric and Duodenal Eosinophils in Children with Abdominal Pain Related Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders According to Rome III Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Hye; Yang, Hye Ran; Lee, Hye Seung

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder (AP-FGID) is common in children and adults. However, the mechanism of AP-FGID is not clearly known. Recently, micro-inflammation, especially eosinophilia in the gastrointestinal tract, was suggested in the pathophysiology of AP-FGID in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of gastric and duodenal eosinophilia with pediatric AP-FGID. Methods In total, 105 pediatric patients with AP-FGID were recruited and classified into 4 subgroups based on the Rome III criteria. Eosinophil counts in the gastric and duodenal tissues of children with AP-FGID were compared to those from normal pathology references or those of children with Helicobacter pylori infection. Tissue eosinophil counts were also compared among the 4 subtypes of AP-FGID. Results Eosinophil counts in the gastric antrum and body were significantly higher in children with AP-FGID than normal reference values. Duodenal eosinophil counts were higher in children with AP-FGID, but not significantly when compared with normal reference values. There were no significant differences in eosinophil counts of the stomach or duodenum among the 4 subtypes of AP-FGID. Eosinophils counts in the gastric antrum and body were significantly higher in children with H. pylori infection than in those with AP-FGID. Duodenal eosinophilia was prominent in cases of H. pylori infection, but not statistically significant when compared with AP-FGID. Conclusions Our study revealed that gastric eosinophilia is associated with AP-FGID in children, regardless of the subtype of functional abdominal pain. This suggests some contribution of gastrointestinal eosinophils in the development of pediatric AP-FGID. PMID:27053514

  16. New Contributions on the Dome of the Pantheon in Rome: Comparison Between the Ideal Model and the Survey Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliberti, L.; Canciani, M.; Alonso Rodriguéz, M. A.

    2015-02-01

    This work proposes an integrated survey and a study of the intrados of the dome of the Pantheon in Rome. An actualized architectural survey of the interior of the dome can generate useful material for future studies. The survey has been realized by using in a first stage the digital photogrammetry and in a second stage the three-dimensional laser scan technology. The compared analysis between different methods applied in the same object is useful towards a closer approximation to real dimension. Among several aspects that arise in dealing with the Pantheon this work focuses mainly on the study of the geometry of the inner surface of the dome. The specific goal of the research is to verify the spherical form of the surface and the coffers' distribution. In this sense it takes an important place the extracting data system. In order to realize the analysis it was applied a critical treatment of selected information contained in the point cloud. The use of plan and section drawings connects to the study of three dimensional models. The research is based on the construction of an ideal geometrical model that derives from the theoretical model described in the historical documents. The survey points model, which keeps the irregularities of the actual form, determines the creation of an average sphere, that is a regular model defined by clarifying geometrical laws. The direct comparison between the survey model and the ideal model contributes to the building understanding. It detects irregularities or deformities where they exist, and provides objective and quantifiable data.

  17. Prevalence of allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Incorvaia, C; Senna, G; Mauro, M; Bonadonna, P; Marconi, I; Asero, R; Nitti, F

    2004-12-01

    The epidemiology of Hymenoptera venom allergy in Europe showed prevalence of systemic reactions of about 3%, but is scantly investigated in Italy. We studied two samples of the general and an at risk population, i.e. the foresters, in northern Italy. A standardized questionnaire dealing with allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings was submitted to the subjects included in the study, who were factory workers in Milan and Verona and foresters in Lombardy. An overall number of 574 subjects participated to the study, 462 (299 males and 163 females, mean age 40.1 yrs, range 20-63 yrs) were factory workers and 112 (all males, mean age 38.8 yrs, range 24-59 yrs) were foresters. Among factory workers, 302 (65.4%) were stung by Hymenoptera, 49 (10.6%) had had large local reactions, and 13 (2.8%) systemic reactions. Among foresters, 76 (67.8%) were stung, 11 (9.8%) had had large local reactions, and 5 (4.5%) systemic reactions. The systemic reactions were life-threatening in 3 (0.6%) industrial workers and 2 (1.8%) foresters. The prevalence of systemic reaction of 2.8% in the general population agrees with the data reported from a number of countries with temperate climate. The prevalence of 4.5% in foresters attributed to this population a risk only slightly increased.

  18. Prevalence of allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Incorvaia, C; Senna, G; Mauro, M; Bonadonna, P; Marconi, I; Asero, R; Nitti, F

    2004-12-01

    The epidemiology of Hymenoptera venom allergy in Europe showed prevalence of systemic reactions of about 3%, but is scantly investigated in Italy. We studied two samples of the general and an at risk population, i.e. the foresters, in northern Italy. A standardized questionnaire dealing with allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings was submitted to the subjects included in the study, who were factory workers in Milan and Verona and foresters in Lombardy. An overall number of 574 subjects participated to the study, 462 (299 males and 163 females, mean age 40.1 yrs, range 20-63 yrs) were factory workers and 112 (all males, mean age 38.8 yrs, range 24-59 yrs) were foresters. Among factory workers, 302 (65.4%) were stung by Hymenoptera, 49 (10.6%) had had large local reactions, and 13 (2.8%) systemic reactions. Among foresters, 76 (67.8%) were stung, 11 (9.8%) had had large local reactions, and 5 (4.5%) systemic reactions. The systemic reactions were life-threatening in 3 (0.6%) industrial workers and 2 (1.8%) foresters. The prevalence of systemic reaction of 2.8% in the general population agrees with the data reported from a number of countries with temperate climate. The prevalence of 4.5% in foresters attributed to this population a risk only slightly increased. PMID:15662965

  19. Helminth communities of herons (Aves: Ardeidae) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galiero, Giorgio; Cerrone, Anna; Barca, Lorella; Kinsella, John M; Aznar, Francisco J

    2016-08-01

    The helminth communities of nine species of herons from southern Italy were studied and compared. Of 24 taxa found including seven digeneans, seven nematodes, six cestodes and four acanthocephalans, only five taxa were found in more than one heron species, and five of the 21 taxa that could be identified to species level were classified as 'heron specialists'. The total number of helminth species per heron species ranged from 1 in Botaurus stellaris to 9 in Ixobrychus minutus with infection levels generally low. A statistical comparison was carried out for herons with a sample size >5. At the infracommunity level, only I. minutus clearly differed from other heron species. Diversity parameters of heminth infracommunities did not significantly differ among heron species. Species richness ranged from just 0.3 to 2.3 helminth taxa per individual host, and the Brillouin index, from 0 to 0.3. Total helminth abundance did not exceed 40 worms per host except in a single case of Ardeola ralloides. Infracommunities clearly were dominated by single helminth species. The present study confirms a depauperate helminth community in herons from southern Italy. Comparison with data from Spain and the Czech Republic showed strong quantitative similarities with values obtained in the present study. Results also suggest that the composition of local helminth communities are strongly variable depending on geographical location as is demonstrated by comparison with data from other European areas. However, whether herons in Europe naturally host depauperate helminth communities or these communities are depauperate because of other factors is unknown.

  20. [The position of nephrology in regional health programs in Italy].

    PubMed

    Susi, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    Regional health policies are acquiring remarkable importance in the allocation of healthcare resources, both human and financial. The importance of playing a prominent role in national and regional policy-making for healthcare professionals derives from the need to render the interventions of health policy more suitable to different territories. A review of all official regional healthcare plans approved in Italy until February 2009 has been carried out with the aim of recording the level of inclusion of nephrology in regional healthcare programming. The attention to kidney diseases has been delineated according to six levels of relevance: (i) the mere inclusion of nephrology in the plan, (ii) the level of priority of nephrology among other areas of intervention, (iii) the presence of new dedicated programs, (iv) the reinforcement of ongoing programs, (v) the allocation of specific resources, and (vi) the existence of nephrology networks. Nephrology does not turn out to be one of the priorities of intervention within the regional frameworks, with the exception of some regions which were found to be particularly sensitive to issues of outpatient care. Ad hoc measures for (i) the allocation of resources, (ii) the activation and (iii) the reinforcement of specific networks or programs were documented in a few cases. Nephrology is still too scarcely included in regional programming, considering the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Italy. It is necessary that regional representatives of the discipline participate in healthcare planning to guarantee essential qualitative levels of healthcare for chronic kidney disease.

  1. Vision screening of preschool children in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ingrosso, A; Mancioppi, S; Orsoni, J G

    1995-03-01

    Vision screening of preschool children is designed and performed to identify those affected by amblyopia or related, predisposing visual defects. In order to determine the prevalence of preschool vision screening in Italy, a questionnaire was mailed to the 635 regional health offices in which the country's national health system was organized at the time of the study. Results of this survey demonstrated that in 61.3% of the regions which responded, some form of preschool vision screening is performed. However, individual, non-standardized methods are used by the physicians or health care professionals responsible in each regional program. It is evident from this study that standardized procedures for preschool vision testing are lacking in Italy, and that the existing European Community guidelines should be disseminated and applied on a greater scale for the development of such a program on the national and European level.

  2. Report on religious slaughter practices in Italy.

    PubMed

    Novelli, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The term 'religious slaughter' commonly refers to the practice of killing animals without stunning, according to the precepts of Jewish and Muslim religions. The aim of this paper is to assess the situation concerning ritual slaughtering in not-stun bovines, small ruminants, and poultry in Italy in 2012. The study was divided into 2 phases. During the rst phase, preliminary data about all slaughterhouses authorized for ritual slaughter in Italy in 2012 are collected through the compilation of a questionnaire sent to each plants. The second step involved a sampling of not-stun animals religiously slaughtered in 5 selected plants. Authors collected and compiled all informations about management, restrain system and rite taking into account in particular animal welfare. PMID:27033526

  3. Helium isotopes and tectonics in southern Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, Yuji; Wakita, Hiroshi ); Nuccio, M.P. ); Italiano, F.

    1989-06-01

    Geodynamic evolution of southern Italy can be understood within the framework of the Mediterranean-Alpine System. Subduction of a plate along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc under the Tyrrhenian Sea has been suggested by many geophysicists, although it is not yet confirmed and remains somewhat controversial. Helium isotope ratios provide useful information on the geotectonic structure of the region. The authors report here the {sup 3}H/{sup 4}He ratios of terrestrial gas samples from southern Italy. The observed {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios are relatively high in the Eolian volcanic arc region and low in the other areas. Dichotomous explanations are presented. Firstly, volcanic arc-forearc hypothesis suggests the subduction along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc. Secondly, horizontal transport hypothesis is described based on the relationship between the ratios and radial distance from the recent spreading basin in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea.

  4. Biodiversity of entomopathogenic nematodes in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tarasco, E; Clausi, M; Rappazzo, G; Panzavolta, T; Curto, G; Sorino, R; Oreste, M; Longo, A; Leone, D; Tiberi, R; Vinciguerra, M T; Triggiani, O

    2015-05-01

    An investigation was carried out on the distribution and biodiversity of steinernematid and heterorhabdtid entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in nine regions of Italy in the period 1990-2010. More than 2000 samples were collected from 580 localities and 133 of them yielded EPN specimens. A mapping of EPN distribution in Italy showed 133 indigenous EPN strains belonging to 12 species: 43 isolates of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, 1 of H. downesi, 1 of H. megidis, 51 of Steinernema feltiae, 12 of S. affine, 4 of S. kraussei, 8 of S. apuliae, 5 of S. ichnusae, 3 of S. carpocapsae, 1 of S. vulcanicum, 3 of Steinernema 'isolate S.sp.MY7' of 'S. intermedium group' and 1 of S. arenarium. Steinernematids are more widespread than heterorhabditids and S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora are the most commonly encountered species. Sampling sites were grouped into 11 habitats: uncultivated land, orchard, field, sea coast, pinewood, broadleaf wood, grasslands, river and lake borders, caves, salt pan and moist zones; the soil texture of each site was defined and the preferences of habitat and soil texture of each species was assessed. Except for the two dominant species, S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora, EPN occurrence tends to be correlated with a specific vegetation habitat. Steinernema kraussei, H. downesi and H. megidis were collected only in Sicily and three of the species recently described - S. apuliae, S. ichnusae and S. vulcanicum - are known only from Italy and seem to be endemic.

  5. [Consistency and dynamics of immigration in Italy].

    PubMed

    Blangiardo, G C; Terzera, L

    2011-01-01

    According to recent data, foreign population currently in Italy is estimated to be 5,3 million, 550,000 irregular. Migration from Eastern Europe has progressively assumed leading position in the Italian panorama, downsizing other origins: betweenn 2005 and 2010, this component passed from 46% to 50,8% of the total immigrants, whereas all the other macro-areas have lost relative importance. Perspectives of slowing down of migration toward Italy could be real only when significant changes would happen in the areas at the origin of migration flow. In fact, if it is true that the demographic surplus from East Europe is bound to decrease through the process of local turnover of work supply, other great regions will show enormous excess of manpower. In North Africa, 3 million new workplaces will yearly be needed just to absorb excess of young workforce; in Latin America, the new workplaces to create will be almost twice as many. The sub Saharan Africa will however be under special observation, with 15-20 million places to create annually to absorb excess of offer. Italy could play as one of the safety valves of emigration.

  6. Coupling Functions for NM-64 and NM Without Lead Derived on the Basis of Calculated Apparent Cutoff Rigidities for CR Latitude Survey from Antarctica to Italy in Minimum of Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, L.I.; Danilova, O.A.; Tyasto, M.I.; Ptitsina, N.G.; Villoresi, G.; Iucci, N.; Parisi, M.

    L. I. Dorman (1,2), O. A. Danilova (3), M. I. Tyasto (3), N. G. Ptitsina (3), G. Villoresi (4), N. Iucci (4) and M. Parisi (4) ? (1) Israel Cosmic Ray Center affiliated to Tel Aviv University, Technion and Israel Space Agency, Israel; (2) IZMIRAN, Troitsk, Russia; (3) SPbFIZMIRAN, St. Petersburg, Russia; (4) Dipartimento di Fisica "E. Amaldi", Università "Roma Tre", Rome, Italy In Dorman et al. (2007) it was calculate the apparent cut-off rigidities for the backward route (Antarctica-Italy) of the CR latitude survey performed on a ship during 1996-1997 solar minimum. These computations were done on the basis of results of trajectory calculations for inclined cut-off rigidities for various azimuth and zenith angles (0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°) and azimuth directions changing from 0° to 360° in steps of 45°. The information on integral multiplicities of secondary neutrons detected by neutron monitor in dependence of zenith angle of incoming primary CR particles have been also used. This information is based on the theoretical calculations of meson-nuclear cascades of primary protons with different rigidities arriving to the Earth's atmosphere at zenith angles 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 75°. By using this information and data of CR latitude survey from Antarctica to Italy in minimum of solar activity we determine coupling functions for NM-64 and NM without lead. Reference: L.I. Dorman et al. “Apparent Cutoff Rigidities for Cosmic Ray Latitude Survey from Antarctica to Italy in Minimum of Solar Activity”, Adv. Space Res., 2007 (in press).

  7. Regional differences of vitamin D deficiency in rheumatoid arthritis patients in Italy.

    PubMed

    Rossini, M; D'Avola, G; Muratore, M; Malavolta, N; Silveri, F; Bianchi, G; Frediani, B; Minisola, G; Sorgi, M L; Varenna, M; Foti, R; Tartarelli, G; Orsolini, G; Adami, S

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is very common in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among the different Italian regions and whether these variations are associated with different severity of the disease. The study includes 581 consecutive RA patients (464 women), not taking vitamin D supplements, from 22 Italian rheumatology centres uniformly distributed across Italy. Together with parameters of disease activity (disease activity score 28), functional impairment (activities of daily living and health assessment questionnaire disability index) and mean sun exposure time, all patients had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) measured in a centralized laboratory. Vitamin D deficiency (25OHD level <20 ng/mL) was very frequent among RA patients; its prevalence was 60%, 52% and 38% in southern, central and northern Italy, respectively. Mean disease activity and disability scores were worse in southern regions of Italy. These scores were inversely related to 25OHD levels and this correlation remained statistically significant after adjusting for both body mass index (BMI) and sun exposure time. However, disease severity remained significantly higher in southern regions versus central-northern Italy after adjustment also for serum 25OHD levels, age and BMI. In RA Italian patients there are significant regional differences in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency explained by different BMI, and sun exposure time, and inversely associated with disease activity and disability scores. PMID:23884026

  8. Alien insects in Italy: comparing patterns from the regional to European level.

    PubMed

    Inghilesi, Alberto F; Mazza, Giuseppe; Cervo, Rita; Gherardi, Francesca; Sposimo, Paolo; Tricarico, Elena; Zapparoli, Marzio

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of species outside their native range contributes to the loss of biodiversity, alters the structure and functioning of ecosystems, and damages economy and human health. Insects are one of the taxa with the highest frequency of introduction due to their high diversity, biological properties, and close association with human activities. Here, the allodiversity of Italian entomofauna was analyzed, with a focus on Tuscany (Central Italy). A list of alien insects in Tuscany is included. The status of the alien entomofauna in Italy was updated. The number of alien insects amounts to 122 in Tuscany and 923 in Italy. An introduction rate of 98 species per decade was estimated in Italy. In Tuscany, alien insects belong to 10 orders, mostly Coleoptera (38%), Hemiptera (Sternorrhyncha and Auchenorrhyncha) (23%), and Hymenoptera (13%). They have been most often introduced through vegetable items (ornamental plants or crops). Most species come from the Nearctic region (26%) and are both phytophagous (63%) and amphigonic (80%). Differences and similarities in introduction patterns and in insect abundances across orders among regional, national, and European scales, also considering worldwide abundances, are discussed. Finally, a paucity of information regarding the negative impacts of many species, except for economic pests, phytosanitary threats, and vectors of disease, is underlined. A deeper understanding of the alien insects' ecological impact might help designate policies aimed at preventing further introductions and control the invasive populations of already established species.

  9. Regional differences of vitamin D deficiency in rheumatoid arthritis patients in Italy.

    PubMed

    Rossini, M; D'Avola, G; Muratore, M; Malavolta, N; Silveri, F; Bianchi, G; Frediani, B; Minisola, G; Sorgi, M L; Varenna, M; Foti, R; Tartarelli, G; Orsolini, G; Adami, S

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is very common in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among the different Italian regions and whether these variations are associated with different severity of the disease. The study includes 581 consecutive RA patients (464 women), not taking vitamin D supplements, from 22 Italian rheumatology centres uniformly distributed across Italy. Together with parameters of disease activity (disease activity score 28), functional impairment (activities of daily living and health assessment questionnaire disability index) and mean sun exposure time, all patients had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) measured in a centralized laboratory. Vitamin D deficiency (25OHD level <20 ng/mL) was very frequent among RA patients; its prevalence was 60%, 52% and 38% in southern, central and northern Italy, respectively. Mean disease activity and disability scores were worse in southern regions of Italy. These scores were inversely related to 25OHD levels and this correlation remained statistically significant after adjusting for both body mass index (BMI) and sun exposure time. However, disease severity remained significantly higher in southern regions versus central-northern Italy after adjustment also for serum 25OHD levels, age and BMI. In RA Italian patients there are significant regional differences in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency explained by different BMI, and sun exposure time, and inversely associated with disease activity and disability scores.

