Science.gov

Sample records for rome italy including

  1. Rome: sinkhole events and network of underground cavities (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisio, Stefania; Ciotoli, Giancarlo

    2016-04-01

    The anthropogenic sinkholes in the city of Rome are closely linked to the network of underground cavities produced by human activities in more than two thousand years of history. Over the past fifteen years the increased frequency of intense rainfall events, favors sinkhole formation. The risk assessment induced by anthropogenic sinkhole is really difficult. However, a susceptibility of the territory to sinkholes can be more easily determined as the probability that an event may occur in a given space, with unique geological-morphological characteristics, and in an infinite time. A sinkhole susceptibility map of the Rome territory, up to the ring road, has been constructed by using Geographically Weighted Regression technique and geostatistics. The spatial regression model includes the analysis of more than 2700 anthropogenic sinkholes (recorded from 1875 to 2015), as well as geological, morphological, hydrological and predisposing anthropogenic characteristics of the study area. The numerous available data (underground cavities, the ancient entrances to the quarry, bunkers, etc.) facilitate the creation of a series of maps. The density map of the cavity, updated to 2015, showed that more than 20 km2 of the Roman territory are affected by underground cavities. The census of sinkholes (over 2700) shows that over 30 km2 has been affected by sinkholes. The final susceptibility map highlights that inside the Ring Road about 40 km2 of the territory (about 11%) have a very high probability of triggering a sinkhole event. The susceptibility map was also compared with the data of ground subsidence (InSAR) to obtain a predictive model.

  2. Ascent velocity and dynamics of the Fiumicino mud eruption, Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vona, A.; Giordano, G.; De Benedetti, A. A.; D'Ambrosio, R.; Romano, C.; Manga, M.

    2015-08-01

    In August 2013 drilling triggered the eruption of mud near the international airport of Fiumicino (Rome, Italy). We monitored the evolution of the eruption and collected samples for laboratory characterization of physicochemical and rheological properties. Over time, muds show a progressive dilution with water; the rheology is typical of pseudoplastic fluids, with a small yield stress that decreases as mud density decreases. The eruption, while not naturally triggered, shares several similarities with natural mud volcanoes, including mud componentry, grain-size distribution, gas discharge, and mud rheology. We use the size of large ballistic fragments ejected from the vent along with mud rheology to compute a minimum ascent velocity of the mud. Computed values are consistent with in situ measurements of gas phase velocities, confirming that the stratigraphic record of mud eruptions can be quantitatively used to infer eruption history and ascent rates and hence to assess (or reassess) mud eruption hazards.

  3. Organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in human milk from Rome (Italy) and surroundings

    SciTech Connect

    Dommarco, R.; Muccio, A.D.; Camoni, I.; Gigli, B.

    1987-12-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk have been the subject of many studies. Surveys carried out in Italy are all eight years old with the exception of the latest work. Because of recent improvements in analytical methodology, the authors believe an up-to-date study would provide additional information. Thus, this paper presents a survey of the levels of human milk contamination, in Rome and surroundings, by organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. This survey is a part of a larger monitoring program covering also geographical areas outside of Rome.

  4. 3-D Finite-Difference Modeling of Earthquakes in the City of Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinci, A.; Olsen, K. B.; Rovelli, A.; Marra, F.; Malagnini, L.

    2002-12-01

    The goal of this study is to estimate 3-D amplification effects from regional and local earthquakes in the city of Rome. Mainly, two distinct seismogenic districts may affect the city of Rome: the (1) Alban Hills region, located about 25 km from downtown Rome, and (2) the Central Apennines, located 80-100 km from Rome where the most recent event occurred on January 13, 1915 (M=6.8) which was felt in Rome with a VII degree intensity. To address the seismic hazard in Rome from such sources we have simulated 0-1 Hz viscoelastic wave propagation in a three-dimensional model of the Tiber Valley, Rome, for an M5.5 scenario earthquake (1 Hz) in the seismogenic area of Alban Hills about 25 km from downtown Rome and an M7.0 earthquake (0.5 Hz) about 100 km east of the valley using a fourth-order staggered-grid finite-difference method. We used a basin model (~ 6 km by 6 km by 0.050 km) which includes sediments with shear-wave velocities as low as 250 m/s in the Tiber River sediments, constrained by more than 3000 borehole measurements. We have also estimated the amplification of the 3D model due to a 1-Hz vertically-incident planar SH wave. Our results suggest that the strongest ground motion amplification in Rome is restricted to the Holocene alluvial areas with a significant concentration close to the edges of the Tiber River valley, in agreement with the results by Tertulliani and Riguzzi (1995). In particular, the fill deposits in the Tiber River generate amplification by up to a factor of 2 with respect to the surrounding volcanics, largest near the contact between the alluvial sediments and the surrounding volcanic deposits for the incident plane wave source. We find 1-Hz peak ground velocities of up to 30 cm/sec for the M5.5, Alban Hills earthquake, largest near the northwestern edges of the Tiber River. The largest 0.5-Hz peak velocity is 24 cm/s for the M7.0 earthquake with extended durations up to about 1 min. The lower maximum frequency for this scenario is

  5. Earthquake prediction rumors can help in building earthquake awareness: the case of May the 11th 2011 in Rome (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, A.; Arcoraci, L.; Casarotti, E.; Cultrera, G.; Di Stefano, R.; Margheriti, L.; Nostro, C.; Selvaggi, G.; May-11 Team

    2012-04-01

    Banner headlines in an Italian newspaper read on May 11, 2011: "Absence boom in offices: the urban legend in Rome become psychosis". This was the effect of a large-magnitude earthquake prediction in Rome for May 11, 2011. This prediction was never officially released, but it grew up in Internet and was amplified by media. It was erroneously ascribed to Raffaele Bendandi, an Italian self-taught natural scientist who studied planetary motions and related them to earthquakes. Indeed, around May 11, 2011, there was a planetary alignment and this increased the earthquake prediction credibility. Given the echo of this earthquake prediction, INGV decided to organize on May 11 (the same day the earthquake was predicted to happen) an Open Day in its headquarter in Rome to inform on the Italian seismicity and the earthquake physics. The Open Day was preceded by a press conference two days before, attended by about 40 journalists from newspapers, local and national TV's, press agencies and web news magazines. Hundreds of articles appeared in the following two days, advertising the 11 May Open Day. On May 11 the INGV headquarter was peacefully invaded by over 3,000 visitors from 9am to 9pm: families, students, civil protection groups and many journalists. The program included conferences on a wide variety of subjects (from social impact of rumors to seismic risk reduction) and distribution of books and brochures, in addition to several activities: meetings with INGV researchers to discuss scientific issues, visits to the seismic monitoring room (open 24h/7 all year), guided tours through interactive exhibitions on earthquakes and Earth's deep structure. During the same day, thirteen new videos have also been posted on our youtube/INGVterremoti channel to explain the earthquake process and hazard, and to provide real time periodic updates on seismicity in Italy. On May 11 no large earthquake happened in Italy. The initiative, built up in few weeks, had a very large feedback

  6. Life cycle assessment of urban waste management: Energy performances and environmental impacts. The case of Rome, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Cherubini, Francesco Bargigli, Silvia; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2008-12-15

    Landfilling is nowadays the most common practice of waste management in Italy in spite of enforced regulations aimed at increasing waste pre-sorting as well as energy and material recovery. In this work we analyse selected alternative scenarios aimed at minimizing the unused material fraction to be delivered to the landfill. The methodological framework of the analysis is the life cycle assessment, in a multi-method form developed by our research team. The approach was applied to the case of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Rome, with a special focus on energy and material balance, including global and local scale airborne emissions. Results, provided in the form of indices and indicators of efficiency, effectiveness and environmental impacts, point out landfill activities as the worst waste management strategy at a global scale. On the other hand, the investigated waste treatments with energy and material recovery allow important benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction (among others) but are still affected by non-negligible local emissions. Furthermore, waste treatments leading to energy recovery provide an energy output that, in the best case, is able to meet 15% of the Rome electricity consumption.

  7. Management of feral domestic cats in the urban environment of Rome (Italy).

    PubMed

    Natoli, Eugenia; Maragliano, Laura; Cariola, Giuseppe; Faini, Anna; Bonanni, Roberto; Cafazzo, Simona; Fantini, Claudio

    2006-12-18

    In Italy, which is rabies-free, the national Law No. 281 [Legge Nazionale 14 agosto 1991. No. 281: Legge Quadro in materia di animali di affezione e prevenzione del randagismo. Gazz. Uff. Rep. Ital. no 203 del 30 agosto 1991: p. 3] on the management of pets and on the control of feral cats has introduced the no-kill policy for this species. Thus, "trap-neuter-release" (TNR) programs have been carried out for >10 years. In this paper we present data on registered colonies and censused cats in Rome from 1991 to 2000; the results of the neutering campaign from 1991 to 2000; and a survey, on 103 cat colonies, on the effects of demographic control of urban feral-cat colonies in the city of Rome, carried out by the local Veterinary Public Services (VPS) in collaboration with the associations of cat care-takers. In 10 years almost 8000 were neutered and reintroduced in their original colony. The spay/neuter campaigns brought about a general decrease in cat number but the percentage of cat immigration (due to abandonment and spontaneous arrival) is around 21%. This suggests that all these efforts without an effective education of people to control the reproduction of house cats (as a prevention for abandonment) are a waste of money, time and energy.

  8. Landscape changes and natural hazards affecting the Pincio hill (Rome, Italy) in historical times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarino, Paolo Maria; Lucarini, Mauro; Spizzichino, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses on preliminary results achieved by means of a research project carried out by ISPRA in collaboration with Soprintendenza Capitolina (the Cultural Heritage Capitoline Superintendence), aimed at defining an interpretative model of natural and anthropic evolution of the Pincio Hill (Rome, Italy) during the last 2,500 years. The study area is located in the NE sector of the city of Rome and includes the Pincio hill Cultural Heritage site and the surrounding area of the Tiber River flood plain. The Pincio Hill is a very interesting case of interplay among: i) natural landscape setting; ii) historical urban transformations; iii) human activity and recurrence of natural hazard events impacting heavily on the territory since ancient times. During the last decades, designs of new areas to be allocated for underground parking jointly with new archaeological excavations surveys have allowed the acquisition of a large amount of new data. The study has been carried out through a new reinterpretation of recently drilled boreholes stratigraphic logs and the conspicuous related archaeological literature. The main outcome of the research activities are summarized as below. Concerning the top of the hill, latest archaeological excavations brought to the light traces of ancient structures and settlements dating from the Archaic period until the fourth century AD, highlighting the facto the character of strong agricultural and landscape appeal that have involved the western sector of the Pincio hill since the ancient times, without evidence of relevant alterations of the original landscape. In the slope sector, the information coming from geotechnical survey allowed the reconstruction of isochronous surfaces inside of landfills, divided according to their age. The profile of the slope below the landfill from the Roman period seems very steep and irregular, in strong contrast to the medieval one and the current one, characterized by multiple succession of terraces. In

  9. Molecular characterization of hepatitis A outbreak in the province of Rome, Lazio region, Italy, January-July 2013.

    PubMed

    Capobianchi, Maria R; Garbuglia, Anna Rosa; Agrati, Chiara; Rianda, Alessia; Noto, Pasquale; Corpolongo, Angela; Cataldo, Maria Adriana; Rosati, Silvia; Zaccaro, Paola; Loffredo, Mariarosaria; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Girardi, Enrico; Scognamiglio, Paola; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    Reduced circulation of hepatitis A virus lead to an increase of susceptible individuals, and outbreaks occurred recently. In Northern Italy an outbreak is ongoing, attributed to a monophyletic genotype IA strain, with mixed frozen berries as probable source. From 01/01/2013 to 07/15/2013, 30 cases were diagnosed at National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Rome, Italy, representing about twice the number of cases in whole 2012. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that most, although not all, infections were attributable to the same monophyletic genotype IA strain identified in the contemporary Northern Italy outbreak. This strain is also very similar to previous isolates from Venezuela.

  10. Saharan Dust and Associations between Particulate Matter and Daily Mortality in Rome, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Mallone, Sandra; Faustini, Annunziata; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Marconi, Achille; Forastiere, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Background: Outbreaks of Saharan-Sahel dust over Euro-Mediterranean areas frequently induce exceedances of the Europen Union's 24-hr standard of 50 μg/m3 for particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter ≤ than 10 μm (PM10). Objectives: We evaluated the effect of Saharan dust on the association between different PM fractions and daily mortality in Rome, Italy. Methods: In a study of 80,423 adult residents who died in Rome between 2001 and 2004, we performed a time-series analysis to explore the effects of PM2.5, PM2.5–10, and PM10 on natural, cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory mortality. We defined Saharan dust days by combining light detection and ranging (LIDAR) observations and analyses from operational models. We tested a Saharan dust–PM interaction term to evaluate the hypothesis that the effects of PM, especially coarse PM (PM2.5–10), on mortality would be enhanced on dust days. Results: Interquartile range increases in PM2.5–10 (10.8 μg/m3) and PM10 (19.8 μg/m3) were associated with increased mortality due to natural, cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory causes, with estimated effects ranging from 2.64% to 12.65% [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18–25.42%] for the association between PM2.5–10 and respiratory mortality (0- to 5-day lag). Associations of PM2.5–10 with cardiac mortality were stronger on Saharan dust days (9.73%; 95% CI, 4.25–15.49%) than on dust-free days (0.86%; 95% CI, –2.47% to 4.31%; p = 0.005). Saharan dust days also modified associations between PM10 and cardiac mortality (9.55% increase; 95% CI, 3.81–15.61%; vs. dust-free days: 2.09%; 95% CI, –0.76% to 5.02%; p = 0.02). Conclusions: We found evidence of effects of PM2.5–10 and PM10 on natural and cause-specific mortality, with stronger estimated effects on cardiac mortality during Saharan dust outbreaks. Toxicological and biological effects of particles from desert sources need to be further investigated and taken into account in air quality

  11. View of northeastern Italy including Venice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A near vertical view of northeastern Italy including the Venice (Venezia) area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The mountainous area is the Dolomite Alps. The most conspicuous stream northeast of Venice is the Piave River. The city near the center of the picture on the Brenta River is Bassano del Grappa. The large city of Padua (Padova) is on the western bank of the Grenta near the clock.

  12. Detection and typing by molecular techniques of respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute respiratory infection in Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pierangeli, Alessandra; Gentile, Massimo; Di Marco, Paola; Pagnotti, Paolo; Scagnolari, Carolina; Trombetti, Simona; Lo Russo, Lelia; Tromba, Valeria; Moretti, Corrado; Midulla, Fabio; Antonelli, Guido

    2007-04-01

    Detection of a broad number of respiratory viruses is not undertaken currently for the diagnosis of acute respiratory infection due to the large and always increasing list of pathogens involved. A 1-year study was undertaken on children hospitalized consecutively for acute respiratory infection in a Pediatric Department in Rome to characterize the viruses involved. Two hundred twenty-seven children were enrolled in the study with a diagnosis of asthma, bronchiolitis, bronchopneumonia, or laringo-tracheo bronchitis. A molecular approach was adopted using specific reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assays detecting 13 respiratory viruses including metapneumovirus (hMPV) and the novel coronaviruses NL63 and HKU1; most amplified fragments were sequenced to confirm positive results and differentiate the strain. Viral pathogens were detected in 97 samples (42.7%), with 4.8% of dual infections identified; respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was detected in 17.2% of children, followed by rhinovirus (9.7%), parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) (7.5%), and influenza type A (4.4%). Interestingly, more than half the patients (9/17) that have rhinovirus as the sole respiratory pathogen had pneumonia. HMPV infected children below 3 years in two peaks in March and June causing bronchiolitis and pneumonia. One case of NL63 infection is described, documenting NL63 circulation in central Italy. In conclusion, the use of a comprehensive number of PCR-based tests is recommended to define the burden of viral pathogens in patients with respiratory tract infection.

  13. A newly-emerged (August 2013) artificially-triggered fumarole near the Fiumicino airport, Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sella, Pio; Billi, Andrea; Mazzini, Ilaria; De Filippis, Luigi; Pizzino, Luca; Sciarra, Alessandra; Quattrocchi, Fedora

    2014-06-01

    Early in the morning of 24 August, 2013, following by hours the drilling of a shallow borehole in the same spot, a new fumarole producing emissions of CO2-rich gas, water, and mud suddenly appeared at a crossroad along the fenced area of the Fiumicino international airport of Rome, Italy. Similar episodes have been scientifically documented or simply reported in recent and past years. To understand why gases are easily entrapped in the shallow subsurface of the Fiumicino area, we used five borehole cores drilled by us, analyzed the stratigraphy of these and other nearby cores, acquired a 2D seismic refraction tomogram, and performed chemical and isotopic analyses of water samples collected from aquifers intercepted by two drilled boreholes. Our boreholes were realized with proper anti-gas measures as, while drilling, we recorded the presence of pressurized gases at a specific permeable gravel level. Results show that, in the study area, gases become mainly entrapped in a mid-Pleistocene gravel horizon at about 40-50 m depth. This horizon contains a confined aquifer that stores the endogenous upwelling gases. The gravel is interposed between two silty-clayey units. The lower unit, very hard and overconsolidated, is affected by fractures that allow ascending gases to bypass the otherwise impermeable shale, permeate the gravel, and dissolve into the aquifer. In contrast, the upper unit is impermeable to fluids and seals the gas-pressurized aquifer, which therefore constitutes a source of hazard during human activities such as well drilling, quarrying, and various building-related excavations. As the stratigraphy of the Fiumicino area is very common in large portions of the densely populated Roman area and as the adjacent volcanic districts are hydrothermally active, we conclude that phenomena similar to that observed at Fiumicino could again occur both at Fiumicino and elsewhere in the surrounding region. As a prompt confirmation of our conclusion, we signal that

  14. Evidence of active tectonics on a Roman aqueduct system (II-III century A.D.) near Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Fabrizio; Montone, Paola; Pirro, Mario; Boschi, Enzo

    2004-04-01

    In this paper we describe evidence of strong tectonic deformation affecting two aqueducts of Roman age (II-III century A.D.). The channels are located approximately 20 km northeast of Rome along the ancient Via Tiburtina. Brittle and ductile deformation affects these two structures, including extensional joint systems, NE-oriented faults, and horizontal distortion. This deformation is consistent with right-lateral movement on major N-striking faults, and represents the first evidence that tectonic deformation took place in historical times in the vicinity of Rome, with local strike-slip movement superimposed on a regional extensional fault system.

  15. Occurrence of selected pharmaceuticals in the principal sewage treatment plants in Rome (Italy) and in the receiving surface waters.

    PubMed

    Patrolecco, Luisa; Capri, Silvio; Ademollo, Nicoletta

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides data on the occurrence of selected human pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, clofibric acid, diclofenac, fenofibrate, fenoprofen, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen) including steroid hormones (17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, and estrone) in influents/effluents to/from the four principal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) serving the city of Rome (Italy), in two different sampling campaigns. Target compounds were also analyzed in the receiving River Tiber and River Aniene. Analytical determination was carried out by LC-MS/MS after sample cleanup and concentration by off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE). The aim of the study was to increase the information currently available on the presence and persistence of pharmaceuticals in Italian urban wastewaters and to evaluate the environmental impact of the pharmaceutical residues discharged through effluents into the receiving rivers. Results indicated that after the treatment processes, most of pharmaceuticals were not completely eliminated, as average removal efficiencies were in the 14-100% wide range during both sampling periods, with higher yields in spring than in winter. Levels detected in overall samples ranged from 5 to 2,230 ng/L in influents and from 5 to 1,424 ng/L in effluents. Carbamazepine, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and gemfibrozil showed the highest persistence to removal. Concentrations in the receiving waters were about one order of magnitude lower than in effluents, with a tendency to increase progressively through the urban tract of the river. Finally, an environmental risk analysis showed that carbamazepine, gemfibrozil, and estrone can pose a high risk at the concentrations detected in effluents and a medium risk in rivers, highlighting their potential hazard for the health of the aquatic ecosystem.

  16. Bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD) control programme in an area in the Rome province (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ferrari, G; Scicluna, M T; Bonvicini, D; Gobbi, C; Della Verità, F; Valentini, A; Autorino, G L

    1999-01-01

    A BVD control programme based on the identification and removal of persistently infected (PI) animals is being undertaken in an area in the Rome province, where BVD outbreaks had been previously detected. It involves 174 mainly dairy herds, from which blood samples of all bovines older than 1 year are obtained through the national brucellosis and leukosis eradication programme. Samples sufficient to detect the presence of seropositive animals at a prevalence of 5% or more are initially screened for antibodies against BVD virus (BVDV) using an immunoenzymatic assay. Upon identification of seroreagents additional blood samples are tested from the 6-12-month age category not included in the initial samples. Animals are considered immunotolerant if BVDV is demonstrated twice at a minimum 30-day interval. When no seropositive animals are detected during the first serological screening the herd is declared BVD-free if a second testing, preferably carried on the same animals previously tested, confirms the seronegative status of the herd. At present 147 farms have been tested, of which 63 (42.9%) are negative with respect to antibodies against BVDV. Of the 84 remaining herds in which one or more seropositives are detected, 13 are classified as recently infected. In eight of these recently infected herds, 22 PI animals have been identified.

  17. Particulate matter concentration and chemical composition in the metro system of Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Perrino, C; Marcovecchio, F; Tofful, L; Canepari, S

    2015-06-01

    Air quality at the main station of the metro system of Rome (Termini hub) has been characterized by the point of view of particulate matter (PM) concentration and chemical composition. Indoor air in different environments (underground train platform and shopping center, metro carriages with and without air conditioning system) has been studied and compared with outdoor air at a nearby urban site. Air quality at the railway station, located outdoor at surface level, has been also considered for comparison. PM chemical characterization included ions, elemental carbon, organic carbon, macro-elements, and the bio-accessible and residual fractions of micro- and trace elements. Train platform and carriages without air conditioning resulted to be the most polluted environments, with indoor/outdoor ratio up to two orders of magnitude for many components. PM mass concentration was determined on filter membranes by the gravimetric procedure as well as from the optical particle counter (OPC) number concentration measurements. The OPC results, taken with the original calibration factor, were below 40 % of the value obtained by the gravimetric measurements. Only a chemical and morphological characterization of the collected dust could lead to a reconciliation of the results yielded by the two methods. Macro-components were used to estimate the strength of the main macro-sources. The most significant contribution is confirmed to derive from wheels, rails, and brakes abrasion; from soil re-suspension (over 50 % at the subway platform); and from organics (about 25 %). The increase in the concentration of elements was mostly due to the residual fraction, but also the bio-accessible fraction showed a remarkable enrichment, particularly in the case of Ba, Zn, Cd, and Ni.

  18. Atmospheric aerosols in Rome, Italy: sources, dynamics and spatial variations during two seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struckmeier, Caroline; Drewnick, Frank; Fachinger, Friederike; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Borrmann, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    Investigations on atmospheric aerosols and their sources were carried out in October/November 2013 and May/June 2014 consecutively in a suburban area of Rome (Tor Vergata) and in central Rome (near St Peter's Basilica). During both years a Saharan dust advection event temporarily increased PM10 concentrations at ground level by about 12-17 µg m-3. Generally, in October/November the ambient aerosol was more strongly influenced by primary emissions, whereas higher relative contributions of secondary particles (sulfate, aged organic aerosol) were found in May/June. Absolute concentrations of anthropogenic emission tracers (e.g. NOx, CO2, particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, traffic-related organic aerosol) were generally higher at the urban location. Positive matrix factorization was applied to the PM1 organic aerosol (OA) fraction of aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) data to identify different sources of primary OA (POA): traffic, cooking, biomass burning and (local) cigarette smoking. While biomass burning OA was only found at the suburban site, where it accounted for the major fraction of POA (18-24 % of total OA), traffic and cooking were more dominant sources at the urban site. A particle type associated with cigarette smoke emissions, which is associated with a potential characteristic marker peak (m/z 84, C5H10N+, a nicotine fragment) in the mass spectrum, was only found in central Rome, where it was emitted in close vicinity to the measurement location. Regarding secondary OA, in October/November, only a very aged, regionally advected oxygenated OA was found, which contributed 42-53 % to the total OA. In May/June total oxygenated OA accounted for 56-76 % of the OA. Here a fraction (18-26 % of total OA) of a fresher, less oxygenated OA of more local origin was also observed. New particle formation events were identified from measured particle number concentrations and size distributions in May/June 2014 at both sites. While they were observed

  19. On the magnetic characterization and quantification of the superparamagnetic fraction of traffic-related urban airborne PM in Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagnotti, Leonardo; Winkler, Aldo

    2012-11-01

    The magnetic properties of traffic-related airborne particulate matter (PM) in the city of Rome, Italy, have been previously analyzed and interpreted as suitable proxies to discriminate between different vehicular sources. In this study, we carried out a new set of measurements and analyses specifically devoted to the identification and evaluation of the contribution of ultrafine superparamagnetic (SP) particles to the overall magnetic assemblage of traffic-related PM in Rome. In particular, the presence and the concentration of SP particles have been estimated on powders collected from disk brakes and gasoline exhaust pipes of circulating vehicles and from Quercus ilex leaves grown along high-traffic roads, measuring their hysteresis parameters in a range of temperatures from 293 K to 10 K and measuring the time decay of their saturation remanent magnetization (MRS) at room temperature. The SP fraction contributes for the 10-15% to the overall room temperature MRS and causes the observed changes in the hysteresis properties measured upon cooling down to 10 K. In all the analyzed samples the SP fraction is associated to a generally prevailing population of larger ferrimagnetic multidomain (MD) particles and we suppose that in traffic-related PM the SP fraction mainly occurs as coating of MD particles and originated by localized stress in the oxidized outer shell surrounding the unoxidized core of magnetite-like grains. Under this hypothesis, the estimate of SP content in traffic-related PM cannot be considered a robust proxy to estimate the overall concentration of nanometric particles.

  20. An epidemic of gastroenteritis and mild necrotizing enterocolitis in two neonatal units of a University Hospital in Rome, Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Faustini, A.; Forastiere, F.; Giorgi Rossi, P.; Perucci, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    In the summer of 1999 a cluster of 18 cases of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) occurred in a University Hospital in Rome, Italy. The cases presented with mild clinical and radiological signs, and none died. Seventy-two per cent had a birth weight of > 2500 g, 66.7% had a gestational age of > 37 weeks, 30% presented with respiratory diseases and/or hypoglycaemia. All cases occurred within 10 days of birth and between 5 and 7 days after two clusters of diarrhoea (14 cases). The NEC outbreak had two phases; most cases in the first phase occurred in the at-risk unit, whereas those in the second phase occurred in the full-term unit. In the multivariate analysis, invasive therapeutic procedures, pathological conditions and formula feeding were associated with NEC. Although no predominant common bacteria were isolated, we suggest an infective origin of this outbreak. PMID:15188715

  1. Stability and subsidence across Rome (Italy) in 2011-2013 based on COSMO-SkyMed Persistent Scatterer Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francesca, Cigna; Lasaponara, Rosa; Nicola, Masini; Pietro, Milillo; Deodato, Tapete

    2015-04-01

    Ground stability of the built environment of the city of Rome in central Italy has been extensively investigated in the last years by using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), with focus on deformation of both the monuments of the historic centre (e.g., [1-2]) and the southern residential quarters (e.g., [3]). C-band ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT ASAR time series deformation analyses brought evidence of overall stability across the town centre, except for localized deformation concentrated in areas geologically susceptible to instability (e.g. western slope of the Palatine Hill), whereas clear subsidence patterns were detected over the compressible alluvial deposits lying in proximity of the Tiber River. To retrieve an updated picture of stability and subsidence across the city, we analysed a time series of 32 COSMO-SkyMed StripMap HIMAGE, right-looking, ascending mode scenes with an image swath of 40 km, 3-m resolution and HH polarization, acquired between 21 March 2011 and 10 June 2013, with repeat cycle mostly equal to 16 days. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) processing was undertaken by using the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) as detailed in [4], and more than 310,000 radar targets (i.e. PS) were identified, with an average target density of over 2,800 PS/km2. The performance of StaMPS to retrieve satisfactory PS coverage over the urban features of interest was assessed against their orientation and visibility to the satellite Line-Of-Sight, as well as their conservation history throughout the biennial investigated (2011-2013). In this work we discuss effects due to local land cover and land use by exploiting the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) European Urban Atlas (IT001L) of Rome at 1:10,000 scale, thereby also evaluating the capability of the X-band to spatially resolve targets coinciding with man-made structures in vegetated areas. Based on this assessment, our PSI results highlight those environmental

  2. Epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis endocervical infection in a previously unscreened population in Rome, Italy, 2000 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Marcone, V; Recine, N; Gallinelli, C; Nicosia, R; Lichtner, M; Degener, A M; Chiarini, F; Calzolari, E; Vullo, V

    2012-06-21

    As reliable data on Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Italy are lacking and as there is no Italian screening policy, epidemiological analyses are needed to optimise effective strategies for surveillance of the infection in the country. We collected data from 6,969 sexually active women aged 15 to 55 years who underwent testing for endocervical C. trachomatis infection at the Cervico-Vaginal Pathology Unit in the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics of Sapienza University in Rome between 2000 and 2009. The mean prevalence of C. trachomatis endocervical infection during this period was 5.2%. Prevalence over time did not show a linear trend. Univariate analysis demonstrated a significant association of infection with multiple lifetime sexual partners, younger age (<40 years), never having been pregnant, smoking, use of oral contraceptives, and human papillomavirus and Trichomonas vaginalis infections. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression showed that T. vaginalis infection, age under 20 years and more than one lifetime sexual partner remained significantly associated with C. trachomatis infection in the final model. Prevalence of C. trachomatis in this study was high, even among women aged 25–39 years (5.1%): our data would suggest that a C. trachomatis screening policy in Italy is warranted, which could lead to a more extensive testing strategy.

  3. Gaseous ammonia in the urban area of Rome, Italy and its relationship with traffic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrino, C.; Catrambone, M.; Di Menno Di Bucchianico, A.; Allegrini, I.

    The atmospheric concentration of gaseous ammonia has been measured during selected field campaigns from the spring of 2001 to the spring of 2002 in the urban area of Rome, at many traffic sites and at an urban background site. The concentration level at the traffic sites was in all cases about five times the background level and always much higher than the concentration in a rural near-city area. The time trend of ammonia is well correlated with the trend of a primary low-reactivity pollutant such as carbon monoxide. The concentration values of both pollutants depend on the intensity of traffic emission and on the atmospheric mixing in the boundary layer. Ammonia concentration is also dependent on the air temperature. A close link between NH 3 and CO air values has been confirmed at all the measurement stations of the Air Quality Network of Rome. These results indicate that the emissions from petrol-engine vehicles equipped with catalytic converters can be an important source of ammonia in urban areas. The implications of these findings for the chemistry of the urban atmosphere need to be carefully considered.

  4. Characterisation of the local topsoil contribution to airborne particulate matter in the area of Rome (Italy). Source profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrodangelo, A.; Salzano, R.; Rantica, E.; Perrino, C.

    2013-04-01

    Elemental profiles of the local resuspended natural topsoil of Rome area have been studied. Relevant compositional differences were observed either among main geological domains and rock types of this area (volcanics, flysch, marlstone, travertine) or between the two considered dimensional fractions (50 μm and PM10 resuspended from the former). A significant enrichment in trace metals (especially Pb, Ni and Cr) has been observed in the PM10 resuspended fraction of either volcanics or sedimentary outcropping rocks; volcanics show larger trace metals enrichment than sedimentary. Profiles of this study have been compared with signatures of natural crustal dust of African origin (collected either in situ or at European receptor sites, including Rome and other sites in the Latium region) and with signatures of road dust, properly selected from literature. This comparison was performed for source apportionment goals, with the aim of improving discrimination among signatures of local and non-local natural crustal materials. Elemental ratios of major and trace elements of geochemical relevance were used for the comparative study. Mg/Ca and Ti/Ca ratios appear successful in separating, by dispersion diagram, the resuspended fraction of local Rome geological topsoil from road dust and from long-range transported dust from Africa.

  5. Rome, Italy: The Lexicon--An Italian Dictionary of Homophobia Spurs Gay Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Pitta, Maurizio; De Santis, Rita

    2005-01-01

    The "Lexicon", published in Italy under the auspices of the Papal Council for the Family, provides a dictionary of terms (such as gender, homosexuality, and homophobia) that the Vatican has found problematic in their use. This essay discusses implications as well as the consequences if the "Lexicon" is adopted as a reference…

  6. Turning the rumor of May 11, 2011 earthquake prediction In Rome, Italy, into an information day on earthquake hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, A.; Cultrera, G.; Margheriti, L.; Nostro, C.; Selvaggi, G.; INGVterremoti Team

    2011-12-01

    A devastating earthquake had been predicted for May 11, 2011 in Rome. This prediction was never released officially by anyone, but it grew up in the Internet and was amplified by media. It was erroneously ascribed to Raffaele Bendandi, an Italian self-taught natural scientist who studied planetary motions. Indeed, around May 11, 2011, a planetary alignment was really expected and this contributed to give credibility to the earthquake prediction among people. During the previous months, INGV was overwhelmed with requests for information about this supposed prediction by Roman inhabitants and tourists. Given the considerable mediatic impact of this expected earthquake, INGV decided to organize an Open Day in its headquarter in Rome for people who wanted to learn more about the Italian seismicity and the earthquake as natural phenomenon. The Open Day was preceded by a press conference two days before, in which we talked about this prediction, we presented the Open Day, and we had a scientific discussion with journalists about the earthquake prediction and more in general on the real problem of seismic risk in Italy. About 40 journalists from newspapers, local and national tv's, press agencies and web news attended the Press Conference and hundreds of articles appeared in the following days, advertising the 11 May Open Day. The INGV opened to the public all day long (9am - 9pm) with the following program: i) meetings with INGV researchers to discuss scientific issues; ii) visits to the seismic monitoring room, open 24h/7 all year; iii) guided tours through interactive exhibitions on earthquakes and Earth's deep structure; iv) lectures on general topics from the social impact of rumors to seismic risk reduction; v) 13 new videos on channel YouTube.com/INGVterremoti to explain the earthquake process and give updates on various aspects of seismic monitoring in Italy; vi) distribution of books and brochures. Surprisingly, more than 3000 visitors came to visit INGV

  7. Disabled patients and oral health in Rome, Italy: long-term evaluation of educational initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Avenali, Laura; Guerra, Fabrizio; Cipriano, Luigi; Corridore, Denise; Ottolenghi, Livia

    2012-01-01

    Summary This study is concerned with the educational intervention layout proposed as a possible answer for the disparities in healthcare services for disabled persons. Material and methods The data sampling was performed on individuals in Rome, affected by psychophysical disabilities, living in residential care facilities. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: Study and Control Group, consisting of patients who did or did not participate in the Educational Phase. All the caregivers participated in an educational course. Screening period: September 2008 – March 2009. Examinations were performed using Visible Plaque Index (VPI), Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and Microbiological Analysis. Results The total number of patients utilized for the study was 36 (18 in each group). The final sample amounted to 70% (14/20) in the Study Group and to 75% (15/20) in the Control Group. In both examined groups Oral Hygiene, Gingival Health State and Microbiological Analysis show an overall improvement of the indices, compared with the initial status, mostly at a follow-up after 4 weeks. However, Study Group show a significantly better improvement. Conversely, after 6 months the overall clinical indices worsened again. Conclusion The difference in the significant improvements of the groups, even if only over a short-time evaluation, endorses that the participation of the patients as well as tutors in the educational phase is an effective strategy for the short-term. PMID:22545186

  8. Aircraft mass budgeting to measure CO2 emissions of Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Gioli, Beniamino; Carfora, Maria F; Magliulo, Vincenzo; Metallo, Maria C; Poli, Attilio A; Toscano, Piero; Miglietta, Franco

    2014-04-01

    Aircraft measurements were used to estimate the CO2 emission rates of the city of Rome, assessed against high-resolution inventorial data. Three experimental flights were made, composed of vertical soundings to measure Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) properties, and circular horizontal transects at various altitudes around the city area. City level emissions and associated uncertainties were computed by means of mass budgeting techniques, obtaining a positive net CO2 flux of 14.7 ± 4.5, 2.5 ± 1.2, and 10.3 ± 1.2 μmol m(-2) s(-1) for the three flights. Inventorial CO2 fluxes at the time of flights were computed by means of spatial and temporal disaggregation of the gross emission inventory, at 10.9 ± 2.5, 9.6 ± 1.3, and 17.4 ± 9.6 μmol m(-2) s(-1). The largest differences between the two dataset are associated with a greater variability of wind speed and direction in the boundary layer during measurements. Uncertainty partitioned into components related to horizontal boundary flows and top surface flow, revealed that the latter dominates total uncertainty in the presence of a wide variability of CO2 concentration in the free troposphere (up to 7 ppm), while it is a minor term with uniform tropospheric concentrations in the study area (within 2 ppm). Overall, we demonstrate how small aircraft may provide city level emission measurements that may integrate and validate emission inventories. Optimal atmospheric conditions and measurement strategies for the deployment of aircraft experimental flights are finally discussed.

  9. Parameterization, sensitivity analysis, and inversion: an investigation using groundwater modeling of the surface-mined Tivoli-Guidonia basin (Metropolitan City of Rome, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Vigna, Francesco; Hill, Mary C.; Rossetto, Rudy; Mazza, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    With respect to model parameterization and sensitivity analysis, this work uses a practical example to suggest that methods that start with simple models and use computationally frugal model analysis methods remain valuable in any toolbox of model development methods. In this work, groundwater model calibration starts with a simple parameterization that evolves into a moderately complex model. The model is developed for a water management study of the Tivoli-Guidonia basin (Rome, Italy) where surface mining has been conducted in conjunction with substantial dewatering. The approach to model development used in this work employs repeated analysis using sensitivity and inverse methods, including use of a new observation-stacked parameter importance graph. The methods are highly parallelizable and require few model runs, which make the repeated analyses and attendant insights possible. The success of a model development design can be measured by insights attained and demonstrated model accuracy relevant to predictions. Example insights were obtained: (1) A long-held belief that, except for a few distinct fractures, the travertine is homogeneous was found to be inadequate, and (2) The dewatering pumping rate is more critical to model accuracy than expected. The latter insight motivated additional data collection and improved pumpage estimates. Validation tests using three other recharge and pumpage conditions suggest good accuracy for the predictions considered. The model was used to evaluate management scenarios and showed that similar dewatering results could be achieved using 20 % less pumped water, but would require installing newly positioned wells and cooperation between mine owners.

  10. Fully exploitation of SBAS-DInSAR deformation time series for assessing structural damage: the case study of Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonano, Manuela; Arangio, Stefania; Calò, Fabiana; Di Mauro, Maria; Marsella, Maria; Manunta, Michele

    2014-05-01

    Remote sensing techniques have demonstrated to be effective tools to support natural and man-made risk mitigation activities. Among these, the Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry (DInSAR) technology is largely exploited in geoscience, oil and gas extraction, and landslide fields. Recently, thanks to the large availability of high resolution SAR systems (10 m or less), as well as to the development of advanced data processing techniques, DInSAR products have also started to be effectively used for applications in urban areas to detect localized displacements affecting single buildings and infrastructures. The advanced DInSAR technique referred to as Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) (Lanari et al., 2004) allows us to generate very long deformation time series, by exploiting large SAR datasets spanning up to 20 years (Bonano et al., 2012). Thanks to its capability to investigate wide areas, the SBAS-DInSAR technique is particularly suitable to remotely analyse the structural conditions of buildings located in densely urbanized zones. In this work, we fully exploit the results achieved over the city of Rome, Italy, through the well-established SBAS-DInSAR approach, aimed at performing a quantitative assessment of structural damage in urban areas affected by ground deformation (Arangio et al., 2013). More in details, we present an innovative methodology that integrates the SBAS-DInSAR measurements within an existing model, in order to assess the damage, and possibly estimate the future structural conditions, of single buildings affected by significant foundation settlements. In particular, a semi-empirical approach, based on a laminated beam model (Finno et al., 2005), is applied to investigate the damage of buildings located in the southern part of the city. The obtained results are in substantial agreement with in situ surveys, proving that the presented approach is an effective tool for the preliminary evaluation of the structural conditions in

  11. Conditions for long-lasting gas eruptions: The 2013 event at Fiumicino International Airport (Rome, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, G.; Carapezza, M. L.; Monica, G. Della; Todesco, M.; Tuccimei, P.; Carlucci, G.; De Benedetti, A. A.; Gattuso, A.; Lucchetti, C.; Piersanti, M.; Ranaldi, M.; Tarchini, L.; Pagliuca, N. M.; Ricci, T.; Facchini, S.; D'Ambrosio, F.; Misuraca, M.; Bonamico, A.; Geshi, N.

    2016-10-01

    A hazardous gas eruption from two very close shallow boreholes occurred near the Fiumicino International Airport of Roma (Italy) from August to December 2013. The erupted gas was mostly CO2 of deep origin and gas output was high and sustained over time reaching values of nearly 20 t day- 1. After 3 months, the gas flux was still above 5 t day- 1 and was only stopped in December 2013 by long and expensive works of closure of the boreholes. The gas eruption was uncommon as being associated with the building of two mud volcanoes. This style of sustained deep CO2 eruptions contrasts with the more common short-lived eruptions of shallow biogenic methane-dominated gas pockets. In this work, we present the chronology of the event, the results of geological, geochemical, and geophysical monitoring and a numerical modeling. We propose that the August-December 2013 sustained and prolonged event does not relate to the simple degassing of a shallow, isolated pocket of gas. On the contrary, it reflects very specific conditions in a shallow reservoir (hosted in a 10 m thick gravel layer at - 40 m within the Tiber river delta deposits), related to the interplay between the total pressure and the fraction of free CO2 initially present, across very narrow value ranges around 0.59 MPa and 0.18, respectively. The coexistence of short-lived and long-lived eruptions from the same reservoir suggest that these conditions are not achieved everywhere in the gas reservoir, despite its homogeneous properties. This consideration implies either a pressure compartmentalization of the reservoir, or the occurrence of a transient, possibly associated with an impulsive release of gas from greater depths. The involvement of deeper and larger gas reservoirs connected along faults is evidenced by geophysical investigations. This conceptual model bears significant implications for gas hazard studies.

  12. Hydraulic Binding Between Structural Elements and Groundwater Circulation in a Volcanic Aquifer : Insights from Riano Quarries District (Rome Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, David; Preziosi, Elisabetta; Ghergo, Stefano; Parrone, Daniele; Amalfitano, Stefano; Bruna Petrangeli, Anna; Zoppini, Annamaria

    2016-04-01

    A field survey and laboratory analysis of fracture systems crosscutting volcanic rocks was performed in the North-East of Rome urban area (Central Italy) to assess the hydraulic binding between structural elements, groundwater circulation and geochemistry. Fracture features (orientation, density, apertures, length and spacing) as well as groundwater heads and geochemical characteristics of rock and groundwater were analysed. We present and discuss the macro and mesostructural deformation pattern of the Riano quarries district (Central Italy) to highlight the close relationships between geological heterogeneity and water circulation. Laboratory analyses were carried out on rock samples: using XRF, microwave acid digestion and diffractometer to identify the chemical and mineralogical characters of the outcropping rock samples with a special focus on altered bands of fractures. On water samples using ICP-OES for major cations, ICP-MS for trace elements, IC for major anions and Spectrophotometry for NO2, PO4, NH4 . A total of 26 quarries with different dimension, shape and depth were examined by both remote and field analyses. Despite all the quarries were realized within the same tuff formation interval, a different fracture spatial distribution was recognized. From North to South a progressively increment of fracture density was observed. It was possible to observe a close relationship between orientation, spatial distribution and length. For each single fractured set, a 5° max orientation variation was observed, suggesting that fracture genesis was likely related to an extensional/transtensional tectonic process. Most of the fractures directly examined show an alteration band with different colors and thickness around the whole fracture shape. A preliminary overview of the laboratory results highlights that altered and unaltered tuffs (belonging to the same formation) show different chemical compositions. In particular, an enrichment of Mn, accompanied by a

  13. Changes in particulate matter physical properties during Saharan advections over Rome (Italy): a four-year study, 2001-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbi, G. P.; Angelini, F.; Barnaba, F.; Costabile, F.; Baldasano, J. M.; Basart, S.; Sozzi, R.; Bolignano, A.

    2013-08-01

    Particulate matter mass concentrations measured in the city of Rome (Italy) in the period 2001-2004 have been cross-analysed with concurrent Saharan dust advection events to infer the impact these natural episodes bear on the standard air quality parameter PM10 observed at two city stations and at one regional background station. Natural events such as Saharan dust advections are associated with a definite health risk. At the same time, the Directive 2008/50/EC allows subtraction of PM exceedances caused by natural contributions from statistics used to determine air quality of EU sites. In this respect, it is important to detect and characterise such advections by means of reliable, operational techniques. To assess the PM10 increase we used both the "regional-background method" suggested by EC Guidelines and a "local background" method, demonstrated to be most suited to this central Mediterranean region. In terms of exceedances, the two approaches provided results within ~20% of each other at background sites, and at ~50% of each other in traffic conditions. The sequence of Saharan advections over the city has been either detected by Polarization Lidar (laser radar) observations or forecast by the operational numerical regional mineral dust model BSC-DREAM8b of the Barcelona Supercomputing Centre. Lidar observations were also employed to retrieve the average physical properties of the dust clouds as a function of height. Over the four-year period, Lidar measurements (703 evenly distributed days) revealed Saharan plumes transits over Rome on 28.6% of the days, with minimum occurrence in wintertime. Dust was observed to reach the ground on 17.5% of the days totalling 88 episodes. Most (90%) of these advections lasted up to 5 days, averaging to ~3 days. Median time lag between advections was 7 days. Typical altitude range of the dust plumes was 0-6 km, with the centre of mass at ~3 km a.g.l. BSC-DREAM8b model simulations (1461 days) predicted Lidar detectable (532 nm

  14. Changes in particulate matter physical properties during Saharan advections over Rome (Italy): a four-year study, 2001-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbi, G. P.; Angelini, F.; Barnaba, F.; Costabile, F.; Baldasano, J. M.; Basart, S.; Sozzi, R.; Bolignano, A.

    2013-02-01

    Particulate matter mass concentrations measured in the city of Rome (Italy) in the period 2001-2004 have been cross-analysed with concurrent Saharan dust advection events to infer the impact these natural episodes bear on the standard air quality parameter PM10 observed at two city stations and at one regional background station. Natural events as Saharan dust advections are associated to a definite health risk. At the same time, the Directive 2008/50/EC allows subtraction of PM exceedances caused by natural contributions from statistics used to determine air-quality of EU sites. In this respect, it is important to detect and characterize such advections by means of reliable, operational techniques. To assess the PM10 increase we used both the "regional-background method" suggested by EC Guidelines and a "local background" one, demonstrated to be most suited to this central Mediterranean region. The two approaches provided results within 20% from each other. The sequence of Saharan advections over the city has been either detected by Polarization Lidar (laser radar) observations or forecast by the operational numerical regional mineral dust model BSC-DREAM8b of the Barcelona Supercomputing Centre. Lidar observations were also employed to retrieve the average physical properties of the dust clouds as a function of height. Along the four-year period, Lidar measurements (703 evenly distributed days) revealed Saharan plumes transits over Rome on 28.6% of the days, with minimum occurrence in wintertime. Dust was observed to reach the ground on 17.5% of the days totalling 88 episodes. Most (90%) of these advections lasted up to 5 days, averaging to ~3 days. Median time lag between advections was 7 days. Typical altitude range of the dust plumes was 0-6 km, with centre of mass at ~3 km a.g.l. BSC-DREAM8b model simulations (1461 days) predicted Lidar detectable (532nm extinction coefficient >0.005 km-1) dust advections on 25.9% of the days, with ground contacts on 13% of

  15. XI Congress of the International Headache Society. September 13-16, 2003, Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Sarchielli, Paola

    2004-04-01

    The XI Congress of the International Headache Society (IHC) provided useful feedback for a wide range of disciplines for all scientists involved in basic and applied research concerning headaches. The major topics of the Congress included comorbidity, paediatric headache, phenotypic markers, genetics, migraine therapy, trigeminal neuralgia and paroxysmal facial pain with autonomic signs. The most recent advances were presented and discussed and all efforts were made to transfer these new understandings of pathogenesis, clinical features and treatments, to clinical practice, in an attempt to gain a better understanding of patient problems and requests. The Presidential Symposium, which anticipated the scientific sessions, provided the most updated knowledge regarding neuroimaging, neurophysiological and potential clinical implications of the activation of brainstem structures as well as the dependency of cortical events on this activation during migraine attacks. The results of the strenuous work carried out from autumn 1999 to 2003 of an International Committee of headache experts, presided by J. Olesen, reached its peak with the presentation of the new International Headache Classification ICHD-II. There are many relevant changes in the new classification, even though the basic structure and the most important criteria, such as those for migraine without aura and tension-type headache, have been maintained. Several new entities have been added including chronic migraine for patients having migraine >or= 15 days/month. New rules separate primary and secondary headaches and a new chapter now presents headaches attributed to psychiatric disorders. Headaches due to disturbance of homeostasis has been brought together in a new chapter and the diagnostic criteria for secondary headaches are now more systematically constructed. All these changes will hopefully promote research, especially for the novel entities reported in the appendix, which have not been sufficiently

  16. A day at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia in Rome, Italy seen from the kids point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Addezio, G.; Burrato, P.; Marsili, A.; Team, L.

    2008-12-01

    The Laboratorio di Didattica e Divulgazione Scientifica Group of the INGV organizes every year intense educational and outreach activities with schools of different grades. The visit to the scientific laboratories of the INGV center of Rome represents the earliest and the most continuous project started about 10 years ago. During these years the INGV center was visited by more than 20,000 students. The researchers and the technicians of the INGV receive with competence and enthusiasm the students in order to transfer scientific knowledge and enthusiasm for scientific research, science and nature. Since Italy is a place prone to seismic and volcanic activities our lessons focalize in particular on causes of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and how to behave properly during these events. This approach derived from the consciousness that preparedness is the best way to live with and to mitigate natural hazards. The visit consists of a theoretical lesson in a conference hall supported by multimedia tools, and a practical experiences based on exhibitions and hands-on experiments focused on earthquakes, plate tectonics and the inner structure of the Earth. A special experience is the visit to the control room of the INGV National Seismic Surveillance where the students can see in real time the seismic activity and how it is important its continuous monitoring 24-hours a day all year round. In the 2007-2008 scholastic year about 50 classes for more than 2,500 students and their teachers interacted with about 40 scientists. For some of the classes the visit gave the start to independent and original work. This is the case of a IVth primary school class that once back to the desk and encouraged by the teachers resumed their impressions and what their better grasped. The result is a "book" realized like a diary from their original drawings with a final section devoted to a research work they have independently done on volcanoes. The kids with a scientifically correct

  17. Prevalence of Children with Severe Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in Communities Near Rome, Italy: New Estimated Rates Are Higher than Previous Estimates

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip A.; Fiorentino, Daniela; Coriale, Giovanna; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Aragón, Alfredo S.; Buckley, David; Stellavato, Chandra; Gossage, J. Phillip; Robinson, Luther K.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Manning, Melanie; Ceccanti, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the population-based epidemiology of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in towns representative of the general population of central Italy. Methods: Slightly revised U.S. Institute of Medicine diagnostic methods were used among children in randomly-selected schools near Rome. Consented first grade children (n = 976) were screened in Tier I for height, weight, or head circumference and all children ≤10th centile on one of these measurements were included in the study. Also, teachers referred children for learning or behavioral problems. Children meeting either of these two criteria, along with randomly-selected controls, advanced to Tier II which began with a dysmorphology examination. Children with a possible FASD, and controls, advanced to Tier III for neurobehavioral testing, and their mothers were interviewed for maternal risks. Final diagnoses using indicators of dysmorphology, neurobehavior, and maternal risk were made in formally-structured, interdisciplinary case conferences. Results: Case control comparisons of physical, neurobehavioral, and maternal risk variables are presented for 46 children with an FASD and 116 randomly-selected controls without a diagnosis on the FASD continuum. Rates of diagnoses within the FASD continuum are then estimated from these in-school data via three different methods. The range of rates of FAS produced by these methods is between 4.0 to 12.0 per 1,000; Partial FAS ranges from 18.1 to 46.3 per 1,000; and an FASD was found in 2.3% to 6.3% of the children. Conclusions: These rates are substantially higher than previous estimates of FAS and overall FASD for the general populations of Western Europe and the U. S., and raise questions as to the total impact of FASD on mental deficit in mainstream populations of Western Europe and the United States where the majority are middle class and are not believed to be characterized by heavy episodic drinking. PMID

  18. Platinum levels in natural and urban soils from Rome and Latium (Italy): significance for pollution by automobile catalytic converter.

    PubMed

    Cinti, D; Angelone, M; Masi, U; Cremisini, C

    2002-07-03

    Platinum concentrations in topsoil samples collected in 1992 (48) and in 2001 (16) from the urban area of Rome have been determined by ICP-MS. Concentrations in 47 soil samples collected in 1992 from natural sites of Latium (an area around Rome) have been determined for a first assessment of natural background levels. The Pt concentrations in Rome urban soils collected in 1992 range from 0.8 to 6.3 ng/g (mean = 3.8 +/- 1.0) overlapping the concentration range of natural soils from Latium (mean = 3.1 +/- 2.1 ng/g). No significant correlation has generally been found between Pt contents in the 'natural' soils and related bedrock or major pedogenetic parameters. These results suggest that there is no evidence of Pt pollution in Rome urban soils at that time, because the massive use of the automobile catalytic converter has only just started. Higher (up to six times more) Pt concentrations, than those measured in the 1992 samples, have been measured, in some cases, in Rome urban soils collected in 2001, suggesting a possible start of Pt accumulation because of the large-scale use in the last decade of automobile catalytic converters. At the same time, a clear decrease of lead levels in Rome urban soils with respect to the levels measured in 1992 has been observed, paralleling the decreasing number of lead gasoline-fuelled cars. Here we present one of the first systematic studies for defining background levels of Pt in Italian natural soils, thus allowing for monitoring, in the future, should any possible Pt pollution caused by the use of automobile catalytic converter, especially in urban soils, occur.

  19. Taphonomy of the fossil hominid bones from the Acheulean site of Castel di Guido near Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Mariani-Costantini, R; Ottini, L; Caramiello, S; Palmirotta, R; Mallegni, F; Rossi, A; Frati, L; Capasso, L

    2001-09-01

    Castel di Guido near Rome is one of the few open air Middle Pleistocene European sites that has yielded hominid skeletal remains associated with fossil fauna and Acheulean implements. The fossil hominid bones include two femoral shafts, respectively designated Castel di Guido-1 (CdG-1) and CdG-2, an occipital fragment (CdG-3), a right maxilla lacking teeth (CdG-4), a portion of right parietal (CdG-5), a right temporal (CdG-6), and a fragment of left parietal vault (CdG-7). CdG-1 through CdG-4 were collected in 1979-1982 on the surface, together with fossil fauna, where ploughing incised fossiliferous tuffaceous sands. Excavations conducted in the same area from 1980 to 1990 led to the discovery of CdG-5, CdG-6 and CdG-7 within the tuffaceous sands, which were shown to overlay a bone-bearing paleosurface, with abundant evidence of hominid activities. The Castel di Guido hominid assemblage poses intriguing taphonomic questions. The analysis of the physical evidence offered by the bone surfaces, reported in the present study, indicates that the hominid skeletal remains were heavily fragmented before fossilization and exposed to carnivores and rodents, as well as to trampling and/or friction in abrasive sediment. Although definitive conclusions cannot be reached on the basis of the available evidence, it is possible that clusters of incisions localized on specific regions of the Castel di Guido fossil hominid bones might reflect deliberate human manipulations.

  20. The geography of Bangladeshi migration to Rome.

    PubMed

    Knights, M; King, R

    1998-12-01

    "With reference to the Bangladeshi community in Rome, this paper provides some answers to three key geographical questions: what is the migrants' regional pattern of origin in their home country; what are the mechanisms and routes of their migration to Italy; how are they spatially distributed in Rome?... Chain migration links specific origins in Bangladesh with spatial clusters and economic activities in Rome; the key here is the role of Bangladeshi community leaders in Rome who act both as migration sponsors and entrepreneurs."

  1. Mantle-derived CO2 migration along active faults within an extensional basin margin (Fiumicino, Rome, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigi, S.; Beaubien, S. E.; Ciotoli, G.; D'Ambrogi, C.; Doglioni, C.; Ferrante, V.; Lombardi, S.; Milli, S.; Orlando, L.; Ruggiero, L.; Tartarello, M. C.; Sacco, P.

    2014-12-01

    Fluid migration along faults can be highly complex and spatially variable, with the potential for channeled flow, accumulation in capped porous units, fault cross-flow, lateral migration along strike, or complete sealing. Extensional basin margins can be important for such migration, given the associated crustal thinning and decompression that takes place combined with potential geothermal or mantle gas sources. One such example is near the urban area of Rome, situated along the active extensional continental margin of the Tyrrhenian back arc basin and surrounded by Middle-Upper Pleistocene K-rich and arc-related volcanoes. Recent research activities in the area around Fiumicino, a town 25 km to the west of Rome, has highlighted the close spatial link between degassing CO2 and the faults that provide the necessary vertical migration pathways. In particular, detailed soil gas and gas flux surveys have highlighted the release at surface of large volumes of asthenospheric mantle CO2 in correspondence with normal faults observed in a new seismic reflection profile acquired along the Tiber River. Detailed reconstruction of the Pleistocene-Holocene stratigraphy of the area dates fault activity from 20,000 to 9000 years BP. It is proposed that the gas migrates preferentially along the cataclastic tectonic breccias of the faults until it encounters recent, unconsolidated sediments; porous units within this shallow stratigraphy act as temporary secondary traps for the leaking gas, with local gas release at the ground surface occurring where the sealing of the overlying aquitards has been compromised. Degassing and active faults confirm the extensional tectonics affecting the area and the geodynamic scenario of a mantle wedge beneath the western Apennines, associated with ongoing W-directed subduction. Moreover, degassing highlights the potential geochemical and seismic risks for the highly populated urban areas near Rome.

  2. Long-term deformation analysis of historical buildings through the advanced SBAS-DInSAR technique: the case study of the city of Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeni, G.; Bonano, M.; Casu, F.; Manunta, M.; Manzo, M.; Marsella, M.; Pepe, A.; Lanari, R.

    2011-09-01

    Monitoring of deformation phenomena affecting urban areas and man-made structures is of key relevance for the preservation of the artistic, archaeological and architectural heritage. The differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) technique has already been demonstrated to be an effective tool for non-invasive deformation analyses over large areas by producing spatially dense deformation maps with centimetre to millimetre accuracy. Moreover, by exploiting long sequences of SAR data acquired by different sensors, the advanced DInSAR technique referred to as the small baseline subset (SBAS) approach allows providing long-term deformation time series, which are strategic for guaranteeing the monitoring of urban area displacements. In this work, we investigate the effectiveness of the two-scale multi-sensor SBAS-DInSAR approach to detect and monitor displacements affecting historical and artistic monuments. The presented results, achieved by applying the full resolution SBAS technique to a huge set of ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT data, spanning the 1992-2010 time interval and relevant to the city of Rome (Italy), show the capability of this approach to detect and analyse the temporal evolution of possible deformation phenomena affecting historical buildings and archaeological sites. Accordingly, our analysis demonstrates the effectiveness of the full resolution multi-sensor SBAS approach to operate as a surface deformation tool for supporting the study and conservation strategies of the historical, cultural and artistic heritage.

  3. Plants as bioindicators for archaeological prospection: a case of study from Domitian's Stadium in the Palatine (Rome, Italy).

    PubMed

    Ceschin, S; Caneva, G

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we analyzed the relationship between buried archaeological remains (masonries, pavements, and ancient ruins) and spontaneous vegetation growing above them. We carried out several vegetation surveys in the Domitian's Stadium at the archaeological site of the Palatine (Rome). Vegetation data were collected using the Braun-Blanquet approach and elaborated using statistical analyses (cluster analysis) to assess the similarity among surveys. Structural, chorological, and ecological features of the plant communities were analyzed. Results showed that the vegetation responds significantly to the presence of sub-emerging ancient remains. The plant bioindication of this phenomenon occurs through the following floristic-vegetation variations: phenological alterations in single individuals (reduction in height, displacement of flowering/fruiting period), increase of annual species and decrease of perennial ones, decrease of total plant coverage, reduction of maturity level of the vegetation which remains blocked at a pioneer evolutive stage. The presence of sub-surfacing ruins manifests itself through the dominant occurrence of xerophilous and not-nitrophilous species (e.g., Hypochaeris achyrophorus L., Aira elegantissima Schur, Trifolium scabrum L. ssp. scabrum, Trifolium stellatum L., Plantago lagopus L., Medicago minima (L.) L., and Catapodium rigidum (L.) C.E. Hubb. ex Dony ssp. rigidum) and in a rarefaction of more mesophilous and nitrophilous species (e.g., Plantago lanceolata L., Trifolium pratense L. ssp. pratense, Trifolium repens L. ssp. repens, and Poa trivialis L.). Therefore, the vegetation can be used as bioindicator for the detection of buried ruins, contributing in the archaeological prospection for a general, fast, and inexpensive interpretation of the underground.

  4. Winter urban air particles from Rome (Italy): effects on the monocytic-macrophagic RAW 264.7 cell line.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Roberta; De Berardis, Barbara; Paoletti, Luigi; Guastadisegni, Cecilia

    2005-11-01

    Epidemiological data show an association between exposure to elevated levels of particulate matter (PM), in particular the fine fraction (<2.5 microm in diameter), and an increase in cardiovascular mortality and respiratory symptoms. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro toxicity of coarse and fine particulate matter collected with a cascade impactor during winter in an urban area of Rome in relation to their physicochemical characterization (size distribution and chemical composition) as assessed by analytical electron microscopy (SEM/EDX). The X-ray microanalysis data of single particles of coarse and fine matter were analyzed by hierarchical cluster analysis to determine the principal component of the two granulometric fractions. The main chemical difference between the two fractions was the greater abundance of carbonaceous particles in the fine fraction. We compared the ability of coarse and fine fractions, carbon black (CB), and residual oil fly ash (ROFA) to induce arachidonic acid release and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production in the monocytic-macrophagic RAW 264.7 cell line at concentrations of 30 and 120 microg/mL. Our results showed that CB and ROFA were consistently less effective than both fractions of urban particles at inducing an inflammatory reaction in RAW 264.7 cells. Both PM fractions dose-dependently increased TNF-alpha production in RAW 264.7 cells after 5 and 24h of incubation, and only the TNF-alpha production induced by coarse particles at 30 microg/mL decreased significantly (P<0.01) after 24h of treatment. In our in vitro model the winter fine fraction was more reactive than the winter coarse fraction, in contrast to a previously examined summer sample. In the summer sample, coarse particles produced higher levels of inflammatory mediators than fine particles and the CB was consistently less effective than the urban particles. The different behaviors between summer and winter urban fractions may be due to their

  5. Geochemistry of the Albano and Nemi crater lakes in the volcanic district of Alban Hills (Rome, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carapezza, M. L.; Lelli, M.; Tarchini, L.

    2008-12-01

    Lake Albano, located 20 km to the SE of Rome, is hosted within the most recent crater of the quiescent Alban Hills volcanic complex that produced hydromagmatic eruptions in Holocene times. Stratigraphic, archaeological and historical evidence indicates that the lake level underwent important variations in the Bronze Age. Before the IV century B.C. several lahars were generated by water overflows from the lake and in the IV century B.C. Romans excavated a drainage tunnel. The lake is located above a buried carbonate horst that contains a pressurized medium-enthalpy geothermal reservoir from which fluids escape to the surface to produce many important gas manifestations of mostly CO 2. Previous studies recognized the presence of gas emissions also from the crater bottom. In 1997 the possibility of a Nyos-type event triggered by a lake rollover was considered very low, because the CO 2 water concentration at depth was found to be far from saturation. However, considering the high population density nearby, the Italian Civil Protection Department recommended that periodical monitoring be carried out. To this scope we initiated in 2001 a systematic geochemical study of the lake. Thirteen vertical profiles have been repeatedly carried out in 2001-2006, especially in the deepest part of the lake (167 m in 2006), measuring T, pH, dissolved O 2 and electrical conductivity. Water samples were collected from various depths and chemically and isotopically analysed. Two similar profiles have been measured also in the nearby Nemi crater lake. Results indicate that in the 4.5 years of monitoring the pressure of gas dissolved in the Lake Albano deep waters remained much lower than the hydrostatic pressure. A CO 2 soil survey carried out on the borders of the two lakes, indicates the presence of some zones of anomalous degassing of likely magmatic origin. A water overturn or a heavy mixing of deep and shallow waters likely occurred in winter 2003-2004, when cold rainfall cooled the

  6. How Dramatic is the Unrest at Colli Albani, the Volcanic District 20 km from Rome (Italy)? Insights from SAR Interferometry and Gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trasatti, E.; Di Filippo, M.; Di Nezza, M.; Florindo, F.; Marra, F.; Moro, M.; Polcari, M.; Stramondo, S.; Ventura, G.

    2015-12-01

    Colli Albani (Italy) is an alkali-potassic volcanic district located about 20 km SE of Rome (3 M inhabitants) and lastly erupted 36 ka ago. Its eruptive activity is characterized by well-clustered, regularly spaced time cycles, with an average recurrence time of 45±5 ka. Since the modern volcanic activity at Colli Albani seems not particularly intense, scientists have interpreted this volcano to be quiescent. Therefore, unlike other Italian volcanoes, the area has not undergone extensive monitoring. However, a seismic swarm during 1989-1990 has been related to a local uplift of ca. 30 cm since the 1950's along a line crossing the western side of the volcano, giving rise to a debate about its possible interpretation in terms of unrest. Furthermore, recent geological investigations indicate a coupling of eruption history, uplift history, and changes in the regional stress field, pointing to the conclusion that Colli Albani is in unrest. As a result, an evaluation of the volcanic hazard of such a strongly inhabited and vulnerable area is needed. We present the results from the analysis of 20 years of SAR interferometry. The time series show a linear trending displacement (3 mm/yr maximum ground velocity) affecting the western flank of the volcano. In addition, results from gravimetric surveys conducted during 2005-2007 reveal a different behavior between the eastern and western sectors. In an attempt of understanding the dynamics of Colli Albani from the available geodetic and gravimetric data, we build a finite element model incorporating local structural and lithological features, such as mapped faults and elastic discontinuities. Our results suggest that magma is accumulating beneath the Colli Albani western flank, where uplift and positive microgravity anomalies are observed and where the recent seismic swarm took place. Our model constrains the location and geometry of the magmatic source, which is below the vents responsible for the last eruptive activity

  7. Independent 40Ar/39Ar and 14C age constraints on the last five glacial terminations from the aggradational successions of the Tiber River, Rome (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, F.; Rohling, E. J.; Florindo, F.; Jicha, B.; Nomade, S.; Pereira, A.; Renne, P. R.

    2016-09-01

    We use 13 new 40Ar/39Ar and 4 new 14C datings of volcanic deposits and organic material found within near-coastal aggradational successions deposited by the Tiber River near Rome, Italy, to integrate a larger dataset previously achieved in order to offer independent age constraints to the sea-level fluctuations associated with Late Quaternary glacial cycles during the last 450 ka. Results are compared with the chronologically independently constrained Red Sea relative sea-level curve, and with the astronomically tuned deep-sea benthic δ18O record. We find good agreements for the timings of change, and in several cases for both the amplitudes and timings of change during glacial terminations T-1, T-2, T-3, and T-5. There is one striking exception, namely for glacial termination T-4 that led into interglacial Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 9. T-4 in our results is dated a full 18 ka earlier than in the Red Sea and deep-sea benthic δ18O records (which are in good agreement with each other in spite of their independent chronological constraints). The observed discrepancy is beyond the scale of the combined age uncertainties. One possible explanation is that the documented aggradation represents an early phase, triggered by a smaller event in the sea-level record, but the thickness of the aggradational sediment sequence then suggests that the amplitude of this earlier sea-level rise is underestimated in the Red Sea and benthic δ18O records. Also, this would imply that the aggradational succession of the main T-4 deglaciation has not yet been located in the study region, which is hard to reconcile with our extensive fieldwork and borehole coverage, unless unlikely non-deposition or complete erosion. Resolving this discrepancy will improve understanding of the timing of deglaciations relative to the orbitally modulated insolation forcing of climate and will require further focused research, both into the nature and chronology of the Tiber sequences of this period, and into

  8. Integrated geophysical methods for the characterisation of an archaeological site (Massenzio Basilica — Roman forum, Rome, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardarelli, Ettore; Di Filippo, Gerardina

    2009-08-01

    A geophysical study that involved different techniques was carried out with the aim to improve the knowledge of the archaeological site where the Basilica of Maxentius was founded and to discern individual covered structures (foundations). Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES), seismic refraction and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) studies were performed in the archaeological site. VES and seismic refraction allowed to characterise the main geological formations of the hill where the Basilica was built and to distinguish the concrete floor and backfilling. Electrical data were processed using different algorithms; their results were compared to appraise the inverted models' robustness. ERT inversion algorithms were used to delineate shape and size of a much more complex structure, that were originally expected from archaeological excavation plan. The results of the commercial program were used as a posteriori information to include them in the algorithm proposed by the authors; the sequential use of the programs defined a processing procedure. The integrated use of different geophysical techniques reduced a great deal the intrinsic ambiguities of each method. Direct explorations (boreholes and archaeological excavations) confirmed the geophysical results.

