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Sample records for rome laboratory tufts

  1. Rome Laboratory Journal, 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    in N cannot be smaller than the largest 15. S.D. Akers, and B. Krishnanurthy, "Test counting: An analysis tool for VLSI testing," Technical Report CR... reporting of fault coverage for digital microcircuits copy (AFM) and Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis for military applications. It describes...AFB NY 13441-4514. Requests to reprint individual articles should be addressed to the author. This report has been reviewed by the Rome Laboratory

  2. Mass Storage and Retrieval at Rome Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kann, Joshua L.; Canfield, Brady W.; Jamberdino, Albert A.; Clarke, Bernard J.; Daniszewski, Ed; Sunada, Gary

    1996-01-01

    As the speed and power of modern digital computers continues to advance, the demands on secondary mass storage systems grow. In many cases, the limitations of existing mass storage reduce the overall effectiveness of the computing system. Image storage and retrieval is one important area where improved storage technologies are required. Three dimensional optical memories offer the advantage of large data density, on the order of 1 Tb/cm(exp 3), and faster transfer rates because of the parallel nature of optical recording. Such a system allows for the storage of multiple-Gbit sized images, which can be recorded and accessed at reasonable rates. Rome Laboratory is currently investigating several techniques to perform three-dimensional optical storage including holographic recording, two-photon recording, persistent spectral-hole burning, multi-wavelength DNA recording, and the use of bacteriorhodopsin as a recording material. In this paper, the current status of each of these on-going efforts is discussed. In particular, the potential payoffs as well as possible limitations are addressed.

  3. Overview of laser communication technologies at Rome Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Timothy E.; Oleski, Paul J.; Dorrian, Kevin W.; Nicholson, Donald J.

    1994-08-01

    Space based optical communications offer several advantages over traditional RF systems. They include: smaller beam divergence, smaller antennas, higher data rates, low probability of intercept, reduced EMI, and low probability of jamming. Additionally, the potentials for light weight, small volume and low power terminals make laser communications a consideration for several potential DOD programs. There have been may proposed configurations for both the laser communication terminal and the satellite network but architectures have remained fairly fluid. Despite these changes, there are several enabling technologies that must be fostered to meet program requirements. Efforts at Rome Lab are currently directed to the development of higher powered laser transmitters; rapid and accurate pointing, acquisition, and tracking systems; multiple channel operation; and sensitive low noise receivers. This paper will provide an overview of these efforts.

  4. Tufted angioma.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Julie V; Fangman, William; Bossenbroek, Nicole M; Meehan, Shane A; Kamino, Hideko

    2008-10-15

    A 4-month-old girl developed coalescing, red-purple, firm plaques with irregular borders and superimposed papules in the left groin. The lesions were tender to palpation and they slowly expanded and became thicker over the next year. Histopathologic evaluation showed multiple, discrete lobules of tightly packed capillaries in a 'cannonball' pattern within the dermis, which confirmed the diagnosis of tufted angioma. The clinical and histopathologic features, natural history, and treatment options for tufted angiomas are reviewed; their relationship to kaposiform hemangioendotheliomas is discussed.

  5. Rome Laboratory speech and audio processing technologies with applicability to law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Ratley, Roy J.; Cupples, Edward J.

    1997-02-01

    Rome Laboratory, one of the United States Air Force's four Super Laboratories, has been designated by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) to be its National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center for the Northeast (NLECTC-NE). A Department of Defense leader in research and development (R&D) in speech and audio processing for over 25 years, Rome Laboratory's main thrust in these R&D areas has focused on developing technology to improve the collection, handling, identification and intelligibility of communication signals. Rome Laboratory speech and audio technology is unique and particularly appropriate for application to law enforcement requirements because it addresses the military need for time critical decisions and actions, operating within noisy environments, and use by uncooperative speakers in tactical, real-time applications. Speech enhancement and speaker recognition are the primary technologies discussed in this paper. Automatic language and dialect identification, automatic gisting, spoken language translation, co-channel speaker separation and audio manipulation technologies are briefly discussed.

  6. Congenital disseminated tufted angioma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Ling; Wang, Gang; Gao, Tianwen

    2013-04-01

    Tufted angioma represents a rare vascular tumor that can develop in children and young adults. It usually presents as solitary plaque or large tumor on the extremities, trunk or other anatomic sites. Histopathologically, it is characterized by proliferation of closely packed capillaries in the dermis in a 'cannonball' distribution. We described a 2-month-old child who developed widespread disseminated red papules since her birth. Eight lesions were excised for histopathology, seven of which showed typical cannonball-like distribution of proliferative capillaries, characteristic of tufted angioma, and one on the hand which showed focal disseminated proliferation of endothelial cells. Immunohistochemistry showed focal D2-40 positivity in one lesion and was negative in the other seven. Expression of Prox1 and Glut-1 was negative in all lesions. This case represented a disseminated form of tufted angioma.

  7. Environmental Literacy and Action at Tufts University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, Sarah Hammond; Cortese, Anthony D.

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, Tufts University (Massachusetts) became the first major university to establish environmental education and protection as institutional priorities. The day-to-day environmental impacts of a university make it an ideal laboratory for exploring new ways to reduce hazards, improve efficiency, reuse and recycle waste, and develop incentives…

  8. The influence of experimental manipulations on chewing speed during in vivo laboratory research in tufted capuchins (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Thompson, C L; Donley, E M; Stimpson, C D; Horne, W I; Vinyard, C J

    2011-07-01

    Even though in vivo studies of mastication in living primates are often used to test functional and adaptive hypotheses explaining primate masticatory behavior, we currently have little data addressing how experimental procedures performed in the laboratory influence mastication. The obvious logistical issue in assessing how animal manipulation impacts feeding physiology reflects the difficulty in quantifying mechanical parameters without handling the animal. In this study, we measured chewing cycle duration as a mechanical variable that can be collected remotely to: 1) assess how experimental manipulations affect chewing speed in Cebus apella, 2) compare captive chewing cycle durations to that of wild conspecifics, and 3) document sources of variation (beyond experimental manipulation) impacting captive chewing cycle durations. We find that experimental manipulations do increase chewing cycle durations in C. apella by as much as 152 milliseconds (ms) on average. These slower chewing speeds are mainly an effect of anesthesia (and/or restraint), rather than electrode implantation or more invasive surgical procedures. Comparison of captive and wild C. apella suggest there is no novel effect of captivity on chewing speed, although this cannot unequivocally demonstrate that masticatory mechanics are similar in captive and wild individuals. Furthermore, we document significant differences in cycle durations due to inter-individual variation and food type, although duration did not always significantly correlate with mechanical properties of foods. We advocate that the significant reduction in chewing speed be considered as an appropriate qualification when applying the results of laboratory-based feeding studies to adaptive explanations of primate feeding behaviors.

  9. Entrepreneurial Planning: Tufts University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, John A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper focuses on key strategic decisions taken at Tufts University (Massachusetts) under President Jean Mayer noting the role of formal planning and institutional research. Initiatives in the following areas are described: the School of Veterinary Medicine, nutrition, environmental management, entrepreneurial liberation, fund raising, and a…

  10. Entrepreneurial Planning: Tufts University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, John A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper focuses on key strategic decisions taken at Tufts University (Massachusetts) under President Jean Mayer noting the role of formal planning and institutional research. Initiatives in the following areas are described: the School of Veterinary Medicine, nutrition, environmental management, entrepreneurial liberation, fund raising, and a…

  11. Congenital tufted angioma.

    PubMed

    Satter, Elizabeth K; Graham, Bradley S; Gibbs, Neil F

    2002-01-01

    A 7-year-old Filipino girl presented to the dermatology clinic with a slowly enlarging plaque on the inner aspect of her upper left arm. Although she had this lesion since birth, it had gradually enlarged and become indurated and slightly painful. The histopathologic examination showed a vascular proliferation within the dermis, with a "cannonball" appearance consistent with a tufted angioma. We review the literature and discuss the clinical presentation of this rare vascular tumor.

  12. A tufted angioma

    PubMed Central

    Prasuna, Aeerabolli; Rao, Potharaju Narasimha

    2015-01-01

    Tufted angioma (TA) is a rare, benign, cutaneous angiomatous proliferation. It is more common in children, usually presenting as red-purple painful plaques on the trunk. We describe here a TA observed at nine months of age, appearing initially over the retroauricular area, gradually extending to involve skin of neck and trunk by two years of age. This case of a large TA (7 × 12 cm) in an Indian male child is reported here due to its rare presentation. PMID:26225332

  13. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1993. Volume 9. Rome Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Ronald Field: Physics BS Laboratory: WL/ML Polymer Science University of Akron Vol-Page No: 10-18 Akron, OH 44325-3909 vm GSRP Participant Data...courses - chemically assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) of compressively strained layer quantum well lasers and the design and fabrication of polymer ...interconnect networks - compressively strained quantum well lasers for optical ,ources and polymer waveguides. Compressively strained quantum well lasers have

  14. Formability of tufted 3-dimensional composite reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ling Shan; Wang, Peng; Legrand, Xavier; Soulat, Damien

    2016-10-01

    In the aerospace industry, more and more complex preform for composite parts are needed. Traditionally, laminated reinforcement is largely used as the method. The development of tufting technology has now advanced to a stage whereby it can be employed to produce the 3D textile composite reinforcements. Because the tufting technology is user-friendly, in this study, the tufting parameters (tufting density, tufting length, tufting yarn orientations…) are varied, in order to improve the understanding of formability of the tufted 3D fabric during manufacturing, in particular the influence of the tufting yarns, the present work is performed to analyse the preforming behaviours of tufted 3D reinforcement in the hemispherical stamping process. The preforming behaviours are also compared with the ones of the multilayered forming. Interply sliding and winkling phenomenon during forming are fully influenced by tufting yarns on the material draw-in, by the orientations of tufting yarn, …

  15. Environmental Assessment for Building 104 Demolition, Rome Research Site, Griffis Business and Technology Park Rome, Oneida County, New York

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    LABORATORY INFORMATION DIRECTORATE AFRL /RI ROME RESEARCH SITE 126 Electronic Parkway Rome, New York 13441-4516 Prepared By: AIR FORCE RESEARCH ...Letter of Request and SHPO Reply letter... 12 I. PURPOSE AND NEED FOR ACTION A. Introduction Air Force Research Laboratory ( AFRL ), Rome Research Site ...of the Air Force Research Laboratory / Information Directorate ( AFRL

  16. Composition, size distribution, optical properties, and radiative effects of laboratory-resuspended PM10 from geological dust of the Rome area, by electron microscopy and radiative transfer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrodangelo, A.; Salzano, R.; Bassani, C.; Pareti, S.; Perrino, C.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, new information has been gained on the laboratory-resuspended PM10 fraction from geological topsoil and outcropped rocks representative of the Rome area (Latium). Mineralogical composition, size distribution, optical properties and the surface radiative forcing efficiency (RFE) of dust types representing the compositional end members of this geological area have been addressed. A multi-disciplinary approach was used, based on chamber resuspension of raw materials and sampling of the PM10 fraction, to simulate field sampling at dust source, scanning electron microscopy/X-ray energy-dispersive microanalysis (SEM XEDS) of individual mineral particles, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of bulk dust samples, building of number and volume size distribution (SD) from microanalysis data of mineral particles and fitting to a log-normal curve, and radiative transfer modelling (RTM) to retrieve optical properties and radiative effects of the compositional end-member dust samples. The mineralogical composition of Rome lithogenic PM10 varies between an end-member dominated by silicate minerals (from volcanics lithotypes), and one mostly composed of calcite (from travertine or limestones). Lithogenic PM10 with intermediate composition derives mainly from siliciclastic rocks or marlstones. Size and mineral species of PM10 particles of silicate-dominated dust types are tuned mainly by rock weathering and, to lesser extent, by debris formation or crystallization; chemical precipitation of CaCO3 plays a major role in calcite-dominated types. These differences are reflected in the diversity of volume distributions, either within dust types or mineral species. Differences are also observed between volume distributions of calcite from travertine (natural source; SD unimodal at 5 μm a.d.) and from road dust (anthropic source; SD bimodal at 3.8 and 1.8 μm a.d.). The volcanics and travertine dusts differently affect the single scattering albedo (SSA) and the asymmetry

  17. Tufted hemangioma: clinical case and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia; Lytvynenko, Bohdan; Blochin, Elen

    2014-01-01

    Tufted hemangiomas are relatively rare benign vascular proliferations that are congenital or appear during the first years of life. Herein we present an additional case of tufted hemangioma that appeared one year after birth and discuss its histopathological criteria and differential diagnosis with malignant vascular proliferations including sarcoma Kaposi, angiosarcoma and kaposiform hemangioendothelioma. PMID:24855571

  18. Tuft Cells: New Players in Colitis.

    PubMed

    Steele, Shaun P; Melchor, Stephanie J; Petri, William A

    2016-11-01

    A recent surge of interest in tuft cells, which are chemosensory intestinal epithelial cells, has uncovered new functional roles for these cells in colorectal cancer, metabolic signaling, and type 2 immunity. Here, we explore emerging evidence suggesting that tuft cells are critical for protection during enteric infections and inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. B. Randall Tufts (1948-2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Richard

    Randy Tufts, an explorer who made major discoveries on Earth and beyond, died on 1 April. The date surprised no one who knew him. Nationally known for his model of environmental stewardship, which stemmed from his co-discovery of Kartchner Caverns in Arizona, Tufts more recently had turned to planetary exploration and conducted path-breaking research into the geology and geophysics of Jupiter's moon Europa.Tufts began spelunking as a high school student, and he vowed to friends that one day he would discover a cave. As with everything he did, he committed himself completely to reaching that goal. He majored in geology at the University of Arizona and combed the region for undiscovered caves through maps, fieldwork, analysis, and of course schmoozing old-time desert rats.

  20. Hurler syndrome with a tuft of hair.

    PubMed

    Behera, Binodini; Jena, D K; Chhetia, R; Vijayashree, J

    2006-01-01

    A 2-year-old girl presented with coarse, thick hairy skin all over the body, a tuft of hair in the parietal region, coarse facial features and a prominent forehead with a large tongue, hepatosplenomegaly and skeletal deformities. Mucopolysaccharides excretion spot test of the urine was positive; and an assay for glycosaminoglycans in the urine was also high, which confirmed the clinical diagnosis of Hurler syndrome. We present this rare case to discuss the possibility of the association of mental retardation with a tuft of hair in this syndrome.

  1. The Tufts Non-Vocal Communication Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulds, Richard A.; And Others

    Described are the efforts of the Biomedical Engineering Center in developing devices, particularly the Tufts Interactive Communicator (TIC) for the non-vocal severely physically disabled individual. It is noted that research has been conducted in the following areas: dictionary development, anticipatory communication, symbol communication, symbol…

  2. The Tufts Non-Vocal Communication Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulds, Richard A.; And Others

    Described are the efforts of the Biomedical Engineering Center in developing devices, particularly the Tufts Interactive Communicator (TIC) for the non-vocal severely physically disabled individual. It is noted that research has been conducted in the following areas: dictionary development, anticipatory communication, symbol communication, symbol…

  3. Correlated firing in tufted cells of mouse olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jie; Lowe, Graeme

    2010-01-01

    Temporally correlated spike discharges are proposed to be important for the coding of olfactory stimuli. In the olfactory bulb, correlated spiking is known in two classes of output neurons, the mitral cells and external tufted cells. We studied a third major class of bulb output neurons, the middle tufted cells, analyzing their bursting and spike timing correlations, and their relation to mitral cells. Using patch-clamp and fluorescent tracing, we recorded spontaneous spiking from tufted-tufted or mitral-tufted cell pairs with visualized dendritic projections in mouse olfactory bulb slices. We found peaks in spike cross-correlograms indicating correlated activity on both fast (peak width 1 ms – 50 ms) and slow (peak width > 50 ms) time scales, only in pairs with convergent glomerular projections. Coupling appeared tighter in tufted-tufted pairs, which showed correlated firing patterns and smaller mean width and lag of narrow peaks. Some narrow peaks resolved into 2–3 sub-peaks (width 1–12 ms), indicating multiple modes of fast correlation. Slow correlations were related to bursting activity, while fast correlations were independent of slow correlations, occurring in both bursting and non-bursting cells. The AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX (20 μM) failed to abolish broad or narrow peaks in either tufted-tufted or mitral-tufted pairs, and changes of peak height and width in NBQX were not significantly different from spontaneous drift. Thus, AMPA-receptors are not required for fast and slow spike correlations. Electrical coupling was observed in all convergent tufted-tufted and mitral-tufted pairs tested, suggesting a potential role for gap junctions in concerted firing. Glomerulus-specific correlation of spiking offers a useful mechanism for binding the output signals of diverse neurons processing and transmitting different sensory information encoded by common olfactory receptors. PMID:20600657

  4. A case of acquired tufted angioma in adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Pesapane, Filippo; Nazzaro, Gianluca; Alberti-Violetti, Silvia; Gianotti, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Tufted angioma is a rare vascular tumor whose name derives from its histopathological appearance, characterized by tufts of capillaries within the dermis. Its etiology and pathogenesis are uncertain. Tufted angioma typically occurs during infancy or early childhood and displays various clinical patterns. It may present as a subtle stain-like area that later thickens as a large plaque, infi ltrated or dusky blue-purple lesion, or as an exophytic, fi rm, violaceous, cutaneous nodule. Medical treatment is not necessary for tufted angioma, given its benign nature and slow progression. Only clinical follow-up is therefore recommended. PMID:26312663

  5. The effect of environmental enrichment on the behavior of captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Mikkelsen, L F; Hau, J

    2010-09-01

    The authors provided different forms of environmental enrichment to six old laboratory male tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and studied the behavior of the monkeys during a baseline period and during three enrichment periods. Each observation period lasted 5 d, with an interval of 6 d between periods. During the first enrichment period, the authors provided Buster cubes and wood cylinders with drilled holes filled with gum arabic. During the second enrichment period, monkeys were provided with a deep litter of bark shavings, and during the third enrichment period, they were given Buster cubes, wood cylinders and bark shavings. When provided with enrichment, the monkeys engaged in natural, species-specific activities and began to exhibit behavioral profiles that more closely resembled those of their natural counterparts. This suggests that their psychological well-being had improved and that group housing combined with environmental enrichment can improve the welfare of old laboratory tufted capuchin monkeys that were previously housed individually.