  10. Alien Insects in Italy: Comparing Patterns from the Regional to European Level

    PubMed Central

    Inghilesi, Alberto F.; Mazza, Giuseppe; Cervo, Rita; Gherardi, Francesca; Sposimo, Paolo; Tricarico, Elena; Zapparoli, Marzio

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of species outside their native range contributes to the loss of biodiversity, alters the structure and functioning of ecosystems, and damages economy and human health. Insects are one of the taxa with the highest frequency of introduction due to their high diversity, biological properties, and close association with human activities. Here, the allodiversity of Italian entomofauna was analyzed, with a focus on Tuscany (Central Italy). A list of alien insects in Tuscany is included. The status of the alien entomofauna in Italy was updated. The number of alien insects amounts to 122 in Tuscany and 923 in Italy. An introduction rate of 98 species per decade was estimated in Italy. In Tuscany, alien insects belong to 10 orders, mostly Coleoptera (38%), Hemiptera (Sternorrhyncha and Auchenorrhyncha) (23%), and Hymenoptera (13%). They have been most often introduced through vegetable items (ornamental plants or crops). Most species come from the Nearctic region (26%) and are both phytophagous (63%) and amphigonic (80%). Differences and similarities in introduction patterns and in insect abundances across orders among regional, national, and European scales, also considering worldwide abundances, are discussed. Finally, a paucity of information regarding the negative impacts of many species, except for economic pests, phytosanitary threats, and vectors of disease, is underlined. A deeper understanding of the alien insects' ecological impact might help designate policies aimed at preventing further introductions and control the invasive populations of already established species. PMID:24219427

  11. Early warning system to forecast rainfall-induced landslides in Italy (SANF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Mauro

    2010-05-01

    Harmful landslide events are frequent in Italy. In this Country, in 2009 rainfall-induced landslides have caused at least 208 casualties, in multiple landslide events. In the period 1950-2009, the average yearly number of harmful landslide events has exceeded 35, most of which rainfall-induced landslide events. These figures indicate the impact that rainfall-induced landslides have on the population of Italy. The Italian national Department for Civil Protection (DPC), an Office of the Prime Minister, and the Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection (IRPI), of the Italian National Research Council (CNR), are designing and implementing a prototype system to forecast the possible occurrence of rainfall-induced landslides in Italy. The system is based on two components. The first component consists of: (i) a set of national, regional, and local rainfall thresholds (of the intensity-duration (ID) type) for possible landslide imitation, (ii) a database of sub-hourly rainfall measurements obtained by a network of 1950 rain gauges in Italy, and (iii) quantitative rainfall forecasts acquired through numerical modelling. Every day, and for each individual rain gauge, the system compares the measured and the forecasted rainfall amounts against pre-defined thresholds, and assigns to each rain gauge a probability for possible landslide occurrence. This information is used to prepare synoptic-scale maps showing where rainfall-induced landslides are expected, in a period of time. The second component of the system consists of synoptic assessments of landslide hazard and risk in Italy, including small-scale zoning maps. The assessments are obtained through statistical modelling of thematic and environmental information, including national catalogues of historical landslides and of historical landslides with human consequences in Italy, in the period 1900-2005. Combination of the hazard and risk zonations with the daily forecasts for possible landslide occurrence, allows

  12. [Greek nannies in Rome?].

    PubMed

    Dasen, Véronique

    2010-01-01

    In Roman society, parents often entrusted their newborn to a wet nurse, usually a slave or a lower-class freeborn woman, who normally lived with them. It was advised to choose with care the right person, as milk is not a neutral bodily substance but transmits many properties, physical and moral. Soranus devotes an entire chapter to the meticulous inspection of the nurse's milk and temper. The nurse's character must be checked as thoroughly as her physical health. The mind of the newborn, compared with wax, is from the start and forever impressed positively or negatively. Mnesitheus and others even advise choosing a woman resembling physically the mother, or a handsome person; Favorinus and others reject violently the recourse to wet nursing as immoral; submitting the child to the pernicious influence of a foreign non-kin person implies the destruction of family ties. Wet nurses had to follow a specific diet and to accept giving up their sexual life, which would corrupt the milk in case of a new pregnancy. Roman upper-class families attributed different qualities to nurses according to their ethnic origin: Egyptians were allegedly fond of children, Thracians robust and devoted, Spartans tough. The best were the Greeks, because they would teach Greek language - and culture - to their nurslings. The nurse's social function was extensive. Her role did not stop at the weaning period. Much evidence shows that she was a lifelong companion. In positive circumstances, she could construct non-kin relationships and became, through connections not of blood but of milk, a member of an extended family. Funerary inscriptions and literary sources show that some nurses were rewarded by freedom. Breast-feeding also created milk-ties between the nurslings, who could gain social elevation thanks to this bonding.

  13. 76 FR 42114 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy, 76 FR 39896 (July 7, 2011), and USITC Publication 4240... International Trade Administration Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Continuation of... the antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``PTFE resin'') from Italy...

  14. Exposure assessment: Serum levels of TCDD in Seveso, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Needham, L.L.; Patterson, D.G. Jr.; Smith, S.J.; Sampson, E.J.; Gerthoux, P.M.; Brambilla, P.; Mocarelli, P.

    1999-02-01

    Accurate exposure assessment is an important step in both risk assessment and epidemiologic studies involving potential human exposure to environmental toxicants. Various methods have been used to assess human exposure. These methods include models based on one`s temporal and spatial nearness to the source, environmental levels of toxicant, and biological measures. The authors believe that the latter measure is the ``gold standard.`` In this article they present the serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin levels in residents of the contaminated zones in Seveso, Italy, in 1976, and delineate these data by age and gender. Some of these serum levels are among the highest ever reported and thus this population serves as a benchmark for comparison of human exposure and potential adverse health effects. One such potential population is that population consuming potentially contaminated fish.

  15. Adolescents in southern regions of Italy adhere to the Mediterranean diet more than those in the northern regions.

    PubMed

    Noale, Marianna; Nardi, Mariateresa; Limongi, Federica; Siviero, Paola; Caregaro, Lorenza; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Maggi, Stefania

    2014-09-01

    There is a large amount of literature regarding the benefits of the Mediterranean diet in the adult population; however, there is growing curiosity about the individuals who naturally adhere to those principles early in life. The "Evaluation of Dietary Habits in Adolescents," carried out by the National Research Council of Italy in 2009, is a survey that aimed to assess the dietary habits and lifestyles of Italian adolescents and their adherence to the Mediterranean diet. We hypothesized that there would be differences across regions, with a higher adherence in Southern Italy compared with Northern Italy based on geography. The survey was conducted in 3 different geographic locations in Italy and included a convenience sample of adolescents who attended either a middle or high school. The participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning demographic data, lifestyle factors, and eating patterns, and scores were assigned according to adherence to the Mediterranean diet, as calculated using Trichopoulou's Mediterranean diet scale. The final sample included 565 adolescents, between 12 and 19 years old, who attended school in the northeastern, northwestern, or southern regions of Italy in 2009. According to the findings, 38.6% of the respondents had scores indicating a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet, whereas only 14% had scores showing a high adherence. Teenagers from the Southern region showed the highest adherence. Those with a high adherence to the Mediterranean diet consumed higher quantities of fiber, iron, vitamin B6, vitamin C, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, and monounsaturated fats.

  16. Payment for performance (P4P): any future in Italy?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pay for Performance (P4P) programs, based on provision of financial incentives for service quality, have been widely adopted to enhance quality of care and to promote a more efficient use of health care resources whilst improving patient outcomes. In Italy, as in other countries, the growing concern over the quality of health services provided and the scarcity of resources would make P4P programs a useful means of improving their performance. The aim of this paper is to evaluate whether it is possible to implement P4P programs in the Lombardy Region, in Italy, based on the existing data set. Methods Thirteen quality measures were identified regarding four clinical conditions (acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF), ischemic stroke and hip and knee replacement) on the basis of an international literature review. Data was collected using the database of three institutions, which included hospital discharge records (Scheda di Dimissione ospedaliera-SDO-) and letters of discharge. The study population was identified using both the Principal ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes and the discharge date. A Statistical Analysis System (SAS) program was used for the text analysis. Results It was possible to calculate almost all the parameters pertaining to the three hospitals as all the data required was available with the exception of inpatient mortality in two hospitals and smoking cessation advice/counseling in one hospital. Conclusions On the ground of this analysis, we believe that it is possible to implement a P4P program in the Lombardy Region. However, for this program to be initiated, all necessary data must be available in electronic format and uniformly collected. Moreover, several other factors must be assessed: which clinical conditions should be included, the threshold for each quality parameter, the amount of financial incentives offered and how they will be provided. PMID:21605472

  17. Evidence for bovine besnoitiosis being endemic in Italy--first in vitro isolation of Besnoitia besnoiti from cattle born in Italy.

    PubMed

    Gentile, A; Militerno, G; Schares, G; Nanni, A; Testoni, S; Bassi, P; Gollnick, N S

    2012-03-23

    Until 2009, bovine besnoitiosis had never been considered endemic in Italy and the only report on the disease in this country referred to animals imported from France shortly before. However, recently, an autochthonous outbreak of bovine besnoitiosis was reported in four herds located at the intersection of the borders between Emilia-Romagna, Toscana and Marche (Northern Apennine Mountains), which has led to an increased awareness concerning this disease. The present study describes a further outbreak of bovine besnoitiosis in Italy. The afflicted herd was a dairy herd with no evidence for contact with cattle from regions known to be endemic for bovine besnoitiosis. The farm investigation was initiated after a three-year old Holstein Friesian dairy cow with generalized thickening and lichenification of the skin was diagnosed with bovine besnoitiosis. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by gross pathology, histopathology, serology and PCR. Bradyzoites released from tissue cysts obtained from the skin of this animal enabled the first in vitro isolation of Besnoitia besnoiti in Italy. This isolate was named Bb-Italy1. Sequencing of a 2118 bp spanning region including the complete internal transcribed spacer 1 and parts of the 18S and the 5.8S rRNA gene from DNA extracted from skin-derived zoites revealed a 99.9% identity to sequences known for other B. besnoiti isolated from cattle in Europe. Two GKO mice which had been inoculated intraperitoneally with bovine skin-derived bradyzoites became ill 7 days post inoculation. Parasitophorous vacuoles with multiplying zoites were observed in the cell culture inoculated with peritoneal fluids of these mice and a B. besnoiti infection in the mice and in the cell culture could be confirmed by real-time PCR. A serological investigation in the afflicted herd using immunoblots and an immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) revealed an overall herd seroprevalence of 9.7% (31/321), whereas within the female animals older than 2

  18. Gypsum karst in Italy: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Waele, Jo; Chiarini, Veronica; Columbu, Andrea; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Piccini, Leonardo; Vattano, Marco; Vigna, Bartolomeo; Zini, Luca; Forti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Although outcropping only rarely in Italy, gypsum karst has been described in detail since the early XXth century (Marinelli, 1917). Gypsum caves are now known from almost all Italian regions (Madonia & Forti, 2003), but are mainly localised along the northern border of the Apennine chain (Emilia Romagna and Marche regions), Calabria, and Sicily, where the major outcrops occur. Recently, important caves have also been discovered in the underground gypsum quarries in Piedmont (Vigna et al., 2010). During the late 80s and 90s several multidisciplinary studies have been carried out in many gypsum areas. All this work converged into a comprehensive overview in 2003 (Madonia & Forti, 2003). Further detailed studies focused on the gypsum areas of Emilia Romagna (Chiesi et al., 2010; Forti & Lucci, 2010; Demaria et al., 2012; De Waele & Pasini, 2013; Ercolani et al., 2013; Columbu et al., 2015; Lucci & Piastra, 2015; Tedeschi et al., 2015) and of Sicily (Madonia & Vattano, 2011). Sinkholes related to Permo-Triassic gypsum have been studied in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Zini et al., 2015). This presentation will review the state of the art regarding different aspects of evaporite karst in Italy focusing on the main new results. References Chiesi M., et al. (2010) - Origin and evolution of a salty gypsum/anhydrite karst spring: the case of Poiano (Northern Apennines, Italy). Hydrogeology Journal, 18, pp. 1111-1124. Columbu A. et al. (2015) - Gypsum caves as indicators of climate-driven river incision and aggradation in a rapidly uplifting region. Geology, 43(6), 539-542. Demaria D. et al. (Eds.) (2012), Le Grotte Bolognesi, GSB-USB, 431 p. De Waele J., Pasini G. (2013) - Intra-messinian gypsum palaeokarst in the northern Apennines and its palaeogeographic implications. Terra Nova 25, pp. 199-205. Ercolani M., et al. (Eds.) (2013), I Gessi e la Cave i Monte Tondo. Studio multidisciplinare di un'area carsica nella Vena del Gesso Romagnola. Memorie Ist. It. Spel. II(26), 559 p

  19. Radioactivity in honey of the central Italy.

    PubMed

    Meli, Maria Assunta; Desideri, Donatella; Roselli, Carla; Feduzi, Laura; Benedetti, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    Natural radionuclides and (137)Cs in twenty seven honeys produced in a region of the Central Italy were determined by alpha ((235)U, (238)U, (210)Po, (232)Th and (228)Th) and gamma spectrometry ((137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra and (228)Ra). The study was carried out in order to estimate the background levels of natural ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th and their progeny) and artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs) in various honey samples, as well as to compile a data base for radioactivity levels in that region. (40)K showed a mean activity of 28.1±23.0Bqkg(-1) with a range of 7.28-101Bqkg(-1). The mean of (210)Po activity resulted 0.40±0.46Bqkg(-1) with a range of 0.03-1.98Bqkg(-1). The mean of (238)U activity resulted 0.020±0.010Bqkg(-1). (226)Ra and (228)Ra resulted always <0.34 and <0.57Bqkg(-1) respectively, (235)U, (228)Th and (232)Th were always <0.007Bqkg(-1). (137)Cs resulted <0.10Bqkg(-1) in all samples. The committed effective doses due to (210)Po from ingestion of honey for infants, children and adults account for 0.002-5.13% of the natural radiation exposure in Italy. The honeys produced in Central Italy were of good quality in relation to the studied parameters, confirming the general image of a genuine and healthy food associated to this traditional products.

  20. Respiratory nematodes in cat populations of Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Grillotti, Eleonora; Manzocchi, Simone; Perrucci, Stefania; Beraldo, Paola; Cazzin, Stefania; De Liberato, Claudio; Barros, Luciano A; Simonato, Giulia; Traversa, Donato

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of common respiratory parasites of domestic cats (the metastrongyloid "cat lungworm" Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and the trichuroid Capillaria aerophila) and of neglected respiratory nematodes of felids (Troglostrongylus brevior, Angiostrongylus chabaudi and Oslerus rostratus) was here evaluated in two and three geographical sites of Northern and Central Italy, respectively. In 2014-2015, individual fecal samples of 868 domestic cats were examined microscopically and genetically, and epidemiological data related to parasitic infections were evaluated as possible risk factors by binary logistic regression models. The most common parasite was A. abstrusus in both mono- and poli-specific infections, followed by T. brevior and C. aerophila, while cats scored negative for other parasites. Cats positive for A. abstrusus (1.9-17 % infection rate) and C. aerophila (0.9-4.8 % infection rate) were found in all examined sites, while cats scored positive for T. brevior (1-14.3 % infection rate) in four sites. Also, T. brevior was here found for the first time in a domestic cat from a mountainous area of Northern Italy. The occurrence of lungworms was statistically related to the presence of respiratory signs and more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. Cats living in site C of Central Italy resulted statistically more at risk of infection for lungworms than cats living in the other study sites, while animals ageing less than 1 year were at more risk for troglostrongylosis. Finally, the presence of lungworms was more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. These results are discussed under epidemiological and clinical points of views.

  1. Middle Pleistocene ostracod assemblages from Lake Trasimeno, Perugia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchegiano, Marta; Gliozzi, Elsa; Buratti, Nicoletta; Ariztegui, Daniel; Cirilli, Simonetta

    2014-05-01

    Lake Trasimeno is a meso-eutrophic, shallow (<6 m deep) and large lake (~120km2) located in central Italy, at 259 m above sea level. A preliminary age model based on pollen data for a core retrieved along the present southern shore of the lake (north of the Panicarola town) suggests that the record may be as old as Middle Pleistocene. An ongoing multidisciplinary study of a 175 m long sedimentary core includes magnetic properties, sedimentary microfacies, paleontology, palynology and bulk elemental geochemistry. This contribution focus on the paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the topmost 30 m of the core using ostracods. A total of 245 samples have been taken at a 13 cm sampling interval. On the whole, 13 species referable to 10 genera were collected (Ilyocypris gibba, Candona neglecta, Candona angulata, Cypridopsis vidua, Heterocypris salina, Limnocythere sp.1, Limnocythere stationis, Darwinula stevensoni, Cyprideis sp., Leptocythere spp., Fabaeformiscandona fabaeformis, Cyclocypris ovum). Abrupt changes in the abundance of the assemblages were found along the studied core alternating sections with very abundant ostracod remains with others with scant (or even null) individuals. Moreover, the changes observed in the composition of the ostracod assemblages are interpreted as recording environmental variations. In particular, two intervals are significant for the paleoenvironmental reconstruction of this sedimentary succession: 1) the section from 25.60 m to 23.50 m is characterized by a rich ostracod fauna (dominated by Cyprideis sp., Candona angulata and Leptocythere spp.). These assemblages possibly indicate an increase in salinity or alkalinity of the water body; 2) the interval from 21.05 m to 17.60 m contains Ilyocypris gibba, Candona neglecta, Cypridopsis vidua, Heterocypris salina, Limnocythere sp. 1, Limnocythere stationis and Darwinula stevensoni. Limnocythere stationis is a central European species, until now in Italy only described in the Holocene of

  2. Changing distribution patterns of canine vector borne diseases in Italy: leishmaniosis vs. dirofilariosis

    PubMed Central

    Otranto, Domenico; Capelli, Gioia; Genchi, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Ecological and climatic changes, human and animal population dynamics are among the several factors that have favoured the spread or the (re)introduction and establishment of "novel" vector species and pathogens they transmit in previously disease-free geographical areas. As key examples of the changing pattern of distribution of canine vector borne diseases (CVBDs), the current distribution of canine leishmaniosis (CanL) by Leishmania infantum and dirofilariosis by Dirofilaria immitis causing heart worm disease (HW) in Italy is discussed on the basis of retrospective historical reports until the 90's and later on until 2009. For long time, D. immitis has been considered mainly present along the Po River Valley and northward areas, while L. infantum in south-central Italy and Sicily and Sardinia. Comparison of current available and historical data (up to 1989) confirms that HW and CanL, although with different prevalence rates, have been changing their distribution patterns in Italy as a result of many biological and ecological factors, including those related to vector distribution and introduction of new species (e.g. the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, a competent vector of D. immitis). New autochthonous foci of HW in southern Italy (i.e. Apulia and Calabria regions) have recently been reported. Although analysing retrospective data may represent a difficult task, the "paradigm" about the dual distribution of HW and CanL in northern and southern Italy cannot yet be considered valid. The research needs for managing HW and CanL in previously uninfected areas are discussed. PMID:19426441

  3. Methane sources and emissions in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, G.R.; Castagnola, A.M.

    1994-12-31

    Methane emissions in Italy were assessed in the framework of the measures taken to follow out the commitments undertaken at the 1992 U.N. Conference for Environment and Development. Methane emissions of anthropic origin were estimated to be in the range of 1.6 to 2.3 million ton of methane per year. Some of these methane sources (natural gas production, transmission and distribution; rice paddies; managed livestock enteric fermentation and waste; solid waste landfills) are given here particular care as they mainly contribute to the total methane emission budget.