  9. Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves and Down-Hole Tests in the Archeological "Palatine Hill" Area (Rome, Italy): Evaluation and Influence of 2D Effects on the Shear Wave Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Fiore, V.; Cavuoto, G.; Tarallo, D.; Punzo, M.; Evangelista, L.

    2016-05-01

    A joint analysis of down-hole (DH) and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) measurements offers a complete evaluation of shear wave velocity profiles, especially for sites where a strong lateral variability is expected, such as archeological sites. In this complex stratigraphic setting, the high "subsoil anisotropy" (i.e., sharp lithological changes due to the presence of anthropogenic backfill deposits and/or buried man-made structures) implies a different role for DH and MASW tests. This paper discusses some results of a broad experimental program conducted on the Palatine Hill, one of the most ancient areas of the city of Rome (Italy). The experiments were part of a project on seismic microzoning and consisted of 20 MASW and 11 DH tests. The main objective of this study was to examine the difficulties related to the interpretation of the DH and MASW tests and the reliability limits inherent in the application of the noninvasive method in complex stratigraphic settings. As is well known, DH tests provide good determinations of shear wave velocities (Vs) for different lithologies and man-made materials, whereas MASW tests provide average values for the subsoil volume investigated. The data obtained from each method with blind tests were compared and were correlated to site-specific subsurface conditions, including lateral variability. Differences between punctual (DH) and global (MASW) Vs measurements are discussed, quantifying the errors by synthetic comparison and by site response analyses. This study demonstrates that, for archeological sites, VS profiles obtained from the DH and MASW methods differ by more than 15 %. However, the local site effect showed comparable results in terms of natural frequencies, whereas the resolution of the inverted shear wave velocity was influenced by the fundamental mode of propagation.

  10. Local geological dust in the area of Rome (Italy): linking mineral composition, size distribution and optical properties to radiative transfer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrodangelo, Adriana; Salzano, Roberto; Bassani, Cristiana; Pareti, Salvatore; Perrino, Cinzia

    2015-04-01

    Airborne mineral dust plays a key role in the energy balance of the Earth - atmosphere coupled system. The microphysical and optical properties of dust drive the direct radiative effects and are in turn influenced by the dust mineralogical composition. The latter varies largely, depending on the geology of the source region. Knowledge gaps still exist about relationships between the scattering and absorption of solar and terrestrial radiation by mineral dust and its mineralogical, size distribution and particle morphology features; this also affects the reliability of radiative transfer (RT) modelling estimates (Hansell et al., 2011). In this study, these relationships were investigated focusing on the crustal suspended PM10 dust, sourced from outcropping rocks of the local geological domains around Rome (Latium, Italy). The mineral composition variability of the Latium rocks ranges from the silicate-dominated (volcanics domain) to the calcite-dominated (travertine), through lithological materials composed in different proportions by silicates, silica and calcite, mainly (limestone series, siliciclastic series) (Cosentino et al., 2009). This peculiarity of the Latium region was thus exploited to investigate the behavior of the size distribution, optical properties and radiative transfer at BOA (Bottom Of Atmosphere) of the suspended dust PM10 fraction with the variability of mineral composition. Elemental source profiles of the same dust samples were previously determined (Pietrodangelo et al., 2013). A multi-faceted analysis was performed, and outcomes from the following approaches were merged: individual-particle scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray energy-dispersive microanalysis (SEM XEDS), bulk mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), size distribution fit of the individual-particle data set and modelling of the dust optical and radiative properties. To this aim, the 6SV atmospheric radiative transfer code (Kotchenova et al., 2008

  11. Italy

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Rice Cultivation in Northwest Italy     ... cover at least 160,000 acres in this part of Italy, where rice is the most important crop. These views of the region were acquired on May ... May 8, 2005 - Natural color and composite images of rice cultivation in Northwest Italy. project:  MISR ...

  12. Modeling of local 3D effects of the April 6th 2009 l’Aquila (Italy) event in the City of Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caserta, A.; Oprsal, I.; Rovelli, A.; Marra, F.; Govoni, A.; Vinci, S.

    2009-12-01

    Several events of the seismic sequence started on 6th of April 2009, that struck the town of l'Aquila, Italy, have been recorded by an array of seismic stations, located approximately 90 km south-west of the epicenters. One of the stations is in a 80-m-deep borehole, installed since the early 2008 in the middle of the main sedimentary body of the city: the Tiber valley. This represents a unique opportunity to tune seismic simulations of the soil shaking due to a seismic sequence located in Central Apennines region. This latter is considered, with the Albani Hills one, the main seismogenic area responsible of the seismic hazard in the city. We have generated a 3D velocity model for a portion of the city (5 EW x 3 NS km2 wide, and 200 m deep, including topography) where the array is located. A viscoelastic wave propagation due to S-wave pulse of general polarization and given incidence is obtained by the 3D FD hybrid numerical modeling. The 3D pulse response and the borehole recording are then used to generate the complete 3D synthetics covering the area. The results are verified by comparing to the surface recordings and large ground motion amplifications data.

  13. Radiocarbon as a biomarker of urban pollution in leaves of evergreen species sampled in Rome and in rural areas (Lazio—Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, M.; Anselmi, S.; Conforto, L.; Improta, S.; Manes, F.; Manfra, L.

    The aim of the present study is the use of 14C, sampled in leaves of evergreen species, as a natural geochemical marker to estimate the contribution of artificial sources (heating plants, vehicles, etc.) to the complex of atmospheric gases in an urban environment. Leaves were chosen due to sampling easiness and their reliability: in particular the evergreen species, being exposed all the year round to pollutants are especially indicated for bioindication and biomonitoring studies. The response to atmospheric pollutants has been studied of two plant species ( Quercus ilex L., Pinus pinea L.) measuring isotopic ( 14r, δ13C), chemical (Pb concentration) and ecophysiological (gaseous exchange and leaf fluorescence of chlorophyll a) parameters. Leaves of holm-oaks and stone pine needles collected over a 3-year time span in an urban park in Rome (Villa Ada) and in reference localities outside the city on the Tyrrhenian coast and in the pre-Appennine area have been analysed. In Villa Ada measurements were carried out along a transect from the road bordering the park towards the interior; all the parameters, together in agreement, showed a decreasing pollution gradient towards the inner park. It was possible to estimate a 5.5±0.3% contribution of CO 2 from fossil fuels close to the road, decreasing to 1.7±0.3% at <300 m from it towards the inner park. The isotopic analyses conducted on stone pines and holm-oaks show that 14C provides indications on the degree of pollution from fossil fuels, while δ13C appears to be conditioned mainly by the interspecific difference, and also by many other environmental factors that affect the plant functionality. Results confirmed that radiocarbon is a useful tool in environmental studies, allowing to quantify the contributions of CO 2 of anthropic origin: this parameter, together with appropriate isotopic, chemical and ecophysiological analyses, could provide a good indication of the "air quality" in urban and rural contexts.

  14. Allergic, Immunological and Infectious Disease Problems in Aerospace Medicine Held in Rome, Italy on 21 - 25 October 1991 (Les Problemes Causes par les Maladies Allergiques, Immunologiques et Contagieuses en Mdecine Aerospatiale).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    315, 1986. of high risk groups, including babies born to HBsAg carrier 6. Szmuness W., Stevens C.E., Harley E.J., et al. Hepatitis mothers (41...377, 1981. HEPATITIS B VACCINATION IN ITALY. 8. Szmuness W., Stevens C.E., Harley C.E., et al. Hepatitis Hepatitis B is endemic in Italy. 1.5 million...sperm DNA, 50%formamide) and to 8 months, while p24 antigenemia was hybridized to a 32P nick translated HIV- always undetectable. In contrast to the 1

  15. John Ray in Italy: lost manuscripts rediscovered

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper discloses the content of two manuscripts of John Ray that have hitherto been unknown to Ray scholars. The manuscripts survive in the Hampshire Record Office, having descended through the Prideaux-Brune family. They record information about Ray's tour of Italy in the 1660s that does not appear in his Observations … made in a journey through … the Low-countries, Germany, Italy and France (1673), including a visit to the museum of Athanasius Kircher in Rome, and provide clues concerning the composition of Ray's 1673 book. PMID:24921104

  16. John Ray in Italy: lost manuscripts rediscovered.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Michael

    2014-06-20

    This paper discloses the content of two manuscripts of John Ray that have hitherto been unknown to Ray scholars. The manuscripts survive in the Hampshire Record Office, having descended through the Prideaux-Brune family. They record information about Ray's tour of Italy in the 1660s that does not appear in his Observations... made in a journey through... the Low-countries, Germany, Italy and France (1673), including a visit to the museum of Athanasius Kircher in Rome, and provide clues concerning the composition of Ray's 1673 book.

  17. ROME (Request Object Management Environment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, M.; Good, J. C.; Berriman, G. B.

    2005-12-01

    Most current astronomical archive services are based on an HTML/ CGI architecture where users submit HTML forms via a browser and CGI programs operating under a web server process the requests. Most services return an HTML result page with URL links to the result files or, for longer jobs, return a message indicating that email will be sent when the job is done. This paradigm has a few serious shortcomings. First, it is all too common for something to go wrong and for the user to never hear about the job again. Second, for long and complicated jobs there is often important intermediate information that would allow the user to adjust the processing. Finally, unless some sort of custom queueing mechanism is used, background jobs are started immediately upon receiving the CGI request. When there are many such requests the server machine can easily be overloaded and either slow to a crawl or crash. Request Object Management Environment (ROME) is a collection of middleware components being developed under the National Virtual Observatory Project to provide mechanism for managing long jobs such as computationally intensive statistical analysis requests or the generation of large scale mosaic images. Written as EJB objects within the open-source JBoss applications server, ROME receives processing requests via a servelet interface, stores them in a DBMS using JDBC, distributes the processing (via queuing mechanisms) across multiple machines and environments (including Grid resources), manages realtime messages from the processing modules, and ensures proper user notification. The request processing modules are identical in structure to standard CGI-programs -- though they can optionally implement status messaging -- and can be written in any language. ROME will persist these jobs across failures of processing modules, network outages, and even downtime of ROME and the DBMS, restarting them as necessary.

  18. Did Rome Fall or Was It Pushed? Sixth Grade Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, David

    In this interdisciplinary grade 6 world history and language arts unit, students examine the fall of Rome (Italy). Working in teams to research the causes of Rome's demise, participants develop a theory explaining why Rome fell. The student guide provides detailed instructions on how to complete the activity, a list of resources, and includes…

  19. Rome Laboratory Journal, 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    in N cannot be smaller than the largest 15. S.D. Akers, and B. Krishnanurthy, "Test counting: An analysis tool for VLSI testing," Technical Report CR... reporting of fault coverage for digital microcircuits copy (AFM) and Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis for military applications. It describes...AFB NY 13441-4514. Requests to reprint individual articles should be addressed to the author. This report has been reviewed by the Rome Laboratory

  20. PREFACE: Young Researcher Meeting in Rome 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, Fabio; Cattani, Giordano; Mazzaferro, Luca; Migliaccio, Marina; Pietrobon, Davide; Ricci Pacifici, Daniel; Stellato, Francesco; Veneziani, Marcella

    2012-10-01

    Conference logo At its third edition, the Young Researcher Meeting in Rome (YRMR) proves to be a growing event in the Italian scientific panorama. The high-quality content of the abstracts submitted to the scientific committee resulted in an exciting conference, held, for the second time, at the University of Rome 'Tor Vergata' on 20 January 2012. A busy schedule covered a large variety of cutting-edge science topics: fundamental interactions, particle physics, cosmology, astrophysics, condensed matter and biomedical physics. The broad range of the subjects discussed is the distinctive feature of the YRMR, a meeting aimed at enhancing the synergy among complementary branches of science by stimulating a fruitful exchange between theoretical, experimental and computational physics. Promoting collaborations between PhD students, postdoctoral fellows and young researchers creates a solid scientific network with an open-minded approach to discovery. In this volume, we collect the contributions that have been presented both in the form of talks and of posters. YRMR Organising and Editorial Committee Fabio Agostini (fabio.agostini@roma2.infn.it) Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma 'Tor Vergata' Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma Italy Giordano Cattani (giordano.cattani@roma2.infn.it) Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma 'Tor Vergata' INFN sezione di Roma 'Tor Vergata' Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma Italy Luca Mazzaferro (luca.mazzaferro@roma2.infn.it) Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma 'Tor Vergata' INFN sezione di Roma 'Tor Vergata' Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma Italy Marina Migliaccio (migliaccio@ifca.unican.es) Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Edificio Juan Jorda, Avenida de los Castros, E-39005 Santander, Cantabria Spain Davide Pietrobon (davide.pietrobon@jpl.nasa.gov) Jet Propulsion Laboratory - California Institute of Technology 4800 Oak Grove Drive 169-237 91109 Pasadena, CA USA Daniel Ricci Pacifici

  1. What is new in Rome IV.

    PubMed

    Schmulson, Max J; Drossman, Douglas Arnold

    2017-03-09

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are diagnosed and classified using the Rome criteria; the criteria may change over time as new scientific data emerge. The Rome IV was released in May 2016. The aim is to review the main changes in Rome IV. FGIDs are now called disorders of gut-brain interaction (DGBI). Rome IV has a multicultural rather than a Western-culture focus. There are new chapters including multicultural, age-gender-women's health, intestinal microenvironment, biopsychosocial, and centrally mediated disorders. New disorders have been included although not truly FGIDs, but fit the new definition of DGBI including opioid-induced gastrointestinal hyperalgesia, opioid-induced constipation, and cannabinoid hyperemesis. Also, new FGIDs based on available evidence including reflux hypersensitivity and centrally mediatedabdominal pain syndrome. Using a normative survey to determine the frequency of normal bowel symptoms in the general population changes in the time frame for diagnosis were introduced. For irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) only pain is required and discomfort was eliminated because it is non-specific, having different meanings in different languages. Pain is now related to bowel movements rather than just improving with bowel movements (ie, can get worse with bowel movement). Functional bowel disorders (functional diarrhea, functional constipation, IBS with predominant diarrhea [IBS-D], IBS with predominant constipation [IBS-D], and mixed IBS) are considered to be on a continuum rather than as independent entities. Clinical applications such as diagnostic algorithms and the Multidimensional Clinical Profile have been updated. The new Rome IV iteration is evidence-based, multicultural oriented and with clinical applications. As new evidence become available, future updates are expected.

  2. What Is New in Rome IV

    PubMed Central

    Schmulson, Max J; Drossman, Douglas A

    2017-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are diagnosed and classified using the Rome criteria; the criteria may change over time as new scientific data emerge. The Rome IV was released in May 2016. The aim is to review the main changes in Rome IV. FGIDs are now called disorders of gut-brain interaction (DGBI). Rome IV has a multicultural rather than a Western-culture focus. There are new chapters including multicultural, age-gender-women’s health, intestinal microenvironment, biopsychosocial, and centrally mediated disorders. New disorders have been included although not truly FGIDs, but fit the new definition of DGBI including opioid-induced gastrointestinal hyperalgesia, opioid-induced constipation, and cannabinoid hyperemesis. Also, new FGIDs based on available evidence including reflux hypersensitivity and centrally mediated abdominal pain syndrome. Using a normative survey to determine the frequency of normal bowel symptoms in the general population changes in the time frame for diagnosis were introduced. For irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) only pain is required and discomfort was eliminated because it is non-specific, having different meanings in different languages. Pain is now related to bowel movements rather than just improving with bowel movements (ie, can get worse with bowel movement). Functional bowel disorders (functional diarrhea, functional constipation, IBS with predominant diarrhea [IBS-D], IBS with predominant constipation [IBS-C], and IBS with mixed bowel habits) are considered to be on a continuum rather than as independent entities. Clinical applications such as diagnostic algorithms and the Multidimensional Clinical Profile have been updated. The new Rome IV iteration is evidence-based, multicultural oriented and with clinical applications. As new evidence become available, future updates are expected. PMID:28274109

  3. Reconstruction of The Extreme Flood Series of The Tiber River In Rome From The Xv Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calenda, G.; Calvani, L.; Mancini, C. P.; Volpi, E.

    The stage measurements of extreme flood events of the Tiber River in Rome constitute one of the longer available hydrologic records. In fact we are fairly sure of knowing the peak stages of all the extreme floods which flooded the town of Rome since the XV century. It is an almost complete record covering more than 500 years. An effort to evaluate the peak flow of the observed events may be very helpful for the understanding of the long term behaviour of the extreme flood events. The case of the Tiber River in Rome is particularly favourable, since several informations are available: a) a long record of daily stage measurements up to the XVIII century; b) several records of daily rainfall depth measurement at rain gauges in the Tiber catchment extending at least up to the middle of the XIX century; c) detailed surveys executed immediately after the great flood of 1870, that flooded the town of Rome, before the extensive modifications of the town and of the river bed, following the annexation of the town to the kingdom of Italy, including: the town and of the river bed, maximum flood levels in the river and in the town, the food hydrograph; d) a less detailed survey of the river bed executed in 1744; e) an extremely rich iconography, showing the conditions of the Tiber banks starting from the XVI century; f) contemporary description of several extreme floodings; g) a rich series of flow measurements and bed surveys after the great flood of 1870 to present days. Using a monodimensional steady state model to compute flow profiles in the river bed, a bidimensional hydrodinamic model to simulate the flooding of the town, and correlating the estimated flows and rainfall records for control purposes, a reasonable reconstruction of a five century long extreme flood series has been attempte.

  4. CNIPA, FUB and University of Rome "Tor Vergata" at TREC 2008 Legal Track

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    alessandro.celi@di.univaq.it 4 Matematics Department at University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy gambosi@mat.uniroma2.it 5 NESTOR - Laboratory of the...terms, as described in Section 2. 2. Querying. The analysis of the past TREC results for the Legal track showed that the best retrieval strategy...discriminant analysis and the prediction of corporate bankruptcy. Jour- nal of Finance, 1968.

  5. Club of Rome

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Le Club de Rome s'est fait connaître du grand public par la publication du premier ouvrage "Halte à la croissance" qui a fait l'object d'un débat, il y a 2 ans. Le Prof. Tinbergen a commencé par s'adonner à la physique, il est docteur en physique et très tôt il s'est tourné vers les problèmes sociaux économiques. Il est expert auprès des nombreux gouvernements et organisations internationales et il a vu ses travaux couronnés par le prix Nobel en 1969.

  6. All Roads Lead to Rome: Update on Rome III Criteria and New Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Shih, David Q.; Kwan, Lola Y.

    2010-01-01

    The recently published Rome III criteria reflect current understanding of functional gastrointestinal disorders. These criteria include definitions of these conditions and their pathophysiologic subtypes and offer guidelines for their management. At the 2006 Annual Scientific Meeting of the American College of Gastroenterology, a panel of experts discussed these criteria as they pertain to irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia, and chronic constipation. This article reviews the panel’s findings, highlights the differences between the Rome II and III criteria, and summarizes best treatment options currently available to practitioners and their patients. PMID:21544252

  7. L'insegnamento della lingua inglese nella scuola materna: un'indagine in area romana (Teaching English in Preschool: A Survey in the Rome Area).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevetti, Franca

    1987-01-01

    Presents the results of a survey to determine the extent to which English was taught and what methods were used in public and private nursery schools in Rome, Italy, during the academic year 1985-86. (CFM)

  8. Numerical model of the Stromboli volcano (Italy) including the effect of magma pressure in the dyke system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apuani, T.; Corazzato, C.

    2009-02-01

    The Stromboli island, in the Aeolian archipelago (Italy), is one of the most active volcanoes in Europe. In the last 13,000 years, its growth has been complicated by four sector collapses affecting the NW flank, the latest of which resulting in the formation of Sciara del Fuoco (SdF) horseshoe-shaped depression. Slope instability phenomena are represented not only by giant deep-seated gravitational slope deformations, but also by more frequent large landslides, such as occurred in December 2002-January 2003, and shallow landslides, involving loose or weakly cemented deposits, that constitute a natural hazard and affect residential and tourists safety. It is noteworthy that in volcanic environment the instability factors are manifold and much more complex than in other non-volcanic contexts. This paper deals with the Stromboli NW flank instability, and focuses on the effects of magma pressure in the feeding system. Two main objectives have been pursued: (1) to test a methodological approach, in order to evaluate a complex instability process; (2) to contribute to the understanding of volcano deformation and collapse mechanisms and associated hazard. A numerical model was developed by the Finite Difference Method and the FLAC 4.0 code, considering a cross-section of the entire volcano, orthogonal to the SdF and including both subaerial and submerged slopes. The stability of the volcano was analysed under gravity alone, and by introducing the magma pressure effect, both related to magmastatic and overpressure components. The results indicate that gravity alone is not sufficient to affect the stability of the volcano slopes, nor is the magmastatic pressure component. If an excess magma pressure component is introduced, instability is produced in accordance with field evidences and recent slope dynamics.

  9. Rome in the Teutoburg Forest

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-12

    veteran service. These policies alienated the Roman people. This alienation caused Rome to halt further conquest in the region which set the first real...images as warriors. The Scythians scalped their opponents, sewed their adversaries‘ skins together to serve as cloaks, and used their enemies‘ skulls

  10. 78 FR 65554 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Rome, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... at the Rome VHF Omni- Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) ] navigation aid... the surface, at the Rome VOR/DME navigation aid, Rome, OR, to accommodate IFR aircraft under control... within the scope of that authority as it establishes controlled airspace at the Rome VOR/DME, Rome,...

  11. [Infant care in ancient Rome].

    PubMed

    Ahlsten, E

    2001-01-01

    Children are seldom spoken of in Roman times. We know about medicine since long before the birth of Christ but it's not until the first century AD that there is a book that concerns with the nursing of a newborn child. The book is called Gynaecia and was written by Soranus who had studied medicine in Alexandria before he arrived at Rome. Soranus gives distinctive advice about the care of the newborn baby, especially when he talks about the wet-nurse. It seems that nearly none is good enough. Many of Soranus' advice about daily care of the baby remembers of the routines of the neonatal care of today, NIDCAP.

  12. Ground level ice nuclei particle measurements including Saharan dust events at a Po Valley rural site (San Pietro Capofiume, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belosi, F.; Rinaldi, M.; Decesari, S.; Tarozzi, L.; Nicosia, A.; Santachiara, G.

    2017-04-01

    Filter-collected aerosol samples in the PM1 and PM10 fractions and particle number concentration were measured during experimental campaigns in a rural area near Bologna (Italy) in the periods 10-21 February 2014 and 19-30 May 2014. Ice nuclei particle (INP) concentrations measured off-line showed prevalently higher average values in the morning with respect to the afternoon, in the PM1 fraction with respect to PM1-10 (with the exception of the first campaign, at Sw = 1.01), and at water saturation ratio Sw = 1.01 with respect to Sw = 0.96. The aerosol in the coarse size range (1-10 μm) contributed significantly to the total INP concentration. In the first campaign, the average INP concentration in the coarse fraction was 80% of the total in the morning and 74% in the afternoon, at Sw = 1.01. In the second campaign, the contribution of the coarse size fraction to the INP number concentration was lower. On the whole, the results showed that the freezing activity of aerosol diameters larger than 1 μm needs to be measured to obtain the entire INP population. Sahara dust events (SDEs) took place during both campaigns, in the periods 17-20 February and 21-23 May 2014. Results show that the averaged particle number concentration was higher during SDE than during no-Saharan dust events. A low correlation between INP and total aerosol number concentration was generally measured, except for SDEs observed in February, in which the correlation coefficient between aerosol concentration in the coarse fraction and INP in the same range, at water supersaturation, was about 0.8. Precipitation events influenced the aerosol concentration. In the February campaign, lower values of INP and particle concentrations were measured in case of heavy rain events. During the May campaign, an average number concentration of the aerosol in the range 0.5-10 μm was slightly higher than on days when no precipitation was measured, the rainfall intensity being low. Only in a few cases did we note

  13. Human-flood interactions in Rome over the past 150 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Saccà, Smeralda; Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Ciullo, Alessio; Crisci, Massimiliano

    2017-02-01

    Throughout history, the socio-economic development of the city of Rome has been intertwined with the magnitude and frequency of flooding events from the Tiber, one of Italy's largest rivers. Ancient Rome mostly developed on the hills, while the Tiber's floodplain was mainly exploited for agricultural purposes. A few small communities did settle in the riparian areas of the Tiber, but they had a relatively peaceful relationship with the frequent occurrence of flooding events. Instead, numerous people live nowadays in modern districts in the Tiber's floodplain, unaware of their exposure to potentially catastrophic flooding. This research work aims to explore the dynamics of changing flood risk between these two opposite pictures of ancient and contemporary Rome. To this end, we carried out a socio-hydrological study by using long time series of hydrological (extreme flood events) and social (human population dynamics) processes, along with information about human interactions with the environment (flood defence structures). The historical analysis showed how human and water systems have been co-evolving over time, while being abruptly altered by the occurrence of an extreme flood event in 1870, just before Rome became the capital of a recently unified Italy. The outcomes of this study were then compared to the results of a socio-hydrological model simulating the dynamics emerging from the mutual shaping of floods and societies.

  14. PREFACE: Proceedings of the International School and Workshop 'Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 2006' (University of Rome Tor Vergata and the Catholic University of Rome, 6 9 November 2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, Stefano

    2007-10-01

    what they are, how does one go about them, what purposes can they serve. In tutorial sessions the nature of nanotechnology, the instruments of current use in its characterizations and the possible applicative uses have been described at an introductory level. The Conference covered a large range of topics of current interest in nanoscience and nanotechnology, including aerospace, defence, national security, biology, medicine, electronics. The program for the first two sessions devoted to Aerospace, Defence and National Security has been setup in collaboration with the University of Rome 'La Sapienza', Department of Aerospace and Astronautics Engineering. The opening address was delivered by Giancarlo Grasso, Central Technical Director of the Finmeccanica Group, in representation of the President, Pier Francesco Guarguaglini while the first tutorial lecture was given by Milind Pimprikar, CANEUS' founder and chairman, who will illustrate its mission, ie: 'to provide a platform for the coordinated investment and development of MNT by identifying and nurturing complementary core competencies within government, private sector and academic organizations from the CANEUS participating countries'. CANEUS is a non-profit organization catering primarily to the needs of the aerospace community by fostering the coordinated, international development of MNT (Micro-Nano- Technologies) for aerospace applications. As a 'hands on' organization, CANEUS is focused on the practical aspects of transitioning MNT rapidly and efficiently into aerospace systems. In achieving this goal, CANEUS brings together MNT developers, aerospace end-users, governmental policy makers and investors from across Canada, Europe, US, and Japan. Then, A Ortona (FN SpA, Italy) offered an overview on composite materials with ceramics matrix. This kind of materials turns out to be of particular interest in aerospace applications, as it conjugates a good behavior with respect to fracture, similar to that of metals

  15. 76 FR 3012 - Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological Material Originating in Italy and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    .... (eds.), Historia Numorum: Italy (London, 2001). Others appear in G.F. Hill Coins of Ancient Sicily... coins (Aes Grave)--Cast bronze coins of Rome, Etruscan, and Italian cities from the 4th century B.C....

  16. Isotopic evidence for age-related immigration to imperial Rome.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Tracy L; Schwarcz, Henry P; Garnsey, Peter; Knyf, Martin; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Bondioli, Luca

    2007-04-01

    Oxygen stable isotope ratios (delta(18)O) have been determined in carbonate in paired first and third molar teeth from individuals (N = 61) who lived in the town of Portus Romae ("Portus") and who were buried in the necropolis of Isola Sacra (First to Third centuries AD) near Rome, Italy. We compare these analyses with data for deciduous teeth of modern Roman children. Approximately one-third of the archaeological sample has first molar (M1) values outside the modern range, implying a large rate of population turnover at that time, consistent with historical data. Delta (18)O(ap) values suggest that a group within the sample migrated to the area before the third molar (M3) crown had completely formed (i.e., between 10 and 17.5 years of age). This is the first quantitative assessment of population mobility in Classical antiquity. This study demonstrates that migration was not limited to predominantly single adult males, as suggested by historical sources, but rather a complex phenomenon involving families. We hypothesize that migrants most likely came from higher elevations to the East and North of Rome. One individual with a higher delta(18)O value may have come (as a child) from an area isotopically similar to North Africa.

  17. Vocational Training in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (West Germany).

    This document on vocational training in Italy contains eight chapters. Chapter 1 describes the population of Italy. Chapter 2 describes the Italian economy through the agricultural, industrial, and service sectors. Chapter 3 describes education and vocational training in Italy, including regional agricultural and nonagricultural vocational…

  18. Mass Storage and Retrieval at Rome Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kann, Joshua L.; Canfield, Brady W.; Jamberdino, Albert A.; Clarke, Bernard J.; Daniszewski, Ed; Sunada, Gary

    1996-01-01

    As the speed and power of modern digital computers continues to advance, the demands on secondary mass storage systems grow. In many cases, the limitations of existing mass storage reduce the overall effectiveness of the computing system. Image storage and retrieval is one important area where improved storage technologies are required. Three dimensional optical memories offer the advantage of large data density, on the order of 1 Tb/cm(exp 3), and faster transfer rates because of the parallel nature of optical recording. Such a system allows for the storage of multiple-Gbit sized images, which can be recorded and accessed at reasonable rates. Rome Laboratory is currently investigating several techniques to perform three-dimensional optical storage including holographic recording, two-photon recording, persistent spectral-hole burning, multi-wavelength DNA recording, and the use of bacteriorhodopsin as a recording material. In this paper, the current status of each of these on-going efforts is discussed. In particular, the potential payoffs as well as possible limitations are addressed.

  19. The December 2008 flood event in Rome: Was it really an extreme event?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastoria, B.; Mariani, S.; Casaioli, M.; Bussettini, M.

    2009-04-01

    In mid December 2008, Italy suffered bad weather with heavy snowfall blanketing the north and strong winds and downpours pelting the centre-south. In particular, during the period between 10th and 12th December, intense precipitation struck the Tyrrhenian Sea side of the peninsula, inducing a flood event, which captured the attention of the national and international media, on the Tiber river and on its tributary, the Aniene. The relevance of the event was caused by the actual damages occurred in several zones over Rome area, in particular due to the downpours and to damages which would have occurred if Tiber river had overflowed its banks. The event, which was initially considered as extreme, was indeed severe but not so exceptional as shown by the meteo-hydrological post-event analysis. The peak water level of 12.55 m, recorded on 13th December at 1:30 a.m. (local time) at the Ripetta station, which is situated along the Tiber river in the centre of Rome, was higher than those observed during the last ten years (which to the utmost reached 11.41 m in December 2005). However, it did not reach the historical maximum of 16.90 m observed in 1937. Moreover, on the basis of the Ripetta historical series, such a level is associated to an ordinary flood event. Even if the flood was ordinary, a state of emergency was declared by the Rome's Mayor, since the event caused severe damages by disrupting flight and train services, blocking off major roads leading into Rome, flooding underpasses and sealing off industrial activities sited in the flooded areas, in particular nearby the confluence of the Aniene river with the Tiber river. In addition, hundreds of people were evacuated and a woman died in a her car which was submerged by a wave of water and mud in an underpass. Given these premises, the present work examines the relation between a severe, but not extraordinary, event and the considerable damages that occurred as a consequence. First, the meteorological evolution of

  20. Lead in ancient Rome's city waters.

    PubMed

    Delile, Hugo; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Goiran, Jean-Philippe; Keay, Simon; Albarède, Francis

    2014-05-06

    It is now universally accepted that utilization of lead for domestic purposes and water distribution presents a major health hazard. The ancient Roman world was unaware of these risks. How far the gigantic network of lead pipes used in ancient Rome compromised public health in the city is unknown. Lead isotopes in sediments from the harbor of Imperial Rome register the presence of a strong anthropogenic component during the beginning of the Common Era and the Early Middle Ages. They demonstrate that the lead pipes of the water distribution system increased Pb contents in drinking water of the capital city by up to two orders of magnitude over the natural background. The Pb isotope record shows that the discontinuities in the pollution of the Tiber by lead are intimately entwined with the major issues affecting Late Antique Rome and its water distribution system.

  1. The ancient city of Rome, its empire, and the spread of tuberculosis in Europe.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Jared J

    2015-06-01

    The formation of the Roman Empire constituted an unprecedented joining of Mediterranean and European lands and peoples, centering on the capital of Rome. During the late Roman Republic and early Roman Empire (ca. 200B.C.-ca. 200 A.D.) urbanization and population growth led to conditions favorable to the spread of tuberculosis throughout Italy and especially within Rome itself. Trade and military expansion would have acted as vehicles for the further extension of tuberculosis to the provinces via direct transmission from Italian-born Romans to the native populations. However, an alternative explanation may better explain the increase in the number of archeological cases of tuberculosis with the start of the Roman era. A literature review of Roman-era cases and their locations suggests that the development of an urban, Roman way of life resulted in significant increases in prevalence in regions where tuberculosis had previously been endemic only at a low level.

  2. The beginnings of theoretical condensed matter physics in Rome: a personal remembrance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Castro, Carlo; Bonolis, Luisa

    2014-02-01

    This oral history interview provides a personal view on how theoretical condensed matter physics developed in Rome starting in the sixties of the last century. It then follows along the lines of research pursued by the interviewee up to the date of the interview, in March 2006. The topics considered range from the phenomenology of superfluid helium and superconductors, critical phenomena and renormalisation group approach, quantum fluids to strongly correlated electron systems and high temperature superconductors. Within these topics, fundamental problems of condensed matter physics are touched upon, such as the microscopic derivation of scaling, the metal-insulator transition and the interaction effects on disordered electron systems beyond the Anderson localisation, and the existence of heterogeneous states in cuprates. The English text presented here and revised by the authors is based on the original oral history interview recorded in Italian at Carlo Di Castro's office, Physics Department of Sapienza University, Rome, Italy, March 2006.

  3. Temperature dependence of Brewer UV measurements at Rome station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siani, Anna M.; Benevento, Giuseppe; Casale, Giuseppe R.

    2003-11-01

    Decreasing trends of total ozone affect mainly solar ultraviolet (UV) levels at ground level with adverse effects on the biosphere. Highly accurate measurements of solar UV irradiance have become an important issue to assess UV trends. To detect these trends stations with well calibrated instruments, with long-term stability and Quality Assurance (QA)/ Quality Control (QC) carefully followed procedures, are necessary. The Solar Radiometry Observatory of Rome, University "La Sapienza" (city center) is one of the stations regularly measuring UV irradiance in Italy. Measurements of UV spectral (290-325 nm) irradiance started in 1992, using Brewer MKIV 067. Measurements of total irradiance contained in the 280 - 320 nm waveband begun in 2000 with the YES UVB-1 broad-band radiometer. An investigation of the internal temperature dependence of the spectral responsivity to improve the quality of the Brewer UV data was carried out. The study was based on the analysis of responsivity files recorded during the years 2000-2002. Responsivities are provided by specific tests through a set of five 50 W quartz tungsten-halogen lamps, traceable to the standards of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The lamp tests allow to measure any changes in the instrument response over time. It was observed that a decrease in the instrument's responsivity resulted from an increase of the internal temperature. A methodology based on a family of responsivity files at different temperature intervals is proposed to allow correction of UV irradiances using the responsivity file at the corresponding temperatures. The mean percentage differnce between temperature corrected and non-corrected Brewer data varies from 0.8% to 1.5% over an internal temperature of 8°C-42°C. In addition the results of a field evaluation in Rome between Brewer 067 and two temperature stabilized instruments, a broad-band radiometer (YES UVB-1) and a moderate bandwidth multichannel radiometer

  4. Multiwavelength Lidar Observation of the Atmospheric Response to the 20th March 2015 Partial Solar Eclipse in Rome Tor Vergata: Preliminary Results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberti, Gian Luigi; Dionisi, Davide; Federico, Stefano; Congeduti, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    This study reports some preliminary analyses of multichannel lidar measurements taken in Rome Tor Vergata (Italy) during the 20th March 2015 partial solar eclipse. The objective is assessing the capability of the instrument to document the effect of the eclipse in the lower troposphere, with a particular emphasis on the information content at relatively small temporal and spatial scales.

  5. Growing cannabis with naphthalene in Rome.

    PubMed

    Fucci, Nadia

    2003-12-17

    A young Italian male was investigated for possession of illicit marijuana in Rome. In his house, police found 80 cannabis plants, the plants were different sizes and located in a room with ultraviolet light, naphthalene, as a grey-white powder, was also found in his house. The man indicated that he used it for cannabis cultivation.

  6. [The difficult start of nephrology in Rome].

    PubMed

    Cagli, V; Cinotti, G A

    2009-01-01

    Nephrology in Rome began in the 1960s with the arrival of Ernico Fiaschi in the wake of Cataldo Cassano at the Institute of Medical Pathology (later on Clinica Medica II). A group of doctors interested in nephrology was set up, with among them Giulio A. Cinotti, who was to become full professor of nephrology at the University of Rome ''La Sapienza'' in 1980. By the end of the 1960s, the renal transplant activity had become an important asset at the Institute of Surgical Pathology (later on Clinica Chirurgica II) thanks to Paride Stefanini. A chair of surgical nephrology was instituted at the Urology Clinics of Ulrico Bracci; the chair was first held by Nicola Cerulli, who developed an intensive hemodialysis program. Around the same time, the Center for the Research and Treatment of Arterial Hypertension and Kidney Diseases became operational at the hospitals of Rome (under the responsibility of Vito Cagli at the Policlinico Umberto I), while a nephrology and dialysis unit, directed by Giancarlo Ruggieri, was set up at the San Giacomo Hospital. Many nephrology-related ''cultural'' activities started to be undertaken thanks to the ''Gruppo Laziale di Nefrologia Medica e Chirurgica'' founded by Drs Cagli, Cerulli, and Cinotti. Two national congresses were organized by Giulio Cinotti in 1979 (Fiuggi) and 1992 (Rome).

  7. [Haemaphysalis concinna Koch, 1844 in Italy].

    PubMed

    Stella, E; Sobrero, L

    1978-12-01

    The authors provide here the data concerning the first italian finding of tick Hemaphysalis concinna (Ixodidae). Two males of this species--which has a large geographic diffusion--were actually caught for the first time in Italy, in July 1977. They were found on the ground of the Castel Porziano estate (Rome) at sealevel, in two different grassy places. The authors describe their morphological characters and provide some essential data on the environment of Castel Porziano.

  8. The New Rome IV Criteria for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Infants and Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Koppen, Ilan J.N.; Benninga, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are common worldwide and cover a wide range of disorders attributable to the gastrointestinal tract that cannot be explained by structural or biochemical abnormalities. The diagnosis of these disorders relies on the symptom-based Rome criteria. In 2016 the Rome criteria were revised for infants/toddlers and for children and adolescents. In this review, we discuss the novel Rome IV criteria for infants and toddlers. The criteria for infant colic were drastically changed, whereas only minor changes were made for regurgitation, cyclic vomiting syndrome, functional diarrhea, infant dyschezia and functional constipation. In addition to this, the new Rome IV discusses underlying mechanisms of pain in infants and toddlers, including the neuro-development of nociceptive and pain pathways, the various factors that are involved in pain experience, and methods of pain assessment in infants and toddlers is essential for the clinician who encounters functional pain in this age group. Overall, the Rome IV criteria have become more distinctive for all disorders in order to improve the process of diagnosing pediatric FGIDs.

  9. Mortality of intravenous drug users in Rome: a cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Perucci, C A; Davoli, M; Rapiti, E; Abeni, D D; Forastiere, F

    1991-01-01

    A historical cohort study was carried out in Rome to examine overall and cause-specific mortality among intravenous drug users (IVDUs). A total of 4200 IVDUs (3411 men and 789 women) enrolled in methadone treatment centers between 1980 and 1988 were studied. There were 239 deaths during the follow-up period. The overall SMR was 10.10 in the entire cohort (95% confidence interval, 8.86-11.47), 9.30 in males and 18.07 in females. A large excess of mortality in both sexes was found for infectious, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive diseases as well as for violence, overdose, AIDS, and unknown or ill-defined causes. Tumors and suicide were excessive only in males. Deaths due to drug overdose, violence or trauma, and cirrhosis accounted for 63.6%, AIDS for 7.1%, endocarditis and other bacterial infections for 7.1%, and neoplasms for 3.8% of total mortality. These findings document serious health consequences of drug abuse in Italy. PMID:1656799

  10. Eternal Rome: Guardian of the Heavenly Gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latura, G.

    2016-01-01

    The power of the Roman Empire did not come solely by way of brutal force. A spiritual vision inherited from the Greeks inspired the Romans—an ascent through the classical Planets to the intersections with the Milky Way, where stood the gates of heaven. This vision stretches back, through Macrobius and Cicero, to Plato's Republic and Timaeus. The Eternal City, capital of the Empire for four centuries, claimed control over the celestial portals, a tradition that is traced on Roman coins and medals over thousands of years. Julius Caesar borrowed enormous sums to campaign for the office of Pontifex Maximus—high priest of Rome—spending a fortune on “bread and circuses” to secure the support of the masses. Consolidating power at every turn, Caesar as dictator-for-life became absolute master of Rome, the city that, according to its coins, ruled the cosmos. Though his mortal frame fell to the knives of the senators, Caesar's soul was seen ascending to heaven as a comet. Thus was born the myth of Divvs Ivlivs—the divine avatar of the Roman Empire, whose name would become synonymous with the title of emperor over millennia (German Kaiser, Hungarian Csaszar, Russian Tsar, to name a few). Caesar's heir, Octavian, piously waited for Lepidus to die of old age before grabbing the office of Pontifex Maximus for himself, a title that would define the celestial authority of the ruler of Rome until Gratian renounced it four centuries later. Ambrose, bishop of Milan, convinced Gratian that such a pagan title was not fit for a Christian. Once the Roman emperor discarded the title Pontifex Maximus, the bishop of Rome picked it up and placed it above his own head, as can be seen on coins and medals of the Vatican to this day. In Jubilee years, the Pope knocks down the brick wall that has kept closed the Holy Door for a generation, a ceremony that reaffirms Rome's control of the celestial gates.

  11. [Evaluation of the quality of drinking water in Senigallia (Italy), including the presence of asbestos fibres, and of morbidity and mortality due to gastrointestinal tumours].

    PubMed

    Fiorenzuolo, Giovanni; Moroni, Vania; Cerrone, Tiziana; Bartolucci, Elena; Rossetti, Siro; Tarsi, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the organoleptic quality of drinking water conducted in asbestos cement piping, in eleven towns in the Marche region (Italy) and the presence of asbestos fibres. A descriptive survey was also conducted to assess possible health effects in the population, in particular morbidity and mortality due to gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. Study results show a very low concentration of free asbestos fibres in water samples examined. No differences in mortality and morbidity due to GI cancers were detected compared to the national population.

  12. Insects found on a human cadaver in central Italy including the blowfly Calliphora loewi (Diptera, Calliphoridae), a new species of forensic interest.

    PubMed

    Vanin, S; Gherardi, M; Bugelli, V; Di Paolo, M

    2011-04-15

    In the case of unidentified bodies the estimation of the period since death or of the season of death plays an important role to focus the attention on a reduced number of people among the ones reported missing. Forensic entomology can be one of the most important methods for these estimations, as occurred in this case. Flies are typically the first insects to colonize a dead body. The case reported here concerns the colonisation by insects of a male body in advanced decay found during the winter in Central Italy. This case is of particular interest as few data are available on the entomological evidence in the cold season. In particular, in this case we recovered Calliphora loewi (Calliphoridae), a species never collected before on dead bodies in Southern Europe. Larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (Stratiomyidae), pupae and larvae belonging to genus Hydrothea (Muscidae), and Necrobia rufipes (Cleridae) specimens were also collected. The estimated PMI enabled identification of the cadaver, confirmed by DNA analysis.

  13. Gas potential of the Rome Trough in Kentucky: Results of recent Cambrian exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.C.; Drahovzal, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    A recent gas discovery in the Rome Trough suggests the need to re-evaluate the deep Cambrian potential of eastern Kentucky. A new phase of Cambrian exploration began in mid-1994 with a new pool discovery by the Carson Associates No. 1 Kazee well in Elliott County, Ky. This well blew out and initially flowed 11 MMcfd of gas from the upper Conasauga Group/Rome Formation at 6,258 to 6,270 feet. After this discovery, a second exploratory well (the Blue Ridge No. 1Greene) was drilled on a separate structure in Elliott County in late 1995. The Blue Ridge well was temporarily abandoned, but had shows of gas and condensate. In early 1996, Carson Associates offset their initial discovery well with the No. 33 Lawson Heirs well. This activity follows a frustrating exploration history in the Rome Trough that is marked by numerous gas and oil shows, but rare commercial production. Only three single-well pools have produced commercial gas from the trough, including the recent Kazee well. Stratigraphic units below the Cambrian-Ordovician Knox Group in the Rome Trough are dramatically thicker than their equivalents on the shelf to the north. The interval in the trough is thought to include rocks as old as Early Cambrian, consisting of a basal sandstone, equivalents of the Shady/Tomstown Dolomite, the Rome Formation, and the Conasauga Formation. Sandstones and fractured shales have been responsible for most of the production to date, but dolostone intervals may also have potential. Limited seismic data indicate possible fan-delta and basin-floor fan deposits that may have reservoir potential.

  14. Natural and man-induced stress evolution of slopes: the Monte Mario hill in Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzano, F.; Martino, S.; Priori, M.

    2006-07-01

    The paper deals with stress-release effects induced by man-made cuts or excavations into natural stiff clay slopes that experienced erosion in response to valley deepening. The study was focused on the Monte Mario hill in Rome (Italy), which formed part of an area of recent urban expansion. The methodology of the study relied on a reference engineering-geology model, which was developed on the basis of site and laboratory data and stress-strain analyses. The latter analyses were carried out with the finite-difference code FLAC 4.0. Numerical modelling was based on a sequential approach, taking into account the main evolutionary stages of the Tiber river valley in Romeȁ9s urban area and then making cuts at the bottom of the slope located south of the Monte Mario Astronomical Observatory. The simulation revealed the stress-release effects that fluvial erosion and excavation fronts have caused on the investigated slopes and their consequent gravitational instabilities. These processes appear with metre-scale displacements, followed by stress-release cracks (actually observed on the slopes under review). In quantifying stress-release deformations, the simulation took into account the possible role of creep in the observed retardation of stress-release effects.

  15. Virtualizing ancient Rome: 3D acquisition and modeling of a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, Gabriele; Frischer, Bernard; De Simone, Monica; Cioci, Andrea; Spinetti, Alessandro; Carosso, Luca; Micoli, Laura L.; Russo, Michele; Grasso, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    Computer modeling through digital range images has been used for many applications, including 3D modeling of objects belonging to our cultural heritage. The scales involved range from small objects (e.g. pottery), to middle-sized works of art (statues, architectural decorations), up to very large structures (architectural and archaeological monuments). For any of these applications, suitable sensors and methodologies have been explored by different authors. The object to be modeled within this project is the "Plastico di Roma antica," a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome (16x17 meters) created in the last century. Its overall size therefore demands an acquisition approach typical of large structures, but it also is characterized extremely tiny details typical of small objects (houses are a few centimeters high; their doors, windows, etc. are smaller than 1 centimeter). This paper gives an account of the procedures followed for solving this "contradiction" and describes how a huge 3D model was acquired and generated by using a special metrology Laser Radar. The procedures for reorienting in a single reference system the huge point clouds obtained after each acquisition phase, thanks to the measurement of fixed redundant references, are described. The data set was split in smaller sub-areas 2 x 2 meters each for purposes of mesh editing. This subdivision was necessary owing to the huge number of points in each individual scan (50-60 millions). The final merge of the edited parts made it possible to create a single mesh. All these processes were made with software specifically designed for this project since no commercial package could be found that was suitable for managing such a large number of points. Preliminary models are presented. Finally, the significance of the project is discussed in terms of the overall project known as "Rome Reborn," of which the present acquisition is an important component.

  16. Virtualizing ancient Rome: 3D acquisition and modeling of a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, Gabriele; Frischer, Bernard; De Simone, Monica; Cioci, Andrea; Spinetti, Alessandro; Carosso, Luca; Micoli, Laura L.; Russo, Michele; Grasso, Tommaso

    2004-12-01

    Computer modeling through digital range images has been used for many applications, including 3D modeling of objects belonging to our cultural heritage. The scales involved range from small objects (e.g. pottery), to middle-sized works of art (statues, architectural decorations), up to very large structures (architectural and archaeological monuments). For any of these applications, suitable sensors and methodologies have been explored by different authors. The object to be modeled within this project is the "Plastico di Roma antica," a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome (16x17 meters) created in the last century. Its overall size therefore demands an acquisition approach typical of large structures, but it also is characterized extremely tiny details typical of small objects (houses are a few centimeters high; their doors, windows, etc. are smaller than 1 centimeter). This paper gives an account of the procedures followed for solving this "contradiction" and describes how a huge 3D model was acquired and generated by using a special metrology Laser Radar. The procedures for reorienting in a single reference system the huge point clouds obtained after each acquisition phase, thanks to the measurement of fixed redundant references, are described. The data set was split in smaller sub-areas 2 x 2 meters each for purposes of mesh editing. This subdivision was necessary owing to the huge number of points in each individual scan (50-60 millions). The final merge of the edited parts made it possible to create a single mesh. All these processes were made with software specifically designed for this project since no commercial package could be found that was suitable for managing such a large number of points. Preliminary models are presented. Finally, the significance of the project is discussed in terms of the overall project known as "Rome Reborn," of which the present acquisition is an important component.

  17. Analysis of Geomagnetic Disturbances and Cosmic Ray Intensity Variations in Relation to Medical Data from Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannaropoulou, E.; Papailiou, M.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Tsipis, A.

    2010-07-01

    Over the last few years many studies have been conducted concerning the possible influence of geomagnetic and solar activity and cosmic ray activity on human physiological state and in particular on human cardio - health state. As it is shown the human organism is sensitive to environmental changes and reacts to them through a series of variations of its physiological parameters such as heart rate, arterial systolic and diastolic blood pressure, etc. In this paper daily mean values of heart rate, as they were registered for a group of 2.028 volunteers during medical examinations in the Polyclinico Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy are analyzed in relation to daily cosmic ray intensity variations, as measured by the Neutron Monitor of the University of Athens and daily variations of the geomagnetic indices Dst, Ap and Kp. The results from this study show that geomagnetic activity changes and cosmic rays intensity variations may regulate the human homeostasis.

  18. 78 FR 45475 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Rome, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation aid, Rome, OR, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules... route domestic airspace extending upward from 1,200 feet above the surface at the Rome VOR/DME... would establish controlled airspace at the Rome VOR/DME, Rome, OR. This proposal will be subject to...

  19. Central Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Clouds and haze cover most of the Italian peninsula in this view of central Italy (41.5N, 14.0E) but the Bay of Naples region with Mt. Vesuvius and the island of Capri are clear. The Adriatic Sea in the background separates Italy from the cloud covered Balkans of eastern Europe and the Tyrrhenian Sea in the foreground lies between the Italian mainland and the off scene islands of Corsica and Sardinia. Several aircraft contrails can also be seen.

  20. The HyMeX Special Observation Period in Central Italy: Precipitation Measurements, Retrieval Techniques and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, Patrick; Wingo, Matt; Petersen, Walt; Marzano, Frank Silvio; Baldini, Luca; Picciotti, Errico; Colantonio, Matteo; Barbieri, Stefano; Di Fabio, Saverio; Montopoli, Mario; Roberto, Nicoletta; Adirosi, Elisa; Gorgucci, Eugenio; Anagnostou, Emmanoil N..; Ferretti, Rossella

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean area concentrates the major natural risks related to the water cycle, including heavy precipitation and flash-flooding during the fall season. The capability to predict such high-impact events remains weak because of the contribution of very fine-scale processes and their non-linear interactions with the larger scale processes. These societal and science issues motivate the HyMeX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment, http://www.hymex.orgl) experimental programme. HyMeX aims at a better quantification and understanding of the water cycle in the Mediterranean with emphasis on intense events. The observation strategy of HyMEX is organized in a long-term (4 years) Enhanced Observation Periods (EOP) and short-term (2 months) Special Observation Periods (SOP). HyMEX has identified 3 main Mediterranean target areas: North-West (NW), Adriatic (A) and South-East (SE). Within each target area several hydrometeorological sites for heavy rainfall and flash flooding have been set up. The hydrometeorological sire in Central Italy (CI) is interested by both western and eastern fronts coming from the Atlantic Ocean and Siberia, respectively. Orographic precipitations play an important role due to the central Apennine range, which reaches nearly 3000 m (Gran Sasso peak). Moreover, convective systems commonly develop in CI during late summer and beginning of autumn, often causing localized hailstorms with cluster organized cells. Western fronts may heavily hit the Tiber basin crossing large urban areas (Rome), whereas eastern fronts can cause flash floods along the Adriatic coastline. Two major basins are involved within Cl region: Tiber basin (1000 km long) and its tributary Aniene and the Aterno-Pescara basin (300 km long). The first HyMeX SOP1.1 was carried out from Sept. till Nov. 2012 in the NW target area The Italian SOP1.1 was coordinated by the Centre of Excellence CETEMPS, University of L'Aquila, a city located in the CI heart. The CI area

  1. PREFACE: 1st-2nd Young Researchers Meetings in Rome - Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YRMR Organizing Committee; Cannuccia, E.; Mazzaferro, L.; Migliaccio, M.; Pietrobon, D.; Stellato, F.; Veneziani, M.

    2011-03-01

    Students in science, particularly in physics, face a fascinating and challenging future. Scientists have proposed very interesting theories, which describe the microscopic and macroscopic world fairly well, trying to match the quantum regime with cosmological scales. Between the extremes of this scenario, biological phenomena in all their complexity take place, challenging the laws we observe in the atomic and sub-atomic world. More and more accurate and complex experiments have been devised and these are now going to test the paradigms of physics. Notable experiments include: the Large Hadronic Collider (LHC), which is going to shed light on the physics of the Standard Model of Particles and its extensions; the Planck-Herschel satellites, which target a very precise measurement of the properties of our Universe; and the Free Electron Lasers facilities, which produce high-brilliance, ultrafast X-ray pulses, allowing the investigation of the fundamental processes of solid state physics, chemistry, and biology. These projects are the result of huge collaborations spread across the world, involving scientists belonging to different and complementary research fields: physicists, chemists, biologists and others, keen to make the best of these extraordinary laboratories. Even though each branch of science is experiencing a process of growing specialization, it is very important to keep an eye on the global picture, remaining aware of the deep interconnections between inherent fields. This is even more crucial for students who are beginning their research careers. These considerations motivated PhD students and young post-docs connected to the Roman scientific research area to organize a conference, to establish the background and the network for interactions and collaborations. This resulted in the 1st and 2nd Young Researchers Meetings in Rome (http://ryrm.roma2.infn.it), one day conferences aimed primarily at graduate students and post-docs, working in physics in Italy

  2. [The teaching of microbiology in the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Rome. Memories of the Institute].

    PubMed

    Orsi, N

    2008-01-01

    The Author describes the various phases of the teaching of microbiology in the Faculty of Medicine of the University, of Rome, from the unity of Italy to the end of the twentieth century. A regular course of Bacteriology was started only in the academic year 1905/1906 as separate teaching from that of Hygiene and the Institute of Bacteriology was created in 1924. It was centered in Piazza del Viminale in Rome, in the same building as the Institute of Hygiene. Prof Vittorio Puntoni was the first Director of the Institute, also in its new site of the Città Universitaria which was inaugurated in 1935. In the meantime the old name of Bacteriology was changed to Microbiology and prof Puntoni remained as Director until 1943. The bombing during the war produced heavy damage to the new Institute and with the appointment of prof Aldo Cimmino as a new Director in 1946 the Institute of Microbiology began a long period of reconstruction and development. An astonishing improvement was achieved in the availability of human and technical resources, many groups of research workers were created and several pupils became professor of Microbiology in different Italian Universities. In 1981 prof Cimmino definitely retired, leaving, the teaching of Microbiology in the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Rome "La Sapienza" to five of his pupils. One of them, prof Garaci, a few years later passed to the new University of Rome "Tor Vergata", becoming also Rector. The other four professor (Orsi, Filadoro, Pezzi, del Piano) continued their teaching in the successive years, with the collaboration of several associate professors, whose status was created by the law 382 in 1980. A later law on the short degree course required also the official participation of many researchers to the new teaching. Finally in 2001 the official activity of the Institute of Microbiology ceased and was incorporated in the Department of Public Health Sciences.

  3. Cutting Edge Research in Homeopathy: HRI's second international research conference in Rome.

    PubMed

    Tournier, Alexander L; Roberts, E Rachel

    2016-02-01

    Rome, 3rd-5th June 2015, was the setting for the Homeopathy Research Institute's (HRI) second conference with the theme 'Cutting Edge Research in Homeopathy'. Attended by over 250 delegates from 39 countries, this event provided an intense two and a half day programme of presentations and a forum for the sharing of ideas and the creation of international scientific collaborations. With 35 oral presentations from leaders in the field, the scientific calibre of the programme was high and the content diverse. This report summarises the key themes underpinning the cutting edge data presented by the speakers, including six key-note presentations, covering advancements in both basic and clinical research. Given the clear commitment of the global homeopathic community to high quality research, the resounding success of both Barcelona 2013 and Rome 2015 HRI conferences, and the dedicated support of colleagues, the HRI moves confidently forward towards the next biennial conference.

  4. [Rome: capital of an empire under the banner of political biology (1936-1942)].

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the symbolic conformation of Rome and Romanism as important factors in the affirmation of the power of fascism, especially after the proclamation of the Empire in 1936. Within this framework, it explores the role of science in legitimizing the direct correlation of this symbolic universe with a praxis that exalted racial superiority inherited from Ancient Rome. It investigates the links between the eugenic discourse and the exercise of power behind the "biology policy", including fascist organicism and racism. In fact, Rome was the essence of an empire that was reborn after fifteen centuries and, between its historical legacy and the new scenarios created by fascism for disciplining the population, Romanism had to condense all of the merits of the race, encouraging military conquests and promoting responsibility for maintaining racial purity and avoiding "unwanted miscegenation" with conquered peoples. The idea of Romanism also encouraged a continuation of the persecution of Jews started in Germany. Hence, science ratified a widespread idea of the Romanization as a crusade to impose a force, exaggerated on racial grounds, which integrated confidence in environmental factors with a crude biological determinism.

  5. Seasonal variability of tropospheric aerosols in Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciardini, Virginia; Di Iorio, Tatiana; Di Liberto, Luca; Tirelli, Cecilia; Casasanta, Giampietro; di Sarra, Alcide; Fiocco, Giorgio; Fuà, Daniele; Cacciani, Marco

    2012-11-01

    The seasonal evolution of the tropospheric aerosol vertical distribution and of its optical properties is investigated using lidar and multi-filter rotating shadow-band radiometer (MFRSR) measurements collected throughout the period 2006-2009 in the urban environment of Rome. The evolution of the aerosol distribution is studied also in relation to long range transport of dust. Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model backward trajectories are used to identify possible aerosol sources in remote regions. Aerosol optical depth at 500 nm, τ, and Ångström exponent, α, are derived from MFRSR measurements. The Ångström exponent generally displays relatively high values, indicating the predominance of fine particle over the entire column. The average optical depth at 500 nm and Ångström exponent over the whole period are 0.18 ± 0.09 and 1.12 ± 0.39, respectively. Cases affected by Saharan dust (class 1) are separated from those not influenced by dust (class 0) by using backward trajectories. The average values of τ and α are 0.17 ± 0.08 and 1.17 ± 0.36 for class 0, respectively, and 0.22 ± 0.09 and 0.95 ± 0.46 for class 1. About 214 days of lidar measurements are selected for the analysis. The aerosol vertical distribution is influenced by dust events that induce a marked seasonal behaviour. Desert dust generally reaches higher altitudes than other aerosol types; the maxima altitudes are observed during Spring and Summer, when the monthly average altitude exceeds 5 km. The annual average occurrence of desert dust is 27%, with maxima in Spring and in the first part of Summer. The decrease in the dust event frequency observed in winter months is mainly linked to the seasonal behaviour of the synoptic circulation in the Mediterranean. According to the back-trajectories aerosols are primarily observed below 3 km altitude throughout the year when classified as not affected by desert dust. The extinction coefficient vertical profiles for the

  6. The Club of Rome and its computer.

    PubMed

    Chase, S

    1973-03-01

    When the Club of Rome, an assemblage of 75 scientists and businessmen gathered to study the ''predicament of mankind in the face of technology growing at an exponential rate,'' issued its computer study it launched a battle between proponents of gross national product and those favoring quality of life. The computer simulation studied the interaction of population growth, food supply, inductrial production, resource use, and pollution under varying conditions. It concluded that our industrial system is headed for too many people in relation to food and living space, too much production in relation to natural resources, and for too much pollution. This will affect all countries. The traditional economists say the continued growth of the gross national product is the only way to ensure better living conditions while the ecologists point out that quality of life is being destroyed. The author cites arguments both for and against the quality-of-life view. The problem is that continued industrial growth creates wants as well as satisfying them and leads to waste as well as needful consumption. John Stuart Mill stated 100 years ago that the world could not support continued technological expansion and society must reach an equilibrium. 8 steps must be taken if the planet is to reach such an equilibrium, which is essential to the survival of all: 1) a zero rate of population growth, although there may be variations between countries with some over and some under; 2) a zero rate of industrial output with overall new investment equal to overall rate of industrial depreciation; 3) a policy of recycling and conserving material resources; 4) an adequate budget of food, shelter, clothing, health services, and education for every human being (a budget which does not allow for autos and air conditioning); 5) a sharp decline in consumption of material goods in affluent societies with a corresponding shift to more services and an increase in material goods for low energy societies

  7. Water supply of Rome in antiquity and today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bono, P.; Boni, C.

    1996-03-01

    In ancient Rome, water was considered a deity to be worshipped and most of all utilized in health and art. The availability of huge water supplies was considered a symbol of opulence and therefore an expression of power. The countryside around Rome offered a spectacular view: it was adorned with an incalculable number of monuments, temples, and villas, and it was crossed by sturdy aqueducts with magnificent arcades. The aqueduct as a superelevated monumental work is a typical concept of the Roman engineering, although it is possible to recognize that the inspiration and the basic ideas came from Etruscan technology. The Etruscans did not construct real aqueducts, even though they built hydraulic works as irrigation channels, drainage systems, dams, etc. The Greeks had also built similar hydraulic structures, before the Roman influence. Interesting aqueduct remains are in Rome, Segovia (Spain), Nimes (France), and Cologne (Germany), among other places.

  8. A new database of cloudiness for Italy from instrumental time series since the late 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manara, Veronica; Brunetti, Michele; Maugeri, Maurizio; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2015-04-01

    Italy has a very important role in the development of meteorological observations. Consequently, a heritage of data of enormous value has been accumulated in Italy over the last three centuries. However, only a small fraction of Italian data is available in computer readable form and the available records mainly concern temperature, precipitation and pressure. Within this context, we set up a project to recover as much as possible cloudiness Italian records. The goal is to consider total cloud cover (TCC), low and middle cloud cover, and cloud types. The data source we are using include the former national central office for meteorology (now CRA-CMA), the national air force meteorological and climatological service and some of the oldest Italian observatories as Milan, Rome, Turin and Venice. The database contains sub-daily (from 3 to 8 observations per day for each station) information about TCC but also about the amount and the type of low, middle and high cloud in the sky. The oldest records start at about 1858 and about 30 records start in the 1880s. Currently quality check and test for temporal homogeneity is in progress. Then the monthly records will be completed by means of the neighboring records and averaged in order to get national and regional records for Italy and its main climatic areas. This new dataset will be presented and the results of the first analyses will be discussed. The study of cloudiness records for Italy is important also to better understand the behavior of sunshine duration, which shows a rather peculiar behaviour, especially in northern Italy. In this area, in fact, we observe a statistically significant increasing tendency during the period 1936-2103, that most publications do not report, as a consequence of a strong increase starting from the 1980 and a less evident decrease in the previous period.

  9. Report on the International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology (Rome, 12–14 March 2014)

    PubMed Central

    Ewer, Michael; Gianni, Luca; Pane, Fabrizio; Sandri, Maria Teresa; Steiner, Rudolf K; Wojnowski, Leszek; Yeh, Edward T; Carver, Joseph R; Lipshultz, Steven E; Minotti, Giorgio; Armstrong, Gregory T; Cardinale, Daniela; Colan, Steven D; Darby, Sarah C; Force, Thomas L; Kremer, Leontien CM; Lenihan, Daniel J; Sallan, Stephen E; Sawyer, Douglas B; Suter, Thomas M; Swain, Sandra M; van Leeuwen, Flora E

    2014-01-01

    Cardio-oncology is a relatively new discipline that focuses on the cardiovascular sequelae of anti-tumour drugs. As any other young adolescent discipline, cardio-oncology struggles to define its scientific boundaries and to identify best standards of care for cancer patients or survivors at risk of cardiovascular events. The International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology was held in Rome, Italy, 12–14 March 2014, with the aim of illuminating controversial issues and unmet needs in modern cardio-oncology. This colloquium embraced contributions from different kind of disciplines (oncology and cardiology but also paediatrics, geriatrics, genetics, and translational research); in fact, cardio-oncology goes way beyond the merging of cardiology with oncology. Moreover, the colloquium programme did not review cardiovascular toxicity from one drug or the other, rather it looked at patients as we see them in their fight against cancer and eventually returning to everyday life. This represents the melting pot in which anti-cancer therapies, genetic backgrounds, and risk factors conspire in producing cardiovascular sequelae, and this calls for screening programmes and well-designed platforms of collaboration between one key professional figure and another. The International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology was promoted by the Menarini International Foundation and co-chaired by Giorgio Minotti (Rome), Joseph R Carver (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States), and Steven E Lipshultz (Detroit, Michigan, United States). The programme was split into five sessions of broad investigational and clinical relevance (what is cardiotoxicity?, cardiotoxicity in children, adolescents, and young adults, cardiotoxicity in adults, cardiotoxicity in special populations, and the future of cardio-oncology). Here, the colloquium chairs and all the session chairs briefly summarised what was said at the colloquium. Topics and controversies were reported on behalf of all members of the working group

  10. Making Meaning of Everyday Practices: Parents' Attitudes toward Children's Extracurricular Activities in the United States and in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremer-Sadlik, Tamar; Izquierdo, Carolina; Fatigante, Marilena

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on children's engagement in extracurricular activities from the perspective of middle-class parents in Rome, Italy, and Los Angeles, California. Analysis of parents' accounts captured in interviews and ethnographic fieldwork reveals that both sets of parents perceive activities as important for children's success. Yet Roman…

  11. GeoguideRome, urban geotourism offer powered by mobile application technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pica, Alessia; Grangier, Lucien; Reynard, Emmanuel; Kaiser, Christian; Del Monte, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Geoheritage studies have been highly intensified and diversified in recent years. This field of research has a strong applicability, especially in interdisciplinary and sustainable forms of tourism. For this purpose the most modern technologies are used for supporting the dissemination of research results, in particular for educational purposes (Kenteris et al., 2011 and references therein). This is the case of smartphone and tablet applications developed by the Institute of Geography and Sustainability of Lausanne University (IGD), devoted to geotourist itineraries. This work presents the application developed for the city of Rome, based on the itinerary proposed by the Earth Sciences Department of the Sapienza University (Del Monte et al., 2013; Pica et al., 2015). The Aeterna Urbs, with more than 3000 years of historical development, is a very good place to develop urban geotourism, especially because most of the cultural places are related to morphological features (Pica et al., 2015). As shown by the Geoguide Lausanne (Reynard et al., 2015) - a virtual itinerary showing the relationships between geology/geomorphology, climate/hydrology, and urban development in Lausanne (Switzerland) - and TOURinSTONES - a virtual guide on the rocks used for the construction of urban monuments and infrastructures in the city of Turin (Italy) - the urban context has the advantage of easily showing the links between natural features and human activities. From a technical point of view the application is an updated version of Geoguide Lausanne using jQuery Mobile as development framework, which allowed for increasing the usability and solved some gaps of the previous versions. The contents are organized the same way as for the Geoguide Lausanne, proposing three educational themes, an itinerary arranged in georeferenced stops shown by images and described in their characterizing aspects. The themes are Geology, History and Legends. By means of the relationships between them they

  12. Ancient Rome: The Latin Teacher and Life in the Big City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramage, Edwin S.