  6. Club of Rome

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-18

    Le Club de Rome s'est fait connaître du grand public par la publication du premier ouvrage "Halte à la croissance" qui a fait l'object d'un débat, il y a 2 ans. Le Prof. Tinbergen a commencé par s'adonner à la physique, il est docteur en physique et très tôt il s'est tourné vers les problèmes sociaux économiques. Il est expert auprès des nombreux gouvernements et organisations internationales et il a vu ses travaux couronnés par le prix Nobel en 1969.

  7. Club of Rome

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Le Club de Rome s'est fait connaître du grand public par la publication du premier ouvrage "Halte à la croissance" qui a fait l'object d'un débat, il y a 2 ans. Le Prof. Tinbergen a commencé par s'adonner à la physique, il est docteur en physique et très tôt il s'est tourné vers les problèmes sociaux économiques. Il est expert auprès des nombreux gouvernements et organisations internationales et il a vu ses travaux couronnés par le prix Nobel en 1969.

  8. For Tufts, the World Is a Matter of Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtrie, Beth

    2009-01-01

    This article is the third in an occasional series on how colleges have tackled some of the basic challenges of internationalizing their campuses. Tufts University has long been an internationally focused institution. Yet in one area it has, until recently, been sorely lacking. Like many universities, Tufts made little attempt to connect with…

  9. For Tufts, the World Is a Matter of Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtrie, Beth

    2009-01-01

    This article is the third in an occasional series on how colleges have tackled some of the basic challenges of internationalizing their campuses. Tufts University has long been an internationally focused institution. Yet in one area it has, until recently, been sorely lacking. Like many universities, Tufts made little attempt to connect with…

  10. Tufted puffin reproduction reveals ocean climate variability

    PubMed Central

    Gjerdrum, Carina; Vallée, Anne M. J.; St. Clair, Colleen Cassady; Bertram, Douglas F.; Ryder, John L.; Blackburn, Gwylim S.

    2003-01-01

    Anomalously warm sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) are associated with interannual and decadal variability as well as with long-term climate changes indicative of global warming. Such oscillations could precipitate changes in a variety of oceanic processes to affect marine species worldwide. As global temperatures continue to rise, it will be critically important to be able to predict the effects of such changes on species' abundance, distribution, and ecological relationships so as to identify vulnerable populations. Off the coast of British Columbia, warm SSTs have persisted through the last two decades. Based on 16 years of reproductive data collected between 1975 and 2002, we show that the extreme variation in reproductive performance exhibited by tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) was related to changes in SST both within and among seasons. Especially warm SSTs corresponded with drastically decreased growth rates and fledging success of puffin nestlings. Puffins may partially compensate for within-season changes associated with SST by adjusting their breeding phenology, yet our data also suggest that they are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change at this site and may serve as a valuable indicator of biological change in the North Pacific. Further and prolonged increases in ocean temperature could make Triangle Island, which contains the largest tufted puffin colony in Canada, unsuitable as a breeding site for this species. PMID:12871995

  11. Intracranial intraaxial cerebral tufted angioma: case report.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Randy S; Zanazzi, George; Hargus, Gunnar; Dyster, Timothy; Chan, Shirley; Lignelli-Dipple, Angela; Wang, Tony J C; Faust, Phyllis L; McKhann, Guy M

    2017-02-24

    Tufted angioma (TA) is a rare, slow-growing, vascular lesion that commonly presents as a solitary macule, papule, or nodule arising in the soft tissues of the torso, extremities, and head and neck in children and young adults. Adult-onset cases have been infrequently reported. While typically benign, TAs may be locally aggressive. Complete physical examination and hematological workup are recommended in patients with TA to exclude the presence of Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (KMP). The authors describe the case of a 69-year-old man with a contrast-enhancing frontal lobe lesion, with surrounding vasogenic edema, which was treated by gross-total resection. Characteristic histological features of a TA were demonstrated, with multiple cannonball-like tufts of densely packed capillaries emanating from intraparenchymal vessels in cerebral cortex and adjacent white matter. Tumor recurrence was detected after 4 months and treated with adjuvant Gamma Knife radiosurgery. To the extent of the authors' knowledge, this case illustrates the first report of TA presenting in an adult as an intracranial intraaxial tumor without associated KMP. The fairly rapid regrowth of this tumor, requiring adjuvant treatment after resection, is consistent with a potential for locally aggressive growth in a TA occurring in the brain.

  12. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1991. High School Apprenticeship Program (HSAP) Reports, Volume 12: Rome Laboratory, Arnold Engineering Development Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    S ) Mr Gary Moore 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADORESS(ES) U. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Research Development Laboratories (RDL) REPORT NUMBER...5800 Uplander Way Culver City CA 90230-6609 9. SPONSORING/I MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER...Figure 2. 1-8 3.1.1 Laser Hazard Analysis IPERSONNEL LASEi IEN,,RONM.EFi~’E"" I OPERATOR( S ) [ . Z|~EXPOSED,, ,I , DIRECT BEAMr, ’ E FE T O N S O CA T O N

  13. Tufts Health Sciences Database: lessons, issues, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mary Y; Albright, Susan A; Alkasab, Tarik; Damassa, David A; Wang, Paul J; Eaton, Elizabeth K

    2003-03-01

    The authors present their seven-year experience with developing the Tufts Health Sciences Database (Tufts HSDB), a database-driven information management system that combines the strengths of a digital library, content delivery tools, and curriculum management. They describe a future where online tools will provide a health sciences learning infrastructure that fosters the work of an increasingly interdisciplinary community of learners and allows content to be shared across institutions as well as with academic and commercial information repositories. The authors note the key partners in Tufts HSDB's success--the close collaboration of the health sciences library, educational affairs, and information technology staff. Tufts HSDB moved quickly from serving the medical curriculum to supporting Tufts' veterinary, dental, biomedical sciences, and nutrition schools, thus leveraging Tufts HSDB research and development with university-wide efforts including Internet2 middleware, wireless access, information security, and digital libraries. The authors identify major effects on teaching and learning, e.g., what is better taught with multimedia, how faculty preparation and student learning time can be more efficient and effective, how content integration for interdisciplinary teaching and learning is promoted, and how continuous improvement methods can be integrated. Also addressed are issues of faculty development, copyright and intellectual property, budgetary concerns, and coordinating IT across schools and hospitals. The authors describe Tufts' recent experience with sharing its infrastructure with other schools, and welcome inquiries from those wishing to explore national and international partnerships to create a truly open and integrated infrastructure for education across the health sciences.

  14. Outcomes Assessment at Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleine, Lawrence J.; Terkla, Dawn Geronimo; Kimball, Grayson

    2002-01-01

    Using a survey, compared relative values assigned by Tufts veterinary alumni to questions about skills, training, attitudes, and behaviors with those of veterinary employers and faculty. Also assessed their perceptions of future employment opportunities. (EV)

  15. Outcomes Assessment at Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleine, Lawrence J.; Terkla, Dawn Geronimo; Kimball, Grayson

    2002-01-01

    Using a survey, compared relative values assigned by Tufts veterinary alumni to questions about skills, training, attitudes, and behaviors with those of veterinary employers and faculty. Also assessed their perceptions of future employment opportunities. (EV)

  16. Tufts academic health information network: concept and scenario.

    PubMed

    Stearns, N S

    1986-04-01

    Tufts University School of Medicine's new health sciences education building, the Arthur M. Sackler Center for Health Communications, will house a modern medical library and computer center, classrooms, auditoria, and media facilities. The building will also serve as the center for an information and communication network linking the medical school and adjacent New England Medical Center, Tufts' primary teaching hospital, with Tufts Associated Teaching Hospitals throughout New England. Ultimately, the Tufts network will join other gateway networks, information resource facilities, health care institutions, and medical schools throughout the world. The center and the network are intended to facilitate and improve the education of health professionals, the delivery of health care to patients, the conduct of research, and the implementation of administrative management approaches that should provide more efficient utilization of resources and save dollars. A model and scenario show how health care delivery and health care education are integrated through better use of information transfer technologies by health information specialists, practitioners, and educators.

  17. ACQUIRED MULTIFOCAL TUFTED ANGIOMAS IN AN IMMUNOCOMPETENT YOUNG ADULT

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Ghosh, Arghyaprasun; Biswas, Surajit Kumar; Barma, Kuntal Deb

    2011-01-01

    Tufted angioma (TA) is a rare benign vascular neoplasm, localized to the skin and subcutaneous tissues, occurring primarily on the trunk and extremities of children. The lesions are usually asymptomatic but, rarely, paroxysmal painful episodes may be associated. The occurrence of eruptive TA is still rarer and had been described almost exclusively in association with immunocompromised states. We report here a case of acquired painful multifocal tufted angiomas on the face and neck in an immunocompetent young adult. PMID:21965850

  18. Tufted Angioma of Eyelid in an Adult - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anshul; Misra, Vatsala; Singh, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Tufted Angiomas also known as angioblastomas /Angioblastoma of Nagakawa are rare vascular neoplasms localised to the skin and subcutaneous tissues with the upper trunk and neck being most common sites. They are mainly seen in children but a few cases in juveniles and adults have been reported. We hereby report this case, a 40-year-old male who presented with a right lower lid, painless, slowly progressive, firm swelling diagnosed as Tufted Angioma on histopathology and immunohistochemistry. PMID:27504301

  19. Joystick acquisition in tufted capuchins (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Leighty, Katherine A; Fragaszy, Dorothy M

    2003-09-01

    A number of nonhuman primate species have demonstrated the ability to use a joystick to control a cursor on a computer screen, yet the acquisition of this skill has not been the focus of systematic inquiry. Here, we examined joystick acquisition in four tufted capuchins under two directional relationships of joystick movement and resultant cursor displacement, isomorphic and inverted. To document the natural history of the acquisition of this skill, we recorded the development of visual tracking of the cursor and body tilting. Rates of acquisition were comparable between the two conditions. After mastering the task in one condition, subjects remastered the task at an accelerated rate in the opposing condition. All subjects significantly increased or maintained high proportions of cursor tracking throughout acquisition. All subjects demonstrated a postural tilt while moving the cursor from the mid-phase of acquisition through task mastery. In the isomorphic condition, all subjects tilted significantly more often in the direction of goal location than in the opposite direction. In three of the four series of tilting that were scored for subjects in the inverted condition, tilting occurred significantly more often toward the direction of goal location than the direction of required hand movement. Together these findings suggest that body tilting participates in the organization of directional movement of the cursor rather than reflecting merely the motoric requirements of the task (to manipulate a joystick).

  20. The geography of Bangladeshi migration to Rome.

    PubMed

    Knights, M; King, R

    1998-12-01

    "With reference to the Bangladeshi community in Rome, this paper provides some answers to three key geographical questions: what is the migrants' regional pattern of origin in their home country; what are the mechanisms and routes of their migration to Italy; how are they spatially distributed in Rome?... Chain migration links specific origins in Bangladesh with spatial clusters and economic activities in Rome; the key here is the role of Bangladeshi community leaders in Rome who act both as migration sponsors and entrepreneurs."

  1. Tufts submarine fan: turbidity-current gateway to Escanaba Trough

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Jane A.; Normark, William R.

    2003-01-01

    Turbidity-current overflow from Cascadia Channel near its western exit from the Blanco Fracture Zone has formed the Tufts submarine fan, which extends more than 350 km south on the Pacific Plate to the Mendocino Fracture Zone. For this study, available 3.5-kHz high-resolution and airgun seismic-reflection data, long-range side-scan sonar images, and sediment core data are used to define the growth pattern of the fan. Tufts fan deposits have smoothed and filled in the linear ridge-and-valley relief over an area exceeding 23,000 km2 on the west flank of the Gorda Ridge. The southernmost part of the fan is represented by a thick (as much as 500 m) sequence of turbidite deposits ponded along more than 100 km of the northern flank of the Mendocino Fracture Zone. Growth of the Tufts fan now permits turbidity-current overflow from Cascadia Channel to reach the Escanaba Trough, a deep rift valley along the southern axis of the Gorda Ridge. Scientific drilling during both the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) provided evidence that the 500-m-thick sediment fill of Escanaba Trough is dominantly sandy turbidites. Radiocarbon dating of the sediment at ODP Site 1037 showed that deposition of most of the upper 120 m of fill was coincident with Lake Missoula floods and that the provenance of the fill is from the eastern Columbia River drainage basin. The Lake Missoula flood discharge with its entrained sediment continued flowing downslope upon reaching the ocean as hyperpycnally generated turbidity currents. These huge turbidity currents followed the Cascadia Channel to reach the Pacific Plate, where overbank flow provided a significant volume of sediment on Tufts fan and in Escanaba Trough. Tufts fan and Tufts Abyssal Plain to the west probably received turbidite sediment from the Cascadia margin during much of the Pleistocene.

  2. ROME (Request Object Management Environment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, M.; Good, J. C.; Berriman, G. B.

    2005-12-01

    Most current astronomical archive services are based on an HTML/ CGI architecture where users submit HTML forms via a browser and CGI programs operating under a web server process the requests. Most services return an HTML result page with URL links to the result files or, for longer jobs, return a message indicating that email will be sent when the job is done. This paradigm has a few serious shortcomings. First, it is all too common for something to go wrong and for the user to never hear about the job again. Second, for long and complicated jobs there is often important intermediate information that would allow the user to adjust the processing. Finally, unless some sort of custom queueing mechanism is used, background jobs are started immediately upon receiving the CGI request. When there are many such requests the server machine can easily be overloaded and either slow to a crawl or crash. Request Object Management Environment (ROME) is a collection of middleware components being developed under the National Virtual Observatory Project to provide mechanism for managing long jobs such as computationally intensive statistical analysis requests or the generation of large scale mosaic images. Written as EJB objects within the open-source JBoss applications server, ROME receives processing requests via a servelet interface, stores them in a DBMS using JDBC, distributes the processing (via queuing mechanisms) across multiple machines and environments (including Grid resources), manages realtime messages from the processing modules, and ensures proper user notification. The request processing modules are identical in structure to standard CGI-programs -- though they can optionally implement status messaging -- and can be written in any language. ROME will persist these jobs across failures of processing modules, network outages, and even downtime of ROME and the DBMS, restarting them as necessary.

  3. Preliminary experiments with a carbon fiber tuft cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1984-01-11

    This work reports initial tests of a carbon brush or tuft cathode intended for use by the Beam Research Program. It was found that electric fields of approximately 100 kV/cm were required to produce current densities above 20 A/sq cm. The beam extracted from the cathode consisted of many beamlets - one for each tuft. The beamlets were found to be quite uniform in peak current density and the cathode operation was microscopically repeatable. The turn-on time was estimated to be 200 ns.

  4. PREFACE: Young Researcher Meeting in Rome 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, Fabio; Cattani, Giordano; Mazzaferro, Luca; Migliaccio, Marina; Pietrobon, Davide; Ricci Pacifici, Daniel; Stellato, Francesco; Veneziani, Marcella

    2012-10-01

    Conference logo At its third edition, the Young Researcher Meeting in Rome (YRMR) proves to be a growing event in the Italian scientific panorama. The high-quality content of the abstracts submitted to the scientific committee resulted in an exciting conference, held, for the second time, at the University of Rome 'Tor Vergata' on 20 January 2012. A busy schedule covered a large variety of cutting-edge science topics: fundamental interactions, particle physics, cosmology, astrophysics, condensed matter and biomedical physics. The broad range of the subjects discussed is the distinctive feature of the YRMR, a meeting aimed at enhancing the synergy among complementary branches of science by stimulating a fruitful exchange between theoretical, experimental and computational physics. Promoting collaborations between PhD students, postdoctoral fellows and young researchers creates a solid scientific network with an open-minded approach to discovery. In this volume, we collect the contributions that have been presented both in the form of talks and of posters. YRMR Organising and Editorial Committee Fabio Agostini (fabio.agostini@roma2.infn.it) Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma 'Tor Vergata' Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma Italy Giordano Cattani (giordano.cattani@roma2.infn.it) Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma 'Tor Vergata' INFN sezione di Roma 'Tor Vergata' Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma Italy Luca Mazzaferro (luca.mazzaferro@roma2.infn.it) Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma 'Tor Vergata' INFN sezione di Roma 'Tor Vergata' Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma Italy Marina Migliaccio (migliaccio@ifca.unican.es) Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Edificio Juan Jorda, Avenida de los Castros, E-39005 Santander, Cantabria Spain Davide Pietrobon (davide.pietrobon@jpl.nasa.gov) Jet Propulsion Laboratory - California Institute of Technology 4800 Oak Grove Drive 169-237 91109 Pasadena, CA USA Daniel Ricci Pacifici

  5. 78 FR 65554 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Rome, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... at the Rome VHF Omni- Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) ] navigation aid... the surface, at the Rome VOR/DME navigation aid, Rome, OR, to accommodate IFR aircraft under control... within the scope of that authority as it establishes controlled airspace at the Rome VOR/DME, Rome,...