  4. Urinary capillariosis in six dogs from Italy

    PubMed Central

    Mariacher, A.; Millanta, F.; Guidi, G.; Perrucci, S.

    2016-01-01

    Canine urinary capillariosis is caused by the nematode Pearsonema plica. P. plica infection is seldomly detected in clinical practice mainly due to diagnostic limitations. This report describes six cases of urinary capillariosis in dogs from Italy. Recurrent cystitis was observed in one dog, whereas another patient was affected by glomerular amyloidosis. In the remaining animals, the infection was considered an incidental finding. Immature eggs of the parasite were observed with urine sediment examination in 3/6 patients. Increased awareness of the potential pathogenic role of P. plica and clinical disease presentation could help identify infected animals. PMID:27354971

  5. View of Florence, Italy area from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A near vertical view of the Florence, Italy area as photographed from Earth orbit by one of the Itek-furnished S190-A Multispectral Photographic Facility Experiment aboard the Skylab space station. The view extends from the Ligurian Sea, an extension of the Mediterranian Sea, across the Apennine Mountians to the Po River Vally. Florence (Firenze) is near the center of the land mass. The mouth of the Arno River is at the center of the coastline. The city of Leghorn (Livorno) is on the coast just south of the Arno River. This picture was taken with type 2443 infrared color film.

  6. Import risk analysis: the experience of Italy.

    PubMed

    Caporale, V; Giovannini, A; Calistri, P; Conte, A

    1999-12-01

    The authors propose a contribution to the possible revision of Chapters 1.4.1. and 1.4.2. of the International Animal Health Code (Code) of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE). In particular, data are presented to illustrate some of the inadequacies of both the rationale and the results of the method for risk assessment reported in the Code. The method suggested by the Code for risk assessment is based on the calculation of the 'probability of the occurrence of at least one outbreak' of a given disease following the importation of a given quantity of either live animals or animal products (unrestricted risk estimate). This is usually undertaken when dealing with rare events. For a country such as Italy, this method may not be particularly useful as the frequency of disease outbreaks is what should be estimated, so as to provide decision makers with appropriate and relevant information. Practical use of risk information generated by the use of the OIE risk assessment method for swine vesicular disease (SVD) would have encouraged the Chief Veterinary Officer of Italy to prohibit all imports of swine from the Netherlands and Belgium for at least two years in the early 1990s, with the consequential heavy economic losses for both Italy and the exporting countries. On the contrary, the number of actual outbreaks of the disease due to direct imports of swine from Member States of the European Union (EU), which occurred in Italy in 1992, 1993 and 1994 was very low (two to five outbreaks due to direct imports of swine from the Netherlands and one to two from Belgium). An example of a method for assessing the risks associated with high volumes of trade in commodities is also described. This method is based on the Monte Carlo simulation and provides the information required to evaluate the costs of the strategies compared. The method can be used to predict the number of outbreaks which are likely to occur following importation and enables a comparison to be made of

  7. Evidence for Cambrian petroleum source rocks in the Rome trough of West Virginia and Kentucky, Appalachian basin: Chapter G.8 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T.; Harris, David C.; Gerome, Paul; Hainsworth, Timothy J.; Burruss, Robert A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Jarvie, Daniel M.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The bitumen extract from the Rogersville Shale compares very closely with oils or condensates from Cambrian reservoirs in the Carson Associates No. 1 Kazee well, Homer gas field, Elliott County, Ky.; the Inland No. 529 White well, Boyd County, Ky.; and the Miller No. 1 well, Wolfe County, Ky. These favorable oil-source rock correlations suggest a new petroleum system in the Appalachian basin that is characterized by a Conasauga Group source rock and Rome Formation and Conasauga Group reservoirs. This petroleum system probably extends along the Rome trough from eastern Kentucky to at least central West Virginia.

  8. Louseborne Relapsing Fever among East African Refugees, Italy, 2015.

    PubMed

    Lucchini, Anna; Lipani, Filippo; Costa, Cecilia; Scarvaglieri, Mariaelisabetta; Balbiano, Rosanna; Carosella, Sinibaldo; Calcagno, Andrea; Audagnotto, Sabrina; Barbui, Anna Maria; Brossa, Silvia; Ghisetti, Valeria; Dal Conte, Ivano; Caramello, Pietro; Di Perri, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    During June 9-September 30, 2015, five cases of louseborne relapsing fever were identified in Turin, Italy. All 5 cases were in young refugees from Somalia, 2 of whom had lived in Italy since 2011. Our report seems to confirm the possibility of local transmission of louse-borne relapsing fever. PMID:26812354

  9. Young People and Alcohol in Italy: An Evolving Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beccaria, Franca; Prina, Franco

    2010-01-01

    In Italy, commonly held opinions and interpretations about the relationship between young people and alcohol are often expressed as generalizations and approximations. In order to further understanding of the relationship between young people and alcohol in contemporary Italy, we have gathered, compared and discussed all the available data, both…

  10. Reflections of a Lifelong Learner Teaching in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and summarizes the author's experience of teaching in Italy for three months and the impact it had on him and his learning. The author, at the age of 61, lived in Italy for three months and here he reflects on what he learned and how it relates to adult learning theory concepts.

  11. The US Mission in Italy's "Partnership for Growth"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spogli, Ronald P.; Truhn, J. Patrick

    2008-01-01

    This paper first examines key differences between the traditional approaches of the USA and Italy in relation to innovation and entrepreneurship. The authors then turn to the specific example of southern Italy, which has experienced higher rates of unemployment, lower US investment and fewer educational and cultural exchanges than the rest of the…

  12. Louseborne Relapsing Fever among East African Refugees, Italy, 2015.

    PubMed

    Lucchini, Anna; Lipani, Filippo; Costa, Cecilia; Scarvaglieri, Mariaelisabetta; Balbiano, Rosanna; Carosella, Sinibaldo; Calcagno, Andrea; Audagnotto, Sabrina; Barbui, Anna Maria; Brossa, Silvia; Ghisetti, Valeria; Dal Conte, Ivano; Caramello, Pietro; Di Perri, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    During June 9-September 30, 2015, five cases of louseborne relapsing fever were identified in Turin, Italy. All 5 cases were in young refugees from Somalia, 2 of whom had lived in Italy since 2011. Our report seems to confirm the possibility of local transmission of louse-borne relapsing fever.

  13. Louseborne Relapsing Fever among East African Refugees, Italy, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Lipani, Filippo; Costa, Cecilia; Scarvaglieri, Mariaelisabetta; Balbiano, Rosanna; Carosella, Sinibaldo; Calcagno, Andrea; Audagnotto, Sabrina; Barbui, Anna Maria; Brossa, Silvia; Ghisetti, Valeria; Dal Conte, Ivano; Caramello, Pietro; Di Perri, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    During June 9–September 30, 2015, five cases of louseborne relapsing fever were identified in Turin, Italy. All 5 cases were in young refugees from Somalia, 2 of whom had lived in Italy since 2011. Our report seems to confirm the possibility of local transmission of louse-borne relapsing fever. PMID:26812354

  14. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan (53 FR 32267). On August 30, 1988, Commerce issued an antidumping duty order on imports of granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy (53 FR 33163... orders on imports of granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan (70 FR 76026)....

  15. Accuracy of 1908-1912 high to medium scale cartography of Rome and its surroundings and related georeferencing problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiocchi, V.; Lelo, K.

    2009-04-01

    The first attempts to georeference maps of early twentieth century produced by Istituto Geografico Militare (IGM, the Italian geodetic agency) for the city of Rome and its surroundings, reported residual errors bigger than errors observed on similar maps, while previous studies performed on maps one or two century older of the same area, showed similar or smaller errors. Possible explanations for errors of this entity can be the different systems of geodetic projection and geodetic datum or the derivation of some details from maps at smaller scale. In particular, the map of "Roma e Suburbio" of 1908 and the map of "Roma e l'Agro Romano" (representing a wider area) of 1912, both in scale 1:5000, have been studied. Parameters useful to perform the transformation of the geodetic system applied to these historical maps in more modern systems are not known. For such reason, until now the various attempts to georeference them were based on the collimation of points recognizable on modern cartographies such as corners of historical buildings. This approach often has offered unsatisfactory results. The historical geodetic system used the ellipsoid of Bessel oriented locally in the geodetic observatory in Genoa, while for the projection was used conformal Flamsteed one. In order to exclude that the deformations are due to the different projection (while comparing the original one to the transverse of Mercatore used both for the UTM and for the national system Gauss-Boaga used after 1940 and based on the Datum Roma40), we decided to study a transformation able to re-project the coordinates of points with known coordinates. This kind of transformation has also been performed by the IGM while transforming the existing cartographies of the whole Italian territory into the cartographic system Gauss-Boaga; for maps in scale 1:25000 with extension of around 10 km*10 km, the IGM estimated that the differences due to the different projection were irrelevant, therefore the

  16. Evidences of increasing risk of dirofilarioses in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Giangaspero, A; Marangi, M; Latrofa, M S; Martinelli, D; Traversa, D; Otranto, D; Genchi, C

    2013-03-01

    Given the spread of Aedes albopictus from northern to southern Italy, and the lack of updated data on Dirofilaria infections, this study was carried out to assess the infection risk for dogs and cats in Apulia region. During a 2-year study, 175 A. albopictus female specimens and samples of blood from 427 dogs (309 privately owned dogs and 118 shelter dogs) and 12 cats were collected. All blood samples were subjected to a modified Knott method, to a test for the detection of circulating Dirofilaria immitis antigen, and to a Dirofilaria species-specific real-time PCR for the simultaneous detection of D. immitis and Dirofilaria repens, targeting on partial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 and internal transcribed spacer-2, respectively. Two abdomen and one thorax pools from A. albopictus were positive for D. immitis, with minimum infection rates of 1.14 and 0.51, respectively, and a probability of a single positive specimen to be infected of P = 0.6 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.12-1.73). Out of 439 examined subjects, 22 (5.0 %) tested positive for Dirofilaria spp. in at least one diagnostic test. A specific D. immitis infestation rate of 3.5 % was found among the privately owned dogs, while shelter dogs tested positive only for D. repens with a prevalence of 3.4 %; one cat tested molecularly positive for D. immitis. There was a significantly higher rate of positivity among guard dogs for D. immitis (odds ratio, 6.24, 95 % CI, 1.26-25.28; P < 0.05). The increasing risk of D. immitis infection in southern Italy is supported by the noteworthy positivity of A. albopictus populations and the cat. Our data highlight the usefulness to include filarioid infestation in routine diagnosis. PMID:23224639

  17. Helminth communities of herons (Aves: Ardeidae) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galiero, Giorgio; Cerrone, Anna; Barca, Lorella; Kinsella, John M; Aznar, Francisco J

    2016-08-01

    The helminth communities of nine species of herons from southern Italy were studied and compared. Of 24 taxa found including seven digeneans, seven nematodes, six cestodes and four acanthocephalans, only five taxa were found in more than one heron species, and five of the 21 taxa that could be identified to species level were classified as 'heron specialists'. The total number of helminth species per heron species ranged from 1 in Botaurus stellaris to 9 in Ixobrychus minutus with infection levels generally low. A statistical comparison was carried out for herons with a sample size >5. At the infracommunity level, only I. minutus clearly differed from other heron species. Diversity parameters of heminth infracommunities did not significantly differ among heron species. Species richness ranged from just 0.3 to 2.3 helminth taxa per individual host, and the Brillouin index, from 0 to 0.3. Total helminth abundance did not exceed 40 worms per host except in a single case of Ardeola ralloides. Infracommunities clearly were dominated by single helminth species. The present study confirms a depauperate helminth community in herons from southern Italy. Comparison with data from Spain and the Czech Republic showed strong quantitative similarities with values obtained in the present study. Results also suggest that the composition of local helminth communities are strongly variable depending on geographical location as is demonstrated by comparison with data from other European areas. However, whether herons in Europe naturally host depauperate helminth communities or these communities are depauperate because of other factors is unknown. PMID:27091547

  18. State-of-the-art on basic and applied stem cell therapy; Stem Cell Research Italy-International Society for Cellular Therapy Europe, Joint Meeting, Montesilvano (PE)-Italy, June 10-12, 2011.

    PubMed

    Siniscalco, Dario; Pandolfi, Assunta; Galderisi, Umberto

    2012-03-20

    Over 160 stem cell-based therapeutic products are undergoing development for the treatment of several diseases, ranging from cardiac and artery diseases to immune and neurodegenerative pathologies, including diabetes, spinal cord injury. Therefore, stem cell therapy plays a key role for developing new cell-based drugs for the future molecular and regenerative medicine. The second meeting organized by Stem Cell Research Italy (SCR Italy) and by the International Society for Cellular Therapy-Europe (ISCT) in Montesilvano/Città S. Angelo (Pescara)-Italy, on June 10th-12th, 2011, focused on the state-of-the-art of stem cell therapy and associated novel findings on stem cell research ( www.stemcellitaly.org ).

  19. Improving Flood Damage Assessment Models in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadio, M.; Mysiak, J.; Carrera, L.; Koks, E.

    2015-12-01

    The use of Stage-Damage Curve (SDC) models is prevalent in ex-ante assessments of flood risk. To assess the potential damage of a flood event, SDCs describe a relation between water depth and the associated potential economic damage over land use. This relation is normally developed and calibrated through site-specific analysis based on ex-post damage observations. In some cases (e.g. Italy) SDCs are transferred from other countries, undermining the accuracy and reliability of simulation results. Against this background, we developed a refined SDC model for Northern Italy, underpinned by damage compensation records from a recent flood event. Our analysis considers both damage to physical assets and production losses from business interruptions. While the first is calculated based on land use information, production losses are measured through the spatial distribution of Gross Value Added (GVA). An additional component of the model assesses crop-specific agricultural losses as a function of flood seasonality. Our results show an overestimation of asset damage from non-calibrated SDC values up to a factor of 4.5 for tested land use categories. Furthermore, we estimate that production losses amount to around 6 per cent of the annual GVA. Also, maximum yield losses are less than a half of the amount predicted by the standard SDC methods.

  20. Human visceral leishmaniasis: a picture from Italy.

    PubMed

    Abdalmaula, Giuma Harun; Barbadoro, Pamela; Marigliano, Anna; Illuminati, Diego; Di Stanislao, Francesco; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Prospero, Emilia

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Italy, focusing on HIV-infected patients, to estimate the burden of the disease and the public health actions that should be undertaken. A review of official notifications and hospitalization data has been performed. From 2006 to 2008, a total of 289 cases of VL were notified; the overall notification rate was 1.63/1,000,000 (95% CI 1.45-1.83). In total, 1192 VL-associated hospitalizations were detected, with a hospitalization rate of 6.71/1,000,000 (95% CI 6.34-7.10). For the age group "≤ 24 years", a statistically significant increase was detected (p<0.05). A total of 68.9% (n = 821) of hospitalizations were detected in HIV-positive patients. The geographic distribution of rates revealed a significant increase in the north-eastern area of the country. Our study confirms that the epidemiological pattern of VL is changing and that, in Italy, control measures and preventive strategies should be based on not only the official notification system but also hospital data. This would lead to the identification of areas of parasite spread and to the creation of awareness campaigns geared toward general practitioners in the affected areas. Easy case detection would allow for timely public health actions and strategies for the implementation of more effective interventions for reservoir control.

  1. Workplace drug testing in Italy - critical considerations.

    PubMed

    Vignali, Claudia; Stramesi, Cristiana; Morini, Luca; Pozzi, Fulvia; Collo, Giancarlo; Groppi, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Workplace drug testing (WDT) was established in Italy on 30 October 2007. Two tiers of survey are required: the first tier concerns drug testing on urine samples, the second involves both urine and hair analysis. Between July 2008 and December 2011, 10 598 workers' urine samples and 72 hair samples for opiates, cocaine, cannabinoids, amphetamines, methylenedioxyamphetamines, methadone, and buprenorphine were tested in our laboratory. Urine analyses were performed by immunological screening (EMIT); hair analysis and confirmation tests in urine were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Employees tested positive in urine for drugs of abuse numbered 2.8% in 2008, 2.03% in 2009, 1.62% in 2010, and 1.43% in 2011. As regards the second level of analysis, we observed that only one-third of the workers who had been tested positive for drugs of abuse were referred to an Addiction Treatment Unit in order to verify drug addiction. Our experience shows that, four years after approval of the law on WDT, the percentage of workers positive for drugs of abuse in urine has reduced in comparison to the first year. Moreover, our data show that most of the times employees who tested positive are tardily referred or not referred at all to a Public Addiction Treatment Unit to verify drug addiction. This makes us believe that the legal provisions are widely disregarded not paying the right tribute to the fact that Italy is one of few European countries with legislation on WDT.

  2. Risk sharing agreements: what lessons from Italy?

    PubMed

    Garattini, Livio; Casadei, Gianluigi

    2011-04-01

    Italy is one of the few countries that have matured substantial experience of risk-sharing agreements so far. The first performance-based arrangement was agreed in July 2006, and as of October 2010, eighteen contracts have been in force.The complex management of discount schemes is entirely based on Web registries run by AIFA, the Italian drug agency. The system validates each prescription and automatically requests the hospital pharmacy by e-mail to release the drug. If a patient meets nonresponder criteria, the hospital pharmacist should apply for pay-back to the manufacturer. There are still some important question marks to address. First of all, nonresponders have to be documented by health authorities, otherwise any undocumented nonresponder will be paid as a success. Another question concerns pre-set timing. Although the scientific rationale of the nonresponder criteria for each drug has not been made public, time frames appear too short to allow a reliable assessment. Another question is whether regions, which are financially accountable in Italy for pharmaceutical expenditure, are really able to claw back refunds from manufacturers. Unfortunately here again there are no official figures, and regions do not seem yet able to quantify the amount of pay-back matured in the 4 previous years. The delayed and incomplete availability of pay-back procedures may be one explanation.

  3. Medical malpractice: the experience in Italy.

    PubMed

    Traina, Francesco

    2009-02-01

    At the present time, legal actions against physicians in Italy number about 15,000 per year, and hospitals spend over 10 billion euros (approximately US$15.5 billion) to compensate patients injured from therapeutic and diagnostic errors. In a survey summary issued by the Italian Court for the Rights of the Patient, between 1996 and 2000 orthopaedic surgery was the highest-ranked specialty for the number of complaints alleging medical malpractice. Today among European countries, Italy has the highest number of physicians subject to criminal proceedings related to medical malpractice, a fact that is profoundly changing physicians' approach to medical practice. The national health system has paid increasingly higher insurance premiums and is having difficulty finding insurance companies willing to bear the risk of monetary claims alleging medical malpractice. Healthcare costs will likely worsen as Italian physicians increasingly practice defensive medicine, thereby overutilizing resources with the goal of documenting diligence, prudence, and skill as defenses against potential litigation, rather than aimed at any patient benefit. To reduce the practice of defensive medicine and healthcare costs, a possible solution could be the introduction of an extrajudicial litigation resolution, as in other civil law countries, and a reform of the Italian judicial system on matters of medical malpractice litigation.