    This paper attempts to answer the question of what life was really like in ancient Rome, with a view to using this kind of information as cultural background for teaching Latin language and literature. There were many problems associated with daily living in ancient Rome. Writings of some inhabitants of ancient Rome attest to the fact that these…

  13. Myth and Historical Facts about Rome and the Huns Leader Attila

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadyrova, Anar T.; Imangazinov, Muratbek M.; Kozhagulov, Saylauhan K.; Suleimenova, Gulmira S.; Amanzholova, Arailym A.

    2016-01-01

    The article reviewed the history of Rome and Attila, their influence on the political and social situation in Europe. The aim of the article is to study the origins of Rome, its crisis and destruction. It also considers the impact on the collapse of the Empire, the impact that Attila had on the destruction of Rome and the analysis of Attila as a…

  14. Living in Ancient Rome. Young Discovery Library Series: 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bombarde, Odile; Moatti, Claude

    Part of an international series of amply illustrated, colorful, small size books for children ages 5 to 10, this volume describes in text and illustrations various aspects of daily life in ancient Rome. The social life and customs of the people are depicted. How a Roman citizen spent an average day, the dress, food, entertainment, what kind of…

  15. Classical Civilization (Greece-Hellenistic-Rome). Teacher's Manual. 1968 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.; Smith, Rozella B.

    This secondary teachers guide builds upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 173, and consists of three sections on the classical civilizations--Greek, Hellenistic, and Rome. Major emphasis is upon students gaining an understanding of cultural development and transmission. Using an analytic method, students learn to examine primary…

  16. The Advance on Rome of the Fifth Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    across the TIMER River northwest of ROME, was won in the incredible space of four days, giving the badly-mauled enemy no opportunity to lick his...mine sweepers that supplies might be brought into ports and that the Navy ., bull- dogs might lend their fire power to assist our ground forces. MD

  17. Active Tuberculosis Case Finding Interventions Among Immigrants, Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Schepisi, Monica Sañé; Gualano, Gina; Piselli, Pierluca; Mazza, Marta; D’Angelo, Donatella; Fasciani, Francesca; Barbieri, Alberto; Rocca, Giorgia; Gnolfo, Filippo; Olivani, Piefranco; Ferrarese, Maurizio; Codecasa, Luigi Ruffo; Palmieri, Fabrizio; Girardi, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    In Italy tuberculosis (TB) is largely concentrated in vulnerable groups such as migrants and in urban settings. We analyzed three TB case finding interventions conducted at primary centers and mobile clinics for regular/irregular immigrants and refugees/asylum seekers performed over a four-year period (November 2009-March 2014) at five different sites in Rome and one site in Milan, Italy. TB history and presence of symptoms suggestive of active TB were investigated by verbal screening through a structured questionnaire in migrants presenting for any medical condition to out-patient and mobile clinics. Individuals reporting TB history or symptoms were referred to a TB clinic for diagnostic workup. Among 6347 migrants enrolled, 891 (14.0%) reported TB history or symptoms suggestive of active TB and 546 (61.3%) were referred to the TB clinic. Of them, 254 (46.5%) did not present for diagnostic evaluation. TB was diagnosed in 11 individuals representing 0.17% of those screened and 3.76% of those evaluated. The overall yield of this intervention was in the range reported for other TB screening programs for migrants, although we recorded an unsatisfactory adherence to diagnostic workup. Possible advantages of this intervention include low cost and reduced burden of medical procedures for the screened population. PMID:27403270

  18. The discontinuity in scientific psychology at the University of Rome, 1907-1947: From general psychology to psychotechnics.

    PubMed

    Morgese, Giorgia; Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro; Albani, Alessandra

    2016-11-01

    This article examines the areas of research conducted at the Laboratory of Experimental Psychology of the University of Rome from 1907 to 1947, directed first by Sante De Sanctis (1862-1935), and then, from 1931 on, by Mario Ponzo (1882-1960). The method used to distinguish the topics and areas of research that characterized the Roman School during this period is the textual analysis of the titles of the journal in which studies completed at the laboratory were published, namely, Contributi del Laboratorio di Psicologia sperimentale [Psychological Contributions of the Laboratory of Experimental Psychology]. This empirical analysis, which complements and supports the historiographical interpretation, demonstrates the disciplines that emerged under a system managed by the directors over 2 periods of time in the pursuit of scientific psychology in Rome and in Italy. This analysis highlights the process of adjustment from a traditional, general approach to a more theoretical-technical application. This article is a new contribution to the Italian debate on the periodization of the "crisis" in Italian psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Coin hoards speak of population declines in Ancient Rome.

    PubMed

    Turchin, Peter; Scheidel, Walter

    2009-10-13

    In times of violence, people tend to hide their valuables, which are later recovered unless the owners had been killed or driven away. Thus, the temporal distribution of unrecovered coin hoards is an excellent proxy for the intensity of internal warfare. We use this relationship to resolve a long-standing controversy in Roman history. Depending on who was counted in the early Imperial censuses (adult males or the entire citizenry including women and minors), the Roman citizen population of Italy either declined, or more than doubled, during the first century BCE. This period was characterized by a series of civil wars, and historical evidence indicates that high levels of sociopolitical instability are associated with demographic contractions. We fitted a simple model quantifying the effect of instability (proxied by hoard frequency) on population dynamics to the data before 100 BCE. The model predicts declining population after 100 BCE. This suggests that the vigorous growth scenario is highly implausible.

  20. Coin hoards speak of population declines in Ancient Rome

    PubMed Central

    Turchin, Peter; Scheidel, Walter

    2009-01-01

    In times of violence, people tend to hide their valuables, which are later recovered unless the owners had been killed or driven away. Thus, the temporal distribution of unrecovered coin hoards is an excellent proxy for the intensity of internal warfare. We use this relationship to resolve a long-standing controversy in Roman history. Depending on who was counted in the early Imperial censuses (adult males or the entire citizenry including women and minors), the Roman citizen population of Italy either declined, or more than doubled, during the first century BCE. This period was characterized by a series of civil wars, and historical evidence indicates that high levels of sociopolitical instability are associated with demographic contractions. We fitted a simple model quantifying the effect of instability (proxied by hoard frequency) on population dynamics to the data before 100 BCE. The model predicts declining population after 100 BCE. This suggests that the vigorous growth scenario is highly implausible. PMID:19805043

  1. Securitarian healing: Roma mobility and health care in Rome.

    PubMed

    Alunni, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, Roma populations in Europe have been the object of strict securitarian policies. The Rome case is particularly interesting due to the continued shift from securitarian to humanitarian discourses and actions led by local institutions. The specific health care system implemented in the legal and illegal Roma camps was one of the tools used. The ethnographic fieldwork behind this article involved following the daily activities of a mobile medical unit dedicated to Roma camps in Rome and monitoring a health care project led by a nongovernmental organization. This analysis focuses on one particular dimension of precarious forms of Roma citizenship that the health care policies have developed to address Roma issues: the international mobility dynamics relating to health issues, which drive subjects into a forced integration of multiple, incomplete, and fragmentary medical approaches.

  2. A subject with abnormally short stature from Imperial Rome.

    PubMed

    Ottini, L; Minozzi, S; Pantano, W B; Maucci, C; Gazzaniga, V; Angeletti, L R; Catalano, P; Mariani-Costantini, R

    2001-01-01

    In spite of the rich iconographic and literary documentation from ancient sources, the skeletal evidence concerning individuals of abnormally short stature in the Greco-Roman world is scarce. The necropolis of Viale della Serenissima/Via Basiliano in Rome, mostly referable to the II century AD, recently yielded the skeleton of an individual characterized by proportionate short stature, gracile features suggesting female gender, and delayed epiphysial closure, associated with full maturation of the permanent dentition. These characteristics could be compatible with the phenotype associated with female gonadal dysgenesis. The skeletal individual described here, although poorly preserved, represents the first evidence of a paleopathologic condition affecting skeletal growth documented for the population of ancient Rome.

  3. Medical competence, anatomy and the polity in seventeenth-century Rome

    PubMed Central

    De Renzi, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    At the centre of this article are two physicians active in Rome between 1600 and 1630 who combined medical practice with broader involvement in the dynamic cultural, economic and political scene of the centre of the Catholic world. The city's distinctive and very influential social landscape magnified issues of career-building and allows us to recapture physicians’ different strategies of self-fashioning at a time of major social and religious reorganization. At one level, reconstructing Johannes Faber and Giulio Mancini's medical education, arrival in Rome and overlapping but different career trajectories contributes to research on physicians’ identity in early modern Italian states. Most remarkable are their access to different segments of Roman society, including a dynamic art market, and their diplomatic and political role, claimed as well as real. But following these physicians from hospitals to courts, including that of the Pope, and from tribunals to the university and analysing the wide range of their writing – from medico-legal consilia to political essays and reports of anatomical investigations – also enriches our view of medical practice, which included, but went beyond, the bedside. Furthermore, their activities demand that we reassess the complex place of anatomical investigations in a courtly society, and start recovering the fundamental role played by hospitals – those quintessential Catholic institutions – as sites of routine dissections for both medical teaching and research. (pp. 551–567) PMID:21949463

  4. Childbirth in ancient Rome: from traditional folklore to obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Todman, Donald

    2007-04-01

    In ancient Rome, childbirth was a hazardous event for both mother and child with high rates of infant and maternal mortality. Traditional Roman medicine centred on folklore and religious practices, but with the development of Hippocratic medicine came significant advances in the care of women during pregnancy and confinement. Midwives or obstetrices played an important role and applied rational scientific practices to improve outcomes. This evolution from folklore to obstetrics was a pivotal point in the history of childbirth.

  5. The Rome trough and evolution of the Iapetean margin

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.; Hamilton-Smith, T.; Drahovzal, J.A. )

    1991-08-01

    Recent structural mapping of the Rome trough suggests a complex structure very different from the symmetrical and laterally continuous graben commonly depicted. Early and Middle Cambrian extension in the Rome trough of eastern Kentucky and adjacent areas resulted in a series of alternately facing half-grabens with variable displacement. These half-grabens are bounded by southwest-northeast-trending normal faults (e.g., Kentucky River and Warfield faults), which are laterally continuous only on the order to tens of kilometers. The Rome trough is laterally segmented by north-south-trending faults (e.g., Lexington fault) commonly expressed as flexures in younger rocks (e.g., Burning Springs anticline and Floyd County channel). Many of these north-south-trending faults have significant left-lateral displacement, and probably represent reactivated thrust faults of the Grenville tectonic front. The Rome trough and the associated Mississippi Valley, Rough Creek, and Birmingham fault systems were initiated during an Early Cambrian shift in sea-floor spreading from the Blue Ridge-Pine Mountain rift to the Ouachita rift along the Alabama-Oklahoma transform fault. These fault systems have been proposed as having originated from extensional stress propagated northward from the Ouachita rift across the transform fault. In the alternate model proposed here, faulting was brittle, extensional failure resulting form subsidence and flexure of the continental margin to the east. Following initiation of sea-floor spreading at the Blue Ridge-Pine Mountain rift in the latest Proterozoic, margin subsidence in the presence of the Alabama-Oklahoma transform boundary and the inherited Grenville tectonic front resulted in this interior cratonic fault system.

  6. Venice, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast Italy. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading Italy at that time.

    This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne

  7. Analysis of the data recorded by the Mont Blanc neutrino detector and by the Maryland and Rome gravitational-wave detectors during SN 1987 A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglietta, M.; Badino, G.; Bologna, G.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellina, A.

    1989-02-01

    The paper presents data recorded by the neutrino detector on Mont Blanc and by gravitational wave detectors in Maryland and Rome. The data were obtained over a period of several days and include the occurrence of the Mont Blanc five-neutrino burst. A correlation is found during a period of about two hours roughly centered on the five-neutrino burst, independently between Maryland and Mont Blanc and Rome and Mont Blanc. The probability that these two correlations are due to chance is of the order of between 10 to the -6th and 10 to the -5th.

  8. Italy’s All-Volunteer Army: An Analytical Framework for Understanding the Key Policy Issues and Choices During the Transition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    contribution (importo aggiuntivo pensionabile mensile, or IAPM), and an operational allowance (indennita’ impiego operativo , or 110) .62 Basic pay...1483-ARPA, 1974. Nones, Michele, L’efficienza del Sistema Difesa, Rome, Italy: Documenti IAI, 1996. O’Keefe, Mary, W. Kip Viscusi, and Richard J

  9. Adolescents' attitudes to abortion in samples from Italy and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Agostino, M B; Wahlberg, V

    1991-01-01

    Both Italy and Sweden have legislated abortion without grounds since the 1970s but background conditions in the two countries are bipolar. The overall purpose of the present study was to investigate a sample of adolescents from Italy and Sweden regarding their attitudes towards abortion and their knowledge of family planning and to compare the results from the two countries. A questionnaire was distributed among 400 adolescents, 177 from Stockholm, Sweden and 223 from Rome and Locri, Italy. Whereas Sweden is a relatively homogeneous country. Italy has large regional differences regarding social and other aspects. For this reason two regions of Italy were studied separately. The participants were all secondary school students. The results indicated that nearly all adolescents in both countries were concerned about abortion and its consequences, although their concern was expressed differently, in accordance with their religious and cultural norms and also with their background in sexual education. The present study raises questions concerning the knowledge level as an outcome of sex education programs. In fact comparing the answers between the Italian and the Swedish samples no particular difference, in favour of the Swedish adolescents was noticed.

  10. [Medical museology the exhibition: The history of Rome medical faculty through images and documents].

    PubMed

    Serarcangeli, Carla

    2004-01-01

    The Museum and Library of History of Medicine celebrated the 700th anniversary of the foundation of the University of Rome "La Sapienza" with an exhibition of images and documents recalling the history of the medical faculty. Dissecting tools and surgical instruments testify to the long history of anatomical and surgical studies and to the great worth of the teachers at Rome University. Documents, archival papers, books and pictures document the historical inheritance of the Medical School in Rome.

  11. European Seismic Risk Model Covering Italy, Switzerland, Austria, Germany and Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C.; Nyst, M.; Onur, T.; Seneviratna, P.; Baca, A.; Sorby, A.

    2006-12-01

    A seismic risk model for Europe has been developed to assisted insurers and reinsurers in assessing their financial risk posed by earthquakes. This model was covers Italy and several countries in central Europe including Switzerland, Austria, Germany and Belgium. This presentation summarizes the methodology and data within the model and includes a discussion of the key results from the hazard and risk perspectives. The earthquake, risk-model framework has four components. First, the stochastic event set is determined, as well as its associated event probabilities. A ground-motion model including geotechnical data is added to complete the seismic hazard model. To determine risk, regional building vulnerability curves and a financial model are incorporated. An insurer property exposure database was developed to determine the insured seismic risk in these countries. Using this model, examination of resulting hazard maps (200, 475, 1000 and 2500 years) and of city-level, hazard-curves gives insight to the key drivers of risk across the region. Hazard de-aggregation allow for examination of key drivers of risk in terms of seismic sources, event magnitude and events types. Examination of loss costs for residential and commercial (short and mid-rise) structures gives insight into the risk perspective for these various lines of business. Finally, incorporation of the insurer property exposure allows for an examination of the insured risk across the region and between exposure concentrations including Rome, Zurich, Munich, Vienna and Brussels.

  12. The fabbrica della penicillina in postwar Italy: an institutionalist approach.

    PubMed

    Taroni, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the motives and long-term effects of the momentous decision to build a world-class biomedical research laboratory, the International Center for Chemical Microbiology, at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità in Rome, rather than develop domestic production of penicillin to meet the needs of a destitute postwar Italy. An institutionalist approach will provide a richer vision of the intersections of scientific and national political history in postwar Italy and the Cold War. The Center failed in its modernising mission due to an insular mentality producing an 'enclosure effect' against the State, the healthcare system and the pharmaceutical industry. The absence of a scientific base together with an economic policy of 'liberal protectionism' that placed premiums on import tariffs and the licensing of foreign products explains the path dependency of the pharmaceutical industry during the postwar years and its demise in the 1960s.

  13. Flood risk changes over centuries in Rome: an empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Saccà, Smeralda; Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Crisci, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    Over centuries, the development of the historical city of Rome -close to one of the largest Italian rivers, the Tiber- has been intertwined with the magnitude and frequency of flooding events. The ancient Rome mostly developed on the (seven) hills, while the Tiber's floodplain was mainly exploited for agricultural purposes. A few small communities did settle in the riparian areas of the Tiber, but they had a relatively peaceful relationships with the frequent occurrence of flooding events. Nowadays, numerous people live in modern districts in the Tiber's floodplain, unaware of their exposure to potentially catastrophic flooding. The main goal of this research is to explore the dynamics of changing flood risk over the centuries between these two extreme pictures of the ancient and contemporary Rome. To this end, we carried out a socio-hydrological study by exploiting long time series of physical (flooding, river morphology) and social (urbanization, population dynamics) processes together with information about human interactions with the environment (flood defense structures). This empirical analysis showed how human and physical systems have been co-evolving over time, while being abruptly altered by the occurrence of extreme events. For instance, a large flooding event occurred in 1870 and contributed to the constructions of levees, which in turn facilitated the development of new urban areas in the Tiber's floodplain, while changed the societal memory of floods as well as the communities' perception of risk. This research work was also used to test the hypotheses of recent-developed models conceptualizing the interplay between floods and societies and simulating the long-term behavior of coupled human-water systems. The outcomes of this test provided interesting insights about the dynamics of flood risk, which are expected to support a better anticipation of future changes.

  14. Rock-fall hazard in the Etruscan archaeological site of Norchia (Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele; Argento, Alessia; Russo, Alfonsina

    2016-04-01

    The ancient Etruscan town of Norchia (Central Italy, 80 km North of Rome) is situated on a long volcanic plateau surrounded by steep slopes, at the confluence of rivers Pile and Acqua Alta into the river Biedano. It has been constructed along the ancient Via Clodia, a short-range route intended for commercial traffic between Rome and the colonies in Etruscan lands. The flourishing of the town, evidenced by the beautiful necropolis, is placed between the end of the fourth and half of the second century BC. With its necropolis Norchia is the most significant example of funerary architecture rock Hellenistic period (IV-II century BC.). Its rock-cut tombs, are among the most important archaeological sites of Etruscan civilisation. They are an important and rare example of rock architecture and one of the few preserved in Italy. Also, the necropolis, with an extension of more than 100 hectares, is composed of rock-cut tombs of various types (façade, half-cube, false-cube and temple type) and dimensions (4-10 m in height), exhibiting a remarkable similarity with Asian tombs. From geological point of view, the area is exhibiting the overly of rigid volcanic products from both Vico and Volsini volcanic apparatus; as a bedrock, a plastic clay formation is positioned. The rock-cut tombs were excavated on two main volcanic levels, following the natural profile of tuff outcrops. The tombs located in the upper part of the necropolis have been excavated in a Red Tuff from Vico volcanic district, while those in lower level are dug in a grey tuff (Nenfro) from Vulsini volcanic apparatus. Recent investigations revealed the presence of many threats affecting the conservation of the site, that are including: surface rock weathering, water percolation and infiltration, surface vegetation and biological colonisation, instability and collapse of the cliff. The purpose of this study is mainly focused to verify whether the geological, geomorphological and geomechanical processes that

  15. [Were there infection disease specialists in Ancient Rome?].

    PubMed

    Ledermann D, Walter

    2010-04-01

    The existence of infectious diseases specialists in Ancient Rome is unlikely, but there were at least three authors able of keen observations on infectious matters, with enough merit to be considered our predecessors: Varro, Columella and Vitruvius, none of them physicians. Varro, in his first Book on Agriculture recommended, "Build the houses distant from swamps, because certain minute creatures are bred which cannot be followed with the eyes but which float in the air and enter the body through the mouth and nose, giving rise to severe diseases". Also in a text of agriculture and in the same sense, Columella says "that with heat a swamp releases a pestilential vapor and produces a very dense swarm of insects, which come flying over us armed with harmful stings Vitruvius, the great architect was worried about drinkable water: its sources and properties, how to obtain it and the methods for testing its quality. The concern on its distribution and disposal of sewage started on 614 B.C., little after the foundation of Rome, with the building of the first aqueduct, the Aqua Marcia. This aqueduct in Trajan's times (century II A.D.), reached a total of 443 km, with 49,500 meters of arcades, which were up to 32 meters high, plus 2.4 km of an underground net. This system released 947,200 m(3) of water per day, two thirds of which were for public use and one third for private customers.

  16. Thermal Conductivity of Pyroclastic Soil ( Pozzolana) from the Environs of Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCombie, M. L.; Tarnawski, V. R.; Bovesecchi, G.; Coppa, P.; Leong, W. H.

    2017-02-01

    The paper reveals the experimental procedure and thermo-physical characteristics of a coarse pyroclastic soil ( Pozzolana), from the neighborhoods of Rome, Italy. The tested samples are comprised of 70.7 % sand, 25.9 % silt, and 3.4 % clay. Their mineral composition contained 38 % pyroxene, 33 % analcime, 20 % leucite, 6 % illite/muscovite, 3 % magnetite, and no quartz content was noted. The effective thermal conductivity of minerals was assessed to be about 2.14 W{\\cdot } m^{-1}{\\cdot } K^{-1}. A transient thermal probe method was applied to measure the thermal conductivity (λ ) over a full range of the degree of saturation (Sr), at two porosities ( n) of 0.44 and 0.50, and at room temperature of about 25°C. The λ data obtained were consistent between tests and showed an increasing trend with increasing Sr and decreasing n. At full saturation (Sr=1), a nearly quintuple λ increase was observed with respect to full dryness (Sr=0). In general, the measured data closely followed the natural trend of λ versus Sr exhibited by published data at room temperature for other unsaturated soils and sands. The measured λ data had an average root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 0.007 W{\\cdot } m^{-1}{\\cdot } K^{-1} and 0.008 W{\\cdot } m^{-1}{\\cdot } K^{-1} for n of 0.50 and 0.44, respectively, as well as an average relative standard deviation of the mean at the 95 % confidence level (RSDM_{0.95}) of 2.21 % and 2.72 % for n of 0.50 and 0.44, respectively.

  17. An overview of recent charged-particle radiation biology in Italy.

    PubMed

    Belli, M

    2001-01-01

    Radiobiology with charged particles is being carried out in Italy since several decades, starting with the experiments with protons in Milan. Later, also other groups entered the field, such as those in Naples, in Legnaro (LNL) and in Rome. In the last 10-15 years the activities in the field began to grow in a significant way. This happened in concomitance with the involvement of various researchers and Institutions in European and international projects devoted to radiation protection aspects, such as those aimed at elucidating and modelling radiation action mechanisms (EC/EU) and those aimed at radiation protection in space (NASA). A special role has been played since then by the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro of the INFN, where a radiobiology facility for low energy light ions was set up and operated in 1985. A formidable stimulus for charged-particle radiobiology was more recently given by the onset of plans for developing hadrontherapy Centres in Italy. The TERA Foundation first, and than the TOP Project at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità, at the same time favoured the spreading in Italy of radiobiology research with charged particles and encouraged co-operation among various groups. The Italian radiobiology community, though relatively small, developed a number of valuable activities with charged particles, mostly at the cellular and molecular levels, that span from mechanisms of radiation action to radiation protection in space and to therapy with charged hadrons. In this article, due to space limitations, we have just been able to list the present activities and to briefly review some research that forms a common background for the various areas. This includes the work on Chinese hamster V79 cells irradiated with light ions at LNL, that provided extensive data on the relationships between radiation quality, molecular damage and cellular effects, and the related work aimed at possible interpretation by mechanistic models. It appears that the multiplicity

  18. Measurements of lower carbonyls in Rome ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Possanzini, M.; Di Palo, V.; Petricca, M.; Fratarcangeli, R.; Brocco, D.

    Ambient levels and diurnal profiles of lower carbonyls were measured in Rome during selected days of summer 1994 and winter 1995. The most abundant carbonyls were formaldehyde (up to 27 ppb) followed by ethanal (< 17 ppb) and acetone (< 9 ppb). Gas-phase concentrations of other seven carbonyls were in the 0-3 ppb range. The results were discussed with respect to direct emissions and photochemical production. Using carbonyl/CO concentration ratios mobil source emissions of carbonyls were estimated for the urban area. The secondary production of C 1-C 3 aldehydes from reactions of alkenes with O 3 and OH radicals during the early morning hours of summer days was also calculated. The daytime pattern of carbonyls was found to be similar to that of toluene in wintertime and close to that of ozone in summer periods conductive to photochemical pollution episodes.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella isolates from hospitals in Rome.

    PubMed Central

    Falbo, V.; Caprioli, A.; Mondello, F.; Cacace, M. L.; Luzi, S.; Greco, D.

    1982-01-01

    The susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of 569 salmonella isolated collected in 1977-8 from patients in hospitals in Rome was tested. Fifty-nine per cent of all isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobials. Resistance was most common to sulphathiazole, tetracycline, streptomycin, whereas colistin, gentamicin, tobramycin, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and nalidixic acid were the most active in vitro. Multiple resistance was most frequently found in strains of Salmonella wien and S. typhimurium (94% and 38% respectively). A significant change in the resistance pattern of S. wien was observed between 1977 and 1978, with a significant increase of susceptibility to some antimicrobials in 1978. Twenty-one R-plasmids transmissible to E. coli K12 were derived from 46 resistant strains of S. typhimurum. PMID:7061839

  20. Imported malaria at Italy's National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani, 1984-2003.

    PubMed

    Spinazzola, F; Nicastri, E; Vlassi, C; Ghirga, P; De Marco, M; Pittalis, S; Paglia, M G; Ferrari, C; Narciso, P

    2007-03-01

    Imported malaria is the most common cause of fatal infections in returning travellers. The increased amount of both tourist movement and migration has resulted in a growing number of people at risk of infection. In the present study, 507 malaria patients admitted to Italy's National Institute for Infectious Diseases in Rome between January 1984 and December 2003 were studied. Overall, 445 cases, or 87.7%, were acquired in Africa, of which 55% were acquired in five sub-Saharan countries. Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 393 (77.5%) of the imported cases. Patients consisted of short-term travellers (n = 213, 42%), long-term visitors (n = 134, 26.4%), and immigrants from endemic areas (n = 137, 27%). Malaria chemoprophylaxis was completed in less than one-quarter of all patients, with immigrants having the lowest rate of completion: only 3.6% of immigrants fully completed chemoprophylaxis compared to 31% of short-term travellers and 29.1% of long-term visitors (p < 0.001). Upon multivariate analysis, the lack of chemoprophylaxis was independently associated with the occurrence of severe malaria (p = 0.009). Severe malaria was reported in 59 (11.6%) individuals: all 11 deaths due to severe P. falciparum infection occurred in patients from sub-Saharan countries, two of whom were immigrants from countries where malaria is endemic. Malaria poses a serious health threat to individuals visiting endemic areas. Ensuring the correct chemoprophylaxis for all travellers, including immigrants from endemic areas, and providing prompt access to healthcare providers for unhealthy returning travellers are major points still to be addressed in Italy.

  1. Strange history: the fall of Rome explained in Hereditas.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Bengt O

    2014-12-01

    In 1921 Hereditas published an article on the fall of Rome written by the famous classical scholar Martin P:son Nilsson. Why was a paper on this unexpected topic printed in the newly founded journal? To Nilsson, the demise of the Roman Empire was explained by the "bastardization" occurring between "races" from different parts of the realm. Offspring from mixed couples were of a less stable "type" than their parents, due to the breaking up by recombination of the original hereditary dispositions, which led to a general loss of competence to rule and govern. Thus, the "hardness" of human genes, together with their recombination, was - according to Nilsson - the main cause of the fall of Rome. Nilsson's argument is not particularly convincingly presented. Human "races" are taken to have the same genetic structure as inbred crop strains, and Nilsson believes in a metaphysical unity between the individual and the race to which it belongs. However, in my view, Martin P:son Nilsson and his friend Herman Nilsson-Ehle had wider aims with the article than to explain a historical event. The article can be read as indicating strong support from the classical human sciences to the ambitious new science of genetics. Support is also transferred from genetics to the conservative worldview, where the immutability and inflexibility of the Mendelian genes are used to strengthen the wish for greater stability in politics and life. The strange article in Hereditas can, thus, be read as an early instance in the - still ongoing - tug-of-war between the conservative and the liberal ideological poles over how genetic results best are socially interpreted.

  2. [Physicians in ancient Rome--and the attitude towards them].

    PubMed

    Bröchmann, Petrine

    2005-01-01

    The paper attempts to trace and sketch very briefly the history, role and status of professional physicians in Rome from the 8th to the 3th century BC. The epigrafic sources are even at the best of times meagre and one has to draw heavily upon written sources, especially from the first century AD. A brief sketch of traditional Roman folkmedicine, traces of which still linger in later latin medical literature, and the strong traditions the Romans had of self-care, is given. The Roman public were generally suspicious of physicians, who worked for a fee, but the authorities welcomed the profession and allowed it to settle in Rome, as well as granted it certain privileges. The level of education differed enormously from one physician to the next, since anyone could profess to be a physician without training or proper skills. Thus the range goes from useless quacks to highly educated physicians. They had the right to form guilds like other craftsmen. Physicians were mainly either slaves or freedmen, but there are freeborn among them as well. They worked on all levels of society. Hospitals were built in the fortresses along the Roman borders and a description of the ones found in Vetera Castra in modern Germany is given. Literature spanning from the midfirst century BC to the end of first century AD reveals a growing resentment and an increasingly caustic tone towards physicians and their profession - the impression one gets is that these written attacks are caused by a mixture of cultural and social bias and resentment towards useless and dangerous physicians.

  3. Education and Mortality in the Rome Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Cacciani, Laura; Bargagli, Anna Maria; Cesaroni, Giulia; Forastiere, Francesco; Agabiti, Nera; Davoli, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Background A large body of evidence supports an inverse association between socioeconomic status and mortality. We analysed data from a large cohort of residents in Rome followed-up between 2001 and 2012 to assess the relationship between individual education and mortality. We distinguished five causes of death and investigated the role of age, gender, and birthplace. Methods From the Municipal Register we enrolled residents of Rome on October 21st 2001 and collected information on educational level attained from the 2001 Census. We selected Italian citizens aged 30–74 years and followed-up their vital status until 2012 (n = 1,283,767), identifying the cause of death from the Regional Mortality Registry. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for overall and cause-specific mortality in relation to education. We used age, gender, and birthplace for adjusted or stratified analyses. We used the inverse probability weighting approach to account for right censoring due to emigration. Results We observed an inverse association between education (none vs. post-secondary+ level) and overall mortality (HRs(95%CIs): 2.1(1.98–2.17), males; 1.5(1.46–1.59), females) varying according to demographic characteristics. Cause-specific analysis also indicated an inverse association with education, in particular for respiratory, digestive or circulatory system related-mortality, and the youngest people seemed to be more vulnerable to low education. Conclusion Our results confirm the inverse association between education and overall or cause-specific mortality and show differentials particularly marked among young people compared to the elderly. The findings provide further evidence from the Mediterranean area, and may contribute to national and cross-country comparisons in Europe to understand the mechanisms generating socioeconomic differentials especially during the current recession period. PMID:26376166

  4. Interaction of marine and fluvial clastic sedimentation, central Italy, Tyrrhenian coast

    SciTech Connect

    Evangelista, S.; Full, W.E.; Tortora, P.

    1989-03-01

    An integrated approach was used to study the interaction of fluvial, beach, and marine processes on sedimentation at the west-central coast of Italy along the Tyrrhenian Sea. The study area, 120 km northwest of Rome, is bounded on the north by Mt. Argentario, on the east by Pleistocene volcanics, on the south by the St. Augustine River, and on the west by the 50-mn bathymetric isopleth. The primary tools used included field work, textural analysis, high-resolution marine seismic, SEM, and Fourier shape analysis. Field work revealed incised streams, potentially relict beach ridges and lagoons, and relatively steep nearshore marine slopes in the northern portions of the study area. The result of the shape analysis performed on 56 samples was the definition of four end members. Each end member reflects a sedimentation process. Three end members were directly associated with fluvial sedimentation, and the fourth reflected marine processes. The seismic data along with the SEM analysis strongly supported the interpretation of four processes that dominate the recent sedimentation history. The sand interpreted to be associated with marine processes was found to represent the smoothest end member. SEM analysis suggests that the smoothing is not due to abrasion but to plastering associated with biologic processes (digestion.) and/or with silica precipitation associated with clay alteration at the freshwater/saltwater interface.

  5. Water resources of the Utica-Rome area, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halberg, Henry N.; Hunt, O.P.; Pauszek, F.H.

    1963-01-01

    The Utica-Rome area is along the Mohawk River and New York State Erie (Barge) Canal about midway between Lake Ontario and Albany. It encompasses about 390 square miles centered around the industrial cities of Utica and Rome. The Mohawk River, its tributary West Canada Creek, and a system of reservoirs and diversions to maintain the flow in the barge-canal system, assure an ample water supply for the foreseeable needs of the area. The water from these sources is generally of good chemical quality requiring little treatment, although that from the Mohawk River is only fair and may require some treatment for sensitive industrial processes. Additional surface water is available from smaller streams in the area, particularly Oriskany and Sauquoit Creeks, but the water from these sources is hard, and has a dissolved-solids content of more than 250 ppm (parts per million). Ground water is available in moderate quantities from unconsolidated sand and gravel deposits in the river valleys and buried bedrock channels, and in small quantities from bedrock formations and less permeable unconsolidated deposits. The quality of water from sand and gravel, and bedrock ranges from good to poor. However, where necessary, the quality can be improved with treatment. The Mohawk River is the source of the largest quantity of water in the area. The flow of the stream below Delta Dam equals or exceeds 108 mgd (million gallons per day) 90 percent of the time, and at Little Falls it equals or exceeds 560 mgd 90 percent of the time. The flow between these two points is increased by additions from Oriskany, Sauquoit, and West Canada Creeks and from many smaller tributary streams. The flow is also increased by diversions from outside the area, from the Black and Chenango Rivers and West Canada Creek for improvement of navigation in the Erie (Barge) Canal, and from West Canada and East Branch Fish Creeks for the public supplies of Utica and Rome. Much of the public-supply water eventually

  6. Operational setup of a diagnostic chain, implemented within the Proterina-C project, to include weather measures in the RISICO system for dynamic wildfire risk evaluation in Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessy, C.; Di Carlo, L.; Fois, G.; Fiorucci, P.; d'Andrea, M.; Trasforini, E.

    2012-04-01

    Within the Operational Project "PROTERINA-C" (a forecast and prevention system for climate change impacts on risk variability for wildlands and urban areas), co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) under the Italy-France Maritime Program, methods and strategies, already in use in the regions of Sardinia, Liguria and Corsica, for the predictions of wildlands fires have been developed and adapted; RISICO System, by CIMA Foundation which plays the role of technical and scientific support for the region of Liguria, used by the Italian National Civil Protection Department, is one of them. In such a prediction model of risk of wildlands fires it is arranged the integration, on a regional scale, of products related to the main meteorological, diagnostics and prognostics forcing measured by ground stations, weather radar and advanced limited area weather prediction models. With the aim to improve prediction of wildlands fires in Sardinia, an operational chain to insert in RISICO weather data provided in near-real time by the meteorological monitoring network has been designed and developed. In fact, the forecast errors can be reduced by conditioning the initial state of dynamic models of fuel moisture on the information obtained from sensors on land, at every time interval at which the fields of meteorological variables of interest are available. A dataset of wildlands fires occurred in Sardinia has been considered in order to valuate the system effectiveness; for these cases the developed setup has improved the fires risk assessment to respect a version of RISICO initialised only by a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model. In the present work the system setup, the configuration of the network of meteorological stations and some preliminary analysis results are argued.

  7. Use of WHONET-SaTScan system for simulated real-time detection of antimicrobial resistance clusters in a hospital in Italy, 2012 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Natale, Alessandra; Stelling, John; Meledandri, Marcello; Messenger, Louisa A; D'Ancona, Fortunato

    2017-01-01

    Resistant pathogens infections cause in healthcare settings, higher patient mortality, longer hospitalisation times and higher costs for treatments. Strengthening and coordinating local, national and international surveillance systems is the cornerstone for the control of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). In this study, the WHONET-SaTScan software was applied in a hospital in Italy to identify potential outbreaks of AMR. Data from San Filippo Neri Hospital in Rome between 2012 and 2014 were extracted from the national surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance (AR-ISS) and analysed using the simulated prospective analysis for real-time cluster detection included in the WHONET-SaTScan software. Results were compared with the hospital infection prevention and control system. The WHONET-SaTScan identified 71 statistically significant clusters, some involving pathogens carrying multiple resistance phenotypes. Of these 71, three were also detected by the hospital system, while a further 15, detected by WHONET-SaTScan only, were considered of relevant importance and worth further investigation by the hospital infection control team. In this study, the WHONET-SaTScan system was applied for the first time to the surveillance of AMR in Italy as a tool to strengthen this surveillance to allow more timely intervention strategies both at local and national level, using data regularly collected by the Italian national surveillance system. PMID:28333615

  8. Use of WHONET-SaTScan system for simulated real-time detection of antimicrobial resistance clusters in a hospital in Italy, 2012 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Natale, Alessandra; Stelling, John; Meledandri, Marcello; Messenger, Louisa A; D'Ancona, Fortunato

    2017-03-16

    Resistant pathogens infections cause in healthcare settings, higher patient mortality, longer hospitalisation times and higher costs for treatments. Strengthening and coordinating local, national and international surveillance systems is the cornerstone for the control of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). In this study, the WHONET-SaTScan software was applied in a hospital in Italy to identify potential outbreaks of AMR. Data from San Filippo Neri Hospital in Rome between 2012 and 2014 were extracted from the national surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance (AR-ISS) and analysed using the simulated prospective analysis for real-time cluster detection included in the WHONET-SaTScan software. Results were compared with the hospital infection prevention and control system. The WHONET-SaTScan identified 71 statistically significant clusters, some involving pathogens carrying multiple resistance phenotypes. Of these 71, three were also detected by the hospital system, while a further 15, detected by WHONET-SaTScan only, were considered of relevant importance and worth further investigation by the hospital infection control team. In this study, the WHONET-SaTScan system was applied for the first time to the surveillance of AMR in Italy as a tool to strengthen this surveillance to allow more timely intervention strategies both at local and national level, using data regularly collected by the Italian national surveillance system.

  9. The health of foreign workers in Italy.

    PubMed

    Capacci, Fabio; Carnevale, Francesco; Gazzano, Noel

    2005-01-01

    At the beginning of 2002, there were 1,600,000 foreign-born persons living in Italy; the majority from countries outside Europe. Those residing in the country for working purposes were 800,680. Italy's shift to a tertiary and service-oriented economy has considerably modified the working market, concentrating demand at two extremes: on one hand, a highly specialized workforce, and on the other, a totally unqualified, mobile, and flexible one, which includes most immigrants.

  10. Counseling in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remley, Theodore P.; Bacchini, Eugenio; Krieg, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The counseling profession in Italy is in an early stage of development. No university preparation programs exist, and counselors are not employed in schools. Counselors maintain private practices, work in agencies, and are employed by the government. Counselors receive their preparation in Italy from professional associations in programs that…

  11. [The scientific contributions by the Roman School of Hygiene on the microbiological quality of the surface waters of Rome and her County from 1890 to 2010. A systemic review].

    PubMed

    Palazzo, C; Montacutelli, R; Del Vecchio, R; Solimini, A G; Marinelli, L; Lombardi, A M; De Giusti, M; Fara, G M; Boccia, A

    2011-01-01

    Research on quality of surface waters has been performed also in Italy during the development of the large urban areas, and in Rome this has been the duty of the Istituto di Igiene of the Sapienza University since 1890. Using MedLine--and also traditional consultation for papers printed before 1968--we identified 100 articles printed in the period 1890-2010. Thirty of them met the inclusion criteria (to have been written by researchers belonging to the Rome universities and to contain microbiological informations about the surface waters of Rome). The majority of papers identified (46.6%) were produced during the years Sixties and Seventies of the 20th century, and 30% in the twenty years to follow (1980-1999). The most frequent microbiological descriptors were "Total coliforms" and "Streptococci". The waterbodies most investigated were the Tiber river and the coastal waters around Fiumicino, where the Tiber flows into the Tyrrhenian sea. The quality of surface waters has always been a central interest of the research performed by the Hygienists of the Roman School. The good quality of the past research and the renovated interest of International Organizations and of the European Union should encourage the public health researchers toward a strategic field of investigation which has strong interconnections with the protection of the individual and community health and also with the protection of the environment.

  12. Search for correlations between the University of Maryland and the University of Rome gravitational radiation antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrari, V.; Pizzella, G.; Lee, M.; Weber, J.

    1982-05-15

    Results are presented for analyses of the outputs of gravitational radiation antennas in Rome and in Maryland during July 1978. These data give evidence for an external background exciting both antennas.

  13. [Why perform history: Prosper Meniere (1799-1862) at the medical history of Rome].

    PubMed

    Gourevitch, D

    1999-01-01

    Scrutinizing the prefatory letters and the introductions of Meniere's studies on the medical history of ancient Rome, the author shows why the famous doctor of the Institution des sourds-muets was interested in history.

  14. Psychosurgery in Italy, 1936-39.

    PubMed

    Kotowicz, Zbigniew

    2008-12-01

    In 1936 Egas Moniz introduced a new method for treating mental illness--psychosurgery. This new procedure was taken up immediately in a number of countries, including Italy. In most countries its introduction was slow and the numbers of operations were in single figures, but in Italy the introduction was rapid and around a dozen neuropsychiatrists reported much higher numbers of operations performed. Also in Italy the first innovations to the technique, notably the transorbital variation, were introduced. Moreover, all these activities took place without any sign of the protest seen elsewhere. Conditions that allowed the acceptance of this risky procedure seemed to be a consequence of the way in which the professions of neurology and psychiatry had been merged in Italy.

  15. Indicators reflecting local and transboundary sources of PM2.5 and PMCOARSE in Rome - Impacts in air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2014-10-01

    The keystone of this paper was to calculate and interpret indicators reflecting sources and air quality impacts of PM2.5 and PMCOARSE (PM10-PM2.5) in Rome (Italy), focusing on potential exogenous influences. A backward atmospheric trajectory cluster analysis was implemented. The likelihood of daily PM10 exceedances was studied in conjunction with atmospheric patterns, whereas a Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) based on air mass residence time was deployed on a grid of a 0.5° × 0.5° resolution. Higher PM2.5 concentrations were associated with short/medium range airflows originated from Balkan Peninsula, whereas potential PMCOARSE sources were localized across the Mediterranean and coastal North Africa, due to dust and sea spray transportation. According to the outcome of a daily Pollution Index (PI), a slightly increased degradation of air quality is induced due to the additional quantity of exogenous PM but nevertheless, average levels of PI in all trajectory clusters belong in the low pollution category. Gaseous and particulate pollutants were also elaborated by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which produced 4 components: [Traffic], [photochemical], [residential] and [Secondary Coarse Aerosol], reflecting local sources of air pollution. PM2.5 levels were strongly associated with traffic, whereas PMCOARSE were produced autonomously by secondary sources.

  16. The Aggradational Successions of the Aniene River Valley in Rome: Age Constraints to Early Neanderthal Presence in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Ceruleo, Piero; Pandolfi, Luca; Petronio, Carmelo; Rolfo, Mario F.; Salari, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    We revise the chronostratigraphy of several sedimentary successions cropping out along a 5 km-long tract of the Aniene River Valley in Rome (Italy), which yielded six hominin remains previously attributed to proto- or archaic Neanderthal individuals, as well as a large number of lithic artefacts showing intermediate characteristics somewhere between the local Acheulean and Mousterian cultures. Through a method of correlation of aggradational successions with post-glacial sea-level rises, relying on a large set of published 40Ar/39Ar ages of interbedded volcanic deposits, we demonstrate that deposition of the sediments hosting the human remains spans the interval 295–220 ka. This is consistent with other well constrained ages for lithic industries recovered in England, displaying transitional features from Lower to Middle Paleolithic, suggesting the appearance of Mode 3 during the MIS 9-MIS 8 transition. Moreover, the six human bone fragments recovered in the Aniene Valley should be regarded as the most precisely dated and oldest hominin remains ascribable to Neanderthal-type individuals in Europe, discovered to date. The chronostratigraphic study presented here constitutes the groundwork for addressing re-analysis of these remains and of their associated lithic industries, in the light of their well-constrained chronological picture. PMID:28125602

  17. The Aggradational Successions of the Aniene River Valley in Rome: Age Constraints to Early Neanderthal Presence in Europe.

    PubMed

    Marra, Fabrizio; Ceruleo, Piero; Pandolfi, Luca; Petronio, Carmelo; Rolfo, Mario F; Salari, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    We revise the chronostratigraphy of several sedimentary successions cropping out along a 5 km-long tract of the Aniene River Valley in Rome (Italy), which yielded six hominin remains previously attributed to proto- or archaic Neanderthal individuals, as well as a large number of lithic artefacts showing intermediate characteristics somewhere between the local Acheulean and Mousterian cultures. Through a method of correlation of aggradational successions with post-glacial sea-level rises, relying on a large set of published 40Ar/39Ar ages of interbedded volcanic deposits, we demonstrate that deposition of the sediments hosting the human remains spans the interval 295-220 ka. This is consistent with other well constrained ages for lithic industries recovered in England, displaying transitional features from Lower to Middle Paleolithic, suggesting the appearance of Mode 3 during the MIS 9-MIS 8 transition. Moreover, the six human bone fragments recovered in the Aniene Valley should be regarded as the most precisely dated and oldest hominin remains ascribable to Neanderthal-type individuals in Europe, discovered to date. The chronostratigraphic study presented here constitutes the groundwork for addressing re-analysis of these remains and of their associated lithic industries, in the light of their well-constrained chronological picture.

  18. Recent Transmission Clustering of HIV-1 C and CRF17_BF Strains Characterized by NNRTI-Related Mutations among Newly Diagnosed Men in Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    Orchi, Nicoletta; Gori, Caterina; Bertoli, Ada; Forbici, Federica; Montella, Francesco; Pennica, Alfredo; De Carli, Gabriella; Giuliani, Massimo; Continenza, Fabio; Pinnetti, Carmela; Nicastri, Emanuele; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Girardi, Enrico; Andreoni, Massimo; Antinori, Andrea; Santoro, Maria Mercedes; Perno, Carlo Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased evidence of relevant HIV-1 epidemic transmission in European countries is being reported, with an increased circulation of non-B-subtypes. Here, we present two recent HIV-1 non-B transmission clusters characterized by NNRTI-related amino-acidic mutations among newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected men, living in Rome (Central-Italy). Methods Pol and V3 sequences were available at the time of diagnosis for all individuals. Maximum-Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic-trees with bootstrap and Bayesian-probability supports defined transmission-clusters. HIV-1 drug-resistance and V3-tropism were also evaluated. Results Among 534 new HIV-1 non-B cases, diagnosed from 2011 to 2014, in Central-Italy, 35 carried virus gathering in two distinct clusters, including 27 HIV-1 C and 8 CRF17_BF subtypes, respectively. Both clusters were centralized in Rome, and their origin was estimated to have been after 2007. All individuals within both clusters were males and 37.1% of them had been recently-infected. While C-cluster was entirely composed by Italian men-who-have-sex-with-men, with a median-age of 34 years (IQR:30–39), individuals in CRF17_BF-cluster were older, with a median-age of 51 years (IQR:48–59) and almost all reported sexual-contacts with men and women. All carried R5-tropic viruses, with evidence of atypical or resistance amino-acidic mutations related to NNRTI-drugs (K103Q in C-cluster, and K101E+E138K in CRF17_BF-cluster). Conclusions These two epidemiological clusters provided evidence of a strong and recent circulation of C and CRF17_BF strains in central Italy, characterized by NNRTI-related mutations among men engaging in high-risk behaviours. These findings underline the role of molecular epidemiology in identifying groups at increased risk of HIV-1 transmission, and in enhancing additional prevention efforts. PMID:26270824

  19. Analysis of the data recorded by the Mont Blanc neutrino detector andby the Maryland and Rome gravitational wave detectors during SN1987A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglietta, M.; Amaldi, E.; Badino, G.; Bassan, M.; Bologna, G.; Bonifazi, P.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellano, M. G.; Castellina, A.; Coccia, E.; Cosmelli, C.; Dadykin, V. L.; Frasca, S.; Fulgione, W.; Galeotti, P.; Gretz, D.; Kalchukov, F. F.; Malguin, A. S.; Modena, I.; Pallottino, G. V.; Pizzella, G.; Rapagnani, P.; Ricci, F.; Ryassny, V. G.; Ryazhskaya, O. G.; Saavedra, O.; Trinchero, G.; Vannaroni, G.; Vernetto, S.; Weber, J.; Wilmot, G.; Zatsepin, G. T.

    The data recorded by the gravitational wave and neutrino detectors have been analyzed over a period of 18h that includes the Mont Blanc 5ν burst occurrence time. A correlation is found during a period of about two hours roughly centered on the 5ν burst, independently between Maryland and Mont Blanc and Rome and Mont Blanc. The probability that these two correlations be due to chance is of the order of 3×10-6.

  20. Renaissance Neurosurgery: Italy's Iconic Contributions.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Anil; Khan, Imad Saeed; Apuzzo, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Various changes in the sociopolitical milieu of Italy led to the increasing tolerance of the study of cadavers in the late Middle Ages. The efforts of Mondino de Liuzzi (1276-1326) and Guido da Vigevano (1280-1349) led to an explosion of cadaver-centric studies in centers such as Bologna, Florence, and Padua during the Renaissance period. Legendary scientists from this era, including Leonardo Da Vinci, Andreas Vesalius, Bartolomeo Eustachio, and Costanzo Varolio, furthered the study of neuroanatomy. The various texts produced during this period not only helped increase the understanding of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology but also led to the formalization of medical education. With increased understanding came new techniques to address various neurosurgical problems from skull fractures to severed peripheral nerves. The present study aims to review the major developments in Italy during the vibrant Renaissance period that led to major progress in the field of neurosurgery.

  1. The application of SRF vs. RDF classification and specifications to the material flows of two mechanical-biological treatment plants of Rome: Comparison and implications.

    PubMed

    Di Lonardo, Maria Chiara; Franzese, Maurizio; Costa, Giulia; Gavasci, Renato; Lombardi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This work assessed the quality in terms of solid recovered fuel (SRF) definitions of the dry light flow (until now indicated as refuse derived fuel, RDF), heavy rejects and stabilisation rejects, produced by two mechanical biological treatment plants of Rome (Italy). SRF classification and specifications were evaluated first on the basis of RDF historical characterisation methods and data and then applying the sampling and analytical methods laid down by the recently issued SRF standards. The results showed that the dry light flow presented a worst SRF class in terms of net calorific value applying the new methods compared to that obtained from RDF historical data (4 instead of 3). This lead to incompliance with end of waste criteria established by Italian legislation for SRF use as co-fuel in cement kilns and power plants. Furthermore, the metal contents of the dry light flow obtained applying SRF current methods proved to be considerably higher (although still meeting SRF specifications) compared to those resulting from historical data retrieved with RDF standard methods. These differences were not related to a decrease in the quality of the dry light flow produced in the mechanical-biological treatment plants but rather to the different sampling procedures set by the former RDF and current SRF standards. In particular, the shredding of the sample before quartering established by the latter methods ensures that also the finest waste fractions, characterised by higher moisture and metal contents, are included in the sample to be analysed, therefore affecting the composition and net calorific value of the waste. As for the reject flows, on the basis of their SRF classification and specification parameters, it was found that combined with the dry light flow they may present similar if not the same class codes as the latter alone, thus indicating that these material flows could be also treated in combustion plants instead of landfilled. In conclusion, the

  2. A strong-motion network in Northern Italy (RAIS): data acquisition and processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augliera, Paolo; Ezio, D'alema; Simone, Marzorati; Marco, Massa

    2010-05-01

    The necessity of a dense network in Northern Italy started from the lack of available data after the occurrence of the 24th November 2004, Ml 5.2, Salò earthquake. Since 2006 many efforts have been made by the INGV (Italian National Institute for Geophysics and Volcanology), department of Milano-Pavia (hereinafter INGV MI-PV), to improve the strong-motion monitoring of the Northern Italy regions. At the end of 2007, the RAIS (Strong-Motion Network in Northern Italy) included 19 stations equipped with Kinemetrics Episensor FBA ES-T coupled with 5 20-bits Lennartz Mars88/MC and 14 24-bits Reftek 130-01 seismic recorders. In this step, we achieved the goal to reduce the average inter-distances between strong-motion stations, installed in the area under study, from about 40 km to 15 km. In this period the GSM-modem connection between the INGV MI-PV acquisition center and the remote stations was used. Starting to 2008, in order to assure real-time recordings, with the aim to integrate RAIS data in the calculation of the Italian ground-shaking maps, the main activity was devoted to update the data acquisition of the RAIS strong-motion network. Moreover a phase that will lead to replace the original recorders with 24-bits GAIA2 systems (directly produced by INGV-CNT laboratory, Rome) has been starting. Today 11 out of the 22 stations are already equipped by GAIA2 and their original GSM-modem acquisition system were already replaced with real-time connections, based on TCP/IP or Wi-Fi links. All real time stations storage data using the MiniSEED format. The management and data exchange are assured by the SEED-Link and Earthworm packages. The metadata dissemination is achieved through the website, where the computed strong motion parameters, together the amplification functions, for each recording station are available for each recorded events. The waveforms, for earthquake with local magnitude higher than 3.0 are now collected in the ITalian ACcelerometric Archive (http://itaca.mi.ingv.it).

  3. A Critical Bibliography of Materials on Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witzel, Anne; Chapman, Rosemary

    This ungraded, annotated bibliography includes books of history and society, literature and culture and a special section devoted to the southern part of Italy. Filmstrips, slides and films are listed in the audiovisual materials bibliography. Also included is a list of sources of books and audio-visual materials that are included in a multi-media…

  4. foF2 vs solar indices for the Rome station: Looking for the best general relation which is able to describe the anomalous minimum between cycles 23 and 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, L.; Pezzopane, M.

    2016-10-01

    Analyses of the dependence of the F2layer critical frequency, foF2, on five widely used solar activity indices (F10.7, Lym-α, MgII, R and EUV0.1-50)are carried out considering noon values manually validated at the ionospheric station of Rome (41.8°N, 12.5°E, Italy) between January 1976 and December 2013, a period of time covering the last three solar cycles and including the prolonged and anomalous minimum of solar cycle 23/24 (years 2008-2009). After applying a 1-year running mean to both foF2 and solar activity indices time series, a second order polynomial fitting proves to perform better than a linear one, and this is specifically due to the very low solar activity of the last solar minimum and to the remaining saturation effect characterizing the high solar activity. A comparison between observed and synthetic foF2 values, the latter calculated by using the analytical relations found for every index, and some considerations made on the R parameter introduced by Solomon et al. (2013), suggest that MgII is the best index to describe the dependence of foF2 on the solar activity. Three main reasons justify this result: (1) the good sensibility of MgII to the variations of foF2 for low solar activity; (2) the reduced saturation effect characterizing MgII at high solar activity; (3) the poor influence of the hysteresis effect characterizing MgII at medium solar activity. On the other hand, the F10.7 index, widely used as input parameter for numerous ionospheric models, does not represent properly the last minimum; specifically, it is not able to describe the variations of foF2 under a solar activity level of F10.7=82·10-22 [J Hz-1 s-1 m-2].

  5. a 3d GIS Method Applied to Cataloging and Restoring: the Case of Aurelian Walls at Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canciani, M.; Ceniccola, V.; Messi, M.; Saccone, M.; Zampilli, M.

    2013-07-01

    The project involves architecture, archaeology, restoration, graphic documentation and computer imaging. The objective is development of a method for documentation of an architectural feature, based on a three-dimensional model obtained through laser scanning technologies, linked to a database developed in GIS environment. The case study concerns a short section of Rome's Aurelian walls, including the Porta Latina. The city walls are Rome's largest single architectural monument, subject to continuous deterioration, modification and maintenance since their original construction beginning in 271 AD. The documentation system provides a flexible, precise and easily-applied instrument for recording the full appearance, materials, stratification palimpsest and conservation status, in order to identify restoration criteria and intervention priorities, and to monitor and control the use and conservation of the walls over time. The project began with an analysis and documentation campaign integrating direct, traditional recording methods with indirect, topographic instrument and 3D laser scanning recording. These recording systems permitted development of a geographic information system based on three-dimensional modelling of separate, individual elements, linked to a database and related to the various stratigraphic horizons, the construction techniques, the component materials and their state of degradation. The investigations of the extant wall fabric were further compared to historic documentation, from both graphic and descriptive sources. The resulting model constitutes the core of the GIS system for this specific monument. The methodology is notable for its low cost, precision, practicality and thoroughness, and can be applied to the entire Aurelian wall and to other monuments.

  6. Ancient Rome Worldwide Links: Sharing Knowledge to Preserve the Roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolini, P.; Allegrini Simonetti, F.; Forti, G.; Corrao, A.

    2013-07-01

    Following the collaboration agreement between the SAPIENZA, S.D.R.A. Department and the "Collectivité territoriale de Corse, secteur Archéologie", this project tried to set, accomplished on the archaeological site of the ancient roman city of Aléria, a complex program of selected dataset structured for many different uses and fruitions. As for any kind of survey, the initial project definition, described in this paper, constitutes the most delicate part of the work, in this instance a certain additional significance it has to be given to it, cause of the multiple interests focalized on the Aléria site, where a new digging season is expected after a sixty years long interruption. The process can be synthesized as follows: various surveying technologies were applied on the site, as 3D Laser scanning, Topography, and GPS; Dense Stereo Matching was accomplished on a sample object there excavated and actually exposed in the local Carcopino Museum, while Computational Photography techniques were realized on an object exposed in Rome in the Etruscan Museum of "Villa Giulia" as the other twin found and exposed in Aléria, to be a purpose for future collaborations. A GIS and WEBGIS workflow followed, using a specific application in its latest version, thus collecting all of the actual and previous documents, providing to build up a complete 3D geo-database with a space and time referenced 3D Web scene to share in the GIS online Cloud Platform. These applied procedures aim to spread the complex results, articulated in different sets on the social media world.

  7. Management of fractures of the humerus in Ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome: an historical review.

    PubMed

    Brorson, Stig

    2009-07-01

    Fractures of the humerus have challenged medical practitioners since the beginning of recorded medical history. In the earliest known surgical text, The Edwin Smith Papyrus (copied circa 1600 BC), three cases of humeral fractures were described. Reduction by traction followed by bandaging with linen was recommended. In Corpus Hippocraticum (circa 440-340 BC), the maneuver of reduction was fully described: bandages of linen soaked in cerate and oil were applied followed by splinting after a week. In The Alexandrian School of Medicine (third century BC), shoulder dislocations complicated with fractures of the humerus were mentioned and the author discussed whether the dislocation should be reduced before or after the fracture. Celsus (25 BC-AD 50) distinguished shaft fractures from proximal and distal humeral fractures. He described different fracture patterns, including transverse, oblique, and multifragmented fractures. In Late Antiquity, complications from powerful traction or tight bandaging were described by Paul of Aegina (circa AD 625-690). Illustrations from sixteenth and seventeenth century surgical texts are included to show the ancient methods of reduction and bandaging. The richness of written sources points toward a multifaceted approach to the diagnosis, reduction, and bandaging of humeral fracture in Ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome.

  8. Needs and Challenges of Daily Life for People with Down Syndrome Residing in the City of Rome, Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertoli, M.; Biasini, G.; Calignano, M. T.; Celani, G.; De Grossi, G.; Digilio, M. C.; Fermariello, C. C.; Loffredo, G.; Luchino, F.; Marchese, A.; Mazotti, S.; Menghi, B.; Razzano, C.; Tiano, C.; Zambon Hobart, A.; Zampino, G.; Zuccala, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Population-based surveys on the quality of life of people with Down syndrome (DS) are difficult to perform because of ethical and legal policies regarding privacy and confidential information, but they are essential for service planning. Little is known about the sample size and variability of quality of life of people with DS living…

  9. UNIV 83. A Student's Work. Proceedings of the International University Congress (15th, Rome, Italy, March 26-April 4, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooperation in Education: International Quarterly of the Institute for University Cooperation, 1983

    1983-01-01

    In this proceedings, attention is focused on career preparation and the relationship between general and specialized studies, as well as the link between theoretical knowledge and practical experience. The preparatory study for the congress was conducted in about 300 universities, primarily in Europe and America. Nearly 15,000 interviews were…

  10. Screening for microcytemia in Italy: analysis of data collected in the past 30 years.

    PubMed Central

    Silvestroni, E; Bianco, I

    1975-01-01

    Extensive population surveys begun in Italy in 1943 revealed a high incidence of mycrocytemia. Health authorities established a national organization to combat microcytemia which financed and directed activities throughout Italy from 1955 to 1971. The work performed by the microcytemia centers in screening and prophylaxis is described. The results of a screening program underway since 1967 involving 46,559 students of the University of Rome are presented in detail. A preliminary survey of 256 families revealed that the incidence of subsequent births after the births of a child affected by Cooley's anemia was generally low. Results obtained to date are encouraging and justify more extensive programs for the prevention and treatment of microcytemia. PMID:1124764

  11. Aerodynamics and mathematics in National Socialist Germany and Fascist Italy: a comparison of research institutes.

    PubMed

    Epple, Moritz; Karachalios, Andreas; Remmert, Volker R

    2005-01-01

    The article is concerned with the mathematical sciences in National Socialist Germany and Fascist Italy, with special attention to research important to the war effort. It focuses on three institutional developments: the expansion of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Fluid Dynamics in Göttingen, the foundation of the Reich Institute for Mathematics in Oberwolfach (Black Forest), and the work of the Istituto Nazionale per le Applicazioni del Calcolo in Rome. All three developments are embedded in the general political background, thus providing a basis for comparative conclusions about the conditions of the mathematical sciences and military-related research in Germany and Italy. It turns out that in both countries, the increasing demand for mathematical knowledge in modern warfare led to the establishment of "extra-university" national institutions specifically devoted to mathematical research.

  12. Pathophysiology of functional heartburn based on Rome III criteria in Japanese patients

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Yasuhiro; Funaki, Yasushi; Izawa, Shinya; Iida, Akihito; Yamaguchi, Yoshiharu; Adachi, Kazunori; Ogasawara, Naotaka; Sasaki, Makoto; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Kasugai, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the pathophysiology of functional heartburn (FH) in Japanese patients. METHODS: A total of 111 patients with proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-refractory non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease underwent intraesophageal pressure testing and 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH (24MII-pH) testing. The patients also completed several questionnaires while they were receiving the PPI treatment, including the questionnaire for the diagnosis of reflux disease (QUEST), the frequency scale for the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (FSSG), the gastrointestinal symptoms rating scale (GSRS), SF-36, and the Cornell Medical Index (CMI). The subjects were classified into FH and endoscopy-negative reflux disease (ENRD) groups based on the Rome III criteria. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients with esophageal motility disorder were excluded from this study, while 22 patients with abnormal esophageal acid exposure time (pH-POS) and 34 with hypersensitive esophagus (HE) were included in the ENRD group. The FH group included 22 patients with no reflux involvement. Sex, age, and body mass index did not differ significantly between the groups. The mean SF-36 values were < 50 (normal) for all scales in these groups, with no significant differences. The GSRS scores in these groups were not different and showed overlap with other gastrointestinal symptoms. The QUEST and the FSSG scores did not differ significantly between the groups. Neuroticism was diagnosed using the CMI questionnaire in 17 of the 78 included subjects within the pH-POS (n = 4), HE (n = 8), and FH (n = 5) groups, with no significant differences. CONCLUSION: Clinical characteristics of the FH and PPI-refractory ENRD groups were similar. Therefore, esophageal function should be examined via manometry and 24MII-pH testing to differentiate between them. PMID:25945016

  13. Mental disabilities in Western civilization from Ancient Rome to the Prerogativa Regis.

    PubMed

    Berkson, Gershon

    2006-02-01

    A preliminary survey of formal concepts of disability from the Twelve Tables of Rome of the 5th century BCE to the Prerogativa Regis in English law of the late 13th century CE is presented. Firm conclusions are restricted by problems in translation and other limitations in available data. However, it appears that the concept of intellectual disability and its distinction from episodic mental illness first emerged in several subcultures of Western civilization during the height of ancient imperial Rome and during the early medieval period in Northern European and Arabic civilization.

  14. Religious slaughter in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cenci-Goga, B T; Mattiacci, C; De Angelis, G; Marini, P; Cuccurese, A; Rossi, R; Catanese, B

    2010-06-01

    This research aims to understand the prevalence of religious slaughter practices in Italy. Two different ways of slaughtering animals are identified. Conventional slaughter is performed with prior stunning; kosher slaughter is practiced without stunning. Halal slaughter is performed for most animals without stunning. Halal slaughter with prior stunning is acceptable for 5.90% of small ruminants. For Halal slaughter in Italy, the terms "religious slaughter with stunning" and "religious slaughter without stunning" should be used to differentiate religious slaughter practices, keeping animal welfare in perspective.

  15. Tiber delta CO2-CH4 degassing: A possible hybrid, tectonically active Sediment-Hosted Geothermal System near Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciotoli, G.; Etiope, G.; Marra, F.; Florindo, F.; Giraudi, C.; Ruggiero, L.

    2016-01-01

    Fiumicino town in the Tiber River delta, near Rome International Airport (Italy), is historically affected by large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ground and gas eruptions triggered by shallow drilling. While it is known that CO2 originates from carbonate thermometamorphism and/or mantle degassing, the origin of methane (CH4) associated with CO2 is uncertain and the outgassing spatial distribution is unknown. Combining isotope gas geochemistry, soil gas, and structural-stratigraphic analyses, we provide evidence for a hybrid fluid source system, classifiable as Sediment-Hosted Geothermal System (SHGS), where biotic CH4 from sedimentary rocks is carried by deep geothermic CO2 through active segments of a half-graben. Molecular and isotopic composition of CH4 and concentration of heavier alkanes (ethane and propane), obtained from gas vents and soil gas throughout the delta area, reveal that thermogenic CH4 (up to 3.7 vol% in soil gas; δ13CCH4: -37 to -40‰ VPDB-Vienna Peedee Belemnite, and δ2HCH4: -162 to -203‰ VSMOW - Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water in gas vents) prevails over possible microbial and abiotic components. The hydrocarbons likely result from known Meso-Cenozoic petroleum systems of the Latium Tyrrhenian coast. Overmaturation of source rocks or molecular fractionation induced by gas migration are likely responsible for increased C1/C2+ ratios. CO2 and CH4 soil gas anomalies are scattered along NW-SE and W-E alignments, which, based on borehole, geomorphologic, and structural-stratigraphic analyses, coincide with active faults of a half-graben that seems to have controlled the recent evolution of the Tiber delta. This SHGS can be a source of considerable greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere and hazards for humans and buildings.

  16. Linguistic Classification in Italy: Problems and Predictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, John Earl

    1980-01-01

    The schema generally used to describe the linguistic situation in Italy includes two categories: dialetto regionale (regional dialect) and italiano regionale (regional Italian). These stand apart from the widely accepted sociolinguistic model "variety--dialect--language." It is demonstrated that both these categories should be treated…

  17. Italy: Mt. Etna

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... coast of Sicily, to the southwest of mainland Italy. Major eruptions have been issuing from both summit and flank vents. Fine ash falling ... repeated caldera collapse, and partially buried by younger volcanic structures. Eruptions are related to a complex tectonic situation, ...

  18. Beginning Reading in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutolo, Daniel

    Teaching practices in Italy, where teachers combine three different methods for teaching reading, may provide insight into ways to improve methodologies in the United States. The first method is the natural method, which, unlike American methods, teaches reading and writing simultaneously with the emphasis on writing. The teacher writes as…

  19. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-01-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects. PMID:10350509

  20. Usutu Virus, Italy, 1996

    PubMed Central

    Bakonyi, Tamás; Rossi, Giacomo; Mani, Paolo; Nowotny, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of archived tissue samples from bird deaths in the Tuscany region of Italy in 1996 identified Usutu virus. Partial sequencing confirmed identity with the 2001 Vienna strain and provided evidence for a much earlier introduction of this virus into Europe than previously assumed. PMID:23347844

  1. Personal Identity in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Sica, Luigia Simona

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses specifics of identity formation in Italian adolescents and emerging adults. We review consistent evidence illustrating that, in Italy, a progressive deferral of transition to adulthood strongly impacts youth identity development by stimulating identity exploration and postponement of identity commitments. We also consider…

  2. Mental Disabilities in Western Civilization from Ancient Rome to the Prerogativa Regis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkson, Gershon

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary survey of formal concepts of "disability" from the Twelve Tables of Rome of the 5th century BCE to the Prerogativa Regis in English law of the late 13th century CE is presented. Firm conclusions are restricted by problems in translation and other limitations in available data. However, it appears that the concept of…

  3. #MarchOnRome: Of Alterity, Social Media, and Marching Bands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramo, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    In this online ethnography, I studied marching band identity by examining marching band enthusiasts' and music educators' responses on music teacher professional forums, Twitter, blogs, and other online media, to sports commentator Jim Rome's tweets describing marching band members as "dorks." Using a framework of alterity--or the…

  4. From Salerno to Rome: General Mark W. Clark and the Challenges of Coalition Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-15

    39 Operation Avalanche ...1943, Operation Avalanche commenced with the Fifth Army storming the beaches at Salerno. The American and British forces slowly made their way 2...in shaping their respective command philosophies. Fifth Army’s operations, from Operation Avalanche in September 1943 to the capture of Rome in June

  5. Bristol Stool Form Scale reliability and agreement decreases when determining Rome III stool form designations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rater reproducibility of the Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS), which categorizes stools into one of seven types, is unknown. We sought to determine reliability and agreement by individual stool type and when responses are categorized by Rome III clinical designation as normal or abnormal (constipatio...