  6. CNIPA, FUB and University of Rome "Tor Vergata" at TREC 2008 Legal Track

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    alessandro.celi@di.univaq.it 4 Matematics Department at University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy gambosi@mat.uniroma2.it 5 NESTOR - Laboratory of the...terms, as described in Section 2. 2. Querying. The analysis of the past TREC results for the Legal track showed that the best retrieval strategy...discriminant analysis and the prediction of corporate bankruptcy. Jour- nal of Finance, 1968.

  7. Dynamic computed tomography of the pituitary gland: tuft sign

    SciTech Connect

    Bonneville, J.F.; Cattin, F.; Bacha, K.M.; Portha, C.

    1983-10-01

    Diagnosis of an intrasellar pituitary microadenoma by CT may be difficult if the only finding is a small defect in enhancement. The diagnosis can be facilitated by dynamic CT of the pituitary gland in the coronal plane. This method permits visualization of the capillary bed of the pituitary, whose displacement (tuft sign) could be an indication of the presence of a microadenoma.

  8. Tufts Health Sciences Database: Lessons, Issues, and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mary Y.; Albright, Susan A.; Alkasab, Tarik; Damassa, David A.; Wang, Paul J.; Eaton, Elizabeth K.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a seven-year experience with developing the Tufts Health Sciences Database, a database-driven information management system that combines the strengths of a digital library, content delivery tools, and curriculum management. Identifies major effects on teaching and learning. Also addresses issues of faculty development, copyright and…

  9. Tufts academic health information network: concept and scenario.

    PubMed Central

    Stearns, N S

    1986-01-01

    Tufts University School of Medicine's new health sciences education building, the Arthur M. Sackler Center for Health Communications, will house a modern medical library and computer center, classrooms, auditoria, and media facilities. The building will also serve as the center for an information and communication network linking the medical school and adjacent New England Medical Center, Tufts' primary teaching hospital, with Tufts Associated Teaching Hospitals throughout New England. Ultimately, the Tufts network will join other gateway networks, information resource facilities, health care institutions, and medical schools throughout the world. The center and the network are intended to facilitate and improve the education of health professionals, the delivery of health care to patients, the conduct of research, and the implementation of administrative management approaches that should provide more efficient utilization of resources and save dollars. A model and scenario show how health care delivery and health care education are integrated through better use of information transfer technologies by health information specialists, practitioners, and educators. PMID:3708191

  10. Registration of a tufted-naked seed upland cotton germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A tufted-naked cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) mutant, 9023n4t (Reg. No. GP-971, PI 667553) was developed from the cultivar SC 9023 (9023) (PI 590933) through chemical mutagenesis. Germplasm line 9023n4t was developed by the Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, and released in...

  11. Tufts Learns How Far a Big Gift Can Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, eBay's founder gave Tufts University $100-million dollars with an unusual stipulation: The money was to be invested in the burgeoning field of microfinance and used to provide small-business loans and other financial services to poor people around the world. The university would make money if the investments were profitable. The author…

  12. Tufts Learns How Far a Big Gift Can Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, eBay's founder gave Tufts University $100-million dollars with an unusual stipulation: The money was to be invested in the burgeoning field of microfinance and used to provide small-business loans and other financial services to poor people around the world. The university would make money if the investments were profitable. The author…

  13. Tufts Health Sciences Database: Lessons, Issues, and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mary Y.; Albright, Susan A.; Alkasab, Tarik; Damassa, David A.; Wang, Paul J.; Eaton, Elizabeth K.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a seven-year experience with developing the Tufts Health Sciences Database, a database-driven information management system that combines the strengths of a digital library, content delivery tools, and curriculum management. Identifies major effects on teaching and learning. Also addresses issues of faculty development, copyright and…

  14. Unique Tuft Test Facility Dramatically Reduces Brush Seal Development Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fellenstein, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Brush seals have been incorporated in the latest turbine engines to reduce leakage and improve efficiency. However, the life of these seals is limited by wear. Studies have shown that optimal sealing characteristics for a brush seal occur before the interference fit between the brush and shaft is excessively worn. Research to develop improved tribopairs (brush and coating) with reduced wear and lower friction has been hindered by the lack of an accurate, low-cost, efficient test methodology. Estimated costs for evaluating a new material combination in an engine company seal test program are on the order of $100,000. To address this need, the NASA Lewis Research Center designed, built, and validated a unique, innovative brush seal tuft tester that slides a single tuft of brush seal wire against a rotating shaft under controlled loads, speeds, and temperatures comparable to those in turbine engines. As an initial screening tool, the brush seal tuft tester can tribologicaly evaluate candidate seal materials for 1/10th the cost of full-scale seal tests. Previous to the development of the brush seal tuft tester facility, most relevant tribological data had been obtained from full-scale seal tests conducted primarily to determine seal leakage characteristics. However, from a tribological point of view, these tests included the confounding effects of varying contact pressures, bristle flaring, high-temperature oxidation, and varying bristle contact angles. These confounding effects are overcome in tuft testing. The interface contact pressures can be either constant or varying depending on the tuft mounting device, and bristle wear can be measured optically with inscribed witness marks. In a recent cooperative program with a U.S. turbine engine manufacturer, five metallic wire candidates were tested against a plasma-sprayed Nichrome-bonded chrome carbide. The wire materials used during this collaboration were either nickel-chrome- or cobaltchrome-based superalloys. These

  15. Greater excitability and firing irregularity of tufted cells underlies distinct afferent-evoked activity of olfactory bulb mitral and tufted cells

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Shawn D; Urban, Nathaniel N

    2014-01-01

    Mitral and tufted cells, the two classes of principal neurons in the mammalian main olfactory bulb, exhibit morphological differences but remain widely viewed as functionally equivalent. Results from several recent studies, however, suggest that these two cell classes may encode complementary olfactory information in their distinct patterns of afferent-evoked activity. To understand how these differences in activity arise, we have performed the first systematic comparison of synaptic and intrinsic properties between mitral and tufted cells. Consistent with previous studies, we found that tufted cells fire with higher probability and rates and shorter latencies than mitral cells in response to physiological afferent stimulation. This stronger response of tufted cells could be partially attributed to synaptic differences, as tufted cells received stronger afferent-evoked excitation than mitral cells. However, differences in intrinsic excitability also contributed to the differences between mitral and tufted cell activity. Compared to mitral cells, tufted cells exhibited twofold greater excitability and peak instantaneous firing rates. These differences in excitability probably arise from differential expression of voltage-gated potassium currents, as tufted cells exhibited faster action potential repolarization and afterhyperpolarizations than mitral cells. Surprisingly, mitral and tufted cells also showed firing mode differences. While both cell classes exhibited regular firing and irregular stuttering of action potential clusters, tufted cells demonstrated a greater propensity to stutter than mitral cells. Collectively, stronger afferent-evoked excitation, greater intrinsic excitability and more irregular firing in tufted cells can combine to drive distinct responses of mitral and tufted cells to afferent-evoked input. PMID:24614745

  16. [Infant care in ancient Rome].

    PubMed

    Ahlsten, E

    2001-01-01

    Children are seldom spoken of in Roman times. We know about medicine since long before the birth of Christ but it's not until the first century AD that there is a book that concerns with the nursing of a newborn child. The book is called Gynaecia and was written by Soranus who had studied medicine in Alexandria before he arrived at Rome. Soranus gives distinctive advice about the care of the newborn baby, especially when he talks about the wet-nurse. It seems that nearly none is good enough. Many of Soranus' advice about daily care of the baby remembers of the routines of the neonatal care of today, NIDCAP.

  17. Dclk1-expressing tuft cells: critical modulators of the intestinal niche?

    PubMed

    Middelhoff, Moritz; Westphalen, C Benedikt; Hayakawa, Yoku; Yan, Kelley S; Gershon, Michael D; Wang, Timothy C; Quante, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Dclk1-expressing tuft cells constitute a unique intestinal epithelial lineage that is distinct from enterocytes, Paneth cells, goblet cells, and enteroendocrine cells. Tuft cells express taste-related receptors and distinct transcription factors and interact closely with the enteric nervous system, suggesting a chemosensory cell lineage. In addition, recent work has shown that tuft cells interact closely with cells of the immune system, with a critical role in the cellular regulatory network governing responses to luminal parasites. Importantly, ablation of tuft cells severely impairs epithelial proliferation and tissue regeneration after injury, implicating tuft cells in the modulation of epithelial stem/progenitor function. Finally, tuft cells expand during chronic inflammation and in preneoplastic tissues, suggesting a possible early role in inflammation-associated tumorigenesis. Hence, we outline and discuss emerging evidence that strongly supports tuft cells as key regulatory cells in the complex network of the intestinal microenvironment. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Allonursing in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus nigritus): milk or pacifier?

    PubMed

    Baldovino, M Celia; Di Bitetti, Mario S

    2008-01-01

    Allonursing, the behaviour of females nursing offspring that are not their own, is relatively frequent in capuchin monkeys. Using focal-animal sampling and ad libitum observations we describe the pattern of allonursing in a wild group of tufted capuchins, Cebus nigritus (4 cohorts, 22 infants), at Iguazú National Park, north-eastern Argentina, and test several hypotheses on the adaptive value of allonursing. During 2,351 contact hours with the group (including 4,207 focal-animal samples totalizing 329 h focused on infants) we observed 39 allonursing bouts. Infants were not allonursed more frequently by close kin than by more distant allomothers. Offspring of dominant females were allonursed more frequently than those of low-ranking females. Nursing bouts were longer than allonursing bouts. Our results suggest that allonursing in tufted capuchins has a social function and is not mainly aimed at providing milk to infants.

  19. Multifocal Annular Tufted Angioma: An Uncommon Clinical Entity

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Saha, Abanti

    2015-01-01

    Tufted angioma (TA) is a localized benign hamartomatous vascular proliferation usually presenting in the childhood as an erythematous plaque. We report here a rare case of multifocal TA in an 8-year-old boy who presented which two large annular lesions as well as multiple papules and nodules on the back for the duration of 4 years. Histology showed typical well circumscribed poorly canalized vascular lobules with ‘cannon ball’ configuration. PMID:26288441

  20. Novel Mutations in EPCAM Cause Congenital Tufting Enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenjuan; Huang, Taosheng; Xu, Zhongyao; Huang, Ying

    2016-11-21

    Congenital tufting enteropathy (CTE) is a rare autosomal recessive form of intractable diarrhea of infancy. Patients develop chronic diarrhea within days after birth, leading to severe malabsorption and significant mortality. CTE is characterized by subtotal villous atrophy with crypt hyperplasia. Typical features include abnormal villi in the intestinal epithelium and disorganization of surface enterocytes with focal crowding, resembling tufts. The pathogenesis of CTE remains poorly understood. CTE has been reported in Western populations, but until now had not been reported in China. The objective of this study was to identify the gene responsible for CTE in a Chinese individual. A 13-year-old girl with suspected CTE, whose parents were both healthy, was evaluated in our clinic. Tissues were obtained by endoscopy and examined by electron microscopy. Genomic DNA, extracted from the peripheral blood of the child and parents, was subjected to whole-exome sequencing. After mutations in the gene encoding epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM) were identified, expression of EPCAM was examined by immunohistochemistry staining. Whole-exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations in EPCAM in the patient, with immunohistochemical analysis showing complete loss of EPCAM expression in the intestinal villi and crypts. We identified compound heterozygous mutations in EPCAM, with loss of EPCAM expression in duodenal enterocytes, in a patient with intractable diarrhea since infancy who was subsequently diagnosed with CTE. This is the first case of CTE to be reported in a Chinese patient.

  1. [Tufting enteropathy: a case report, histopathological methodology, and differential diagnoses].

    PubMed

    Bosaleh, Andrea; Contreras, Monica; García de Dávila, María Teresa

    2015-03-01

    Tufting enteropathy (TE), previously known as intestinal epithelial dysplasia, is a rare congenital enteropathy characterized by refractory diarrhea in the neonatal period. It presents clinical and histological heterogeneity and may be associated with birth defects and punctuate keratitis. The causative gene(s) have not yet been identfied making prenatal diagnosis unavailable. Although there are milder phenotypes most require parenteral nutrition for prolonged periods with the risk of complications. TE becomes an indication for intestinal transplantation. We report the case of a 4-month-old male, born full term with a normal weight. The parents consulted because of severe malnutrition and chronic watery diarrhea. Duodenal and rectal biopsy was negative. Because of poor tolerance gastroclysis was changed to parenteral nutrition. The infant had several catheter-related infections and died at 13 months from catheter-associated complications. Histopathological autopsy was performed. The material was fixed in paraffin and studied with routine techniques. PAS and immunohistochemistry for CD10 were performed. We observed villous atrophy with intestinal epithelial dysplasia and disorganization on the surface of epithelial cells resembling tufts in jejunal and ileal tissue. The objective of this study was to present a rare case of neonatal enteropathy, especially TE, describe the methodology used to study the biopsy, and discuss the differential diagnoses. TE is a rare neonatal enteropathy that is difficult to diagnose and manage. Children in whom TE is suspected should be referred to specialized pediatric centers, with the option of intestinal transplantation.

  2. Lead in ancient Rome's city waters.

    PubMed

    Delile, Hugo; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Goiran, Jean-Philippe; Keay, Simon; Albarède, Francis

    2014-05-06

    It is now universally accepted that utilization of lead for domestic purposes and water distribution presents a major health hazard. The ancient Roman world was unaware of these risks. How far the gigantic network of lead pipes used in ancient Rome compromised public health in the city is unknown. Lead isotopes in sediments from the harbor of Imperial Rome register the presence of a strong anthropogenic component during the beginning of the Common Era and the Early Middle Ages. They demonstrate that the lead pipes of the water distribution system increased Pb contents in drinking water of the capital city by up to two orders of magnitude over the natural background. The Pb isotope record shows that the discontinuities in the pollution of the Tiber by lead are intimately entwined with the major issues affecting Late Antique Rome and its water distribution system.

  3. Investigation of an aircraft trailing vortex using a tuft grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, W. H.; Marchman, J. F., III

    1971-01-01

    With the increasing capacity of airport terminal areas, and the use of the new large jet transports, it has become important to understand the turbulent wake created by these aircraft. A study of the trailing vortex of a wing has been made using a tuft grid in a 6 foot wind tunnel. The study included an investigation of the use of mass injection at the wing tip as a means of destroying the vortex. Test results show that a fully developed, stable, vortex exists at least a distance of thirty chord lengths downstream of the wing, and that the swirl of the vortex can be reduced or eliminated by mass injection at the wing tip.

  4. [The difficult start of nephrology in Rome].

    PubMed

    Cagli, V; Cinotti, G A

    2009-01-01

    Nephrology in Rome began in the 1960s with the arrival of Ernico Fiaschi in the wake of Cataldo Cassano at the Institute of Medical Pathology (later on Clinica Medica II). A group of doctors interested in nephrology was set up, with among them Giulio A. Cinotti, who was to become full professor of nephrology at the University of Rome ''La Sapienza'' in 1980. By the end of the 1960s, the renal transplant activity had become an important asset at the Institute of Surgical Pathology (later on Clinica Chirurgica II) thanks to Paride Stefanini. A chair of surgical nephrology was instituted at the Urology Clinics of Ulrico Bracci; the chair was first held by Nicola Cerulli, who developed an intensive hemodialysis program. Around the same time, the Center for the Research and Treatment of Arterial Hypertension and Kidney Diseases became operational at the hospitals of Rome (under the responsibility of Vito Cagli at the Policlinico Umberto I), while a nephrology and dialysis unit, directed by Giancarlo Ruggieri, was set up at the San Giacomo Hospital. Many nephrology-related ''cultural'' activities started to be undertaken thanks to the ''Gruppo Laziale di Nefrologia Medica e Chirurgica'' founded by Drs Cagli, Cerulli, and Cinotti. Two national congresses were organized by Giulio Cinotti in 1979 (Fiuggi) and 1992 (Rome).

  5. Growing cannabis with naphthalene in Rome.

    PubMed

    Fucci, Nadia

    2003-12-17

    A young Italian male was investigated for possession of illicit marijuana in Rome. In his house, police found 80 cannabis plants, the plants were different sizes and located in a room with ultraviolet light, naphthalene, as a grey-white powder, was also found in his house. The man indicated that he used it for cannabis cultivation.