  4. Human visceral leishmaniasis: a picture from Italy.

    PubMed

    Abdalmaula, Giuma Harun; Barbadoro, Pamela; Marigliano, Anna; Illuminati, Diego; Di Stanislao, Francesco; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Prospero, Emilia

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Italy, focusing on HIV-infected patients, to estimate the burden of the disease and the public health actions that should be undertaken. A review of official notifications and hospitalization data has been performed. From 2006 to 2008, a total of 289 cases of VL were notified; the overall notification rate was 1.63/1,000,000 (95% CI 1.45-1.83). In total, 1192 VL-associated hospitalizations were detected, with a hospitalization rate of 6.71/1,000,000 (95% CI 6.34-7.10). For the age group "≤ 24 years", a statistically significant increase was detected (p<0.05). A total of 68.9% (n = 821) of hospitalizations were detected in HIV-positive patients. The geographic distribution of rates revealed a significant increase in the north-eastern area of the country. Our study confirms that the epidemiological pattern of VL is changing and that, in Italy, control measures and preventive strategies should be based on not only the official notification system but also hospital data. This would lead to the identification of areas of parasite spread and to the creation of awareness campaigns geared toward general practitioners in the affected areas. Easy case detection would allow for timely public health actions and strategies for the implementation of more effective interventions for reservoir control. PMID:23999330

  5. Medical Malpractice: The Experience in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    At the present time, legal actions against physicians in Italy number about 15,000 per year, and hospitals spend over €10 billion (~US$15.5 billion) to compensate patients injured from therapeutic and diagnostic errors. In a survey summary issued by the Italian Court for the Rights of the Patient, between 1996 and 2000 orthopaedic surgery was the highest-ranked specialty for the number of complaints alleging medical malpractice. Today among European countries, Italy has the highest number of physicians subject to criminal proceedings related to medical malpractice, a fact that is profoundly changing physicians’ approach to medical practice. The national health system has paid increasingly higher insurance premiums and is having difficulty finding insurance companies willing to bear the risk of monetary claims alleging medical malpractice. Healthcare costs will likely worsen as Italian physicians increasingly practice defensive medicine, thereby overutilizing resources with the goal of documenting diligence, prudence, and skill as defenses against potential litigation, rather than aimed at any patient benefit. To reduce the practice of defensive medicine and healthcare costs, a possible solution could be the introduction of an extrajudicial litigation resolution, as in other civil law countries, and a reform of the Italian judicial system on matters of medical malpractice litigation. PMID:18985423

  6. Meningococcal serogroup B vaccine in Italy: state-of-art, organizational aspects and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Signorelli, C; Chiesa, V; Odone, A

    2015-08-31

    Neisseria meningitidis causes severe invasive meningococcal diseases (IMDs) in humans including meningitis and septicemia, responsible for serious clinical conditions and leading to life-long disabilities and death. Serogroup B dominates IMDs burden in Italy, accounting for over 60% of total cases. On January 2013 the European Medicine Agency (EMA) licensed the first serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine in Europe. A number of European countries and Regions have introduced the new MenB vaccine in their immunization schedule, including Italy. In this paper we present the state of art, related critical issues and future perspectives of MenB vaccine introduction in Italy, in the context of the most recent available epidemiological data. In particular, we systematically assess the ongoing processes in the 8 Italian regions and one autonomous province that have already introduced MenB vaccine. With the new 2014-2018 National Vaccine Prevention Plan including active MenB vaccine offer about to be adopted, it is of fundamental importance to gather further evidence on MenB vaccine clinical effectiveness, duration of protection and cost-effectiveness. Italian regions are called to organize and manage MenB immunization programs. Careful consideration will need to be devoted on timing, doses, and co-administration with other vaccines but also to economic assessments and strengthened communication to the general public. Our data will help to plan, implement and evaluate MenB immunization programmes in other Italian and international settings.

  7. Meningococcal serogroup B vaccine in Italy: state-of-art, organizational aspects and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Signorelli, C; Chiesa, V; Odone, A

    2015-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis causes severe invasive meningococcal diseases (IMDs) in humans including meningitis and septicemia, responsible for serious clinical conditions and leading to life-long disabilities and death. Serogroup B dominates IMDs burden in Italy, accounting for over 60% of total cases. On January 2013 the European Medicine Agency (EMA) licensed the first serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine in Europe. A number of European countries and Regions have introduced the new MenB vaccine in their immunization schedule, including Italy. In this paper we present the state of art, related critical issues and future perspectives of MenB vaccine introduction in Italy, in the context of the most recent available epidemiological data. In particular, we systematically assess the ongoing processes in the 8 Italian regions and one autonomous province that have already introduced MenB vaccine. With the new 2014-2018 National Vaccine Prevention Plan including active MenB vaccine offer about to be adopted, it is of fundamental importance to gather further evidence on MenB vaccine clinical effectiveness, duration of protection and cost-effectiveness. Italian regions are called to organize and manage MenB immunization programs. Careful consideration will need to be devoted on timing, doses, and co-administration with other vaccines but also to economic assessments and strengthened communication to the general public. Our data will help to plan, implement and evaluate MenB immunization programmes in other Italian and international settings. PMID:26788733

  8. Scientific and Technological Information for Development. Proceedings of the Ad-hoc Panel of Experts on Information Systems for Science and Technology for Development (Rome, Italy, January 21-25, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations, New York, NY.

    The report of the ad-hoc panel and the 25 papers in these proceedings cover a wide spectrum of issues and perspectives relating to information systems, services, and networks at both the national and international levels. The first part of this six-part volume presents the panel's report, which reviews the history of the panel and its purpose and…

  9. Composition, size distribution, optical properties and radiative effects of re-suspended local mineral dust of Rome area by individual-particle microanalysis and radiative transfer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrodangelo, A.; Salzano, R.; Bassani, C.; Pareti, S.; Perrino, C.

    2015-05-01

    New information on the PM10 mineral dust from site-specific (Rome area, Latium) outcropped rocks, and on the microphysics, optical properties and radiative effects of mineral dust at local level were gained in this work. A multi-disciplinary approach was used, based on individual-particle scanning electron microscopy with X-ray energy-dispersive microanalysis (SEM XEDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of dust, size distribution of mineral particles, and radiative transfer modelling (RTM).The mineral composition of Rome lithogenic PM10 varies between an end-member dominated by silicate minerals and one exclusively composed of calcite. The first is obtained from volcanic lithotypes, the second from travertine or limestones; lithogenic PM10 with intermediate composition derives mainly from siliciclastic rocks or marlstones of Rome area. Size and mineral species of PM10 particles of silicate-dominated dust types are tuned mainly by weathering and, to lesser extent, by debris formation or crystallization; chemical precipitation of CaCO3 plays a major role in calcite-dominated types. These differences are evidenced by the diversity of volume distributions, within either dust types, or mineral species. Further differences are observed between volume distributions of calcite from travertine (natural source) and from road dust (anthropic source), specifically on the width, shape and enrichment of the fine fraction (unimodal at 5 μm a.d. for travertine, bimodal at 3.8 and 1.8 μm a.d. for road dust). Log-normal probability density functions of volcanics and travertine dusts affect differently the single scattering albedo (SSA) and the asymmetry parameter (g) in the VISible and Near Infrared (NIR) regions, depending also on the absorbing/non-absorbing character of volcanics and travertine, respectively. The downward component of the BOA solar irradiance simulated by RTM for a volcanics-rich or travertine-rich atmosphere shows that volcanics contribution to the solar

  10. The Information Society--A Challenge for Education Policies? Five Case Studies: Denmark, France, Italy, Spain, Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    This collection of conference papers consists of a series of five case studies conducted in Denmark, France, Italy, Spain, and Turkey. In Denmark, an exploration of computer conferencing in distance education included an examination of the pedagogical motives for using computer conferencing, the availability of computers in study centers, and…

  11. NEETs versus EETs: An Observational Study in Italy on the Framework of the HEALTH25 European Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardi, Bernardo; Lucarelli, Chiara; Talamonti, Marta; Arimatea, Emidio; Fiori, Valentina; Moltedo-Perfetti, Andrès

    2015-01-01

    An observational study of young Italian NEETs (not in education, employment or training) and their EET peers (in education, employment or training) was conducted in the framework of a European Union (EU) project. Main characteristics and behaviours were compared to gain insights into the NEET condition in Italy. The sample included 111 NEETs…

  12. Ambient noise levels in north central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzorati, S.; Bindi, D.

    2006-09-01

    The characteristics of background seismic noise in north central Italy have been investigated by means of velocity power spectral analysis within the frequency range 0.1-15 Hz. The method proposed by McNamara and Buland (2004) has been applied to estimate the probability density function (PDF) of power spectra computed for ten different stations. Since the target region is the most industrialized area of Italy, a large variability among the power spectra for different sites is observed in the frequency range 1-15 Hz, with the noise levels at two stations exceeding the New High Noise Model (NHNM) of Peterson (1993). The 95th percentile of the PDF varies from -165 to -125 dB (relative to (m/s)2/Hz). This variability could significantly affect the detection capabilities of a network installed for recording the small to moderate size seismicity occurring in north central Italy. We also observed that the dispersion of the powers, estimated at each site as the difference between the 95th and the 5th percentiles, shows a positive trend with frequency that can be ascribed to the diurnal variation of the background noise levels. In the frequency range 0.1-1 Hz, the dominant feature is the double frequency (DF) peak of microseisms generated by oceanic storms. At one of the considered stations, the seasonal variability of the maximum amplitude of the DF peak has been observed in the period from April 2004 to December 2005. Considering the barometric maps provided by the UK Meteorological Office, we observed that the strongest powers in the range 0.10-0.25 Hz occur when intense storms are present over the North Atlantic Ocean, whereas the measurements of the height, frequency, and azimuth of the sea waves at two buoys of the Rete Ondametrica Italiana deployed in the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian seas suggest that the DF microseisms in the frequency range 0.25-0.50 Hz are generated by storms over the Mediterranean Sea. Finally, the analyzed region is characterized by two large

  13. Results Oriented Management in Education. Project R.O.M.E. The Verification and Validation of Principal Competencies and Performance Indicators: Assessment Design--Procedures--Instrumentation--Field Test Results. volume 1. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta.

    This document describes the processes and procedures used by the University of Georgia Project R.O.M.E. (Results Oriented Management in Education) assessment staff during 1974-75 to produce the following products: (1) performance indicators of public school principal competencies initially developed during the 1973-74 project year, (2) a report of…

  14. Carbon dioxide and radon gas hazard in the Alban Hills area (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaubien, S. E.; Ciotoli, G.; Lombardi, S.

    2003-04-01

    The sudden and catastrophic, or slow and continuous, release at surface of naturally occurring toxic gases like CO 2, H 2S and Rn poses a serious health risk to people living in geologically active regions. In general this problem receives little attention from local governments, although public concern is raised periodically when anomalous toxic-gas concentrations suddenly kill humans or livestock. For example, elevated CO 2 concentrations have been linked to the death of at least 10 people in the central Italian region of Lazio over the last 20 years, while it was the CO 2 asphyxiation of 30 cows in a heavily populated area near Rome in 1999 which prompted the present soil-gas study into the distribution of the local health risk. A detailed geochemical survey was carried out in an area of about 4 km 2 in the Ciampino and Marino districts, whereby a total of 274 soil-gas samples were collected and analysed for more than 10 major and trace gas species. Data were then processed using both statistical and geostatistical methods, and the resulting maps were examined in order to highlight areas of elevated risk. General trends of elevated CO 2 and Rn concentrations imply the presence of preferential pathways (i.e. faults and fractures) along which deep gases are able to migrate towards the surface. The CO 2 and Rn anomalous trends often correspond to and are usually elongated parallel to the Apennine mountain range, the controlling structural feature in central Italy. Because of this fundamental anisotropy in the factors controlling the soil-gas distribution, it was found that a geostatistical approach using variogram analysis allowed for a better interpretation of the data. With regard to the health risk to local inhabitants, it was found that although some high risk areas had been zoned as parkland, others had been heavily developed for residential purposes. For example, many new houses were found to have been built on ground which has soil-gas CO 2 concentrations of

  15. A bioarchaeological approach to the reconstruction of changes in military organization among Iron Age Samnites (Vestini) From Abruzzo, Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Sparacello, Vitale Stefano; d'Ercole, Vincenzo; Coppa, Alfredo

    2015-03-01

    The Samnites were an Iron Age population that shifted from warlike mountain dwellers to the largest sociopolitical unit of central Italy, able to dispute with Rome the domination over the peninsula. Archaeological and historical evidence suggests that this major shift in the scale of conflict may have involved a reorganization of the military system, which changed from an elite militia to a conscript or standing army from the Orientalizing-Archaic (800-500 BC) to Hellenistic times (400-27 BC). We propose a bioarchaeological framework jointly analyzing skeletal properties and funerary treatment in male Samnites to investigate on this shift in military organization. We anticipated that, when Samnites had an elite militia, the warring force was constituted by the wealthier segments of the society. Conversely, we expected the warring force of the standing/conscript army to be mainly drawn from the lower social strata. We considered high asymmetry in J, a measure of humeral torsional rigidity (calculated via cross-sectional geometry, CSG) as a proxy for pre- and peri-adolescent-onset weapon training. The social standing of the individual was approximated via funerary treatment analysis (Status Index). Results show that in the Orientalizing-Archaic period, humeral asymmetry and Status Index are positively correlated, and the high-status subsample shows significantly higher asymmetry than the low-status subsample. Among Hellenistic Samnites, no correlation between Status Index and humeral asymmetry is present, and the low-status subsample is the most lateralized. Results support the use of CSG in a strong theoretical framework to investigate past changes in military organization and their correlates in terms of sociopolitical development, alterations of power relationships, and warfare. PMID:25360793

  16. A bioarchaeological approach to the reconstruction of changes in military organization among Iron Age Samnites (Vestini) From Abruzzo, Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Sparacello, Vitale Stefano; d'Ercole, Vincenzo; Coppa, Alfredo

    2015-03-01

    The Samnites were an Iron Age population that shifted from warlike mountain dwellers to the largest sociopolitical unit of central Italy, able to dispute with Rome the domination over the peninsula. Archaeological and historical evidence suggests that this major shift in the scale of conflict may have involved a reorganization of the military system, which changed from an elite militia to a conscript or standing army from the Orientalizing-Archaic (800-500 BC) to Hellenistic times (400-27 BC). We propose a bioarchaeological framework jointly analyzing skeletal properties and funerary treatment in male Samnites to investigate on this shift in military organization. We anticipated that, when Samnites had an elite militia, the warring force was constituted by the wealthier segments of the society. Conversely, we expected the warring force of the standing/conscript army to be mainly drawn from the lower social strata. We considered high asymmetry in J, a measure of humeral torsional rigidity (calculated via cross-sectional geometry, CSG) as a proxy for pre- and peri-adolescent-onset weapon training. The social standing of the individual was approximated via funerary treatment analysis (Status Index). Results show that in the Orientalizing-Archaic period, humeral asymmetry and Status Index are positively correlated, and the high-status subsample shows significantly higher asymmetry than the low-status subsample. Among Hellenistic Samnites, no correlation between Status Index and humeral asymmetry is present, and the low-status subsample is the most lateralized. Results support the use of CSG in a strong theoretical framework to investigate past changes in military organization and their correlates in terms of sociopolitical development, alterations of power relationships, and warfare.

  17. 78 FR 57129 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey: Continuation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... of Five-Year Sunset Review, 77 FR 53867 (September 4, 2012); Certain Pasta from Italy and Turkey; and... from Italy and Turkey, 77 FR 53909 (September 4, 2012). \\2\\ See Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey... Certain Pasta from Italy and Turkey, 78 FR 55095 (September 9, 2013); see also Certain Pasta from...

  18. Fossil Arthropods from a Full-Glacial Site in Northeastern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foddai, Donatella; Minelli, Alessandro

    1994-05-01

    Fossil remains of beetles and oribatid mites from a peat deposit dated 18,870 ± 300 yr B.P. near Verona, northeastern Italy, represent the first insect fauna of its kind from the last glacial maximum to be described from Italy. The assemblage includes the ground beetle Amara alpina, whose distribution today in Europe is restricted to mountains in Scandinavia and Scotland. Ecological requirements and geographic distribution of recent populations of the identified species suggest mesic habitats with standing water and peat bogs during the glacial maximum. The paleoenvironment was comparable to present-day lowland moors in Scandinavia or mesic environments above 1000 m altitude on the southern slopes of the Alps. The climate is inferred to have been colder and wetter than today. Mean July temperature may have been 8-9°C lower than at present.

  19. Serological survey of hepatitis E virus infection in farmed and pet rabbits in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Bartolo, Ilaria; De Sabato, L; Marata, A; Martinelli, N; Magistrali, C F; Monini, M; Ponterio, E; Ostanello, F; Ruggeri, F M

    2016-05-01

    The recent identification in rabbits of hepatitis E viruses (HEV) related to viruses infecting humans raises the question of the role of this species as possible HEV reservoir. A serological survey on rabbit HEV infection was conducted in Italy during 2013-2014, including both farmed and pet rabbits. We found an anti-HEV antibody seroprevalence of 3.40 % in 206 farmed rabbits (collected on 7 farms) and 6.56 % in 122 pets. RNA was extracted from IgG-positive sera and analyzed by HEV-specific real-time RT-PCR. None of the samples were positive, confirming that no viremia was present in the presence of IgG. Only one serum sample from a farmed rabbit was positive for IgM, but no HEV RNA was detected in it. Pet rabbit feces were also tested for HEV RNA, with negative results. This finding suggests that HEV is circulating in rabbits in Italy. PMID:26873813

  20. Serological survey of hepatitis E virus infection in farmed and pet rabbits in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Bartolo, Ilaria; De Sabato, L; Marata, A; Martinelli, N; Magistrali, C F; Monini, M; Ponterio, E; Ostanello, F; Ruggeri, F M

    2016-05-01

    The recent identification in rabbits of hepatitis E viruses (HEV) related to viruses infecting humans raises the question of the role of this species as possible HEV reservoir. A serological survey on rabbit HEV infection was conducted in Italy during 2013-2014, including both farmed and pet rabbits. We found an anti-HEV antibody seroprevalence of 3.40 % in 206 farmed rabbits (collected on 7 farms) and 6.56 % in 122 pets. RNA was extracted from IgG-positive sera and analyzed by HEV-specific real-time RT-PCR. None of the samples were positive, confirming that no viremia was present in the presence of IgG. Only one serum sample from a farmed rabbit was positive for IgM, but no HEV RNA was detected in it. Pet rabbit feces were also tested for HEV RNA, with negative results. This finding suggests that HEV is circulating in rabbits in Italy.