  6. The European Planetary Congress 2010 (Rome, September 19-25, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksanfomality, L. V.

    2011-08-01

    Almost 900 reports were presented at the planetary congress EPSC 2010 in Rome. The congress took place in the building of the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas. The report by A. Morbidelli et al. "The Origin of the Small Mass of Mars" was among the reports that drew the greatest attention of the participants.

  7. Particle number concentrations near the Rome-Ciampino city airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafoggia, M.; Cattani, G.; Forastiere, F.; Di Menno di Bucchianico, A.; Gaeta, A.; Ancona, C.

    2016-12-01

    Human exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) has been postulated to be associated with adverse health effects, and there is interest regarding possible measures to reduce primary emissions. One important source of UFP are airport activities, with aircraft take-offs being the most relevant one. We implemented two measurement campaigns of total particle number concentrations (PNC), a proxy for UFP, near a medium-size airport in central Italy. One-minute PNC averages were collected on June 2011 and January 2012 concurrently with 30-min average meteorological data on temperature and wind speed/direction. Data on minute-specific take-offs and landings were obtained by the airport authorities. We applied statistical regression models to relate PNC data to the presence of aircraft activities while adjusting for time trends and meteorology, and estimated the increases in PNC ±15 min before and after take-offs and landings. We repeated the analyses considering prevalent wind direction and by size of the aircraft. We estimated PNC increases of 5400 particles/cm3/minute during the 15 min before and after take-offs, with a peak of 19,000 particles/cm3/minute within 5 min after take-offs. Corresponding figures for landings were 1300 and 1000 particles, respectively. The highest PNC estimates were obtained when the prevailing wind came from the runway direction, and led to estimated PNC increases of 60,000 particles/cm3/minute within 5 min after take-offs. No main differences were noted from the exhaust of different types of aircrafts. The area surrounding Ciampino airport is densely inhabited, raising concerns about the potential adverse effects of long-term and short-term exposure to airport-borne UFP. A close monitoring of airport activities and emissions is mandatory to reduce the public health impact of the airport on the nearby population.

  8. Development and Validation of the Korean Rome III Questionnaire for Diagnosis of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kyung Ho; Min, Byung-Hoon; Youn, Young Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Keum, Bo Ra; Huh, Kyu Chan

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims A self-report questionnaire is frequently used to measure symptoms reliably and to distinguish patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) from those with other conditions. We produced and validated a cross-cultural adaptation of the Rome III questionnaire for diagnosis of FGIDs in Korea. Methods The Korean version of the Rome III (Rome III-K) questionnaire was developed through structural translational processes. Subsequently, reliability was measured by a test-retest procedure. Convergent validity was evaluated by comparing self-reported questionnaire data with the subsequent completion of the questionnaire by the physician based on an interview and with the clinical diagnosis. Concurrent validation using the validated Korean version of the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) was adopted to demonstrate discriminant validity. Results A total of 306 subjects were studied. Test-retest reliability was good, with a median Cronbach's α value of 0.83 (range, 0.71-0.97). The degree of agreement between patient-administered and physician-administered questionnaires to diagnose FGIDs was excellent; the κ index was 0.949 for irritable bowel syndrome, 0.883 for functional dyspepsia and 0.927 for functional heartburn. The physician's clinical diagnosis of functional dyspepsia showed the most marked discrepancy with that based on the self-administered questionnaire. Almost all SF-36 domains were impaired in participants diagnosed with one of these FGIDs according to the Rome III-K. Conclusions We developed the Rome III-K questionnaire though structural translational processes, and it revealed good test-retest reliability and satisfactory construct validity. These results suggest that this instrument will be useful for clinical and research assessments in the Korean population. PMID:24199012

  9. Mount Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  10. Mt. Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER image of Mt. Vesuvius Italy was acquired September 26, 2000, and covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. The image is centered at 40.8 degrees north latitude, 14.4 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  11. Conscientious objection in Italy.

    PubMed

    Minerva, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The law regulating abortion in Italy gives healthcare practitioners the option to make a conscientious objection to activities that are specific and necessary to an abortive intervention. Conscientious objectors among Italian gynaecologists amount to about 70%. This means that only a few doctors are available to perform abortions, and therefore access to abortion is subject to constraints. In 2012 the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) lodged a complaint against Italy to the European Committee of Social Rights, claiming that the inadequate protection of the right to access abortion implies a violation of the right to health. In this paper I will discuss the Italian situation with respect to conscientious objection to abortion and I will suggest possible solutions to the problem.

  12. Assessing land take by urban development and its impact on carbon storage: Findings from two case studies in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Sallustio, L.; Quatrini, V.; Geneletti, D.; Corona, P.; Marchetti, M.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • We tested a new methodology for monitoring land take and its effects on C storage. • The ecological impact of urban growth derives from the previous land use. • C loss increases with the naturalness of the territory. • Different urban assets may imply different forms of land take containment. Land take due to urbanization triggers a series of negative environmental impacts with direct effects on quality of life for people living in cities. Changes in ecosystem services are associated with land take, among which is the immediate C loss due to land use conversion. Land use change monitoring represents the first step in quantifying land take and its drivers and impacts. To this end, we propose an innovative methodology for monitoring land take and its effects on ecosystem services (in particular, C loss) under multi-scale contexts. The devised approach was tested in two areas with similar sizes, but different land take levels during the time-span 1990–2008 in Central Italy (the Province of Rome and the Molise Region). The estimates of total coverage of built up areas were calculated using point sampling. The area of the urban patches including each sampling point classified as built up areas in the year 1990 and/or in the year 2008 is used to estimate total abundance and average area of built up areas. Biophysical and economic values for carbon loss associated with land take were calculated using InVEST. Although land take was 7–8 times higher in the Province of Rome (from 15.1% in 1990 to 20.4% in 2008) than in Molise region, our findings show that its relative impact on C storage is higher in the latter, where the urban growth consistently affects not only croplands but also semi-natural land uses such as grasslands and other wooded lands. The total C loss due to land take has been estimated in 1.6 million Mg C, corresponding to almost 355 million €. Finally, the paper discusses the main characteristics of urban growth and their

  13. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress.

  14. SN1987A: correlation between the data recorded by the Mont Blanc neutrino detector and by the Maryland and Rome gravitational wave antennas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallottino, G. V.

    The author reports the analysis of gravitational wave and neutrino detectors over a period of 18 hours that includes the Mont Blanc 5 neutrino burst time. There is statistical evidence for correlations during a period of about two hours, centered on the 5 neutrino burst: the effect is mainly due to a dozen of large amplitude Maryland and Rome events. The interpretation of these events as due to gravitational radiation from SN1987A should be rejected, according to the standard theory of the cross-section of g.w. detectors, since it would imply an emission of energy too large by a factor of about 104.

  15. [Change in human visceral leishmaniasis treatment in Italy: retrospective study of 630 patients].

    PubMed

    Gradoni, L; Gramiccia, M; Scalone, A

    2004-06-01

    Since the 1940s meglumine antimoniate (MA) has been the only first-line drug for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) treatment in Italy. From 1991 through 1994, several patients of all ages, representing 1/3 of all immunocompetent VL patients reported during that period, were enrolled in clinical trials of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB), which led to a novel, safe, short course of VL treatment as an alternative to MA. In the same period, other lipid-associated AmB drugs were registered in Italy for the treatment of fungal infections, i.e., AmB colloidal dispersion (ABCD) and AmB lipid complex (ABLC). A retrospective analysis was performed on data collected at the Unit of Protozoology of Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, to assess whether changes have occurred in first-line drug regimens adopted in Italy for routine VL treatment, during the 1995-2002 period. The sample consisted of immunocompetent individuals clinically suspected for VL, in whom the disease was confirmed by the examination of serum and bone marrow specimens sent to the Unit by hospitals from throughout the country. Relevant information on patients was then recorded, which included drug regimens used and post-therapy results. We recorded treatment information for 630 patients, representing a large proportion (55.5%) of 1,135 immunocompetent individuals with VL reported in Italy from 1995 through 2002. About half were children (306). Every year, patients were referred by 19 to 42 hospitals, with a range of 1 to 30 patients per hospital. MA was the first-line drug used in 159 patients (25.2%). However, the proportion of MA-treated patients has steadily decreased from 55.9% in 1995 to 1.0% in 2002. We recorded the failure of MA therapy in 16 patients (10.1%), who were successfully retreated with a L-AmB regimen. The rate of MA failures significantly increased in recent years, from 5.3% in 1995 to 36.4% in 2000 (p = 0.01). AmB drugs have been the only alternative drugs used in the remaining 471 patients (74

  16. [Latin American women in Italy: a new reality of the international migration system].

    PubMed

    Bonifazi, C; Ferruzza, A

    1996-04-01

    The authors examine characteristics of female migration from Latin America to Italy. Aspects considered include country of origin, fertility behavior, age, employment status, household characteristics, and marriage patterns.

  17. Identification of oil residues in Roman amphorae (Monte Testaccio, Rome): a comparative FTIR spectroscopic study of archeological and artificially aged samples.

    PubMed

    Tarquini, Gabriele; Nunziante Cesaro, Stella; Campanella, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The application of Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy to the analysis of oil residues in fragments of archeological amphorae (3rd century A.D.) from Monte Testaccio (Rome, Italy) is reported. In order to check the possibility to reveal the presence of oil residues in archeological pottery using microinvasive and\\or not invasive techniques, different approaches have been followed: firstly, FTIR spectroscopy was used to study oil residues extracted from roman amphorae. Secondly, the presence of oil residues was ascertained analyzing microamounts of archeological fragments with the Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFT). Finally, the external reflection analysis of the ancient shards was performed without preliminary treatments evidencing the possibility to detect oil traces through the observation of the most intense features of its spectrum. Incidentally, the existence of carboxylate salts of fatty acids was also observed in DRIFT and Reflectance spectra of archeological samples supporting the roman habit of spreading lime over the spoil heaps. The data collected in all steps were always compared with results obtained on purposely made replicas.

  18. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    PubMed

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  19. [The Museum of History of Medicine at Rome University la Sapienza].

    PubMed

    Aruta, Alessandro; Marinozzi, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    The Museum for the History of Medicine at Rome University has been--from its very origins--conceived as a didactic device. In its organization and structure, it embodies a journey through medical history, from the remote antiquity to the contemporary age and accounting for continuities and changes. Objects are contextualized through different means--detailed verbal explications as well as new medias. The Museum is thus an institution open to different publics--from sophisticated scholars to young students.

  20. The Language Situation in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosi, Arturo

    2004-01-01

    This monograph provides an overview of the language situation in Italy, within the framework of language policy and language planning. It presents an account of multilingualism, linguistic diversity, social variation, educational issues and phenomena of language contact both within and outside Italy. The four main threads are (1) the current…

  1. The Bologna Process in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballarino, Gabriele; Perotti, Loris

    2012-01-01

    Italy was among the promoters of the Bologna Process and the early adopters of the reform. If one looks at its impact on the formal structure of curricula and study programmes, the reform undertaken under the Bologna banner seems to have been one of the major educational reforms ever achieved in Italy. This article describes how the Bologna…

  2. Human Papilloma Virus prevalence and type-specific relative contribution in invasive cervical cancer specimens from Italy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer represents an important global public health problem. It is the 2nd most common cancer among women worldwide. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is now well-established as a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) development. Only a few studies on HPV prevalence and type-specific distribution in ICC have been conducted in Italy. Aim To describe the prevalence of HPV and the HPV type-specific distribution in ICC cases identified in Rome, Italy. Methods 140 paraffin embedded tissue blocks of primary ICC diagnosed between 2001 and 2006 were identified at the Regina Elena Cancer Institute in Rome (Italy). HPV was detected through amplification of HPV DNA using SPF-10 HPV broad-spectrum primers followed by DEIA and then genotyping by LiPA25 (version 1). Results 134 cases were considered suitable for HPV DNA detection after histological evaluation; and overall, 90.3% (121/134) HPV prevalence was detected. 111 cases had a single HPV type, 4 cases had an uncharacterized type (HPVX) and 6 cases had multiple HPV infections. The five most common single HPV types among positive cases were: HPV16 (71/121; 58.7%), HPV18 (12/121; 9.9%), HPV31, HPV45 and HPV58 (5/121; 4.1% each). 2 (1.5%) of the single infections and 2 (1.5%) of the multiple infections contained low risk types. Statistically significant differences in the relative contribution of HPV18 were found when comparing squamous cell carcinomas with adenocarcinomas. Conclusions HPV16 and HPV18 accounted for almost 70% of all the HPV positive ICC cases. The study provides baseline information for further evaluation on the impact of recently introduced HPV vaccines in Italy. PMID:20525370

  3. [Emigration, immigration, and the composition of classes in Italy in the 1970s].

    PubMed

    Dalla Costa, M

    1981-01-01

    Labor force trends in Italy during the 1970s are analyzed, with particular reference to labor force participation by women. Migration trends, including migration from Italy to the rest of Europe, from developing countries to Italy, and from the south to the north of Italy, are reviewed. Factors affecting female labor force participation that are considered include the depression, the austerity program, inflation, automation in factories, computerization in offices, stratification of the labor force, decentralization, domestic labor, and the feminist movement. The effect of these factors on women's attitude toward reproduction is also considered.

  4. Hidden sinkholes and karst cavities in the travertine plateau of a highly-populated geothermal seismic territory (Tivoli, central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billi, Andrea; De Filippis, Luigi; Poncia, Pier Paolo; Sella, Pio; Faccenna, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    Sinkholes and other karst structures in settled carbonate lands can be a significant source of hazard for humans and human works. Acque Albule, the study area of this work, is a Plio-Pleistocene basin near Rome, central Italy, superficially filled by a large and thick deposit of late Pleistocene thermogene travertine. Human activities blanket large portions of the flat territory covering most evidence from geological surface processes and potentially inducing scientists and public officials to underestimate some natural hazards including those connected with sinkholes. To contribute to the proper assessment of these hazards, a geomorphologic study of the basin was performed using digital elevation models (DEMs), recent aerial photographs, and field surveys. Historical material such as old aerial photographs and past geomorphologic studies both pre-dating the most part of quarrying and village building was also used together with memories of the elderly population. This preliminary study pointed out the presence of numerous potentially active sinkholes that are at present largely masked by either quarrying or overbuilding. Where this first study pointed out the apparent absence of sinkholes in areas characterized by high density of buildings, a detailed subsurface study was performed using properly-calibrated electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and dynamic penetration measurements (DPSH), together with some borehole logs made available from the local municipality. This second study highlighted the presence of sinkholes and caves that are, this time, substantially hidden to the resolution of standard methods and materials such as aerial photographs, DEMs, and field surveys. Active sinkhole subsidence in the Acque Albule Basin may explain, at least in part, the frequent damages that affect numerous buildings in the area. The main conclusion from this study is that the mitigation of sinkhole hazard in highly populated areas has to pass through a thorough search of

  5. Cultural Heritage exposed to landslide and flood risk in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spizzichino, Daniele; Cacace, Carlo; Iadanza, Carla; Trigila, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Italy is the country that owns most of the world cultural heritage as it's clear from the list of sites of inestimable value to humanity, prepared by UNESCO under the Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage ratified in 1972. The Italian territory is also particularly prone to natural hazards such as landslides, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, subsidence and coastal erosion which undermine the protection and preservation of cultural heritage. Aim of the present work is to provide an estimate of architectural, monumental and archaeological heritage exposed to landslide and flood risk at national scale. The input data are: the Italian Cultural Heritage database (Carta del Rischio del patrimonio culturale) realized by ISCR (Central Institute for the Conservation and Restoration); the Italian Landslide Inventory (Progetto IFFI) developed by ISPRA (Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research) and the Regions and Self-Governing Provinces of Italy and the flood hazard zones defined by the Italian River Basin Authorities. Italian landslide inventory contains more than 486,000 landslides affecting an area of about 20,800 km2, equal to 6.9% of Italian territory. In order to estimate the number and type of cultural heritage at risk some GIS processing have been carried out, overlapping information from the above mentioned databases. The analysis provided the following results: Cultural Heritage exposed to landslide risk were estimated to 5.511 (6.6%) while the ones exposed to flood risk results 9.859 (11.7%). Two case studies concerning landslide phenomena affecting important Italian municipalities and the flood risk of historical centre of Rome, have been also analyzed. These results could be used to identify priorities and plan field surveys, detailed studies and monitoring systems, allowing job scheduling of cultural heritage maintenance. This need becomes more and more a necessity taking into account

  6. Normative values for stool frequency and form using Rome III diagnostic criteria for functional constipation in adults: systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Miller, Larry E; Ibarra, Alvin; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Zimmermann, Angela K

    2017-01-01

    When designing clinical trials focused on functional constipation therapies, understanding the normative values of populations selected using the Rome III criteria is important for estimating baseline symptom severity, and for power analysis and sample size calculations. The objective of this review was to determine normative ranges for stool frequency and form in adults with functional constipation (Rome III criteria). Eligible studies reported stool frequency or form; random effects meta-analysis was performed with subgroup analyses to explore sources of heterogeneity. A total of 25 studies (43 groups, 2292 subjects) were included. Pooled estimates were 2.7 (95% CI 2.4-3.0) for weekly stools and 2.4 (95% CI 2.1-2.6) for stool form (Bristol scale). Heterogeneity was high for both outcomes (both I(2)=96%, P<0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed that weekly bowel movement frequency was higher in larger than in smaller studies (3.1 vs. 2.3, P<0.001) and in studies conducted in Europe compared with those in the Americas (3.1 vs. 2.2, P=0.02). For stool form, the use of a daily diary versus subject recall was the sole explanatory variable (2.5 vs. 2.1, P<0.05). We conclude that adults with functional constipation have significant variation in stool frequency and form, explained in part by geography and study design.

  7. Normative values for stool frequency and form using Rome III diagnostic criteria for functional constipation in adults: systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E.; Ibarra, Alvin; Ouwehand, Arthur C.; Zimmermann, Angela K.

    2017-01-01

    When designing clinical trials focused on functional constipation therapies, understanding the normative values of populations selected using the Rome III criteria is important for estimating baseline symptom severity, and for power analysis and sample size calculations. The objective of this review was to determine normative ranges for stool frequency and form in adults with functional constipation (Rome III criteria). Eligible studies reported stool frequency or form; random effects meta-analysis was performed with subgroup analyses to explore sources of heterogeneity. A total of 25 studies (43 groups, 2292 subjects) were included. Pooled estimates were 2.7 (95% CI 2.4-3.0) for weekly stools and 2.4 (95% CI 2.1-2.6) for stool form (Bristol scale). Heterogeneity was high for both outcomes (both I2=96%, P<0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed that weekly bowel movement frequency was higher in larger than in smaller studies (3.1 vs. 2.3, P<0.001) and in studies conducted in Europe compared with those in the Americas (3.1 vs. 2.2, P=0.02). For stool form, the use of a daily diary versus subject recall was the sole explanatory variable (2.5 vs. 2.1, P<0.05). We conclude that adults with functional constipation have significant variation in stool frequency and form, explained in part by geography and study design. PMID:28243036

  8. European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Annual Congress Report From Rome 2016.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Hiroya; Otani, Tomohito; Sakata, Yasushi

    2016-10-25

    From August 27th to 31st, the 2016 Annual Congress of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC 2016) was held in Fiera di Roma, Italy. Despite the socially unstable situation, more than 32,000 attendees, including clinical physicians, basic researchers, medical students, and paramedical personnel, as well as 5,000 exhibitors from 106 countries gathered in this historical city to share the latest findings and to discuss the present issues in cardiovascular medicine. There were scientific sessions, including 28 Hot Lines, 26 clinical trial updates, 24 registry studies, and 5 clinical practice guideline sessions. Japan had 1,170 attendees, with 1,743 submitted and 670 accepted abstracts, including the NIPPON trial presented in the hotline session. From 2011 to 2016, Japan has been the first abstract submitter and has had the most abstracts accepted, which indicates the great contribution of Japanese cardiologists and the Japanese Circulation Society. This report briefly introduces the key presentations and highlights from the ESC 2016 Scientific Sessions. (Circ J 2016; 80: 2282-2286).

  9. Gestalt psychology in Italy.

    PubMed

    Verstegen, I

    2000-01-01

    Graz gestalt psychology was introduced into Italy after World War I with Vittorio Benussi's emigration to Padua. His earliest adherent, Cesare Musatti, defended Graz theory, but after Benussi's premature death became an adherent of the Berlin gestalt psychology of Wertheimer-Köhler-Koffka. He trained his two most important students, Fabio Metelli and Gaetano Kanizsa, in orthodox Berlin theory. They established rigid "schools" in Padua and Trieste. The structure of Italian academics allowed for such strict orthodoxy, quite unlike the situation in America, where scientific objectivity mitigated against schools. In the 1960s, some of the students of Metelli and Kanizsa (above all Bozzi) initiated a realist movement-felt in Kanizsa's late work-that was quite independent of that of J. J. Gibson. Finally, more recently, Benussi and Graz theorizing have been embraced again, sentimentally, as a predecedent to Kanizsa-Bozzi.

  10. Gastric cancer in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, F; Buiatti, E; Palli, D

    1991-01-01

    Although Gastric Cancer (GC) death rates are decreasing worldwide, in high risk areas GC is still a major public health problem. Italy is one of the European countries with the highest mortality rates for GC (males: 17.3; females: 8.2 x 100,000 inhabitants in 1987) which represents the third cause of death due to cancer in 1987, accounting for over 14,000 deaths per year (10% of cancer deaths). Reasons for the geographic variability in GC occurrence within the country are reviewed, discussing the results of two recent analytical epidemiological studies carried out in Italy. These large case-control studies focused on dietary factors, involving high and low-risk areas for GC (Florence, Siena, Forlì, Imola, Cremona, Genoa, Cagliari, and Milan). Low socio-economic status, family history of GC, residence in rural areas were associated to GC risk, while migration from southern areas and body mass index were inversely related to GC. Consumption of traditional soups, meat, salted and dried fish, cold cuts and seasoned cheeses, as well as the intake of animal proteins and nitrites were related to an increased GC risk. On the contrary consumption of fresh fruit, citrus fruit, raw vegetables, spices, garlic and olive oil, and vitamin C, E and beta-carotene intake were found to be protective factors. Among diet-related factors, preference for salty foods and frequent broiling were positively related to GC, while the longstanding availbility of a refrigerator or freezer and the habits of consuming frozen foods were associated with decreased GC risk. These results are discussed in detail, considering the main hypotheses on GC carcinogenesis.

  11. Geotechnical Seismic Hazard Evaluation At Sellano (Umbria, Italy) Using The GIS Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Capilleri, P.; Maugeri, M.

    2008-07-08

    A tool that has been widely-used in civil engineering in recent years is the geographic information system (GIS). Geographic Information systems (GIS) are powerful tools for organizing, analyzing, and presenting spatial data. The GIS can be used by geotechnical engineers to aid preliminary assessment through to the final geotechnical design. The aim of this work is to provide some indications for the use of the GIS technique in the field of seismic geotechnical engineering, particularly as regards the problems of seismic hazard zonation maps. The study area is the village of Sellano located in the Umbrian Apennines in central Italy, about 45 km east of Perugia and 120 km north-east of Rome The increasing importance attributed to microzonation derives from the spatial variability of ground motion due to particular local conditions. The use of GIS tools can lead to an early identification of potential barriers to project completion during the design process that may help avoid later costly redesign.

  12. Italy INAF Data Center Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Italian INAF VLBI Data Center. Our Data Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics.

  13. Chapter 44: history of neurology in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bentivoglio, Marina; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The chapter starts from the Renaissance (although the origins of Italian neurology can be traced back to the Middle Ages), when treatises of nervous system physiopathology still followed Hippocratic and Galenic "humoral" theories. In Italy, as elsewhere in Europe, the concepts of humoral pathology were abandoned in the 18th century, when neurology was influenced by novel trends. Neurology acquired the status of clinical discipline (as "clinic of mental diseases") after national reunification (declared in 1861 but completed much later). At the end of the 19th and first decades of the 20th century, eminent Italian "neuropsychiatrists" (including, among many others, Ugo Cerletti, who introduced electroconvulsive shock therapy in 1938) stimulated novel knowledge and approaches, "centers of excellence" flourished, and "Neurological Institutes" were founded. In the first half of the 20th century, the history of Italian neurology was dominated by World Wars I and II (which stimulated studies on the wounded) and the fascist regime in-between the Wars (when the flow of information was instead very limited). Italy became a republic in 1946, and modern neurology and its distinction from psychiatry were finally promoted. The chapter also provides detailed accounts of scientific societies and journals dedicated to the neurological sciences in Italy.

  14. [Safety and hygiene in activities of craftsmen: a survey in the province of Rome].

    PubMed

    Spiridigliozzi, S; Bellantoni, C; Bossi, A; Abetti, P; Pisciottana, A

    2003-01-01

    The artisan firms, in the past, have paid a poor attention to hygiene's problem and to workers' safety. For this reason the Authors have promoted an investigation in 342 activities of Rome's district to verify the correct observance of some preventionistic indicators such as the evaluation of the risks, the electric plant, the use of ipd, the application of the system of signs, etc. The results of the research have proved a situation that is better in comparison with the past; the Authors analyze the causes and they auspicate that the evolutional process can guarantee the minimum safety's conditions to the all employees in the small firms.

  15. Seismic response in archaeological areas: the case-histories of Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, Stefano; Funiciello, Renato; Rovelli, Antonio

    1999-03-01

    Rome is affected by earthquakes associated to three different seismogenic districts: the Central Apennines area, the Colli Albani volcanic area and the Roman area. The major effects were exclusively due to Apennine seismicity and reached in some cases felt intensities up to VII-VIII degree (MCS scale). The predominant role in the damage distribution seems to be played by the local geological conditions. The historical centre of the city is characterized by the presence of two geomorphologic domains: the alluvial plain of Tiber river and the topographic relieves of Roman Hills, where tradition indicates the first site of the city foundation. In particular, the right river side is characterized by the outcropping of the regional bedrock along the Monte Mario-Gianicolo ridge, while the eastern relieves are the remnants of the Sabatini and Albani volcanic plateau, deeply eroded by the Tiber river and its tributaries during the last glacial low-stand (Würm). These domains are characterized by a large difference in seismic response, due to the high impedance contrast between Holocene coarse deposits filling the Tiber Valley and sedimentary and volcanic Plio-Pleistocene units. Seismic damage observed in 150 monuments of downtown Rome was indicating a significant concentration on alluvial recent deposits. This result was confirmed by the geographical distribution of conservation and retrofitting activities subsequent to main earthquakes, mostly related to local geological conditions. The cases of Marcus Aurelius' Column and Colosseum confirmed the influence of the Holocene alluvial network in local seismic response. During 2500 years of history, the monuments of Rome have `memorized' the seismic effects of historical earthquakes. In some cases, the integration of historical and geological research and macroseismic observations may provide original and useful indications to seismologists to define the seismic response of the city. Local site effects represent a serious

  16. Stratigraphic framework of Cambrian and Ordovician rocks across Rome Trough, central Appalachian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ryder, R.T.

    1987-09-01

    Restored stratigraphic cross sections drawn primarily through the subsurface of parts of Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee provide new detailed information to further the understanding of Cambrian and Ordovician sedimentation and tectonics associated with the Rome trough sector of the Appalachian basin. Drilled thickness of the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence ranges from a maximum of about 14,500 ft (4.5 km) along the axis of the trough to a minimum of about 3500 ft (1 km) on the western flank.

  17. Hyperspectral fluorescence lidar imaging at the Colosseum, Rome: elucidating past conservation interventions.

    PubMed

    Palombi, L; Lognoli, D; Raimondi, V; Cecchi, G; Hällström, J; Barup, K; Conti, C; Grönlund, R; Johansson, A; Svanberg, S

    2008-05-12

    Fluorescence lidar techniques offer considerable potential for remote, non-invasive diagnostics of stone cultural heritage in the outdoor environment. Here we present the results of a joint Italian-Swedish experiment, deploying two hyperspectral fluorescence lidar imaging systems, for the documentation of past conservation interventions on the Colosseum, Rome. Several portions of the monument were scanned and we show that it was possible to discriminate among masonry materials, reinforcement structures and protective coatings inserted during past conservation interventions, on the basis of their fluorescence signatures, providing useful information for a first quick, large-scale in situ screening of the monument.

  18. Seasonal and yearly polarimetric time series analysis of Radarsat 2 quad pol data over the area around Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, C.; Schiavon, G.; Lasaponara, R.

    2012-04-01

    A study is being carried out to analyse the potential of high resolution polarimetric SAR data to detect seasonal and yearly changes for archaeological applications. The area under study includes the city of Rome and the area to the south east of the city, towards the Alban Hills. The data comprises Radarsat 2 Fine Quad data of various beams, from FQ2 to FQ19, acquired throughout 2008 and 2011, and provided within the Science and Operational Application Research for RADARSAT-2 program SOAR Project 1488 and SOAR-EU Project 6795. Two different analyses are performed: One is a seasonal analysis, investigating changes taking place on a monthly basis in 2008; the other is an analysis of changes taking place between 2008 and 2011. The processing chain involves the following: multilooking, extraction of the T3 matrix, speckle filtering, geocoding, and finally the application of a range of coherent and incoherent polarimetric decompositions. The software NEST and PolSARPro (both ESA OS software) are used for this processing chain. Different change detection techniques are then discussed for analysis of the dataset to detect potential changes in the time series.

  19. Epidemiology of Imported Leishmaniasis in Italy: Implications for a European Endemic Country.

    PubMed

    Di Muccio, Trentina; Scalone, Aldo; Bruno, Antonella; Marangi, Massimo; Grande, Romualdo; Armignacco, Orlando; Gradoni, Luigi; Gramiccia, Marina

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the number of imported leishmaniasis cases has increased in countries of Western Europe. The trend is associated with increasing travels, ecotourism activity, military operations and immigration. While in endemic countries leishmaniasis is usually well diagnosed, accurate patient history and parasite identification are necessary to distinguish between autochthonous and imported cases. This is particularly important, as new Leishmania species/genotypes may be introduced and transmitted by local phlebotomine vectors without appropriate surveillance, with unpredictable consequences. We report on the surveillance of imported leishmaniasis performed by the Leishmania Identification Reference Centre of Rome from 1986 through 2012, involving health care centres from 16/20 Italian regions. Suspected imported cases were analyzed and conclusions were based on clinical, epidemiological and diagnostic findings. Over the years, different parasite identification methods were employed, including MultiLocus Enzyme Electrophoresis and molecular techniques combining disease diagnosis (SSU rDNA nested-PCR) and Leishmania typing (nuclear repetitive sequence and ITS-1 PCR-RFLPs). A total of 105 imported cases were recorded (annual range: 0-20) of which 36 were visceral (VL) (16 HIV-coinfections) and 69 cutaneous (CL) cases; 85 cases (52 CL) were from the Old World and 20 (17 CL) from the New World. Eight Leishmania species were identified, of which 7 were exotic to Italy. VL importation until 1995 was associated with the spread of Mediterranean Leishmania-HIV co-infections in early 1990s. Following the introduction of HAART treatment, such cases became occasional in Italians but relatively frequent among immigrants. In contrast, a steady increase of CL cases was observed from different areas of the Old and New Worlds, that in recent years included mainly immigrants 'visiting friends and relatives' and Italian tourists. This positive trend likely depends on better

  20. Epidemiology of Imported Leishmaniasis in Italy: Implications for a European Endemic Country

    PubMed Central

    Di Muccio, Trentina; Scalone, Aldo; Bruno, Antonella; Marangi, Massimo; Grande, Romualdo; Armignacco, Orlando; Gradoni, Luigi; Gramiccia, Marina

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the number of imported leishmaniasis cases has increased in countries of Western Europe. The trend is associated with increasing travels, ecotourism activity, military operations and immigration. While in endemic countries leishmaniasis is usually well diagnosed, accurate patient history and parasite identification are necessary to distinguish between autochthonous and imported cases. This is particularly important, as new Leishmania species/genotypes may be introduced and transmitted by local phlebotomine vectors without appropriate surveillance, with unpredictable consequences. We report on the surveillance of imported leishmaniasis performed by the Leishmania Identification Reference Centre of Rome from 1986 through 2012, involving health care centres from 16/20 Italian regions. Suspected imported cases were analyzed and conclusions were based on clinical, epidemiological and diagnostic findings. Over the years, different parasite identification methods were employed, including MultiLocus Enzyme Electrophoresis and molecular techniques combining disease diagnosis (SSU rDNA nested-PCR) and Leishmania typing (nuclear repetitive sequence and ITS-1 PCR-RFLPs). A total of 105 imported cases were recorded (annual range: 0-20) of which 36 were visceral (VL) (16 HIV-coinfections) and 69 cutaneous (CL) cases; 85 cases (52 CL) were from the Old World and 20 (17 CL) from the New World. Eight Leishmania species were identified, of which 7 were exotic to Italy. VL importation until 1995 was associated with the spread of Mediterranean Leishmania-HIV co-infections in early 1990s. Following the introduction of HAART treatment, such cases became occasional in Italians but relatively frequent among immigrants. In contrast, a steady increase of CL cases was observed from different areas of the Old and New Worlds, that in recent years included mainly immigrants ‘visiting friends and relatives’ and Italian tourists. This positive trend likely depends on

  1. Lake Garda, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This ASTER image was acquired on July 29, 2000 and covers an area of 30 by 57 km in northern Italy. Lake Garda was formed by glaciers during the last Ice Age, and is Italy's largest lake. Lago di Garda lies in the provinces of Verona, Brescia, and Trento, and is 51 kilometers (32 miles) long and from 3 to 18 kilometers (2 to 11 miles) wide. The Sarca is its chief affluent, and the lake is drained southward by the Mincio, which discharges into the Po River. Many villas are situated on its shores. On the peninsula of Sirmione, at the southern end of the lake, are the ruins of a Roman villa and a castle of the Scaligers, an Italian family of the 16th century. The RIGHT image has the land area masked out, and a harsh stretch was applied to the lake values to display variations in sediment load. Also visible are hundreds of boats and their wakes, criss-crossing the lake.

    The image is centered at 45.6 degrees north latitude, 10.6 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for

  2. The Cucurbit Images (1515–1518) of the Villa Farnesina, Rome

    PubMed Central

    JANICK, JULES; PARIS, HARRY S.

    2006-01-01

    • Background The gorgeous frescoes organized by the master Renaissance painter Raphael Sanzio (1483–1520) and illustrating the heavenly adventures of Cupid and Psyche were painted between 1515 and 1518 to decorate the Roman villa (now known as the Villa Farnesina) of the wealthy Sienese banker Agostino Chigi (1466–1520). Surrounding these paintings are festoons of fruits, vegetables and flowers painted by Giovanni Martini da Udine (1487–1564), which include over 170 species of plants. A deconstruction and collation of the cucurbit images in the festoons makes it possible to evaluate the genetic diversity of cucurbits in Renaissance Italy 500 years ago. • Findings The festoons contain six species of Old World cucurbits, Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), Cucumis melo (melon), Cucumis sativus (cucumber), Ecballium elaterium (squirting cucumber), Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd) and Momordica balsamina (balsam apple), and two or three species of New World cucurbits, Cucurbita maxima, C. pepo and, perhaps, C. moschata (pumpkin, squash, gourd). The images of C. maxima are the first illustrations of this species in Europe. PMID:16314340

  3. Substance Use in the Club Scene of Rome: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Vento, Alessandro Emiliano; Martinotti, Giovanni; Cinosi, Eduardo; Acciavatti, Tiziano; Carrus, Dario; Chillemi, Eleonora; di Giannantonio, Massimo; Corazza, Ornella; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Over the last few years, a wide number of unregulated substances have been marketed on the Web and in smart and head shops; they are usually advertised as legal alternatives to commonly known drugs and are defined as “smart drugs,” “legal highs,” and “novel psychoactive substances” (NPS). Aim of our work is to describe use habits and distribution of NPS in a population of young adults in Rome club scene. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was proposed to subjects over 18 years of age at the entrance of 5 nightclubs in Rome. Socioeconomic characteristics and substance use were investigated. Results. Preliminary results give evidence that 78% of respondents have a lifetime history of NPS use. In addition, 56% of the sample has consumed illicit drugs in the past and 39% has used psychoactive substances in the 12 hours preceding the questionnaire administration. Conclusions. A significant proportion of subjects report use of novel psychoactive substances; traditional illicit drugs consumption, particularly cocaine, appears to be very high as well in the club scene. These data highlight a serious public health challenge, since pharmacological, toxicological, and psychopathological effects linked to interactions among all these substances may be unpredictable and sometimes fatal in vulnerable individuals. PMID:25243163

  4. Slavery and the social dynamics of male homosexual relations in ancient Rome.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, B C

    1980-01-01

    More than any other institution, slavery placed its stamp on male homosexual relations in ancient Rome. While the pervasive Hellenization of Roman society in the second and first centuries B.C. mitigated the traditional hostility towards homosexuality and homosexual relations and even, in cultured circles, fostered an idealizing acceptance of male pederastic relations patterned after the model of classical Greece, this transformation of attitudes would have produced less concrete effects had Rome not concurrently become a slave-owning society on a large scale, due to overseas conquests. The strictures of Roman law and tradition applied only to sexual relations among free men and women; sexual relations between freemen and female or male slaves were unlikely to incur much social stigma. Although there is evidence that some Romans did indeed exploit their slaves, fortunately the great lacuna within the law and tradition, together with the emergence of more humane values regarding slavery and sexual relations, allowed genuine love-relationships (both heterosexual and homosexual) to receive a large measure of social sanction as a form of concubinage. Roman culture, however, unlike classical Green civilization, made little contribution to an informed acceptance of homosexual relations grounded in an understanding of human ethics and psychology.

  5. Beta-thalassemia mutations in Rome. A high frequency of the IVSII-745 allele in subjects of latium origin.

    PubMed

    Massa, A; Cianciulli, P; Cianetti, L; Iazzone, R; Cenci, A; Sorrentino, F; Franco, G; Pecci, G; Papa, G; Peschle, C

    1994-01-01

    We studied the molecular bases of beta-thalassemia in Rome, a city centrally located in Latium, which is a region with a low incidence of beta-carriers. People also come to Rome from other regions for specific or prenatal diagnostic assessment. Only 11 patients (20%) out of 62 characterized beta-thalassemia subjects were of Latium family origin. They presented five mutations with an uncommonly high frequency of the IVSII-745 allele, that was found in homozygosis in 4 unrelated patients from a southeastern area in the province of Frosinone. These data may indicate a founder effect.

  6. Paleo-surfaces of glacio-eustatically forced aggradational successions in the coastal area of Rome: Assessing interplay between tectonics and sea-level during the last ten interglacials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Fabrizio; Florindo, Fabio; Anzidei, Marco; Sepe, Vincenzo

    2016-09-01

    Recently acquired geochronological and stratigraphic data provide new information on the sedimentary successions deposited by the Paleo-Tiber River in the coastal and near-coastal area of Rome in consequence of the glacio-eustatic changes, allowing to better define their inner geometry and palaeogeographic spatial distribution. In the present work we use this revised sedimentary dataset to provide a geochronologically constrained and tectonically adjusted record of paleo sea-level indicators. Aimed at this scope, we review literature data acquired in the last 35 years and using the new geochronological constraints we pinpoint the coastal-to-fluvial terraces of MIS 5 and MIS 7, mapping their relic surfaces in an area of 30 km along the coast north and south of the Tiber River mouth, and 20 km inland of the fluvial valleys of Tiber and Aniene rivers. The geometry of these paleo-surfaces provides constraints on the relative elevation of the sea-level during the last interglacials and on the uplift rates in this region during the last 200 ka. In particular, we recognize the previously undetected terraces of MIS 5.3 and MIS 5.1 interstadials, and we assess their spatial relationship with respect to MIS 5.5, providing important information on sea-level oscillations during this time span. Comparison with sea-level indicators provided by previous aggradational successions deposited during past interglacials spanning MIS 9 through MIS 21 in the coastal area of Rome, also allows us to reconstruct the tectonic history and investigate its relationships with the Middle-Pleistocene volcanic activity of the Roman Comagmatic Region along the Tyrrhenian Sea margin of Italy in the last 900 ka.

  7. Non-destructive mapping of dampness and salts in degraded wall paintings in hypogeous buildings: the case of St. Clement at mass fresco in St. Clement Basilica, Rome.

    PubMed

    Di Tullio, Valeria; Proietti, Noemi; Gobbino, Marco; Capitani, Donatella; Olmi, Roberto; Priori, Saverio; Riminesi, Cristiano; Giani, Elisabetta

    2010-03-01

    As is well known, the deterioration of wall paintings due to the capillary rise of water through the walls is a very widespread problem. In this paper, a study of microclimate monitoring, unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and evanescent-field dielectrometry (EFD) was applied to map non-destructively, in situ, and in a quantitative way the distribution of the moisture in an ancient deteriorated wall painting of the eleventh century. Both unilateral NMR and EFD are quite new, fully portable, and non-destructive techniques, and their combination is absolutely new. The approach reported here is proposed as a new analytical protocol to afford the problem of mapping, non-destructively, the moisture in a deteriorated wall painting in a hypogeous building such as that of the second level of St. Clement Basilica, Rome (Italy), where the use of IR thermography is impaired due to the environmental conditions, and the gravimetric tests are forbidden due to the preciousness of the artifact. The moisture distribution was mapped at different depths, from the very first layers of the painted film to a depth of 2 cm. It has also been shown how the map obtained in the first layers of the artwork is affected by the environmental conditions typical of a hypogeous building, whereas the maps obtained at higher depths are representative of the moisture due to the capillary rise of water from the ground. The quantitative analysis of the moisture was performed by calibrating NMR and EFD signals with purposely prepared specimens. This study may be applied before and after performing any intervention aimed at restoring and improving the state of conservation of this type of artwork and reducing the dampness or extracting salts (driven by the variation of moisture content) and monitoring the effectiveness of the performed interventions during the time. This protocol is applicable to any type of porous material.

  8. Graviquakes in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petricca, P.; Barba, S.; Carminati, E.; Doglioni, C.; Riguzzi, F.

    2015-08-01

    We discuss the mechanics of crustal normal fault-related earthquakes, and show that they represent dissipation of gravitational potential energy (graviquakes) and their magnitude increases with the involved volume (delimited by the seismogenic fault and an antithetic dilated wedge in its hangingwall), and the fault dip. The magnitude increases with the deepening of the brittle-ductile transition (BDT), which in turn enlarges the involved volume. The fault dip seems rather controlled by the static friction of the involved crustal layers. We apply the model to the extensional area of the Italian peninsula, whose geodynamics is controlled by the Alpine and Apennines subduction zones. The latter has a well-developed backarc basin and a large part of the accretionary prism is affected by on-going extensional tectonics, which is responsible for most of peninsular Italy seismicity. Analyzing the seismic record of the Apennines, the length of seismogenic normal faults tends to be at most about 3 times the hypocenter depth. We compile a map of the brittle-ductile transition depth and, assuming a fixed 45° or 60° fault dip and a dilated wedge developed during the interseismic period almost perpendicular to the fault plane, we compute the maximum volume of the hangingwall collapsing at the coseismic stage, and estimate the maximum expected magnitude. Lower magnitude values are obtained in areas with thinner brittle layer and higher heat flow. Moreover, lower magnitude relative to those theoretically expected may occur in areas of higher strain rate where faults may creep faster due to lower frictional values.

  9. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso

    2009-01-01

    This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern Italy, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interviews. Routine lung sections were examined for asbestos bodies in 500 cases. In 143 cases asbestos bodies were isolated and counted by chemical digestion of the lung tissue using the Smith-Naylor method. The series included 717 men and 94 women aged between 32 and 93 years (mean 69.2 years). Detailed occupational data was obtained for 732 cases. The majority of patients had marine jobs - shipbuilding (449 cases), maritime trades (56 cases), and port activities (39 cases). The nature of work of other patients included a variety of occupations, with non-shipbuilding industries being the most common. Thirty-four women cleaned the work clothes of family members occupationally exposed and hence had a history of asbestos exposure at home. Most of the patients had their first exposure to asbestos before 1960. The latency period ranged between 13 and 73 years (mean 48.2). Latency period among insulators and dock workers were shorter than other categories. Asbestos bodies were detected on routine lung sections in 343 cases (68.6%). Lung asbestos body burdens after isolation ranged between two to 10 millions bodies per gram of dried tissue. Despite some limitations in the use of asbestos in this area since the 1970s, the incidence of tumor remained high during the last years. PMID:20386624

  10. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso

    2009-08-01

    This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern Italy, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interviews. Routine lung sections were examined for asbestos bodies in 500 cases. In 143 cases asbestos bodies were isolated and counted by chemical digestion of the lung tissue using the Smith-Naylor method. The series included 717 men and 94 women aged between 32 and 93 years (mean 69.2 years). Detailed occupational data was obtained for 732 cases.The majority of patients had marine jobs - shipbuilding (449 cases), maritime trades (56 cases), and port activities (39 cases). The nature of work of other patients included a variety of occupations, with non-shipbuilding industries being the most common. Thirty-four women cleaned the work clothes of family members occupationally exposed and hence had a history of asbestos exposure at home. Most of the patients had their first exposure to asbestos before 1960. The latency period ranged between 13 and 73 years (mean 48.2). Latency period among insulators and dock workers were shorter than other categories. Asbestos bodies were detected on routine lung sections in 343 cases (68.6%). Lung asbestos body burdens after isolation ranged between two to 10 millions bodies per gram of dried tissue. Despite some limitations in the use of asbestos in this area since the 1970s, the incidence of tumor remained high during the last years.

  11. Geological and geophysical activities at Spallanzani Science Department (Liceo Scientifico Statale "Lazzaro Spallanzani" - Tivoli, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favale, T.; De Angelis, F.; De Filippis, L.

    2012-04-01

    The high school Liceo Scientifico "Lazzaro Spallanzani" at Tivoli (Rome) has been fully involved in the study of geological and geophysical features of the town of Tivoli and the surrounding area in the last twelve years. Objective of this activity is to promote the knowledge of the local territory from the geological point of view. Main activities: • School year 2001-2002: Setting up inside the school building of a Geological Museum focusing on "Geological Evolution of Latium, Central Italy" (in collaboration with colleagues M. Mancini, and A. Pierangeli). • March, 15, 2001: Conference of Environmental Geology. Lecturer: Prof. Raniero Massoli Novelli, L'Aquila University and Società Italiana di Geologia Ambientale. • School years 2001-2002 and 2002-2003: Earth Sciences course for students "Brittle deformation and tectonic stress in Tivoli area". • November, 2003: Conference of Geology, GIS and Remote Sensing. Lecturers: Prof. Maurizio Parotto and Dr Alessandro Cecili (Roma Tre University, Rome), and Dr Stefano Pignotti (Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sulla Montagna, Rome). • November, 2003, 2004 and 2005: GIS DAY, organized in collaboration with ESRI Italia. • School year 2006-2007: Earth Sciences course for students "Acque Albule basin and the Travertine of Tivoli, Latium, Central Italy" (focus on travertine formation). • School year 2010-2011: Earth Sciences course for students "Acque Albule basin and the Travertine of Tivoli. Geology, Hydrogeology and Microbiology of the basin, Latium, Central Italy" (focus on thermal springs and spa). In the period 2009-2010 a seismic station with three channels, currently working, was designed and built in our school by the science teachers Felice De Angelis and Tomaso Favale. Our seismic station (code name LTTV) is part of Italian Experimental Seismic Network (IESN) with identification code IZ (international database IRIS-ISC). The three drums are online in real time on websites http

  12. Biophysical science in Italy: SIBPA turns 40.

    PubMed

    Giacomazza, Daniela; Musio, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    This Special Issue of Biophysical Chemistry includes a selection of the papers presented at the XXI Congress of the Italian Society of Pure and Applied Biophysics (i.e., SIBPA, Società Italiana di Biofisica Pura ed Applicata) held on September 2012 at the University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy. Topics cover all biophysical disciplines, from molecular to cellular, to integrative biophysics giving an almost comprehensive view of the interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approaches, proper of the modern biophysics. SIBPA, which celebrates its 40th anniversary in 2013, has steadily grown and appeals to both specialists and a wider general audience.

  13. [Pharmaceutical pottery in the Museum of History of Medicine of Rome "La Sapienza"].

    PubMed

    De Santis, Ilaria; Del Busso, Mariagrazia

    2006-01-01

    Chemist's and pharmaceutical vases are a historical, aesthetic, cultural, often careless, patrimony that evokes numerous suggestions. It is not possible to distinguish their history from the history of general ceramics in order to reconstruct the context in which these manufactured object were made. Even though manufacture presents a peculiarity of its own it interlaces with the objects of everyday use and with the production designed to any specific and different uses. Ceramics is one of the most flourishing art in Italy; a revival of its techniques arose just in relation with the 'rebirth' of spices commercial trading in Italy.

  14. Development, Translation and Validation of Enhanced Asian Rome III Questionnaires for Diagnosis of Functional Bowel Diseases in Major Asian Languages: A Rome Foundation-Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association Working Team Report

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Uday C; Gwee, Kok-Ann; Chen, Minhu; Gong, Xiao R; Pratap, Nitesh; Hou, Xiaohua; Syam, Ari F; Abdullah, Murdani; Bak, Young-Tae; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Gonlachanvit, Sutep; Chua, Andrew S B; Chong, Kuck-Meng; Siah, Kewin T H; Lu, Ching-Liang; Xiong, Lishou; Whitehead, William E

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The development-processes by regional socio-cultural adaptation of an Enhanced Asian Rome III questionnaire (EAR3Q), a cultural adaptation of the Rome III diagnostic questionnaire (R3DQ), and its translation-validation in Asian languages are presented. As English is not the first language for most Asians, translation-validation of EAR3Q is essential. Hence, we aimed to culturally adapt the R3DQ to develop EAR3Q and linguistically validate it to show that the EAR3Q is able to allocate diagnosis according to Rome III criteria. Methods After EAR3Q was developed by Asian experts by consensus, it was translated into Chinese, Hindi-Telugu, Indonesian, Korean, and Thai, following Rome Foundation guidelines; these were then validated on native subjects (healthy [n = 60], and patients with irritable bowel syndrome [n = 59], functional dyspepsia [n = 53] and functional constipation [n = 61]) diagnosed by clinicians using Rome III criteria, negative alarm features and investigations. Results Experts noted words for constipation, bloating, fullness and heartburn, posed difficulty. The English back-translated questionnaires demonstrated concordance with the original EAR3Q. Sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaires were high enough to diagnose respective functional gastrointestinal disorders (gold standard: clinical diagnoses) in most except Korean and Indonesian languages. Questionnaires often uncovered overlapping functional gastrointestinal disorders. Test-retest agreement (kappa) values of the translated questionnaires were high (0.700–1.000) except in Korean (0.300–0.500) and Indonesian (0.100–0.400) languages at the initial and 2-week follow-up visit. Conclusions Though Chinese, Hindi and Telugu translations were performed well, Korean and Indonesian versions were not. Questionnaires often uncovered overlapping FGIDs, which were quite common. PMID:25537673

  15. The interpretation of Rome II criteria and method of assessment affect the irritable bowel syndrome classification of children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pediatric classification of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is complicated by the potential discrepancy, between parent and child report and by the interpretation of pain-stool relations in the Rome III classification system. The aim of this study was to compare IBS classification by diary and by chi...

  16. The Limits of Growth. A Report for The Club of Rome's Project on the Predicament of Mankind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Donella H.; And Others

    Reviewed in this report is a project undertaken by The Club of Rome entitled Project on the Predicament of Mankind. Its intent is to examine the complex of problems troubling men of all nations. The predicament is that man can perceive the problem, yet, despite his considerable knowledge and skills, he does not understand the origins,…

  17. A Revisionary Note on Ammianus Marcellinus 14.6.18: When Did the Public Libraries of Ancient Rome Close?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, George W.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the work of the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus and other evidence for the existence of public libraries in fourth and fifth century A.D. Rome. It is concluded that a number of libraries were still in existence in the early fourth century, and at least one was open as late as A.D. 455. (MES)

  18. The Nature of Beauty: The Arts in Greece, Rome and the Medieval Period. Program for Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garton, Harry A.; Woodbury, Virginia Garton

    One in a series of instructional units designed for gifted students, the booklet focuses on the arts in Greece, Rome, and the Medieval period. Narrative information on Greek pottery, sculpture, architecture, music, and dance is followed by lists of suggested activities for students and reference lists of texts and media. A similar unit on the…

  19. Detection of Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis, and rickettsiae in ticks removed from dogs living in Italy.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Michele; Nicetto, Martina; Fogliazza, Alessandro; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Caldin, Marco; Furlanello, Tommaso; Solano-Gallego, Laia

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to determine natural infections by Anaplasma phagocytophilum/Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae, Ehrlichia canis, Leishmania infantum, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., and Hepatozoon spp. by molecular methods in ticks (n=91) removed from dogs with clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities compatible with tick-borne diseases (n=22) living in Italy and to assess the distribution and species of ticks encountered. Ticks from dogs living in southern Italy were all identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n=25), ticks from central Italy included Rh. sanguineus (n=8) and Ixodes ricinus (n=9), ticks from northern Italy included Rh. sanguineus (n=45), Dermacentor marginatus (n=3), and one I. ricinus. Leishmania infantum, Rickettsia spp., and Babesia canis were the only pathogens detected in 7 (8%), 4 (4%), and 2 (2%) out of 91 ticks, respectively. L. infantum was detected in I. ricinus from central Italy and in Rh. sanguineus from northern and central Italy. Rickettsia conorii and Ri. massiliae were detected in Rh. sanguineus ticks from central and southern Italy (Sicily), respectively. Bab. canis was detected in D. marginatus ticks from northern Italy.

  20. An investigation into the ancient abortion laws: comparing ancient Persia with ancient Greece and Rome.

    PubMed

    Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Zargaran, Arman; Vatanpour, Azadeh; Abedini, Ehsan; Adhami, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    Since the dawn of medicine, medical rights and ethics have always been one of mankind's concerns. In any civilisation, attention paid to medical laws and ethics depends on the progress of human values and the advancement of medical science. The history of various civilisations teaches that each had its own views on medical ethics, but most had something in common. Ancient civilisations such as Greece, Rome, or Assyria did not consider the foetus to be alive and therefore to have human rights. In contrast, ancient Persians valued the foetus as a living person equal to others. Accordingly, they brought laws against abortion, even in cases of sexual abuse. Furthermore, abortion was considered to be a murder and punishments were meted out to the mother, father, and the person performing it.

  1. Leptospirosis survey in wild rodents living in urban areas of Rome.

    PubMed

    Pezzella, M; Lillini, E; Sturchio, E; Ierardi, L A; Grassi, M; Traditi, F; Cristaldi, M

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to survey the current extension of the infected brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) living on the site Ripa Grande-San Michele port located in the center of the sity along the accessible right bank of the Tiber river by using a specific molecular technology. The detection of Leptospira, in 11 trapped brown rats, by tube-based Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed. The amplified samples were analysed by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Sequence analysis of the amplified DNAs confirmed the specificity of the detection of leptospires. Five out of 11 brown rats exhibited positivity for Leptospira. The survey points out the high rate of leptospiral infection in the brown rats living in the most ancient urban area of Rome.

  2. Possible human sacrifice at the origins of Rome: novel skeletal evidences.

    PubMed

    Ottini, Laura; Angeletti, Luciana Rita; Pantano, Walter Benedetto; Falchetti, Mario; Minozzi, Simona; Fortini, Patrizia; Catalano, Paola; Mariani-Costantini, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Recent archaeological excavations at the Carcer/Tullianum, in the Roman Forum, allowed the unexpected recovery of human burials associated with the very early foundations of the monument, at the beginning of the iron age. The study of these burials resulted in interesting paleopathological discoveries, concerning the skeleton of a strongly-built male, radiocarbon-dated between 830 and 780 BC. The telltale posture of the skeleton and the presence of a massive perimortal blunt force trauma of the skull shed light on the mode and circumstances of the death of this subject, and are suggestive of ritual sacrifice. The archaeological, mythological and historical backgrounds, combined with the paleopathological evidence, help us to get a glimpse of life and death at the origins of Rome.

  3. Science and culture around the Montessori's first "Children's Houses" in Rome (1907-1915).

    PubMed

    Foschi, Renato

    2008-01-01

    Between 1907 and 1908, Maria Montessori's (1870-1952) educational method was elaborated at the Children's Houses of the San Lorenzo district in Rome. This pioneering experience was the basis for the international fame that came to Montessori after the publication of her 1909 volume dedicated to her "Method." The "Montessori Method" was considered by some to be scientific, liberal, and revolutionary. The present article focuses upon the complex contexts of the method's elaboration. It shows how the Children's Houses developed in relation to a particular scientific and cultural eclecticism. It describes the factors that both favored and hindered the method's elaboration, by paying attention to the complex network of social, institutional, and scientific relationships revolving around the figure of Maria Montessori. A number of "contradictory" dimensions of Montessori's experience are also examined with a view to helping to revise her myth and offering the image of a scholar who was a real early-twentieth-century prototype of a "multiple" behavioral scientist.

  4. [Musculoskeletal diseases among musicians of the "teatro dell'Opera" of Rome].

    PubMed

    Monaco, Edoardo; Vicaro, Vincenzo; Catarinozzi, Elena; Rossi, Marina; Prestigiacomo, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Musculo-skeletal injuries represent a significant medical problem in professional musicians for which was coined the following acronym PRMDs (that stands for Playing Related Musculoskeletal disorders). A little osteo-articular problem in the professional musicians can impact on a real decreasing performance activity. The purpose of this study is to quantify prevalence of PRMDs syntoms among the professional musicians and to verify their relative impact on quality lives. This study has investigated the orchestral staff of the principal lyric theatre of Rome to which it was distributed DASH OUTCOME and SF-36 questionnaires to identify the presence of musculoskeletal complaints for cervical brachial syndrome and the general quality of life respectively. The employment of the above methodology furnish statistically significant results, pointing out that the musicians quality life suffering from musculo-skeletal symptomatology (DASH SF > or = 15) was lower than ones without a clinical symptomatology. Subsequently these results were compared with the Italian population benchmarking values.

  5. The archive of the History of Psychology at the University of Rome, Sapienza.

    PubMed

    Bartolucci, Chiara; Fox Lee, Shayna

    2016-02-01

    The History of Psychology Archive at the University of Rome, Sapienza was founded in 2008 in the Department of Dynamic and Clinical Psychology. The archive aspires to become an indispensable tool to (a) understand the currents, schools, and research traditions that have marked the path of Italian psychology, (b) focus on issues of general and applied psychology developed in each university, (c) identify experimental and clinical-differential methodologies specific to each lab, (d) reconstruct the genesis and consolidation of psychology institutions and, ultimately, (e) write a "story," set according to the most recent historiographical criteria. The archive is designed according to scholarship on the history of Italian psychology from the past two decades. The online archive is divided into five sections for ease of access. The Sapienza archive is a work in progress and it has plans for expansion. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. [Concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 particulate material in the atmosphere of Rome].

    PubMed

    Marconi, A; Menichini, E; Ziemacki, G; Cattani, G; Stacchini, G

    2000-01-01

    Starting from 1993, various monitoring campaigns were carried out in Rome to determine PM10 and PM2.5. Their results are presented here cumulatively, with the aim of obtaining preliminary information on relationships among these size fractions, in various seasonal periods and in two sites with different characteristics (a road site and an urban background site in a public park). Particles were collected on filter and gravimetrically determined. Both PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations show temporal fluctuations with higher values during winter months. Background concentrations are lower than those contemporaneously measured at the road site only to a limited extent (10-17%). The contribution of PM2.5 to PM10 during the winter semester is higher than during the summer one (67 vs. 52%), with no substantial intersite differences.

  7. The development of pain medicine in Italy and the rest of Europe 40 years after the first International Association for the Study of Pain Congress.

    PubMed

    Varrassi, Giustino; Paladini, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Professor Giustino Varrassi and Antonella Paladini speak to Jade Parker, Commissioning Editor: Professor Giustino Varrassi is Full Professor of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine in the LUdeS University, Valletta, Malta. He graduated at the Medical School of the University 'La Sapienza' (Rome, Italy) in 1973, and became board certified in Anesthesiology and Intensive Care in 1976 and in Pneumology in 1978, both in the same Medical School. He is currently President of the European League Against Pain and of the Paolo Procacci Foundation, and is a founding member of both of these. He is also a member of the World Institute of Pain, and a member of the Board of the Associazione Italiana per lo Studio del Dolore. He has been an invited speaker at more than 500 congresses (national and international), mainly in obstetric anesthesia and pain medicine. He is also the author of approximately 500 papers, published in international and national scientific journals, and 46 book chapters, mainly on obstetric anesthesia and pain medicine. He is the editor of 31 books and congress proceedings, including a textbook on obstetric anesthesia. He has also been the organizer of around 40 congresses, including European and World congresses on Pain Medicine. Professor Antonella Paladini is an Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine at the L'Aquila University, Italy. She has recently been nominated as Associate Professor of Anesthesiology in the LUdeS University, in Valletta, Malta. She graduated in medicine at L'Aquila University in 1989, and has got her Board Certification with laude in Anesthesia in 1992 and served as anesthetist in few teaching hospitals, mainly in cardiac surgery departments. Since 2000, she is in charge of the L'Aquila University, and has addressed her interests toward pain medicine. In 2004, she got the Board Certificate in Pain Medicine, with laude, in the University of Verona. She has a huge scientific production, with over 60 papers published in

  8. A Flexible School for Early Childhood Education in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the design of a flexible school for childhood education in Milan, Italy. The architecture of this school takes into account children's development and the different ways they experience space according to their age. The facilities will include not only a nursery school and kindergarten, but also a drop-in day-care centre, a…

  9. Italy Presses Forward in Educating Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giangreco, Michael F.; Doyle, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Italy has a long history of including students with disabilities in general education classes. Their efforts offer unique perspectives and practices from which other countries may benefit. The article highlights four notable attributes about the Italian approach and discusses implications for American schools.

  10. Celiac Disease in Patients Fulfilling the Rome III Criteria for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Attending Gastroenterology Department of A Tertiary Care Hospital in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, M K; Chakraborty, R; Gope, S; Rahman, M A; Miah, A R; Raihan, A S; Sarkar, S; Paul, B K; Ferdousi, K R

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal disorder that substantially affects patients' quality of life and is associated with a considerable drain of health-care resources and economic burden. But some IBS patients may have celiac disease that could be treated by gluten-free diet which will subsequently improve their quality of life. This study was done to see the prevalence of celiac disease among the IBS patients fulfilling Rome III criteria. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Gastroenterology at BSMMU, Dhaka from July 2010 to September 2011. A total of 107 patients aged ranging between 16-60 years clinically labeled as IBS and fulfilled Rome III criteria were included as study sample. The test statistics used to analyze the data were descriptive statistics. The mean age of the patients was 31.5±10.3 years and male to female ratio was roughly 6:1. The mean duration of IBS was 32.0±2.1 months. All of the patients had abdominal discomfort or pain in the preceding 6 months and had a history of loose (mushy) or watery stool, 99.1% had pain or discomfort relieved with defaecation. The prevalence of diarrhoea was found in 78.5% and mixed 21.5% of the patients. About 5% of the patients had raised ESR and majority (86.9%) of the patients had normal level of hemoglobin. Ten (9%) of 107 patients were found positive for anti-t TG (IgA). These findings suggest that an around one-tenth of IBS especially diarrhoea predominant patients may have celiac disease who will respond to simple gluten-free diet thus minimizing the morbidity and mortality. So, all clinically diagnosed IBS patients especially diarrhoea predominant cases should be suggested for the screening for celiac disease.

  11. The Radio Phenomenon in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faenza, Roberto

    One in a series of studies of experiments in new audiovisual techniques in Europe and the situations in some member countries, this paper traces the development of radio in Italy. Opposing views about radio broadcasting (public monopoly vs. freedom of broadcasting) are examined, and the various political and legal aspects of communications in…

  12. Fluorine in the rocks and sediments of volcanic areas in central Italy: total content, enrichment and leaching processes and a hypothesis on the vulnerability of the related aquifers.

    PubMed

    De Rita, Donatella; Cremisini, Carlo; Cinnirella, Alessandro; Spaziani, Fabio

    2012-09-01

    Rock, sediment and water samples from areas characterised by hydrothermal alterations in the Sabatini and Vico Volcanic Districts, near Rome and the large city of Viterbo, respectively, were collected and analysed to determine the total fluorine (F) content and to understand the F geochemical background level in the volcanic districts of central Italy. Leaching and alteration processes controlling the high concentration of F in water were also investigated. Fluorine concentrations were directly determined (potentiometrically) by an F selective electrode in water samples, while the procedure for rock samples included preliminary F dissolution through alkaline fusion. F concentrations higher than 800 mg kg(-1) were commonly found in the analysed rocks and sediments; the concentration depended on the lithology and on the distance from the alteration areas. A specific successive sampling campaign was conducted in three areas where the F content in sediments was particularly high; in the same areas, measurements of CO(2) flux were also performed to investigate the possible deep origin of F. To verify the relationships among the high F contents in rocks and sediments, the leaching processes involved and the presence of F in the aquifer, we also collected water samples in the western sector of the Sabatini Volcanic District, where hydrothermal manifestations and mineral springs are common. The data were processed using a GIS system in which the F distribution was combined with morphological and geological observations. The main results of our study are that (1) F concentrations are higher in volcanic and recently formed travertine (especially in hydrothermally altered sediments) than in sedimentary rocks and decrease with distance from hydrothermal alteration areas, (2) F is more easily leached from hydrothermally altered rocks and from travertine and (3) sediments enriched with F may indicate the presence of deep regional fractures that represent direct pathways of

  13. Veneto Region, Italy. Health system review.

    PubMed

    Toniolo, Franco; Mantoan, Domenico; Maresso, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. This HiT is one of the first to be written on a subnational level of government and focuses on the Veneto Region of northern Italy. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The Veneto Region is one of Italy's richest regions and the health of its resident population compares favourably with other regions in Italy. Life expectancy for both men and women, now at 79.1 and 85.2 years, respectively, is slightly higher than the national average, while mortality rates are comparable to national ones. The major causes of death are tumours and cardiovascular diseases. Under Italy's National Health Service, the organization and provision of health care is a regional responsibility and regions must provide a nationally defined (with regional input) basic health benefit package to all of their citizens; extra services may be provided if budgets allow. Health care is mainly financed by earmarked central and regional taxes, with regions receiving their allocated share of resources from the National Health Fund. Historically, health budget deficits have been a major problem in most Italian regions, but since the early 2000s the introduction of efficiency measures and tighter procedures on financial management have contributed to a significant decrease in the Veneto Regions health budget deficit.The health system is governed by the Veneto Region government (Giunta) via the Departments of Health and Social Services, which receive technical support from a single General Management Secretariat. Health care is

  14. Preliminary Seismic Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Map for Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorito, Stefano; Selva, Jacopo; Basili, Roberto; Grezio, Anita; Molinari, Irene; Piatanesi, Alessio; Romano, Fabrizio; Tiberti, Mara Monica; Tonini, Roberto; Bonini, Lorenzo; Michelini, Alberto; Macias, Jorge; Castro, Manuel J.; González-Vida, José Manuel; de la Asunción, Marc

    2015-04-01

    We present a preliminary release of the first seismic probabilistic tsunami hazard map for Italy. The map aims to become an important tool for the Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC), as well as a support tool for the NEAMTWS Tsunami Service Provider, the Centro Allerta Tsunami (CAT) at INGV, Rome. The map shows the offshore maximum tsunami elevation expected for several average return periods. Both crustal and subduction earthquakes are considered. The probability for each scenario (location, depth, mechanism, source size, magnitude and temporal rate) is defined on a uniform grid covering the entire Mediterranean for crustal earthquakes and on the plate interface for subduction earthquakes. Activity rates are assigned from seismic catalogues and basing on a tectonic regionalization of the Mediterranean area. The methodology explores the associated aleatory uncertainty through the innovative application of an Event Tree. Main sources of epistemic uncertainty are also addressed although in preliminary way. The whole procedure relies on a database of pre-calculated Gaussian-shaped Green's functions for the sea level elevation, to be used also as a real time hazard assessment tool by CAT. Tsunami simulations are performed using the non-linear shallow water multi-GPU code HySEA, over a 30 arcsec bathymetry (from the SRTM30+ dataset) and the maximum elevations are stored at the 50-meter isobath and then extrapolated through the Green's law at 1 meter depth. This work is partially funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839, and by the Italian flagship project RITMARE.