  6. What Is New in Rome IV

    PubMed Central

    Schmulson, Max J; Drossman, Douglas A

    2017-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are diagnosed and classified using the Rome criteria; the criteria may change over time as new scientific data emerge. The Rome IV was released in May 2016. The aim is to review the main changes in Rome IV. FGIDs are now called disorders of gut-brain interaction (DGBI). Rome IV has a multicultural rather than a Western-culture focus. There are new chapters including multicultural, age-gender-women’s health, intestinal microenvironment, biopsychosocial, and centrally mediated disorders. New disorders have been included although not truly FGIDs, but fit the new definition of DGBI including opioid-induced gastrointestinal hyperalgesia, opioid-induced constipation, and cannabinoid hyperemesis. Also, new FGIDs based on available evidence including reflux hypersensitivity and centrally mediated abdominal pain syndrome. Using a normative survey to determine the frequency of normal bowel symptoms in the general population changes in the time frame for diagnosis were introduced. For irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) only pain is required and discomfort was eliminated because it is non-specific, having different meanings in different languages. Pain is now related to bowel movements rather than just improving with bowel movements (ie, can get worse with bowel movement). Functional bowel disorders (functional diarrhea, functional constipation, IBS with predominant diarrhea [IBS-D], IBS with predominant constipation [IBS-C], and IBS with mixed bowel habits) are considered to be on a continuum rather than as independent entities. Clinical applications such as diagnostic algorithms and the Multidimensional Clinical Profile have been updated. The new Rome IV iteration is evidence-based, multicultural oriented and with clinical applications. As new evidence become available, future updates are expected. PMID:28274109

  7. What is new in Rome IV.

    PubMed

    Schmulson, Max J; Drossman, Douglas Arnold

    2017-03-09

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are diagnosed and classified using the Rome criteria; the criteria may change over time as new scientific data emerge. The Rome IV was released in May 2016. The aim is to review the main changes in Rome IV. FGIDs are now called disorders of gut-brain interaction (DGBI). Rome IV has a multicultural rather than a Western-culture focus. There are new chapters including multicultural, age-gender-women's health, intestinal microenvironment, biopsychosocial, and centrally mediated disorders. New disorders have been included although not truly FGIDs, but fit the new definition of DGBI including opioid-induced gastrointestinal hyperalgesia, opioid-induced constipation, and cannabinoid hyperemesis. Also, new FGIDs based on available evidence including reflux hypersensitivity and centrally mediatedabdominal pain syndrome. Using a normative survey to determine the frequency of normal bowel symptoms in the general population changes in the time frame for diagnosis were introduced. For irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) only pain is required and discomfort was eliminated because it is non-specific, having different meanings in different languages. Pain is now related to bowel movements rather than just improving with bowel movements (ie, can get worse with bowel movement). Functional bowel disorders (functional diarrhea, functional constipation, IBS with predominant diarrhea [IBS-D], IBS with predominant constipation [IBS-D], and mixed IBS) are considered to be on a continuum rather than as independent entities. Clinical applications such as diagnostic algorithms and the Multidimensional Clinical Profile have been updated. The new Rome IV iteration is evidence-based, multicultural oriented and with clinical applications. As new evidence become available, future updates are expected.

  8. Apical tuft input efficacy in layer 5 pyramidal cells from rat visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Paul A; Llinás, Rodolfo R

    2001-01-01

    The integration of synaptic inputs to the apical dendrite of layer 5 neocortical pyramidal cells was studied using compartment model simulations. The goal was to characterize the generation of regenerative responses to synaptic inputs under two conditions: (a) where there was an absence of background synaptic input, and (b) when the entire cell surface was subjected to a uniform blanket of synaptic background conductance such that somatic input resistance was reduced 5-fold.Dendritic morphology corresponded to a layer 5 thick-trunked pyramidal cell from rat primary visual cortex at postnatal day 28 (P28), with distribution of dendritic active currents guided by the electrophysiological characteristics of the apical trunk reported in this cell type. Response characteristics for two dendritic channel distributions were compared, one of which supported Ca2+ spikes in the apical dendrite.In the absence of background, synaptic input to the apical tuft was surprisingly effective in eliciting somatic firing when compared with input to apical oblique branches. This result obtained even when the tuft membrane was the least excitable in the dendritic tree.The special efficacy of tuft input arose because its electrotonic characteristics favour development of a sustained depolarization which charged the apex of the apical trunk to its firing threshold; once initiated in the distal trunk, firing propagated inward to the soma. This mechanism did not depend upon the presence of depolarizing channels in tuft membrane, but did require an excitable apical trunk.Rather than disconnect the tuft, background synaptic conductance enhanced the efficacy advantage enjoyed by input arriving there. This counterintuitive result arose because background reduced the subthreshold spread of voltage, and so diminished the ability of the excitation of various individual oblique branches to combine to charge the relatively thick adjacent trunk. In contrast, drive from the depolarized tuft is exerted

  9. Intestinal epithelial tuft cells initiate type 2 mucosal immunity to helminth parasites.

    PubMed

    Gerbe, François; Sidot, Emmanuelle; Smyth, Danielle J; Ohmoto, Makoto; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Dardalhon, Valérie; Cesses, Pierre; Garnier, Laure; Pouzolles, Marie; Brulin, Bénédicte; Bruschi, Marco; Harcus, Yvonne; Zimmermann, Valérie S; Taylor, Naomi; Maizels, Rick M; Jay, Philippe

    2016-01-14

    Helminth parasitic infections are a major global health and social burden. The host defence against helminths such as Nippostrongylus brasiliensis is orchestrated by type 2 cell-mediated immunity. Induction of type 2 cytokines, including interleukins (IL) IL-4 and IL-13, induce goblet cell hyperplasia with mucus production, ultimately resulting in worm expulsion. However, the mechanisms underlying the initiation of type 2 responses remain incompletely understood. Here we show that tuft cells, a rare epithelial cell type in the steady-state intestinal epithelium, are responsible for initiating type 2 responses to parasites by a cytokine-mediated cellular relay. Tuft cells have a Th2-related gene expression signature and we demonstrate that they undergo a rapid and extensive IL-4Rα-dependent amplification following infection with helminth parasites, owing to direct differentiation of epithelial crypt progenitor cells. We find that the Pou2f3 gene is essential for tuft cell specification. Pou2f3(-/-) mice lack intestinal tuft cells and have defective mucosal type 2 responses to helminth infection; goblet cell hyperplasia is abrogated and worm expulsion is compromised. Notably, IL-4Rα signalling is sufficient to induce expansion of the tuft cell lineage, and ectopic stimulation of this signalling cascade obviates the need for tuft cells in the epithelial cell remodelling of the intestine. Moreover, tuft cells secrete IL-25, thereby regulating type 2 immune responses. Our data reveal a novel function of intestinal epithelial tuft cells and demonstrate a cellular relay required for initiating mucosal type 2 immunity to helminth infection.

  10. Eternal Rome: Guardian of the Heavenly Gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latura, G.

    2016-01-01

    The power of the Roman Empire did not come solely by way of brutal force. A spiritual vision inherited from the Greeks inspired the Romans—an ascent through the classical Planets to the intersections with the Milky Way, where stood the gates of heaven. This vision stretches back, through Macrobius and Cicero, to Plato's Republic and Timaeus. The Eternal City, capital of the Empire for four centuries, claimed control over the celestial portals, a tradition that is traced on Roman coins and medals over thousands of years. Julius Caesar borrowed enormous sums to campaign for the office of Pontifex Maximus—high priest of Rome—spending a fortune on “bread and circuses” to secure the support of the masses. Consolidating power at every turn, Caesar as dictator-for-life became absolute master of Rome, the city that, according to its coins, ruled the cosmos. Though his mortal frame fell to the knives of the senators, Caesar's soul was seen ascending to heaven as a comet. Thus was born the myth of Divvs Ivlivs—the divine avatar of the Roman Empire, whose name would become synonymous with the title of emperor over millennia (German Kaiser, Hungarian Csaszar, Russian Tsar, to name a few). Caesar's heir, Octavian, piously waited for Lepidus to die of old age before grabbing the office of Pontifex Maximus for himself, a title that would define the celestial authority of the ruler of Rome until Gratian renounced it four centuries later. Ambrose, bishop of Milan, convinced Gratian that such a pagan title was not fit for a Christian. Once the Roman emperor discarded the title Pontifex Maximus, the bishop of Rome picked it up and placed it above his own head, as can be seen on coins and medals of the Vatican to this day. In Jubilee years, the Pope knocks down the brick wall that has kept closed the Holy Door for a generation, a ceremony that reaffirms Rome's control of the celestial gates.

  11. Color discrimination in the tufted capuchin monkey, Sapajus spp.

    PubMed

    Goulart, Paulo Roney Kilpp; Bonci, Daniela Maria Oliveira; Galvão, Olavo de Faria; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of an adapted version of the Mollon-Reffin test for the behavioral investigation of color vision in capuchin monkeys. Ten tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp., formerly referred to as Cebus apella) had their DNA analyzed and were characterized as the following: one trichromat female, seven deuteranope dichromats (six males and one female), and two protanope males, one of which was identified as an "ML protanope." For their behavioral characterization, all of the subjects were tested at three regions of the Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) 1976 u'v' diagram, with each test consisting of 20 chromatic variation vectors that were radially distributed around the chromaticity point set as the test background. The phenotypes inferred from the behavioral data were in complete agreement with those predicted from the genetic analysis, with the threshold distribution clearly differentiating between trichromats and dichromats and the estimated confusion lines characteristically converging for deuteranopes and the "classic" protanope. The discrimination pattern of the ML protanope was intermediate between protan and deutan, with confusion lines horizontally oriented and parallel to each other. The observed phenotypic differentiation confirmed the efficacy of the Mollon-Reffin test paradigm as a useful tool for evaluating color discrimination in nonhuman primates. Especially noteworthy was the demonstration of behavioral segregation between the "classic" and "ML" protanopes, suggesting identifiable behavioral consequences of even slight variations in the spectral sensitivity of M/L photopigments in dichromats.

  12. Color Discrimination in the Tufted Capuchin Monkey, Sapajus spp

    PubMed Central

    Goulart, Paulo Roney Kilpp; Bonci, Daniela Maria Oliveira; Galvão, Olavo de Faria; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of an adapted version of the Mollon-Reffin test for the behavioral investigation of color vision in capuchin monkeys. Ten tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp., formerly referred to as Cebus apella) had their DNA analyzed and were characterized as the following: one trichromat female, seven deuteranope dichromats (six males and one female), and two protanope males, one of which was identified as an “ML protanope.” For their behavioral characterization, all of the subjects were tested at three regions of the Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) 1976 u′v′ diagram, with each test consisting of 20 chromatic variation vectors that were radially distributed around the chromaticity point set as the test background. The phenotypes inferred from the behavioral data were in complete agreement with those predicted from the genetic analysis, with the threshold distribution clearly differentiating between trichromats and dichromats and the estimated confusion lines characteristically converging for deuteranopes and the “classic” protanope. The discrimination pattern of the ML protanope was intermediate between protan and deutan, with confusion lines horizontally oriented and parallel to each other. The observed phenotypic differentiation confirmed the efficacy of the Mollon-Reffin test paradigm as a useful tool for evaluating color discrimination in nonhuman primates. Especially noteworthy was the demonstration of behavioral segregation between the “classic” and “ML” protanopes, suggesting identifiable behavioral consequences of even slight variations in the spectral sensitivity of M/L photopigments in dichromats. PMID:23620819

  13. All Roads Lead to Rome: Update on Rome III Criteria and New Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Shih, David Q.; Kwan, Lola Y.

    2010-01-01

    The recently published Rome III criteria reflect current understanding of functional gastrointestinal disorders. These criteria include definitions of these conditions and their pathophysiologic subtypes and offer guidelines for their management. At the 2006 Annual Scientific Meeting of the American College of Gastroenterology, a panel of experts discussed these criteria as they pertain to irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia, and chronic constipation. This article reviews the panel’s findings, highlights the differences between the Rome II and III criteria, and summarizes best treatment options currently available to practitioners and their patients. PMID:21544252

  14. Distribution and Function of HCN Channels in the Apical Dendritic Tuft of Neocortical Pyramidal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Harnett, Mark T.; Magee, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    The apical tuft is the most remote area of the dendritic tree of neocortical pyramidal neurons. Despite its distal location, the apical dendritic tuft of layer 5 pyramidal neurons receives substantial excitatory synaptic drive and actively processes corticocortical input during behavior. The properties of the voltage-activated ion channels that regulate synaptic integration in tuft dendrites have, however, not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we use electrophysiological and optical approaches to examine the subcellular distribution and function of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated nonselective cation (HCN) channels in rat layer 5B pyramidal neurons. Outside-out patch recordings demonstrated that the amplitude and properties of ensemble HCN channel activity were uniform in patches excised from distal apical dendritic trunk and tuft sites. Simultaneous apical dendritic tuft and trunk whole-cell current-clamp recordings revealed that the pharmacological blockade of HCN channels decreased voltage compartmentalization and enhanced the generation and spread of apical dendritic tuft and trunk regenerative activity. Furthermore, multisite two-photon glutamate uncaging demonstrated that HCN channels control the amplitude and duration of synaptically evoked regenerative activity in the distal apical dendritic tuft. In contrast, at proximal apical dendritic trunk and somatic recording sites, the blockade of HCN channels decreased excitability. Dynamic-clamp experiments revealed that these compartment-specific actions of HCN channels were heavily influenced by the local and distributed impact of the high density of HCN channels in the distal apical dendritic arbor. The properties and subcellular distribution pattern of HCN channels are therefore tuned to regulate the interaction between integration compartments in layer 5B pyramidal neurons. PMID:25609619

  15. The often overlooked digital tuft: clues to diagnosis and pathophysiology of neuropathic disease and spondyloarthropathy

    PubMed Central

    Rothschild, B; Behnam, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess diagnostic implications of abnormalities of the pedal digital tufts and to identify features to facilitate distinguishing of spondyloarthropathy and leprosy. Background: Better criteria for distinguishing between these disorders are necessary if their character, natural history, and evolution are to be understood. Methods: Pedal x rays of 91 consecutive patients with diabetes, 21 alcoholic patients, 100 with spondyloarthropathy, 8 with scleroderma, and 137 with leprosy, and 188 defleshed skeletons of individuals with alcoholism, syphilis, cerebrovascular disease, and paraplegia from the Terry and Hamman-Todd collections were examined for evidence of osseous and articular pathologies. Digital tuft abnormalities were divided into irregularity, divot, flattening, resorption, whittling, and fragmentation. Results: Tuft divots were more common in alcoholics than in diabetic, and were more common in both than in the other groups studied. Tuft flattening was limited to alcoholic and neurosyphilis groups. Tuft whittling was especially prominent among individuals with spondyloarthropathy, contrasted with leprosy and diabetes. Aligned fractures were more common in diabetics than individuals with leprosy. Misaligned fractures were limited to individuals with leprosy and neurosyphilis. Leprosy and spondyloarthropathy were complicated by phalangeal and metatarsal whittling more commonly than other diseases studied. Background pedal abnormalities, derived from individuals with cardiovascular syphilis, cerebrovascular accidents, and paraplegia, was limited to abnormal divots only. Conclusions: Pedal digital tufts undergo a variety of pathological alterations useful in the recognition of disorders traditionally considered neuropathic in aetiology and in distinguishing differential considerations. Tuft flattening appears specific for alcoholism and neurosyphilis, and misaligned fractures seem specific for neurosyphilis and leprosy, providing differential

  16. TUFT1 regulates metastasis of pancreatic cancer through HIF1-Snail pathway induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Zhan, Hanxiang; Tin, Lamtin; Liu, Shanglong; Xu, Jianwei; Dong, Yanan; Li, Xiaoyu; Wu, Liqun; Guo, Weidong

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is usually lethal because of late diagnosis and early metastasis. Analysis of data from online database showed that TUFT1 is highly expressed in liver metastases of PC, and was associated with shorter overall survival. However, the role of TUFT1 in PC remains unknown. In this study, we show for the first time that TUFT1 is overexpressed in PC tissues compared with adjacent normal pancreas tissues, and TUFT1 expression is significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and advanced PC stage (P <0.05). Depletion or overexpression of endogenous TUFT1 correspondingly inhibited or promoted PC cell migration and metastasis in vitro and in vivo, and affected expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins, E-cadherin and vimentin. We also provide evidence that TUFT1 induced EMT by altering the expression of Snail; that TUFT1 is associated with expression and activity of HIF1; and that TUFT1 might affect HIF1-Snail signaling in regulating EMT. Collectively, these results indicate that TUFT1 could be a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for PC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The adrenocortical response of tufted puffin chicks to nutritional deficits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Romano, Marc D.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.; Kikuchi, M.