  1. A multi-analytical approach for the study of the pigments used in the wall paintings from a building complex on the Caelian Hill (Rome)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermo, Paola; Piazzalunga, Andrea; de Vos, Mariette; Andreoli, Martina

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, shards from Roman wall paintings (from the end of the first century to the fourth century A.D.) decorating the domus below the Basilica of SS. John and Paul on the Caelian Hill (Rome), were analyzed in order to identify the pigments used. The analytical techniques employed for the characterization of the pigments were the scanning electron microscope coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and infrared spectroscopy (ATR and micro ATR). While SEM-EDS allowed to perform a qualitative analysis of the material, by FT-IR chemical species have been identified. The pigments identified were those mentioned in the literature for the Imperial Roman fresco painting: different types of ochre (yellow and red), mixtures containing lead, green earths and precious pigments such as cinnabar and Egyptian blue. They were often used as mixtures and the use of the most valuable pigments (cinnabar and Egyptian blue) were found in the most ancient rooms.

  2. Tephra hazard assessment at Mt. Etna (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scollo, S.; Coltelli, M.; Bonadonna, C.; Del Carlo, P.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present a probabilistic hazard assessment for tephra fallout at Mt. Etna (Italy) associated with both short- and long-lived eruptions. Eruptive scenarios and eruption source parameters were defined based on the geological record, while an advection-diffusion-sedimentation model was used to capture the variation in wind speed and direction with time after calibration with the field data. Two different types of eruptions were considered in our analysis: eruptions associated with strong short-lived plumes and eruptions associated with weak long-lived plumes. Our probabilistic approach was based on one eruption scenario for both types and on an eruption range scenario for eruptions producing weak long-lived plumes. Due to the prevailing wind direction, the eastern flanks are the most affected by tephra deposition, with the 122 BC Plinian and 2002-2003 eruptions showing the highest impact both on infrastructures and agriculture.

  3. Women and botany in Risorgimento Italy.

    PubMed

    Logan, Gabriella Berti

    2004-01-01

    The first Italian women described as botanists by their male peers were active during the Risorgimento. They were few in numbers and only one of them, Elisabetta Fiorini, was recognized for her extensive contributions to the field of cryptogams in Italy by being nominated to important Italian scientific academies. No such recognition was ever alloted to the other female botanists who acted as collectors, correspondents and/or patrons to male botanists, had their own garden of exotic plants, or discovered a new species of phanerogams, and occasionally published on the subject. This study will show that a woman could still belong to Italian scientific academies in the nineteenth century, if like Fiorini, she chose to practice science in a way that was considered at par with that of male scientists.

  4. Women and botany in Risorgimento Italy.

    PubMed

    Logan, Gabriella Berti

    2004-01-01

    The first Italian women described as botanists by their male peers were active during the Risorgimento. They were few in numbers and only one of them, Elisabetta Fiorini, was recognized for her extensive contributions to the field of cryptogams in Italy by being nominated to important Italian scientific academies. No such recognition was ever alloted to the other female botanists who acted as collectors, correspondents and/or patrons to male botanists, had their own garden of exotic plants, or discovered a new species of phanerogams, and occasionally published on the subject. This study will show that a woman could still belong to Italian scientific academies in the nineteenth century, if like Fiorini, she chose to practice science in a way that was considered at par with that of male scientists. PMID:16021769

  5. GPR Activities in Italy: a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosti, Fabio; Ambrosanio, Michele; Battaglia, Enzo; Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; De Carlo, Lorenzo; Matera, Loredana; Prontera, Santo; Sileo, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has been increasingly played an important role over the last 15 years in Italy due to its high reliability in assisting the assessment of the built environment for civil engineering purposes, and in being used for geophysical investigations within many other fields of application. In line with this, original works involving fundamental aspects of this technique and implementing its use more practically in a number of interesting projects have been developed over years, both under a research and an enterprise point of view. This paper will endeavour to review the current status of ground-penetrating radar activities in Italy. Efforts have been devoted to single out the most interesting national research projects, both recent and ongoing, involving ground-penetrating radar in Italy, such as the ARCHEO project in the 90s, funded by the Italian Ministry for Universities, wherein a stepped frequency ultra-wide band radar suited for archaeological surveys was manufactured. In this framework, it is worth citing another important and more recent project, European Community funded, namely, ORFEUS, which started in the late 2006 with the overall aim of providing the capability to locate buried infrastructure accurately and reliably by means of a bore-head ground-penetrating radar for horizontal directional drilling. A review on the main use of this non-destructive technique in management activities of national resources and infrastructures has been also performed, ranging from the applications made by Anas S.p.A., i.e., the main management authority for the Italian road and motorway network, up to private enterprises specialized in both services providing and ground-penetrating radar manufacturing such as, to cite a few, Sineco S.p.A. and IDS Ingegneria dei Sistemi S.p.A., respectively. Current national guidelines, rules or protocols to be followed during radar surveys have been also reviewed. Unlike well-established international standards such as

  6. Geochemistry and habitat of oils in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Novelli, L.; Mattavelli, L.

    1988-02-01

    Most of the onshore and offshore oil occurrences found in Italy have been systematically analyzed by different techniques, i.e., capillary gas chromatography, biological markers, and stable isotopes composition. On the basis of the above analyses, ten different groups of oil have been identified and geographically located. Subsequently, the influence of the various geological settings on generation and migration of these different groups of oils was investigated and is discussed here. In a foredeep regime, the remarkably fast heating rates, due to the rapid burial during late Tertiary, caused a rapid generation of oil mainly in the Triassic carbonate source rocks. Such generation, combined with the high over-burden pressure and a contemporaneous development of an intense tectonic compression, resulted in the expulsion of immature, heavy oils. Examples of this are evident in the central Adriatic Sea, southern Italy, and southeastern Sicily. Due to its complex geological and tectonic history, the Alpine-Apennine chain behaved differently with regard to oil generation and migration in different areas. In fact, the high temperatures reached by the Mesozoic source rocks underneath a stack of allochthonous thrust sheets and the insulating thermal blanket effect exerted by the same sheets on other younger source rocks above gave rise to generally light oils. Furthermore, in this unique geological setting, the most external thrust sheets locally acted as reservoirs of the foredeep regime. Foreland sequences acted as both reservoirs of the foredeep oils and as generative kitchens of liquid hydrocarbons if suitable source rocks were present and adequate burial was reached.

  7. Space Radar Image of Florence, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image shows land use patterns in and around the city of Florence, Italy, shown here in the center of the image. Florence is situated on a plain in the Chianti Hill region of Central Italy. The Arno River flows through town and is visible as the dark line running from the upper right to the bottom center of the image. The city is home to some of the world's most famous art museums. The bridges seen crossing the Arno, shown as faint red lines in the upper right portion of the image, were all sacked during World War II with the exception of the Ponte Vecchio, which remains as Florence's only covered bridge. The large, black V-shaped feature near the center of the image is the Florence Railroad Station. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This image is centered at 43.7 degrees north latitude and 11.15 degrees east longitude with North toward the upper left of the image. The area shown measures 20 kilometers by 17 kilometers (12.4 miles by 10.6 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received.

  8. CO 2 release variations during the last 2000 years at the Colli Albani volcano (Roma, Italy) from speleothems studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuccimei, P.; Giordano, G.; Tedeschi, M.

    2006-03-01

    The Colli Albani is the quiescent volcano that dominates the southwestern skyline of Roma (Italy). The last eruption occurred during the Holocene, from the eccentric Albano maar, along its western slope. The volcano is presently affected by cyclic seismic swarms, ground uplift and diffuse CO 2 degassing. The degassing has caused several deadly incidents during the last years and constitutes a major civil protection concern, as the volcano slopes are densely inhabited. Nevertheless, the volcano does not have a permanent monitoring network, and the background level and anomalous CO 2 levels, the relationship between the gas release and the seismic and ground deformation activity at the Colli Albani are still to be defined. The aim of this work is to define the historical record of CO 2 release. Evidences of deep CO 2 periodic release during the last 2000 years in the area of Colli Albani volcano (Roma, Italy) are offered from speleothems studies. A Roman-age stone mine, now used for mushroom cultivation, is decorated with actively growing speleothems, characterised by depositional hiatuses. Different levels of four stalactites, separated by depositional unconformities, and several samples from a single depositional cycle belonging to a stalagmite have been dated by U/Th method and analysed for their O and C isotopic composition. Eight cycles of deposition have been identified from 90-110 A.D. to 1350-1370 A.D., some of which are recognised across different speleothems. The age gap dividing different growth layers is in the order of one to few hundred years giving a temporal span for periodic interruption of speleothems deposition. O and C isotopic analyses performed on the samples collected from a single cycle (the oldest) have shown that the composition of the mother solutions was initially mainly meteoric and that a progressive increase in the input of a deep component rich in CO 2 (up to a proportion of 20-30%) occurred just before the interruption of the

  9. Stratigraphic and structural data for the Conasauga Group and the Rome Formation on the Copper Creek fault block near Oak Ridge, Tennessee: preliminary results from test borehole ORNL-JOY No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, C.S.; Walls, E.C.; Farmer, C.D.

    1985-06-01

    To resolve long-standing problems with the stratigraphy of the Conasauga Group and the Rome Formation on the Copper Creek fault block near Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an 828.5-m-deep test borehole was drilled. Continuous rock core was recovered from the 17.7- to 828.5-m-deep interval; temperature, caliper, neutron, gamma-ray, and acoustic (velocity and televiewer) logs were obtained. The Conasauga Group at the study site is 572.4 m thick and comprises six formations that are - in descending stratigraphic order - Maynardville Limestone (98.8 m), Nolichucky Shale (167.9 m), Maryville Limestone (141.1 m), Rogersville Shale (39.6 m), Rutledge Limestone (30.8 m), and Pumpkin Valley Shale (94.2 m). The formations are lithologically complex, ranging from clastics that consist of shales, mudstones, and siltstones to carbonates that consist of micrites, wackestones, packstones, and conglomerates. The Rome Formation is 188.1 m thick and consists of variably bedded mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones. The Rome Formation thickness represents 88.1 m of relatively undeformed section and 100.0 m of highly deformed, jumbled, and partially repeated section. The bottom of the Rome Formation is marked by a tectonic disconformity that occurs within a 46-m-thick, intensely deformed interval caused by motion along the Copper Creek fault. Results from this study establish the stratigraphy and the lithology of the Conasauga Group and the Rome Formation near ORNL and, for the first time, allow for the unambiguous correlation of cores and geophysical logs from boreholes elsewhere in the ORNL vicinity. 45 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Domino effects induced from rockfalls on industrial plants, Brescia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lari, Serena; Frattini, Paolo; Battista Crosta, Giovanni; Agliardi, Federico; Buldrini, Marco; Oliveri, Stefano; Seminati, Paolo; Pozza, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    The impact of industrial accidents triggered by landslides in the Lombardy Alps (northern Italy) is not negligible, as demonstrated by the event of the refinery Ilsea (Valmadrera, LC), where an explosion caused by a rockfall caused a victim and two injuries in 1981. This work proposes a methodology for the assessment of societal and economic risk connected to industrial accidents triggered by rockfalls in the area of Brescia, northern Italy. The study area is located between Lake Iseo and Lake Garda, and includes lower Valcamonica, lower Valtrompia, and lower Valsabbia. The area has an extension of 1,508 km2 and includes 82 municipalities. 727,000 people live in this area, where valley bottoms are strongly urbanised, and densely populated. The expected frequency of occurrence of rockfalls in the area was calculated by combining the frequency of block detachment and the frequency of transit. The detachment frequency was estimated using intensity-frequency curves, obtained adapting and calibrating existing curves from the literature using historical events of the area (374 events in 20 years). Considering that detachment frequency depends on the size of the block, 7 different scenarios were analysed, each of them characterised by blocks with different volume, from 0.01 m3 to 10,000 m3. The transit frequency was calculated by means of the rockfall 3D model HY-STONE. The model simulates the propagation of three-dimensional trajectories of blocks on complex terrain morphologies described by a DTM. Simulations were performed using a 20 m x 20 m DTM, and considering as source areas all the cells steepest than 40° (323 km2). Ten blocks were launched from each source, with a stochastic approach that accounts for uncertainties about the modelling parameters. Energy restitution and rolling friction coefficients were assigned to different cells according to different lithology and land use, and calibrated using historical events. As a result of the model, kinetic energy of

  11. Phytochemical pattern of Gentiana species of Appennino in central Italy.

    PubMed

    Venditti, A; Guarcini, L; Altieri, A; Bianco, A

    2013-01-01

    The molecular pattern of two Gentiana species, G. dinarica and G. lutea, present in a protected area of Appennino Centrale in Italy, was examined. Results were compared with literature data, examining the differences between the two species.

  12. The state of art of shotcrete in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Pelizza, S.; Tesio, G.G.

    1995-12-31

    The paper reports the large experience of use of shotcrete in Italy, both in tunnels and above ground. In tunnelling, for more than 30 years, shotcrete has been used for many hundreds of kilometers of tunnel construction. Technical rules for shotcrete use in Italy do not yet exist. SIG-Italian Tunnelling Society- has formed the Working Group Use of Shotcrete. This working group, operating since 1988, has the specific task to adapt the use of shotcrete to international standards.

  13. Ethics committees in Italy--a time for change?

    PubMed

    Wray, E

    2000-01-01

    The Comitato Nazionale per la Bioetica (CNB) in Italy has recently produced an unprecedented discussion document on the state of ethics committees in Italy, with an invitation to interested parties to comment on proposed changes to their fundamental structure. After this consultation, and taking note of relevant official publications and the most recent national and international literature on the subject, the CNB proposes to produce a final, definitive document that will consider options for the future development of such committees.

  14. [Italy and Spain in the face of immigration].

    PubMed

    Alotta, S

    1997-01-01

    "Spain and Italy share a common heritage as far as emigration is concerned. Their country men went abroad looking for jobs for a long period of their history. At present this is the fate of the extra community immigrants. Scholars maintain that Spain and Italy face this new situation with a fear greater than necessary. An attempt is made to explain immigration in a more rational way. At the same time...the debate about racism and antiracism [is examined]." (EXCERPT)

  15. Italy makes a return to the nuclear fold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2008-07-01

    Some 21 years after its people voted in a referendum to end nuclear energy production, Italy looks set to return to the power of the atom. The newly installed right-wing government of Silvio Berlusconi has vowed to start building a new set of nuclear reactors within five years as part of a plan to reduce Italy's enormous energy costs. Experts, however, believe that this timescale is unrealistic.

  16. Managing induced riverbank filtration (IRF) at the Serchio River well field, Tuscany, Italy (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Ansiati, Alberto; Barbagli, Alessio; Borsi, Iacopo; Costabile, Gennarino; Dietrich, Peter; Mazzanti, Giorgio; Picciaia, Daniele; Bonari, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    Along the Serchio River (Tuscany -Italy) a series of well fields is set for an overall amount of about 1 m3/s pumped groundwater providing drinking water for about 300000 people of the coastal Tuscany (mainly to the town of Lucca, Pisa and Livorno). Water is pumped enhancing riverbank filtration into a high yield (10-2 m2/s transmissivity) sand and gravel aquifer by artificially rising river head and setting pumping well fields along the river reach. However, being it unmanaged aquifer recharge, concerns arise both for quality and quantity of the abstracted groundwater. It happens in dry climate extremes (i.e. 2002/2003 or 2011/2012) that Serchio River flow falls below minimum environmental flow (MEF). Long term contamination of river water had been causing contamination of groundwater, as in 2002/2006, when pesticide contaminated surface water was polluting the well fields causing several problems to water supply. Such problems were overcome by setting in place derogatory regulations and then through dissemination and stakeholder activities reducing pesticide presence in surface water (EU LIFE SERIAL WELLFIR project). Although widely adopted, IRF is also not well stated from a regulatory point of view, eventually leading to concerns by a legal point of view. Within the framework of the MARSOL FPVII-ENV-2013 project an experimental site at a well field will be set to demonstrate the feasibility (by a technical, social and market point of view) and the benefits of managing IRF versus the unmanaged option. The Serchio experimental site will involve merging existing and proved technologies to produce a Decision Support System (DSS) based on remote data acquisition and transmission and GIS physically-based fully distributed numerical modeling to continuously monitor and manage well fields, reducing also human operated activities. The DSS along with the installed sensors, data transmission and storage tools will constitute a prototype whose potential market exploitation

  17. Interregional comparison of karst disturbance: west-central Florida and southeast Italy.

    PubMed

    North, Leslie A; van Beynen, Philip E; Parise, Mario

    2009-04-01

    The karst disturbance index (KDI) consists of 31 environmental indicators contained within the five broad categories: geomorphology, hydrology, atmosphere, biota, and cultural. The purpose of this research is to apply the KDI to two distinct karst areas, west Florida, USA, and Apulia, Italy. Through its application, the utility of the index can be validated and other important comparisons can be made, such as differences in the karst legislations implemented in each region and the effect of time exposure to human occupation to each karst terrain. Humans have intensively impacted the karst of southeast Italy for thousands of years compared to only decades in west-central Florida. However, west-central Florida's higher population density allows the region to reach disturbance levels comparable to those reached over a longer period in Apulia. Similarly, Italian karst is more diverse than the karst found in west-central Florida, creating an opportunity to test all the KDI indicators. Overall, major disturbances for southeast Italy karst include quarrying, stone clearing, and the dumping of refuse into caves, while west-central Florida suffers most from the infilling of sinkholes, soil compaction, changes in the water table, and vegetation removal. The application of the KDI allows a benchmark of disturbance to be established and later revisited to determine the changing state of human impact for a region. The highlighting of certain indicators that recorded high levels of disturbance also allows regional planners to allocate resources in a more refined manner. PMID:19135774

  18. Cranial trauma in iron age Samnite agriculturists, Alfedena, Italy: implications for biocultural and economic stress.

    PubMed

    Paine, R R; Mancinelli, D; Ruggieri, M; Coppa, A

    2007-01-01

    The Samnites are an Iron Age protohistoric people from the central region of Italy. The skeletal remains are from the Alfedena necropolis, 6th through 5th centuries B.C. Macchiarelli et al. (Antropologia Contemporanea 4 (1981) 239-243) were the first to report on cranial trauma for this population, presenting four cases with extreme injuries. We re-examined this well documented skeletal population for additional examples of trauma. Previously unexamined remains from Alfedena, excavated at the turn of the 20th century, are also included in our analysis (Mariani. 1901. "Aufidena", ricerche archeologiche e storiche del Sannio settentrionale. Roma: Acc Naz Dei Lincei). Of the 209 adult crania examined, 12.9% of them exhibited trauma. Analysis of location and frequency of cranial trauma revealed that cranial injuries to the head appear to originate from all directions. The high rate of cranial trauma underscores the violent circumstances experienced during the Iron Age protohistoric period of central Italy. Males are much more likely to exhibit cranial injury than females (P = 0.009). We conclude that the injuries received by Samnite male farmer-warriors occurred while defending pastoral-agricultural resources. Trauma rates are similar for some Iron Age populations and not for others. Behavior associated with violence during the Iron Age period can not be generalized for all populations found in Italy.