  15. Archaeology in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKendrick, Paul

    1979-01-01

    Describes several archaeological sites and Roman art works in which to study ancient Roman history, including Lavinium, Paestum, Cosa, Praeneste, the Augustine temples, Sperlonga, the J. Paul Getty Museum, and the cemetery under St. Peter's. (CK)

  16. Introducing the advanced burn life support (ABLS) course in Italy.

    PubMed

    D'Asta, F; Homsi, J; Clark, P; Buffalo, M C; Melandri, D; Carboni, A; Pinzauti, E; Graziano, A; Masellis, A; Bussolin, L; Messineo, A

    2014-05-01

    Systematic education based on internationally standardized programs is a well-established practice in Italy, especially in the emergency health care system. However, until recently, a specific program to treat burns was not available to guide emergency physicians, nurses, or volunteers acting as first responders. In 2010, two national faculty members, acting as ABA observers, and one Italian course coordinator, trained and certified in the United States, conducted a week-long training program which fully certified 10 Italian instructors. Authorized ABLS provider courses were conducted in Italy between 2010 and 2012, including one organized prior to the 20th annual meeting of the Italian Society of Burns (SIUst). In order to increase the effectiveness and diffusion of the course in Italy, changes were approved by the ABA to accommodate societal differences, including the translation of the manual into Italian. The ABA has also approved the creation and publication of a bilingual ABLS Italian website for the purpose of promoting the ABLS course in Italy. In response to high demand, a second ABLS Instructor course was organized in 2012 and has been attended by physicians and nurses from several Italian burn centers. In the following discourse the experiences of the first 15 Italian ABLS courses will be discussed.

  17. [Murder. Italy-USA comparative profiles].

    PubMed

    Palermo, George B; Mastronardi, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    This paper, through illustrative cases of homicidal typologies, examines the generally accepted theories on the subject: 1) sociological ones by Lorenz to Sutherland and Cressey, by Berkowitz to Wolfgang and Ferracuti and others; 2) neurobiological ones, which include the involvement of the limbic, hippocampal and parietal lobes of the brain; 3) the psychological (psychodynamic) ones which are not disjoint from the types of individual criminal homicide and related aspects. In the discussion of the types of murders, family and extrafamilial murders are then taken into consideration, with the various meanings of revenge, challenge, other reasons linked to robbery, theft, settling scores leading to youth gangs and drive-by-shootings of marginalized adolescents, crimes related to drugs and to mental disorders. Infanticide and multiple murder, including mass murder and serial killer, conclude the work together with the statistics of murders and family murders in Italy compared to USA, specifically to the crime clock.

  18. Republic of Italy (country profile).

    PubMed

    Hakkert, R

    1986-02-01

    This discussion of Italy focuses on the following: cities and regions; population growth; households and families; housing and construction; ethnicity and religion; education; economy and labor force; consumption; and transport and communications. Italy, with its total area of 116,374 square miles, is about the size of Florida and Georgia combined. Its 56.6 million people form the 2nd largest population in Western Europe, after West Germany, but slightly larger than Great Britain and France. The main administrative divisions are 20 regions, subdivided into 95 provinces. The provinces in turn are divided into 8090 "comuni" or municipalities. The 6 cities with more than 500,000 people are Roma, Milano, Napoli, Torino, Genova, and Palermo. They account for 14% of the population. The 43 cities with between 100,000-500,000 account for another 13%. There are 373 middle-sized communities with between 20,000 and 100,000 people, accounting for 26% of population. Italy has a regional problem. The line separating the regions of Emilia Romagna, Toscana, Umbria, and Lazio from the regions to the south and east is important. The regions north of it hold 62% of the population but are responsible for 73% of the gross national product (GNP) and 78% of the industrial product. The regions to the south are economically much weaker. At the time of the last Italian census on October 25, 1981, the country counted 56.6 million inhabitants. Compared to 33.5 million at the turn of the century, this implies an average annual growth rate of .61%. Between 1900-70, nearly 20 million Italians left their country. Most settled in the US, Argentina, and Brazil. Beginning in the 1960s, a new sort of migration was added as young Italians temporarily left to work in the more prosperous countries of northern Europe. The birthrate, which had declined slowly to 18/1000 during the 1960s, fell more rapidly during the 1970s, to 10.9/1000 in 1981 and 10.3 in 1984. The death rate in Italy has changed little

  19. Italy INAF Analysis Center Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activity of the Italian INAF VLBI Analysis Center. Our Analysis Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics. IRA runs the observatories of Medicina and Noto, where two 32-m VLBI AZ-EL telescopes are situated. This report contains the AC's VLBI data analysis activities and shortly outlines the investigations into the co-locations of space geodetic instruments.

  20. Southern Italy, Instrument Pointing Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This view of the 'heel' of the 'boot' of Southern Italy (40.5N, 18.0E) shows the rich an varied detail of the Salentina peninsula. This southern promontory, projecting into the Mediterranean Sea, is known for its year round mild climate and agricultural produce. The typical European cluster city and town plan wherein the farming population lives in communities and commutes to the fields can be observed throughout the peninsula.

  1. Exposure to benzene in urban workers: environmental and biological monitoring of traffic police in Rome

    PubMed Central

    Crebelli, R; Tomei, F; Zijno, A; Ghittori, S; Imbriani, M; Gamberale, D; Martini, A; Carere, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To evaluate the contribution of traffic fumes to exposure to benzene in urban workers, an investigation on personal exposure to benzene in traffic police from the city of Rome was carried out.
METHODS—The study was performed from December 1998 to June 1999. Diffusive Radiello personal samplers were used to measure external exposures to benzene and alkyl benzenes during the workshift in 139 policemen who controlled medium to high traffic areas and in 63 office police. Moreover, as biomarkers of internal exposure to benzene, blood benzene, and urinary trans, trans-muconic and S-phenyl mercapturic acids were measured at the beginning and at the end of the workshift in 124 traffic police and 58 office police.
RESULTS—Time weighted average (TWA) exposure to benzene was consistently higher among traffic police than among indoor workers (geometric mean 6.8 and 3.5 µg/m3, respectively). Among the traffic police, the distribution of individual exposures was highly asymmetric, skewed toward higher values. Mean ambient benzene concentrations measured by municipal air monitoring stations during workshifts of traffic police were generally higher (geometric mean 12.6 µg/m3) and did not correlat with personal exposure values. In particular, no association was found between highest personal exposure scores and environmental benzene concentrations. Among the exposure biomarkers investigated, only blood benzene correlated slightly with on-shift exposure to benzene, but significant increases in both urinary trans, trans-muconic and S-phenylmercapturic acids were found in active smokers compared with non-smokers, irrespective of their job.
CONCLUSION—The exposure to traffic fumes during working activities in medium to high traffic areas in Rome may give a relatively greater contribution to personal exposure to benzene than indoor sources present in confined environments. Smoking significantly contributed to internal exposure to benzene in both

  2. Persistent environmental contaminants in human milk: concentrations and time trends in Italy.

    PubMed

    Abballe, Annalisa; Ballard, Terri J; Dellatte, Elena; di Domenico, Alessandro; Ferri, Fabiola; Fulgenzi, Anna Rita; Grisanti, Giulio; Iacovella, Nicola; Ingelido, Anna Maria; Malisch, Rainer; Miniero, Roberto; Porpora, Maria Grazia; Risica, Serena; Ziemacki, Gianni; De Felip, Elena

    2008-08-01

    Breast milk monitoring studies of persistent and toxic environmental contaminants are of primary importance for carrying out an adequate risk assessment at the actual levels of human exposure and represent a major source of information on infant perinatal exposure. Milk specimens from mothers of the general population of the Venice and Rome areas were collected over the 1998-2001 period, pooled, and analyzed for selected persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, hexachlorobenzene), and polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and the heavy metals Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Sn, and Zn. The goal was to verify whether mother milk from the Venice area, whose lagoon is partly under direct industrial impact, had a contaminant load greater than that from the Rome area, primarily urban. For mothers from the Venice area, the correlation between fish and fishery product consumption and contaminant concentrations in milk was also explored, with however inconclusive results. The concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, dioxin-like PCBs, and organochlorinated pesticides determined in this study were compared with those available from a previous analytical work carried out on 1987 human milk pools of domestic origin: the declining trend of the aforesaid contaminants in milk is confirmed to be in agreement with what was observed in other European countries. The breast milk content of (137)Cs and (40)K radionuclides was also determined and compared with data obtained in other research programmes carried out in Italy: the health risk for breastfed infants was deemed to be not significant.

  3. Seismic risk perception in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Risk perception is a fundamental element in the definition and the adoption of preventive counter-measures. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. This paper presents results of a survey on seismic risk perception in Italy conducted from January 2013 to present . The research design combines a psychometric and a cultural theoretic approach. More than 7,000 on-line tests have been compiled. The data collected show that in Italy seismic risk perception is strongly underestimated; 86 on 100 Italian citizens, living in the most dangerous zone (namely Zone 1), do not have a correct perception of seismic hazard. From these observations we deem that extremely urgent measures are required in Italy to reach an effective way to communicate seismic risk. Finally, the research presents a comparison between groups on seismic risk perception: a group involved in campaigns of information and education on seismic risk and a control group.

  4. Workshop on Constructal Theory of the Generation of Optimal Flow Configurations Held in Rome, Italy on 17-18 March 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    all power stations engines u -.- in Great Britain -.- Q) I I (l) c 0.2 tl.O Automobile c Open gas-turbine Q) engines ..... plants co Q) :r...AfOSR) Enrico Sciubba (U. of Romal) REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of...Operations and Reports , 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork

  5. Translation and validation of the Farsi version of Rome III diagnostic questionnaire for the adult functional gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Toghiani, Ali; Maleki, Iradj; Afshar, Hamid; Kazemian, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to validate the Farsi version of Rome III modular questionnaire which contains all functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). Materials and Methods: We used Rome foundation guidelines for translation of English version into Farsi, and all the steps were performed. In the first step, 2 forward translations into Farsi were completed by two authors separately, and then translators, who participated in Step 1, together with our monitor, compared the two target-language versions and made some changes. The product of Phase 2 was translated back into English by an American-Iranian physician. The final step was comparison of the two English versions and validation of the translation. In this step, we compared the final version item by item, and also we used focus groups of patients after pretesting. Results: Our results showed that FGIDs questionnaire diagnosed 153 patients among 169 patients who were diagnosed to have different types of FGIDs. The sensitivity of this questionnaire was 90.5%. It was determined that the odd questions' values of Cronbach’s alpha was 0.77 (very reliable), and it was 0.71 (very reliable) in other sections. The split-half test reliability of whole items value was 0.72, which is statistically significant. Conclusion: Our findings showed that the Farsi version of Rome III diagnostic questionnaire for the adult functional gastrointestinal disorders demonstrated good validity and reliability and could be used in clinical studies. PMID:28250780

  6. Multitemporal floristic analysis on a humid area in Rome's archaeological site as indicator for environmental change.

    PubMed

    Ceschin, Simona; Salerno, Giovanni; Caneva, Giulia

    2009-02-01

    A multitemporal analysis on a humid area in Rome's archaeological site is presented; the floristic data are used as bioindicators for main environmental changes over the last 50 years. By comparing the structural, biogeographical and ecological features of today's florula with the ones of a 1955 survey, and by assessing the new, the rare and the locally disappeared species, it was possible to define and analyse the main floristic changes and their ecological meaning for this site. Our results show that the floristic richness of the area did not differ significantly from 1955. However, the species composition has changed considerably: over 40% of the species have disappeared. More than half of these were rare and typical of humid environments. Approximately the same number of species has appeared but these are mainly ruderal and widespread entities, with the overall result being a progressive and general vulgarization of the local flora. Finally, we analyse the main reasons, linked for the most part to human activities, which led to the reported floristic changes.

  7. [Health status and life style in Castel Malnome (Rome, I-II cent. A. D.)].

    PubMed

    Catalano, P; Benassi, V; Caldarini, C; Cianfriglia, L; Mosticone, R; Nava, A; Pantano, W; Porreca, F

    2010-01-01

    The necropolis of Castel Malnome, chronologically framed between the I and II century AD, is located in the vicinity of Ponte Galeria (Rome), nearby the via Portuense. The excavation of the funerary site has allowed the collection of 292 inhumations, referred to the lower social classes and for the most part adult males. Regarding the funerary ritual, only the 42.8% of the graves had a tiles cover, while about one third provided grave goods. The field analysis shows that almost all the burials are primaries, and is not possible to highlight a main position of the inhumated individuals. The laboratory analysis, till today carried out on 100 individuals, shows a high degree of skeletal robustness and of occupational markers due to heavy work load (inflammation, muscle-skeletal trauma, fractures, osteoarthritis, enthesopathies). The recording of oral pathologies and aspecific stresses, in order to obtain information about the health status of the population, shows a very high frequency of caries mainly related to poor dental hygiene, and of enamel hypoplasia.

  8. [Aspects of senile dementia in ancient Rome: literary fiction and factual reality].

    PubMed

    Moog, Ferdinand Peter; Schäfer, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Old people and their pecularities have been the object of writers since the beginning of Western literature. The aim of this study is to verify the social and juridical significance of senile dementia in ancient Rome. Among the few relevant sources the 10th satire of Juvenal attracts attention. It describes a demented patient who revises his succession in favour of a lady with bad reputation. Logically, we wonder whether such dispositions were possible and after all legally binding. Or did Juvenal exaggerate? A look at the Roman legislation shows: Since the Twelve Tablet Law there were instruments to control or to help demented people. This meant care in the sense of the today's curatorship or guardianship. These measures were supposed to prevent extravagancy or doing business and legal acts like marriages or last wills in the state of diminished responsibility. Nevertheless, it must be assumed that there was a considerable discrepancy between juridical theory and daily practice, because the position of the "pater familias" was virtually untouchable, the individual freedom of the full citizen was firmly underlined and the Roman civil law allowed only little executive interferences. Juvenal's bizarre example should not only be taken as good literary fiction. It might reflect the sad, but nevertheless probable reality of the people directly concerned. Apart from that it has to be said that senile dementia played only a minor role in Roman legislation. Mainly because there were considerably less very old people--and in particular people with senile dementia--than today.

  9. Characterisation of artificial patinas on bronze sculptures of the Carlo Bilotti Museum (Rome)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanova Municchia, A.; Bellatreccia, F.; D'Ercoli, G.; Lo Mastro, S.; Reho, I.; Ricci, M. A.; Sodo, A.

    2016-12-01

    Two bronze sculptures, Ettore e Andromaca, a reproduction of a plaster model by Giorgio de Chirico, and Cardinale, a cast made from an original by Giacomo Manzù, stand outside the Carlo Bilotti contemporary art museum in Villa Borghese park (Rome). The composition of the artificial brown patina present on the statues' surface, which was applied for aesthetic purposes, is unknown. This paper reports analysis carried out to identify the composition of the artificial patina and describe the corrosion products formed in outdoor conditions. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy equipped with X-ray microanalysis were performed on sample fragments and powder scrapings taken from the bronze statues. X-ray powder diffraction was used whenever possible and subject to conservation priorities. Our data revealed, in the artificial brown patina, the formation of copper oxides (cuprite and tenorite) on the surface of both sculptures as possible result of oxidisation treatments performed with a blowtorch before the artificial patination process began. Furthermore, a copper nitrate (gerhardtite) was identified as an ingredient in the preparation applied to the bronze surfaces. The green areas revealed the presence of corrosion products as copper sulphate hydroxide (brochantite) and copper sulphate-chloride (connellite), which form under acid rains conditions.

  10. Seasonal dynamics of tick species in an urban park of Rome.

    PubMed

    Di Luca, Marco; Toma, Luciano; Bianchi, Riccardo; Quarchioni, Elisa; Marini, Luca; Mancini, Fabiola; Ciervo, Alessandra; Khoury, Cristina

    2013-12-01

    Regular collections were obtained in the Natural Reserve of the Insugherata of Rome during 2011 in order to obtain the tick species composition and the respective seasonal dynamics of the area. A total of 325 ticks was collected in selected sites by means of drag sampling. Among the identified species, Rhipicephalus turanicus was the most abundant (72.3%), followed by Ixodes ricinus (19.7%), Dermacentor marginatus (6.5%), Haemaphysalis punctata (1.2%), and Rhipicephalus bursa (0.3%). R. turanicus occurred mainly in pastures, showing a mono-modal seasonal activity pattern from spring to early summer. Questing I. ricinus were prevalent in woodland from October to May, and the seasonal trend of specimens showed a weak peak in winter. Although adult D. marginatus exhibited seasonal dynamics similar to I. ricinus, with an activity period from October to April, this species occurred in a different environment (pasture) and with considerably lower densities. Haemaphysalis punctata and R. bursa were rare, with an apparent autumn and autumn-winter seasonal activity, respectively. While the species diversity recorded appears as an unequivocal consequence of the natural state of the park, the remarkable R. turanicus density could be a direct effect of the recent introduction of wild boar, as carriers, from the close Veio Park. The presence of the species, a proven vector of various diseases in humans and domestic animals, is discussed in the light of the possible risk of tick-bite exposure of park workers and visitors.

  11. Understanding the acoustics of Papal Basilicas in Rome by means of a coupled-volumes approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martellotta, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    The paper investigates the acoustics of the four World-famous Papal Basilicas in Rome, namely Saint Peter's, St. John Lateran's, St. Paul's outside the Walls, and Saint Mary's Major. They are characterized by different dimensions, materials, and architectural features, as well as by a certain number of similarities. In addition, their complexity determines significant variation in their acoustics depending on the relative position of source and receivers. A detailed set of acoustic measurements was carried out in each church, using both spatial (B-format) and binaural microphones, and determining the standard ISO 3382 descriptors. The results are analyzed in relation to the architectural features, pointing out the differences observed in terms of listening experience. Finally, in order to explain some of the results found in energy-based parameters, the churches were analyzed as a system of acoustically coupled volumes. The latter explained most of the anomalies observed in the distribution of acoustic parameters, while showing at the same time that secondary spaces (aisles, chapels) play a different role depending on the amount of sound absorption located in the main nave.

  12. [Hand washing: comparison between professionals and students behaviours in a large University hospital of Rome].

    PubMed

    Sansoni, Julita; Mariani, Paola; De Caro, Walter; Sorrentino, Milena; Marucci, Anna Rita; Giammarco, Enrichetta; Di Foggia, Fernanda; Cristofaro, Domenico; van de Mortel, Thea

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the study is assessing knowledge, opinions and compliance with the procedures of health professionals (physician, nurses, medical and nursing students) about Hand Hygiene (HH). There is a number of research which indicates that physicians respect less than nurses Hand Hygiene, there are a smaller number which investigates the differences in the attitude of the aforementioned subjects during their studies. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 756 participants (252 doctors, 268 nurses, 117 nursing students and 119 students of medicine) at a large University Hospital in Rome, to determine their knowledge, compliance and procedures with Hand Hygiene. Knowledge of medical students is lower than that of nursing students, as well as they have lower values in adherence to practice. In both HH Beliefs Scale (HBS) and HH Practices Inventory (HHPI) questionnaires, nursing students have higher scores than nurses, doctors and medical students. The questions on the use of alcohol-based cleaners have been those where there was the lowest number of correct responses, across all professions. Physicians compared to nurses have a lower adherence to Hand Hygiene. Future research should clarify what the differences are in the construction of the study on the practice of washing hands, what are the barriers to health professionals and best methods for teaching habits, namely the effectiveness of hand washing. Professionals should be more involved in the fight against Healthcare-associated infections.

  13. A statistical analysis on the relationship between thunderstorms and the sporadic E Layer over Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, V.; Scotto, C.; Pietrella, M.; Sgrigna, V.; Conti, L.; Sátori, G.

    2013-11-01

    Meteorological processes (cold fronts, mesoscale convective complexes, thunderstorms) in the troposphere can generate upward propagating waves in the neutral atmosphere affecting the behaviour of the ionosphere. One type of these waves are the internal atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) which are often generated by thunderstorms. Davis & Johnson (2005) found in low pressure systems that a localized intensification of the sporadic E layer (Es) can be attributed to lightnings. To confirm this result, we have performed two different statistical analysis using the time series of the critical frequency (foEs), the virtual height of the sporadic E layer (h'Es), and meteorological observations (lightnings, Infrared maps) over the ionospheric station of Rome (41.9o N, 12.5o E). In the first statistical analysis, we separated the days of 2009 into two groups: stormy days and fair-weather days, then we studied the occurrence and the properties of the Es separately for the two different groups. No significant differences have been found. In the second case, a superposed epoch analysis (SEA) was used to study the behaviour of the critical frequency and virtual height 100 hours before and after the lightnings. The SEA shows a statistically significant decrease in the critical frequency after the time of the lightnings, which indicates a sudden decrease in the electron density of the sporadic E layer associated with lightnings.

  14. Food as a weapon: Bucharest, Rome and the politics of starvation.

    PubMed

    Segal, B

    1974-01-01

    At the convention of the World Food Conference, leaders of the underdeveloped nations hoped to press for changes in international trade relations while U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger hoped to use the conference as a forum to link food shortages to overpopulation. Kissinger tried to put the blame for the food crisis on the oil producing nations and the "energy crisis" they brought about and made it clear that the U.S. no longer plans to provide most of the world's food aid. The underdeveloped nations did not accept this. They still blame the crisis on the U.S., which they say controls more food than the fuel the oil producing nations control. The U.S. has historically used food as a tool of foreign policy, and with the increasing dependency of the U.S. on the raw supplies of the underdeveloped world, there is growing talk of using food to blackmail nations into adopting population control programs. One such proposal came in Rome by former U.S. government official Richard Gardner, who suggested a "global survival pact" under which rich nations would conserve food, energy, and raw materials in return for commitments by Third World nations to change their suicidal demographic, agricultural and environmental practices. Another proposal was made by Congressman Jerry Litton who said he would introduce legislation banning food aid to any country with above average population growth and which was not doing anything to reduce it.

  15. Patients dropping out of treatment in Italy.

    PubMed

    Morlino, M; Martucci, G; Musella, V; Bolzan, M; de Girolamo, G

    1995-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the extent and the specific features of drop-out for patients having a first contact with an university psychiatric outpatient clinic in Italy over the course of 1 year and to determine which variables were associated with early termination of treatment. Of the 158 patients selected for this study, there was an overall 3-month drop-out rate following the first visit of 63%. Of the 59 patients who had returned once after the initial contact, 28 interrupted subsequently the treatment, although the therapist's plan included further visits. The overall drop-out rate at 3 months was thus 82%. The only 2 variables associated with drop-out rates were the patients' perception of the severity of their disorder and the psychiatric history: continuing patients were more frequently in agreement with the clinician's judgment as compared with those who dropped out and were more likely to have already been in psychiatric treatment.

  16. Carbon Release in Italy through Volcanic, Tectonic and Other Styles of Degassing: Implication for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Storage.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigi, S.; Lombardi, S.; Beaubien, S.; Graziani, S.; Tartarello, M. C.; Ruggiero, L.; Ciotoli, G.; Sacco, P.; De Angelis, D.; Annunziatellis, A.

    2014-12-01

    One of the key criteria for successful geological storage of CO2 is that the target reservoir must not leak the stored gases over extended periods. Due to the peculiarity of its geological and geodynamic setting, which results in the production, accumulation, and leakage of large volumes of natural CO2, the Italian peninsula can be used as a natural laboratory as it provides to study gas migration mechanisms in large-scale geological systems, as well as to determine whether and how much sequestered CO2 could hypothetically leak from a subsurface reservoir. Moving from west to east, the Italian peninsula includes several geodynamic settings: the Tyrrhenian back arc basin and associated volcanic arcs, the Apennines fold and thrust belt, and the Adriatic foredeep. All of them are characterized by a diffuse and/or massive degassing of deeply derived CO2, which is usually emitted by vents or dissolved and transported by large aquifers. In the volcanic islands, in the south of the Tyrrhenian Sea, large areas are characterized by leakage from the sea floor. Based on the statistical and geo-spatial interpretation of more than 40,000 soil gas samples collected in central and southern Italy by the Fluid Chemistry Laboratory of "La Sapienza" University of Rome over more than 30 years of activity, different migration patterns related to the different geodynamic settings are distinguished and described. This very large database has been organised and managed in a GIS environment that allows the calculation of fundamental statistical parameters, the analysis of distribution patterns, the study of spatial autocorrelation and spatial heterogeneity, and the elaboration of maps. The interpretation of these data allow us to define background values of CO2, strongly related to geological setting, and other minor (CH4) and trace gases (He and Rn), that characterise the different geological scenarios. A common feature is that anomalous gas concentrations occur in restricted zones, both

  17. Monitoring the Pollino Earthquake Swarm (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessler, D.; Passarelli, L.; Govoni, A.; Rivalta, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Mercure Basin (MB) and the Castrovillari Fault (CF) in the Pollino range (southern Apennines, Italy) representone of the most prominent seismic gaps in the Italian seismic catalog, with no M>6 earthquakes during the lastcenturies. In recent times, the MB has been repeatedly interested by seismic swarms.The most energetic swarm started in 2010 and still active in 2014. The seismicity culminated in autumn 2012 with a M=5 event on October 25. In contrast, the CF appears aseismic. Only the northern part of the CF has experienced microseismicity.The range host a number of additional sub-parallel faults.Their rheology is unclear. Current debates include the potential of the MB and the CF to host largeearthquakes and the level and the style of deformation.Understanding the seismicity and the behaviour of the faultsis therefore necessary to assess the seismic hazard. The GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and INGV, Italy, have been jointly monitoring the ongoing seismicity using a small-aperture seismic array, integrated in a temporary seismic network. Using the array, we automatically detect about ten times more earthquakes than currently included inlocal catalogues corresponding to completeness above M~0.5.In the course of the swarm, seismicity has mainly migrated within the Mercure Basin.However, the eastward spread towards the northern tio of the CF in 2013 marksa phase with seismicity located outside of the Mercure Basin.The event locations indicate spatially distinct clusters with different mechanisms across the E-W trending Pollino Fault.The clusters differ in strike and dip.Calibration of the local magnitude scale confirms earlier studies further north in the Apennines. The station corrections show N-S variation indicating that the Pollino Fault forms an important structural boundary.

  18. Italy: An Open Air Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Imagine if you could see the River Styx, bathe in the Fountain of Youth, collect water which enhances fertility, wear a gem that heals bodily ailments, understand how our health is affected by geomagnetic fields, venture close to the flames of Hell on Earth and much, much, more. Know something? These things exist - on Earth - today - in Italy and you can visit them because Italy is an open air museum. Ann C. Pizzorusso, in her recent book, reveals how Italy's geology has affected its art, literature, architecture, religion, medicine and just about everything else. She explores the geologic birth of the land, describing the formation of the Alps and Apennines, romantic bays of Tuscany and Lazio, volcanoes of the south and Caribbean-like beaches of Puglia. But that's not all, from the first pages of this visually stunning book, the reader has the impression of being in an art museum, where one can wander from page to page to satisfy one's curiosity-- guided from time to time by the Etruscan priests, Virgil, Dante, Goethe or Leonardo da Vinci himself. Pizzorusso stitches together widely diverse topics - such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion - using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. Wonderfully illustrated with many photos licensed from Italian museums, HRH Elizabeth II and the Ministero Beni Culturali the book highlights the best works in Italian museums and those outside in the "open air museums." This approach can be used in any other country in the world and can be used for cultural tourism (a tour following the book has been organized for cultural and university groups), an ideal way of linking museums to the surrounding landscape.

  19. Four years' experience in external proficiency testing programs for hair testing of drugs of abuse in Italy (HAIRVEQ) and comparison with the Society of Hair Testing program in 2005.

    PubMed

    Ventura, M; Pichini, S; Pujadas, M; Ventura, R; Di Giovannandrea, R; Zuccaro, P; Pacifici, R; Langohr, K; Jurado, C; de la Torre, R

    2007-02-01

    Since 2002, the Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy, in cooperation with Institut Municipal d'Investigaciò Mèdica, Barcelona, Spain, has set up an external proficiency testing program (HAIRVEQ) to evaluate reliability in hair testing for drug abuse by laboratories from the Italian National Health Service. The results obtained in the last 2 rounds (2004-2005) by 26 laboratories and the evolution of the performance in hair testing for drugs of abuse by laboratories that have participated during the whole external proficiency testing program are presented. The 3 hair samples from the last exercise (2005) were also included in the proficiency test organized by the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) and 17 international laboratories reported results. Samples analyzed in both exercises were real hair samples from drug consumers. In 2004, 2 identical samples were sent containing cocaine and opiates. One sample was a pulverized specimen and the second one was cut in short segments. In 2005, 2 samples, one containing MDMA and another containing cocaine, were included together with one blank sample. In 2004, approximately 42% of HAIRVEQ laboratories reported an erroneous qualitative result. The scatter of quantitative results was high, although no statistical differences, except for codeine, were found between results reported for the hair specimen if pulverized or reduced in short cuts. In 2005, 47 incorrect qualitative results were reported by HAIRVEQ laboratories, whereas only 5 were informed by SoHT laboratories. Concerning quantitative results, the ones from HAIRVEQ laboratories were comparable, although more dispersed, than those reported by SoHT laboratories. The scatter in quantitative results remained quite high and similar to those of the previous years; nonetheless, an improvement in the qualitative performance was observed. Considering the few number of laboratories showing a satisfying performance, guidelines have to be provided focused on method validation

  20. Integration in Italy: A Dynamic Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrigan, Carol

    The result of trips by American special educators to Italy in 1984 and 1986, this paper reviews laws, public policy, and events in Italy's recent history leading to widespread desegregation of the disabled special schools and other institutions. The review of legislation focuses on National Law 517 (1977) with such specified strategies for pupil…

  1. [Plinius and Greek physicians in Rome: the concept of nature and medical critique in Naturalis Historia].

    PubMed

    Hahn, J

    1991-01-01

    Pliny's historical outline of the development of medicine, in Natural History 29.1-27, is our primary source concerning the reception of scientific medicine at Rome during the later Republic and early Empire. Here, as elsewhere, Pliny handles Greek doctors and their medical practices with vehement disapproval. But this attitude, at first glance anti-Hellene, traditionalistic, and critical of his coevals, arises from more deeply rooted notions: a specific conception of nature which can be shown to be the basis of Pliny's critique of medicine and his own times. Reconstruction of this "Plinean" conception reveals a view of nature marked by Stoic terminology and categories, though in fact derivate from various sources, idiosyncratic and characterized by a genuine love of and respect for nature and her creations. True comprehension of the lessons offered by nature, resulting in concrete mores of behaviour and moral categories, as opposed to theory and speculation, is the proper modus operandi for Pliny. And thus, with regard to the human process of self-discovery in the natural world, medicine plays a decisive role--for providential nature displays herself most clearly in the production of healing substances. Pliny notes among the proponents of scientific medicine, a general disregard for nature and her rules, while he finds just the opposite in traditional medicine. His own accomplishment resides not only in the safeguarding of numberless recipies from the world of folk medicine, but also in the facts that he under-pins these traditional methods of healing, and their basic principles, with a specific conception of nature, and that he marks out an exceptionally important place for traditional methods of healing in the canon of general knowledge.

  2. [Knowledge of oral hygiene amongst adolescents in Lombardy, Italy].

    PubMed

    Camoni, Nicole; Arpesella, Marisa; Cutti, Sara; Livieri, Monica; Lanati, Niccolò; Tenconi, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated oral hygiene knowledge among a group of 12-year-old students in Lombardy, Italy (n=182). Two different questionnaires were administered, respectively to adolescents and to their parents. Results indicate a low level of general knowledge on this topic. Factors influencing knowledge include the number of learning sources and yearly access to a dental clinic. The described situation highlights the need to implement school-based educational interventions.

  3. A new age within MIS 7 for the Homo neanderthalensis of Saccopastore in the glacio-eustatically forced sedimentary successions of the Aniene River Valley, Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Fabrizio; Ceruleo, Piero; Jicha, Brian; Pandolfi, Luca; Petronio, Carmelo; Salari, Leonardo

    2015-12-01

    Field observations as well as borehole, sedimentological and geochronologic data allow us to reconstruct the geologic setting of the Aniene River Valley in northern Rome, framing it within the recently recognized picture of temporally constrained, glacio-eustatically forced aggradational successions of this region. The sedimentary successions cropping out in this area include those described in the literature of the early 20th century in Saccopastore, where two skulls of Homo neanderthalensis were recovered. Based on the geometry, elevation and sedimentologic features of the investigated sedimentary deposits, the stratigraphic record of Saccopastore is correlated with the aggradational succession deposited in response to sea-level rise during glacial termination III at the onset of MIS 7 (i.e. ∼250 ka), corresponding to the local Vitinia Formation, as opposed to previous correlation with the MIS 5 interglacial and a locally defined "Tyrrhenian" stage (∼130 ka). This previous attribution was based on the interpretation of the sedimentary succession of Saccopastore, occurring between 15 and 21 m a.s.l., as a fluvial terrace formed around 130 ka during the Riss-Würm interglacial, ca. 6 m above the present-day alluvial plain of the Aniene River. In contrast to this interpretation, a 40Ar/39Ar age of 129 ± 2 ka determined for this study on a pyroclastic-flow deposit intercalated in a fluvial-lacustrine sequence forming a terrace ∼37 m a.s.l. near the coast of Rome constrains the aggradational succession in this area to MIS 5, precluding the occurrence of an equivalent fluvial terrace at lower elevation in the inland sector of Saccopastore. We therefore interpret the stratigraphic record of Saccopastore as the basal portion of the aggradational succession deposited in response to sea-level rise during MIS 7, whose equivalent fluvial terrace occurs around 55 m a.s.l. in this region. We also review the published paleontological and paleoethnological records

  4. Rapid spread of the novel respiratory syncytial virus A ON1 genotype, central Italy, 2011 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Pierangeli, A; Trotta, D; Scagnolari, C; Ferreri, M L; Nicolai, A; Midulla, F; Marinelli, K; Antonelli, G; Bagnarelli, P

    2014-07-03

    Respiratory infections positive for human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) subtype A were characterised in children admitted to hospitals in Rome and Ancona (Italy) over the last three epidemic seasons. Different strains of the novel RSV-A genotype ON1, first identified in Ontario (Canada) in December 2010, were detected for the first time in Italy in the following 2011/12 epidemic season. They bear an insertion of 24 amino acids in the G glycoprotein as well as amino acid changes likely to change antigenicity. By early 2013, ON1 strains had spread so efficiently that they had nearly replaced other RSV-A strains. Notably, the RSV peak in the 2012/13 epidemic season occurred earlier and, compared with the previous two seasons, influenza-like illnesses diagnoses were more frequent in younger children; bronchiolitis cases had a less severe clinical course. Nonetheless, the ON1-associated intensive care unit admission rate was similar, if not greater, than that attributable to other RSV-A strains. Improving RSV surveillance would allow timely understanding of the epidemiological and clinicopathological features of the novel RSV-A genotype.

  5. The effect of wind and eruption source parameter variations on tephra fallout hazard assessment: an example from Vesuvio (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedonio, Giovanni; Costa, Antonio; Scollo, Simona; Neri, Augusto

    2015-04-01

    Uncertainty in the tephra fallout hazard assessment may depend on different meteorological datasets and eruptive source parameters used in the modelling. We present a statistical study to analyze this uncertainty in the case of a sub-Plinian eruption of Vesuvius of VEI = 4, column height of 18 km and total erupted mass of 5 × 1011 kg. The hazard assessment for tephra fallout is performed using the advection-diffusion model Hazmap. Firstly, we analyze statistically different meteorological datasets: i) from the daily atmospheric soundings of the stations located in Brindisi (Italy) between 1962 and 1976 and between 1996 and 2012, and in Pratica di Mare (Rome, Italy) between 1996 and 2012; ii) from numerical weather prediction models of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Furthermore, we modify the total mass, the total grain-size distribution, the eruption column height, and the diffusion coefficient. Then, we quantify the impact that different datasets and model input parameters have on the probability maps. Results shows that the parameter that mostly affects the tephra fallout probability maps, keeping constant the total mass, is the particle terminal settling velocity, which is a function of the total grain-size distribution, particle density and shape. Differently, the evaluation of the hazard assessment weakly depends on the use of different meteorological datasets, column height and diffusion coefficient.

  6. Hospital preparedness and management of patients affected by viral haemorrhagic fever or smallpox at the Lazzaro Spallanzani Institute, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, G; Nicastri, E; Capobianchi, M; Di Caro, A; Petrosillo, N; Puro, V

    2005-03-01

    The US cases of anthrax in 2001 and the recent severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak have heightened the need for preparedness and response to naturally emerging and re-emerging infections or deliberately released biological agents. This report describes the response model of the Istituto Nazionale per le Malattie Infettive Lazzaro Spallanzani (INMI), Rome, Italy for managing patients suspected of or affected by smallpox or viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF) either in the context of an intentional release or natural occurrence. The INMI is Italy's leading hospital in its preparedness and response plan to bioterrorism-related infectious agents. All single and double rooms of INMI are equipped with negative air pressure, sealed doors, high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and a fully-equipped anteroom; moreover, a dedicated high isolation unit with a laboratory next door for the initial diagnostic assays is available for admission of sporadic patients requiring high isolation. For patient transportation, two fully equipped ambulances and two stretcher isolators with a negative pressure section are available. Biomolecular and traditional diagnostic assays are currently performed in the biosafety level 3/4 (BSL 3/4) laboratories. Continuing education and training of hospital staff, consistent application of infection control practices, and availability of adequate personnel protective equipment are additional resources implemented for the care of highly infectious patients and to maintain the readiness of an appropriately trained workforce to handle large scale outbreaks.

  7. Short History of Malaria and Its Eradication in Italy With Short Notes on the Fight Against the Infection in the Mediterranean Basin

    PubMed Central

    Majori, Giancarlo

    2012-01-01

    In Italy at the end of 19th Century, malaria cases amounted to 2 million with 15,000–20,000 deaths per year. Malignant tertian malaria was present in Central-Southern areas and in the islands. Early in the 20th Century, the most important act of the Italian Parliament was the approval of laws regulating the production and free distribution of quinine and the promotion of measures aiming at the reduction of the larval breeding places of Anopheline vectors. The contribution from the Italian School of Malariology (Camillo Golgi, Ettore Marchiafava, Angelo Celli, Giovanni Battista Grassi, Amico Bignami, Giuseppe Bastianelli) to the discovery of the transmission’s mechanism of malaria was fundamental in fostering the initiatives of the Parliament of the Italian Kingdom. A program of cooperation for malaria control in Italy, supported by the Rockefeller Foundation started in 1924, with the establishment of the Experimental Station in Rome, transformed in 1934 into the National Institute of Public Health. Alberto Missiroli, Director of the Laboratory of Malariology, conducted laboratory and field research, that with the advent of DDT brought to Italy by the Allies at the end of the World War II, allowed him to plan a national campaign victorious against the secular scourge. PMID:22550561

  8. Translation and Validation of Enhanced Asian Rome III Questionnaires in Bengali Language for Diagnosis of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M Masudur; Ghoshal, Uday C; Rowshon, A H M; Ahmed, Faruque; Kibria, Md Golam; Hasan, Mahmud; Gwee, Kok-Ann; Whitehead, William E

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), diagnosed by symptom-based criteria due to lack of biomarkers, need translated-validated questionnaires in different languages. As Bengali, the mother tongue of Bangladesh and eastern India, is the seventh most spoken language in the world, we translated and validated the Enhanced Asian Rome III questionnaire (EAR3Q) in this language. Methods The EAR3Q was translated in Bengali as per guideline from the Rome Foundation. The translated questionnaire was validated prospectively on Bengali-speaking healthy subjects (HS, n = 30), and patients with functional dyspepsia (FD, n = 35), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, n = 40) and functional constipation (FC, n = 12) diagnosed by clinicians using the Rome III criteria. The subjects were asked to fill-in the questionnaire again after 2 weeks, to check for its reproducibility. Results During translation, the original and the backward translated English versions of the questionnaire demonstrated high concordance. Sensitivity of the Bengali questionnaire to diagnose patients with FD, IBS, FC, and HS was 100%, 100%, 75%, and 100%, respectively, considering diagnosis by the clinicians as the gold standard. On test-retest reliability analysis, Kappa values for FD, IBS, FC, and HS were 1.0, 1.0, 0.83, and 1.0, respectively. The Bengali questionnaire detected considerable overlap of FD symptoms among patients with IBS, IBS among patients with FD, and FD among patients with FC, which were not detected by the clinicians. Conclusions We successfully translated and validated the EAR3Q in Bengali. We believe that this translated questionnaire will be useful for clinical evaluation and research on FGIDs in the Bengali-speaking population. PMID:26690730

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in donkeys (Equus asinus) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Machacova, Tereza; Bartova, Eva; Di Loria, Antonio; Sedlak, Kamil; Mariani, Ugo; Fusco, Giovanna; Fulgione, Domenico; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Dubey, Jitender P

    2014-03-01

    Toxoplasmosis, an important zoonosis, can be transmitted by eating meat or drinking milk of animals infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Samples were collected from 238 donkeys in the year 2010 in Italy, which included 207 females and 31 males of five breeds and crossbreeds with the average age 9 years (1 month-24 years). Sera were tested for T. gondii antibodies using a latex agglutination test and the indirect fluorescent antibody test; 5 and 8% seropositivity were recorded, respectively. We found significant correlation between the presence of T. gondii antibodies and sex, age, grazing and presence of cats on the farms and their access to donkey feed. This is the first detection of T. gondii antibodies in donkeys in Italy.

  10. Minimally invasive thoracic surgery: new trends in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In Italy there exists quite a long and rich history in minimally invasive thoracic surgery. Pioneer Italian surgeons have been amongst those who first adopted video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) to perform procedures such as lobectomy and esophagectomy, respectively and quite many others have provided important contributions related to minimally invasive thoracic surgery and have proposed innovative ideas and creative technical refinements. According to a web search on recent studies published in Italy on minimally invasive thoracic surgery along the last 3 years, uniportal, nonintubated, and robotic VATS as well as VATS lobectomy have been found to represent the most frequently investigated issues. An ongoing active investigation in each of these sub-topics is contributing to a better definition of indications advantages and disadvantages of the various surgical strategies. In addition it is likely that combination strategies including adoption of uniportal and nonintubated approaches will lead to define novel ultra-minimally invasive treatment options. PMID:26605315

  11. Italy: old problems, new books.

    PubMed

    Agazzi, Evandro

    1989-01-01

    Agazzi's bibliographic essay of recent titles in Italian on biomedical issues also discusses the Catholic versus the secular approaches to bioethics in Italy. Among the publications mentioned are several of a philosophical or theological nature: M. Mori's volume on artificial insemination, and second editions of well-established textbooks on biomedical ethics by S. Leone, E. Sgreccia, S. Spinsanti, and D. Tettamanzi. Legal issues in reproductive technologies are addressed in the Santosuosso Commission's report on regulating artificial procreation, and in a book discussing the report. Secular writings on ethical issues have appeared in issues cited here of the journals Prospettive Settanta and Biblioteca della Libertà. Also mentioned in Agazzi's essay are a critique of the Vatican Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith's Instruction on Respect for Human Life, and a booklet of articles related to the 20th anniversary of the encyclical Humanae Vitae.

  12. Midlatitude cirrus classification at Rome Tor Vergata through a multichannel Raman-Mie-Rayleigh lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionisi, D.; Keckhut, P.; Liberti, G. L.; Cardillo, F.; Congeduti, F.

    2013-12-01

    A methodology to identify and characterize cirrus clouds has been developed and applied to the multichannel-multiwavelength Rayleigh-Mie-Raman (RMR) lidar in Rome Tor Vergata (RTV). A set of 167 cirrus cases, defined on the basis of quasi-stationary temporal period conditions, has been selected in a data set consisting of about 500 h of nighttime lidar sessions acquired between February 2007 and April 2010. The derived lidar parameters (effective height, geometrical and optical thickness and mean back-scattering ratio) and the cirrus mid-height temperature (estimated from the radiosonde data of Pratica di Mare, WMO, World Meteorological Organization, site no. 16245) of this sample have been analyzed by the means of a clustering multivariate analysis. This approach identified four cirrus classes above the RTV site: two thin cirrus clusters in mid- and upper troposphere and two thick cirrus clusters in mid-upper troposphere. These results, which are very similar to those derived through the same approach at the lidar site of the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP), allows characterization of cirrus clouds over the RTV site and attests to the robustness of such classification. To acquire some indications about the cirrus generation methods for the different classes, analyses of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio, LReff, in terms of frequency distribution functions and dependencies on the mid-height cirrus temperature, have been performed. A preliminary study relating some meteorological parameters (e.g., relative humidity, wind components) to cirrus clusters has also been conducted. The RTV cirrus results, recomputed through the cirrus classification by Sassen and Cho (1992), show good agreement with other midlatitude lidar cirrus observations for the relative occurrence of subvisible (SVC), thin and opaque cirrus classes (10%, 49% and 41%, respectively). The overall mean value of cirrus optical depth is 0.37 ± 0.18, while most retrieved LReff values

  13. Stable isotopic evidence for diet at the Imperial Roman coastal site of Velia (1st and 2nd centuries AD) in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Craig, Oliver E; Biazzo, Marco; O'Connell, Tamsin C; Garnsey, Peter; Martinez-Labarga, Cristina; Lelli, Roberta; Salvadei, Loretana; Tartaglia, Gianna; Nava, Alessia; Renò, Lorena; Fiammenghi, Antonella; Rickards, Olga; Bondioli, Luca

    2009-08-01

    Here we report on a stable isotope palaeodietary study of a Imperial Roman population interred near the port of Velia in Southern Italy during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses were performed on collagen extracted from 117 adult humans as well as a range of fauna to reconstruct individual dietary histories. For the majority of individuals, we found that stable isotope data were consistent with a diet high in cereals, with relatively modest contributions of meat and only minor contributions of marine fish. However, substantial isotopic variation was found within the population, indicating that diets were not uniform. We suggest that a number of individuals, mainly but not exclusively males, had greater access to marine resources, especially high trophic level fish. However, the observed dietary variation did not correlate with burial type, number of grave goods, nor age at death. Also, individuals buried at the necropolis at Velia ate much less fish overall compared with the contemporaneous population from the necropolis of Portus at Isola Sacra, located on the coast close to Rome. Marine and riverine transport and commerce dominated the economy of Portus, and its people were in a position to supplement their own stocks of fish with imported goods in transit to Rome, whereas at Velia marine exploitation existed side-by-side with land-based economic activities.

  14. Retrieving geomagnetic secular variations from lava flows: evidence from Mounts Arso, Etna and Vesuvius (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Incoronato, Alberto; Angelino, Antimo; Romano, Romolo; Ferrante, Agostino; Sauna, Renata; Vanacore, Gianpio; Vecchione, Claudio

    2002-06-01

    Mean directions of magnetization from Mounts Arso (Ischia Island, Gulf of Naples), Etna and Vesuvius lava flows have been determined based on very stringent linearity criteria. These indicate that, regardless of the source volcano, the lava flow mean directions of magnetization form a common path, the SISVC (Southern Italy Secular Variation Curve). This curve enables a reassessment of the age of eruption of several lavas. A date of AD 1169 is demonstrated to be the only possible time of emplacement for one Etna lava flow previously assigned an age of AD 812/1169. It is also demonstrated that two Etna lava flows, which, according to the literature, were emplaced in AD 1536 and 1595 respectively, were actually both emplaced around AD 1037. Three other Etna lava flows, one ascribed to AD 1566 and two to AD 1595, were actually emplaced between AD 1169 and 1284/85. The same time window also holds for a Vesuvius lava flow for which only an upper time threshold was previously available. Only one of the studied flows needs further sampling and analysis to verify whether this flow has been affected by a complete remagnetization or has an erroneous historical dating. The applied procedure seems to be the most appropriate one in carrying out palaeomagnetic surveys of lava flows, as also suggested by the broad agreement with some 17th and 19th century measurements of the geomagnetic field in Rome, relocated to Etna, and is likely to improve knowledge of past history of a volcano significantly.

  15. A millennium of Mediterranean climate change and forest history in central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensing, S. A.; Tunno, I.; Piovesan, G.

    2010-12-01

    A 1100 year sedimentary sequence from a lake in central Italy near Rome (Lago Lungo, Lazio, 379 m a.s.l.) was sampled for pollen and charcoal at an average interval of 26 years providing a high-resolution reconstruction of vegetation from 885 AD to the present. Pollen percentages support historical documents that describe periodic deforestation and agricultural expansion during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA). Forests recovered about 1400 AD following depopulation associated with the black plague and socio-economic instability and a shift to cool wet climate during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Mixed deciduous forest reached a maximum in 1550 AD, approximately one century later than many sites across Western Europe. A less diverse less dense forest emerged after 1650 AD following the plague of 1656 AD. There is no evidence that excessive cutting, burning and erosion during the medieval period caused permanent degradation of the landscape. Forests appear to have recovered rapidly when land use declined and climate became favorable. Comparison of the pollen data with reconstructed Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) of Morocco and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) indicate periods of deforestation and woodland regeneration coincide with climate change. During warm dry climate, deforestation accelerated and agriculture expanded, and during extended cool wet climate, conditions for cereal cultivation deteriorated, forests and wetland expanded, and the local agricultural system collapsed. These results show that in the Mediterranean, collapse of local agricultural systems may also occur during extended periods of cool/wet climate.

  16. Soil gas radon assessment and development of a radon risk map in Bolsena, Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Cinelli, G; Tositti, L; Capaccioni, B; Brattich, E; Mostacci, D

    2015-04-01

    Vulsini Volcanic district in Northern Latium (Central Italy) is characterized by high natural radiation background resulting from the high concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium in the volcanic products. In order to estimate the radon radiation risk, a series of soil gas radon measurements were carried out in Bolsena, the principal urban settlement in this area NE of Rome. Soil gas radon concentration ranges between 7 and 176 kBq/m(3) indicating a large degree of variability in the NORM content and behavior of the parent soil material related in particular to the occurrence of two different lithologies. Soil gas radon mapping confirmed the existence of two different areas: one along the shoreline of the Bolsena lake, characterized by low soil radon level, due to a prevailing alluvial lithology; another close to the Bolsena village with high soil radon level due to the presence of the high radioactive volcanic rocks of the Vulsini volcanic district. Radon risk assessment, based on soil gas radon and permeability data, results in a map where the alluvial area is characterized by a probability to be an area with high Radon Index lower than 20 %, while probabilities higher than 30 % and also above 50 % are found close to the Bolsena village.

  17. Clinical features and treatment of dermatosis papulosa nigra in migrants to Italy.

    PubMed

    Calcaterra, Roberta; Franco, Gennaro; Valenzano, Mariacarla; Fazio, Raffaella; Morrone, Aldo

    2010-01-01

    Dermatosis papulosa nigra (DPN) is a benign epithelial tumor that is common in dark-skinned people. Although the diagnosis is easily made on medical examination, DPN is characterized by a chronic and worsening course. Therefore, even if DPN is a benign disease, the lesions are unaesthetic and the therapeutic options are quite inefficient. A prospective study was carried out during a period of 24 months (January 2006 to December 2007) at the Department for Preventive Medicine for Migration, Tourism and Tropical Dermatology of San Gallicano Dermatological Institute in Rome. Among 58 patients, 41 (71%) were women and 17 (29%) were men. The mean age was 33.5 years (range, 8-45 years). One pediatric patient was observed. This study is the first in Italy that, in recent years, has observed an important growth of the migration. The classic female predominance, family predisposition, and photodistribution of the lesion were found. DPN is frequently associated with patient discomfort, therefore the education of patients to reduce self-treatment is important.

  18. Geotechnical Seismic Hazard Evaluation At Sellano (Umbria, Italy) Using The GIS Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capilleri, P.; Maugeri, M.

    2008-07-01

    A tool that has been widely-used in civil engineering in recent years is the geographic information system (GIS) [1]. Geographic Information systems (GIS) are powerful tools for organizing, analyzing, and presenting spatial data. The GIS can be used by geotechnical engineers to aid preliminary assessment through to the final geotechnical design. The aim of this work is to provide some indications for the use of the GIS technique in the field of seismic geotechnical engineering, particularly as regards the problems of seismic hazard zonation maps. The study area is the village of Sellano located in the Umbrian Apennines in central Italy, about 45 km east of Perugia and 120 km north-east of Rome The increasing importance attributed to microzonation derives from the spatial variability of ground motion due to particular local conditions. The use of GIS tools can lead to an early identification of potential barriers to project completion during the design process that may help avoid later costly redesign.

  19. Parental practices in late adolescence, a comparison of three countries: Canada, France and Italy.

    PubMed

    Claes, Michel; Lacourse, Eric; Bouchard, Céline; Perucchini, Paula

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine parental practices, such as affection, control and conflict, in three countries: Canada, France and Italy. The sample was composed of more than 900 late adolescents with an average age of 17 years, from three large cities: Montreal, Paris and Rome. Participants answered a self-report questionnaire that assessed five measures: emotional bonds with the father and mother, parental supervision, tolerance towards friends, punitiveness for violation of rules, and conflict frequency. Analyses of the results indicated that the country of origin discriminated for most of the parental practice dimensions. Canadian adolescents considered their parents to be more tolerant and rated them as using less punitive measures when rules were broken. Canadian parents also seemed to adopt comparable norms for boys and girls, which could be interpreted as a form of sexual egalitarianism, whereas Italian and French parents appeared less tolerant towards girls. Italian adolescents reported strong emotional bonds with each parent, and also identified more conflicts in their relationships with parents. French adolescents reported weaker emotional bonds with each parent and less parental supervision. Results were interpreted in the light of studies that have reported an influence of cultural background on both parental practices and parental decisions in each of these countries.

  20. Hyperspectral proximal sensing of Salix Alba trees in the Sacco river valley (Latium, Italy).

    PubMed

    Moroni, Monica; Lupo, Emanuela; Cenedese, Antonio

    2013-10-29

    Recent developments in hardware and software have increased the possibilities and reduced the costs of hyperspectral proximal sensing. Through the analysis of high resolution spectroscopic measurements at the laboratory or field scales, this monitoring technique is suitable for quantitative estimates of biochemical and biophysical variables related to the physiological state of vegetation. Two systems for hyperspectral imaging have been designed and developed at DICEA-Sapienza University of Rome, one based on the use of spectrometers, the other on tunable interference filters. Both systems provide a high spectral and spatial resolution with low weight, power consumption and cost. This paper describes the set-up of the tunable filter platform and its application to the investigation of the environmental status of the region crossed by the Sacco river (Latium, Italy). This was achieved by analyzing the spectral response given by tree samples, with roots partly or wholly submerged in the river, located upstream and downstream of an industrial area affected by contamination. Data acquired is represented as reflectance indices as well as reflectance values. Broadband and narrowband indices based on pigment content and carotenoids vs. chlorophyll content suggest tree samples located upstream of the contaminated area are 'healthier' than those downstream.

  1. Ebola virus disease: Case management in the Institute of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Sassari, Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Bertoli, Giulia; Mannazzu, Marco; Madeddu, Giordano; Are, Riccardo; Muredda, Alberto; Babudieri, Sergio; Calia, Giovanna; Lovigu, Carla; Maida, Ivana; Contini, Luciana; Miscali, Anna; Rubino, Salvatore; Delogu, Fiorenzo; Mura, Maria Stella

    2016-05-31

    Since the onset of the worst epidemic of Ebola virus disease in December 2013, 28,637 cases were reported as confirmed, probable, or suspected. Since the week of 3 January 2016, no more cases have been reported. The total number of deaths have amounted to 11,315 (39.5%). In developed countries, seven cases have been diagnosed: four in the United States, one in Spain, one in the United Kingdom, and one in Italy. On 20 July 2015, Italy was declared Ebola-free. On 9 May 2015, an Italian health worker came back to Italy after a long stay in Sierra Leone working for a non-governmental organization. Forty-eight hours after his arrival, he noticed headache, weakness, muscle pains, and slight fever. The following day, he was safely transported to the Infectious Diseases Unit of University Hospital of Sassari. The patient was hospitalized for 19 hours until an Italian Air Force medical division transferred him to Rome, to the Lazzaro Spallanzani Institute. Nineteen people who had contacts with the patient were monitored daily for 21 days by the Public Health Office of Sassari and none presented any symptoms. So far, neither vaccine nor treatment is available to be proposed on an international scale. Ebola is considered a re-emerging infectious disease which, unlike in the past, has been a worldwide emergency. This case study aimed to establish a discussion about the operative and logistic difficulties to be faced and about the discrepancy arising when protocols clash with the reality of facts.

  2. Demoiselles and Drafts from Italy and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, M. Dane

    1988-01-01

    Recounts the adventures of a journey taken through France and Italy. Makes an analogy of this trip to that of the one Charles Dickens took in 1844. Describes silicified horizons of the southern Paris Basin, moraines, outcrops, and "Hoodoos." (RT)

  3. Ground motions recorded in Rome during the April 2009 L’Aquila seismic sequence: site response and comparison with ground‐motion predictions based on a global dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caserta, Arrigo; Boore, David; Rovelli, Antonio; Govoni, Aladino; Marra, Fabrizio; Monica, Gieseppe Della; Boschi, Enzo

    2013-01-01

    The mainshock and moderate‐magnitude aftershocks of the 6 April 2009 M 6.3 L’Aquila seismic sequence, about 90 km northeast of Rome, provided the first earthquake ground‐motion recordings in the urban area of Rome. Before those recordings were obtained, the assessments of the seismic hazard in Rome were based on intensity observations and theoretical considerations. The L’Aquila recordings offer an unprecedented opportunity to calibrate the city response to central Apennine earthquakes—earthquakes that have been responsible for the largest damage to Rome in historical times. Using the data recorded in Rome in April 2009, we show that (1) published theoretical predictions of a 1 s resonance in the Tiber valley are confirmed by observations showing a significant amplitude increase in response spectra at that period, (2) the empirical soil‐transfer functions inferred from spectral ratios are satisfactorily fit through 1D models using the available geological, geophysical, and laboratory data, but local variability can be large for individual events, (3) response spectra for the motions recorded in Rome from the L’Aquila earthquakes are significantly amplified in the radial component at periods near 1 s, even at a firm site on volcanic rocks, and (4) short‐period response spectra are smaller than expected when compared to ground‐motion predictions from equations based on a global dataset, whereas the observed response spectra are higher than expected for periods near 1 s.

  4. Editing Newton in Geneva and Rome: The Annotated Edition of the Principia by Calandrini, Le Seur and Jacquier.

    PubMed

    Guicciardini, Niccolò

    2015-07-01

    This contribution examines the circumstances of composition of the annotated edition of Newton's Principia that was printed in Geneva in 1739-1742, which ran to several editions and was still in print in Britain in the mid-nineteenth century. This edition was the work of the Genevan Professor of Mathematics, Jean Louis Calandrini, and of two Minim friars based in Rome, Thomas Le Seur and François Jacquier. The study of the context in which this edition was conceived sheds light on the early reception of Newtonianism in Geneva and Rome. By taking into consideration the careers of Calandrini, Le Seur and Jacquier, as authors, lecturers and leading characters of Genevan and Roman cultural life, I will show that their involvement in the enterprise of annotating Newton's Principia answered specific needs of Genevan and Roman culture. The publication and reception of the Genevan annotated edition has also a broader European dimension. Both Calandrini and Jacquier were in touch with the French république des lettres, most notably with Clairaut and Du Châtelet, and with the Bernoulli family in Basel. Therefore, this study is also relevant for the understanding of the dissemination of Newton's ideas in Europe.

  5. Measurement of organic and elemental carbon in downtown Rome and background area: physical behavior and chemical speciation.

    PubMed

    Avino, Pasquale; Manigrasso, Maurizio; Rosada, Alberto; Dodaro, Alessandro

    2015-02-01

    A significant portion of the particulate matter is the total carbonaceous fraction (or total carbon, TC), composed of two main fractions, elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC), which shows a large variety of organic compounds, e.g. aliphatic, aromatic compounds, alcohols, acids, etc. In this paper, TC, EC and OC concentrations determined in a downtown Rome urban area are discussed considering the influence of meteorological conditions on the temporal-spatial aerosol distribution. Similar measurements were performed at ENEA Casaccia, an area outside Rome, which is considered as the ome background. Since 2000, TC, EC and OC measurements have been performed by means of an Ambient Carbon Particulate Monitor equipped with a NDIR detector. The EC and OC concentrations trends are compared with benzene and CO trends, which are specific indicators of autovehicular traffic, for identifying the primary EC and OC contributions and the secondary OC fraction origin. Further, a chemical investigation is reported for investigating how the main organic (i.e., n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and nitro-polyaromatic hydrocarbons) and inorganic (i.e., metals, ions) fractions vary their levels during the investigated period in relationship to new regulations and/or technological innovations.

  6. Dispersion of volcanic particles during Etna eruption in December 2015. Detection by ceilometer networks (Switzerland, Italy and Germany) and in situ measurements at Alpine high-altitude sites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervo, Maxime; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Collaud Coen, Martine; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Gysel, Martin; Haefele, Alexander; Henne, Stephan; Herrmann, Erik; Martucci, Giovanni; Mattis, Ina; Steinbacher, Martin; Wagner, Frank; Di Liberto, Luca; Holla, Robert

    2016-04-01

    In December 2015, the Mount Etna volcano in Sicily endured the strongest eruptions in 20 years. Volcanic ashes and gases were injected up to the top of the troposphere (˜10km). The ashes provoked the closure of the Catania airport close to the volcano, and some particles and gases were also transported over longer distance to the North, including continental Italy, Switzerland and Germany. On 8th of December 2015, an aerosol layer was detected at about 4000m by a CHM15k ceilometer above the Kleine Scheidegg in the Swiss Alps. This layer is compatible with air masses originating at Mt. Etna during the December 4th eruptions. This layer was also measured by the in-situ instrumentation at the Sphinx Observatory on the Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.). The observed mass of volcanic particle measured as PM10 was more than 3μg.m-3. Many observations confirmed the volcanic origin of these particles. First, the increase in particle mass was associated with enhanced Sulphur dioxide (SO2) levels. This enhancement was the highest SO2 value measured in 2015. The volcanic origin was also reflected in an increased aerosol volume in the accumulation mode size range as well as a dominant nucleation mode (with respect to number), indicating that a significant fraction of the SO2 was converted to particulate sulphate. Then, no black carbon increase was detected, suggesting that the SO2 and the particle did not come from combustion. Furthermore, the coarse mode particle size distributions suggested the presence of an ash mode around 2-4 micrometers in optical particle diameter. The volcanic rather than Saharan origin of the coarse mode was confirmed by the Angstrom exponent of the single scattering albedo higher than zero. At Schneefernerhaus observatory (close to Zugspitze), in-situ measurements were similar to the observations at the Jungfraujoch. Similar layers were detected by the ceilometers of the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) network in Germany (Zugspitze, Garmisch

  7. [Rosenfeld in Italy (1978 to 1985)].

    PubMed

    de Masi, Franco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I try to throw some light on Rosenfeld's thought and his way of working when he came to Italy. I would like to show, in a sketchy way, the evolution of his thought and in particular the new way he looked at clinical practice at that time. My point is that the Rosenfeld we met in Italy was able to open new horizons in clinical practice, implicitly questioning some of his own or his circle's previous viewpoints.

  8. Stable isotopic evidence for fluid flow and fluid/rock interaction during thrust faulting in Pumpkin Valley shale and Rome Formation, east Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, B.K.; Haase, C.S. )

    1989-08-01

    The Pumpkin Valley Shale and the underlying Rome Formation form the lower portions of the Copper Creek and White Oak Mountain thrust sheets in east Tennessee. The Pumpkin Valley Shale consists of shale and mudstone with subordinate amounts of interbedded siltstone. The Rome Formation is composed predominantly of sandstone with interbedded shale and siltstone toward the base of the formation. The percentage of illite increases from 20% to over 80% of the bulk clay mineralogy toward the base of the section. Porosity is occluded by quartz, phyllosilicate, and calcite cements. Both formations contain calcite-filled and, less commonly, quartz-filled Alleghenian fractures and joints.

  9. Robotic surgery in Italy national survey (2011).

    PubMed

    Santoro, Eugenio; Pansadoro, Vito

    2013-03-01

    Robotic surgery in Italy has become a clinical reality that is gaining increasing acceptance. As of 2011 after the United States, Italy together with Germany is the country with the largest number of active Robotic centers, 46, and da Vinci Robots installed, with at least 116 operators already trained. The number of interventions performed in Italy in 2011 exceeded 6,000 and in 2010 were 4,784, with prevalence for urology, general surgery and gynecology, however these interventions have also begun to be applied in other fields such as cervicofacial, cardiothoracic and pediatric surgery. In Italy Robotic centers are mostly located in Northern Italy, while in the South there are only a few centers, and four regions are lacking altogether. Of the 46 centers which were started in 1999, the vast majority is still operational and almost half handle over 200 cases a year. The quality of the work is also especially high with large diffusion of radical prostatectomy in urology and liver resection and colic in general surgery. The method is very well accepted among operators, over 80 %, and among patients, over 95 %. From the analysis of world literature and a survey carried out in Italy, Robotic surgery, which at the moment could be better defined as telesurgery, represents a significant advantage for operators and a consistent gain for the patient. However, it still has important limits such as high cost and non-structured training of operators.

  10. The photovoltaic-aeolian plant at Passo Mandrioli /Italy/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzolari, P. U.; Garulli, A.; Nobili, D.; Sardo, A.

    1980-12-01

    The use of aeolian-photovoltaic power generation to supply the needs of an isolated farm house in Northern Italy is presented, noting the experimental character of the project. Estimated energy consumption is 1650 kWh for lighting and various appliances. The system includes two power generators (aeolian and photovoltaic) connected in parallel, battery storage, regulation and control circuit, inverter, supplementary generator and a complete data acquisition subsystem. Design characteristics such as the tower height, electrical output and lightning protection are given, together with the parameters to be continuously monitored including meteorological data, wind speed and the angular speed of the propeller.

  11. [Epidemiology and control of tuberculosis in Italy].

    PubMed

    Girardi, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, incidence of tuberculosis in Europe was 52.2 cases per 100,000 population, with lower rates in European Union (average 16.7 per 100.000) e and rates above 100 per 100.000 in the former Soviet Union. In Italy, incidence rates of tuberculosis have been fairly stable in the last two decades around 7 reported cases per 100.000 population. However, the epidemiological picture has clearly changed. Spread of HIV infection and immigration from high incidence countries had a major impact on epidemiological dynamics. In particular, the proportion of reported cases occurring among persons born in high incidence countries increase during the last decade, and it is now close to 50%. A similar trend has been observed in most Western European countries. Strategies for tuberculosis control should include: a general approach to tuberculosis which favor access to care and ensures rapid detection and treatment of all the cases; screening and provision of preventive treatment for contacts of contagious cases and for persons in other high risk groups. Upstream social determinants of tuberculosis need also to be addressed in order to move towards the goal of tuberculosis elimination.

  12. Prevalence of congenital muscular dystrophy in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Graziano, Alessandra; Bianco, Flaviana; D'Amico, Adele; Moroni, Isabella; Messina, Sonia; Bruno, Claudio; Pegoraro, Elena; Mora, Marina; Astrea, Guja; Magri, Francesca; Comi, Giacomo P.; Berardinelli, Angela; Moggio, Maurizio; Morandi, Lucia; Pini, Antonella; Petillo, Roberta; Tasca, Giorgio; Monforte, Mauro; Minetti, Carlo; Mongini, Tiziana; Ricci, Enzo; Gorni, Ksenija; Battini, Roberta; Villanova, Marcello; Politano, Luisa; Gualandi, Francesca; Ferlini, Alessandra; Muntoni, Francesco; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Bertini, Enrico; Pane, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We provide a nationwide population study of patients with congenital muscular dystrophy in Italy. Methods: Cases were ascertained from the databases in all the tertiary referral centers for pediatric neuromuscular disorders and from all the genetic diagnostic centers in which diagnostic tests for these forms are performed. Results: The study includes 336 patients with a point prevalence of 0.563 per 100,000. Mutations were identified in 220 of the 336 (65.5%). The cohort was subdivided into diagnostic categories based on the most recent classifications on congenital muscular dystrophies. The most common forms were those with α-dystroglycan glycosylation deficiency (40.18%) followed by those with laminin α2 deficiency (24.11%) and collagen VI deficiency (20.24%). The forms of congenital muscular dystrophy related to mutations in SEPN1 and LMNA were less frequent (6.25% and 5.95%, respectively). Conclusions: Our study provides for the first time comprehensive epidemiologic information and point prevalence figures for each of the major diagnostic categories on a large cohort of congenital muscular dystrophies. The study also reflects the diagnostic progress in this field with an accurate classification of the cases according to the most recent gene discoveries. PMID:25653289

  13. Fukushima fallout at Milano, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ioannidou, Alexandra; Manenti, Simone; Gini, Luigi; Groppi, Flavia

    2012-12-01

    The radionuclides (131)I, (137)Cs and (134)Cs were observed in the Milano region (45°) of Italy early after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan. Increased atmospheric radioactivity was observed on an air filter taken on 30 March 2011, while the maximum activity of 467 μBq m(-3) for (131)I was recorded at April 3-4, 2011. The first evidence of Fukushima fallout was confirmed with (131)I and (137)Cs measured in precipitation at two sampling sites at Milano on 28 March, 2011, with the concentrations of (131)I and (137)Cs in the rainwater equal to 0.89 Bq L(-1) and 0.12 Bq L(-1), respectively. A sample of dry deposition that was collected 9 days after the first rainfall event of 27-28 March, 2011 showed that the dry deposition was more effective in the case of (137)Cs than it was for (131)I, probably because iodine was mainly in gaseous form whereas caesium was rapidly bound to aerosols and thus highly subject to dry deposition. The relatively high observed values of (137)Cs in grass, soil and fresh goat and cow milk samples were probably from Chernobyl fallout and global fallout from past nuclear tests rather than from the Fukushima accident. Finally, a dose assessment for the region of investigation showed clearly that the detected activities in all environmental samples were very far below levels of concern.