    2005-01-01

    In several seabirds, nutritional state of a nest-bound chick is negatively correlated with the activity of its hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased corticosterone (cort) secretion has been shown to facilitate changes in behavior that allow hungry chicks to obtain more food from parents. However, if parents are not willing/able to buffer their young from temporary food shortages, increased cort secretion could be detrimental to undernourished chicks. In a system where parents are insensitive to chick demands, low benefits and high costs of activation of the HPA-axis in hungry chicks should lead to a disassociation of the nutritional state of the young and the activity of its HPA-axis. We tested this novel hypothesis for the tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata), a seabird with intermittent provisioning of a nest-bound semi-precocial chick. We examined the HPA-axis activity of captive chicks exposed to the following: (1) a short-term (24 h) food deprivation; and (2) an array of prolonged (3 weeks) restrictions in feeding regimens. We found that in response to a short-term food deprivation chicks decreased baseline levels of cort and thyroid hormones. In response to prolonged restrictions, food-limited chicks exhibited signs of nutritional deficit: they had lower body mass, endogenous lipid reserves, and thyroid hormone titers compared to chicks fed ad libitum. However, baseline and maximum acute stress-induced levels of cort were also lower in food-restricted chicks compared to those of chicks fed ad libitum. These results support a major prediction of the study hypothesis that puffin chicks suppress HPA-axis activity in response to short- and long-term nutritional deficits. This physiological adaptation may allow a chick to extend its development in the nest, while eluding detrimental effects of chronic cort elevation. 

  18. High Energy Physics at Tufts University Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Gary R.; Oliver, William P.; Napier, Austin; Gallagher, Hugh R.

    2012-07-18

    In this Final Report, we the researchers of the high energy physics group at Tufts University summarize our works and achievements in three frontier areas of elementary particle physics: (i) Neutrino physics at the Intensity Frontier, (ii) Collider physics at the Energy Frontier, and (iii) Theory investigations of spin structure and quark-gluon dynamics of nucleons using quantum chromodynamics. With our Neutrino research we completed, or else brought to a useful state, the following: Data-taking, physics simulations, physics analysis, physics reporting, explorations of matter effects, and detector component fabrication. We conducted our work as participants in the MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE neutrino oscillation experiments and in the MINERvA neutrino scattering experiment. With our Collider research we completed or else brought to a useful state: Data-taking, development of muon system geometry and tracking codes, software validation and maintenance, physics simulations, physics analysis, searches for new particles, and study of top-quark and B-quark systems. We conducted these activities as participants in the ATLAS proton-proton collider experiment at CERN and in the CDF proton-antiproton collider experiment at Fermilab. In our Theory research we developed QCD-based models, applications of spin phenomenology to fundamental systems, fitting of models to data, presenting and reporting of new concepts and formalisms. The overarching objectives of our research work have always been: 1) to test and clarify the predictions of the Standard Model of elementary particle physics, and 2) to discover new phenomena which may point the way to a more unified theoretical framework.

  19. Sleeping site preferences in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus).

    PubMed

    Di Bitetti, M S; Vidal, E M; Baldovino, M C; Benesovsky, V

    2000-04-01

    The characteristics and availability of the sleeping sites used by a group of 27 tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) were studied during 17 months at the Iguazu National Park, Argentina. We tested different hypotheses regarding possible ultimate causes of sleeping-site selection. Most sleeping sites were located in areas of tall, mature forest. Of the 34 sleeping sites the monkeys used during 203 nights, five were more frequently used than the others (more than 20 times each, constituting 67% of the nights). Four species of tree (Peltophorum dubium, Parapiptadenia rigida, Copaifera langsdorfii and Cordia trichotoma) were the most frequently used. They constituted 82% of all the trees used, though they represent only 12% of the trees within the monkeys' home range which had a diameter at breast height (DBH) > 48.16 cm (1 SD below the mean DBH of sleeping trees). The sleeping trees share a set of characteristics not found in other trees: they are tall emergent (mean height +/- SD = 31.1+/-5.2 m) with large DBH (78.5+/-30.3 cm), they have large crown diameter (14+/-5.5 m), and they have many horizontal branches and forks. Adult females usually slept with their kin and infants, while peripheral adult males sometimes slept alone in nearby trees. We reject parasite avoidance as an adaptive explanation for the pattern of sleeping site use. Our results and those from other studies suggest that predation avoidance is a predominant factor driving sleeping site preferences. The patterns of aggregation at night and the preference for trees with low probability of shedding branches suggest that social preferences and safety from falling during windy nights may also affect sleeping tree selection. The importance of other factors, such as seeking comfort and maintaining group cohesion, was not supported by our results. Other capuchin populations show different sleeping habits which can be explained by differences in forest structure and by demographic differences.

  20. Tufted angioma of the maxilla: a rare case with unique clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    Katsoulas, Nikolaos; Nikitakis, Nikolaos; Theologie-Lygidakis, Nadia; Lianou, Violetta; Tsiklakis, Konstantinos; Iatrou, Ioannis; Sklavounou-Andrikopoulou, Alexandra

    2016-09-01

    Tufted angioma is an uncommon benign vascular tumor usually presenting in early childhood and affecting mainly the skin. It has been associated with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome, a severe coagulopathy of poor prognosis. There have been very few published cases of oral tufted angiomas, and maxillary bone involvement has not been hitherto reported. We present a case of a 10-year-old Caucasian boy with an erythematous left maxillary gingival mass accompanied by subjacent hard tissue swelling. Radiologic evaluation revealed an irregular mixed radiolucent and radiopaque area in the left maxilla, accompanied by alveolar ridge erosion, cortical plate expansion, and displacement and divergence of the premolars. The histopathologic examination showed scattered irregular tufted lobules of variably sized vascular spaces inside the subepithelial connective tissue and among the underlying bone trabeculae, exhibiting a "cannonball" appearance. Immunohistochemical evaluation found positivity for CD31, CD34, and smooth muscle actin, and a final diagnosis of tufted angioma with osseous involvement was rendered. A thorough review of the pertinent literature revealed only 9 previously published intraoral tufted angioma cases, the salient demographic and clinicopathologic features of which are summarized.

  1. Spatial organization of cilia tufts governs airways mucus transport: Application to severe asthma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khelloufi, Mustapha Kamel; Gras, Delphine; Chanez, Pascal; Viallat, Annie

    2014-11-01

    We study the coupling between both density and spatial repartition of beating cilia tufts, and the coordinated transport of mucus in an in-vitro epithelial model. We use a fully differentiated model epithelium in air liquid interface (ALI) obtained from endo-bronchial biopsies from healthy subjects and patients with asthma. The asthma phenotype is known to persist in the model. Mucus transport is characterized by the trajectories and velocities of microscopic beads incorporated in the mucus layer. When the beating cilia tufts density is higher than dc = 11/100 × 100 μm2 a spherical spiral coordinated mucus transport is observed over the whole ALI chamber (radius = 6 mm). Below dc, local mucus coordinated transport is observed on small circular domains on the epithelium surface. We reveal that the radii of these domains scale with the beating cilia tufts density with a power 3.7. Surprisingly, this power law is independent on cilia beat frequency, concentration and rheological properties of mucus for healthy subject and patient with asthma. The rotating or linear mucus transport is related to dispersion of the cilia tufts on the epithelium surface. We show that impaired mucus transport observed in severe asthma model epithelia is due to a drastic lack and dysfunction of cilia tufts. The author acknowledges the support of the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR) under reference ANR-13-BSV5-0015-01.

  2. High temperature brush seal tuft testing of metallic bristles versus chrome carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fellenstein, James A.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Moore, Kenneth D.; Boyes, Esther

    1996-01-01

    The tribology of brush seals is of considerable interest to turbine engine designers because bristle wear continues to limit long term seal performance and life. To provide better materials characterization and foster the development of improved seals, NASA Lewis has developed a brush seal tuft tester. In this test, a 'paintbrush' sample tuft is loaded under constant contact pressure against the outside diameter of a rotating journal. With this configuration a direct measurement of load and friction is made. Accurate wear rate measurements are possible due to the known contact pressure. Previously reported baseline research using this facility showed good data repeatability and wear morphology similar to published seal data. This paper extends and expands the database for candidate brush seal materials. A series of tuft tests were completed to evaluate the performance of five high temperature superalloy wires sliding against plasma sprayed nichrome-bonded chrome carbide. Wire materials were either nickel-chrome or cobalt-chrome based superalloys. Good corroboration of the tuft results with dynamic seal rig tests was observed; giving additional confidence in the tuft test as a screening and development tool.

  3. The Rome Laboratory Reliability Engineer’s Toolkit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    Silver B. Substrate Material Alumina Beryllium Oxide C. Bake Time (at 900C) 90 Min 120 Min D. Substrate Thickness .025 in .05 in Step 3 - Set Up An...Maintenance-Induced (Type Poly Polycrystalline Silicon 2 Failure) PtSi Platinum Silicide MTBM-INH Mean Time Between PAL Programmable Array Logic Maintenance

  4. Semiconductor Laser Joint Study Program with Rome Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    L.T. Florez . "Low threshold electrically pumped vertical-cavity surface emitting microlasers." Elecron. Lett.. vol. 25 pp. 1213-1124, 1989. 4 N...Macda, L.T. Florez , N.G. Stoffel and T-P. Lee, "Multiple Wavelength Tunable Surface-Emitting Laser Arrays," IEEE J. of Quantmn Elec., vol 27., pp. 1368

  5. 25 CFR 309.14 - What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair..., quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products? (a) Beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting..., baskets, bags, pouches, and other containers; belts, buckles, jewelry, hatbands, hair clips, barrettes...

  6. 25 CFR 309.14 - What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair..., quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products? (a) Beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting..., baskets, bags, pouches, and other containers; belts, buckles, jewelry, hatbands, hair clips, barrettes...

  7. 25 CFR 309.14 - What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair..., quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products? (a) Beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting..., baskets, bags, pouches, and other containers; belts, buckles, jewelry, hatbands, hair clips, barrettes...

  8. 25 CFR 309.14 - What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair..., quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products? (a) Beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting..., baskets, bags, pouches, and other containers; belts, buckles, jewelry, hatbands, hair clips, barrettes...

  9. 25 CFR 309.14 - What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair..., quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products? (a) Beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting..., baskets, bags, pouches, and other containers; belts, buckles, jewelry, hatbands, hair clips, barrettes...

  10. History of the USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Jean Mayer United States Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, while quite a mouthful, is aptly named, since it has contributed substantially to the legacy of Jean Mayer, to the scientific stature of the USDA and, in Atwater’s tradition, to the d...

  11. Not Waving but Drowning: A Review of Tufte's "The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    "The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint: Pitching Out Corrupts Within" by Edward Tufte (2006) condemns the software for failing to help users achieve many of the goals of an effective presentation and instead offers a low resolution platform with a deeply hierarchical single-path structure capable of convening a trivial amount of information even over…

  12. Registration of tufted-naked seed in upland cotton germplasm 9023n4t

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A naked-tufted mutant called 9023n4t (PI 667553) was developed from the cultivar SC 9023 (Gossypium hirsutum L.) through chemical mutagenesis. This germplasm was developed by the Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University and released in April, 2013. This mutant is quite unique sinc...

  13. Glutathione transferase theta in apical ciliary tuft regulates mechanical reception and swimming behavior of Sea Urchin Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yinhua; Yaguchi, Shunsuke; Shiba, Kogiku; Yamada, Lixy; Yaguchi, Junko; Shibata, Daisuke; Sawada, Hitoshi; Inaba, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    An apical tuft, which is observed in a wide range of embryos/larvae of marine invertebrates, is composed of a group of cilia that are longer and less motile than the abundant lateral cilia covering the rest of the embryonic surface. Although the apical tuft has been thought to function as a sensory organ, its molecular composition and roles are poorly understood. Here, we identified a glutathione transferase theta (GSTT) as an abundant and specific component of the apical tuft in sea urchin embryos. The expression of GSTT mRNA increases and becomes limited to the animal plate of the mesenchyme blastula, gastrula, and prism larva. Electron microscopy and tandem mass spectrometry demonstrated that the apical tuft contains almost every axonemal component for ciliary motility. Low concentrations of an inhibitor of glutathione transferase bromosulphophthalein (BSP) induce bending of apical tuft, suggesting that GSTT regulates motility of apical tuft cilia. Embryos treated with BSP swim with normal velocity and trajectories but show less efficiency of changing direction when they collide with an object. These results suggest that GSTT in the apical tuft plays an important role in the mechanical reception for the motility regulation of lateral motile cilia in sea urchin embryos. PMID:23907936

  14. 78 FR 45475 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Rome, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation aid, Rome, OR, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules... route domestic airspace extending upward from 1,200 feet above the surface at the Rome VOR/DME... would establish controlled airspace at the Rome VOR/DME, Rome, OR. This proposal will be subject to...

  15. Legionnaires' disease outbreak in Rome, Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Rota, M. C.; Pontrelli, G.; Scaturro, M.; Bella, A.; Bellomo, A. R.; Trinito, M. O.; Salmaso, S.; Ricci, M. L.

    2005-01-01

    Between August and October 2003, 15 cases of Legionnaires' disease were detected in the 9th district of Rome. To identify possible sources of Legionella exposure, a matched case-control study was conducted and environmental samples were collected. Hospital discharge records were also retrospectively analysed for the period July-November 2003, and results were compared with the same period during the previous 3 years. The case-control study revealed a significantly increased risk of disease among those frequenting a specific department store in the district (OR 9.8, 95% CI 2.1-46.0), and Legionella pneumophila was isolated from the store's cooling tower. Genotypic and phenotypic analysis of human and environmental isolates demonstrated that the cluster was caused by a single strain of L. pneumophila serogroup 1, and that the cooling tower of the store was the source of infection. The increased number of hospital admissions for microbiologically undiagnosed pneumonia during the study period may indicate that some legionellosis cases were not identified. PMID:16181505

  16. [Gynecology and obstetrics in Ancient Rome].

    PubMed

    Dumont, M

    1992-10-01

    Gods and Goddesses were invoked by the Romans for the termination of a good delivery. Diana, Juno, Lucina and Cybele were the preferred ones. Sterility was sometimes treated by the whip of the Lupercali of ministers of Pan. The first doctors in Rome were coming from Greece. Celsus, Pliny the Elder were encyclopedists, Rufus an anatomist, Dioscorides a pharmacologist. Archigenes, Aretaeus and Antyllus surgeons. Soranus from Ephesus, was the first to recommend podalic version. His works was a long time buried in a profound oblivion and discovered by scholars during the nineteenth century. Galen was looked as the most famous medical man after Hippocrates. During the Roman Empire of Occident (Byzantine Empire), Oribasius, Aurelianus Caelius, Moschion and above all Aetius and Paul of Aegina wrote many works which were many times plagiarized. Roman laws concerning public health were severe. Midwives took an important action in the care of pregnant women. Roman poets as Plautus, Terence, Lucilius, Catullus, Virgil, Tibullus, Ovid and Martial were many times concerned in their writings with gynecologic or obstetric subjects. Children were easily forsaken. Three Emperors, Trajan, Marcus-Aurelius and Alexander Severius, a writer, Aulu-Gelles, and a rhetor, Quintilian, took protection of them.

  17. Extracting quantitative three-dimensional unsteady flow direction from tuft flow visualizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omata, Noriyasu; Shirayama, Susumu

    2017-10-01

    We focus on the qualitative but widely used method of tuft flow visualization, and propose a method for quantifying it using information technology. By applying stereo image processing and computer vision, the three-dimensional (3D) flow direction in a real environment can be obtained quantitatively. In addition, we show that the flow can be divided temporally by performing appropriate machine learning on the data. Acquisition of flow information in real environments is important for design development, but it is generally considered difficult to apply simulations or quantitative experiments to such environments. Hence, qualitative methods including the tuft method are still in use today. Although attempts have been made previously to quantify such methods, it has not been possible to acquire 3D information. Furthermore, even if quantitative data could be acquired, analysis was often performed empirically or qualitatively. In contrast, we show that our method can acquire 3D information and analyze the measured data quantitatively.

  18. Hematological and plasma biochemical values for captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Wirz, Annarita; Truppa, Valentina; Riviello, M Cristina

    2008-05-01

    Hematological and blood biochemical parameters are of great importance in medical and veterinary practice. Unfortunately, normal reference range intervals for hematological and serum biochemical values in the tufted capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) have seldom been reported. The study reported here is based on data from blood samples collected from 44 monkeys over an 8-year period. Male and female data are displayed separately within two age categories: juveniles and adults, and effects for sex and age are examined. Significant differences between males and females are found for erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and α(1) globulin. Significant differences between juveniles and adults are found for neutrophils, calcium, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase, inorganic phosphorus, glucose, total protein, serum iron, and some serum protein parameters and albumin/globulin ratio. These values are compared with values we previously reported, and their importance in care and well-being of captive tufted capuchin monkeys is discussed. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans associated with acne keloidalis nuchae and tufted hair folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Janjua, Shahbaz A; Iftikhar, Nadia; Pastar, Zrinjka; Hosler, Gregory A

    2008-01-01

    Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans is a rare, X-linked disorder characterized by scarring alopecia of the scalp and eyebrows in the setting of widespread keratosis pilaris. Less frequent associations are ocular abnormalities and palmoplantar keratoderma. Acne keloidalis nuchae has previously been described in one patient with keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans. We report another case of keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans with acne keloidalis nuchae and tufted hair folliculitis, thus further establishing this association.