  19. The sustainability of influenza vaccination programs: considerations and perspectives from Italy.

    PubMed

    Poscia, A; Stojanovic, J; Ricciardi, W

    2016-01-01

    Influenza constitutes an annually recurring threat to society, from both the clinical and economic points of view. The impact of influenza is often underestimated, especially among frail elderly people, who are at increased risk of serious complications, including hospitalization and death. In Italy, around 10 million individuals aged 65 years and older are at risk of contracting influenza, and it can be estimated that the lack of a vaccination strategy would lead to more than 2 million cases and about 30,000 deaths. However, adherence to routinely recommended adult immunizations remains suboptimal despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines. Indeed, a monitoring program from the National Institute of Health in Italy has shown that influenza vaccination coverage in the elderly dropped to 49% in the 2014-2015 season, which is far below the maximum values (68%) recorded in the 2005-2006 season. The current situation in Italy imposes a need for greater sustainability in order to face the challenges related to the changing epidemiological situation, demographic transition and social transformations. Our review sums up the key elements of influenza vaccine sustainability and makes suggestions for improving the organizational structure of the present initiatives. PMID:27346942

  20. Occupational sensitization to epoxy resins in Northeastern Italy (1996–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Prodi, Andrea; Rui, Francesca; Fortina, Anna Belloni; Corradin, Maria Teresa; Filon, Francesca Larese

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the main health concerns of epoxy resins is their role as skin sensitizer. This sensitization is not uncommon, because the prevalence ranges around 1–12% of the general population. Objectives: Perform a cross sectional study in a patch test population from Northeastern Italy to investigate the prevalence of epoxy resins sensitization among patients with suspected contact dermatitis. Subsequently, relate findings to patients’ occupation and evaluate time trend of prevalence. Methods: The final study database included 19 088 consecutive patients, tested from 1996 to 2010 in Northeastern Italy. Results: The overall prevalence of epoxy resins sensitization was 0·89%. Dermatitis most frequently involved hands (40·25%). In both sexes, we find a significant correlation in mechanics, woodworkers, and chemical industry workers; and in males only, among farmers and fishers, construction workers, and unemployed. We found significant increase of sensitization in construction workers in the analyzed period. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of sensitization to epoxy resins in Northeastern Italy is in line with other European countries, but we found an increased risk of sensitization in some professions and an increasing trend of prevalence in construction workers. Better preventive actions are strongly advised in higher risk professions, with particular attentions towards building sector. PMID:25633931

  1. Cultural Explanations of Sleep Paralysis in Italy: The Pandafeche Attack and Associated Supernatural Beliefs.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Romanelli, Andrea; Hinton, Devon E

    2015-12-01

    The current study examines cultural explanations regarding sleep paralysis (SP) in Italy. The study explores (1) whether the phenomenology of SP generates culturally specific interpretations and causal explanations and (2) what are the beliefs and local traditions associated with such cultural explanations. The participants were Italian nationals from the general population (n = 68) recruited in the region of Abruzzo, Italy. All participants had experienced at least one lifetime episode of SP. The sleep paralysis experiences and phenomenology questionnaire were orally administered to participants. We found a multilayered cultural interpretation of SP, namely the Pandafeche attack, associated with various supernatural beliefs. Thirty-eight percent of participants believed that this supernatural being, the Pandafeche-often referred to as an evil witch, sometimes as a ghost-like spirit or a terrifying humanoid cat-might have caused their SP. Twenty-four percent of all participants sensed the Pandafeche was present during their SP. Strategies to prevent Pandafeche attack included sleeping in supine position, placing a broom by the bedroom door, or putting a pile of sand by the bed. Case studies are presented to illustrate the study findings. The Pandafeche attack thus constitutes a culturally specific, supernatural interpretation of the phenomenology of SP in the Abruzzo region of Italy.

  2. Interregional comparison of karst disturbance: west-central Florida and southeast Italy.

    PubMed

    North, Leslie A; van Beynen, Philip E; Parise, Mario

    2009-04-01

    The karst disturbance index (KDI) consists of 31 environmental indicators contained within the five broad categories: geomorphology, hydrology, atmosphere, biota, and cultural. The purpose of this research is to apply the KDI to two distinct karst areas, west Florida, USA, and Apulia, Italy. Through its application, the utility of the index can be validated and other important comparisons can be made, such as differences in the karst legislations implemented in each region and the effect of time exposure to human occupation to each karst terrain. Humans have intensively impacted the karst of southeast Italy for thousands of years compared to only decades in west-central Florida. However, west-central Florida's higher population density allows the region to reach disturbance levels comparable to those reached over a longer period in Apulia. Similarly, Italian karst is more diverse than the karst found in west-central Florida, creating an opportunity to test all the KDI indicators. Overall, major disturbances for southeast Italy karst include quarrying, stone clearing, and the dumping of refuse into caves, while west-central Florida suffers most from the infilling of sinkholes, soil compaction, changes in the water table, and vegetation removal. The application of the KDI allows a benchmark of disturbance to be established and later revisited to determine the changing state of human impact for a region. The highlighting of certain indicators that recorded high levels of disturbance also allows regional planners to allocate resources in a more refined manner.

  3. The sustainability of influenza vaccination programs: considerations and perspectives from Italy.

    PubMed

    Poscia, A; Stojanovic, J; Ricciardi, W

    2016-01-01

    Influenza constitutes an annually recurring threat to society, from both the clinical and economic points of view. The impact of influenza is often underestimated, especially among frail elderly people, who are at increased risk of serious complications, including hospitalization and death. In Italy, around 10 million individuals aged 65 years and older are at risk of contracting influenza, and it can be estimated that the lack of a vaccination strategy would lead to more than 2 million cases and about 30,000 deaths. However, adherence to routinely recommended adult immunizations remains suboptimal despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines. Indeed, a monitoring program from the National Institute of Health in Italy has shown that influenza vaccination coverage in the elderly dropped to 49% in the 2014-2015 season, which is far below the maximum values (68%) recorded in the 2005-2006 season. The current situation in Italy imposes a need for greater sustainability in order to face the challenges related to the changing epidemiological situation, demographic transition and social transformations. Our review sums up the key elements of influenza vaccine sustainability and makes suggestions for improving the organizational structure of the present initiatives.

  4. Communication strategies to address geohydrological risks: the POLARIS web initiative in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvati, Paola; Pernice, Umberto; Bianchi, Cinzia; Marchesini, Ivan; Fiorucci, Federica; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2016-06-01

    Floods and landslides are common phenomena that cause serious damage and pose a severe threat to the population of Italy. The social and economic impact of floods and landslides in Italy is severe, and strategies to target the mitigation of the effects of these phenomena are needed. In the last few years, the scientific community has started to use web technology to communicate information on geohydrological hazards and the associated risks. However, the communication is often targeted at technical experts. In the attempt to communicate relevant information on geohydrological hazards with potential human consequences to a broader audience, we designed the POpoLazione A RISchio (POLARIS) website. POLARIS publishes accurate information on geohydrological risk to the population of Italy, including periodic reports on landslide and flood risk, analyses of specific damaging events and blog posts on landslide and flood events. By monitoring the access to POLARIS in the 21-month period between January 2014 and October 2015, we found that access increased during particularly damaging geohydrological events and immediately after the website was advertised by press releases. POLARIS demonstrates that the scientific community can implement suitable communication strategies that address different societal audiences, exploiting the role of mass media and social media. The strategies can help multiple audiences understand how risks can be reduced through appropriate measures and behaviours, contributing to increasing the resilience of the population to geohydrological risk.

  5. Cultural Explanations of Sleep Paralysis in Italy: The Pandafeche Attack and Associated Supernatural Beliefs.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Romanelli, Andrea; Hinton, Devon E

    2015-12-01

    The current study examines cultural explanations regarding sleep paralysis (SP) in Italy. The study explores (1) whether the phenomenology of SP generates culturally specific interpretations and causal explanations and (2) what are the beliefs and local traditions associated with such cultural explanations. The participants were Italian nationals from the general population (n = 68) recruited in the region of Abruzzo, Italy. All participants had experienced at least one lifetime episode of SP. The sleep paralysis experiences and phenomenology questionnaire were orally administered to participants. We found a multilayered cultural interpretation of SP, namely the Pandafeche attack, associated with various supernatural beliefs. Thirty-eight percent of participants believed that this supernatural being, the Pandafeche-often referred to as an evil witch, sometimes as a ghost-like spirit or a terrifying humanoid cat-might have caused their SP. Twenty-four percent of all participants sensed the Pandafeche was present during their SP. Strategies to prevent Pandafeche attack included sleeping in supine position, placing a broom by the bedroom door, or putting a pile of sand by the bed. Case studies are presented to illustrate the study findings. The Pandafeche attack thus constitutes a culturally specific, supernatural interpretation of the phenomenology of SP in the Abruzzo region of Italy. PMID:25802016

  6. Non-susceptible landslide areas in Italy and in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesini, I.; Ardizzone, F.; Alvioli, M.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-08-01

    We used landslide information for 13 study areas in Italy and morphometric information obtained from the 3-arcseconds shuttle radar topography mission digital elevation model (SRTM DEM) to determine areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible in Italy and in the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. The morphometric information consisted of the local terrain slope which was computed in a square 3 × 3-cell moving window, and in the regional relative relief computed in a circular 15 × 15-cell moving window. We tested three different models to classify the "non-susceptible" landslide areas, including a linear model (LNR), a quantile linear model (QLR), and a quantile, non-linear model (QNL). We tested the performance of the three models using independent landslide information presented by the Italian Landslide Inventory (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia - IFFI). Best results were obtained using the QNL model. The corresponding zonation of non-susceptible landslide areas was intersected in a geographic information system (GIS) with geographical census data for Italy. The result determined that 57.5% of the population of Italy (in 2001) was located in areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible. We applied the QNL model to the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, and we tested the synoptic non-susceptibility zonation using independent landslide information for three study areas in Spain. Results showed that the QNL model was capable of determining where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible in the validation areas in Spain. We expect our results to be applicable in similar study areas, facilitating the identification of non-susceptible landslide areas, at the synoptic scale.

  7. Non-susceptible landslide areas in Italy and in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesini, I.; Ardizzone, F.; Alvioli, M.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-04-01

    We used landslide information for 13 study areas in Italy and morphometric information obtained from the 3 arc-second SRTM DEM to determine areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be null or negligible in Italy, and in the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. The morphometric information consisted in the local terrain slope computed in a square 3 × 3 cell moving window, and in the regional relative relief computed in a circular 15 × 15 cell moving window. We tested three different models to determine the non-susceptible landslide areas, including a linear model (LR), a quantile linear model (QLR), and a quantile non-linear model (QNL). We tested the performance of the three models using independent landslide information represented by the Italian Landslide Inventory (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia - IFFI). Best results were obtained using the QNL model. The corresponding zonation of non-susceptible landslide areas was intersected in a GIS with geographical census data for Italy. The result allowed determining that 57.5% of the population of Italy (in 2001) was located in areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be null or negligible, and that the remaining 42.5% was located in areas where some landslide susceptibility is expected. We applied the QNL model to the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, and we tested the synoptic non-susceptibility zonation using independent landslide information for three study areas in Spain. Results proved that the QNL model was capable of determining where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible in the Mediterranean area. We expect our results to be applicable in similar study areas, facilitating the identification of non-susceptible and susceptible landslide areas, at the synoptic scale.

  8. Ecology of phlebotomine sand flies and Leishmania infantum infection in a rural area of southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tarallo, Viviana D; Latrofa, Maria S; Falchi, Alessandro; Lia, Riccardo P; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-09-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are insects of major medico-veterinary significance in the Mediterranean region, as they may transmit pathogens to animals and humans, including viruses and protozoa. The present study was conducted in southern Italy, in an area where visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum is endemic. Insects were collected monthly during two consecutive years using light traps set in five different ecologic contexts (i.e., a stonewall near a woodhouse, a tree near volcanic rocks in a high-altitude area, a tree trunk in a meadow habitat, a sheep stable, and a chicken coop) and weekly in one site (the garage of a private house). A total of 13,087 specimens were collected and six species identified (i.e., Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus neglectus, Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus mascittii, and Sergentomyia minuta), representing 75% of the total number of phlebotomine species found in Italy. P. perfiliewi was the most abundant species, comprising 88.14% of the specimens identified. The greatest species diversity and abundance was recorded in human dwellings and in animal sheds. Sand flies were active from June to October, peaking in July-August in 2010 and July-September in 2011. Part of the females (n=8865) was grouped into 617 pools (range, 1-10 insects each) according to species, feeding status, day and site of collection. A total of four pools (10 non-engorged specimens each) and one engorged female of P. perfiliewi were positive for L. infantum. This study confirms that phlebotomine vectors in southern Italy are highly adapted to human-modified environments (e.g., animal sheds) and that P. perfiliewi is a major vector of L. infantum in some regions of southern Italy. PMID:24813871

  9. Ecology of phlebotomine sand flies and Leishmania infantum infection in a rural area of southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tarallo, Viviana D; Latrofa, Maria S; Falchi, Alessandro; Lia, Riccardo P; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-09-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are insects of major medico-veterinary significance in the Mediterranean region, as they may transmit pathogens to animals and humans, including viruses and protozoa. The present study was conducted in southern Italy, in an area where visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum is endemic. Insects were collected monthly during two consecutive years using light traps set in five different ecologic contexts (i.e., a stonewall near a woodhouse, a tree near volcanic rocks in a high-altitude area, a tree trunk in a meadow habitat, a sheep stable, and a chicken coop) and weekly in one site (the garage of a private house). A total of 13,087 specimens were collected and six species identified (i.e., Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus neglectus, Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus mascittii, and Sergentomyia minuta), representing 75% of the total number of phlebotomine species found in Italy. P. perfiliewi was the most abundant species, comprising 88.14% of the specimens identified. The greatest species diversity and abundance was recorded in human dwellings and in animal sheds. Sand flies were active from June to October, peaking in July-August in 2010 and July-September in 2011. Part of the females (n=8865) was grouped into 617 pools (range, 1-10 insects each) according to species, feeding status, day and site of collection. A total of four pools (10 non-engorged specimens each) and one engorged female of P. perfiliewi were positive for L. infantum. This study confirms that phlebotomine vectors in southern Italy are highly adapted to human-modified environments (e.g., animal sheds) and that P. perfiliewi is a major vector of L. infantum in some regions of southern Italy.

  10. Characterization of fire regime in Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacciu, V. M.; Salis, M.; Mastinu, S.; Masala, F.; Sirca, C.; Spano, D.

    2012-12-01

    In the last decades, a number of Authors highlighted the crucial role of forest fires within Mediterranean ecosystems, with impacts both negative and positive on all biosphere components and with reverberations on different scales. Fire determines the landscape structure and plant composition, but it is also the cause of enormous economic and ecological damages, beside the loss of human life. In Sardinia (Italy), the second largest island of the Mediterranean Basin, forest fires are perceived as one of the main environmental and social problems, and data are showing that the situation is worsening especially within the rural-urban peripheries and the increasing number of very large forest fires. The need for information concerning forest fire regime has been pointed out by several Authors (e.g. Rollins et al., 2002), who also emphasized the importance of understanding the factors (such as weather/climate, socio-economic, and land use) that determine spatial and temporal fire patterns. These would be used not only as a baseline to predict the climate change effect on forest fires, but also as a fire management and mitigation strategy. The main aim of this paper is, thus, to analyze the temporal and spatial patterns of fire occurrence in Sardinia (Italy) during the last three decades (1980-2010). For the analyzed period, fire statistics were provided by the Sardinian Forest Service (CFVA - Corpo Forestale e di Vigilanza Ambientale), while weather data for eight weather stations were obtained from the web site www.tutiempo.it. For each station, daily series of precipitation, mean, maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity and wind speed were available. The present study firstly analyzed fire statistics (burned area and number of fires) according to the main fire regime characteristics (seasonality, fire return interval, fire incidence, fire size distribution). Then, fire and weather daily values were averaged to obtain monthly, seasonal and annual values, and

  11. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Alberto E; Armenio, Lucio; Bernardini, Roberto; Boner, Attilio; Calvani, Mauro; Cardinale, Fabio; Cavagni, Giovanni; Dondi, Arianna; Duse, Marzia; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Marseglia, Gian L; del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Muraro, Antonella; Pajno, Giovanni B; Paravati, Francesco; Peroni, Diego; Tripodi, Salvatore; Ugazio, Alberto G; Indinnimeo, Luciana

    2011-05-01

    In Italy, according to the International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood study, the prevalence of current asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema in 2006 was 7.9%, 6.5%, and 10.1% among children aged 6-7 and 8.4%, 15.5%, and 7.75% among children aged 13-14 yr. University education in this field is provided by the Postgraduate Schools of Pediatrics and those of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, as well as several annual Master courses. The Italian Society of Pediatric Allergology and Immunology (SIAIP) was founded in 1996 and counts about 1000 members. SIAIP promotes evidence-based management of allergic children and disseminates information to patients and their families through a quite innovative website and the National Journal 'Rivista Italiana di Allergologia Pediatrica'. In the last decade, four major regional, inter-regional, and national web-based networks have been created to link pediatric allergy centers and to share their clinical protocols and epidemiologic data. In addition, National Registers of Primary Immune-deficiencies and on Pediatric HIV link all clinical excellence centers. Research projects in the field of pediatric allergy and immunology are founded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) and by the National Research Council (CNR), but the overall investments in this research area are quite low. Only a handful Italian excellence centers participate in European Projects on Pediatric Allergy and Immunology within the 7th Framework Program. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology currently hosts two Italians in its Executive Committee (EC) and one in the EC of the Pediatric Section; moreover, major European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology meetings and courses in the area of pediatrics (e.g., PAAM, Venice, 2009) have been held in Italy in the last 3 yr. Italian hallmarks in the management of allergic diseases in childhood are a quite alive and spread interest in

  12. Geoelectric monitoring of the Bagnaschino landslide (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochum, Birgit; Supper, Robert; Ottowitz, David; Pfeiler, Stefan; Kim, Jung-Ho; Lovisolo, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Landslides are one of the major natural threats to human lives, settlements and infrastructure. Permanent geoelectrical monitoring using the GEOMON4D instrumentation in combination with high resolution displacement monitoring by means of the DMS system was performed at an active landslide area in Italy (Bagnaschino). These sites are part of a geoelectrical monitoring network of the Geological Survey of Austria, which currently comprises six permanently monitored landslides in Europe. The Bagnaschino site represents a landslide/earthflow reactivated within an old landslide mass. The old landslide is situated on the slopes of the Val Casotto about 4 km SE of Torre Mondovì (NW Italy). Evident indications of deep-seated gravitational deformation suggest that the current slopes are in a condition of limit-equilibrium and are predisposed to slow instability, triggered most probably by rain and/or snow melting and river erosion at the foot. The recent landslide was activated during 1994 rainfall event. It covers an estimated area of 150,000 m² and comprises a displaced material of 1.2 million m³. It endangers a regional road and potential formation of a dam. For the purpose of early warning a DMS monitoring column with 60 m length was installed in October 2008. Total displacement recorded by DMS during the events between 2008 and 2010 was 600 mm. Subsequently, the GEOMON4D geoelectric monitoring system was installed there in 2010. Resistivity measurements are performed along a 224 m long profile, which is oriented parallel to the main movement direction. Its midpoint is next to the DMS station. One set of data comprising around 4000 gradient-type measurements is taken every 4 hours. For power supply a combination of a fuel cell and a solar panel is used. Within the observation interval one distinct displacement event was monitored. This event was accompanied by a decrease of electric resistivity. In addition to our standard analysis of resistivity data (e.g. time

  13. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucia, Leporatti Maria

    2007-01-01

    Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata) were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species), Marche (274) and Abruzzo (203). The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised). Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several plants deserve to be taken

  14. Global alliance against chronic respiratory diseases in Italy (GARD-Italy): strategy and activities.

    PubMed

    Laurendi, Giovanna; Mele, Sonia; Centanni, Stefano; Donner, Claudio F; Falcone, Franco; Frateiacci, Sandra; Lazzeri, Marta; Mangiacavallo, Antonino; Indinnimeo, Luciana; Viegi, Giovanni; Pisanti, Paola; Filippetti, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The steady increase in incidence of chronic respiratory disease (CRD) now constitutes a serious public health problem. CRDs are often underdiagnosed and many patients are not diagnosed until the CRD is too severe to prevent normal daily activities. The prevention of CRDs and reducing their social and individual impacts means modifying environmental and social factors and improving diagnosis and treatment. Prevention of risk factors (tobacco smoke, allergens, occupational agents, indoor/outdoor air pollution) will significantly impact on morbidity and mortality. The Italian Ministry of Health (MoH) has made respiratory disease prevention a top priority and is implementing a comprehensive strategy with policies against tobacco smoking, indoor/outdoor pollution, obesity, and communicable diseases. Presently these actions are not well coordinated. The Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD), set up by the World Health Organization, envisages national bodies; the GARD initiative in Italy, launched 11/6/2009, represents a great opportunity for the MoH. Its main objective is to promote the development of a coordinated CRD program in Italy. Effective prevention implies setting up a health policy with the support of healthcare professionals and citizen associations at national, regional, and district levels. What is required is a true inter-institutional synergy: respiratory diseases prevention cannot and should not be the responsibility of doctors alone, but must involve politicians/policymakers, as well as the media, local institutions, and schools, etc. GARD could be a significant experience and a great opportunity for Italy to share the GARD vision of a world where all people can breathe freely.