  14. When in Rome: Factors associated with changes in drinking behavior among American college students studying abroad

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Larimer, Mary E.; Lee, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    Study abroad programs have the potential to promote cultural, experiential, and personal development for escalating numbers of American college students each year. Despite reports that study abroad students may be at particular risk for increased and problematic alcohol use, there is limited empirical documentation of this risk. Thus, the present study used a longitudinal design to examine the factors associated with changes in alcohol use among college students studying in foreign countries. A sample of 177 students completed measures of demographics, drinking behavior, and perceived peer drinking behavior one month prior to departure and one-month post-study abroad return. Analyses revealed that participants more than doubled their drinking during study abroad trips and those who drank at heavier levels while abroad returned home drinking at significantly elevated levels. This pattern of increased use while abroad was moderated by several factors, with participants studying abroad in Europe (e.g., Italy, France) and Oceania (e.g., Australia, New Zealand), those under the age of 21, those with higher intentions of drinking while abroad, and those with higher drinking perceptions of other study abroad students in their host country increased their alcohol consumption to a greater extent than other participants. Results suggest drinking while abroad is a concern warranting further investigation, especially regarding how changes in drinking may contribute to the experience of alcohol-related consequences abroad. Continued identification of the risk factors associated with increased drinking can help inform targeted pre-departure preventive interventions with these students. PMID:20853940

  15. Stellar and Solar Positions in 1701-1703 Observed by Francesco Bianchini at the Clementine Meridian Line in the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Rome, and its Calibration Curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2008-09-01

    Stellar aberration is the largest special relativistic effect discovered in astronomy (in 1727 by James Bradley), involving the speed of light when composed with Earth orbital motion. This effect with nutation affected the measurement of latitude with Polaris uppper and lower transits in the first week of January, 1701 made by Francesco Bianchini (1662-1729). Equinoxes and Solstices of 1703 were measured by timing solar and stellar transits at the Meridian Line of Pope Clement XI built in the Basilica of S. Maria degli Angeli in Rome. Original Eastward 4' 28.8" ± 0.6" deviation of the Line affects all measurements. The calibration curve of Clementine Line -here firstly published after 2 years of measurements- includes also local deviations of the Line, and it is used to correct solar and lunar ephemerides at 0.3 s level of accuracy, when meridian transits are there observed and timed.

  16. Tuberculosis and leprosy in Italy: new skeletal evidence.

    PubMed

    Rubini, Mauro; Zaio, Paola; Roberts, Charlotte

    2014-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy are infections caused by Mycobacteria. This paper documents new skeletal evidence in Italy from the Iron Age site of Corvaro (Central Italy; 5th century BCE) and the Roman site of Palombara (Central Italy; 4th-5th century CE), and briefly reviews the extant evidence for these infections in Italy. The skeletal evidence for TB in Italy is more ancient than for leprosy, and is more common. The oldest evidence for both mycobacterial diseases is in the North of Italy, but this could be by chance, even if biomolecular models suggest a land route from the East to central Europe, especially for leprosy.

  17. Comparison of regression models with land-use and emissions data to predict the spatial distribution of traffic-related air pollution in Rome.

    PubMed

    Rosenlund, Mats; Forastiere, Francesco; Stafoggia, Massimo; Porta, Daniela; Perucci, Mara; Ranzi, Andrea; Nussio, Fabio; Perucci, Carlo A

    2008-03-01

    Spatial modeling of traffic-related air pollution typically involves either regression modeling of land-use and traffic data or dispersion modeling of emissions data, but little is known to what extent land-use regression models might be improved by incorporating emissions data. The aim of this study was to develop a land-use regression model to predict nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations and compare its performance with a model including emissions data. The association between each land-use variable and NO2 concentrations at 68 locations in Rome in 1995 and 1996 was assessed by univariate linear regression and a multiple linear regression model that was constructed based on the importance of each variable. Traffic emissions (particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and benzene) were estimated for 164 areas of the city based on vehicle type, traffic counts and driving patterns. Mean NO2 concentration across the 68 sites was 46.8 microg/m3 (SD 9.8 microg/m3; inter-quartile range 11.5 microg/m3; min 24 microg/m3; max 73 microg/m3). The most important predicting variables were the circular traffic zones (main ring road, green strip, inner ring road, traffic-limited zone), distance from busy streets, size of the census block, the inverse population density, and altitude. A multiple regression model including these variables resulted in an R2 of 0.686. The best-fitting model adding an emission term of benzene resulted in an R2 of 0.690, but was not significantly different from the model without emissions (P=0.147). In conclusion, these results suggest that a land-use regression model explains the traffic-related air pollution levels with reasonable accuracy and that emissions data do not significantly improve the model.

  18. Estimation of daily PM10 concentrations in Italy (2006-2012) using finely resolved satellite data, land use variables and meteorology.

    PubMed

    Stafoggia, Massimo; Schwartz, Joel; Badaloni, Chiara; Bellander, Tom; Alessandrini, Ester; Cattani, Giorgio; De' Donato, Francesca; Gaeta, Alessandra; Leone, Gianluca; Lyapustin, Alexei; Sorek-Hamer, Meytar; de Hoogh, Kees; Di, Qian; Forastiere, Francesco; Kloog, Itai

    2017-02-01

    Health effects of air pollution, especially particulate matter (PM), have been widely investigated. However, most of the studies rely on few monitors located in urban areas for short-term assessments, or land use/dispersion modelling for long-term evaluations, again mostly in cities. Recently, the availability of finely resolved satellite data provides an opportunity to estimate daily concentrations of air pollutants over wide spatio-temporal domains. Italy lacks a robust and validated high resolution spatio-temporally resolved model of particulate matter. The complex topography and the air mixture from both natural and anthropogenic sources are great challenges difficult to be addressed. We combined finely resolved data on Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm, ground-level PM10 measurements, land-use variables and meteorological parameters into a four-stage mixed model framework to derive estimates of daily PM10 concentrations at 1-km2 grid over Italy, for the years 2006-2012. We checked performance of our models by applying 10-fold cross-validation (CV) for each year. Our models displayed good fitting, with mean CV-R2=0.65 and little bias (average slope of predicted VS observed PM10=0.99). Out-of-sample predictions were more accurate in Northern Italy (Po valley) and large conurbations (e.g. Rome), for background monitoring stations, and in the winter season. Resulting concentration maps showed highest average PM10 levels in specific areas (Po river valley, main industrial and metropolitan areas) with decreasing trends over time. Our daily predictions of PM10 concentrations across the whole Italy will allow, for the first time, estimation of long-term and short-term effects of air pollution nationwide, even in areas lacking monitoring data.

  19. What is the fault that has generated the earthquake on 8 September 1905 in Calabria, Italy? Source models compared by tsunami data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnoni, Gianluca; Armigliato, Alberto; Tinti, Stefano; Loreto, Maria Filomena; Facchin, Lorenzo

    2014-05-01

    The earthquake that the 8 September 1905 hit Calabria in southern Italy was the second Italian earthquake for magnitude in the last century. It destroyed many villages along the coast of the Gulf of Sant'Eufemia, caused more than 500 fatalities and has also generated a tsunami with non-destructive effects. The historical reports tell us that the tsunami caused major damage in the villages of Briatico, Bivona, Pizzo and Vibo Marina, located in the south part of the Sant'Eufemia gulf and minor damage to Tropea and to Scalea, this one being village located about 100 km far from the epicenter. Other reports include accounts of fishermen at sea during the tsunami. Further, the tsunami is visible on tide gauge records in Messina, Sicily, in Naples and in Civitavecchia, a harbour located to the north of Rome (Platania, 1907) In spite of the attention devoted by researchers to this case, until now, like for other tsunamigenic Italian earthquakes, the genetic structure of the earthquake is still not identified and debate is still open. In this context, tsunami simulations can provide contributions useful to find the source model more consistent with observational data. This approach was already followed by Piatanesi and Tinti (2002), who carried out numerical simulations of tsunamis from a number of local sources. In the last decade studies on this seismogenic area were int ensified resulting in new estimates for the 1905 earthquake magnitude (7.1 according to the CPTI11 catalogue) and in the suggestion of new source models. By using an improved tsunami simulation model, more accurate bathymetry data, this work tests the source models investigated by Piatanesi and Tinti (2002) and in addition the new fault models proposed by Cucci and Tertulliani (2010) and by Loreto et al. (2013). The simulations of the tsunami are calculated by means of the code, UBO-TSUFD, that solves the linear equations of Navier-Stokes in approximation of shallow water with the finite

  20. Soil organic carbon and biological fertility in a Mediterranean forest area (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francaviglia, Rosa; Benedetti, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The study was performed at Castelporziano Estate, a natural ecosystem with high environmental value, and not concerned with any direct sources of pollution. However, it is situated near the city of Rome, some industrial plants, the international airport of Fiumicino, and some highways that can represent an external source of pollutants. Castelporziano lies in Central Italy at the western outskirts of Rome, about 20 km from the city centre and in front of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Soil morphology is mainly plain (30 m mean elevation) with sandy materials of alluvial nature, and only the inner part is formed of volcanic and alluvial materials with a slight elevation above the sea level (85 m). The total area is about 6000 ha, the climate is Mediterranean, total rainfall is 700 mm, and mean temperatures range from 4 ° C in winter and 30 ° C in summer. The vegetation is typically Mediterranean, mainly oaks, mixed broadleaf groves, and Mediterranean maquis along the seacoast. Areas with reforestation of pines, as well as corkwoods, pastures, and small agricultural fields are also present. Soils were sampled at five different sites: QI, forest of Quercus ilex L.; MM, Mediterranean maquis; PP, Pinus pinea L. reforestation (60 years old); MF, mixed hygrophilous back-dune forest; AR, arable land. Five soil samples from each site were collected (0-20 cm of depth), about 2 m far from each other. Soil organic carbon (SOC), total N (Ntot), microbial biomass carbon (Cmic), basal and cumulative respiration (Cbas and Ccum), the metabolic quotient (qCO2), and the mineralisation quotient (qM) were determined. The index of biological fertility (IBF), a comprehensive indicator considering SOM, Cbas, Ccum, Cmic, qCO2 and qM was also calculated for the different land uses. Five intervals of values have been set for each parameter, and a score increasing from 1 to 5 has been assigned to each interval; the algebraic sum of the score for each parameter gives the classes of biological fertility.

  1. Ancient Rome I: Government and Politics; the Military; Trade and the Economy; Aqueducts, Baths, and Sewers; the Arena. Volume 7. Teaching with Primary Sources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Rosalie F.; Baker, Charles F., III

    This unit on Ancient Rome (covering a time period from 753 B.C. until A.D. 476) contains the following elements: a list of documents, with a description of each document and a brief synopsis of its historical significance to the unit's theme; the documents; and a set of activities. The unit's documents are grouped under the five categories listed…

  2. All Roads Lead to Rome: Exploring Human Migration to the Eternal City through Biochemistry of Skeletons from Two Imperial-Era Cemeteries (1st-3rd c AD).

    PubMed

    Killgrove, Kristina; Montgomery, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Migration within the Roman Empire occurred at multiple scales and was engaged in both voluntarily and involuntarily. Because of the lengthy tradition of classical studies, bioarchaeological analyses must be fully contextualized within the bounds of history, material culture, and epigraphy. In order to assess migration to Rome within an updated contextual framework, strontium isotope analysis was performed on 105 individuals from two cemeteries associated with Imperial Rome-Casal Bertone and Castellaccio Europarco-and oxygen and carbon isotope analyses were performed on a subset of 55 individuals. Statistical analysis and comparisons with expected local ranges found several outliers who likely immigrated to Rome from elsewhere. Demographics of the immigrants show men and children migrated, and a comparison of carbon isotopes from teeth and bone samples suggests the immigrants may have significantly changed their diet. These data represent the first physical evidence of individual migrants to Imperial Rome. This case study demonstrates the importance of employing bioarchaeology to generate a deeper understanding of a complex ancient urban center.

  3. Ancient Rome II: The Theater, Sculpture & Painting, Religion, Everyday Life, the Roman at Home. Teaching with Primary Sources Series, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Rosalie F.; Baker, Charles F., III

    Intended for teachers of grades 5 and up, this unit on ancient Rome introduces students to a variety of primary sources, all chosen with the idea that they can be used to form an accurate and informative picture of what it was like to be a Roman during ancient times, and the similarities and dissimilarities between life then and today. The unit…

  4. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  5. A Case of Leprosy in Italy: A Multifaceted Disease Which Continues to Challenge Medical Doctors.

    PubMed

    Maritati, Martina; Contini, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, characterized by a very long incubation period, confounding signs and symptoms and difficulty to establish the onset time. Considering the stigma associated with the diagnosis and the difficulties in detecting asymptomatic leprosy, the incidence and prevalence of this disease are underestimated. In Italy, leprosy is currently included among the rare diseases and can occur as an imported pathology in native individuals or extra-EU immigrants. Currently, given its exceptional appearance in Italy, leprosy is extremely difficult to recognize. In fact, the incomplete knowledge by the medical class of geographical epidemiology and aetiology of tropical diseases including leprosy, often delays the definitive diagnosis. Due to the increasing rate of the migration flows, in Italy and in Europe, leprosy should be considered among the differential diagnosis in patients with cutaneous and neurological signs, especially when originating from endemic countries.

  6. [Injuries: preventive approach and progress of injuries in the construction of the line B1 of the underground of Rome].

    PubMed

    Saggio, G; Conti, E; Valentini, F; De Sio, L; Capano, M Perrone

    2010-01-01

    The line B1 is a branch of the existing Metro line B in Rome. The route is long about 5 km, is completely underground and involves the construction of four new stations: Annibaliano, Libia /Gondar, Conca d'Oro and Jonio. The line will have a capacity of transport of 24,000 people/hour in each direction. The works started in 2006 involve about 500 workers. The report provides a statistical analysis of the events that occurred in the period 2005/2010 and aims to introduce the starting and management of this study, also on the basis of the "Operating procedures" issued by the acquisition of OSHAS 18001 certification from the agent of Metro B) / R.I.M.A.T.I. This analysis aims to provide to supervisors, to social security institutions and to workers, a usefull analysis tool in the prevention of the monitored events.

  7. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  8. The Incidence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Children Using the Rome III Criteria and the Effect of Trimebutine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Beşer, Ömer F; Erginöz, Ethem; Kutlu, Tufan; Çokuğraş, Fügen Ç; Erkan, Tülay

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders and when compared to the vast knowledge pertaining to adults with IBS, very little is known about IBS in children and adolescents. We aimed to explore the prevalence of IBS, identify symptoms and contributing factors and also to examine the efficacy of trimebutine maleate in children and adolescents. Methods The study involved 345 children and adolescents (4-18 years) and parents were requested to fill in a questionnaire, Rome III criteria was used to diagnose IBS. To exclude organic disease, all patients underwent medical investigations. Half of the randomly selected IBS patients were treated with trimebutine maleate while the rest of IBS patients were not. The IBS patients were reevaluated at the end of 3 weeks. Results The prevalence of IBS according to Rome III criteria in children and adolescents was 22.6% and IBS with constipation was the predominant subtype. Back pain (OR, 6.68), headache (OR, 4.72) and chronic fatigue (OR, 3.74) were significantly higher in IBS group. The prevalence of IBS in both parents and depression in mothers was greater for the patient group than the healthy controls (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of functional dyspepsia in IBS group was 80.8% and was significantly higher than control group. Clinical recovery was seen in 94.9% of the trimebutine maleate group versus spontaneous recovery in 20.5% of the non-medicated group. The difference was significant (P < 0.0001). Conclusions IBS is a common disorder in children and adolescents. IBS is closely associated with somatic and familial factors. Trimebutine maleate is effective for pediatric IBS patients. PMID:23350053

  9. The Oceanus statue of the Fontana di Trevi (Rome): The analysis of black crust as a tool to investigate the urban air pollution and its impact on the stone degradation.

    PubMed

    La Russa, Mauro F; Fermo, Paola; Comite, Valeria; Belfiore, Cristina M; Barca, Donatella; Cerioni, Annamaria; De Santis, Marina; Barbagallo, Lorena Francesca; Ricca, Michela; Ruffolo, Silvestro A

    2017-03-24

    This paper deals with the analysis of black crust coming from the statue of Oceanus belonging to the Fontana di Trevi (Rome). This monument is undoubtedly one of the main touristic attractions of Rome. During the restoration held between 2014 and 2015, some diagnostic analyses had been carried out. It has been highlighted that the sheltered surfaces suffer the formation of black crust, especially on the marble statues. The possibility to sample those degradation products, together with the unaltered substrate, represented an excellent opportunity to characterize the marble itself, to assess the impact of the urban air pollution on the stone material, and to detect the pollutant on a precise timescale. In fact, it is known that the previous restoration of the fountain had been carried out between 1989 and 1991 then, information about the air pollution over the last 25years can be highlighted, because it has been proved that black crusts act as passive samplers of pollution. In order to fully characterize those samples, several techniques were used, including optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy and ion chromatography. Furthermore, a new methodology based on CHN (Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen) analysis has been developed for the quantification of the two main constituents of the carbonaceous fraction present in the black crusts, i.e. OC (organic carbon) and EC (elemental carbon). This integrated approach proposed in the present study allowed us to gain information about the mineralogical phases and the elements within the crusts and at the crust-substrate interface, giving the possibility to identify the pollution sources causing the stone decay within the monument.

  10. Relationship between Latitude and Melanoma in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Chiarugi, Alessandra; Nardini, Paolo; Pimpinelli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Evaluate the ecological relationship between skin melanoma epidemiology and latitude in Italy. Methods. We used data from the Italian network of cancer registries (Airtum). In a Poisson model, we evaluated the effect on incidence, mortality, and survival of latitude, adjusting for some demographic, social, phenotypic, and behavioural variables. Results. Incidence increased in Italy by 17% for each degree of increase in latitude. The effect of latitude was statistically significantly present also adjusting for other variables (incidence rate ratio = 1.08). The effect of latitude on increasing mortality (mortality rate ratio = 1.27) and improving survival (relative excess risk of death = 0.93) was no longer present in the multivariate model. Conclusion. Melanoma incidence, mortality, and survival vary in Italy according to latitude. After adjustment for several confounders, incidence still grows with growing latitude. Presumably, latitude expresses other variables that might be related to individual susceptibility and/or local care. PMID:22389841

  11. Relationship between Latitude and Melanoma in Italy.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Chiarugi, Alessandra; Nardini, Paolo; Pimpinelli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Evaluate the ecological relationship between skin melanoma epidemiology and latitude in Italy. Methods. We used data from the Italian network of cancer registries (Airtum). In a Poisson model, we evaluated the effect on incidence, mortality, and survival of latitude, adjusting for some demographic, social, phenotypic, and behavioural variables. Results. Incidence increased in Italy by 17% for each degree of increase in latitude. The effect of latitude was statistically significantly present also adjusting for other variables (incidence rate ratio = 1.08). The effect of latitude on increasing mortality (mortality rate ratio = 1.27) and improving survival (relative excess risk of death = 0.93) was no longer present in the multivariate model. Conclusion. Melanoma incidence, mortality, and survival vary in Italy according to latitude. After adjustment for several confounders, incidence still grows with growing latitude. Presumably, latitude expresses other variables that might be related to individual susceptibility and/or local care.

  12. Genomic characterization of porcine rotaviruses in Italy.

    PubMed

    Martella, V; Pratelli, A; Greco, G; Tempesta, M; Ferrari, M; Losio, M N; Buonavoglia, C

    2001-01-01

    A total of 23 rotavirus strains isolated from pigs were analyzed. Twenty strains had been isolated from diarrheic piglets from an outbreak that occurred in northern Italy in 1983. Three strains had been isolated in 1984 from swine herds located in distinct areas of northern Italy. All 23 strains were characterized as type G6P[5] by PCR. The isolation from piglets of rotaviruses displaying typical bovine G- and P-type specificities points out the high frequency of rotavirus transmission between cattle and pigs.

  13. Foreign children with cancer in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been a noticeable annual increase in the number of children coming to Italy for medical treatment, just like it has happened in the rest of the European Union. In Italy, the assistance to children suffering from cancer is assured by the current network of 54 centres members of the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (AIEOP), which has kept records of all demographic and clinical data in the database of Mod.1.01 Registry since 1989. Methods We used the information stored in the already mentioned database to assess the impact of immigration of foreign children with cancer on centres' activity, with the scope of drawing a map of the assistance to these cases. Results Out of 14,738 cases recorded by all centres in the period from 1999 to 2008, 92.2% were born and resident in Italy, 4.1% (608) were born abroad and living abroad and 3.7% (538) were born abroad and living in Italy. Foreign children cases have increased over the years from 2.5% in 1999 to. 8.1% in 2008. Most immigrant children came from Europe (65.7%), whereas patients who came from America, Asia and Oceania amounted to 13.2%, 10.1%, 0.2%, respectively. The immigrant survival rate was lower compared to that of children who were born in Italy. This is especially true for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients entered an AIEOP protocol, who showed a 10-years survival rate of 71.0% vs. 80.7% (p < 0.001) for immigrants and patients born in Italy, respectively. Conclusions Children and adolescents are an increasingly important part of the immigration phenomenon, which occurs in many parts of the world. In Italy the vast majority of children affected by malignancies are treated in AIEOP centres. Since immigrant children are predominantly treated in northern Italy, these centres have developed a special expertise in treating immigrant patients, which is certainly very useful for the entire AIEOP network. PMID:21923939

  14. In A Queer Place in Time: Fictions of Belonging in Italy 1890-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, Christopher Burke

    In a Queer Place in Time: Fictions of Belonging in Italy 1890-2010 maps the "elsewheres"---spatial, temporal and intertextual--- that authorize same-sex desire in modern Italy. Tracing a genealogy that spans from nineteenth century travel writing about Italy to contemporary Italian novels, I argue that texts exported from the Northern Europe and the U.S. function as vital site of affiliation and vexing points of discrepancy for Italy's queers. Pier Vittorio Tondelli's Camere separate (1989), for instance, cites the British novelist Christopher Isherwood as proof that -- somewhere else -- silence did not yoke homosexuality. Rather than defining sexuality as a constant set of desires, I demonstrate it to be a retroactive fiction. It is the fleeting affinity that the reading of inherited texts can evoke. In examining the reception of transnational gay narratives in the national context of Italy, this dissertation argues that the concept of "Western" homosexuality is internally riven. Ultimately, In a Queer Place in Time illuminates how local histories -- including affective differences like shame, estrangement and backwardness -- continue to haunt gay culture's global fictions. !

  15. Evaluation of flood and landslide risk to the population of Italy.

    PubMed

    Guzzetti, Fausto; Stark, Colin P; Salvati, Paola

    2005-07-01

    We have compiled a database of floods and landslides that occurred in Italy between AD 1279 and 2002 and caused deaths, missing persons, injuries, and homelessness. Analysis of the database indicates that more than 50,593 people died, went missing, or were injured in 2580 flood and landslide events. Harmful events were inventoried in 26.3% of the 8103 Italian municipalities. Fatal events were most frequent in the Alpine regions of northern Italy and were caused by both floods and landslides. In southern Italy, landslides were the principal agents of fatalities and were most numerous in the Campania region. Casualties were most frequent in the autumn. Fast-moving landslides, including rock falls, rockslides, rock avalanches, and debris flows, caused the largest number of deaths. In order to assess the overall risk posed by these processes, we merged the historical catalogs and identified 2682 "hydrogeomorphological" events that triggered single or multiple landslides and floods. We estimated individual risk through the calculation of mortality rates for both floods and landslides and compared these rates to the death rates for other natural, medical, and human-induced hazards in Italy. We used the frequency distribution of events with fatalities to ascertain the magnitude and frequency of the societal risks posed by floods and landslides. We quantified these risks in a Bayesian model that describes the probabilities of fatal flood and landslide events in Italy.

  16. Including Jews in Multiculturalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langman, Peter F.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses reasons for the lack of attention to Jews as an ethnic minority within multiculturalism both by Jews and non-Jews; why Jews and Jewish issues need to be included; and addresses some of the issues involved in the ethical treatment of Jewish clients. (Author)

  17. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c)(1), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (MAR 2012) (a) As the Contractor represented in its...

  18. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (JAN 2002) (a) The Contractor represents that...

  19. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c)(1), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (MAR 2012) (a) As the Contractor represented in its...

  20. 78 FR 55095 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing and antidumping duty orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be likely to lead to... Pasta from Italy and Turkey: Investigation Nos. 701- TA-365-366 and 731-TA-734-735 (Third...

  1. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (JAN 2002) (a) The Contractor represents that...

  2. The University in Italy: Historical Background and Changing Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todeschini, Marco

    1999-01-01

    Traces the history of higher education in Italy. Discusses the nature and function of the Italian university; changes in Italy's system of higher education over the years; the issue of academic autonomy in Italy; and reform in Italian universities over the next few years (going corporate and walking the tightrope between autonomy and national…

  3. Present Status and Future Prospects of Geothermal Development in Italy with an Appendix on Reservoir Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldi, R.; Calamai, A.; Neri, G.; Manetti, G.

    1983-12-15

    This paper consists of two parts and an appendix. In the first part a review is made of the geothermal activity in Italy from 1975 to 1982, including electrical and non-electrical applications. Remarks then follow on the trends that occurred and the operational criteria that were applied in the same period, which can be considered a transitional period of geothermal development in Italy. Information on recent trends and development objectives up to 1990 are given in the second part of the paper, together with a summary on program activities in the various geothermal areas of Italy. The appendix specifically reviews the main reseroir engineering activities carried out in the past years and the problems likely to be faced in the coming years in developing Itallian fields.

  4. Investigation on the phytosanitary status of major ornamental hibiscus species in Italy to assess virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Hibiscus (family Malvaceae) includes about 250 species that vary from annual to perennial herbs, and shrubs to small trees that are native to tropical, sub-tropical and temperate climates. A study in 2010-2011 examined viruses associated with symptoms observed on hibiscus plants in Italy....

  5. Promoting Health and Preventing Chronic Degenerative Pathologies for Elders: The Empirical Scenario in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucchetti, Maria; Mazzoni, Ermanna; Principi, Andrea; Greco, Cosetta

    2007-01-01

    The article provides an overview of health prevention programs implemented by local authorities to target the needs of older people in Italy. Interventions include health promotion and primary prevention, secondary prevention, and tertiary prevention. The most important characteristics of the interventions are described in terms of type, targets,…

  6. Changing Occupational Profiles in the Hotel Industry: Case Studies in France, Italy and Spain. Synthesis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatti, Mario; Grazia Mereu, Maria; Tagliaferro, Claudio

    Changing occupational profiles in the hotel industry in France, Italy, and Spain were examined in case studies that included interviews with hotel managers, human resource managers, and individuals employed in hotel occupations identified as new or entailing new skills. The study focused on the following topics: (1) changes in the hotel industry…

  7. Albanian: The Albanian Language in Education in Italy. Regional Dossiers Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belluscio, Giovanni, Comp.

    2010-01-01

    This regional dossier aims to provide concise, descriptive information and basic educational statistics about minority language education in a specific region of Europe--"Arberishtja" of Italy. Aspects that are addressed include features of the education system, recent educational policies, main actors, legal arrangements, and support…

  8. Parapoxvirus infections of red deer, Italy.

    PubMed

    Scagliarini, Alessandra; Vaccari, Francesca; Turrini, Filippo; Bianchi, Alessandro; Cordioli, Paolo; Lavazza, Antonio

    2011-04-01

    To characterize parapoxviruses causing severe disease in wild ruminants in Stelvio Park, Italy, we sequenced and compared the DNA of several isolates. Results demonstrated that the red deer isolates are closely related to the parapox of red deer in New Zealand virus.

  9. Parapoxvirus Infections of Red Deer, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Vaccari, Francesca; Turrini, Filippo; Bianchi, Alessandro; Cordioli, Paolo; Lavazza, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    To characterize parapoxviruses causing severe disease in wild ruminants in Stelvio Park, Italy, we sequenced and compared the DNA of several isolates. Results demonstrated that the red deer isolates are closely related to the parapox of red deer in New Zealand virus. PMID:21470460

  10. An Urban Renewal School Project in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    The restoration of an historic school building in Battipaglia, Italy, will provide new public facilities and is hoped to boost urban renewal. The municipality of Battipaglia, in the province of Salerno, held an architectural competition for renovating the E. De Amicis Primary School and the surrounding area. The winning project, submitted by a…

  11. Actors in Corruption: Business Politicians in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    della Porta, Donatella

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the development of political corruption brings about important changes in the political system and in the characteristics of the political class. Describes the emergence and activities of a group of "business politicians" in Italy who have transformed political parties into socializing agencies for illicit activities. (MJP)

  12. Italy's Treasures Are in Their Hands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocca, Francis X.

    2007-01-01

    Each year more than 300 applicants vie for 18 slots at the Central Institute of Restoration, the program responsible for the restoration of many of Italy's greatest works of art, and the training of experts in the repair of objects of artistic and/or cultural significance. Successful candidates must demonstrate knowledge of art history, chemistry,…

  13. Is There an America in Italy's Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, William K.

    2005-01-01

    When the author first heard that Italy wants to adopt the American model of education, his immediate reaction was, "Why would you want to do that?" American schools can scarcely teach students to read and write. American students are abysmally ignorant about history, geography, and world affairs. In international assessments of…

  14. The Study of Behavioural Development in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battacchi, Marco W.

    1984-01-01

    Examines professional education and current research trends in developmental psychology in Italy. Current trends have been investigated by a multi-dimensional content analysis of the studies published or accepted for publication in qualified journals between 1978-May 1983. (Author/AS)

  15. Bedbug infestations recorded in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Masetti, Massimo; Bruschi, Fabrizio

    2007-03-01

    In summer 2003 two separate infestations due to the common bedbug (Cimex lectularius) occurred in Pisa, Italy. Cutaneous reaction was evident and one patient developed a severe bullous eruption. In both cases there was circumstantial evidence for association with international travel.

  16. How America Saved Italy and the World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    wrote about Naples post-Allied liberation. There, mobs of men, women and children beat each other over candy Allied soldiers threw their way, and boys...Sicily and Italy. For further reading see Gene Santoro’s Mafia Allies: The True Story of America’s Secret Alliance with the Mob in World War II. 73

  17. Analysis of the damage caused by natural and anthropogenic sinkholes in Italy, on the basis of a nation-wide chronological catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennari, Carmela; Guzzetti, Fausto; Marchesini, Ivan; Parise, Mario; Salvati, Paola

    2013-04-01

    Sinkholes of both natural or anthropogenic origin are widespread phenomena in Italy, and locally constitute the main hazard. Notwithstanding the potential threat they represent to the built-up environment, sinkholes are rarely considered in the assessment of the geological hazards, and are generally underrated when compared to other hazards such as floods and landslides. Using a variety of information sources we have recently compiled a chronological catalogue of about 700 events that occurred in Italy. Mandatory for including a sinkhole in the catalogue is the knowledge of the date of occurrence. This is considered to be complete when hour/day/month/year of the event are all available, which corresponds to high accuracy of the record. When the information about time of occurrence is more limited (for instance, comprising only month and year, or a few generic information), the accuracy is considered of progressively lower degree (medium, medium-low or low). The documented sinkholes in the catalogue cover a time span from 276 B.C. to the present day. For any event the location (precise or approximate) is also included, ranked in different levels of certainty, according to the information provided by the sources or derived from our direct surveys. More than 50 % of the sinkholes in the catalogue are related to man-made cavities, excavated in different rock types, including limestones, calcarenites, and volcanic rocks. This is due to the complex history of the country, and the many phases of underground constructions that had occurred during the different epochs, with a variety of purposes (working places, rupestrian settlements, hydraulic works, quarries, worship sites, etc.). Location of these cavities often got lost in time, so that they were later on included in the expansion of newly developed towns, thus increasing the related risk. Natural sinkholes, on the other hand, are generally located in areas where soluble rocks (carbonates, evaporites) crop out, or

  18. Hepatitis E Virus Circulation in Italy: Phylogenetic and Evolutionary Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Montesano, Carla; Giovanetti, Marta; Ciotti, Marco; Cella, Eleonora; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Grifoni, Alba; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Angeletti, Silvia; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a major cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries, has been classified into four main genotypes and a number of subtypes. New genotypes have been recently identified in various mammals, including HEV genotype 3, which has a worldwide distribution. It is widespread among pigs in developed countries. Objectives This study investigated the genetic diversity of HEV among humans and swine in Italy. The date of origin and the demographic history of the HEV were also estimated. Materials and Methods A total of 327 HEV sequences of swine and humans from Italy were downloaded from the national centre for biotechnology information. Three different data sets were constructed. The first and the second data set were used to confirm the genotype of the sequences analyzed. The third data set was used to estimate the mean evolutionary rate and to determine the time-scaled phylogeny and demographic history. Results The Bayesian maximum clade credibility tree and the time of the most common recent ancestor estimates showed that the root of the tree dated back to the year 1907 (95% HPD: 1811 - 1975). Two main clades were found, divided into two subclades. Skyline plot analysis, performed separately for human and swine sequences, demonstrated the presence of a bottleneck only in the skyline plot from the swine sequences. Selective pressure analysis revealed only negatively selected sites. Conclusions This study provides support for the hypothesis that humans are probably infected after contact with swine sources. The findings emphasize the importance of checking the country of origin of swine and of improving sanitary control measures from the veterinary standpoint to prevent the spread of HEV infection in Italy. PMID:27226798

  19. Eucoleus boehmi infection in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Italy.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Fabrizia; Morganti, Giulia; di Cesare, Angela; Lepri, Elvio; Cassini, Rudi; Zanet, Stefania; Deni, Dario; Chiari, Mario; Ferroglio, Ezio

    2014-12-15

    In the last decade an increase of the number of red foxes in anthropized habitats across European countries, including Italy, has been observed. This pones implications in terms of disease transmission between wildlife and domestic animals; in fact, there are evidences of the role of foxes as reservoirs and amplifiers of a broad spectrum of parasites infecting pets. The present study evaluated the prevalence of Eucoleus boehmi, an emerging extra-intestinal nematodes of the Capillariinae subfamily, in red foxes. The nasal passages and sinuses of 179 red foxes culled from several areas of northern and central Italy were inspected and the mucosal surfaces were scrapped and examined for adult nematodes and eggs, microscopically and genetically identified. Overall 55 foxes (30.7%) were found to be infected with E. boehmi, i.e. 27 on inspection of the nasal passages and sinuses and 28 on mucosal flush and scraping. The occurrence of E. boehmi was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated to the sampling location, the age and gender of the animals examined; the higher rates of prevalence were observed in animals culled in Piedmont (43.3%) and in female (60.6%) and adult (38.1%) subjects. A total of 184 adult parasites were recovered, with a mean intensity of infection of 3.34, and a more frequent localization of E. boehmi in the nasal passages rather than in the sinuses. A significant (p < 0.05) relationship was found between the parasite burden and body condition and age of the animals; the intensity of infection was significantly higher in juveniles (mean: 6.3 specimens) and in animals showing poor fox body condition (mean: 7.8 specimens). These results show that E. boehmi is highly prevalent in the red fox populations of certain areas of Italy. Epidemiological implications are discussed, with a special focus on the role that this wild canid may have in the increasing transmission of nasal eucoleosis to domestic dogs.

  20. Regional frequency analysis of extreme precipitation for Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestieri, Angelo; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley; Lo Conti, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of extreme precipitation has always been included among most relevant hydrological applications because of the several important activities linked to the availability of tools for the estimation of extreme rainfall quantiles. These activities include the design of hydraulic civil structures and the evaluation and management of hydraulic and hydrological risk. In this study a frequency analysis of annual maxima precipitation measurements has been carried out for the area of Sicily (Italy). A typical hierarchical regional approach has been adopted for the parameter estimation procedure based on the L-moments method. The identification of homogeneous regions within the procedure has been pursued with a data driven procedure constituted by a principal component analysis of an ensemble of selected auxiliary variables, and a K-means cluster analysis algorithm. Auxiliary variables comprise meteo-climatic information and a representation of the average seasonal distribution of intense events. Results have been evaluated by means of a Monte Carlo experiment based on the comparison between at-site and regional fitted frequency distributions. Moreover, results have been compared with previous analyses performed for the same area. The study provides an updated tool for the modelling of extreme precipitation for the area of Sicily (Italy), with different features respect to previous tools both in terms of definition of homogeneous zones and in terms of parameters of the frequency distribution. Meteo-climatic information and the seasonality of extreme events retrieved from the dataset has been proficuously exploited in the analysis.

  1. Nutritional therapies (including fosteum).

    PubMed

    Nieves, Jeri W

    2009-03-01

    Nutrition is important in promoting bone health and in managing an individual with low bone mass or osteoporosis. In adult women and men, known losses of bone mass and microarchitecture occur, and nutrition can help minimize these losses. In every patient, a healthy diet with adequate protein, fruits, vegetables, calcium, and vitamin D is required to maintain bone health. Recent reports on nutritional remedies for osteoporosis have highlighted the importance of calcium in youth and continued importance in conjunction with vitamin D as the population ages. It is likely that a calcium intake of 1200 mg/d is ideal, and there are some concerns about excessive calcium intakes. However, vitamin D intake needs to be increased in most populations. The ability of soy products, particularly genistein aglycone, to provide skeletal benefit has been recently studied, including some data that support a new medical food marketed as Fosteum (Primus Pharmaceuticals, Scottsdale, AZ).

  2. Induced abortion and contraception in Italy.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, A; Grandolfo, M E

    1991-09-01

    This article discusses the legal and epidemiologic status of abortion in Italy, and its relationship to fertility and contraception. Enacted in May 1978, Italy's abortion law allows the operation to be performed during the 1st 90 days of gestation for a broad range of health, social, and psychological reasons. Women under 18 must receive written permission from a parent, guardian, or judge in order to undergo an abortion. The operation is free of charge. Health workers who object to abortion because of religious or moral reasons are exempt from participating. Regional differences exist concerning the availability of abortion, easy to procure in some places and difficult to obtain in others. After an initial increase following legalization, the abortion rate was 13.5/1000 women aged 15-44 and the abortion ratio was 309/1000 live births -- an intermediate rate and ratio compared to other countries. By the time the Abortion Act of 1978 was adopted, Italy already had one of the lowest fertility levels in Europe. Thus, the legalization of abortion has had no impact on fertility trends. Contrary to initial fears that the legalization of abortion would make abortion a method of family planning, 80% of the women who sought an abortion in 1983-88 were using birth control at the time (withdrawal being the most common method used by this group). In fact, most women who undergo abortions are married, between the ages of 25-34, and with at least one child. Evidence indicates widespread ignorance concerning reproduction. In a 1989 survey, only 65% of women could identify the fertile period of the menstrual cycle. Italy has no sex education in schools or national family planning programs. Compared to most of Europe, Italy still has low levels of reliable contraceptive usage. This points to the need to guarantee the availability of abortion.

  3. The Prevalence and Symptoms Characteristic of Functional Constipation Using Rome III Diagnostic Criteria among Tertiary Education Students

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Functional constipation is very common with heterogeneous symptoms that have substantial impact on patient quality of life as well as medical resources which are rarely reported as life-threatening. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and symptoms characteristic of functional constipation (FC) by using Rome III diagnostic criteria among tertiary education students with an intention to introduce treatment in the future. Methods Demographic, socio-economics characteristics and symptoms of FC using the Rome III criteria were sought using a questionnaire administered to Malaysian students in a tertiary education setting. Other data obtained were the general health status, lifestyle factors and anthropometric measurements. Using a simple random sampling method, a total of 1662 students were recruited in the study with a response rate of 95.0%. Sampled data are presented as frequency and percentage and stratified accordingly into categories for Chi-square analysis. Results The prevalence of functional constipation among the students was 16.2%, with a significantly higher prevalence among women (17.4%) than men (12.5%). Hard or lumpy stool, incomplete evacuation, anorectal obstruction and straining were reported as the commonest symptoms experienced. Type 3 was the most frequent stool consistency experienced among the constipated individuals (35.2%). Only 4.4% of individuals reported having less than three defecations per week. Using univariable analysis, FC was significantly associated with sex (odds ratio: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.06–2.06) and age group (odds ratio: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.01–1.79) with P value < 0.05 significance level. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only sex was found significantly associated with FC (adjusted odds ratio: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.08–2.17, P < 0.05). Conclusions Based on the prevalence rate, constipation is a common problem among tertiary education students (16.2%), with significantly more prevalence among

  4. D Survey and Augmented Reality for Cultural Heritage. The Case Study of Aurelian Wall at Castra Praetoria in Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canciani, M.; Conigliaro, E.; Del Grasso, M.; Papalini, P.; Saccone, M.

    2016-06-01

    The development of close-range photogrammetry has produced a lot of new possibility to study cultural heritage. 3D data acquired with conventional and low cost cameras can be used to document, investigate the full appearance, materials and conservation status, to help the restoration process and identify intervention priorities. At the same time, with 3D survey a lot of three-dimensional data are collected and analyzed by researchers, but there are a very few possibility of 3D output. The augmented reality is one of this possible output with a very low cost technology but a very interesting result. Using simple mobile technology (for iPad and Android Tablets) and shareware software (in the case presented "Augment") it is possible to share and visualize a large number of 3D models with your own device. The case study presented is a part of an architecture graduate thesis, made in Rome at Department of Architecture of Roma Tre University. We have developed a photogrammetric survey to study the Aurelian Wall at Castra Praetoria in Rome. The surveys of 8000 square meters of surface have allowed to identify stratigraphy and construction phases of a complex portion of Aurelian Wall, specially about the Northern door of Castra. During this study, the data coming out of 3D survey (photogrammetric and topographic), are stored and used to create a reverse 3D model, or virtual reconstruction, of the Northern door of Castra. This virtual reconstruction shows the door in the Tiberian period, nowadays it's totally hidden by a curtain wall but, little and significative architectural details allow to know its original feature. The 3D model of the ancient walls has been mapped with the exact type of bricks and mortar, oriented and scaled according to the existing one to use augmented reality. Finally, two kind of application have been developed, one on site, were you can see superimposed the virtual reconstruction on the existing walls using the image recognition. On the other hand

  5. A refined biomonitoring study of airborne particulate matter pollution in Rome, with magnetic measurements on Quercus Ilex tree leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szönyi, Michael; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Hirt, Ann M.

    2008-04-01

    Elevated levels of airborne particulate matter (PM) are a current problem for air quality in many major metropolitan areas. Many European cities have tightened the PM limits in the air, due to advances in monitoring PM levels. In order to establish guidelines for monitoring and curbing anthropogenic PM output, a better understanding of its origin, composition and diffusion is required. Biomonitoring of magnetic properties of tree leaves has been suggested previously to be a good approach to measure pollution levels in cities both in space and time. We report on a magnetic biomonitoring study of PM in the city of Rome, conducted from 2005 October to December. We collected approximately 180 different sample sets of tree leaves of Quercus ilex, an evergreen oak widely distributed in Rome, at 112 different locations. Specific magnetic susceptibility χ of the leaf is used as a fast, easy and cost-effective proxy to assess levels of primary anthropogenic airborne PM pollution. Highly polluted areas correlate with high traffic areas, with an average susceptibility value of χ = 3.2 × 10-7 m3 kg-1. Low traffic zones are characterized by values more than an order of magnitude lower at χ = 1.4 × 10-8 m3 kg-1, and the background magnetic susceptibility is around χ = 2.6 × 10-9 m3 kg-1. The data show that distance dependence from the source is the most significant factor for the concentration of magnetic PM, and that pollution levels and sources can be reliably delineated by measuring magnetic susceptibility values on tree leaf samples of Q. ilex. A new protocol for magnetic susceptibility measurements is proposed, in order to account for changes due to water evaporation in the leaves as a function of time after collection of the samples. Additional magnetic analyses, such as acquisition of artificial remanences and hysteresis properties, were used to characterize the mineralogy and grain size of the magnetic PM. The results indicate that the population of ferrimagnetic

  6. The site of the Varian Temple of Elagabal in Rome: topographical and astronomical approach to the question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Arrizabalaga y Prado, L.; de La Fuente Marcos, R.

    2005-03-01

    Ancient historians refer to a temple in Rome, dedicated to the Syrian sun god Elagabal, by his high priest, the Roman emperor called Varius (204-222AD, commonly called Elagabalus or Heliogabalus). On the basis of their texts, it has been thought that Varius either built a new temple, or rededicated an existing one, expropriated from some other deity, in order to house his god's principal cult object: a large black meteorite, or baetyl, which Varius brought from its temple at Emesa, in Syria, to Rome. In this paper we analyze the hypothesis that the site of the Varian Temple of Elagabal may have been that now known as the Vigna Barberini. A stratigraphic analysis shows that the Vigna Barberini is an artificial platform, built on the rubble of earlier hillside structures, dating from prehistoric times to the Julio-Claudian period. The platform, with more or less its present shape, is of Flavian date, and at that time contained a portico surrounding a central garden. On top of these, a Severan level corresponds to the base of the foundations of a temple that are very solid and go very deep. The azimuth of the temple wall oriented south-east is about 113°. Using a computer program, we have thoroughly scan ned the night sky in AD 1-250, looking for celestial objects that may have been worshipped in the temple. After taking into account the effects of precession, the main candidate for a celestial body worshipped from this site appears to be the star Sirius. In several Mediterranean cultures, the heliacal ortus, or earliest pre-dawn sighting of Sirius (when Sirius again rises into visibility after being hidden by the Sun's light for about 70 days) was thought to have astrological significance. We have compiled the relevant astronomical data for the heliacal ortus of Sirius in the time span 0-250 AD. During that period of time, it falls between 18th and 20th July. The azimuth angle of Sirius, when rising on the heliacal ortus day ci rca 150 AD, is about 111°. Being

  7. Refraction, including prisms.

    PubMed

    Hiatt, R L

    1991-02-01

    The literature in the past year on refraction is replete with several isolated but very important topics that have been of interest to strabismologists and refractionists for many decades. The refractive changes in scleral buckling procedures include an increase in axial length as well as an increase in myopia, as would be expected. Tinted lenses in dyslexia show little positive effect in the nonasthmatic patients in one study. The use of spectacles or bifocals as a way to control increase in myopia is refuted in another report. It has been shown that in accommodative esotropia not all patients will be able to escape the use of bifocals in the teenage years, even though surgery might be performed. The hope that disposable contact lenses would cut down on the instance of giant papillary conjunctivitis and keratitis has been given some credence, and the conventional theory that sclerosis alone is the cause of presbyopia is attacked. Also, gas permeable bifocal contact lenses are reviewed and the difficulties of correcting presbyopia by this method outlined. The practice of giving an aphakic less bifocal addition instead of a nonaphakic, based on the presumption of increased effective power, is challenged. In the review of prisms, the majority of articles concern prism adaption. The most significant report is that of the Prism Adaptation Study Research Group (Arch Ophthalmol 1990, 108:1248-1256), showing that acquired esotropia in particular has an increased incidence of stable and full corrections surgically in the prism adaptation group versus the control group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Variability of DTM-derived, morphometric parameters versus cell size. An example of application in Calabria (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rago, Valeria; Caloiero, Paola; Pellegrino, Annamaria Daniela; Iovine, Giulio G. R.; Terranova, Oreste G.; Pascale, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    , G. Gullà, G. Iovine, O. Petrucci, P. Salvador Sanchis, M. Sorriso-Valvo, O. Terranova, D. Torri, V. Bagarello, C. Di Stefano, V. Ferro, G. Buttafuoco, G. Callegari, P. Porto, B. Betrò, A. Bodini, C. Brambilla (2010) - Relazione Finale Contratto Lotto 2 Pericolosità legata ai fenomeni di intensa erosione idrica areale e lineare- POR Calabria 2000-2006, Azione. 1.4c. Rapporto per Autorità di Bacino Regione Calabria. Iovine G., Greco R., Gariano S.L., Pellegrino A.D., Terranova O.G. (2014) - Shallow-landslide susceptibility in the Costa Viola mountain ridge (southern Calabria, Italy) with considerations on the role of causal factors. Natural Hazards, 73(1), pp.111-136. In: G. Iovine & D. Cohen (Eds.), Advanced methods in landslide modelling. Iovine G., Greco R., Gariano S.L., Iaquinta P., Pellegrino A.D., Terranova O.G. (2013) - Shallow-landslide susceptibility in the Costa Viola mountain ridge (Italia). In: Landslide Science and Practice, Claudio Margottini, Paolo Canuti, Kyoji Sassa (Editors), Volume 3: Spatial Analysis and Modelling, pp.81-87. Proc. Second World Landslide Forum, 3-7 October 2011, Rome.

  9. SEISMIC SITE RESPONSE ESTIMATION IN THE NEAR SOURCE REGION OF THE 2009 L’AQUILA, ITALY, EARTHQUAKE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, E.; Azzara, R.; Bergamashi, F.; Bordoni, P.; Cara, F.; Cogliano, R.; Cultrera, G.; di Giulio, G.; Duval, A.; Fodarella, A.; Milana, G.; Pucillo, S.; Régnier, J.; Riccio, G.; Salichon, J.

    2009-12-01

    The 6th of April 2009, at 3:32 local time, a Mw 6.3 earthquake hit the Abruzzo region (central Italy) causing more than 300 casualties. The epicenter of the earthquake was 95km NE of Rome and 10km from the center of the city of L’Aquila, the administrative capital of the Abruzzo region. This city has a population of about 70,000 and was severely damaged by the earthquake, the total cost of the buildings damage being estimated around 3 Bn €. Historical masonry buildings particularly suffered from the seismic shaking, but some reinforced concrete structures from more modern construction were also heavily damaged. To better estimate the seismic solicitation of these structures during the earthquake, we deployed temporary arrays in the near source region. Downtown L’Aquila, as well as a rural quarter composed of ancient dwelling-centers located western L’Aquila (Roio area), have been instrumented. The array set up downtown consisted of nearly 25 stations including velocimetric and accelerometric sensors. In the Roio area, 6 stations operated for almost one month. The data has been processed in order to study the spectral ratios of the horizontal component of ground motion at the soil site and at a reference site, as well as the spectral ratio of the horizontal and the vertical movement at a single recording site. Downtown L’Aquila is set on a Quaternary fluvial terrace (breccias with limestone boulders and clasts in a marly matrix), which forms the left bank of the Aterno River and slopes down in the southwest direction towards the Aterno River. The alluvial are lying on lacustrine sediments reaching their maximum thickness (about 250m) in the center of L’Aquila. After De Luca et al. (2005), these quaternary deposits seem to lead in an important amplification factor in the low frequency range (0.5-0.6 Hz). However, the level of amplification varies strongly from one point to the other in the center of the city. This new experimentation allows new and more

  10. Late Pleistocene depositional cycles of the Lapis Tiburtinus travertine (Tivoli, Central Italy): Possible influence of climate and fault activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccenna, Claudio; Soligo, Michele; Billi, Andrea; De Filippis, Luigi; Funiciello, Renato; Rossetti, Claudio; Tuccimei, Paola

    2008-10-01

    The depositional and erosional history of the Lapis Tiburtinus endogenic travertine located circa 25 km to the east of Rome, Central Italy, near the Colli Albani quiescent volcano, is interpreted through three-dimensional stratigraphy and uranium-series geochronology. Analyses of large exposures located in active quarries and of cores obtained from 114 industrial wells reveal that the travertine deposit is about 20 km 2 wide and 60 m thick on average. The travertine thickness is over 85 m toward its western N-S-elongated side, where thermal springs and large sinkholes occur aligned over a seismically-active N-striking fault. The travertine age was calculated using the U/Th isochron method. Results constrain the onset and conclusion of travertine deposition at about 115 and 30 ka, respectively. The three-dimensional study of the travertine shows that this deposit is characterized by a succession of depositional benches grown in an aggradational fashion. The benches are separated by five main erosional surfaces, which are associated with paleosols, conglomerates, and karstic features. This evidence shows that the travertine evolution was mostly controlled by water table fluctuations. Chronological correlations between travertine evolution and paleoclimate indicators suggest that the travertine deposition was partly modulated by climate conditions. Other influencing factors may have been fault-related deformation and volcanic events.

  11. Monitoring Ground Deformation Using Persistent Scatters Interferometry (PSI) and Small Baselines (SBAS) Techniques Integrated in the ESA RSS Service: The Case Study of Valencia, Rome and South Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Manuel J.; Cuccu, Roberto; Rivolta, Giancarlo

    2015-05-01

    This work is focused on the infrastructure monitoring of areas which had experienced significant urbanization and therefore, also an increase of the exploitation of natural resources. Persistent Scatters Interferometry (PS-InSAR) and Small Baselines (SBAS) approaches are applied to three study areas for which large datasets of SAR images are available in ascending and descending modes to finally deploy deformation maps of different buildings and infrastructures. Valencia, Rome and South Sardinia areas have been selected for this study, having experienced an increase of the exploitation of natural resources in parallel with their urban expansion. Moreover, Rome is a very special case, where Cultural Heritage permeating the city and its surroundings would suggest the necessity of a tool for monitoring the stability of the different sites. This work wants to analyse the potential deformation that had occurred in these areas during the period 1992 to 2010, by applying Persistent Scatters Interferometry to ESA ERS SAR and Envisat ASAR data.

  12. Sinuosity change of the Po River near Cremona (Northern Italy) - a result of neotectonic activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovszki, Judit; Timár, Gábor

    2010-05-01

    In the map sheets of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire, Lombardia, Parma, Modena and Venice also can be seen (Timár et al., 2006). This area was surveyed between 1818 and 1829. In these map sheets, we can also follow the river Po from Vaccarizza to the delta. This river reach is about 350 km long. This river reach was digitized and sinuosity values were calculated with different window sizes, and displayed in a spectrum-like diagram (sinuosity spectra; after van Balen et al., 2008). At Cremona, a significante sinuosity change were identified. The sinuosity increasing, and we have high sinuosity values. In the summarizing geological map of Italy (Compagnoni and Calluzzo, 2004), at this place, a tectonic line was identified. So probably this fault line invokes the sinuosity change on the river. The vertical movements indicated on the maps are just the opposite like they would be according to the flume experiments of Ouchi (1985). In the case of the Po River at Cremona, the decrease of the channel slope results higher sinuosity. The reason is that the rate of the slope and water discharge is higher than it is required by the self-organized meandering and the river parameters fell to the range of the unorganized meandering (cf. Timár, 2003). Another possible explanation could be that the northern tributary, the Adda River has significant sediment load that lowers the sinuosity of the trunk river at the confluence. Compagnoni, B., Galluzzo, F. (eds., 2004): Geological Map of Italy. Agenzia per la Protezione dell'Ambiente per I Servizi Tecnici - Dipartimento Difesa del Suolo, Servizio Geologico d'Italia, Rome-Florence-Genoa. Map, scale=1:1250000, especially printed for the 32nd International Geological Congress. Ouchi, S. (1985): Response of alluvial rivers to slow active tectonic movement. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 96: 504-515. Timár, G. (2003): Controls on channel sinuosity changes: a case study of the Tisza River, the Great Hungarian Plain. Quaternary

  13. Helminth communities of herons (Aves: Ardeidae) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galiero, Giorgio; Cerrone, Anna; Barca, Lorella; Kinsella, John M; Aznar, Francisco J

    2016-08-01

    The helminth communities of nine species of herons from southern Italy were studied and compared. Of 24 taxa found including seven digeneans, seven nematodes, six cestodes and four acanthocephalans, only five taxa were found in more than one heron species, and five of the 21 taxa that could be identified to species level were classified as 'heron specialists'. The total number of helminth species per heron species ranged from 1 in Botaurus stellaris to 9 in Ixobrychus minutus with infection levels generally low. A statistical comparison was carried out for herons with a sample size >5. At the infracommunity level, only I. minutus clearly differed from other heron species. Diversity parameters of heminth infracommunities did not significantly differ among heron species. Species richness ranged from just 0.3 to 2.3 helminth taxa per individual host, and the Brillouin index, from 0 to 0.3. Total helminth abundance did not exceed 40 worms per host except in a single case of Ardeola ralloides. Infracommunities clearly were dominated by single helminth species. The present study confirms a depauperate helminth community in herons from southern Italy. Comparison with data from Spain and the Czech Republic showed strong quantitative similarities with values obtained in the present study. Results also suggest that the composition of local helminth communities are strongly variable depending on geographical location as is demonstrated by comparison with data from other European areas. However, whether herons in Europe naturally host depauperate helminth communities or these communities are depauperate because of other factors is unknown.

  14. All Roads Lead to Rome: Exploring Human Migration to the Eternal City through Biochemistry of Skeletons from Two Imperial-Era Cemeteries (1st-3rd c AD)

    PubMed Central

    Killgrove, Kristina; Montgomery, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Migration within the Roman Empire occurred at multiple scales and was engaged in both voluntarily and involuntarily. Because of the lengthy tradition of classical studies, bioarchaeological analyses must be fully contextualized within the bounds of history, material culture, and epigraphy. In order to assess migration to Rome within an updated contextual framework, strontium isotope analysis was performed on 105 individuals from two cemeteries associated with Imperial Rome—Casal Bertone and Castellaccio Europarco—and oxygen and carbon isotope analyses were performed on a subset of 55 individuals. Statistical analysis and comparisons with expected local ranges found several outliers who likely immigrated to Rome from elsewhere. Demographics of the immigrants show men and children migrated, and a comparison of carbon isotopes from teeth and bone samples suggests the immigrants may have significantly changed their diet. These data represent the first physical evidence of individual migrants to Imperial Rome. This case study demonstrates the importance of employing bioarchaeology to generate a deeper understanding of a complex ancient urban center. PMID:26863610

  15. A Comparison of Rome Observatory Sunspot Area and Sunspot Number Determinations With International Measures, 1958-1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2005-01-01

    Two changes in recording the sunspot record have occurred in recent years. First, in 1976, the longer-than-100-yr daily photographic record of the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO), used for determination of numbers and positions of sunspot groups and sunspot areas ended, and second, at the end of 1980, after more than 130 years, Zurich s Swiss Federal Observatory stopped providing daily sunspot numbers. To extend the sunspot record beyond 1976, use of United States Air Force/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (USAF/NOAA) sunspot drawing observations from the Solar Optical Observing Network began in 1977, and the combined record of sunspot activity from RGO/USAF/NOAA was made accessible at http://science.nasa.gov/ssl/PAD/SOLAR/greenwch.htm. Also, in 1981, the task of providing daily sunspot numbers was taken up by the Royal Observatory of Belgium s Solar Influences and Data analysis Center, and the combined Zurich/International sunspot number database was made available at http://sidc.oma.be/index.php3. In this study, Rome Observatory 1958-1998 photographic records of sunspot areas, numbers of groups, and derived sunspot numbers are compared against same-day international values to determine relative behaviors and to evaluate whether any potential changes might have been introduced in the overall sunspot record, due to the aforementioned changes.

  16. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Micro Economic Activities in Rome Reveals Patterns of Mixed-Use Urban Evolution.

    PubMed

    Fiasconaro, Alessandro; Strano, Emanuele; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Porta, Sergio; Latora, Vito

    2016-01-01

    Understanding urban growth is one with understanding how society evolves to satisfy the needs of its individuals in sharing a common space and adapting to the territory. We propose here a quantitative analysis of the historical development of a large urban area by investigating the spatial distribution and the age of commercial activities in the whole city of Rome. We find that the age of activities of various categories presents a very interesting double exponential trend, with a transition possibly related to the long-term economical effects determined by the oil crisis of the Seventies. The diversification of commercial categories, studied through various measures of entropy, shows, among other interesting features, a saturating behaviour with the density of activities. Moreover, different couples of commercial categories exhibit over the years a tendency to attract in space. Our results demonstrate that the spatio-temporal distribution of commercial activities can provide important insights on the urbanisation processes at work, revealing specific and non trivial socio-economical dynamics, as the presence of crisis periods and expansion trends, and contributing to the characterisation of the maturity of urban areas.

  17. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Micro Economic Activities in Rome Reveals Patterns of Mixed-Use Urban Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Fiasconaro, Alessandro; Strano, Emanuele; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Porta, Sergio; Latora, Vito

    2016-01-01

    Understanding urban growth is one with understanding how society evolves to satisfy the needs of its individuals in sharing a common space and adapting to the territory. We propose here a quantitative analysis of the historical development of a large urban area by investigating the spatial distribution and the age of commercial activities in the whole city of Rome. We find that the age of activities of various categories presents a very interesting double exponential trend, with a transition possibly related to the long-term economical effects determined by the oil crisis of the Seventies. The diversification of commercial categories, studied through various measures of entropy, shows, among other interesting features, a saturating behaviour with the density of activities. Moreover, different couples of commercial categories exhibit over the years a tendency to attract in space. Our results demonstrate that the spatio-temporal distribution of commercial activities can provide important insights on the urbanisation processes at work, revealing specific and non trivial socio-economical dynamics, as the presence of crisis periods and expansion trends, and contributing to the characterisation of the maturity of urban areas. PMID:26982028

  18. An annotated checklist of the Recent non-marine ostracods (Ostracoda: Crustacea) from Italy.

    PubMed

    Pieri, Valentina; Martens, Koen; Meisch, Claude; Rossetti, Giampaolo

    2015-02-17

    We present an updated checklist of non-marine ostracods from Italy. Data were obtained from the published literature up to April 2013 and new collections carried out in 18 out of 20 Italian regions. Altogether, 1665 ostracod samples were collected from 1241 new sites visited between 1981 and 2013. Sites were selected to encompass the most widespread types of freshwater aquatic habitats (i.e., pools, ponds, peat bogs, springs and streams, etc.). This field study led to the identification of 89 ostracod species. Five additional taxa remained at the generic level because only few (juvenile) individuals were available or the material was damaged. Of particular interest is the occurrence of four species new to Italy: Candonocypris novaezelandiae, Eucypris elongata, Ilyocypris getica and I. hartmanni. In addition, three putative new species (Pseudolimnocythere sp., Candona sp.1 and Eucypris sp.1) are left in open nomenclature. After synonymising several species and removing invalid taxa reported in the literature, the updated checklist now includes 152 species and 5 taxa identified at supraspecific level, belonging to 57 genera and 12 families (Candonidae, Cyprididae, Cytherideidae, Darwinulidae, Ilyocyprididae, Notodromadidae, Limnocytheridae, Leptocytheridae, Loxochonchidae, Hemicytheridae, Xestoleberididae and Entocytheridae). For each species, its distribution in Italy and its bibliographic records (including synonyms) for Italy are provided.

  19. Helium isotopes and tectonics in southern Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, Yuji; Wakita, Hiroshi ); Nuccio, M.P. ); Italiano, F.

    1989-06-01

    Geodynamic evolution of southern Italy can be understood within the framework of the Mediterranean-Alpine System. Subduction of a plate along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc under the Tyrrhenian Sea has been suggested by many geophysicists, although it is not yet confirmed and remains somewhat controversial. Helium isotope ratios provide useful information on the geotectonic structure of the region. The authors report here the {sup 3}H/{sup 4}He ratios of terrestrial gas samples from southern Italy. The observed {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios are relatively high in the Eolian volcanic arc region and low in the other areas. Dichotomous explanations are presented. Firstly, volcanic arc-forearc hypothesis suggests the subduction along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc. Secondly, horizontal transport hypothesis is described based on the relationship between the ratios and radial distance from the recent spreading basin in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea.

  20. Population exposed to landslide risk in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigila, Alessandro; Iadanza, Carla; Munafò, Michele; Baiocco, Fabio; Marinosci, Ines; Chiocchini, Raffaella; Mugnoli, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    Italy is one of the European countries most affected by landslides counting over 486,000 mass movements with a total area of 20,700 square kilometres equal to 6.9% of the national territory. Moreover Italy is a densely urbanized country: 8101 municipalities, about 200 inhabitants per sq. km, 16,000 km of rail network and 180,000 km of road network. Landslides caused more than 5000 fatalities in the last century and considerable damage to urban areas, transport infrastructure and facilities, environmental and cultural heritage. The aim of this work is to estimate the population exposed to landslide risk in Italy. The input data are: the Italian Landslide Inventory, the Italian Population Census data and the high-resolution Artificial surfaces-Imperviousness Layer (Geoland2). The Italian Landslide Inventory (Progetto IFFI) realised by ISPRA (Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research) and the Regions and Self-governing Provinces, identifies landslides occurred in the national territory in accordance with standardized methods and using a detailed landslide mapping (1:10,000 scale). The 14th Population Census, made by ISTAT (Italian National Institute of Statistics) in 2001, contains data of resident population for the 382,534 census tracts in which Italy is divided. The pan-European high-resolution (HR) Artificial surfaces-Imperviousness Layer, realized using remote sensing data within the GMES initiative (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) by European Commission and European Space Agency, contains the degree of imperviousness (between 0 and 100%). GIS overlay of this information layer (20 x 20 m grid) with census tracts has allowed the spatialization of population within urban settlements of each census tract. This methodology has been particularly useful in the case of rural census tracts characterized by large surface area and low population density. The methodology could be also applied to estimate the population exposed to

  1. Molecular detection of bovine kobuviruses in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Barbara; Di Profio, Federica; Di Felice, Elisabetta; Ceci, Chiara; Pistilli, Maria Gabriella; Marsilio, Fulvio

    2012-12-01

    Faecal samples obtained from either asymptomatic or diarrhoeic calves in Italy were screened for bovine kobuviruses (BKVs) using specific primers. BKV RNA was detected in 4.9 % of the samples, with higher positivity rates in diarrhoeic calves (5.3 %) than in asymptomatic animals (4.8 %), although the difference was not statistically significant. Upon sequence analysis, all of the Italian viruses formed a tight group along with BKV-like sequences previously detected in Thailand and Japan.

  2. Italy. Section 23. Weather and Climate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1953-09-01

    Tramontana . . . . . .. ...... . 23- 6 (4) Foehn . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. 6 3, Regional discussion of climate ....... . . 23- 6 a. Italian Alps...all of Italy, the Po Valley a cold front, has the most extreme climate. Winters are cild, (4) Poehn - The foehn is a. downslope wind cloudy, and...in Liguria and northern noon. In the western part of the valley, the foggy Tuscany, The foehn is usually associated with the weather may persist for

  3. Malaria in illegal Chinese immigrants, Italy.

    PubMed

    Matteelli, A; Volonterio, A; Gulletta, M; Galimberti, L; Maroccolo, S; Gaiera, G; Giani, G; Rossi, M; Dorigoni, N; Bellina, L; Orlando, G; Bisoffi, Z; Castelli, F

    2001-01-01

    A cluster of 22 imported malaria cases, 21 caused by Plasmodium falciparum, was observed among illegal Chinese immigrants in northern Italy in the summer of 2000. The rate of severe disease was high because the patients were not immune and they sought health-care services late in their illness because of their clandestine status. Recognition of the outbreak was delayed because no regional alert system among infectious diseases hospitals was in place.

  4. Gastroenteritis Outbreak at Holiday Resort, Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    Prencipe, Vincenza; Ripani, Alessandro; Di Francesco, Cristina; Casaccia, Claudia; Crudeli, Silvia; Ferri, Nicola; Giovannini, Armando; Marconi, Maria Maddalena; Marfoglia, Cristina; Melai, Valeria; Savini, Giovanni; Scortichini, Giampiero; Semprini, Primula; Ruggeri, Franco Maria

    2008-01-01

    During the summer of 2003, a gastroenteritis outbreak spread throughout a holiday resort in central Italy. Fecally contaminated groundwater and seawater were leaking into the non–drinking-water system, which was found to be connected to the drinking-water system of a large resort. This contamination had a primary role in the onset of the outbreak and spread of the infection. PMID:18325266

  5. [Consistency and dynamics of immigration in Italy].

    PubMed

    Blangiardo, G C; Terzera, L

    2011-01-01

    According to recent data, foreign population currently in Italy is estimated to be 5,3 million, 550,000 irregular. Migration from Eastern Europe has progressively assumed leading position in the Italian panorama, downsizing other origins: betweenn 2005 and 2010, this component passed from 46% to 50,8% of the total immigrants, whereas all the other macro-areas have lost relative importance. Perspectives of slowing down of migration toward Italy could be real only when significant changes would happen in the areas at the origin of migration flow. In fact, if it is true that the demographic surplus from East Europe is bound to decrease through the process of local turnover of work supply, other great regions will show enormous excess of manpower. In North Africa, 3 million new workplaces will yearly be needed just to absorb excess of young workforce; in Latin America, the new workplaces to create will be almost twice as many. The sub Saharan Africa will however be under special observation, with 15-20 million places to create annually to absorb excess of offer. Italy could play as one of the safety valves of emigration.