  20. ankAT-1 is a novel gene mediating the apical tuft formation in the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Shunsuke; Yaguchi, Junko; Wei, Zheng; Shiba, Kogiku; Angerer, Lynne M; Inaba, Kazuo

    2010-12-01

    In sea urchin embryos, the apical tuft forms within the neurogenic animal plate. When FoxQ2, one of the earliest factors expressed specifically in the animal plate by early blastula stage, is knocked down, the structure of the apical tuft is altered. To determine the basis of this phenotype, we identified FoxQ2-dependent genes using microarray analysis. The most strongly down-regulated gene in FoxQ2 morphants encodes a protein with ankyrin repeats region in its N-terminal domain. We named this gene ankAT-1, Ankyrin-containing gene specific for Apical Tuft. Initially its expression in the animal pole region of very early blastula stage embryos is FoxQ2-independent but becomes FoxQ2-dependent beginning at mesenchyme blastula stage and continuing in the animal plate of 3-day larvae. Furthermore, like FoxQ2, this gene is expressed throughout the expanded apical tuft region that forms in embryos lacking nuclear β-catenin. When AnkAT-1 is knocked-down by injecting a morpholino, the cilia at the animal plate in the resulting embryos are much shorter and their motility is less than that of motile cilia in other ectoderm cells, and remains similar to that of long apical tuft cilia. We conclude that AnkAT-1 is involved in regulating the length of apical tuft cilia.

  1. ankAT-1 is a novel gene mediating the apical tuft formation in the sea urchin embryo

    PubMed Central

    Yaguchi, Shunsuke; Yaguchi, Junko; Wei, Zheng; Shiba, Kogiku; Angerer, Lynne M.; Inaba, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    In sea urchin embryos, the apical tuft forms within the neurogenic animal plate. When FoxQ2, one of the earliest factors expressed specifically in the animal plate by early blastula stage, is knocked down, the structure of the apical tuft is altered. To determine the basis of this phenotype, we identified FoxQ2-dependent genes using microarray analysis. The most strongly down-regulated gene in FoxQ2 morphants encodes a protein with ankyrin repeats region in its N-terminal domain. We named this gene ankAT-1, Ankyrin-containing gene specific for Apical Tuft. Initially its expression in the animal pole region of very early blastula stage embryos is FoxQ2-independent but becomes FoxQ2-dependent beginning at mesenchyme blastula stage and continuing in the animal plate of 3-day larvae. Furthermore, like FoxQ2, this gene is expressed throughout the expanded apical tuft region that forms in embryos lacking nuclear β-catenin. When AnkAT-1 is knocked-down by injecting a morpholino, the cilia at the animal plate in the resulting embryos are much shorter and their motility is less than that of motile cilia in other ectoderm cells, and remains similar to that of long apical tuft cilia. We conclude that AnkAT-1 is involved in regulating the length of apical tuft cilia. PMID:20875818

  2. Selection of forage-fish schools by Murrelets and Tufted Puffins in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostrand, William D.; Coyle, Kenneth O.; Drew, Gary S.; Maniscalco, John M.; Irons, David B.

    1998-01-01

    We collected hydroacoustic and bird-observation data simultaneously along transects in three areas in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 21 July-11 August 1995. The probability of the association of fish schools with Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) and Tufted Puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) was determined through the use of resource selection functions based on logistic regression. Mean (± SD) group sizes were small for both species, 1.7 ± 1.1 and 1.2 ± 0.7 for Marbled Murrelets and Tufted Puffins, respectively. Oceanographically, all study areas were stratified with synchronous thermo- and pycnoclines (a water layer of increasing temperature and density, respectively, with increasing depth). Our analysis indicated that Tufted Puffins selected fish schools near their colony, whereas Marbled Murrelets selected smaller, denser fish schools in shallower habitats. We suggest that murrelets selected shallower habitats in response to lower maximum diving depths than puffins. Small feeding-groups size is discussed in terms of foraging theory and as a consequence of dispersed, low density food resources.

  3. Habitat use, diet and breeding biology of tufted puffins in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatt, John F.; Roby, Daniel D.; Henkel, Laird A.; Neumann, Kriss

    1997-01-01

    Habitat use, diet and breeding biology of tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) were studied in Prince William Sound, Alaska, during summer 1995. On Seal Island, 112 puffin burrows (71% active) were located. Of 95 accessible burrows, 49% were typical earthen burrows, whereas the remainder were atypical for the species (e.g., under tree roots). Hatching success (≤79%), fledging success (≥82%), chick growth rates (17.7 g/day), asymptotic (600 g) and fledging (563 g) weights, meal sizes (14.2 g), meal delivery rates (5.32 meals/day), and daily rations (75.5 g/day) were all average or above-average for tufted puffins in Alaska. A total of 42 chick meals, comprising 125 individual prey were collected. Meals were composed of juvenile pollock (12.7% of total mass), herring (21.8%), prowfish (32.3%), salmonids (24.1%), and capelin, sandlance and squid (<5% each). Tufted puffin populations in Prince William Sound are relatively small, and may be limited by low densities of prey in the Sound, nest-site availability, and heavy rainfall.

  4. Three-dimensional analysis of time varying tuft behavior by its successive geometric shape modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, Junta; Miyake, Tetsuo

    A tuft in the air flow was observed by three CCD video cameras which were installed in the directions nearly perpendicular to each other. In this procedure, a tufted woolen yarn of the diameter of about 1 mm and of the length of 35 mm was attached on the top of a thin post pin. The principle of this shape modeling is based on the intersection of multiple viewing cones. This intersected zone results in a polyhedron when the digital image is used. It becomes a good approximation of the original shape when it is convex. This polyhedron is described with spatially fixed coordinates, so that not only its spatial shape, but also the position, direction, deformation, or fluttering at the every moment can be estimated. From this modeling, the effect of rigidity due to adhesives near the fixed end and a few millimeters of three-dimensional displacement at the free end are observed. This method is capable to serve for measurement and analysis of a single tuft characteristics, depending on its material, kind of fluid, or flow range, and has the possibility of quantitative analysis of three-dimensional unsteady flow visualization.

  5. Seasonal variability of tropospheric aerosols in Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciardini, Virginia; Di Iorio, Tatiana; Di Liberto, Luca; Tirelli, Cecilia; Casasanta, Giampietro; di Sarra, Alcide; Fiocco, Giorgio; Fuà, Daniele; Cacciani, Marco

    2012-11-01

    The seasonal evolution of the tropospheric aerosol vertical distribution and of its optical properties is investigated using lidar and multi-filter rotating shadow-band radiometer (MFRSR) measurements collected throughout the period 2006-2009 in the urban environment of Rome. The evolution of the aerosol distribution is studied also in relation to long range transport of dust. Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model backward trajectories are used to identify possible aerosol sources in remote regions. Aerosol optical depth at 500 nm, τ, and Ångström exponent, α, are derived from MFRSR measurements. The Ångström exponent generally displays relatively high values, indicating the predominance of fine particle over the entire column. The average optical depth at 500 nm and Ångström exponent over the whole period are 0.18 ± 0.09 and 1.12 ± 0.39, respectively. Cases affected by Saharan dust (class 1) are separated from those not influenced by dust (class 0) by using backward trajectories. The average values of τ and α are 0.17 ± 0.08 and 1.17 ± 0.36 for class 0, respectively, and 0.22 ± 0.09 and 0.95 ± 0.46 for class 1. About 214 days of lidar measurements are selected for the analysis. The aerosol vertical distribution is influenced by dust events that induce a marked seasonal behaviour. Desert dust generally reaches higher altitudes than other aerosol types; the maxima altitudes are observed during Spring and Summer, when the monthly average altitude exceeds 5 km. The annual average occurrence of desert dust is 27%, with maxima in Spring and in the first part of Summer. The decrease in the dust event frequency observed in winter months is mainly linked to the seasonal behaviour of the synoptic circulation in the Mediterranean. According to the back-trajectories aerosols are primarily observed below 3 km altitude throughout the year when classified as not affected by desert dust. The extinction coefficient vertical profiles for the

  6. Educational Geophysics at INGV, Rome (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dida Working Group Ingv,.

    2002-12-01

    Italy is a country prone to Earth phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods and landslides that left a trace in the memory of people. About 60% of the Italian territory is classified in the current seismic hazard maps, and large cities as Neaples and Catania are located close to the two largest active volcanoes of Europe (Mt. Vesuvius and Mt. Etna, respectively). Nevertheless, school programs are often inadequate about the natural hazards of the country. For this reason there are many requests from schoolteachers to visit with their classes the academic Institutions and to attend geophysical talks. The working group for educational activities of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica and Vulcanologia promotes and realizes Earth science outreach programs devoted to increase the knowledge of geophysical topics. The educational activity is one of the most important tasks of our Institution together with the research activities and the 24-hours survey of the Italian Seismic Network. The INGV hosts in its headquarter of Rome many visits of primary, secondary and high schools with an increasing demand year by year. Every year about 3,000 students visit our Institute over more than 60 open-days, and we participate to exhibitions and outreach projects organized by several Institutions. We show here what has been done at INGV for the geophysical education, underlining the problems and the successes of these activities. We describe also an educational project developed together with a teacher's team of secondary-school. Aim of this experience was to stimulate the interest of 12-year-old kids to unfamiliar arguments like seismology. The class was introduced to physical topics as waves and wave propagation by means of simple experiments. Then they visited the INGV were the research activities were shown, with emphasis on seismological studies; they were also thought how the Italian Seismic Network monitors earthquakes and how to use the P and S waves for their

  7. The Club of Rome and its computer.

    PubMed

    Chase, S

    1973-03-01

    When the Club of Rome, an assemblage of 75 scientists and businessmen gathered to study the ''predicament of mankind in the face of technology growing at an exponential rate,'' issued its computer study it launched a battle between proponents of gross national product and those favoring quality of life. The computer simulation studied the interaction of population growth, food supply, inductrial production, resource use, and pollution under varying conditions. It concluded that our industrial system is headed for too many people in relation to food and living space, too much production in relation to natural resources, and for too much pollution. This will affect all countries. The traditional economists say the continued growth of the gross national product is the only way to ensure better living conditions while the ecologists point out that quality of life is being destroyed. The author cites arguments both for and against the quality-of-life view. The problem is that continued industrial growth creates wants as well as satisfying them and leads to waste as well as needful consumption. John Stuart Mill stated 100 years ago that the world could not support continued technological expansion and society must reach an equilibrium. 8 steps must be taken if the planet is to reach such an equilibrium, which is essential to the survival of all: 1) a zero rate of population growth, although there may be variations between countries with some over and some under; 2) a zero rate of industrial output with overall new investment equal to overall rate of industrial depreciation; 3) a policy of recycling and conserving material resources; 4) an adequate budget of food, shelter, clothing, health services, and education for every human being (a budget which does not allow for autos and air conditioning); 5) a sharp decline in consumption of material goods in affluent societies with a corresponding shift to more services and an increase in material goods for low energy societies

  8. Water supply of Rome in antiquity and today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bono, P.; Boni, C.

    1996-03-01

    In ancient Rome, water was considered a deity to be worshipped and most of all utilized in health and art. The availability of huge water supplies was considered a symbol of opulence and therefore an expression of power. The countryside around Rome offered a spectacular view: it was adorned with an incalculable number of monuments, temples, and villas, and it was crossed by sturdy aqueducts with magnificent arcades. The aqueduct as a superelevated monumental work is a typical concept of the Roman engineering, although it is possible to recognize that the inspiration and the basic ideas came from Etruscan technology. The Etruscans did not construct real aqueducts, even though they built hydraulic works as irrigation channels, drainage systems, dams, etc. The Greeks had also built similar hydraulic structures, before the Roman influence. Interesting aqueduct remains are in Rome, Segovia (Spain), Nimes (France), and Cologne (Germany), among other places.

  9. A comparative study on component volumes from outer to inner dental enamel in relation to enamel tufts.

    PubMed

    Setally Azevedo Macena, Marcus; de Alencar e Silva Leite, Maria Luísa; de Lima Gouveia, Cíntia; de Lima, Tamires Alcoforado Sena; Athayde, Priscilla Alves Aguiar; de Sousa, Frederico Barbosa

    2014-06-01

    Dental enamel presents marked mechanical properties gradients from outer to inner enamel, a region lacking component volumes profiles. Tufts, structures of inner enamel, have been shown to play a role in enamel resilience. We aimed at comparing component volumes from inner to outer enamel in relation to enamel tufts. Transversal ground sections from the cervical half of unerupted human third molars (n=10) were prepared and histological points were selected along transversal lines (extending from innermost to outer enamel) traced across tufts and adjacent control areas without tufts. Component volumes were measured at each histological point. Component volumes ranges were: 70.6-98.5% (mineral), 0.02-20.78% (organic), 3.8-9.8% (total water), 3-9% (firmly bound water), and 0.02-3.3% (loosely bound water). Inner enamel presented the lowest mineral volumes and the highest non-mineral volumes. Mineral, water and organic contents differed as a function of the distance from innermost enamel but not between the tuft and control lines. Tufts presented opaqueness in polarizing microscopy (feature of fracture lines). Organic volume gradient correlated with a relatively flat profile of loosely bound water. Inner, but not outer enamel, rehydrated after air-dried enamel was heated to 50°C and re-exposed to room conditions, as predicted by the organic/water gradient profiles. Component volumes vary markedly from outer to inner enamel, but not between areas with or without tufts (that behave like fracture lines under polarizing microscopy). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Within the foundation of the Rome Institute of Experimental Hygiene in the year 1885: the climate of Rome].

    PubMed

    Melino, C; Del Vecchio, R; Druda, L

    2003-01-01

    To celebrate Prof.rs Vittorio Del Vecchio and Salvatore Ugo D'Arca, respectively the sixth and the seventh director of the Institute of Hygiene of the University of Rome, the Authors present and discuss the conferences on The climate of Rome given by Prof. Corrado Tommasi-Crudeli, founder and first director of such an Institute back in 1885. Particularly, the Authors illustrate the six tables shown by the speaker, which represent the scientific basis for the reclamation of Roman "Agro", affected by malaria at that time.

  11. Cyclooxygenase 2 in Gastric Carcinoma Is Expressed in Doublecortin- and CaM Kinase-Like-1-Positive Tuft Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mutoh, Hiroyuki; Sashikawa, Miho; Sakamoto, Hirotsugu; Tateno, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Doublecortin and CaM kinase-like-1 (DCAMKL1) is a marker of stem cells expressed predominantly in the crypt base in the intestine. However, DCAMKL1-positive cells have been shown to be differentiated tuft cells rather than quiescent progenitors. Tuft cells are the only epithelial cells that express cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in the normal intestinal epithelium. We previously generated Cdx2-transgenic mice as model mice for intestinal metaplasia and gastric carcinoma. In the current study, we investigated the association between COX-2 and DCAMKL1 in gastric carcinoma. Methods We examined the association between COX-2 and DCAMKL1 expression in gastric carcinomas in clinical samples (early gastric well-differentiated adenocarcinoma) and Cdx2-transgenic mice; and the DCAMKL1-transgenic mouse stomach using immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results The COX-2-expressing cells were scattered, not diffusely expressed, in gastric carcinomas from humans and Cdx2-transgenic mice. DCAMKL1-positive cells were also scattered in the gastric carcinomas, indicating that tuft cells could still be present in gastric carcinoma. COX-2 was expressed in DCAMKL1-positive tuft cells in Cdx2- and DCAMKL1-transgenic mouse stomachs, whereas the Sox9 transcription factor was ubiquitously expressed in gastric carcinomas, including COX-2-positive cells. Conclusions COX-2 is expressed in DCAMKL1-expressing quiescent tuft cells in gastric carcinoma. PMID:25228975

  12. Myth and Historical Facts about Rome and the Huns Leader Attila

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadyrova, Anar T.; Imangazinov, Muratbek M.; Kozhagulov, Saylauhan K.; Suleimenova, Gulmira S.; Amanzholova, Arailym A.

    2016-01-01

    The article reviewed the history of Rome and Attila, their influence on the political and social situation in Europe. The aim of the article is to study the origins of Rome, its crisis and destruction. It also considers the impact on the collapse of the Empire, the impact that Attila had on the destruction of Rome and the analysis of Attila as a…

  13. Ancient Rome: The Latin Teacher and Life in the Big City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramage, Edwin S.

    This paper attempts to answer the question of what life was really like in ancient Rome, with a view to using this kind of information as cultural background for teaching Latin language and literature. There were many problems associated with daily living in ancient Rome. Writings of some inhabitants of ancient Rome attest to the fact that these…

  14. The Advance on Rome of the Fifth Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    across the TIMER River northwest of ROME, was won in the incredible space of four days, giving the badly-mauled enemy no opportunity to lick his...mine sweepers that supplies might be brought into ports and that the Navy ., bull- dogs might lend their fire power to assist our ground forces. MD

  15. Living in Ancient Rome. Young Discovery Library Series: 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bombarde, Odile; Moatti, Claude

    Part of an international series of amply illustrated, colorful, small size books for children ages 5 to 10, this volume describes in text and illustrations various aspects of daily life in ancient Rome. The social life and customs of the people are depicted. How a Roman citizen spent an average day, the dress, food, entertainment, what kind of…

  16. Classical Civilization (Greece-Hellenistic-Rome). Teacher's Manual. 1968 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.; Smith, Rozella B.

    This secondary teachers guide builds upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 173, and consists of three sections on the classical civilizations--Greek, Hellenistic, and Rome. Major emphasis is upon students gaining an understanding of cultural development and transmission. Using an analytic method, students learn to examine primary…

  17. Tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp) learning how to crack nuts: does variability decline throughout development?