  15. Age-specific mortality trends in France and Italy since 1900: period and cohort effects.

    PubMed

    Caselli, G; Vallin, J; Vaupel, J W; Yashin, A

    1987-11-01

    The age/sex-specific mortality trends of France and Italy were studied over the 1899-1979 period in as much detail as possible in an effort to distinguish between cohort effects and those related to period changes. Complete series of mortality data by individual years of age and calendar years were available from 1869 to 1979 for Italy and from 1899 to 1982 for France. For both countries, these data include the military and civil deaths not registered in vital statistics during the war periods. They cover each national territory as defined by its present boundaries. The graphical representation method of mortality surfaces, elaborated by Vaupel, Gambill, and Yashin (1985), was adopted. The age/sex-specific mortality patterns of France and Italy have not followed the same trends, and the differences observed today are not those of 100 years ago. The mean death probabilities for the 1975-79 period were used to illustrate the age-specific patterns of mortality. Although infant mortality was higher in Italy than in France, the death probabilities at ages 1-15 for both sexes were roughly the same for both countries. At ages 15-23, they were much higher in France than in Italy, and they remained considerably higher in France up to age 55. From then on, the sexes differ: for males, the 2 countries showed similar patterns, whereas for females the probabilities were noticeably higher for France. The situation was very different for both countries at the beginning of the century. For both sexes, higher mortality was observed in Italy not only during infancy but throughout childhood and the adolescent years up to age 15. The 2 countries showed similar patterns from 15-25. Above age 25, the 2 countries had similar patterns for females, whereas male mortality was higher in France right up to the old age groups. Such differences in the age-specific mortality trends depend in part on a different development of health and social conditions but also may be due to factors concerning

  16. [Activity in a nephrology ward in 2009, Piemonte, Italy].

    PubMed

    Rollino, Cristiana; Beltrame, Giulietta; Ferro, Michela; Quattrocchio, Giacomo; Maina, Luca; Massara, Carlo; Quarello, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of patients hospitalized in nephrology wards in Italy have changed in recent years due to the aging Italian population and the increased immigration. We analyzed the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized in our nephrology ward (17 beds) from 15 November 2008 to 15 November 2009. In this period there were 507 hospitalizations including 448 patients. The mean age was 64.4+/-18 years (range 16-96 years). Foreigners accounted for 10% of the total; their mean age was significantly lower than that of Italian patients (38.2+/-13.4 vs 67.4+/-15.9 years, p<0.01). 36.3% of patients were on dialysis, 10% were transplant recipients: the reasons for admission in these cases were internal medicine related; 18.15% were hospitalized because of emergency unit crowding without indications for admission to a nephrology ward. Hospitalization lasted a mean of 13+/-13 days. The most frequent diagnosis at discharge was acute renal failure (ARF) (28.9%) (prerenal 42.1%, obstructive 12.2%, drug induced 6.8%, other causes of ARF 38.7%). Patients with ARF were older than patients with other kidney conditions (67.05+/-16.98 vs 56.03+/-18.65 years, p<0.01). ARF resolved or improved in 86 patients (63.7%). Other diagnoses were cardiovascular disease 25.1%, glomerular disease 18.7%, acute pyelonephritis 10.6%, other 16.7%. Foreign patients presented infectionrelated diseases more often than Italian patients (39.2% vs 20.4%, p=0.02). 392 patients were discharged to their homes, 40 (7.9%) found a place in a long-term care facility or home for the elderly, 25 (4.9%) in other hospital units, and 50 patients died (9.8%). In conclusion, patients hospitalized in nephrology wards in 2009 were mostly elderly with a high frequency of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The most frequent diagnosis was prerenal ARF. These data suggest the necessity of improving the prevention of this type of kidney disease. Moreover, the length of hospitalization, which is

  17. Land contamination and soil evolution in abandoned mine areas (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation are nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, leaving on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including landscape, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The increasing environmental consciousness of general population compelled Public Administrators to set down effective legislation acts on this subject (e.g. D.L. 152/2006), and more generally on environmental contamination. In this work we present the results of a survey carried out at several mixed sulphides mine sites in Italy, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the '60s of the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on 50 soil profiles (mostly Entisols and Inceptisols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show metal concentrations overcoming legislation limits on average (Cu up to 3160 mg kg-1 , Pb up to 23600 mg kg-1, Zn up to 1588 mg kg-1, Fe up to 52,30 %). Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. Metal concentrations in native vegetation of the examined areas are moderately to highly elevated. Significant amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn in roots of Plantago major and Silene dioica, in leaves of Taraxacum officinale, and Salix spp, have been recorded. Essential elements, in particular, present Translocation Coefficients (TC) >1, with Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe. Toxic elements (Cd, Cr, Pb), instead, present TC<1, suggesting a synergic/antagonist effect to occur among metals and plants, according to their role in mineral nutrition. The results obtained suggest the abandoned mine sites to represent actual natural aboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, the examined plants are genetically adapted to naturally metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in

  18. Holocene vegetation changes through Lac Ledro sediments (Trentino, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joannin, Sebastien; Vannière, Boris; Galop, Didier; Magny, Michel; Gilli, Adrian; Chapron, Emmanuel; Wirth, Stéfanie; Anselmetti, Flavio; Desmet, Marc

    2010-05-01

    Lake Ledro is part of the French program ANR LAMA (coordinators: M. Magny and N. Combourieu Nebout) which aims to link Holocene paleoenvironmental changes along a north-south transect in Italy. Lake Ledro (652 m a.s.l.; Trentino, north-eastern Italy) is the northward component of the transect. It is located on the southern slope of the Alps and its catchment area covers 131 km2 with mountains culminating at 1500-2000 m. A multi-proxy approach based on biotic and abiotic indicators (lake-level, palynology, geochemistry and geophysic) was developed from deep and littoral cores, including sediment sequences in Early and Middle Bronze Age lake-shore archaeological sites. We aim reconstructing paleoenvironmental changes resulting from both climate and anthropic influences trough the entire Holocene. A deep master core was built after extracting twin cores from a non disturbed sediment zone recognised by seismic-reflexion investigations. The age-depth model is based on 13 AMS 14C ages measured on terrestrial plant macrofossils and the mean temporal resolution for analyses is ca 60 years. Palynological study shows the usual vegetation succession for the southern slope of the Alps. During the first part of the Holocene, abrupt changes are observed in pollen assemblages in relation to changes in other proxies (XRF and Magnetic Susceptibility) and correlate with cold events associated to the deglaciation in the North-Atlantic area. Cool episodes corresponding to the PreBoreal Oscillation (ca 11.3 ka cal BP) and 8.2 ka event are respectively characterized by stopping afforestation and a strong development of Abies in the local ecosystem. During the second part of the Holocene, two declines of arboreal pollen abundance are observed in relation with occurrences in both cereal and anthropic pollen indicators. These two phases are confirmed by increase in soil erosion as indicated by abiotic proxies. They give evidence of two successive steps for human settlement (Early

  19. Current and future trends of Volcanology in Italy and abroad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papale, P.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanology in Italy and in the world has rapidly developed during last decades. In the Seventies, stratigraphy and petrology provided the basic knowledge on the volcanic activities that still forms the root for modern volcano research. During the Eighties and Nineties the interest was more on the quantitative description of the volcanic processes, with enormous progresses in different but complementary fields including laboratory measurements and experiments, physico-mathematical modeling and numerical simulations, geophysical surveys and inverse analysis, and volcano monitoring and surveillance. In year 2000 a large number of magma properties and magmatic and volcanic processes was characterized at a first or higher order. Volcano research in Italy during the first decade of the new millennium has further developed along those lines. To-date, the very high risk Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius volcanoes, and the less risky but permanently active Etna and Stromboli volcanoes, are among the best monitored and more deeply investigated worldwide. The last decade has also seen coordinated efforts aimed at exploring exploitation of knowledge and skills for the benefit of the society. A series of projects focused on volcanic hazard and risk have joined >1000 researchers from Italian and foreign (Europe, US, Japan) Universities and Research Centers, on themes and objectives jointly defined by scientists from INGV and end-users from the national Civil Protection Department. These projects provide a global picture of volcano research in year 2010, that appears to be evolving through i) further rapid developments in the fields of investigation listed above, ii) their merging into effective multidisciplinary approaches, and iii) the full inclusion of the concepts of uncertainty and probabilities in volcanic scenario predictions and hazard forecast. The latter reflects the large inaccessibility of the volcanic systems, the extreme non-linear behaviour of volcanic processes put in

  20. Intraoperative neuromonitoring in thyroid surgery: a point prevalence survey on utilization, management, and documentation in Italy.

    PubMed

    Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Lombardi, Davide; Lombardi, Celestino Pio; Carcoforo, Paolo; Boniardi, Marco; Innaro, Nadia; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Cavicchi, Ottavio; Biondi, Antonio; Basile, Francesco; Zaccaroni, Angelo; Mangano, Alberto; Leotta, Andrea; Lavazza, Matteo; Calò, Pietro Giorgio; Nicolosi, Angelo; Castelnuovo, Paolo; Nicolai, Piero; Pezzullo, Luciano; De Toma, Giorgio; Bellantone, Rocco; Sacco, Rosario

    2014-12-01

    The frequency of neuromonitoring during thyroid surgery is underreported in Italy. The present survey depicts and describes the patterns of use, management, documentation for IONM devices of IONM during thyroid surgery by surgeons in Italy. A point prevalence survey was undertaken. Source data were mixed from Italian surgeons attending the 2014 International Neuromonitoring Study Group (INMSG) meeting, four IONM manufacturers available in Italy and surgical units were identified from Company sales data. Qualitative and quantitative data were used to analyze. Questions probed IONM prevalence, surgeon background, hospital geographic practice locations, type of hospital, rationale for IONM use, sources of initial capital investment for IONM acquisition, type of equipment, use of continuous IONM, monitoring management, use of distinctive standards, and IONM documentation. IONM is currently delivered through 48 units in Italy. In 2013, the distribution of IONM by specialties included: general (50 %), ENT (46 %), and thoracic surgery (4 %). Overall, 12.853 IONM procedures were performed in the period from 2006 to 2013: 253 were performed in 2007 and about 5,100 in 2013. Distribution according to the type of hospital is: public 48 %, academic setting 37 %, and private maintenance 15 %. The use category of high volume thyroid hospitals represented 33 %. Initial capital investment for the acquisition of the monitoring equipment was 67 % public and 33 % with charitable/private funding. Audio plus graphic and EMG electrodes surface endotracheal tube-based monitoring systems accounted for the majority. Continuous IONM was introduced in 5 Academic Centers. Overall motivations expressed are legal (30 %), RLN confirmation (20 %), RLN identification (20 %), prognosis (10 %), helpful in difficult cases (10 %), decrease surgical time (5 %), and educational (5 %). The survey revealed that participants had few experience with the standardized approach of IONM technique (28 %). General

  1. Intraoperative neuromonitoring in thyroid surgery: a point prevalence survey on utilization, management, and documentation in Italy.

    PubMed

    Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Lombardi, Davide; Lombardi, Celestino Pio; Carcoforo, Paolo; Boniardi, Marco; Innaro, Nadia; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Cavicchi, Ottavio; Biondi, Antonio; Basile, Francesco; Zaccaroni, Angelo; Mangano, Alberto; Leotta, Andrea; Lavazza, Matteo; Calò, Pietro Giorgio; Nicolosi, Angelo; Castelnuovo, Paolo; Nicolai, Piero; Pezzullo, Luciano; De Toma, Giorgio; Bellantone, Rocco; Sacco, Rosario

    2014-12-01

    The frequency of neuromonitoring during thyroid surgery is underreported in Italy. The present survey depicts and describes the patterns of use, management, documentation for IONM devices of IONM during thyroid surgery by surgeons in Italy. A point prevalence survey was undertaken. Source data were mixed from Italian surgeons attending the 2014 International Neuromonitoring Study Group (INMSG) meeting, four IONM manufacturers available in Italy and surgical units were identified from Company sales data. Qualitative and quantitative data were used to analyze. Questions probed IONM prevalence, surgeon background, hospital geographic practice locations, type of hospital, rationale for IONM use, sources of initial capital investment for IONM acquisition, type of equipment, use of continuous IONM, monitoring management, use of distinctive standards, and IONM documentation. IONM is currently delivered through 48 units in Italy. In 2013, the distribution of IONM by specialties included: general (50 %), ENT (46 %), and thoracic surgery (4 %). Overall, 12.853 IONM procedures were performed in the period from 2006 to 2013: 253 were performed in 2007 and about 5,100 in 2013. Distribution according to the type of hospital is: public 48 %, academic setting 37 %, and private maintenance 15 %. The use category of high volume thyroid hospitals represented 33 %. Initial capital investment for the acquisition of the monitoring equipment was 67 % public and 33 % with charitable/private funding. Audio plus graphic and EMG electrodes surface endotracheal tube-based monitoring systems accounted for the majority. Continuous IONM was introduced in 5 Academic Centers. Overall motivations expressed are legal (30 %), RLN confirmation (20 %), RLN identification (20 %), prognosis (10 %), helpful in difficult cases (10 %), decrease surgical time (5 %), and educational (5 %). The survey revealed that participants had few experience with the standardized approach of IONM technique (28 %). General

  2. Legal abortion in Italy: 1980-1981.

    PubMed

    Tosi, S L; Grandolfo, M E; Spinelli, A; O'Reilly, K R; Hogue, C J

    1985-01-01

    In 1980 and 1981, there were 446,430 legal abortions performed in Italy. There were about 345 legal abortions per 1,000 live births in 1980 and 363 in 1981. About 1.6 percent of women aged 15-49 obtained abortions in both years. An analysis of the characteristics of Italian women who obtained abortions indicates that most were married (about 70 percent), aged 18-36 (74 percent), had had less than a high school education (74 percent) and had had at least one previous live birth (70-75 percent). In 1981, 88 percent of abortions were obtained in public hospitals; 58 percent were carried out at eight or fewer weeks of gestation; and 78 percent were performed under general anesthesia. Only 20 percent were performed without an overnight stay in the hospital; and over 40 percent of women were hospitalized for two days or longer. Infection after the abortion was reported in only 0.03 percent of cases in 1981, and hemorrhage was reported in only 0.27 percent. In 1981, between 43 percent and 84 percent of gynecologists (depending on the region of the country) declined to perform abortions on grounds of conscience. PMID:3872230

  3. Actinides AMS at CIRCE in Caserta (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cesare, M.; Gialanella, L.; Rogalla, D.; Petraglia, A.; Guan, Y.; De Cesare, N.; D'Onofrio, A.; Quinto, F.; Roca, V.; Sabbarese, C.; Terrasi, F.

    2010-04-01

    The operation of Nuclear Power Plants and atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons performed in the past, together with production, transport and reprocessing of nuclear fuel, lead to the release into the environment of a wide range of radioactive nuclides, such as uranium, plutonium, fission and activation products. These nuclides are present in the environment at ultra trace levels. Their detection requires sensitive techniques like AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry). In order to perform isotopic ratio measurements of the longer-lived actinides, e.g., of 236U relative to the primary 238U and various Pu isotopes relative to 239Pu, an upgrade of the CIRCE accelerator (Center for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental Heritage) in Caserta, Italy, is underway. In this paper we report on the results of simulations aiming to define the best ion optics and to understand the origin of possible measurement background. The design of a high resolution TOF- E (Time of Flight-Energy) detector system is described, which will be used to identify the rare isotopes among interfering background signals.

  4. Underestimation of Invasive Meningococcal Disease in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Nieddu, Francesco; Moriondo, Maria; Indolfi, Giuseppe; Canessa, Clementina; Ricci, Silvia; Bianchi, Leila; Serranti, Daniele; Poggi, Giovanni Maria; Resti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Knowing the incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is essential for planning appropriate vaccination policies. However, IMD may be underestimated because of misdiagnosis or insufficiently sensitive laboratory methods. Using a national molecular surveillance register, we assessed the number of cases misdiagnosed and diagnoses obtained postmortem with real-time PCR (rPCR), and we compared sensitivity of rPCR versus culture-based testing. A total of 222 IMD cases were identified: 11 (42%) of 26 fatal cases had been misdiagnosed or undiagnosed and were reclassified as IMD after rPCR showed meningococcal DNA in all available specimens taken postmortem. Of the samples tested with both rPCR and culture, 58% were diagnosed by using rPCR alone. The underestimation factor associated with the use of culture alone was 3.28. In countries such as Italy, where rPCR is in limited use, IMD incidence may be largely underestimated; thus, assessments of benefits of meningococcal vaccination may be prone to error. PMID:26890305

  5. [The management of foreign workers in Italy].

    PubMed

    Iavicoli, Sergio; Valenti, Antonio; Persechino, Benedetta

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decades, the globalisation and important geopolitical changes have widened the spatial boundaries of international migrations which have reached a so global scope today that they influence the economic, political and social trend of countries of origin, transit and destination. According to the UN, the international labour mobility involved more than 200 million people in 2010, that is approximately 10% of the world's total population. In Italy, in the beginning of 2010 foreign residents amounted to 4.2 million, that is to say, 7% of the total population (ISTAT, 2011). Host countries have been forced to implement a series of policies aimed at combating illegal immigration and employment of foreign people. Special attention must be given to the issue of migrant workers who have become increasingly important actors in the social and productive sectors and, as a consequence, the need for preventive and protective measures taking into consideration the specific work-related hazards is growing more and more urgent. With this respect, the regulatory framework for occupational health and safety now contains explicit references to migrant workers as provided in the Leg. Decree 81/08 with subsequent integrations and modifications. First of all, the issue of occupational health and safety for migrant workers must take into account of the linguistic, social and cultural problems of the different ethnical groups that are present in our country.