  6. [A note on induced abortion in Italy].

    PubMed

    Cagiano De Azevedo, R

    1980-01-01

    The adoption of a recent law on abortion (1978) makes available in Italy new statistics at both the national and regional levels. Following the official source of ISTAT, the abortion rate/100 livebirths in 1979 was about 28%, about 40% in the northern part of Italy, and only 16% in Mezzogiorno. This abortion rate, as an average data at the national level, corresponds to a normal position among similar rates in western countries; closer to EEC member states. But the regional variability seems a very interesting new aspect of the Italian tryptic (north, center, south) largely presented in many demographic indicators. 3 factors are presented as a possible explication of this variability: a real different attitude of women and couples towards abortion from cultural, religious, and political points of view; the coexistence of legal and illegal abortion despite the adoption of a new liberal law; and the very important disequilibrium in the distribution of structures and medical services available to assure abortions in different parts of the country. Some other demographic points related to abortion are also presented here, particularly in connection with age structure of women and their marital status. Future trends in abortion with subsequent effects on fertility are also discussed at the end of this article. The arguments follow 2 alternatives presented in Italy by the National Committee on Population and the Committee of Demographic Studies. (author's modified)

  7. Orientation to the Humanities, Part I. Off to Rome, Latin: 7500.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course concentrates on the geographic location of the Roman Empire, the Roman personality, the family organization, foods, and eating customs. The cultural background is presented in English and dialogues; mottoes and songs in Latin are included. Much emphasis is placed on English derivatives and on the comparison between Roman and…

  8. Romans: A Simulation of the History and Culture of Ancient Rome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staneart, Chuck; Baral, Wanda

    This simulation allows students to learn about and participate in many of the aspects of ancient Roman life that have influenced present institutions and way of life. The phases of the unit include: (1) "Daily Life"; (2) "Forum of Roma"; (3) "Temple of Apollo"; (4) "Pax Romana"; (5) "History/Mystery:…

  9. Alien insects in Italy: comparing patterns from the regional to European level.

    PubMed

    Inghilesi, Alberto F; Mazza, Giuseppe; Cervo, Rita; Gherardi, Francesca; Sposimo, Paolo; Tricarico, Elena; Zapparoli, Marzio

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of species outside their native range contributes to the loss of biodiversity, alters the structure and functioning of ecosystems, and damages economy and human health. Insects are one of the taxa with the highest frequency of introduction due to their high diversity, biological properties, and close association with human activities. Here, the allodiversity of Italian entomofauna was analyzed, with a focus on Tuscany (Central Italy). A list of alien insects in Tuscany is included. The status of the alien entomofauna in Italy was updated. The number of alien insects amounts to 122 in Tuscany and 923 in Italy. An introduction rate of 98 species per decade was estimated in Italy. In Tuscany, alien insects belong to 10 orders, mostly Coleoptera (38%), Hemiptera (Sternorrhyncha and Auchenorrhyncha) (23%), and Hymenoptera (13%). They have been most often introduced through vegetable items (ornamental plants or crops). Most species come from the Nearctic region (26%) and are both phytophagous (63%) and amphigonic (80%). Differences and similarities in introduction patterns and in insect abundances across orders among regional, national, and European scales, also considering worldwide abundances, are discussed. Finally, a paucity of information regarding the negative impacts of many species, except for economic pests, phytosanitary threats, and vectors of disease, is underlined. A deeper understanding of the alien insects' ecological impact might help designate policies aimed at preventing further introductions and control the invasive populations of already established species.

  10. Questioning medicine in seventeenth-century Rome: the consultations of Paolo Zacchia.

    PubMed

    Duffin, Jacalyn

    2011-01-01

    This paper surveys the life and contributions of Paolo Zacchia (1584-1659) before analyzing 85 Latin consilia (or consultations) in his Quaestiones medico-legales. Topics include death, paternity, sexuality, disease, and miracles. Because the consilia cite the rest of his treatise, they open the entire work, elucidating applications of theory. This research relied on the construction of a database, built on subject, date, and citations. The paper closes with historiographic suggestions for why this prominent author has been ignored in North America.

  11. Coupling Functions for NM-64 and NM Without Lead Derived on the Basis of Calculated Apparent Cutoff Rigidities for CR Latitude Survey from Antarctica to Italy in Minimum of Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, L.I.; Danilova, O.A.; Tyasto, M.I.; Ptitsina, N.G.; Villoresi, G.; Iucci, N.; Parisi, M.

    L. I. Dorman (1,2), O. A. Danilova (3), M. I. Tyasto (3), N. G. Ptitsina (3), G. Villoresi (4), N. Iucci (4) and M. Parisi (4) ? (1) Israel Cosmic Ray Center affiliated to Tel Aviv University, Technion and Israel Space Agency, Israel; (2) IZMIRAN, Troitsk, Russia; (3) SPbFIZMIRAN, St. Petersburg, Russia; (4) Dipartimento di Fisica "E. Amaldi", Università "Roma Tre", Rome, Italy In Dorman et al. (2007) it was calculate the apparent cut-off rigidities for the backward route (Antarctica-Italy) of the CR latitude survey performed on a ship during 1996-1997 solar minimum. These computations were done on the basis of results of trajectory calculations for inclined cut-off rigidities for various azimuth and zenith angles (0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°) and azimuth directions changing from 0° to 360° in steps of 45°. The information on integral multiplicities of secondary neutrons detected by neutron monitor in dependence of zenith angle of incoming primary CR particles have been also used. This information is based on the theoretical calculations of meson-nuclear cascades of primary protons with different rigidities arriving to the Earth's atmosphere at zenith angles 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 75°. By using this information and data of CR latitude survey from Antarctica to Italy in minimum of solar activity we determine coupling functions for NM-64 and NM without lead. Reference: L.I. Dorman et al. “Apparent Cutoff Rigidities for Cosmic Ray Latitude Survey from Antarctica to Italy in Minimum of Solar Activity”, Adv. Space Res., 2007 (in press).

  12. New Contributions on the Dome of the Pantheon in Rome: Comparison Between the Ideal Model and the Survey Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliberti, L.; Canciani, M.; Alonso Rodriguéz, M. A.

    2015-02-01

    This work proposes an integrated survey and a study of the intrados of the dome of the Pantheon in Rome. An actualized architectural survey of the interior of the dome can generate useful material for future studies. The survey has been realized by using in a first stage the digital photogrammetry and in a second stage the three-dimensional laser scan technology. The compared analysis between different methods applied in the same object is useful towards a closer approximation to real dimension. Among several aspects that arise in dealing with the Pantheon this work focuses mainly on the study of the geometry of the inner surface of the dome. The specific goal of the research is to verify the spherical form of the surface and the coffers' distribution. In this sense it takes an important place the extracting data system. In order to realize the analysis it was applied a critical treatment of selected information contained in the point cloud. The use of plan and section drawings connects to the study of three dimensional models. The research is based on the construction of an ideal geometrical model that derives from the theoretical model described in the historical documents. The survey points model, which keeps the irregularities of the actual form, determines the creation of an average sphere, that is a regular model defined by clarifying geometrical laws. The direct comparison between the survey model and the ideal model contributes to the building understanding. It detects irregularities or deformities where they exist, and provides objective and quantifiable data.

  13. Analysis of Gastric and Duodenal Eosinophils in Children with Abdominal Pain Related Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders According to Rome III Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Hye; Yang, Hye Ran; Lee, Hye Seung

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder (AP-FGID) is common in children and adults. However, the mechanism of AP-FGID is not clearly known. Recently, micro-inflammation, especially eosinophilia in the gastrointestinal tract, was suggested in the pathophysiology of AP-FGID in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of gastric and duodenal eosinophilia with pediatric AP-FGID. Methods In total, 105 pediatric patients with AP-FGID were recruited and classified into 4 subgroups based on the Rome III criteria. Eosinophil counts in the gastric and duodenal tissues of children with AP-FGID were compared to those from normal pathology references or those of children with Helicobacter pylori infection. Tissue eosinophil counts were also compared among the 4 subtypes of AP-FGID. Results Eosinophil counts in the gastric antrum and body were significantly higher in children with AP-FGID than normal reference values. Duodenal eosinophil counts were higher in children with AP-FGID, but not significantly when compared with normal reference values. There were no significant differences in eosinophil counts of the stomach or duodenum among the 4 subtypes of AP-FGID. Eosinophils counts in the gastric antrum and body were significantly higher in children with H. pylori infection than in those with AP-FGID. Duodenal eosinophilia was prominent in cases of H. pylori infection, but not statistically significant when compared with AP-FGID. Conclusions Our study revealed that gastric eosinophilia is associated with AP-FGID in children, regardless of the subtype of functional abdominal pain. This suggests some contribution of gastrointestinal eosinophils in the development of pediatric AP-FGID. PMID:27053514

  14. Femicide in Italy: national scenario and presentation of four cases.

    PubMed

    Bonanni, Elisa; Maiese, Aniello; Gitto, Lorenzo; Falco, Pietro; Maiese, Adamo; Bolino, Giorgio

    2014-03-01

    Femicide is defined as the killing of a woman by a man because she is a woman. The incidence of femicide has increased over the past few years and accounted for 30.9% of all homicides in 2011 in Italy. Certain features are usually present including asphyxiation as the mechanism of death, an intimate partner as murderer, and a history of sentimental relationship between the victim and the offender. In this paper, we analyse the Italian experience of femicide comparing it with the international scenario. We present four cases of femicide showing peculiar mechanisms of death resulting from various methods of asphyxiation. In all the cases, there had been a relationship between the victim and the offender. We discuss the mechanism of asphyxiation used to kill the women, emphasizing the necessity of a careful evaluation of all data available to reach the correct conclusion in atypical cases of femicide.

  15. A Career in Manuscripts: Genres and Purposes of a Physician's Writing in Rome, 1600-1630.

    PubMed

    De Renzi, Silvia

    2011-07-01

    Following the stellar career of papal physician Giulio Mancini, the article brings into focus learned doctors' uses of, and relationships with, manu- scripts. Manuscripts were the main outcome of their practice - as letters of consultation to patients and colleagues, as consilia of various kinds, including for use in courts of law, and also in the form of key professional tools such as casebooks. Clues found in Mancini's rich paper-trail shed light on material aspects of his professional writing and on the role that circulating knowledge in manuscript had in creating and sustaining medical networks. The article also argues that even in a domain as shaped by print as early modern medicine, physicians' use of this medium should not be taken for granted; especially in courtly settings, scribal, as opposed to print, publishing provided them with an effective means of building the social relationships on which their careers depended.

  16. Adolescents in southern regions of Italy adhere to the Mediterranean diet more than those in the northern regions.

    PubMed

    Noale, Marianna; Nardi, Mariateresa; Limongi, Federica; Siviero, Paola; Caregaro, Lorenza; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Maggi, Stefania

    2014-09-01

    There is a large amount of literature regarding the benefits of the Mediterranean diet in the adult population; however, there is growing curiosity about the individuals who naturally adhere to those principles early in life. The "Evaluation of Dietary Habits in Adolescents," carried out by the National Research Council of Italy in 2009, is a survey that aimed to assess the dietary habits and lifestyles of Italian adolescents and their adherence to the Mediterranean diet. We hypothesized that there would be differences across regions, with a higher adherence in Southern Italy compared with Northern Italy based on geography. The survey was conducted in 3 different geographic locations in Italy and included a convenience sample of adolescents who attended either a middle or high school. The participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning demographic data, lifestyle factors, and eating patterns, and scores were assigned according to adherence to the Mediterranean diet, as calculated using Trichopoulou's Mediterranean diet scale. The final sample included 565 adolescents, between 12 and 19 years old, who attended school in the northeastern, northwestern, or southern regions of Italy in 2009. According to the findings, 38.6% of the respondents had scores indicating a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet, whereas only 14% had scores showing a high adherence. Teenagers from the Southern region showed the highest adherence. Those with a high adherence to the Mediterranean diet consumed higher quantities of fiber, iron, vitamin B6, vitamin C, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, and monounsaturated fats.

  17. The social cost of chronic kidney disease in Italy.

    PubMed

    Turchetti, Giuseppe; Bellelli, S; Amato, M; Bianchi, S; Conti, P; Cupisti, A; Panichi, V; Rosati, A; Pizzarelli, F

    2016-10-03

    This study aims to estimate the mean annual social cost per patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD) by stages 4 and 5 pre-dialyses and cost components in Italy. The multicenter cross-sectional study included all adult outpatients in charge of the 14 main Nephrology Centers of Tuscany Region during 7 weeks from 2012 to 2013. Direct medical costs have been estimated using tariffs for laboratory tests, diagnostic exams, visits, hospitalization and prices for drugs. Non-medical costs included expenses of low-protein special foods, travel, and formal and informal care. Patients' and caregivers' losses of productivity have been estimated as indirect costs using the human capital approach. Costs have been expressed in Euros (2016). Totals of 279 patients in stage 4 and 205 patients in stage 5 have been enrolled. The estimated mean annual social cost of a patient with CKD were €7422 (±€6255) for stage 4 and €8971 (±€6503) for stage 5 (p < 0.05). Direct medical costs were higher in stage 5 as compared to stage 4; direct non-medical costs and indirect costs accounted, respectively, for 41 and 5 % of the total social cost of CKD stage 4 and for 33 and 9 % of CKD stage 5. In Italy, the overall annual social cost of CKD was €1,809,552,398 representing 0.11 % of the Gross Domestic Product. Direct non-medical costs and indirect costs were weighted on the social cost of CKD almost as much as the direct medical cost. Patients, their families and the productivity system sustain the burden of the disease almost as much as the healthcare system.

  18. Payment for performance (P4P): any future in Italy?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pay for Performance (P4P) programs, based on provision of financial incentives for service quality, have been widely adopted to enhance quality of care and to promote a more efficient use of health care resources whilst improving patient outcomes. In Italy, as in other countries, the growing concern over the quality of health services provided and the scarcity of resources would make P4P programs a useful means of improving their performance. The aim of this paper is to evaluate whether it is possible to implement P4P programs in the Lombardy Region, in Italy, based on the existing data set. Methods Thirteen quality measures were identified regarding four clinical conditions (acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF), ischemic stroke and hip and knee replacement) on the basis of an international literature review. Data was collected using the database of three institutions, which included hospital discharge records (Scheda di Dimissione ospedaliera-SDO-) and letters of discharge. The study population was identified using both the Principal ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes and the discharge date. A Statistical Analysis System (SAS) program was used for the text analysis. Results It was possible to calculate almost all the parameters pertaining to the three hospitals as all the data required was available with the exception of inpatient mortality in two hospitals and smoking cessation advice/counseling in one hospital. Conclusions On the ground of this analysis, we believe that it is possible to implement a P4P program in the Lombardy Region. However, for this program to be initiated, all necessary data must be available in electronic format and uniformly collected. Moreover, several other factors must be assessed: which clinical conditions should be included, the threshold for each quality parameter, the amount of financial incentives offered and how they will be provided. PMID:21605472

  19. Array monitoring of swarm earthquakes in the Pollino range (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessler, Dirk; Passarelli, Luigi; Govoni, Aladino; Rivalta, Eleonora

    2014-05-01

    The Mercure Basin (MB) and the Castrovillari Fault (CF) in the Pollino range (southern Apennines, Italy) represent one of the most prominent seismic gaps in the Italian seismic catalog, with no M>6 earthquakes during the last centuries. In recent times, the MB has been repeatedly interested by seismic swarms, with the most energetic swarm started in 2010 and still active in 2013. The seismic activity culminated in autumn 2012 with a M=5 event on October 25. In contrast, the CF appears aseismic. Only the northern part of the CF has experienced microseismicity. The rheology of these faults is unclear. Current debates include the potential of the MB and the CF to host large earthquakes and the level and the style of deformation. Understanding the seismicity and the behaviour of the faults is therefore necessary to assess the seismic hazard. We have been monitoring the ongoing seismicity using a small-aperture seismic array, integrated in a temporary seismic network. The instruments are provided by the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and INGV, Italy, and are operated in close collaboration between both institutes. Automatized seismic array methods are applied to resolve the spatio-temporal evolution of the seismicity in great detail. Using the GFZ array, we detect about ten times more earthquakes than currently included in automatic local catalogues. The increase corresponds to an improvement in complete event detection down to M~0.5. Event locations and the magnitude-frequency distribution are analysed to characterise the swarm and investigate the possible role of fluids for earthquake triggering. In the course of the swarm, seismicity has mainly migrated within the Mercure Basin. However, the spread towards the northern end of the Castrovillari fault to the east in 2013 marks a swarm phase with seismicity located outside of the Mercure Basin. The observations characterize the behaviour of the faults and their inter-connection.

  20. Gypsum karst in Italy: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Waele, Jo; Chiarini, Veronica; Columbu, Andrea; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Piccini, Leonardo; Vattano, Marco; Vigna, Bartolomeo; Zini, Luca; Forti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Although outcropping only rarely in Italy, gypsum karst has been described in detail since the early XXth century (Marinelli, 1917). Gypsum caves are now known from almost all Italian regions (Madonia & Forti, 2003), but are mainly localised along the northern border of the Apennine chain (Emilia Romagna and Marche regions), Calabria, and Sicily, where the major outcrops occur. Recently, important caves have also been discovered in the underground gypsum quarries in Piedmont (Vigna et al., 2010). During the late 80s and 90s several multidisciplinary studies have been carried out in many gypsum areas. All this work converged into a comprehensive overview in 2003 (Madonia & Forti, 2003). Further detailed studies focused on the gypsum areas of Emilia Romagna (Chiesi et al., 2010; Forti & Lucci, 2010; Demaria et al., 2012; De Waele & Pasini, 2013; Ercolani et al., 2013; Columbu et al., 2015; Lucci & Piastra, 2015; Tedeschi et al., 2015) and of Sicily (Madonia & Vattano, 2011). Sinkholes related to Permo-Triassic gypsum have been studied in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Zini et al., 2015). This presentation will review the state of the art regarding different aspects of evaporite karst in Italy focusing on the main new results. References Chiesi M., et al. (2010) - Origin and evolution of a salty gypsum/anhydrite karst spring: the case of Poiano (Northern Apennines, Italy). Hydrogeology Journal, 18, pp. 1111-1124. Columbu A. et al. (2015) - Gypsum caves as indicators of climate-driven river incision and aggradation in a rapidly uplifting region. Geology, 43(6), 539-542. Demaria D. et al. (Eds.) (2012), Le Grotte Bolognesi, GSB-USB, 431 p. De Waele J., Pasini G. (2013) - Intra-messinian gypsum palaeokarst in the northern Apennines and its palaeogeographic implications. Terra Nova 25, pp. 199-205. Ercolani M., et al. (Eds.) (2013), I Gessi e la Cave i Monte Tondo. Studio multidisciplinare di un'area carsica nella Vena del Gesso Romagnola. Memorie Ist. It. Spel. II(26), 559 p

  1. The Geographical Pattern of Thyroid Cancer Mortality Between 1980 and 2009 in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Minelli, Giada; Conti, Susanna; Manno, Valerio; Olivieri, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mortality for thyroid cancer (TC) is low and has been decreasing worldwide; yet few population studies based on mortality have been conducted. Several nonradiation risk factors have been associated with TC, including residence in goiter-endemic areas (as an indicator of iodine deficiency). We used mortality data to perform a spatial-temporal analysis regarding TC in Italy and investigated the association between mortality and socioeconomic status and geographical features (residing in a mountainous area is a proxy for iodine deficiency). Methods: We analyzed data from Italy's National Mortality Database (1980–2009). To evaluate temporal trends in mortality the age-standardized death rate (ASR) was used; to identify geographic areas with excess deaths due to TC standardized mortality rates (SMR) were calculated. We also calculated the rate ratios (RR) of the ASR and the 95% CI by sex. We performed a cluster analysis to identify municipalities with major departures from expected mortality, both in the entire study period and in two separate periods to evaluate the spatial-temporal variability. Finally, we evaluated the association between mortality and index of deprivation and altitude. Results: There were 16,473 deaths due to TC (10,690 females, 5783 males). The mean ASR was unsurprisingly low (0.58/100.000). There was a trend of decrease in mortality throughout Italy (−42% for 2007–2009 vs. 1980–1984), more pronounced among women. The decrease was greater in the north. Four geographic clusters were identified when considering the entire study period, two in the north and two in the south; however, the clusters in northern Italy refer to the earlier period (1980–1994) and those in southern Italy to the later period (1995–2009). Mortality was associated with residing in a mountainous area. A slight association with high socioeconomic status was found. Conclusions: This study reveals space-time differences in TC mortality in Italy. It shows an

  2. ARPA/NIJ/Rome Laboratory concealed weapon detection program: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Nicholas C.; Demma, Fred J.; Ferris, David D., Jr.; McMillan, Robert W.; Wicks, Michael C.

    1996-06-01

    Recent advances in passive and active imaging and non- imaging sensor technology offer the potential to detect weapons that are concealed beneath a person's clothing. Sensors that are discussed in this paper are characterized as either non-imaging or imaging. Non-imaging sensors include wide band radar and portal devices such as metal detectors. In general the strength of non-imaging sensors rest with the fact that they are generally inexpensive and can rapidly perform bulk separation between regions where persons are likely to be carrying concealed weapons and those regions that are likely to contain persons who are unarmed. The bulk process is typically accomplished at the expense of false alarm rate. Millimeter-wave (MMW), microwave, x-ray, acoustic, magnetic, and infrared (IR) imaging sensor technologies provide with greater certainty the means to isolate persons within a crowd that are carrying concealed weapons and to identify the weapon type. The increased certainty associated with imaging sensors is accomplished at the expense of cost and bulk surveillance of the crowd. CWD technologies have a variety of military and civilian applications. This technology focus area addresses specific military needs under the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA) operations other than war/law enforcement (OOTW/LE). Additionally, this technology has numerous civilian law enforcement applications that are being investigated under the National Institute of Justice's (NIJ) Concealed Weapons Detection program. This paper discusses the wide variety of sensors that might be employed in support of a typical scenario, the strengths and weaknesses of each of the sensors relative to the given scenario, and how CWD breadboards will be tested to determine the optimal CWD application. It rapidly becomes apparent that no single sensor will completely satisfy the CWD mission necessitating the fusion of two or more of these sensors.

  3. Radioactivity in honey of the central Italy.

    PubMed

    Meli, Maria Assunta; Desideri, Donatella; Roselli, Carla; Feduzi, Laura; Benedetti, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    Natural radionuclides and (137)Cs in twenty seven honeys produced in a region of the Central Italy were determined by alpha ((235)U, (238)U, (210)Po, (232)Th and (228)Th) and gamma spectrometry ((137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra and (228)Ra). The study was carried out in order to estimate the background levels of natural ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th and their progeny) and artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs) in various honey samples, as well as to compile a data base for radioactivity levels in that region. (40)K showed a mean activity of 28.1±23.0Bqkg(-1) with a range of 7.28-101Bqkg(-1). The mean of (210)Po activity resulted 0.40±0.46Bqkg(-1) with a range of 0.03-1.98Bqkg(-1). The mean of (238)U activity resulted 0.020±0.010Bqkg(-1). (226)Ra and (228)Ra resulted always <0.34 and <0.57Bqkg(-1) respectively, (235)U, (228)Th and (232)Th were always <0.007Bqkg(-1). (137)Cs resulted <0.10Bqkg(-1) in all samples. The committed effective doses due to (210)Po from ingestion of honey for infants, children and adults account for 0.002-5.13% of the natural radiation exposure in Italy. The honeys produced in Central Italy were of good quality in relation to the studied parameters, confirming the general image of a genuine and healthy food associated to this traditional products.

  4. Respiratory nematodes in cat populations of Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Grillotti, Eleonora; Manzocchi, Simone; Perrucci, Stefania; Beraldo, Paola; Cazzin, Stefania; De Liberato, Claudio; Barros, Luciano A; Simonato, Giulia; Traversa, Donato

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of common respiratory parasites of domestic cats (the metastrongyloid "cat lungworm" Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and the trichuroid Capillaria aerophila) and of neglected respiratory nematodes of felids (Troglostrongylus brevior, Angiostrongylus chabaudi and Oslerus rostratus) was here evaluated in two and three geographical sites of Northern and Central Italy, respectively. In 2014-2015, individual fecal samples of 868 domestic cats were examined microscopically and genetically, and epidemiological data related to parasitic infections were evaluated as possible risk factors by binary logistic regression models. The most common parasite was A. abstrusus in both mono- and poli-specific infections, followed by T. brevior and C. aerophila, while cats scored negative for other parasites. Cats positive for A. abstrusus (1.9-17 % infection rate) and C. aerophila (0.9-4.8 % infection rate) were found in all examined sites, while cats scored positive for T. brevior (1-14.3 % infection rate) in four sites. Also, T. brevior was here found for the first time in a domestic cat from a mountainous area of Northern Italy. The occurrence of lungworms was statistically related to the presence of respiratory signs and more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. Cats living in site C of Central Italy resulted statistically more at risk of infection for lungworms than cats living in the other study sites, while animals ageing less than 1 year were at more risk for troglostrongylosis. Finally, the presence of lungworms was more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. These results are discussed under epidemiological and clinical points of views.

  5. Changing distribution patterns of canine vector borne diseases in Italy: leishmaniosis vs. dirofilariosis

    PubMed Central

    Otranto, Domenico; Capelli, Gioia; Genchi, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Ecological and climatic changes, human and animal population dynamics are among the several factors that have favoured the spread or the (re)introduction and establishment of "novel" vector species and pathogens they transmit in previously disease-free geographical areas. As key examples of the changing pattern of distribution of canine vector borne diseases (CVBDs), the current distribution of canine leishmaniosis (CanL) by Leishmania infantum and dirofilariosis by Dirofilaria immitis causing heart worm disease (HW) in Italy is discussed on the basis of retrospective historical reports until the 90's and later on until 2009. For long time, D. immitis has been considered mainly present along the Po River Valley and northward areas, while L. infantum in south-central Italy and Sicily and Sardinia. Comparison of current available and historical data (up to 1989) confirms that HW and CanL, although with different prevalence rates, have been changing their distribution patterns in Italy as a result of many biological and ecological factors, including those related to vector distribution and introduction of new species (e.g. the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, a competent vector of D. immitis). New autochthonous foci of HW in southern Italy (i.e. Apulia and Calabria regions) have recently been reported. Although analysing retrospective data may represent a difficult task, the "paradigm" about the dual distribution of HW and CanL in northern and southern Italy cannot yet be considered valid. The research needs for managing HW and CanL in previously uninfected areas are discussed. PMID:19426441

  6. Contemporary and concurrent extension and compression in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montone, P.; Mariucci, M.; Pierdominici, S.

    2011-12-01

    We present the latest updating and the complete collection of data on the contemporary stress orientations in Italy. Data are relative to different stress indicators: borehole breakouts from deep drillings, crustal earthquake focal mechanisms and fault data. With respect to the previous compilation, performed in 2004, 206 new entries complete the definition of the horizontal stress orientation and tectonic regime in the most part of the territory, and bring new information mainly in Sicily and along the Apenninic belt. With an increase of 37% with respect to the previous compilation, now the global Italian dataset consists of 499 records with a reliable quality for stress maps. The total dataset includes the following active stress indicators: 56% borehole breakouts, 39% single earthquake focal mechanisms, and 5% represented by formal inversions of focal mechanisms, faults and overcoring data. A quality ranking between A and E is assigned to each stress data, with A being the highest quality and E the lowest. Only A-, B- and C-quality stress indicators are considered consistent for analyzing stress patterns. Depth interval of the entire dataset is between 0 to 40 km. The results in map are reported in terms of minimum horizontal stress (Shmin) because most of earthquakes present an extensional regime. Concerning breakouts, their orientations correspond to Shmin; since all the considered faults are normal faults, we assume the Shmin direction as perpendicular to the fault strike when no information on slip direction is available. The achieved results can be summarized in 3 main points: i) in some areas of Italy (Sicily, Friuli and Po Plain in the northern Italy), the alignment of horizontal stresses closely matches the ~N-S direction of ongoing crustal motions with respect to stable European plate. This result can be associated to the first-order stress field that drives the plate movement; ii) along the entire Apenninic belt - from north to south- a diffuse

  7. Middle Pleistocene ostracod assemblages from Lake Trasimeno, Perugia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchegiano, Marta; Gliozzi, Elsa; Buratti, Nicoletta; Ariztegui, Daniel; Cirilli, Simonetta

    2014-05-01

    Lake Trasimeno is a meso-eutrophic, shallow (<6 m deep) and large lake (~120km2) located in central Italy, at 259 m above sea level. A preliminary age model based on pollen data for a core retrieved along the present southern shore of the lake (north of the Panicarola town) suggests that the record may be as old as Middle Pleistocene. An ongoing multidisciplinary study of a 175 m long sedimentary core includes magnetic properties, sedimentary microfacies, paleontology, palynology and bulk elemental geochemistry. This contribution focus on the paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the topmost 30 m of the core using ostracods. A total of 245 samples have been taken at a 13 cm sampling interval. On the whole, 13 species referable to 10 genera were collected (Ilyocypris gibba, Candona neglecta, Candona angulata, Cypridopsis vidua, Heterocypris salina, Limnocythere sp.1, Limnocythere stationis, Darwinula stevensoni, Cyprideis sp., Leptocythere spp., Fabaeformiscandona fabaeformis, Cyclocypris ovum). Abrupt changes in the abundance of the assemblages were found along the studied core alternating sections with very abundant ostracod remains with others with scant (or even null) individuals. Moreover, the changes observed in the composition of the ostracod assemblages are interpreted as recording environmental variations. In particular, two intervals are significant for the paleoenvironmental reconstruction of this sedimentary succession: 1) the section from 25.60 m to 23.50 m is characterized by a rich ostracod fauna (dominated by Cyprideis sp., Candona angulata and Leptocythere spp.). These assemblages possibly indicate an increase in salinity or alkalinity of the water body; 2) the interval from 21.05 m to 17.60 m contains Ilyocypris gibba, Candona neglecta, Cypridopsis vidua, Heterocypris salina, Limnocythere sp. 1, Limnocythere stationis and Darwinula stevensoni. Limnocythere stationis is a central European species, until now in Italy only described in the Holocene of

  8. Influenza vaccination among the elderly in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Pregliasco, F.; Sodano, L.; Mensi, C.; Selvaggi, M. T.; Adamo, B.; D'Argenio, P.; Giussani, F.; Simonetti, A.; Carosella, M. R.; Simeone, R.; Dentizi, C.; Montanaro, C.; Ponzio, G.

    1999-01-01

    This article surveys the attitudes and perceptions of a random sample of the elderly population in three regions of Italy on the use and efficacy of influenza vaccine. The data were collected by direct interviews using a standard questionnaire. The results show that vaccination coverage against influenza is inadequate (26-48.6%). The major reasons for nonvaccination were lack of faith in the vaccine and disbelief that influenza is a dangerous illness. These data emphasize the need for a systematic education programme targeted at the elderly and the provision of influenza vaccination, with the increased cooperation of general practitioners. PMID:10083710

  9. Urinary capillariosis in six dogs from Italy

    PubMed Central

    Mariacher, A.; Millanta, F.; Guidi, G.; Perrucci, S.

    2016-01-01

    Canine urinary capillariosis is caused by the nematode Pearsonema plica. P. plica infection is seldomly detected in clinical practice mainly due to diagnostic limitations. This report describes six cases of urinary capillariosis in dogs from Italy. Recurrent cystitis was observed in one dog, whereas another patient was affected by glomerular amyloidosis. In the remaining animals, the infection was considered an incidental finding. Immature eggs of the parasite were observed with urine sediment examination in 3/6 patients. Increased awareness of the potential pathogenic role of P. plica and clinical disease presentation could help identify infected animals. PMID:27354971

  10. Italy: abortion and nationalized health care.

    PubMed

    Mori, M

    1984-12-01

    Most of the recent public and scholarly interest in Italy concerning bioethical issues has centered on abortion, general reform of the health care system, and deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill. Medical decisions are thought to concern technical rather than moral issues, and are generally left to physicians. Although ethics is a formal part of the medical curriculum only in Catholic universities, physicians have recently shown more of an interest in bioethical issues, as have philosophers. At present, however, the author is aware of only one non-Catholic institution that is devoted to the study of ethical questions in medicine.

  11. Louseborne Relapsing Fever among East African Refugees, Italy, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Lipani, Filippo; Costa, Cecilia; Scarvaglieri, Mariaelisabetta; Balbiano, Rosanna; Carosella, Sinibaldo; Calcagno, Andrea; Audagnotto, Sabrina; Barbui, Anna Maria; Brossa, Silvia; Ghisetti, Valeria; Dal Conte, Ivano; Caramello, Pietro; Di Perri, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    During June 9–September 30, 2015, five cases of louseborne relapsing fever were identified in Turin, Italy. All 5 cases were in young refugees from Somalia, 2 of whom had lived in Italy since 2011. Our report seems to confirm the possibility of local transmission of louse-borne relapsing fever. PMID:26812354

  12. Invasive Type e Haemophilus influenzae Disease in Italy

    PubMed Central

    degli Atti, Marta Luisa Ciofi; Cardines, Rita; Salmaso, Stefania; Renna, Giovanna; Mastrantonio, Paola

    2003-01-01

    We describe the first reported cases of invasive type e Haemophilus influenzae disease in Italy. All five cases occurred in adults. The isolates were susceptible to ampicillin and eight other antimicrobial agents. Molecular analysis showed two distinct type e strains circulating in Italy, both containing a single copy of the capsulation locus. PMID:12604001

  13. Mazzini and the Radical Movement in Nineteenth-Century Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noether, Emiliana P.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the origins of radicalism in Italy, specifically the emergence in 1831 of Giuseppe Mazzini as the advocate of Italian nationalism and radicalism. Examines Mazzini's role in Italy and among European revolutionaries, concluding that his legacy led to the establishment of the Italian republic in the twentieth century. (GEA)

  14. Young People and Alcohol in Italy: An Evolving Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beccaria, Franca; Prina, Franco

    2010-01-01

    In Italy, commonly held opinions and interpretations about the relationship between young people and alcohol are often expressed as generalizations and approximations. In order to further understanding of the relationship between young people and alcohol in contemporary Italy, we have gathered, compared and discussed all the available data, both…

  15. Large-Scale Assessments and Educational Policies in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damiani, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Despite Italy's extensive participation in most large-scale assessments, their actual influence on Italian educational policies is less easy to identify. The present contribution aims at highlighting and explaining reasons for the weak and often inconsistent relationship between international surveys and policy-making processes in Italy.…

  16. The US Mission in Italy's "Partnership for Growth"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spogli, Ronald P.; Truhn, J. Patrick

    2008-01-01

    This paper first examines key differences between the traditional approaches of the USA and Italy in relation to innovation and entrepreneurship. The authors then turn to the specific example of southern Italy, which has experienced higher rates of unemployment, lower US investment and fewer educational and cultural exchanges than the rest of the…

  17. 75 FR 14628 - Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape From Italy; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... COMMISSION Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape From Italy; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... antidumping duty finding on pressure sensitive plastic tape from Italy would be likely to lead to continuation... Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4128 (March 2010), entitled Pressure Sensitive Plastic...

  18. Reflections of a Lifelong Learner Teaching in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and summarizes the author's experience of teaching in Italy for three months and the impact it had on him and his learning. The author, at the age of 61, lived in Italy for three months and here he reflects on what he learned and how it relates to adult learning theory concepts.

  19. Emilia Earthquake: VLF Transmitters and ELF Signal from the Central Italy Electromagnetic Network (CIEN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidani, C.; Albarello, D.; Arcaleni, M.; Martinelli, G.; Siciliani, P. M.; Tardioli, S.; Vannucchi, A.

    2012-10-01

    Use of a VLF (1-25 kHz) transmitter monitoring in connection with strong earthquakes has been studied by several authors over the last two decades. This has recently led to international cooperation which includes a network covering the whole of Europe (Hayakawa, 1994;Biagi, 2011). Its aim is to monitor the sub-ionospheric channels between VLF radio transmitters and receivers. In fact, sub-ionospheric channels, which are above the preparation zone of a future strong earthquake, have been observed in several cases preventing transmissions many days before the main shocks. To study this kind of phenomena, a network devoted to seismic monitoring of VLF transmitters and ELF signals ELF (4 Hz-1 kHz) was established in central Italy (Central Italy Electromagnetic Network, CIEN) was operating since 2006 and progressively extended to include 6 stations. The features of CIEN are described at first

  20. Static and dynamic characterization of alluvial deposits in the Tiber River Valley: New data for assessing potential ground motion in the City of Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzano, F.; Caserta, A.; Govoni, A.; Marra, F.; Martino, S.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a case study conducted on the Holocene alluvial deposits of the Tiber River valley, in the city of Rome. The main test site selected for the study, Valco S. Paolo, is located about 2 km South of Rome's historical centre. The alluvial deposits were dynamically characterized in a comprehensive way via site investigations and geotechnical laboratory tests. Normalized shear modulus decay and damping curves (G/G0 and D/D0 vs γ) were obtained for the dominantly fine-grained levels. The curves demonstrate that these levels have a more marked shear stiffness decay if compared with the underlying Pliocene bedrock. Decay curves from laboratory tests for the Tiber alluvia correlated well with the trend of the function proposed by Hardin and Drnevich, making it possible to derive their specific interpolation function coefficients. Use was made of the extrapolation of the findings from the Valco S. Paolo test site to a large part of Rome's historical centre by means of two other test sites, supported by an engineering-geology model of the complex spatial distribution of the Tiber alluvia. The experimental Valco S. Paolo Vs profile was extrapolated to the other test sites on the basis of a stratigraphic criterion; the analysis of seismic noise measurements, obtained for the three test sites, validated the engineering-geology based extrapolation and showed that the main rigidity contrast occurs inside the alluvial body (at the contact with the underlying basal gravel-level G) and not between the alluvia and the Plio-Pleistocene bedrock, composed of highly consistent clay (Marne Vaticane). The 1D modeling of local seismic response to the maximum expected earthquakes in the city of Rome confirms that the deposits have one principal mode of vibration at about 1 Hz. However, the simulation also evidenced that the silty-clay deposits (level C), making up the most part of the Tiber alluvial body, play a key role in characterizing the soil column

  1. Ageing with HIV: newly diagnosed older adults in Italy.

    PubMed

    Orchi, N; Balzano, R; Scognamiglio, P; Navarra, A; De Carli, G; Elia, P; Grisetti, S; Sampaolesi, A; Giuliani, M; De Filippis, A; Puro, V; Ippolito, G; Girardi, E

    2008-04-01

    The prevalence of HIV/AIDS among people in midlife and late adulthood has been increasing in Western countries over the last decade. We analyzed data from a prospective, observational multi-centre study on individuals newly diagnosed with HIV between January 2004 and March 2007 in 10 public counselling and testing sites in Latium, Italy. At diagnosis, routine demographic, epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data are recorded, and patients are asked to complete a questionnaire investigating socio-demographic and psycho-behavioural aspects. To analyze the association of individual characteristics with age, we compared older adults (> or = 50 years) with their younger counterpart (18-49 years). To adjust for potential confounding effect of the epidemiological, clinical and behavioural characteristics, to identify factors associated with older age at HIV diagnosis, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Overall, 1073 individuals were identified, 125 of whom (11.6%) were aged 50 years or above. The questionnaire was completed by 41% (440/1073). Compared with their younger counterparts, a higher proportion of older patients were males, born in Italy, reported heterosexual or unknown HIV risk exposure, were never tested for HIV before and were in a more advanced stage of HIV infection at diagnosis. In addition, older adults had a lower educational level and were more frequently living with their partners or children. With respect to psycho-behavioural characteristics, older patients were more likely to have paid money for sex and have never used recreational drugs. Interestingly, no differences were found regarding condom use, which was poor in both age groups. These findings may have important implications for the management of older adults with HIV, who should be targeted by appropriate public health actions, such as opportunistic screening and easier access to healthcare. Moreover, strategies including information on HIV and prevention of risk

  2. The way forward in Italy for iodine.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Antonella; DI Cosmo, Caterina; DE Angelis, Simona; DA Cas, Roberto; Stacchini, Paolo; Pastorelli, Augusto; Vitti, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Italy is dealing with iodine deficiency since ancient times. In 1848 an ad hoc committee appointed by the king of Sardinia, identified extensive areas afflicted by endemic goiter and endemic cretinism in Piedmont, Liguria and Sardinia. Since then many epidemiological studies have been conducted in our country. These showed that iodine deficiency was present not only in mountain areas but also in coastal areas. In 1972 the iodization of salt at 15 mg/kg was allowed by law and iodized salt was distributed on request to selected endemic areas. Five years later the distribution was extended to the whole country. However the sale of iodized salt was not mandatory at that time and only a small fraction of the Italian population started using iodized salt. In 1991 the content of iodine in the salt was raised to 30 mg/kg and in 2005 a nationwide salt iodization program was finally implemented. Some years later a nationwide monitoring program of iodine prophylaxis was also implemented. Since 2005 the sale of iodized salt in Italian supermarkets has increased (34% in 2006, 55% in 2012), although it has been observed that the use of iodized salt is still low in the communal eating areas and in the food industry. These data are coherent with recent epidemiological studies showing that some regions in our country are still characterized by mild iodine deficiency and a high frequency of goiter and other iodine deficiency disorders. This implies that further efforts should be made to successfully correct iodine deficiency in Italy.

  3. Human visceral leishmaniasis: a picture from Italy.

    PubMed

    Abdalmaula, Giuma Harun; Barbadoro, Pamela; Marigliano, Anna; Illuminati, Diego; Di Stanislao, Francesco; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Prospero, Emilia

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Italy, focusing on HIV-infected patients, to estimate the burden of the disease and the public health actions that should be undertaken. A review of official notifications and hospitalization data has been performed. From 2006 to 2008, a total of 289 cases of VL were notified; the overall notification rate was 1.63/1,000,000 (95% CI 1.45-1.83). In total, 1192 VL-associated hospitalizations were detected, with a hospitalization rate of 6.71/1,000,000 (95% CI 6.34-7.10). For the age group "≤ 24 years", a statistically significant increase was detected (p<0.05). A total of 68.9% (n = 821) of hospitalizations were detected in HIV-positive patients. The geographic distribution of rates revealed a significant increase in the north-eastern area of the country. Our study confirms that the epidemiological pattern of VL is changing and that, in Italy, control measures and preventive strategies should be based on not only the official notification system but also hospital data. This would lead to the identification of areas of parasite spread and to the creation of awareness campaigns geared toward general practitioners in the affected areas. Easy case detection would allow for timely public health actions and strategies for the implementation of more effective interventions for reservoir control.

  4. Mid-latitude cirrus classification at Rome Tor Vergata through a multi-channel Raman-Mie-Rayleigh lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionisi, D.; Keckhut, P.; Liberti, G. L.; Cardillo, F.; Congeduti, F.

    2013-04-01

    A methodology to identify and characterize cirrus clouds has been developed and applied to the multichannel-multiwavelength Rayleigh-Mie-Raman (RMR) lidar in Rome-Tor Vergata (RTV). A set of 167 cirrus cases, defined on the basis of quasi-stationary temporal period conditions, has been selected in a dataset consisting of about 500 h of nighttime lidar sessions acquired between February 2007 and April 2010. The derived lidar parameters (effective height, geometrical and optical thickness and mean back-scattering ratio) and the cirrus mid-height temperature (estimated from the radiosoundings of Pratica di Mare, WMO site #16245) of this sample have been analyzed by the means of a clustering multivariate analysis. This approach identified four cirrus classes above the RTV site: two thin cirrus clusters in mid and upper troposphere and two thick cirrus clusters in mid-upper troposphere. These results, which are very similar to those derived through the same approach in the lidar site of the Observatoire of Haute Provence (OHP), allows characterizing cirrus clouds over RTV site and attests the robustness of such classification. To have some indications about the cirrus generation methods for the different classes, the analyses of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio, LReff), in terms of the frequency distribution functions and depending on the mid-height cirrus temperature have been performed. This study suggests that smaller (larger) ice crystals compose thin (thick) cirrus classes. This information, together with the value of relative humidity over ice (110 ± 30%), calculated through the simultaneous WV Raman measurements for the mid-tropospheric thin class, indicates that this class could be formed by an heterogeneous nucleation mechanism. The RTV cirrus results, re-computed through the cirrus classification by Sassen and Cho (1992), shows good agreement to other mid-latitude lidar cirrus observation for the relative occurrence of subvisible (SVC), thin

  5. Carbon Dioxide Earth Degassing and Structural Setting in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodini, G.

    2005-12-01

    A modelling of the water-rock-gas interaction in the groundwaters circulating in the aquifers of central southern Italy has shown that most of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) derives from deep carbon sources with an isotopic composition in the range of the CO2 emitted in Italy from active volcanoes, geothermal fields, and the many cold gas emissions located in the region. This suggests that a common, deep and inorganic source of CO2 is active in Italy as highlighted by the regional map of CO2 degassing that has been elaborated on the base of the deeply derived carbon dissolved in the groundwater. The map shows that two large degassing structures affect the Tyrrhenian side of the Italian peninsula. The northern degassing structure (TRDS, Tuscan Roman degassing structure) includes Tuscany, Latium and part of Umbria regions (~30000 km2) and releases ~ 1.4 × 1011 mol/year of deeply derived CO2. The southern degassing structure (CDS, Campanian degassing structure) occupies the Campania region (~ 10000 km2) and releases ~ 0.7 × 1011 mol/year of deeply derived CO2. The total CO2 released by TRDS and CDS (~ 2.1 × 1011) is globally significant, being ~ 10 % of the estimated present-day total CO2 discharge from sub aerial volcanoes of the Earth. The central parts of both TRDS and CDS coincide with the quaternary volcanism of Italy and with regions of high heat flow where were drilled many geothermal systems containing fluids saturated in CO2, i.e. with dissolved CO2 concentrations correspondent to the saturation values at the pressures (depths) of the geothermal reservoirs. These geothermal reservoirs represent the shallowest storage zone of the CO2 of deep provenance before the expulsion of the gas either directly in the atmosphere trough the numerous natural gas emissions of the area, or as dissolved gas species in the main aquifers. It is our opinion that the two degassing structures are the surface expression of two large plumes of mantle fluids which intrude

  6. [Greek nannies in Rome?].

    PubMed

    Dasen, Véronique

    2010-01-01

    In Roman society, parents often entrusted their newborn to a wet nurse, usually a slave or a lower-class freeborn woman, who normally lived with them. It was advised to choose with care the right person, as milk is not a neutral bodily substance but transmits many properties, physical and moral. Soranus devotes an entire chapter to the meticulous inspection of the nurse's milk and temper. The nurse's character must be checked as thoroughly as her physical health. The mind of the newborn, compared with wax, is from the start and forever impressed positively or negatively. Mnesitheus and others even advise choosing a woman resembling physically the mother, or a handsome person; Favorinus and others reject violently the recourse to wet nursing as immoral; submitting the child to the pernicious influence of a foreign non-kin person implies the destruction of family ties. Wet nurses had to follow a specific diet and to accept giving up their sexual life, which would corrupt the milk in case of a new pregnancy. Roman upper-class families attributed different qualities to nurses according to their ethnic origin: Egyptians were allegedly fond of children, Thracians robust and devoted, Spartans tough. The best were the Greeks, because they would teach Greek language - and culture - to their nurslings. The nurse's social function was extensive. Her role did not stop at the weaning period. Much evidence shows that she was a lifelong companion. In positive circumstances, she could construct non-kin relationships and became, through connections not of blood but of milk, a member of an extended family. Funerary inscriptions and literary sources show that some nurses were rewarded by freedom. Breast-feeding also created milk-ties between the nurslings, who could gain social elevation thanks to this bonding.

  7. NEETs versus EETs: An Observational Study in Italy on the Framework of the HEALTH25 European Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardi, Bernardo; Lucarelli, Chiara; Talamonti, Marta; Arimatea, Emidio; Fiori, Valentina; Moltedo-Perfetti, Andrès

    2015-01-01

    An observational study of young Italian NEETs (not in education, employment or training) and their EET peers (in education, employment or training) was conducted in the framework of a European Union (EU) project. Main characteristics and behaviours were compared to gain insights into the NEET condition in Italy. The sample included 111 NEETs…

  8. Evidence for Cambrian petroleum source rocks in the Rome trough of West Virginia and Kentucky, Appalachian basin: Chapter G.8 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T.; Harris, David C.; Gerome, Paul; Hainsworth, Timothy J.; Burruss, Robert A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Jarvie, Daniel M.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The bitumen extract from the Rogersville Shale compares very closely with oils or condensates from Cambrian reservoirs in the Carson Associates No. 1 Kazee well, Homer gas field, Elliott County, Ky.; the Inland No. 529 White well, Boyd County, Ky.; and the Miller No. 1 well, Wolfe County, Ky. These favorable oil-source rock correlations suggest a new petroleum system in the Appalachian basin that is characterized by a Conasauga Group source rock and Rome Formation and Conasauga Group reservoirs. This petroleum system probably extends along the Rome trough from eastern Kentucky to at least central West Virginia.

  9. Fossil Arthropods from a Full-Glacial Site in Northeastern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foddai, Donatella; Minelli, Alessandro

    1994-05-01

    Fossil remains of beetles and oribatid mites from a peat deposit dated 18,870 ± 300 yr B.P. near Verona, northeastern Italy, represent the first insect fauna of its kind from the last glacial maximum to be described from Italy. The assemblage includes the ground beetle Amara alpina, whose distribution today in Europe is restricted to mountains in Scandinavia and Scotland. Ecological requirements and geographic distribution of recent populations of the identified species suggest mesic habitats with standing water and peat bogs during the glacial maximum. The paleoenvironment was comparable to present-day lowland moors in Scandinavia or mesic environments above 1000 m altitude on the southern slopes of the Alps. The climate is inferred to have been colder and wetter than today. Mean July temperature may have been 8-9°C lower than at present.

  10. Serological survey of hepatitis E virus infection in farmed and pet rabbits in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Bartolo, Ilaria; De Sabato, L; Marata, A; Martinelli, N; Magistrali, C F; Monini, M; Ponterio, E; Ostanello, F; Ruggeri, F M

    2016-05-01

    The recent identification in rabbits of hepatitis E viruses (HEV) related to viruses infecting humans raises the question of the role of this species as possible HEV reservoir. A serological survey on rabbit HEV infection was conducted in Italy during 2013-2014, including both farmed and pet rabbits. We found an anti-HEV antibody seroprevalence of 3.40 % in 206 farmed rabbits (collected on 7 farms) and 6.56 % in 122 pets. RNA was extracted from IgG-positive sera and analyzed by HEV-specific real-time RT-PCR. None of the samples were positive, confirming that no viremia was present in the presence of IgG. Only one serum sample from a farmed rabbit was positive for IgM, but no HEV RNA was detected in it. Pet rabbit feces were also tested for HEV RNA, with negative results. This finding suggests that HEV is circulating in rabbits in Italy.

  11. Use of a Montecarlo simulation model for the re-planning of bluetongue surveillance in Italy.

    PubMed

    Calistri, P; Giovannini, A; Conte, A; Caporale, V

    2004-01-01

    Since August 2000, Italy has lost almost 500,000 sheep to the largest incursion of bluetongue (BT) yet to affect Europe. The national BT surveillance system includes serological and entomological programmes. The main objective of the serological programme is the early detection of BT virus (BTV) circulation by periodical testing of more than 30,000 sentinel cattle distributed across Italy. The sentinel network has been in force since October 2001 and since its inception has provided accurate and timely detection of viral circulation. However, the repeated testing of such a large number of animals required significant effort from the Veterinary Services and was costly for farmers. Consequently, a Montecarlo simulation model was developed to simulate different sentinel system scenarios and the results from each were compared. The model was validated using data derived from the serological surveillance activities in Sardinia from October 2001 to December 2002.

  12. Preserving the Identity of Small Settlements during Post-Disaster Reconstruction in Italy(1).

    PubMed

    Alexander, D

    1989-09-01

    The nature of small, historic settlements in Apennine Italy is described and options for reconstructing them are discussed. Villages and towns are disproportionately vulnerable to damage by even small earthquakes, which can cause substantial changes to their distinctive character. Responses to such events are outlined, including various strategies of evacuation and the process of developing standardized methods for post-disaster architectural survey. Rationales for demolishing damaged buildings, and their role in causing decentralization of the settlements, are discussed. The effects of temporary shelter and contemporary reconstruction plans are evaluated in terms of their impact on the changing urban landscape of such towns. Finally, inconsistencies in government reconstruction funding are shown to be responsible for much of the variability of post-disaster recovery in Italy. Hence, existing theoretical models are of little use in predicting the course of reconstruction.

  13. GPR Activities in Italy: a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosti, Fabio; Ambrosanio, Michele; Battaglia, Enzo; Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; De Carlo, Lorenzo; Matera, Loredana; Prontera, Santo; Sileo, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has been increasingly played an important role over the last 15 years in Italy due to its high reliability in assisting the assessment of the built environment for civil engineering purposes, and in being used for geophysical investigations within many other fields of application. In line with this, original works involving fundamental aspects of this technique and implementing its use more practically in a number of interesting projects have been developed over years, both under a research and an enterprise point of view. This paper will endeavour to review the current status of ground-penetrating radar activities in Italy. Efforts have been devoted to single out the most interesting national research projects, both recent and ongoing, involving ground-penetrating radar in Italy, such as the ARCHEO project in the 90s, funded by the Italian Ministry for Universities, wherein a stepped frequency ultra-wide band radar suited for archaeological surveys was manufactured. In this framework, it is worth citing another important and more recent project, European Community funded, namely, ORFEUS, which started in the late 2006 with the overall aim of providing the capability to locate buried infrastructure accurately and reliably by means of a bore-head ground-penetrating radar for horizontal directional drilling. A review on the main use of this non-destructive technique in management activities of national resources and infrastructures has been also performed, ranging from the applications made by Anas S.p.A., i.e., the main management authority for the Italian road and motorway network, up to private enterprises specialized in both services providing and ground-penetrating radar manufacturing such as, to cite a few, Sineco S.p.A. and IDS Ingegneria dei Sistemi S.p.A., respectively. Current national guidelines, rules or protocols to be followed during radar surveys have been also reviewed. Unlike well-established international standards such as

  14. Perspectives of offshore geothermal energy in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armani, F. B.; Paltrinieri, D.

    2013-06-01

    Italy is the first European and world's fifth largest producer of geothermal energy for power generation which actually accounts for less than 2% of the total electricity production of the country. In this paper after a brief introduction to the basic elements of high-enthalpy geothermal systems, we discuss the potentialities represented by the submarine volcanoes of the South Tyrrhenian Sea. In particular we focus on Marsili Seamount which, according to the literature data, can be considered as a possible first offshore geothermal field; then we give a summary of the related exploitation pilot project that may lead to the realization of a 200MWe prototype power plant. Finally we discuss some economic aspects and the development perspectives of the offshore geothermal resource taking into account the Italian energy framework and Europe 2020 renewable energy target.

  15. Floating production systems planned for Italy, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    EMH has signed a contract to design, fabricate and install a permanent deepwater, gravity-based single-point mooring (SPM) system and floating oil storage facility in Societa Energio Montedison's (SEM) Vega field off Italy. The design of the system is described. The system is designed to accomodate production rates of 75,000 bpd. The oil will be loaded from the storage tanker into shuttle tankers which will take it to area refineries. The shuttle tankers can moor either in tandem or side-by-side for loading. Also described in this paper are three Nigerian offshore fields -- Akam, Adanga and Ebughu -- being developed by Ashland Oil. They will be brought onstream through the use of an integrated floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) system. Production from all three fields will be piped to a central manifold platform to which a tanker will be permanently moored via a soft-yoke mooring system.

  16. Women and botany in Risorgimento Italy.

    PubMed

    Logan, Gabriella Berti

    2004-01-01

    The first Italian women described as botanists by their male peers were active during the Risorgimento. They were few in numbers and only one of them, Elisabetta Fiorini, was recognized for her extensive contributions to the field of cryptogams in Italy by being nominated to important Italian scientific academies. No such recognition was ever alloted to the other female botanists who acted as collectors, correspondents and/or patrons to male botanists, had their own garden of exotic plants, or discovered a new species of phanerogams, and occasionally published on the subject. This study will show that a woman could still belong to Italian scientific academies in the nineteenth century, if like Fiorini, she chose to practice science in a way that was considered at par with that of male scientists.

  17. Geochemistry and habitat of oils in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Novelli, L.; Mattavelli, L.

    1988-02-01

    Most of the onshore and offshore oil occurrences found in Italy have been systematically analyzed by different techniques, i.e., capillary gas chromatography, biological markers, and stable isotopes composition. On the basis of the above analyses, ten different groups of oil have been identified and geographically located. Subsequently, the influence of the various geological settings on generation and migration of these different groups of oils was investigated and is discussed here. In a foredeep regime, the remarkably fast heating rates, due to the rapid burial during late Tertiary, caused a rapid generation of oil mainly in the Triassic carbonate source rocks. Such generation, combined with the high over-burden pressure and a contemporaneous development of an intense tectonic compression, resulted in the expulsion of immature, heavy oils. Examples of this are evident in the central Adriatic Sea, southern Italy, and southeastern Sicily. Due to its complex geological and tectonic history, the Alpine-Apennine chain behaved differently with regard to oil generation and migration in different areas. In fact, the high temperatures reached by the Mesozoic source rocks underneath a stack of allochthonous thrust sheets and the insulating thermal blanket effect exerted by the same sheets on other younger source rocks above gave rise to generally light oils. Furthermore, in this unique geological setting, the most external thrust sheets locally acted as reservoirs of the foredeep regime. Foreland sequences acted as both reservoirs of the foredeep oils and as generative kitchens of liquid hydrocarbons if suitable source rocks were present and adequate burial was reached.

  18. Space Radar Image of Florence, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image shows land use patterns in and around the city of Florence, Italy, shown here in the center of the image. Florence is situated on a plain in the Chianti Hill region of Central Italy. The Arno River flows through town and is visible as the dark line running from the upper right to the bottom center of the image. The city is home to some of the world's most famous art museums. The bridges seen crossing the Arno, shown as faint red lines in the upper right portion of the image, were all sacked during World War II with the exception of the Ponte Vecchio, which remains as Florence's only covered bridge. The large, black V-shaped feature near the center of the image is the Florence Railroad Station. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This image is centered at 43.7 degrees north latitude and 11.15 degrees east longitude with North toward the upper left of the image. The area shown measures 20 kilometers by 17 kilometers (12.4 miles by 10.6 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received.

  19. A bioarchaeological approach to the reconstruction of changes in military organization among Iron Age Samnites (Vestini) From Abruzzo, Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Sparacello, Vitale Stefano; d'Ercole, Vincenzo; Coppa, Alfredo

    2015-03-01

    The Samnites were an Iron Age population that shifted from warlike mountain dwellers to the largest sociopolitical unit of central Italy, able to dispute with Rome the domination over the peninsula. Archaeological and historical evidence suggests that this major shift in the scale of conflict may have involved a reorganization of the military system, which changed from an elite militia to a conscript or standing army from the Orientalizing-Archaic (800-500 BC) to Hellenistic times (400-27 BC). We propose a bioarchaeological framework jointly analyzing skeletal properties and funerary treatment in male Samnites to investigate on this shift in military organization. We anticipated that, when Samnites had an elite militia, the warring force was constituted by the wealthier segments of the society. Conversely, we expected the warring force of the standing/conscript army to be mainly drawn from the lower social strata. We considered high asymmetry in J, a measure of humeral torsional rigidity (calculated via cross-sectional geometry, CSG) as a proxy for pre- and peri-adolescent-onset weapon training. The social standing of the individual was approximated via funerary treatment analysis (Status Index). Results show that in the Orientalizing-Archaic period, humeral asymmetry and Status Index are positively correlated, and the high-status subsample shows significantly higher asymmetry than the low-status subsample. Among Hellenistic Samnites, no correlation between Status Index and humeral asymmetry is present, and the low-status subsample is the most lateralized. Results support the use of CSG in a strong theoretical framework to investigate past changes in military organization and their correlates in terms of sociopolitical development, alterations of power relationships, and warfare.

  20. Progressive-arc- vs. strike-slip-related rotations in curved orogenic belts: a case study from the Northern Apennines (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtù, Antonio; Satolli, Sara; Maniscalco, Rosanna; Calamita, Fernando; Speranza, Fabio

    2013-04-01

    A detailed paleomagnetic study has been performed in the southern sector of the Olevano-Antrodoco-Sibillini (OAS) thrust front (i. e. the southern limb of the Northern Apennines, Italy). The oroclinal/progressive-arc vs. non rotational nature of the OAS thrust is still a matter of debate, as it has been interpreted in the literature as dextral strike-slip fault, dextral transpressive fault, or as a frontal to oblique ramp complex. We document the paleomagnetism of 52 sites from Jurassic to Eocene pelagic limestones and Messinian siliciclastic turbidites from both the OAS hanging wall and footwall. In the hanging wall, sampling was designed to follow two transects perpendicular to two thrust segments oriented roughly NE-SW and NNW-SSE. Paleomagnetic data have been integrated with biostratigraphical and structural data, in order to understand both the rotational nature of the OAS arc and the kinematics of the thrust front. All samples were paleomagnetically investigated by a 2G DC-SQUID cryogenic magnetometer at the INGV of Rome. Thermal cleaning was used throughout. A characteristic component of magnetization was successfully isolated in 39 (over 52) sites. The tilt-corrected directions were compared to the coeval directions expected for the Adriatic-African foreland, in order to calculate rotations due to Apennine orogenesis. On the basis of cluster analysis and tectonic constrains, we document a peculiar pattern of tectonic rotations along the OAS thrust with four rotational domains: 1. a strongly rotated clockwise (CW) domain (54.78° ±5.46° ) in the hanging wall, close to the NE-SW-trending segment of the thrust; 2. a less CW-rotated domain in the hanging wall (15.1° ±5.8° ) that includes both the NNW-SSE oriented thrust segment and sites far from the thrust; 3. a uniform counterclockwise (CCW) rotation (-30.79° ±4.73° ) in the footwall; 4. an approximately null rotation (-5.2° ±3.8° ) in the external footwall. The strong CW domain in the hanging wall

  1. Advances in Strapdown Inertial Systems. Lecture Series Held in Athens, Greece on 14-15 May 1984, in Rome, Italy on 17-18 May 1984 and in Copenhagen, Denmark on 21-22 May 1984

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    I*tYw of va rAdi Nsaed ta.g. * VOVW,) nvgto system. ixcellent ground rareretwed high freiten s$4-P thi ’Y" of AittItU&e Syrst#. CulemmntS the noisy...control compensation, is *fhown in Figure 9 and consists of two solts of mont arm compensations and network *compensations for the selected gyros and...feedback loop of the flight control syst. Network compensation is required since the accelerometers are siot located at tile primary aircraft benditV

  2. Sedimentary geochemistry depicts 2700 years of regional climate and land use change in the Rieti Basin, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, C.; Noble, P. J.; Mensing, S. A.; Tunno, I.; Sagnotti, L.; Florindo, F.; Cifnani, G.; Zimmerman, S. R. H.; Piovesan, G.

    2014-12-01

    A 14.4 m thick sedimentary sequence was recovered in multiple cores from Lago Lungo in the Rieti Basin, an intrapenninic extensional basin ~80 km north of Rome, Italy. This sequence provides a high-resolution record of environmental change related to climatic influence and anthropogenic landscape alteration. Pollen analyses, corroborated with historical records of land-use change, define the major shifts in forest composition and their historical context. An age model of the sequence was built using ties to regional cultigen datums and archaeomagnetic reference curves. Here we focus on sedimentologic and geochemical data (scanning XRF) from the Roman Period through the Little Ice Age (LIA). The base of the sequence (ca. 680 BCE- 1 CE) is marked by a steady increase in fine-grained detrital elements Ti, Rb, and K, and corresponding decrease in Ca, representing a transition from the unaltered system after the Romans constructed a channel that the basin. The Medieval Period (MP; 900-1350 CE) is lithologically distinct, composed of varicolored bands of alternating silt, clay, and calcareous concretions. Low counts of Ca, high detrital elements and frequent abrupt peaks in levels of the redox elements Fe and Mn indicate episodic clastic influx. Pollen data indicate that the greatest degree of deforestation and erosion occurred during the MP, supported by mean sedimentation rates of ca. 1cm/year, over twice the rate of the underlying interval. The Medieval climate was warmer and more stable, population increased, and elevations >1000 m were exploited for agriculture. The influence of the Velino River on the lake appears to increase during the MP through channel migration, increased flooding, or increased overland flow. The next transition (1350 CE) marks the start of the LIA and is coincident with the Black Plague. Historical records document a large earthquake in 1349 that severely struck Central Italy, with possible effects on the lake's depositional and hydrochemical

  3. Mislabelling of Döner Kebab Sold in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Liuzzo, Gaetano; Rossi, Roberto; Giacometti, Federica; Piva, Silvia; Serraino, Andrea; Mescolini, Giulia; Militerno, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether Döner kebabs sold in Italy comply with legal labelling requirements. A checklist of EU labelling requirements was drawn up and nine labels of Döner kebab marketed in the province of Modena were collected to evaluate the mandatory information laid down in article 9 of Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 together with the mandatory requirements of Regulation (EC) 853/2004 for meat preparations. The study showed that different additives are commonly used in Döner kebabs, including E 621 (monosodium glutamate). This additive is not included among the ingredients authorized for the meat preparation food category. Eight frozen Döner kebab samples were taken and a visual assessment and a histologic examination were performed to verify potential changes in the meat’s inner muscle fibre structure that could allow the product to be considered among meat preparations or meat products. The Döner kebab labels showed several systematically deficient regulatory requirements in both extrinsic defects (not related to food composition) and aspects concerning the protection of consumers’ health. Histological examination showed that the tissue was moderately swollen, but the muscle fibre structure was intact. Kebab can be reasonably classified as a meat preparation thereby precluding the use monosodium glutamate (E 621) as an ingredient. PMID:27995099

  4. Domino effects induced from rockfalls on industrial plants, Brescia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lari, Serena; Frattini, Paolo; Battista Crosta, Giovanni; Agliardi, Federico; Buldrini, Marco; Oliveri, Stefano; Seminati, Paolo; Pozza, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    The impact of industrial accidents triggered by landslides in the Lombardy Alps (northern Italy) is not negligible, as demonstrated by the event of the refinery Ilsea (Valmadrera, LC), where an explosion caused by a rockfall caused a victim and two injuries in 1981. This work proposes a methodology for the assessment of societal and economic risk connected to industrial accidents triggered by rockfalls in the area of Brescia, northern Italy. The study area is located between Lake Iseo and Lake Garda, and includes lower Valcamonica, lower Valtrompia, and lower Valsabbia. The area has an extension of 1,508 km2 and includes 82 municipalities. 727,000 people live in this area, where valley bottoms are strongly urbanised, and densely populated. The expected frequency of occurrence of rockfalls in the area was calculated by combining the frequency of block detachment and the frequency of transit. The detachment frequency was estimated using intensity-frequency curves, obtained adapting and calibrating existing curves from the literature using historical events of the area (374 events in 20 years). Considering that detachment frequency depends on the size of the block, 7 different scenarios were analysed, each of them characterised by blocks with different volume, from 0.01 m3 to 10,000 m3. The transit frequency was calculated by means of the rockfall 3D model HY-STONE. The model simulates the propagation of three-dimensional trajectories of blocks on complex terrain morphologies described by a DTM. Simulations were performed using a 20 m x 20 m DTM, and considering as source areas all the cells steepest than 40° (323 km2). Ten blocks were launched from each source, with a stochastic approach that accounts for uncertainties about the modelling parameters. Energy restitution and rolling friction coefficients were assigned to different cells according to different lithology and land use, and calibrated using historical events. As a result of the model, kinetic energy of

  5. 75 FR 8114 - Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape From Italy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: February 16, 2010. FOR...

  6. Ethics committees in Italy--a time for change?

    PubMed

    Wray, E

    2000-01-01

    The Comitato Nazionale per la Bioetica (CNB) in Italy has recently produced an unprecedented discussion document on the state of ethics committees in Italy, with an invitation to interested parties to comment on proposed changes to their fundamental structure. After this consultation, and taking note of relevant official publications and the most recent national and international literature on the subject, the CNB proposes to produce a final, definitive document that will consider options for the future development of such committees.

  7. The state of art of shotcrete in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Pelizza, S.; Tesio, G.G.

    1995-12-31

    The paper reports the large experience of use of shotcrete in Italy, both in tunnels and above ground. In tunnelling, for more than 30 years, shotcrete has been used for many hundreds of kilometers of tunnel construction. Technical rules for shotcrete use in Italy do not yet exist. SIG-Italian Tunnelling Society- has formed the Working Group Use of Shotcrete. This working group, operating since 1988, has the specific task to adapt the use of shotcrete to international standards.