    PubMed

    Resende, Briseida Dogo; Nagy-Reis, Mariana Baldy; Lacerda, Fernanda Neves; Pagnotta, Murillo; Savalli, Carine

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the process of nut-cracking acquisition in a semi-free population of tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp) in São Paulo, Brazil. We analyzed the cracking episodes from monkeys of different ages and found that variability of actions related to cracking declined. Inept movements were more frequent in juveniles, which also showed an improvement on efficient striking. The most effective behavioral sequence for cracking was more frequently used by the most experienced monkeys, which also used non-optimal sequences. Variability in behavior sequences and actions may allow adaptive changes to behavior under changing environmental conditions.

  18. Natural and man-induced stress evolution of slopes: the Monte Mario hill in Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzano, F.; Martino, S.; Priori, M.

    2006-07-01

    The paper deals with stress-release effects induced by man-made cuts or excavations into natural stiff clay slopes that experienced erosion in response to valley deepening. The study was focused on the Monte Mario hill in Rome (Italy), which formed part of an area of recent urban expansion. The methodology of the study relied on a reference engineering-geology model, which was developed on the basis of site and laboratory data and stress-strain analyses. The latter analyses were carried out with the finite-difference code FLAC 4.0. Numerical modelling was based on a sequential approach, taking into account the main evolutionary stages of the Tiber river valley in Romeȁ9s urban area and then making cuts at the bottom of the slope located south of the Monte Mario Astronomical Observatory. The simulation revealed the stress-release effects that fluvial erosion and excavation fronts have caused on the investigated slopes and their consequent gravitational instabilities. These processes appear with metre-scale displacements, followed by stress-release cracks (actually observed on the slopes under review). In quantifying stress-release deformations, the simulation took into account the possible role of creep in the observed retardation of stress-release effects.

  19. Peripheral sensory processing in mammalian gravity receptors - Observations of ciliary tuft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Donovan, Kathleen; Rogers, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to study dynamic polarizations of clustered cells of the anterior part of rat saccular macula and to shed light on the possible roles of two types of hair cells integrated into the same neural circuitry: those with short stereocilia and long kinocilium (ss/lk), and those with long stereocilia and still longer kinocilium (ls/lk). It was found that the ss/lk-type cells could be further subdivided into two types, whereas the ls/lk cells consisted of four major kinds. It was also found that the kinocilium was most often fixed in a recovery stroke position (curved basally, and the upper portion projected back over the tuft) and that the kinocilia were not aligned in parallel in any given part of a macula, even though each cilium pointed in the proper direction relative to the striola line. The possibility of a relationship between the ciliary tuft morphology and the function of the hair cell of which it is a part is discussed.

  20. Nitrogen requirements of an old world nectarivore, the orange-tufted sunbird Nectarinia osea.

    PubMed

    Roxburgh, L; Pinshow, B

    2000-01-01

    Nectarivorous birds are represented by three major radiations: honeyeaters and sunbirds in the Old World and hummingbirds in the New World. Costa's hummingbirds and New Holland honeyeaters have unusually low nitrogen requirements, which have been related to the species' low-protein, high-sugar diets. Therefore, we hypothesised that orange-tufted sunbirds (Nectarinia osea) would likewise have low-maintenance nitrogen requirements and low rates of endogenous nitrogen loss. To test this hypothesis, we measured nitrogen balance, total endogenous nitrogen loss, and body mass changes in captive birds, using insects as a nitrogen source. Nitrogen balance, estimated by regression analysis to be 3.9 mg d(-1), was less than one-half of that allometrically predicted, while total endogenous nitrogen loss (1.9+/-0.6 mg d(-1)) was less than one-third of the allometrically predicted value. Thus, orange-tufted sunbirds follow the same pattern of low nitrogen requirements found in hummingbirds and honeyeaters. Total endogenous losses of nitrogen in nectarivores are low because a fibreless, easily digestible liquid diet reduces nitrogen losses in the feces, while the protein-sparing effect of a diet containing largely sugar leads to low endogenous urinary nitrogen losses.

  1. Dclk1+ small intestinal epithelial tuft cells display the hallmarks of quiescence and self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; May, Randal; Qu, Dongfeng; Weygant, Nathaniel; Taylor, Vivian E.; Li, James D.; Ali, Naushad; Sureban, Sripathi M.; Qante, Michael; Wang, Timothy C.; Bronze, Michael S.; Houchen, Courtney W.

    2015-01-01

    To date, no discrete genetic signature has been defined for isolated Dclk1+ tuft cells within the small intestine. Furthermore, recent reports on the functional significance of Dclk1+ cells in the small intestine have been inconsistent. These cells have been proposed to be fully differentiated cells, reserve stem cells, and tumor stem cells. In order to elucidate the potential function of Dclk1+ cells, we FACS-sorted Dclk1+ cells from mouse small intestinal epithelium using transgenic mice expressing YFP under the control of the Dclk1 promoter (Dclk1-CreER;Rosa26-YFP). Analysis of sorted YFP+ cells demonstrated marked enrichment (~6000 fold) for Dclk1 mRNA compared with YFP− cells. Dclk1+ population display ~6 fold enrichment for the putative quiescent stem cell marker Bmi1. We observed significantly greater expression of pluripotency genes, pro-survival genes, and quiescence markers in the Dclk1+ population. A significant increase in self-renewal capability (14-fold) was observed in in vitro isolated Dclk1+ cells. The unique genetic report presented in this manuscript suggests that Dclk1+ cells may maintain quiescence, pluripotency, and metabolic activity for survival/longevity. Functionally, these reserve characteristics manifest in vitro, with Dclk1+ cells exhibiting greater ability to self-renew. These findings indicate that quiescent stem-like functionality is a feature of Dclk1-expressing tuft cells. PMID:26362399

  2. Peripheral sensory processing in mammalian gravity receptors - Observations of ciliary tuft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Donovan, Kathleen; Rogers, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to study dynamic polarizations of clustered cells of the anterior part of rat saccular macula and to shed light on the possible roles of two types of hair cells integrated into the same neural circuitry: those with short stereocilia and long kinocilium (ss/lk), and those with long stereocilia and still longer kinocilium (ls/lk). It was found that the ss/lk-type cells could be further subdivided into two types, whereas the ls/lk cells consisted of four major kinds. It was also found that the kinocilium was most often fixed in a recovery stroke position (curved basally, and the upper portion projected back over the tuft) and that the kinocilia were not aligned in parallel in any given part of a macula, even though each cilium pointed in the proper direction relative to the striola line. The possibility of a relationship between the ciliary tuft morphology and the function of the hair cell of which it is a part is discussed.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of white-tufted-ear marmoset, Callithrix jacchus (Primates: Callitrichinae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Jing-Yu; Wang, Hai-Feng; Yang, Ming-Ying; Liu, Qi-Ying; Ding, Ming-Xia

    2016-05-01

    The white-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a New World primate that inhabits the coastal rainforests of eastern Brazil. In the present work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of white-tufted-ear marmoset for the first time. The total length of this mitogenome is 16,499 bp long, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 non-coding region (D-loop region). The gene organization and arrangement is identical to typical vertebrates. The overall base composition is 32.75% of A, 26.95% of T, 26.91% C, and 13.39% G, with a slight A + T bias of 59.7%. All the genes are encoded on H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and 8 tRNA genes. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence reported here will be useful for comparative genomics studies in primates.

  4. Purging of a multilayer insulation with dacron tuft spacer by gas diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumner, I. E.; Fisk, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    The time and purge gas usage required to purge a multilayer insulation (MLI) panel with gaseous helium by means of gas diffusion to obtain a condensable gas (nitrogen) concentration of less than 1 percent within the panel are stipulated. Two different, flat, rectangular MLI panels, one incorporating a butt joint, were constructed of of 11 double-aluminized Mylar (DAM) radiation shields separated by Dacron tuft spacers. The DAM/Dacron tuft concept is known commercially as Superfloc. The nitrogen gas concentration as a function of time within the MLI panel could be adequately predicted by using a simple, one dimensional gas diffusion model in which the boundary conditions at the edge of the MLI panel were time dependent. The time and purge gas usage required to achieve 1 percent nitrogen gas concentration within the MLI panel varied from 208 to 86 minutes and 34.1 to 56.5 MLI panel purge volumes, respectively, for gaseous helium purge rates from 10 to 40 MLI panel volumes per hour.

  5. The Great Diseases Project: a partnership between Tufts Medical School and the Boston public schools.

    PubMed

    Jacque, Berri; Malanson, Katherine; Bateman, Kathleen; Akeson, Bob; Cail, Amanda; Doss, Chris; Dugan, Matt; Finegold, Brandon; Gauthier, Aimee; Galego, Mike; Roundtree, Eugene; Spezzano, Lawrence; Meiri, Karina F

    2013-05-01

    Medical schools, although the gatekeepers of much biomedical education and research, rarely engage formally with K-12 educators to influence curriculum content or professional development. This segregation of content experts from teachers creates a knowledge gap that limits inclusion of current biomedical science into high school curricula, affecting both public health literacy and the biomedical pipeline. The authors describe how, in 2009, scientists from Tufts Medical School and Boston public school teachers established a partnership of formal scholarly dialogue to create 11th- to 12th-grade high school curricula about critical health-related concepts, with the goal of increasing scientific literacy and influencing health-related decisions. The curricula are based on the great diseases (infectious diseases, neurological disorders, metabolic disease, and cancer). Unlike most health science curricular interventions that provide circumscribed activities, the curricula are comprehensive, each filling one full term of in-class learning and providing extensive real-time support for the teacher. In this article, the authors describe how they developed and implemented the infectious disease curriculum, and its impacts. The high school teachers and students showed robust gains in content knowledge and critical thinking skills, whereas the Tufts scientists increased their pedagogical knowledge and appreciation for health-related science communication. The results show how formal interactions between medical schools and K-12 educators can be mutually beneficial.

  6. High Temperature Brush Seal Tuft Testing of Selected Nickel-Chrome and Cobalt-Chrome Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fellenstein, James A.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Moore, Kenneth D.; Boyes, Esther

    1997-01-01

    The tribology of brush seals is of considerable interest to turbine engine designers because bristle wear continues to limit long term seal performance and life. To provide better materials characterization and foster the development of improved seals, NASA Lewis has developed a brush seal tuft tester. In this test, a 'paintbrush' sample tuft is loaded under constant contact pressure against the outside diameter of a rotating journal. With this configuration, load and friction are directly measured and accurate wear measurements are possible. Previously reported research using this facility showed excellent data repeatability and wear morphology similar to published seal data and dynamic rig tests. This paper is an update of the ongoing research into the tribology of brush seals. The effects of wire materials processing on seal wear and the tribological results for three journal coatings are discussed. Included in the materials processing were two nickel-chrome superalloys each processed to two different yield strengths. The results suggest that seal wear is dependent more on material composition than processing conditions.

  7. Ground motions recorded in Rome during the April 2009 L’Aquila seismic sequence: site response and comparison with ground‐motion predictions based on a global dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caserta, Arrigo; Boore, David; Rovelli, Antonio; Govoni, Aladino; Marra, Fabrizio; Monica, Gieseppe Della; Boschi, Enzo

    2013-01-01

    The mainshock and moderate‐magnitude aftershocks of the 6 April 2009 M 6.3 L’Aquila seismic sequence, about 90 km northeast of Rome, provided the first earthquake ground‐motion recordings in the urban area of Rome. Before those recordings were obtained, the assessments of the seismic hazard in Rome were based on intensity observations and theoretical considerations. The L’Aquila recordings offer an unprecedented opportunity to calibrate the city response to central Apennine earthquakes—earthquakes that have been responsible for the largest damage to Rome in historical times. Using the data recorded in Rome in April 2009, we show that (1) published theoretical predictions of a 1 s resonance in the Tiber valley are confirmed by observations showing a significant amplitude increase in response spectra at that period, (2) the empirical soil‐transfer functions inferred from spectral ratios are satisfactorily fit through 1D models using the available geological, geophysical, and laboratory data, but local variability can be large for individual events, (3) response spectra for the motions recorded in Rome from the L’Aquila earthquakes are significantly amplified in the radial component at periods near 1 s, even at a firm site on volcanic rocks, and (4) short‐period response spectra are smaller than expected when compared to ground‐motion predictions from equations based on a global dataset, whereas the observed response spectra are higher than expected for periods near 1 s.

  8. Securitarian healing: Roma mobility and health care in Rome.

    PubMed

    Alunni, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, Roma populations in Europe have been the object of strict securitarian policies. The Rome case is particularly interesting due to the continued shift from securitarian to humanitarian discourses and actions led by local institutions. The specific health care system implemented in the legal and illegal Roma camps was one of the tools used. The ethnographic fieldwork behind this article involved following the daily activities of a mobile medical unit dedicated to Roma camps in Rome and monitoring a health care project led by a nongovernmental organization. This analysis focuses on one particular dimension of precarious forms of Roma citizenship that the health care policies have developed to address Roma issues: the international mobility dynamics relating to health issues, which drive subjects into a forced integration of multiple, incomplete, and fragmentary medical approaches.

  9. A subject with abnormally short stature from Imperial Rome.

    PubMed

    Ottini, L; Minozzi, S; Pantano, W B; Maucci, C; Gazzaniga, V; Angeletti, L R; Catalano, P; Mariani-Costantini, R

    2001-01-01

    In spite of the rich iconographic and literary documentation from ancient sources, the skeletal evidence concerning individuals of abnormally short stature in the Greco-Roman world is scarce. The necropolis of Viale della Serenissima/Via Basiliano in Rome, mostly referable to the II century AD, recently yielded the skeleton of an individual characterized by proportionate short stature, gracile features suggesting female gender, and delayed epiphysial closure, associated with full maturation of the permanent dentition. These characteristics could be compatible with the phenotype associated with female gonadal dysgenesis. The skeletal individual described here, although poorly preserved, represents the first evidence of a paleopathologic condition affecting skeletal growth documented for the population of ancient Rome.

  10. Childbirth in ancient Rome: from traditional folklore to obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Todman, Donald

    2007-04-01

    In ancient Rome, childbirth was a hazardous event for both mother and child with high rates of infant and maternal mortality. Traditional Roman medicine centred on folklore and religious practices, but with the development of Hippocratic medicine came significant advances in the care of women during pregnancy and confinement. Midwives or obstetrices played an important role and applied rational scientific practices to improve outcomes. This evolution from folklore to obstetrics was a pivotal point in the history of childbirth.

  11. The Rome trough and evolution of the Iapetean margin

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.; Hamilton-Smith, T.; Drahovzal, J.A. )

    1991-08-01

    Recent structural mapping of the Rome trough suggests a complex structure very different from the symmetrical and laterally continuous graben commonly depicted. Early and Middle Cambrian extension in the Rome trough of eastern Kentucky and adjacent areas resulted in a series of alternately facing half-grabens with variable displacement. These half-grabens are bounded by southwest-northeast-trending normal faults (e.g., Kentucky River and Warfield faults), which are laterally continuous only on the order to tens of kilometers. The Rome trough is laterally segmented by north-south-trending faults (e.g., Lexington fault) commonly expressed as flexures in younger rocks (e.g., Burning Springs anticline and Floyd County channel). Many of these north-south-trending faults have significant left-lateral displacement, and probably represent reactivated thrust faults of the Grenville tectonic front. The Rome trough and the associated Mississippi Valley, Rough Creek, and Birmingham fault systems were initiated during an Early Cambrian shift in sea-floor spreading from the Blue Ridge-Pine Mountain rift to the Ouachita rift along the Alabama-Oklahoma transform fault. These fault systems have been proposed as having originated from extensional stress propagated northward from the Ouachita rift across the transform fault. In the alternate model proposed here, faulting was brittle, extensional failure resulting form subsidence and flexure of the continental margin to the east. Following initiation of sea-floor spreading at the Blue Ridge-Pine Mountain rift in the latest Proterozoic, margin subsidence in the presence of the Alabama-Oklahoma transform boundary and the inherited Grenville tectonic front resulted in this interior cratonic fault system.

  12. Ascent velocity and dynamics of the Fiumicino mud eruption, Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vona, A.; Giordano, G.; De Benedetti, A. A.; D'Ambrosio, R.; Romano, C.; Manga, M.

    2015-08-01

    In August 2013 drilling triggered the eruption of mud near the international airport of Fiumicino (Rome, Italy). We monitored the evolution of the eruption and collected samples for laboratory characterization of physicochemical and rheological properties. Over time, muds show a progressive dilution with water; the rheology is typical of pseudoplastic fluids, with a small yield stress that decreases as mud density decreases. The eruption, while not naturally triggered, shares several similarities with natural mud volcanoes, including mud componentry, grain-size distribution, gas discharge, and mud rheology. We use the size of large ballistic fragments ejected from the vent along with mud rheology to compute a minimum ascent velocity of the mud. Computed values are consistent with in situ measurements of gas phase velocities, confirming that the stratigraphic record of mud eruptions can be quantitatively used to infer eruption history and ascent rates and hence to assess (or reassess) mud eruption hazards.