  6. Evaluating Intensity Prediction Equations for Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, Sum; Schorlemmer, Danijel

    2016-04-01

    The macroseismic intensity has been, and will likely continue to be used for purposes such as seismic hazard assessment, loss estimation and communication to the public. Recently, there have been numerous validation studies for ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), while intensity prediction equations (IPEs) have received less attention. We attempted to extend the validation study to IPEs. We evaluated a number of Italian IPEs and one global IPE using intensity observations in Italy since 2002, derived from multiple datasets. The prediction and observations were compared using a simple metric of mean absolute error, as well as conventional residual analysis. IPEs with a physically meaningful functional form were found to perform better. Some IPEs derived from a large amount of data were not found to perform better than those derived from a moderate amount of data. A global IPE was found to have comparable performance with the best indigenous model, suggesting that the regional difference of intensity attenuation may not be significant. These findings could guide the development of IPEs in the future.

  7. Measles outbreak in adults in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bassetti, Matteo; Schenone, Eva; Calzi, Anna; Camera, Marco; Valle, Laura; Ansaldi, Filippo; Pagano, Gabriella; Viscoli, Claudio

    2011-03-01

    Several outbreaks of measles have been reported since 2007 both in Italy and elsewhere in Europe. The objective of this study was to analyze the characteristics of the cases of measles that were hospitalized at San Martino Hospital from January 2008 to April 2009. All suspected cases of measles from January 2008 to April 2009 were analyzed. Laboratory confirmation was attained by determination of measles-specific IgM antibodies with enzyme immunoassay and/or detection of the measles virus genome in throat swab or urine by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In all, 114 patients with clinically suspected measles were observed and laboratory confirmation was obtained in 83 cases: 34 (34/83; 41%) by specific genome PCR; five (5/83; 6%) only by IgM antibodies and 44 (44/83; 53%) by both methods. The median age was 25 years (range 15-66). The vaccination status was known for 80/83 patients, amongst whom the proportion of unvaccinated was 90% (72/80). No severe complications were observed. The most common complications were nausea/vomiting in 28/83 (34%) and radiologically documented interstitial pneumonia in 22/83 (26%) cases. The median length of hospitalization was five days (range 1-9 days). Almost 90% of patients were aged 20 years and older and hence measles cannot be regarded solely as a childhood disease. Thus widespread high vaccination coverage would be required to prevent new outbreaks and hospitalizations in the adult population.

  8. EHR and data protection issues in Italy.

    PubMed

    Virone, Maria Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Technological progresses and the changed way to collect, access and use data are at the bottom of the European Commission proposal for a "General Data Protection Regulation" (25 January 2012). Implications of safeguarding privacy and harmonization of existing rules are extremely important also for national Health Systems. Mobility of patients and health professionals as well as cross-border healthcare connected with the increasing use of Information and Communication Technologies in Healthcare Services are modifying traditional medical approaches and applications. New tools, as Electronic Health Records, provide significant benefits as empowering health consumers and minimizing health costs. Anyway, EHRs have limits: for example, they should cause risks for individuals, professionals and institutions in terms of personal injuries and liabilities. In this scenario, it's evident that technical aspects (as health standards and interoperability) are as important as legal and regulatory privacy issues. Presently, mandatory acts on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of health e-Data still missing at all levels. Italy is adopting binding and non-binding legal documents to tackle the problem. Are they enough?

  9. Ellipticity of Rayleigh waves and crustal structure in northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berbellini, Andrea; Morelli, Andrea; Ferreira, Ana M. G.

    2016-04-01

    Horizontal-to-vertical amplitude ratio of elliptically-polarised ground motion of Rayleigh waves depends on the local crustal structure. Its measurement therefore adds another, seldom used, tool to image shallow earth structure. Frequency-dependent sensitivity kernels are dominated by shear-wave velocity and are rather shallow, so they are a convenient tool to model sedimentary layers that nicely complement surface wave studies. We perform extensive measurements, in the period range between 10 and 110 s, on traces from about 500 globally-distributed earthquakes, occurred in years 2008 ÷ 2014, recorded by 95 stations in northern Italy - - a region including the wide basin of the Po Plain and encircling Alps and northern Apennines. The observations are well correlated with known strucure: high ellipticity correlates well with low seismic velocity (such as in the Po Plain), and low ellipticity corresponds to fast seismic velocity in hard rock environments in correspondence of Alps and Apennines. Comparison between observations and predicted ellipticity from a reference crustal model of the region (Molinari et al., 2015) shows substantial fit. Sensitivity to vS is quite non linear, but inversion is possible and may provide very useful complementary information to, e.g., surface wave phase or group velocity or receiver functions.

  10. The underground seismic array of Gran Sasso (UNDERSEIS), central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, R.; Muscente, R.; Tronca, F.; Fischione, C.; Rotella, P.; Abril, M.; Alguacil, G.; Martini, M.; de Cesare, W.

    2003-04-01

    Since early May, 2002, a small aperture seismic array has been installed in the underground Physics Laboratories of Gran Sasso, located near seismic active faults of central Apennines, Italy. This array is presently composed by 21 three-component short period seismic stations (Mark L4C-3D), with average distance 90 m and semi-circular aperture of 400 m x 600 m. It is intersecting a main seismogenic fault where the presence of slow earthquakes has been recently detected through two wide band geodetic laser interferometers. The underground Laboratories are shielded by a limestone rock layer having 1400 m thickness. Each seismometer is linked, through a 24 bits A/D board, to a set of 6 industrial PC via a serial RS-485 standard. The six PC transmit data to a server through an ethernet network. Time syncronization is provided by a Master Oscillator controlled by an atomic clock. Earthworm package is used for data selection and transmission. High quality data have been recorded since May 2002, including local and regional earthquakes. In particular the 31 October, 2002, Molise (Mw=5.8 earthquake) and its aftershocks have been recorded at this array. Array techniques such as polarisation and frequency-slowness analyses with the MUSIC noise algorithm indicate the high performance of this array, as compared to the national seismic network, for identifying the basic source parameters for earthquakes located at distance of few hundreds of km.

  11. A mortality cohort study of seamen in Italy.

    PubMed

    Rapiti, E; Turi, E; Forastiere, F; Borgia, P; Comba, P; Perucci, C A; Axelson, O

    1992-01-01

    A total of 2,208 male subjects, enrolled as merchant marine seamen at the Civitavecchia (Italy) harbor from 1936 to 1975 were followed up through 1989 in order to evaluate their mortality experience. Available information about the number of sailings made it possible to divide subjects into two subgroups: 948 workers with at least one sailing (cohort A) and 1,260 with no reported sailing (cohort B). Fewer than expected overall deaths were observed in both cohorts (cohort A: SMR = 0.83; cohort B: SMR = 0.81), mainly due to a lower mortality from circulatory, respiratory, and digestive diseases. Lung cancer deaths were significantly increased in cohort A (O = 30, SMR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.15-2.44), whereas no excess was observed in cohort B (O = 6, SMR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.21-1.26). Among subjects employed aboard ship, a trend in SMRs for lung cancer increasing with duration of employment was observed. Furthermore, three neoplasms of other parts of the respiratory system (including one mesothelioma) were detected in cohort A (SMR = 5.87), and one in cohort B. The study substantiates an increased risk of respiratory cancer among subjects with an occupational history of sailing; past exposure to asbestos and to other environmental carcinogens aboard could be implicated.

  12. An observational study of powered wheelchair provision in Italy.

    PubMed

    Salatino, Claudia; Andrich, Renzo; Converti, R M; Saruggia, M

    2016-01-01

    Powered wheelchairs are complex and expensive assistive devices that must be selected and configured on the basis of individual user needs, lifestyle, motivation, driving ability, and environment. Providing agencies often require evidence that their financial investment will lead to a successful outcome. The authors surveyed a sample of 79 users who had obtained powered wheelchairs from a Regional Health Service in Italy in the period 2008-2013. Follow-up interviews were conducted at the users' homes in order to collect information about wheelchair use, and its effectiveness, usefulness, and economic impact. The instruments used in the interviews included an introductory questionnaire, QUEST (Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology), PIADS (Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale), FABS/M (Facilitators and Barriers Survey/Mobility), and SCAI (Siva Cost Analysis Instrument). The results indicated positive outcomes, especially in relation to user satisfaction and psychosocial impact. A number of barriers were identified in various settings that sometimes restrict user mobility, and suggest corrective actions. The provision of a powered wheelchair generated considerable savings in social costs for most users: an average of about $38,000 per person over a projected 5-year period was estimated by comparing the cost of the intervention with that of non-intervention.

  13. A mortality cohort study of seamen in Italy.

    PubMed

    Rapiti, E; Turi, E; Forastiere, F; Borgia, P; Comba, P; Perucci, C A; Axelson, O

    1992-01-01

    A total of 2,208 male subjects, enrolled as merchant marine seamen at the Civitavecchia (Italy) harbor from 1936 to 1975 were followed up through 1989 in order to evaluate their mortality experience. Available information about the number of sailings made it possible to divide subjects into two subgroups: 948 workers with at least one sailing (cohort A) and 1,260 with no reported sailing (cohort B). Fewer than expected overall deaths were observed in both cohorts (cohort A: SMR = 0.83; cohort B: SMR = 0.81), mainly due to a lower mortality from circulatory, respiratory, and digestive diseases. Lung cancer deaths were significantly increased in cohort A (O = 30, SMR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.15-2.44), whereas no excess was observed in cohort B (O = 6, SMR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.21-1.26). Among subjects employed aboard ship, a trend in SMRs for lung cancer increasing with duration of employment was observed. Furthermore, three neoplasms of other parts of the respiratory system (including one mesothelioma) were detected in cohort A (SMR = 5.87), and one in cohort B. The study substantiates an increased risk of respiratory cancer among subjects with an occupational history of sailing; past exposure to asbestos and to other environmental carcinogens aboard could be implicated. PMID:1621694

  14. Block modeling of Crustal Velocity in Italy and Surrounding Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpelloni, E.; Battaglia, M.; Murray, M. H.; Burgmann, R.

    2004-12-01

    We use GPS measurements and block modeling to investigate the present-day deformation of the Italian peninsula and surrounding regions. The central Mediterranean displays an assemblage of lithospheric blocks with different structural and kinematics features and a variety of geodynamic processes, including subduction, back-arc spreading, rifting, thrusting, normal and strike-slip faulting, trapped between the relatively rigid African and Eurasian plates, for which global plate motion models predict a NW-SE convergence at about 7 mm/yr. The block model incorporates secular velocity and fault geometry estimates, as well as elastic strain accumulation. With this model we can assess whether different hypotheses are compatible with geodetic data, estimates of fault slip rates and locking depths, areas of rigid block rotation, and regions of anomalous strain accumulation. We present a geodetic velocity solution for Italy and surrounding areas, obtained from the analysis of continuous and survey-mode Global Positioning System observations collected between 1991 and 2002. The velocities are relative to a stable Eurasian frame. The block model shows extension in the Apennines, shortening in the central Alps, Dinarides and Ionian Island (Epiro coast), and right-lateral slip along the Kefallinia fault zone. The predicted faults slip rates are in good agreement with geodetic and geologic observations. The deformation pattern observed in the Adriatic domain suggests that the Adriatic is a microplate (Adria) and that the southern boundary with the Nubia plate and the Aegean domain may be located along the Apulia Escarpment and the Kefallinia fault.

  15. Crystal chemistry of diagenetic zeolites in volcanoclastic deposits of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passaglia, Elio; Vezzalini, Giovanna

    1985-07-01

    Zeolites from the most important volcanoclastic deposits of Italy include: (1) phillipsite and heulandite from the cinerite of the central northern Apennines; (2) chabazite and phillipsite from the phonolitic tephritic ignimbrite with black pumices; (3) phillipsite from the “tufo lionato” of Vulcano Laziale; (4) chabazite and phillipsite from the Campanian ignimbrite; (5) phillipsite from the Neapolitan yellow tuff; and (6) chabazite and phillipsite from the pyroclastics of Monte Vulture. Compared with sedimentary phillipsites and chabazites described in the literature, the chabazites and phillipsites studied here have lower Si/Al ratios and higher K contents. These chemical peculiarities are correlated with both the K-rich vesuvitic-leucititic, latitic-phonolitic, and potassic alkali-trachytic chemistry of the ash from which they were derived and, very likely, with the character of the hydrologically open system environment in which they formed. The zeolite of the heulandite-clinoptilolite group from the cinerite of the central northern Apennines is classified as a true heulandite on the basis of its chemical composition and thermal behavior.

  16. Immunisation registers in Italy: a patchwork of computerisation.

    PubMed

    Alfonsi, V; D'Ancona, F; Rota, M C; Giambi, C; Ranghiasci, A; Iannazzo, S

    2012-01-01

    In Italy, the 21 regional health authorities are in charge of organising and implementing their own vaccination strategy, based on the national vaccine plan. Immunisation coverage varies greatly among the regions for certain vaccines. Efforts to increase childhood immunisation coverage have included initiatives to develop and implement computerised immunisation registers in as many regions as possible. We undertook a cross-sectional online survey in July 2011 to provide an updated picture of the use, heterogeneity and main functions of different computerised immunisation registers used in the Italian regions and to understand the flow of information from local health units to the regional authorities and to the Ministry of Health. Comparing current data with those obtained in 2007, a substantial improvement is evident. A total of 15 regions are fully computerised (previously nine), with 83% of local health units equipped with a computerised register (previously 70%). Eight of the 15 fully computerised regions use the same software, simplifying data sharing. Only four regions are able to obtain data in real time from local health units. Despite the progress made, the capacity to monitor vaccination coverage and to exchange data appears still limited. PMID:22551498

  17. US quality control in Italy: present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbis, S.; Musacchio, C.; Guiot, C.; Spagnolo, R.

    2011-02-01

    US diagnostic equipments are widely diffused in Italy but, in spite of recommendations (e.g. ISPESL-Ministry of Health (1999) and SIRM (Società Italiana di Radiologia Medica, 2004), US quality controls are restricted to only a few public sanitary structure and a national (or even regional) quality assurance program for testing the performances of the US equipments is still missing. A joint Research Centre among the three Piedmontese Universities and INRIM, partially funded by Regione Piemonte, has been established in 2009 as Reference Centre for Medical Ultrasounds (CRUM). In addition to research, development and training tasks, the Centre aims at the local diffusion of the quality assurance in clinical US equipments. According to data from the Ministry of Health (2006), around 7 % of the Italian US diagnostic equipments (946 over 13526) are located in Piedmont: mostly (75.6%) in public hospitals, 9.3 % in conventionated hospitals, 4.3% in public and 10.8% in private territorial structures. The goal is the provision of a regional database, which progressively includes data related to acceptance test, status and QC tests and maintenance, in order to drive equipment turnover and carefully monitoring the overall equipment efficiency. Moreover, facilities are available at CRUM for monitoring both beam geometry and acoustic power and performing quantitative assessment of the delivered energy intensity.

  18. A new irradiation plant in Italy: Technical features and activities performed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tata, A.; Casali, F.; Schwarz, M.

    1998-06-01

    Since 1995, a new Hitesys Co. pilot/industrial irradiation plant has been operating in Aprilia, 50 km south of Rome. The plant, which was jointly designed by ENEA and Hitesys Co., is equipped with a highly flexible automatic materials transport system which is also suitable for continuous process repetition or, when upturned, for double-side material treatment. The main features of the irradiation plant are: - the radiation source: EB-machine LINAC type (s band) with maximum electron beam energy of 10 MeV and beam power of 1000 W; - the bunker: external type, shielded by ordinary concrete, equipped with a suitable entrance/exit maze in order to allow easy handling and managing of materials as well as to facilitate equipment and machinery maintenance and inspection activities. An intense program of R&D activities and technological services has already been performed in relation to industrial processes and environmental applications, as well as many other radiation technology applications, including agriculture related processes.

  19. Seroprevalence and isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from free-range chickens in Ghana, Indonesia, Italy, Poland, and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Huong, Lam Thi Thu; Lawson, B W L; Subekti, D T; Tassi, P; Cabaj, W; Sundar, N; Velmurugan, G V; Kwok, O C H; Su, C

    2008-02-01

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens (Gallus domesticus) is a good indicator of the prevalence of the parasite's oocysts in soil because chicken feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in free-range chickens from Ghana, Indonesia, Italy, Poland, and Vietnam was determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 41 (64%) of 64 chickens from Ghana, 24 (24.4%) of 98 chickens from Indonesia, 10 (12.5%) of 80 chickens from Italy, 6 (30%) of 20 chickens from Poland, and 81 (24.2%) of 330 chickens from Vietnam. Hearts and brains of chickens were bioassayed for T. gondii. Viable T. gondii was isolated from 2 chickens from Ghana, 1 chicken from Indonesia, 3 chickens from Italy, 2 chickens from Poland, and 1 chicken from Vietnam. Toxoplasma gondii isolates from 9 chickens were genotyped using 10 PCR-RFLP markers including SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico. A total of 7 genotypes was identified; the 3 isolates from chickens from Italy were clonal type II, and the others were nonclonal. This is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from animals from these countries.

  20. Composition, size distribution, optical properties, and radiative effects of laboratory-resuspended PM10 from geological dust of the Rome area, by electron microscopy and radiative transfer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrodangelo, A.; Salzano, R.; Bassani, C.; Pareti, S.; Perrino, C.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, new information has been gained on the laboratory-resuspended PM10 fraction from geological topsoil and outcropped rocks representative of the Rome area (Latium). Mineralogical composition, size distribution, optical properties and the surface radiative forcing efficiency (RFE) of dust types representing the compositional end members of this geological area have been addressed. A multi-disciplinary approach was used, based on chamber resuspension of raw materials and sampling of the PM10 fraction, to simulate field sampling at dust source, scanning electron microscopy/X-ray energy-dispersive microanalysis (SEM XEDS) of individual mineral particles, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of bulk dust samples, building of number and volume size distribution (SD) from microanalysis data of mineral particles and fitting to a log-normal curve, and radiative transfer modelling (RTM) to retrieve optical properties and radiative effects of the compositional end-member dust samples. The mineralogical composition of Rome lithogenic PM10 varies between an end-member dominated by silicate minerals (from volcanics lithotypes), and one mostly composed of calcite (from travertine or limestones). Lithogenic PM10 with intermediate composition derives mainly from siliciclastic rocks or marlstones. Size and mineral species of PM10 particles of silicate-dominated dust types are tuned mainly by rock weathering and, to lesser extent, by debris formation or crystallization; chemical precipitation of CaCO3 plays a major role in calcite-dominated types. These differences are reflected in the diversity of volume distributions, either within dust types or mineral species. Differences are also observed between volume distributions of calcite from travertine (natural source; SD unimodal at 5 μm a.d.) and from road dust (anthropic source; SD bimodal at 3.8 and 1.8 μm a.d.). The volcanics and travertine dusts differently affect the single scattering albedo (SSA) and the asymmetry