  8. [Italy and Spain in the face of immigration].

    PubMed

    Alotta, S

    1997-01-01

    "Spain and Italy share a common heritage as far as emigration is concerned. Their country men went abroad looking for jobs for a long period of their history. At present this is the fate of the extra community immigrants. Scholars maintain that Spain and Italy face this new situation with a fear greater than necessary. An attempt is made to explain immigration in a more rational way. At the same time...the debate about racism and antiracism [is examined]." (EXCERPT)

  9. Composition, size distribution, optical properties and radiative effects of re-suspended local mineral dust of Rome area by individual-particle microanalysis and radiative transfer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrodangelo, A.; Salzano, R.; Bassani, C.; Pareti, S.; Perrino, C.

    2015-05-01

    New information on the PM10 mineral dust from site-specific (Rome area, Latium) outcropped rocks, and on the microphysics, optical properties and radiative effects of mineral dust at local level were gained in this work. A multi-disciplinary approach was used, based on individual-particle scanning electron microscopy with X-ray energy-dispersive microanalysis (SEM XEDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of dust, size distribution of mineral particles, and radiative transfer modelling (RTM).The mineral composition of Rome lithogenic PM10 varies between an end-member dominated by silicate minerals and one exclusively composed of calcite. The first is obtained from volcanic lithotypes, the second from travertine or limestones; lithogenic PM10 with intermediate composition derives mainly from siliciclastic rocks or marlstones of Rome area. Size and mineral species of PM10 particles of silicate-dominated dust types are tuned mainly by weathering and, to lesser extent, by debris formation or crystallization; chemical precipitation of CaCO3 plays a major role in calcite-dominated types. These differences are evidenced by the diversity of volume distributions, within either dust types, or mineral species. Further differences are observed between volume distributions of calcite from travertine (natural source) and from road dust (anthropic source), specifically on the width, shape and enrichment of the fine fraction (unimodal at 5 μm a.d. for travertine, bimodal at 3.8 and 1.8 μm a.d. for road dust). Log-normal probability density functions of volcanics and travertine dusts affect differently the single scattering albedo (SSA) and the asymmetry parameter (g) in the VISible and Near Infrared (NIR) regions, depending also on the absorbing/non-absorbing character of volcanics and travertine, respectively. The downward component of the BOA solar irradiance simulated by RTM for a volcanics-rich or travertine-rich atmosphere shows that volcanics contribution to the solar

  10. Occupational sensitization to epoxy resins in Northeastern Italy (1996–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Prodi, Andrea; Rui, Francesca; Fortina, Anna Belloni; Corradin, Maria Teresa; Filon, Francesca Larese

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the main health concerns of epoxy resins is their role as skin sensitizer. This sensitization is not uncommon, because the prevalence ranges around 1–12% of the general population. Objectives: Perform a cross sectional study in a patch test population from Northeastern Italy to investigate the prevalence of epoxy resins sensitization among patients with suspected contact dermatitis. Subsequently, relate findings to patients’ occupation and evaluate time trend of prevalence. Methods: The final study database included 19 088 consecutive patients, tested from 1996 to 2010 in Northeastern Italy. Results: The overall prevalence of epoxy resins sensitization was 0·89%. Dermatitis most frequently involved hands (40·25%). In both sexes, we find a significant correlation in mechanics, woodworkers, and chemical industry workers; and in males only, among farmers and fishers, construction workers, and unemployed. We found significant increase of sensitization in construction workers in the analyzed period. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of sensitization to epoxy resins in Northeastern Italy is in line with other European countries, but we found an increased risk of sensitization in some professions and an increasing trend of prevalence in construction workers. Better preventive actions are strongly advised in higher risk professions, with particular attentions towards building sector. PMID:25633931

  11. Disentangling Phylogenetic Relationships in a Hotspot of Diversity: The Butterworts (Pinguicula L., Lentibulariaceae) Endemic to Italy

    PubMed Central

    Di Maio, Antonietta; Menale, Bruno; Bacchetta, Gianluigi; Pires, Mathias; Noble, Virgile; Gestri, Giovanni; Conti, Fabio; Peruzzi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    The genus Pinguicula (Lentibulariaceae) consists of about 100 carnivorous species, also known as butterworts. Eleven taxa are endemic to Italy, which represents a biodiversity hotspot for butterworts in Europe. The aim of our study was to provide a phylogenetic framework for the Italian endemics, in order to: a) investigate the relationships between species in this group; b) evaluate their actual taxonomic value. To achieve this, we analysed all the taxa endemic to Italy, along with several other species, by means of ITS nrDNA analysis. Our results clarify the relationships between Italian endemics and other Pinguicula taxa identifying a basal polytomy defined by five clades. All of the Italian endemics (with the exception of P. lavalvae) fall within a single large clade, which includes P. vulgaris and allied species. Among them, P. poldinii represents the most isolated lineage. Other taxa show strong molecular similarities and form a single subclade, although their taxonomic ranks can be retained. Pinguicula lattanziae sp. nov., seemingly endemic to Liguria (NW Italy), is also described. PMID:28030566

  12. Epidemiological burden of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Italy from 2010 to 2020: estimations from a disease model.

    PubMed

    Piscitelli, P; Brandi, M; Cawston, H; Gauthier, A; Kanis, J A; Compston, J; Borgström, F; Cooper, C; McCloskey, E

    2014-11-01

    The article describes the adaptation of a model to estimate the burden of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women aged 50 years and over in Italy between 2010 and 2020. For this purpose, a validated postmenopausal osteoporosis disease model developed for Sweden was adapted to Italy. For each year of the study, the 'incident cohort' (women experiencing a first osteoporotic fracture) was identified and run through a Markov model using 1-year cycles until 2020. Health states were based on the number of fractures and deaths. Fracture by site (hip, clinical vertebral, non-hip non-vertebral) was tracked for each health state. Transition probabilities reflected fracture site-specific risk of death and subsequent fractures. Model inputs specific to Italy included population size and life tables from 1970 to 2020, incidence of hip fracture and BMD by age in the general population (mean and standard deviation). The model estimated that the number of postmenopausal osteoporotic women would increase from 3.3 million to 3.7 million between 2010 and 2020 (+14.3%). Assuming unchanged incidence rates by age group over time, the model predicted the overall number of osteoporotic fractures to increase from 285.0 to 335.8 thousand fractures between 2010 and 2020 (+17.8%). The estimated expected increases in hip, vertebral and non-hip non-vertebral fractures were 22.3, 17.2 and 16.3%, respectively. Due to demographic changes, the burden of fractures is expected to increase markedly by 2020.

  13. Evidence for Tunisian-Like Pestiviruses Presence in Small Ruminants in Italy Since 2007.

    PubMed

    Ciulli, S; Purpari, G; Agnello, S; Di Marco, P; Di Bella, S; Volpe, E; Mira, F; de Aguiar Saldanha Pinheiro, A C; Vullo, S; Guercio, A

    2016-04-03

    The genus Pestivirus, which belongs to the Flaviviridae family, includes ssRNA+ viruses responsible for infectious diseases in pigs, cattle, sheep, goats and other domestic and wild ruminants. Like most of the RNA viruses, pestivirus has high genome variability with practical consequences on disease epidemiology, diagnosis and control. In addition to the officially recognized species in the genus Pestivirus, such as BVDV-1, BVDV-2, BDV and CSFV, other pestiviruses have been detected. Furthermore, most of the ruminant pestiviruses show low or absent species specificity observed in serological tests and are able to infect multiple species. Particularly, small ruminants are receptive hosts of the most heterogeneous group of pestiviruses. The aim of this study was to carry out the molecular characterization of pestiviruses isolated from sheep and goats in Sicily, Italy. Phylogenetic analysis of two viral genomic regions (a fragment of 5'-UTR and the whole N(pro) regions) revealed the presence of different pestivirus genotypes in the analysed goat and sheep herds. Two of five viral isolates were clustered with BVDV-1d viruses, a strain widespread in Italy, but never reported in Sicily. The other three isolates formed a distinct cluster with high similarity to Tunisian isolates, recently proposed as a new pestivirus species. This represents the first evidence for Tunisian-like pestivirus presence in small ruminants in Italy. Furthermore, one of the isolates was collected from a goat, representing the first isolation of Tunisian-like pestivirus from this species.

  14. Cranial trauma in iron age Samnite agriculturists, Alfedena, Italy: implications for biocultural and economic stress.

    PubMed

    Paine, R R; Mancinelli, D; Ruggieri, M; Coppa, A

    2007-01-01

    The Samnites are an Iron Age protohistoric people from the central region of Italy. The skeletal remains are from the Alfedena necropolis, 6th through 5th centuries B.C. Macchiarelli et al. (Antropologia Contemporanea 4 (1981) 239-243) were the first to report on cranial trauma for this population, presenting four cases with extreme injuries. We re-examined this well documented skeletal population for additional examples of trauma. Previously unexamined remains from Alfedena, excavated at the turn of the 20th century, are also included in our analysis (Mariani. 1901. "Aufidena", ricerche archeologiche e storiche del Sannio settentrionale. Roma: Acc Naz Dei Lincei). Of the 209 adult crania examined, 12.9% of them exhibited trauma. Analysis of location and frequency of cranial trauma revealed that cranial injuries to the head appear to originate from all directions. The high rate of cranial trauma underscores the violent circumstances experienced during the Iron Age protohistoric period of central Italy. Males are much more likely to exhibit cranial injury than females (P = 0.009). We conclude that the injuries received by Samnite male farmer-warriors occurred while defending pastoral-agricultural resources. Trauma rates are similar for some Iron Age populations and not for others. Behavior associated with violence during the Iron Age period can not be generalized for all populations found in Italy.

  15. Incidence of transient global amnesia in Merano, province of Bolzano, Italy.

    PubMed

    Brigo, Francesco; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Nardone, Raffaele

    2014-12-01

    Few community-based studies determined the incidence of transient global amnesia (TGA), with annual incidence rates between 2.9 and 10.4/100,000. Data on sex distribution of TGA are discrepant. Aim of this study was to determine the incidence of TGA in Merano, province of Bolzano, Northern Italy. Cases were identified from hospital discharge diagnoses of all the Departments of the general hospital of Merano and neighboring towns. Patients fulfilling internationally accepted diagnostic criteria for TGA and residing in Merano were included. Crude, age- and sex-specific incidence rates were computed. The overall annual crude incidence rate of TGA was 9.6/100,000 inhabitants (9.5 % confidence interval 6.7-13.3), 10.1/100,000 for men and 8.9/100,000 for women (p < 0.001). After adjustment by the direct method to the European population, the annual incidence rate was 6.4/100,000. The incidence rate of TGA in Merano, Italy, does not differ from that reported in Turku, Finland and Belluno, Italy. This study confirms that this benign syndrome is relatively common and occurs mainly in elderly patients. However, the higher male predominance in TGA incidence rates contrasts with previous epidemiological studies. Further, prospective incidence studies should therefore be conducted to further clarify sex predominance in TGA.

  16. Communication strategies to address geohydrological risks: the POLARIS web initiative in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvati, Paola; Pernice, Umberto; Bianchi, Cinzia; Marchesini, Ivan; Fiorucci, Federica; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2016-06-01

    Floods and landslides are common phenomena that cause serious damage and pose a severe threat to the population of Italy. The social and economic impact of floods and landslides in Italy is severe, and strategies to target the mitigation of the effects of these phenomena are needed. In the last few years, the scientific community has started to use web technology to communicate information on geohydrological hazards and the associated risks. However, the communication is often targeted at technical experts. In the attempt to communicate relevant information on geohydrological hazards with potential human consequences to a broader audience, we designed the POpoLazione A RISchio (POLARIS) website. POLARIS publishes accurate information on geohydrological risk to the population of Italy, including periodic reports on landslide and flood risk, analyses of specific damaging events and blog posts on landslide and flood events. By monitoring the access to POLARIS in the 21-month period between January 2014 and October 2015, we found that access increased during particularly damaging geohydrological events and immediately after the website was advertised by press releases. POLARIS demonstrates that the scientific community can implement suitable communication strategies that address different societal audiences, exploiting the role of mass media and social media. The strategies can help multiple audiences understand how risks can be reduced through appropriate measures and behaviours, contributing to increasing the resilience of the population to geohydrological risk.

  17. Cultural Explanations of Sleep Paralysis in Italy: The Pandafeche Attack and Associated Supernatural Beliefs.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Romanelli, Andrea; Hinton, Devon E

    2015-12-01

    The current study examines cultural explanations regarding sleep paralysis (SP) in Italy. The study explores (1) whether the phenomenology of SP generates culturally specific interpretations and causal explanations and (2) what are the beliefs and local traditions associated with such cultural explanations. The participants were Italian nationals from the general population (n = 68) recruited in the region of Abruzzo, Italy. All participants had experienced at least one lifetime episode of SP. The sleep paralysis experiences and phenomenology questionnaire were orally administered to participants. We found a multilayered cultural interpretation of SP, namely the Pandafeche attack, associated with various supernatural beliefs. Thirty-eight percent of participants believed that this supernatural being, the Pandafeche-often referred to as an evil witch, sometimes as a ghost-like spirit or a terrifying humanoid cat-might have caused their SP. Twenty-four percent of all participants sensed the Pandafeche was present during their SP. Strategies to prevent Pandafeche attack included sleeping in supine position, placing a broom by the bedroom door, or putting a pile of sand by the bed. Case studies are presented to illustrate the study findings. The Pandafeche attack thus constitutes a culturally specific, supernatural interpretation of the phenomenology of SP in the Abruzzo region of Italy.

  18. Interregional comparison of karst disturbance: west-central Florida and southeast Italy.

    PubMed

    North, Leslie A; van Beynen, Philip E; Parise, Mario

    2009-04-01

    The karst disturbance index (KDI) consists of 31 environmental indicators contained within the five broad categories: geomorphology, hydrology, atmosphere, biota, and cultural. The purpose of this research is to apply the KDI to two distinct karst areas, west Florida, USA, and Apulia, Italy. Through its application, the utility of the index can be validated and other important comparisons can be made, such as differences in the karst legislations implemented in each region and the effect of time exposure to human occupation to each karst terrain. Humans have intensively impacted the karst of southeast Italy for thousands of years compared to only decades in west-central Florida. However, west-central Florida's higher population density allows the region to reach disturbance levels comparable to those reached over a longer period in Apulia. Similarly, Italian karst is more diverse than the karst found in west-central Florida, creating an opportunity to test all the KDI indicators. Overall, major disturbances for southeast Italy karst include quarrying, stone clearing, and the dumping of refuse into caves, while west-central Florida suffers most from the infilling of sinkholes, soil compaction, changes in the water table, and vegetation removal. The application of the KDI allows a benchmark of disturbance to be established and later revisited to determine the changing state of human impact for a region. The highlighting of certain indicators that recorded high levels of disturbance also allows regional planners to allocate resources in a more refined manner.

  19. An Analysis of Left and Right Wing Terrorism in Italy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    Decembpr 12, 1969; the Turin-Rome express train on April 3, 1973; the Piazza della Loggia in Brescia on May 24, 1974; and the Italicu - Express on August 3...r = -(m+- 000% - 0 CLa)C mo 0. a Do Mk’ -- + ’’ C 00 ) -J 00-Jn 0 0 -5 0 C: w 0o ~ 0 -.% 0 CD~ -hDC Im 00 8i Ul OD 0 - v.7 C+ oi* + CAS CA L"i - 0 0 r

  20. Non-susceptible landslide areas in Italy and in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesini, I.; Ardizzone, F.; Alvioli, M.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-08-01

    We used landslide information for 13 study areas in Italy and morphometric information obtained from the 3-arcseconds shuttle radar topography mission digital elevation model (SRTM DEM) to determine areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible in Italy and in the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. The morphometric information consisted of the local terrain slope which was computed in a square 3 × 3-cell moving window, and in the regional relative relief computed in a circular 15 × 15-cell moving window. We tested three different models to classify the "non-susceptible" landslide areas, including a linear model (LNR), a quantile linear model (QLR), and a quantile, non-linear model (QNL). We tested the performance of the three models using independent landslide information presented by the Italian Landslide Inventory (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia - IFFI). Best results were obtained using the QNL model. The corresponding zonation of non-susceptible landslide areas was intersected in a geographic information system (GIS) with geographical census data for Italy. The result determined that 57.5% of the population of Italy (in 2001) was located in areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible. We applied the QNL model to the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, and we tested the synoptic non-susceptibility zonation using independent landslide information for three study areas in Spain. Results showed that the QNL model was capable of determining where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible in the validation areas in Spain. We expect our results to be applicable in similar study areas, facilitating the identification of non-susceptible landslide areas, at the synoptic scale.

  1. Non-susceptible landslide areas in Italy and in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesini, I.; Ardizzone, F.; Alvioli, M.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-04-01

    We used landslide information for 13 study areas in Italy and morphometric information obtained from the 3 arc-second SRTM DEM to determine areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be null or negligible in Italy, and in the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. The morphometric information consisted in the local terrain slope computed in a square 3 × 3 cell moving window, and in the regional relative relief computed in a circular 15 × 15 cell moving window. We tested three different models to determine the non-susceptible landslide areas, including a linear model (LR), a quantile linear model (QLR), and a quantile non-linear model (QNL). We tested the performance of the three models using independent landslide information represented by the Italian Landslide Inventory (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia - IFFI). Best results were obtained using the QNL model. The corresponding zonation of non-susceptible landslide areas was intersected in a GIS with geographical census data for Italy. The result allowed determining that 57.5% of the population of Italy (in 2001) was located in areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be null or negligible, and that the remaining 42.5% was located in areas where some landslide susceptibility is expected. We applied the QNL model to the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, and we tested the synoptic non-susceptibility zonation using independent landslide information for three study areas in Spain. Results proved that the QNL model was capable of determining where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible in the Mediterranean area. We expect our results to be applicable in similar study areas, facilitating the identification of non-susceptible and susceptible landslide areas, at the synoptic scale.

  2. Ecology of phlebotomine sand flies and Leishmania infantum infection in a rural area of southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tarallo, Viviana D; Latrofa, Maria S; Falchi, Alessandro; Lia, Riccardo P; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-09-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are insects of major medico-veterinary significance in the Mediterranean region, as they may transmit pathogens to animals and humans, including viruses and protozoa. The present study was conducted in southern Italy, in an area where visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum is endemic. Insects were collected monthly during two consecutive years using light traps set in five different ecologic contexts (i.e., a stonewall near a woodhouse, a tree near volcanic rocks in a high-altitude area, a tree trunk in a meadow habitat, a sheep stable, and a chicken coop) and weekly in one site (the garage of a private house). A total of 13,087 specimens were collected and six species identified (i.e., Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus neglectus, Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus mascittii, and Sergentomyia minuta), representing 75% of the total number of phlebotomine species found in Italy. P. perfiliewi was the most abundant species, comprising 88.14% of the specimens identified. The greatest species diversity and abundance was recorded in human dwellings and in animal sheds. Sand flies were active from June to October, peaking in July-August in 2010 and July-September in 2011. Part of the females (n=8865) was grouped into 617 pools (range, 1-10 insects each) according to species, feeding status, day and site of collection. A total of four pools (10 non-engorged specimens each) and one engorged female of P. perfiliewi were positive for L. infantum. This study confirms that phlebotomine vectors in southern Italy are highly adapted to human-modified environments (e.g., animal sheds) and that P. perfiliewi is a major vector of L. infantum in some regions of southern Italy.

  3. Profile of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in a Tropical Medicine Reference Center, Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Gobbi, Federico; Angheben, Andrea; Anselmi, Mariella; Postiglione, Chiara; Repetto, Ernestina; Buonfrate, Dora; Marocco, Stefania; Tais, Stefano; Chiampan, Andrea; Mainardi, Paride; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2014-01-01

    Background Chagas disease (CD) is endemic in Central and South America, Mexico and even in some areas of the United States. However, cases have been increasingly recorded also in non-endemic countries. The estimated number of infected people in Europe is in a wide range of 14000 to 181000 subjects, mostly resident in Spain, Italy and the United Kingdom. Methodology/Principal Findings Retrospective, observational study describing the characteristics of patients with CD who attended the Centre for Tropical Diseases (Negrar, Verona, Italy) between 2005 and 2013. All the patients affected by CD underwent chest X-ray, ECG, echocardiography, barium X-ray of the oesophagus and colonic enema. They were classified in the indeterminate, cardiac, digestive or mixed category according to the results of the screening tests. Treatment with benznidazole (or nifurtimox in case of intolerance to the first line therapy) was offered to all patients, excluding the ones with advanced cardiomiopathy, pregnant and lactating women. Patients included were 332 (73.9% women). We classified 68.1% of patients as having Indeterminate Chagas, 11.1% Cardiac Chagas, 18.7% as Digestive Chagas and 2.1% as Mixed Form. Three hundred and twenty-one patients (96.7%) were treated with benznidazole, and most of them (83.2%) completed the treatment. At least one adverse effect was reported by 27.7% of patients, but they were mostly mild. Only a couple of patients received nifurtimox as second line treatment. Conclusions/Significance Our case series represents the largest cohort of T. cruzi infected patients diagnosed and treated in Italy. An improvement of the access to diagnosis and cure is still needed, considering that about 9200 infected people are estimated to live in Italy. In general, there is an urgent need of common guidelines to better classify and manage patients with CD in non-endemic countries. PMID:25502927

  4. Estimated prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Italy in 2015.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Mario Alberto; Bezzini, Daiana

    2017-03-01

    Italy is a high risk area for multiple sclerosis (MS) as confirmed by the numerous prevalence and incidence studies conducted in several regions/districts of the country. Nevertheless, there are no recent published epidemiological data, nor studies about the total prevalence of MS in Italy. Our aim was to update as of 2015 the prevalence rates of MS in different geographical areas using already published epidemiological studies, and to estimate the overall prevalence of the disease in Italy. We made a search in MEDLINE database of all published studies on epidemiology of MS in Italy. Then, we applied, to the already published prevalence data, the last published incidence and mortality rates to recalculate, as of 2015, the prevalence of MS. So, we calculated the mean prevalence rate from our extrapolations, and we applied it to the population in 2015 to estimate the number of MS patients in Italy. Our prevalence extrapolations ranged from 122 to 232 cases/100,000 in the mainland and Sicily, with an average of 176/100,000, and from 280 to 317 cases/100,000 in Sardinia with an average of 299/100,000. Applying these media to the Italian population in 2015, we obtained an estimate of more than 109,000 MS patients in Italy. Our estimates were higher than the latest published rates but consistent with the annual increase of prevalence due to incidence that exceeds mortality, with the increase of survival and, maybe, with the probable increase of incidence.

  5. Coincidences among the data recorded by the Baksan, KAMIOKA and Mont Blanc underground neutrino detectors, and by the Maryland and Rome gravitational-wave detectors during Supernova 1987 A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglietta, M.; Castellina, A.; Fulgione, W.; Trinchero, G.; Vernetto, S.

    1991-04-01

    Data recorded with neutrino detectors at Mont Blanc, Kamioka, and Baksan and with gravitational wave detectors in Maryland and Rome are analyzed. An attempt is made to find correlations associated with SN 1987 A. The time when an excess of coincidences is found is centered at a 5-pulse burst detected at Mont Blanc.

  6. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucia, Leporatti Maria

    2007-01-01

    Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata) were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species), Marche (274) and Abruzzo (203). The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised). Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several plants deserve to be taken

  7. Characterization of fire regime in Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacciu, V. M.; Salis, M.; Mastinu, S.; Masala, F.; Sirca, C.; Spano, D.

    2012-12-01

    In the last decades, a number of Authors highlighted the crucial role of forest fires within Mediterranean ecosystems, with impacts both negative and positive on all biosphere components and with reverberations on different scales. Fire determines the landscape structure and plant composition, but it is also the cause of enormous economic and ecological damages, beside the loss of human life. In Sardinia (Italy), the second largest island of the Mediterranean Basin, forest fires are perceived as one of the main environmental and social problems, and data are showing that the situation is worsening especially within the rural-urban peripheries and the increasing number of very large forest fires. The need for information concerning forest fire regime has been pointed out by several Authors (e.g. Rollins et al., 2002), who also emphasized the importance of understanding the factors (such as weather/climate, socio-economic, and land use) that determine spatial and temporal fire patterns. These would be used not only as a baseline to predict the climate change effect on forest fires, but also as a fire management and mitigation strategy. The main aim of this paper is, thus, to analyze the temporal and spatial patterns of fire occurrence in Sardinia (Italy) during the last three decades (1980-2010). For the analyzed period, fire statistics were provided by the Sardinian Forest Service (CFVA - Corpo Forestale e di Vigilanza Ambientale), while weather data for eight weather stations were obtained from the web site www.tutiempo.it. For each station, daily series of precipitation, mean, maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity and wind speed were available. The present study firstly analyzed fire statistics (burned area and number of fires) according to the main fire regime characteristics (seasonality, fire return interval, fire incidence, fire size distribution). Then, fire and weather daily values were averaged to obtain monthly, seasonal and annual values, and

  8. Geoelectric monitoring of the Bagnaschino landslide (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochum, Birgit; Supper, Robert; Ottowitz, David; Pfeiler, Stefan; Kim, Jung-Ho; Lovisolo, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Landslides are one of the major natural threats to human lives, settlements and infrastructure. Permanent geoelectrical monitoring using the GEOMON4D instrumentation in combination with high resolution displacement monitoring by means of the DMS system was performed at an active landslide area in Italy (Bagnaschino). These sites are part of a geoelectrical monitoring network of the Geological Survey of Austria, which currently comprises six permanently monitored landslides in Europe. The Bagnaschino site represents a landslide/earthflow reactivated within an old landslide mass. The old landslide is situated on the slopes of the Val Casotto about 4 km SE of Torre Mondovì (NW Italy). Evident indications of deep-seated gravitational deformation suggest that the current slopes are in a condition of limit-equilibrium and are predisposed to slow instability, triggered most probably by rain and/or snow melting and river erosion at the foot. The recent landslide was activated during 1994 rainfall event. It covers an estimated area of 150,000 m² and comprises a displaced material of 1.2 million m³. It endangers a regional road and potential formation of a dam. For the purpose of early warning a DMS monitoring column with 60 m length was installed in October 2008. Total displacement recorded by DMS during the events between 2008 and 2010 was 600 mm. Subsequently, the GEOMON4D geoelectric monitoring system was installed there in 2010. Resistivity measurements are performed along a 224 m long profile, which is oriented parallel to the main movement direction. Its midpoint is next to the DMS station. One set of data comprising around 4000 gradient-type measurements is taken every 4 hours. For power supply a combination of a fuel cell and a solar panel is used. Within the observation interval one distinct displacement event was monitored. This event was accompanied by a decrease of electric resistivity. In addition to our standard analysis of resistivity data (e.g. time

  9. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Alberto E; Armenio, Lucio; Bernardini, Roberto; Boner, Attilio; Calvani, Mauro; Cardinale, Fabio; Cavagni, Giovanni; Dondi, Arianna; Duse, Marzia; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Marseglia, Gian L; del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Muraro, Antonella; Pajno, Giovanni B; Paravati, Francesco; Peroni, Diego; Tripodi, Salvatore; Ugazio, Alberto G; Indinnimeo, Luciana

    2011-05-01

    In Italy, according to the International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood study, the prevalence of current asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema in 2006 was 7.9%, 6.5%, and 10.1% among children aged 6-7 and 8.4%, 15.5%, and 7.75% among children aged 13-14 yr. University education in this field is provided by the Postgraduate Schools of Pediatrics and those of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, as well as several annual Master courses. The Italian Society of Pediatric Allergology and Immunology (SIAIP) was founded in 1996 and counts about 1000 members. SIAIP promotes evidence-based management of allergic children and disseminates information to patients and their families through a quite innovative website and the National Journal 'Rivista Italiana di Allergologia Pediatrica'. In the last decade, four major regional, inter-regional, and national web-based networks have been created to link pediatric allergy centers and to share their clinical protocols and epidemiologic data. In addition, National Registers of Primary Immune-deficiencies and on Pediatric HIV link all clinical excellence centers. Research projects in the field of pediatric allergy and immunology are founded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) and by the National Research Council (CNR), but the overall investments in this research area are quite low. Only a handful Italian excellence centers participate in European Projects on Pediatric Allergy and Immunology within the 7th Framework Program. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology currently hosts two Italians in its Executive Committee (EC) and one in the EC of the Pediatric Section; moreover, major European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology meetings and courses in the area of pediatrics (e.g., PAAM, Venice, 2009) have been held in Italy in the last 3 yr. Italian hallmarks in the management of allergic diseases in childhood are a quite alive and spread interest in

  10. Global alliance against chronic respiratory diseases in Italy (GARD-Italy): strategy and activities.

    PubMed

    Laurendi, Giovanna; Mele, Sonia; Centanni, Stefano; Donner, Claudio F; Falcone, Franco; Frateiacci, Sandra; Lazzeri, Marta; Mangiacavallo, Antonino; Indinnimeo, Luciana; Viegi, Giovanni; Pisanti, Paola; Filippetti, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The steady increase in incidence of chronic respiratory disease (CRD) now constitutes a serious public health problem. CRDs are often underdiagnosed and many patients are not diagnosed until the CRD is too severe to prevent normal daily activities. The prevention of CRDs and reducing their social and individual impacts means modifying environmental and social factors and improving diagnosis and treatment. Prevention of risk factors (tobacco smoke, allergens, occupational agents, indoor/outdoor air pollution) will significantly impact on morbidity and mortality. The Italian Ministry of Health (MoH) has made respiratory disease prevention a top priority and is implementing a comprehensive strategy with policies against tobacco smoking, indoor/outdoor pollution, obesity, and communicable diseases. Presently these actions are not well coordinated. The Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD), set up by the World Health Organization, envisages national bodies; the GARD initiative in Italy, launched 11/6/2009, represents a great opportunity for the MoH. Its main objective is to promote the development of a coordinated CRD program in Italy. Effective prevention implies setting up a health policy with the support of healthcare professionals and citizen associations at national, regional, and district levels. What is required is a true inter-institutional synergy: respiratory diseases prevention cannot and should not be the responsibility of doctors alone, but must involve politicians/policymakers, as well as the media, local institutions, and schools, etc. GARD could be a significant experience and a great opportunity for Italy to share the GARD vision of a world where all people can breathe freely.

  11. Age-specific mortality trends in France and Italy since 1900: period and cohort effects.

    PubMed

    Caselli, G; Vallin, J; Vaupel, J W; Yashin, A

    1987-11-01

    The age/sex-specific mortality trends of France and Italy were studied over the 1899-1979 period in as much detail as possible in an effort to distinguish between cohort effects and those related to period changes. Complete series of mortality data by individual years of age and calendar years were available from 1869 to 1979 for Italy and from 1899 to 1982 for France. For both countries, these data include the military and civil deaths not registered in vital statistics during the war periods. They cover each national territory as defined by its present boundaries. The graphical representation method of mortality surfaces, elaborated by Vaupel, Gambill, and Yashin (1985), was adopted. The age/sex-specific mortality patterns of France and Italy have not followed the same trends, and the differences observed today are not those of 100 years ago. The mean death probabilities for the 1975-79 period were used to illustrate the age-specific patterns of mortality. Although infant mortality was higher in Italy than in France, the death probabilities at ages 1-15 for both sexes were roughly the same for both countries. At ages 15-23, they were much higher in France than in Italy, and they remained considerably higher in France up to age 55. From then on, the sexes differ: for males, the 2 countries showed similar patterns, whereas for females the probabilities were noticeably higher for France. The situation was very different for both countries at the beginning of the century. For both sexes, higher mortality was observed in Italy not only during infancy but throughout childhood and the adolescent years up to age 15. The 2 countries showed similar patterns from 15-25. Above age 25, the 2 countries had similar patterns for females, whereas male mortality was higher in France right up to the old age groups. Such differences in the age-specific mortality trends depend in part on a different development of health and social conditions but also may be due to factors concerning

  12. Land contamination and soil evolution in abandoned mine areas (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation are nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, leaving on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including landscape, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The increasing environmental consciousness of general population compelled Public Administrators to set down effective legislation acts on this subject (e.g. D.L. 152/2006), and more generally on environmental contamination. In this work we present the results of a survey carried out at several mixed sulphides mine sites in Italy, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the '60s of the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on 50 soil profiles (mostly Entisols and Inceptisols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show metal concentrations overcoming legislation limits on average (Cu up to 3160 mg kg-1 , Pb up to 23600 mg kg-1, Zn up to 1588 mg kg-1, Fe up to 52,30 %). Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. Metal concentrations in native vegetation of the examined areas are moderately to highly elevated. Significant amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn in roots of Plantago major and Silene dioica, in leaves of Taraxacum officinale, and Salix spp, have been recorded. Essential elements, in particular, present Translocation Coefficients (TC) >1, with Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe. Toxic elements (Cd, Cr, Pb), instead, present TC<1, suggesting a synergic/antagonist effect to occur among metals and plants, according to their role in mineral nutrition. The results obtained suggest the abandoned mine sites to represent actual natural aboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, the examined plants are genetically adapted to naturally metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in

  13. Current and future trends of Volcanology in Italy and abroad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papale, P.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanology in Italy and in the world has rapidly developed during last decades. In the Seventies, stratigraphy and petrology provided the basic knowledge on the volcanic activities that still forms the root for modern volcano research. During the Eighties and Nineties the interest was more on the quantitative description of the volcanic processes, with enormous progresses in different but complementary fields including laboratory measurements and experiments, physico-mathematical modeling and numerical simulations, geophysical surveys and inverse analysis, and volcano monitoring and surveillance. In year 2000 a large number of magma properties and magmatic and volcanic processes was characterized at a first or higher order. Volcano research in Italy during the first decade of the new millennium has further developed along those lines. To-date, the very high risk Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius volcanoes, and the less risky but permanently active Etna and Stromboli volcanoes, are among the best monitored and more deeply investigated worldwide. The last decade has also seen coordinated efforts aimed at exploring exploitation of knowledge and skills for the benefit of the society. A series of projects focused on volcanic hazard and risk have joined >1000 researchers from Italian and foreign (Europe, US, Japan) Universities and Research Centers, on themes and objectives jointly defined by scientists from INGV and end-users from the national Civil Protection Department. These projects provide a global picture of volcano research in year 2010, that appears to be evolving through i) further rapid developments in the fields of investigation listed above, ii) their merging into effective multidisciplinary approaches, and iii) the full inclusion of the concepts of uncertainty and probabilities in volcanic scenario predictions and hazard forecast. The latter reflects the large inaccessibility of the volcanic systems, the extreme non-linear behaviour of volcanic processes put in

  14. [Consensus Conference "Health surveillance of resident population exposed to tremolite in Local Health Unit 3 territory Lagonegro, PZ". Rome 22-23 February 2005].

    PubMed

    Musti, Marina; Bruno, Caterina; Cassano, Filippo; Caputo, Angelo; Cauzillo, Gabriella; Cavone, Domenica; Convertini, Luca; De Blasio, Antonio; De Mei, Barbara; Marra, Mario; Montagano, Giuseppe; Schettino, Biagio; Zona, Amerigo; Comba, Pietro

    2006-01-01

    Herein is reported the health surveillance document agreed upon during the Consensus Conference held in Rome at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità last year. The aim of the consensus conference was to define guidelines for epidemiologic and health surveillance of the resident population in the area of the Basilicata region exposed to tremolite pollution (Local Health Unit 3 territory Lagonegro, PZ). The health surveillance program for residents and the nested epidemiologic study evaluates for each resident willing to participate, individual exposure with a personal dosimeter, as well as the prevalence of obstructive, restrictive or mixed pulmonary functional patterns, searching for fiber and asbestos bodies in induced-sputum, the prevalence of non malignant asbestos disturbances related to pleural anomalies and, last but not least, provides information on risks and sensitization, advising on personal behaviour that could reduce the risks.

  15. A multi-analytical approach for the study of the pigments used in the wall paintings from a building complex on the Caelian Hill (Rome)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermo, Paola; Piazzalunga, Andrea; de Vos, Mariette; Andreoli, Martina

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, shards from Roman wall paintings (from the end of the first century to the fourth century A.D.) decorating the domus below the Basilica of SS. John and Paul on the Caelian Hill (Rome), were analyzed in order to identify the pigments used. The analytical techniques employed for the characterization of the pigments were the scanning electron microscope coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and infrared spectroscopy (ATR and micro ATR). While SEM-EDS allowed to perform a qualitative analysis of the material, by FT-IR chemical species have been identified. The pigments identified were those mentioned in the literature for the Imperial Roman fresco painting: different types of ochre (yellow and red), mixtures containing lead, green earths and precious pigments such as cinnabar and Egyptian blue. They were often used as mixtures and the use of the most valuable pigments (cinnabar and Egyptian blue) were found in the most ancient rooms.

  16. Intraoperative neuromonitoring in thyroid surgery: a point prevalence survey on utilization, management, and documentation in Italy.

    PubMed

    Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Lombardi, Davide; Lombardi, Celestino Pio; Carcoforo, Paolo; Boniardi, Marco; Innaro, Nadia; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Cavicchi, Ottavio; Biondi, Antonio; Basile, Francesco; Zaccaroni, Angelo; Mangano, Alberto; Leotta, Andrea; Lavazza, Matteo; Calò, Pietro Giorgio; Nicolosi, Angelo; Castelnuovo, Paolo; Nicolai, Piero; Pezzullo, Luciano; De Toma, Giorgio; Bellantone, Rocco; Sacco, Rosario

    2014-12-01

    The frequency of neuromonitoring during thyroid surgery is underreported in Italy. The present survey depicts and describes the patterns of use, management, documentation for IONM devices of IONM during thyroid surgery by surgeons in Italy. A point prevalence survey was undertaken. Source data were mixed from Italian surgeons attending the 2014 International Neuromonitoring Study Group (INMSG) meeting, four IONM manufacturers available in Italy and surgical units were identified from Company sales data. Qualitative and quantitative data were used to analyze. Questions probed IONM prevalence, surgeon background, hospital geographic practice locations, type of hospital, rationale for IONM use, sources of initial capital investment for IONM acquisition, type of equipment, use of continuous IONM, monitoring management, use of distinctive standards, and IONM documentation. IONM is currently delivered through 48 units in Italy. In 2013, the distribution of IONM by specialties included: general (50 %), ENT (46 %), and thoracic surgery (4 %). Overall, 12.853 IONM procedures were performed in the period from 2006 to 2013: 253 were performed in 2007 and about 5,100 in 2013. Distribution according to the type of hospital is: public 48 %, academic setting 37 %, and private maintenance 15 %. The use category of high volume thyroid hospitals represented 33 %. Initial capital investment for the acquisition of the monitoring equipment was 67 % public and 33 % with charitable/private funding. Audio plus graphic and EMG electrodes surface endotracheal tube-based monitoring systems accounted for the majority. Continuous IONM was introduced in 5 Academic Centers. Overall motivations expressed are legal (30 %), RLN confirmation (20 %), RLN identification (20 %), prognosis (10 %), helpful in difficult cases (10 %), decrease surgical time (5 %), and educational (5 %). The survey revealed that participants had few experience with the standardized approach of IONM technique (28 %). General

  17. Immunisation registers in Italy: a patchwork of computerisation.

    PubMed

    Alfonsi, V; D'Ancona, F; Rota, M C; Giambi, C; Ranghiasci, A; Iannazzo, S

    2012-04-26

    In Italy, the 21 regional health authorities are in charge of organising and implementing their own vaccination strategy, based on the national vaccine plan. Immunisation coverage varies greatly among the regions for certain vaccines. Efforts to increase childhood immunisation coverage have included initiatives to develop and implement computerised immunisation registers in as many regions as possible. We undertook a cross-sectional online survey in July 2011 to provide an updated picture of the use, heterogeneity and main functions of different computerised immunisation registers used in the Italian regions and to understand the flow of information from local health units to the regional authorities and to the Ministry of Health. Comparing current data with those obtained in 2007, a substantial improvement is evident. A total of 15 regions are fully computerised (previously nine), with 83% of local health units equipped with a computerised register (previously 70%). Eight of the 15 fully computerised regions use the same software, simplifying data sharing. Only four regions are able to obtain data in real time from local health units. Despite the progress made, the capacity to monitor vaccination coverage and to exchange data appears still limited.

  18. The underground seismic array of Gran Sasso (UNDERSEIS), central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, R.; Muscente, R.; Tronca, F.; Fischione, C.; Rotella, P.; Abril, M.; Alguacil, G.; Martini, M.; de Cesare, W.

    2003-04-01

    Since early May, 2002, a small aperture seismic array has been installed in the underground Physics Laboratories of Gran Sasso, located near seismic active faults of central Apennines, Italy. This array is presently composed by 21 three-component short period seismic stations (Mark L4C-3D), with average distance 90 m and semi-circular aperture of 400 m x 600 m. It is intersecting a main seismogenic fault where the presence of slow earthquakes has been recently detected through two wide band geodetic laser interferometers. The underground Laboratories are shielded by a limestone rock layer having 1400 m thickness. Each seismometer is linked, through a 24 bits A/D board, to a set of 6 industrial PC via a serial RS-485 standard. The six PC transmit data to a server through an ethernet network. Time syncronization is provided by a Master Oscillator controlled by an atomic clock. Earthworm package is used for data selection and transmission. High quality data have been recorded since May 2002, including local and regional earthquakes. In particular the 31 October, 2002, Molise (Mw=5.8 earthquake) and its aftershocks have been recorded at this array. Array techniques such as polarisation and frequency-slowness analyses with the MUSIC noise algorithm indicate the high performance of this array, as compared to the national seismic network, for identifying the basic source parameters for earthquakes located at distance of few hundreds of km.

  19. Plant phenological observations in rural and industrial central Italy areas.

    PubMed

    Orlandi, Fabio; Ruga, L; Bonofiglio, T; Aguilera, F; Ranfa, A; Bodesmo, M; Fornaciari, M

    2016-12-01

    The physiological stress caused by particular pollution conditions can result in phenological phase shifts that can include a block in vegetative or reproductive development. The main aim of the present study was to determine and analyse the mean development trends of some winter deciduous species in comparison to the climate tendencies, as calculated within two phenological gardens in the Arezzo and Perugia areas of central Italy. Moreover, a phenological comparison between the guide species of the two phenological gardens, one located in an industrial area, and the other in a farming area, was carried out. The phenological evidences showed significant phase displacements for the common guide species present in both the gardens which however may be explained by the meteorological performances above all in the Perugia not polluted area. In these terms, there were no evident phenological effects on the plants from the industrial area pollutants in the Arezzo garden. Moreover, also the temperature reduction tendencies at the end of spring not influenced significantly the phenological behaviours of the plant species not inducing them toward a predictable delay of reproductive and adult leaves phases.

  20. HIV incidence estimate among non-nationals in Italy.

    PubMed

    Camoni, Laura; Salfa, Maria Cristina; Regine, Vincenza; Pasqualini, Chiara; Borghi, Vanni; Icardi, Giancarlo; Curtale, Filippo; Ferro, Antonio; Suligoi, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    We estimated the incidence of new HIV infections among non-nationals living in Italy for the period 1992-2004, calculated as the number of new diagnoses among legally and illegally residing non-nationals out of the number of new residence permits (which does not include illegal non-nationals). This incidence was compared to that among Italians by calculating the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) by age and gender. There were 17,309 new diagnoses; 19.0% were among non-nationals. The incidence of new diagnoses among non-nationals was 69 cases per 100,000 residence permits, compared to 8.7 per 100,000 population among Italians. The SIR confirmed the marked difference between the two populations, with the incidence being six times higher among non-nationals, compared to Italians. This difference increased over time: in 1992-1994, it was five times higher among non-nationals, compared to Italians, whereas it was eight times higher in 2002-2004. Although the incidence of infection among non-nationals seems to have decreased in the past 10 years, it is still high if compared to that among Italians, suggesting that non-nationals constitute a population subgroup with a high circulation of HIV. Furthermore, HIV is mainly transmitted through the sexual route among non-nationals, prevalently affecting younger persons and women. Access to testing, treatment, and care needs to be facilitated for non-nationals.

  1. An observational study of powered wheelchair provision in Italy.

    PubMed

    Salatino, Claudia; Andrich, Renzo; Converti, R M; Saruggia, M

    2016-01-01

    Powered wheelchairs are complex and expensive assistive devices that must be selected and configured on the basis of individual user needs, lifestyle, motivation, driving ability, and environment. Providing agencies often require evidence that their financial investment will lead to a successful outcome. The authors surveyed a sample of 79 users who had obtained powered wheelchairs from a Regional Health Service in Italy in the period 2008-2013. Follow-up interviews were conducted at the users' homes in order to collect information about wheelchair use, and its effectiveness, usefulness, and economic impact. The instruments used in the interviews included an introductory questionnaire, QUEST (Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology), PIADS (Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale), FABS/M (Facilitators and Barriers Survey/Mobility), and SCAI (Siva Cost Analysis Instrument). The results indicated positive outcomes, especially in relation to user satisfaction and psychosocial impact. A number of barriers were identified in various settings that sometimes restrict user mobility, and suggest corrective actions. The provision of a powered wheelchair generated considerable savings in social costs for most users: an average of about $38,000 per person over a projected 5-year period was estimated by comparing the cost of the intervention with that of non-intervention.

  2. 12 September 2012: A supercell outbreak in NE Italy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzato, Agostino; Davolio, Silvio; Miglietta, Mario Marcello; Pucillo, Arturo; Setvák, Martin

    2015-02-01

    On 12 September 2012 a sequence of convective events hit the northeastern part of Italy and in particular the eastern part of Veneto and the plain of Friuli Venezia Giulia regions. During the day at least two events could be classified as supercells, the first one being also associated with a heavy hailfall. After a few hours, a third storm system, resembling a squall-line, although of limited dimensions, swept over the area. This event occurred during the first Special Observing Period (SOP1) of the HyMeX project as IOP2 (Intense Observing Period) and - also for this reason - many observations managed by different institutions were collected, including Doppler radar, extra-soundings, sodar and surface stations. Moreover, EUMETSAT was conducting its first experimental 2.5-minute rapid scan with the MSG-3 satellite, with data available from early morning until 0900 UTC of the IOP2 day. Several mesoscale models were run during the HyMeX SOP to support the field operations. A comparison between simulations of two high-resolution models (MOLOCH and WRF) is presented here and shows the capability in forecasting the intense convective activity in the area, although the exact temporal evolution of the systems was missed. Model simulations also provide useful insights concerning the mesoscale conditions conducive to the development of the convective systems. Finally, a diagnostic tool (Corfidi and Bunkers vectors) is applied using the model wind field, in order to infer further information on the temporal evolution of the convective cells.

  3. Seismic moment summation for historical earthquakes in Italy - tectonic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Westaway, R. )

    1992-10-01

    Tectonic deformation rates in and around the Apennine mountains of Italy are studied using seismic moments estimated from macroseismic effects of historical earthquakes. Northeastward extension in the northern Apennines (north of about 42.5 deg N) accompanies shortening along their northeast flank. Since the seventeenth century, the sparce seismicity in these two zones has included no earthquake with magnitude greater than 6.5 or seismic moment above about 6x10 exp 18 N m. Their spatially averaged deformation rates are only about 0.3 mm/yr, but are equal, such that the extention and shortening balance with no relative motion between their external surroundings. In contrast, the numerous historical earthquakes in the central and southern Apennines with magnitude about 7 and seismic moment about 20x10 exp 18 N m require northeastward relative velocity across the deforming zone up to about 5 mm/yr, matching the expected relative motion of their surroundings. The northern Apennines thus show different senses and rates of deformation from localities farther south, and are thus tectonically distinct at present, in contrast with previous interpretations. 82 refs.

  4. US quality control in Italy: present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbis, S.; Musacchio, C.; Guiot, C.; Spagnolo, R.

    2011-02-01

    US diagnostic equipments are widely diffused in Italy but, in spite of recommendations (e.g. ISPESL-Ministry of Health (1999) and SIRM (Società Italiana di Radiologia Medica, 2004), US quality controls are restricted to only a few public sanitary structure and a national (or even regional) quality assurance program for testing the performances of the US equipments is still missing. A joint Research Centre among the three Piedmontese Universities and INRIM, partially funded by Regione Piemonte, has been established in 2009 as Reference Centre for Medical Ultrasounds (CRUM). In addition to research, development and training tasks, the Centre aims at the local diffusion of the quality assurance in clinical US equipments. According to data from the Ministry of Health (2006), around 7 % of the Italian US diagnostic equipments (946 over 13526) are located in Piedmont: mostly (75.6%) in public hospitals, 9.3 % in conventionated hospitals, 4.3% in public and 10.8% in private territorial structures. The goal is the provision of a regional database, which progressively includes data related to acceptance test, status and QC tests and maintenance, in order to drive equipment turnover and carefully monitoring the overall equipment efficiency. Moreover, facilities are available at CRUM for monitoring both beam geometry and acoustic power and performing quantitative assessment of the delivered energy intensity.

  5. Stratigraphic and structural data for the Conasauga Group and the Rome Formation on the Copper Creek fault block near Oak Ridge, Tennessee: preliminary results from test borehole ORNL-JOY No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, C.S.; Walls, E.C.; Farmer, C.D.

    1985-06-01

    To resolve long-standing problems with the stratigraphy of the Conasauga Group and the Rome Formation on the Copper Creek fault block near Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an 828.5-m-deep test borehole was drilled. Continuous rock core was recovered from the 17.7- to 828.5-m-deep interval; temperature, caliper, neutron, gamma-ray, and acoustic (velocity and televiewer) logs were obtained. The Conasauga Group at the study site is 572.4 m thick and comprises six formations that are - in descending stratigraphic order - Maynardville Limestone (98.8 m), Nolichucky Shale (167.9 m), Maryville Limestone (141.1 m), Rogersville Shale (39.6 m), Rutledge Limestone (30.8 m), and Pumpkin Valley Shale (94.2 m). The formations are lithologically complex, ranging from clastics that consist of shales, mudstones, and siltstones to carbonates that consist of micrites, wackestones, packstones, and conglomerates. The Rome Formation is 188.1 m thick and consists of variably bedded mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones. The Rome Formation thickness represents 88.1 m of relatively undeformed section and 100.0 m of highly deformed, jumbled, and partially repeated section. The bottom of the Rome Formation is marked by a tectonic disconformity that occurs within a 46-m-thick, intensely deformed interval caused by motion along the Copper Creek fault. Results from this study establish the stratigraphy and the lithology of the Conasauga Group and the Rome Formation near ORNL and, for the first time, allow for the unambiguous correlation of cores and geophysical logs from boreholes elsewhere in the ORNL vicinity. 45 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. [The management of foreign workers in Italy].

    PubMed

    Iavicoli, Sergio; Valenti, Antonio; Persechino, Benedetta

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decades, the globalisation and important geopolitical changes have widened the spatial boundaries of international migrations which have reached a so global scope today that they influence the economic, political and social trend of countries of origin, transit and destination. According to the UN, the international labour mobility involved more than 200 million people in 2010, that is approximately 10% of the world's total population. In Italy, in the beginning of 2010 foreign residents amounted to 4.2 million, that is to say, 7% of the total population (ISTAT, 2011). Host countries have been forced to implement a series of policies aimed at combating illegal immigration and employment of foreign people. Special attention must be given to the issue of migrant workers who have become increasingly important actors in the social and productive sectors and, as a consequence, the need for preventive and protective measures taking into consideration the specific work-related hazards is growing more and more urgent. With this respect, the regulatory framework for occupational health and safety now contains explicit references to migrant workers as provided in the Leg. Decree 81/08 with subsequent integrations and modifications. First of all, the issue of occupational health and safety for migrant workers must take into account of the linguistic, social and cultural problems of the different ethnical groups that are present in our country.

  7. EHR and data protection issues in Italy.

    PubMed

    Virone, Maria Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Technological progresses and the changed way to collect, access and use data are at the bottom of the European Commission proposal for a "General Data Protection Regulation" (25 January 2012). Implications of safeguarding privacy and harmonization of existing rules are extremely important also for national Health Systems. Mobility of patients and health professionals as well as cross-border healthcare connected with the increasing use of Information and Communication Technologies in Healthcare Services are modifying traditional medical approaches and applications. New tools, as Electronic Health Records, provide significant benefits as empowering health consumers and minimizing health costs. Anyway, EHRs have limits: for example, they should cause risks for individuals, professionals and institutions in terms of personal injuries and liabilities. In this scenario, it's evident that technical aspects (as health standards and interoperability) are as important as legal and regulatory privacy issues. Presently, mandatory acts on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of health e-Data still missing at all levels. Italy is adopting binding and non-binding legal documents to tackle the problem. Are they enough?

  8. Tephrochronology offshore Ischia Island, Tyrrhenian sea, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insinga, Donatella; Sulpizio, Roberto; de Alteriis, Giovanni; Morabito, Simona; Morra, Vincenzo; Sprovieri, Mario; di Benedetto, Claudia; Lubritto, Carmine; Zanchetta, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    the coring site. The definition of the source area of these two major events is still a matter of debate. However, the Somma-Vesuvius complex reasonably sourced the Schiava deposits while a Campi Flegrei provenance for the Codola deposits cannot be ruled out (Di Vito et al., 2008). These latters, known as C10 tephra in the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic sea (Paterne et al., 1988; Giaccio et al., 2008), in particular, represent reliable regional markers for the whole central Mediterranean area. References De Vivo, B., Rolandi, G., Gans, P.B., Calvert, A., Bohrson,W.A., Spera, F.J., Belkin, H.E., 2001. New constraints on the pyroclastic eruptive history of the Campanian volcanic Plain (Italy). Mineralogy and Petrology 73, 47-65. Di Vito,M.A., Sulpizio, R., Zanchetta, G., D'Orazio, M., 2008. The late Pleistocene pyroclastic deposits of the Campanian Plain: newinsights into the explosive activity of Neapolitan volcanoes. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res.177, 19-48. Giaccio, B., Isaia, R., Fedele, F.G., Di Canzio, E., Hoffecker, J., Ronchitelli, A., Sinitsyn, A., Anikovich, M., Lisitsyn, S.N., 2008. The Campanian Ignimbrite and Codola tephra layers: two temporal/stratigraphic markers for the Early Upper Palaeloithic in southern Italy and eastern Europe. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 177, 210-228. Paterne M., Guichard F. & Labeyrie J., 1988. Explosive activity of the south Italian volcanoes during the past 80.000 years as determined by marine tephrochronology. J. Volcanol. Geother. Res. 34, 153-172. Paterne, M., Guichard, F., 1993. Triggering of volcanic pluses in the Campanian area, south Italy, by periodic deep magma in.ux. Journal of Geophysical Research 98 (B2), 1861-1873. Rio, D., Raffi, I., Villa, G., 1990. Pliocene-Pleistocene calcareous nannofossil distribution patterns in the western Mediterranean. In: Kastens, K.A. (Ed.), Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program. Scientific Results, vol. 107. Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, TX, pp. 513-533. Sulpizio, R., Zanchetta, G

  9. Space Radar Image of Mt. Etna, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The summit of the Mount Etna volcano on the island of Sicily, Italy, one of the most active volcanoes in the world, is shown near the center of this radar image. Lava flows of different ages and surface roughness appear in shades of purple, green, yellow and pink surrounding the four small craters at the summit. Etna is one of the best-studied volcanoes in the world and scientists are using this radar image to identify and distinguish a variety of volcanic features. Etna has erupted hundreds of times in recorded history, with the most recent significant eruption in 1991-1993. Scientists are studying Etna as part of the international 'Decade Volcanoes' project, because of its high level of activity and potential threat to local populations. This image was acquired on October 11, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered at 37.8 degrees North latitude and 15.1 degrees East longitude and covers an area of 51.2 kilometers by 22.6 kilometers (31.7 miles by 14.0 miles).

  10. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Romanelli, Marco; Barnaba, Carla; Bragato, Pier Luigi; Durì, Giorgio

    2013-04-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy. The southwestern edge of the OGS seismic network stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML=5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on May 20, 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of the Ferrara VBB

  11. An updated catalogue of landslides and floods with human consequences in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvati, P.; Bianchi, C.; Guzzetti, F.

    2009-04-01

    We have updated the catalogue of landslides and floods with direct consequences to the population in Italy. The catalogue covers the 1941-year period between 68 and 2008, and lists landslides and floods that have resulted in deaths, missing persons, injuries and homeless. The catalogue was complied searching a variety of bibliographical and archive sources, including the national catalogue of landslide and flood events in Italy (http://sici.irpi.cnr.it), and five regional catalogues of historical landslide and flood events. We have mapped, at 1:25,000 or 1:100,000 scales, the exact or the approximate location of all the sites were harmful landslides and floods have occurred in the considered period. Analysis of the catalogues indicates that at least 57,450 people have died, went missing or were injured in 3020 landslide and flood events. This corresponds to a long term average of about 30 casualties per year, and 1.5 harmful event per year. In the new catalogue, the number of landslide events with casualties (1770) is largest than the number of flood events with casualties (1233). However, the number of fatalities caused by foods (38,750, 75%) is largest than the number of landslide fatalities (13,542, 25%). Further analysis of the catalogue reveals that the total number of homeless exceeded 873,400, corresponding to a long term, yearly average of 450 people. Harmful landslide and flood events were inventoried in 2496 of the 8102 Italian municipalities (31%). Fatal events (i.e., events resulting in deaths and missing persons) occurred in 1378 municipalities (17%), and were most numerous in northern Italy. The region where the landslide death toll was highest is the Campania region, in southern Italy, where 3319 people died or went missing. The figure corresponds to 25% of total number of reported landslide fatalities. The large number of fatalities in this region is due mostly to soil slips and debris flows in areas where a thin cover of volcanic ash overlies

  12. Non-Susceptible Landslide Areas in Italy and in the Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvioli, Massimiliano; Ardizzone, Francesca; Guzzetti, Fausto; Marchesini, Ivan; Rossi, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    Landslide susceptibility is the likelihood of a landslide occurring in a given area. Over the past three decades, researchers, and planning and environmental organisations have worked to assess landslide susceptibility at different geographical scales, and to produce maps portraying landslide susceptibility zonation. Little effort was made to determine where landslides are not expected, where susceptibility is null, or negligible. This is surprising because planners and decision makers are also interesting in knowing where landslides are not foreseen, or cannot occur in an area. We propose a method for the definition of non-susceptible landslide areas, at the synoptic scale. We applied the method in Italy and to the territory surrounding the Mediterranean Sea and we produced two synoptic-scale maps showing areas where landslides are not expected in Italy and in the Mediterranean area. To construct the method we used digital terrain elevation and landslide information. The digital terrain consisted in the 3-arc-second SRTM DEM, the landslide information was obtained for 13 areas in Italy where landslide inventory maps were available to us. We tested three different models to determine the non-susceptible landslide areas, including a linear model (LR), a quantile linear model (QLR), and a quantile non-linear model (QNL). Model performances have been evaluated using independent landslide information represented by the Italian Landslide Inventory (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia - IFFI). Best results were obtained using the QNL model. The corresponding zonation of non- susceptible landslide areas was intersected in a GIS with geographical census data for Italy. The results show that the 57.5% of the population of Italy (in 2001) was located in areas where landslide susceptibility was expected to be null or negligible, while the remaining 42.5% in areas where some landslide susceptibility was significant or not negligible. We applied the QNL model to the

  13. Perception of flood and landslide risk in Italy: a preliminary analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvati, P.; Bianchi, C.; Fiorucci, F.; Giostrella, P.; Marchesini, I.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-09-01

    , abandonment of the territory, and climate change. Comparison of the risk perception with actual measures of landslide and flood risk, including the number of fatal events, the number of fatalities, and the mortality rates, revealed that in most of the Italian regions, the perception of the threat did not match the long-term risk posed to the population by landslides and floods. This outcome points to a need to foster an understanding of the public towards landslide and flood hazards and risks in Italy.

  14. Perception of flood and landslide risk in Italy: a preliminary analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvati, P.; Bianchi, C.; Fiorucci, F.; Giostrella, P.; Marchesini, I.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-05-01

    territory, and climate change. Comparison of the risk perception with actual measures of landslide and flood risk, including the number of fatal events, the number of fatalities, and the mortality rates, revealed that in most of the Italian regions the perception of the threat did not match the long-term risk posed by landslides and floods to the population. This outcome points to the need to fostering the understanding of the population of landslide and flood hazards and risks in Italy.

  15. Viscosity of Campi Flregrei (Italy) magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misiti, Valeria; Vetere, Francesco; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Behrens, Harald; Mangiacapra, Annarita; Freda, Carmela

    2010-05-01

    Viscosity is an important factor governing both intrusive and volcanic processes. The most important parameters governing silicate melts viscosity are bulk composition of melt and temperature. Pressure has only minor effect at crustal depths, whereas crystals and bubbles have significant influence. Among compositional parameters, the water content is critical above all in terms of rheological behaviour of melts and explosive style of an eruption. Consequently, without an appropriate knowledge of magma viscosity depending on the amount of dissolved volatiles, it is not possible to model the processes (i.e., magma ascent, fragmentation, and dispersion) required to predict realistic volcanic scenarios and thus forecast volcanic hazards. The Campi Flegrei are a large volcanic complex (~150 km2) located west of the city of Naples, Italy, that has been the site of volcanic activity for more than 60 ka and represents a potential volcanic hazard owing to the large local population. In the frame of a INGV-DPC (Department of Civil Protection) project devoted to design a multidisciplinary system for short-term volcano hazard evaluation, we performed viscosity measurements, under dry and hydrous conditions, of primitive melt compositions representative of two Campi Flegrei eruptions (Minopoli-shoshonite and Fondo Riccio-latite). Viscosity of the two melts have been investigated in the high temperature/low viscosity range at atmospheric pressure in dry samples and at 0.5 GPa in runs having water content from nominally anhydrous to about 3 wt%. Data in the low temperature/high viscosity range were obtained near the glass transition temperature at atmospheric pressure on samples whose water contents vary from 0.3 up to 2.43 wt%. The combination of high- and low-viscosity data permits a general description of the viscosity as a function of temperature and water content using a modified Tamman-Vogel-Fulcher equation. logν = a+ --b--+ --d--×exp(g × w-) (T - c) (T - e) T (1) where

  16. Update on the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Italy.

    PubMed

    Conversano, Michele

    2014-05-01

    As in many countries in Western Europe, in Italy tuberculosis (TB) is a relatively rare disease. In the last decade its incidence has remained constant at under 10 cases/100,000 inhabitants, the threshold considered to define a country as low prevalence. The epidemiological picture, however, is very different in the countries of Eastern Europe and in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, where the incidence of TB continues to increase and in some cases is accompanied by the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant TB. The present review describes the epidemiology of TB in Italy. In 2008, the incidence rate was 3.8 cases per 100,000 for people born in Italy, and 50-60 cases per 100,000 for those born abroad. There was an increase in cases from Eastern Europe. The crude mortality rate for TB in 2006 was 0.7 deaths per 100,000 residents. Although TB is a low-prevalence disease in Italy, its epidemiology is changing. Since 1955, more than 160,000 people in Italy have died from this potentially preventable and curable disease.

  17. A socioeconomic profile of vulnerable land to desertification in Italy.

    PubMed

    Salvati, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Climate changes, soil vulnerability, loss in biodiversity, and growing human pressure are threatening Mediterranean-type ecosystems which are increasingly considered as a desertification hotspot. In this region, land vulnerability to desertification strongly depends on the interplay between natural and anthropogenic factors. The present study proposes a multivariate exploratory analysis of the relationship between the spatial distribution of land vulnerability to desertification and the socioeconomic contexts found in three geographical divisions of Italy (north, center and south) based on statistical indicators. A total of 111 indicators describing different themes (demography, human settlements, labor market and human capital, rural development, income and wealth) were used to discriminate vulnerable from non-vulnerable areas. The resulting socioeconomic profile of vulnerable areas in northern and southern Italy diverged significantly, the importance of demographic and economic indicators being higher in southern Italy than in northern Italy. On the contrary, human settlement indicators were found more important to discriminate vulnerable and non-vulnerable areas in northern Italy, suggesting a role for peri-urbanization in shaping the future vulnerable areas. An in-depth knowledge of the socioeconomic characteristics of vulnerable land may contribute to scenarios' modeling and the development of more effective policies to combat desertification.

  18. Thermoregulation of alpacas bred in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattiello, Silvana; Formis, Elena; Barbieri, Sara

    2011-03-01

    The present study monitored daily and seasonal variations of rectal temperature in response to different environmental temperatures in alpacas bred in the Italian Apennines at 300 m a.s.l. In each season, the rectal temperature of 33 clinically healthy alpacas was measured three times/day (morning, midday, afternoon). Ambient temperatures were also recorded. Rectal temperatures ranged from a minimum value of 35.1 to a maximum of 39.4°C, with a maximum daily thermal excursion (ΔTrec) of 3.2°C. Temperatures increased throughout the day, with highly significant differences recorded in both young and adult animals between all the time bands ( P < 0.001). These differences were particularly dramatic for adults in summer, when the mean rectal temperature in the morning was 36.3 ± 0.13°C, probably as a consequence of recent shearing. Significant ΔTrec differences were recorded depending on the season in both young and adult animals ( P < 0.001), with the highest ΔTrec values recorded in summer (although the highest daily ambient excursion value was recorded in winter). In conclusion, similarly to alpacas bred in their natural environment, alpacas bred in Italy show a wide thermal neutrality zone, which is probably an adaptive response, that allows the animals to save energy. In the Italian Apennines, in order to prevent situations of hypothermia, with possible detrimental effects on alpacas' health and welfare, shearing should be carried out only in warm seasons.

  19. Managing induced riverbank filtration (IRF) at the Serchio River well field, Tuscany, Italy (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Ansiati, Alberto; Barbagli, Alessio; Borsi, Iacopo; Costabile, Gennarino; Dietrich, Peter; Mazzanti, Giorgio; Picciaia, Daniele; Bonari, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    Along the Serchio River (Tuscany -Italy) a series of well fields is set for an overall amount of about 1 m3/s pumped groundwater providing drinking water for about 300000 people of the coastal Tuscany (mainly to the town of Lucca, Pisa and Livorno). Water is pumped enhancing riverbank filtration into a high yield (10-2 m2/s transmissivity) sand and gravel aquifer by artificially rising river head and setting pumping well fields along the river reach. However, being it unmanaged aquifer recharge, concerns arise both for quality and quantity of the abstracted groundwater. It happens in dry climate extremes (i.e. 2002/2003 or 2011/2012) that Serchio River flow falls below minimum environmental flow (MEF). Long term contamination of river water had been causing contamination of groundwater, as in 2002/2006, when pesticide contaminated surface water was polluting the well fields causing several problems to water supply. Such problems were overcome by setting in place derogatory regulations and then through dissemination and stakeholder activities reducing pesticide presence in surface water (EU LIFE SERIAL WELLFIR project). Although widely adopted, IRF is also not well stated from a regulatory point of view, eventually leading to concerns by a legal point of view. Within the framework of the MARSOL FPVII-ENV-2013 project an experimental site at a well field will be set to demonstrate the feasibility (by a technical, social and market point of view) and the benefits of managing IRF versus the unmanaged option. The Serchio experimental site will involve merging existing and proved technologies to produce a Decision Support System (DSS) based on remote data acquisition and transmission and GIS physically-based fully distributed numerical modeling to continuously monitor and manage well fields, reducing also human operated activities. The DSS along with the installed sensors, data transmission and storage tools will constitute a prototype whose potential market exploitation

  20. Coastal hydrogeological system of Mar Piccolo (Taranto, Italy).

    PubMed

    Zuffianò, L E; Basso, A; Casarano, D; Dragone, V; Limoni, P P; Romanazzi, A; Santaloia, F; Polemio, M

    2016-07-01

    The Mar Piccolo basin is an internal sea basin located along the Ionian coast (Southern Italy), and it is surrounded primarily by fractured carbonate karstic environment. Because of the karstic features, the main continental water inflow is from groundwater discharge. The Mar Piccolo basin represents a peculiar and sensitive environment and a social emergency because of sea water and sediment pollution. This pollution appears to be caused by the overlapping effects of dangerous anthropogenic activities, including heavy industries and commercial and navy dockyards. The paper aims to define the contribution of subaerial and submarine coastal springs to the hydrological dynamic equilibrium of this internal sea basin. A general approach was defined, including a hydrogeological basin border assessment to detect inflowing springs, detailed geological and hydrogeological conceptualisation, in situ submarine and subaerial spring measurements, and flow numerical modelling. Multiple sources of data were obtained to define a relevant geodatabase, and it contained information on approximately 2000 wells, located in the study area (1600 km(2)). The conceptualisation of the hydrogeological basin, which is 978 km(2) wide, was supported by a 3D geological model that interpolated 716 stratigraphic logs. The variability in hydraulic conductivity was determined using hundreds of pumping tests. Five surveys were performed to acquire hydro-geochemical data and spring flow-yield measurements; the isotope groundwater age was assessed and used for model validation. The mean annual volume exchanged by the hydrogeological basin was assessed equal to 106.93 10(6) m(3). The numerical modelling permitted an assessment of the mean monthly yield of each spring outflow (surveyed or not), travel time, and main path flow.