  13. Cooling the Campus: Experiences from a Pilot Study to Reduce Electricity Use at Tufts University, USA, Using Social Marketing Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcell, Kristin; Agyeman, Julian; Rappaport, Ann

    2004-01-01

    A community-based social marketing (CBSM) campaign to reduce student electricity use and greenhouse gas emissions was undertaken at Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts. Social marketing methods follow a commercial marketing model and involve market research into the planning, pricing, communication, distribution, and evaluation of methods…

  14. On-line monitoring of multi-component strain development in a tufting needle using optical fibre Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chehura, Edmon; Dell'Anno, Giuseppe; Huet, Tristan; Staines, Stephen; James, Stephen W.; Partridge, Ivana K.; Tatam, Ralph P.

    2014-07-01

    Dynamic loadings induced on a tufting needle during the tufting of dry carbon fibre preform via a commercial robot-controlled tufting head were investigated in situ and in real-time using optical fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors bonded to the needle shaft. The sensors were configured such that the axial strain and bending moments experienced by the needle could be measured. A study of the influence of thread and thread type on the strain imparted to the needle revealed axial strain profiles which had equivalent trends but different magnitudes. The mean of the maximum axial compression strains measured during the tufting of a 4-ply quasi-isotropic carbon fibre dry preform were - 499 ± 79 μɛ, - 463 ± 51 μɛ and - 431 ± 59 μɛ for a needle without thread, with metal wire and with Kevlar® thread, respectively. The needle similarly exhibited bending moments of different magnitude when the different needle feeding configurations were used.

  15. Cooling the Campus: Experiences from a Pilot Study to Reduce Electricity Use at Tufts University, USA, Using Social Marketing Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcell, Kristin; Agyeman, Julian; Rappaport, Ann

    2004-01-01

    A community-based social marketing (CBSM) campaign to reduce student electricity use and greenhouse gas emissions was undertaken at Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts. Social marketing methods follow a commercial marketing model and involve market research into the planning, pricing, communication, distribution, and evaluation of methods…

  16. Variation in chick-a-dee calls of tufted titmice, Baeolophus bicolor: note type and individual distinctiveness.

    PubMed

    Owens, Jessica L; Freeberg, Todd M

    2007-08-01

    The chick-a-dee call of chickadee species (genus Poecile) has been the focus of much research. A great deal is known about the structural complexity and the meaning of variation in notes making up calls in these species. However, little is known about the likely homologous "chick-a-dee" call of the closely related tufted titmouse, Baeolophus bicolor. Tufted titmice are a prime candidate for comparative analyses of the call, because their vocal and social systems share many characteristics with those of chickadees. To address the paucity of data on the structure of chick-a-dee calls of tufted titmice, we recorded birds in field and aviary settings. Four main note types were identified in the call: Z, A, D(h), and D notes. Several acoustic parameters of each note type were measured, and statistical analyses revealed that the note types are acoustically distinct from one another. Furthermore, note types vary in the extent of individual distinctiveness reflected in their acoustic parameters. This first step towards understanding the chick-a-dee call of tufted titmice indicates that the call is comparable in structure and complexity to the calls of chickadees.

  17. Jaw-muscle fiber architecture in tufted capuchins favors generating relatively large muscle forces without compromising jaw gape.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrea B; Vinyard, Christopher J

    2009-12-01

    Tufted capuchins (sensu lato) are renowned for their dietary flexibility and capacity to exploit hard and tough objects. Cebus apella differs from other capuchins in displaying a suite of craniodental features that have been functionally and adaptively linked to their feeding behavior, particularly the generation and dissipation of relatively large jaw forces. We compared fiber architecture of the masseter and temporalis muscles between C. apella (n=12) and two "untufted" capuchins (C. capucinus, n=3; C. albifrons, n=5). These three species share broadly similar diets, but tufted capuchins occasionally exploit mechanically challenging tissues. We tested the hypothesis that tufted capuchins exhibit architectural properties of their jaw muscles that facilitate relatively large forces including relatively greater physiologic cross-sectional areas (PCSA), more pinnate fibers, and lower ratios of mass to tetanic tension (Mass/P(0)). Results show some evidence supporting these predictions, as C. apella has relatively greater superficial masseter and temporalis PCSAs, significantly so only for the temporalis following Bonferroni adjustment. Capuchins did not differ in pinnation angle or Mass/P(0). As an architectural trade-off between maximizing muscle force and muscle excursion/contraction velocity, we also tested the hypothesis that C. apella exhibits relatively shorter muscle fibers. Contrary to our prediction, there are no significant differences in relative fiber lengths between tufted and untufted capuchins. Therefore, we attribute the relatively greater PCSAs in tufted capuchins primarily to their larger muscle masses. These findings suggest that relatively large jaw-muscle PCSAs can be added to the suite of masticatory features that have been functionally linked to the exploitation of a more resistant diet by C. apella. By enlarging jaw-muscle mass to increase PCSA, rather than reducing fiber lengths and increasing pinnation, tufted capuchins appear to have

  18. An evaluation of ROME Camp: forgotten innovation in medical education.

    PubMed

    Dongre, A R; Deshmukh, P R; Gupta, S S; Garg, B S

    2010-04-01

    Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (MGIMS), Sewagram, India's first rural medical institute, has been implementing its community-based public health teaching with the aim of building a physician workforce for the rural poor. For the past four decades, the MGIMS has organized and run the Re-orientation of Medical Education (ROME) camp for final year medical undergraduates at one of the rural centres of the department of Community Medicine. The objectives of the present study were to learn students' perceptions of the value and effectiveness of various components of the ROME camp and learn the factors they perceive facilitate and inhibit learning. A mixed-method research design of quantitative (survey) and qualitative (force field analysis) methods was used. The study participants were all 61 of the final year medical undergraduates participating in the ROME camp in 2008. The quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS software package and summative content analysis of the qualitative data was undertaken. Students were generally very positive about all aspects of the camp and its component parts. The greatest consensus (88.9%, on a 0 to 100% scale) was for the contribution to student learning of the visit to the Primary health centre and Sub-centre, as offering direct exposure and interaction with the village-level service providers. There was poorer consensus for students' involvement with the field-based clinics, as this was felt by some not to contribute significantly to their understanding of socio-economic and environmental factors related to cases (78.8%) and their ability to diagnose health problems in resource poor settings (76.5%). The major strength of the camp was felt to be its exposure visits and hands-on experiences in surveys and interaction with village-level health care providers. Students reported poor interactions with teachers in some educational sessions, including the field-based clinics and classes on theories of national health

  19. Yangtze River, an insignificant genetic boundary in tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus): the evidence from a first population genetics study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Pang, Mujia

    2016-01-01

    Great rivers were generally looked at as the geographical barrier to gene flow for many taxonomic groups. The Yangtze River is the third largest river in the world, and flows across South China and into the East China Sea. Up until now, few studies have been carried out to evaluate its effect as a geographical barrier. In this study, we attempted to determine the barrier effect of the Yangtze River on the tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus) using the molecular ecology approach. Using mitochondrial DNA control region (CR) sequences and 13 nuclear microsatellite loci, we explored the genetic structure and gene flow in two adjacent tufted deer populations (Dabashan and Wulingshan populations), which are separated by the Yangtze River. Results indicated that there are high genetic diversity levels in the two populations, but no distinguishable haplotype group or potential genetic cluster was detected which corresponded to specific geographical population. At the same time, high gene flow was observed between Wulingshan and Dabashan populations. The tufted deer populations experienced population decrease from 0.3 to 0.09 Ma BP, then followed by a distinct population increase. A strong signal of recent population decline (T = 4,396 years) was detected in the Wulingshan population by a Markov-Switching Vector Autoregressions(MSVAR) process population demography analysis. The results indicated that the Yangtze River may not act as an effective barrier to gene flow in the tufted deer. Finally, we surmised that the population demography of the tufted deer was likely affected by Pleistocene climate fluctuations and ancient human activities. PMID:27843712

  20. Yangtze River, an insignificant genetic boundary in tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus): the evidence from a first population genetics study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhonglou; Pan, Tao; Wang, Hui; Pang, Mujia; Zhang, Baowei

    2016-01-01

    Great rivers were generally looked at as the geographical barrier to gene flow for many taxonomic groups. The Yangtze River is the third largest river in the world, and flows across South China and into the East China Sea. Up until now, few studies have been carried out to evaluate its effect as a geographical barrier. In this study, we attempted to determine the barrier effect of the Yangtze River on the tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus) using the molecular ecology approach. Using mitochondrial DNA control region (CR) sequences and 13 nuclear microsatellite loci, we explored the genetic structure and gene flow in two adjacent tufted deer populations (Dabashan and Wulingshan populations), which are separated by the Yangtze River. Results indicated that there are high genetic diversity levels in the two populations, but no distinguishable haplotype group or potential genetic cluster was detected which corresponded to specific geographical population. At the same time, high gene flow was observed between Wulingshan and Dabashan populations. The tufted deer populations experienced population decrease from 0.3 to 0.09 Ma BP, then followed by a distinct population increase. A strong signal of recent population decline (T = 4,396 years) was detected in the Wulingshan population by a Markov-Switching Vector Autoregressions(MSVAR) process population demography analysis. The results indicated that the Yangtze River may not act as an effective barrier to gene flow in the tufted deer. Finally, we surmised that the population demography of the tufted deer was likely affected by Pleistocene climate fluctuations and ancient human activities.

  1. A 52-Year-Old Man With a Tuft Fracture and Hand Cellulitis.

    PubMed

    McCallum, James; Kamienski, Mary

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED) 1 week after getting his right index finger shut in a car door. The patient complained of right index finger pain. His entire hand was edematous and reddened. After evaluation in the ED and x-ray, the patient was diagnosed with a tuft fracture, right index finger/hand cellulitis, and possible osteomyelitis. The patient received tetanus diphtheria i.m., vancomycin 1 g i.v., and ceftriaxone (Rocephin) 2 g i.v. while in the ED and was admitted with referral to a hand specialist. The patient was discharged after 10 days of parental antibiotics. He has a history of sarcoidosis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and scleroderma. He is currently not taking any medications and denies allergies to medications and latex. The patient had no significant somatic findings. He was afebrile.

  2. Brief report: Dclk1 deletion in tuft cells results in impaired epithelial repair after radiation injury.

    PubMed

    May, Randal; Qu, Dongfeng; Weygant, Nathaniel; Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; Ali, Naushad; Lightfoot, Stanley A; Li, Linheng; Sureban, Sripathi M; Houchen, Courtney W

    2014-03-01

    The role of Dclk1(+) tuft cells in the replacement of intestinal epithelia and reestablishing the epithelial barrier after severe genotoxic insult is completely unknown. Successful restoration requires precise coordination between the cells within each crypt subunit. While the mechanisms that control this response remain largely uncertain, the radiation model remains an exceptional surrogate for stem cell-associated crypt loss. Following the creation of Dclk1-intestinal-epithelial-deficient Villin-Cre;Dclk1(flox/flox) mice, widespread gene expression changes were detected in isolated intestinal epithelia during homeostasis. While the number of surviving crypts was unaffected, Villin-Cre;Dclk1(flox/flox) mice failed to maintain tight junctions and died at approximately 5 days, where Dclk1(flox/flox) mice lived until day 10 following radiation injury. These findings suggest that Dclk1 plays a functional role critical in the epithelial restorative response. © AlphaMed Press.

  3. Anatomy and physiology of the thick-tufted layer 5 pyramidal neuron

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Srikanth; Markram, Henry

    2015-01-01

    The thick-tufted layer 5 (TTL5) pyramidal neuron is one of the most extensively studied neuron types in the mammalian neocortex and has become a benchmark for understanding information processing in excitatory neurons. By virtue of having the widest local axonal and dendritic arborization, the TTL5 neuron encompasses various local neocortical neurons and thereby defines the dimensions of neocortical microcircuitry. The TTL5 neuron integrates input across all neocortical layers and is the principal output pathway funneling information flow to subcortical structures. Several studies over the past decades have investigated the anatomy, physiology, synaptology, and pathophysiology of the TTL5 neuron. This review summarizes key discoveries and identifies potential avenues of research to facilitate an integrated and unifying understanding on the role of a central neuron in the neocortex. PMID:26167146

  4. Relationship between body temperature, weight, and hematological parameters of black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Lucas Cardoso; Barros, Marilia

    2016-06-01

    Basal thermal values of captive adult black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) in a thermoneutral environment were measured via different methods, along with body weight and hematological parameters. Body temperatures were recorded with rectal (RC), subcutaneous (SC) microchip transponder and infrared (left and right) tympanic membrane (TM) thermometries. Thermal values were correlated with body mass and some hematological data. Similar RC and SC temperatures were observed, these being significantly higher than the left and right TM values. SC temperature was positively correlated and in close agreement with RC measurements. Although body temperatures were not influenced by gender, capture time, or body weight, they were correlated with hematological parameters. Thus, body temperatures in this species seem to reflect some of the characteristics of the assessments' location, with SC microchip transponders being a less invasive method to assess body temperature in these small-bodied non-human primates. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Sex differences in play behavior in juvenile tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Paukner, Annika; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    According to the motor training hypothesis, play behavior in juvenile primates improves motor skills that are required in later adult life. Sex differences in juvenile play behavior can therefore be expected when adult animals assume distinct sexually dimorphic roles. Tufted capuchin monkeys show sexually dimorphic levels of physical antagonism in both inter- and intragroup encounters. Accordingly, it can be predicted that juvenile capuchins also show sex differences in social play behavior. To test this hypothesis, the play behavior of nine juvenile and two infant capuchins was examined. As predicted, juvenile males showed significantly higher levels of social play (wrestle, chase) than juvenile females, but no differences were found in nonsocial play (arboreal, object). Levels of infant play behavior were comparable to that of juveniles. These results lend support to the motor training hypothesis and highlight the need for more detailed investigations of individual differences in play behavior. PMID:18668302

  6. Dclk1 Deletion in Tuft Cells Results in Impaired Epithelial Repair After Radiation Injury

    PubMed Central

    May, Randal; Qu, Dongfeng; Weygant, Nathaniel; Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; Ali, Naushad; Lightfoot, Stanley A.; Li, Linheng; Sureban, Sripathi M.; Houchen, Courtney W.

    2013-01-01

    The role of Dclk1+ tuft cells in the replacement of intestinal epithelia and reestablishing the epithelial barrier after severe genotoxic insult is completely unknown. Successful restoration requires precise coordination between the cells within each crypt subunit. While the mechanisms that control this response remain largely uncertain, the radiation model remains an exceptional surrogate for stem cell-associated crypt loss. Following the creation of Dclk1-intestinal-epithelial-deficient Villin-Cre;Dclk1flox/flox mice, widespread gene expression changes were detected in isolated intestinal epithelia during homeostasis. While the number of surviving crypts were unaffected, Villin-Cre;Dclk1flox/flox mice failed to maintain tight junctions and died at ~5d, where Dclk1flox/flox mice lived until day 10 following radiation injury. These findings suggest that Dclk1 plays a functional role critical in the epithelial restorative response. PMID:24123696

  7. Representation and misrepresentation: Tufte and the Morton Thiokol engineers on the Challenger.

    PubMed

    Robison, Wade; Boisjoly, Roger; Hoeker, David; Young, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the Morton Thiokol engineers in the decisions surrounding the launch of the Challenger, particularly with reference to an analysis of this event by Edward Tufte. The engineers at Morton Thiokol recommended against the launch of Challenger because the projected launch temperature between 26 degrees F to 29 degrees F was far outside their field database of successful launches. The engineers had asked for, but not received, data necessary to determine the cause of massive blow-by on the launch the previous January, and they had informed their managers and NASA that continuing flights could be catastrophic if the cause of the problems with the launches was not discovered. The authors conclude that the engineers thus did what they were ethically as well as professionally obligated to do.

  8. Distribution of astrocytic plaques in the corticobasal degeneration brain and comparison with tuft-shaped astrocytes in the progressive supranuclear palsy brain.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Manabu; Hashizume, Yoshio; Yoshida, Mari; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Hishikawa, Nozomi; Ueda, Ryuzo; Ojika, Kosei

    2003-08-01

    Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) have some clinical and pathological features in common. Each, however, has been shown to have specific astrocytic inclusions. CBD is characterized by astrocytic plaques, and PSP is characterized by tuft-shaped astrocytes. To clarify differences between these inclusions, we investigated intracerebral distribution of astrocytic plaques and tuft-shaped astrocytes in autopsied brains of patients with either CBD or PSP. Specimens from ten patients with CBD and five patients with PSP were stained by the Gallyas-Braak method. Densities of the astrocytic plaques and tuft-shaped astrocytes were determined for 11 cerebral cortical regions, 6 subcortical nuclei, 5 brain stem regions, the cerebellar cortex and the dentate nucleus. Astrocytic plaques were most abundant in the prefrontal and premotor areas in the cerebral cortex of CBD brains, whereas tuft-shaped astrocytes were most prominent in the precentral gyrus and premotor area of PSP brains. Many astrocytic plaques were observed in the caudate nucleus of CBD brains, whereas tuft-shaped astrocytes were abundant in both the caudate and putamen and moderate in number in the globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus and thalamus in PSP brains. Very slight accumulation of astrocytic plaques was seen in the brain stem of CBD brains, whereas numerous tuft-shaped astrocytes were found in the red nucleus and superior colliculus of PSP brains. Distribution of the astrocytic plaques and tuft-shaped astrocytes differed greatly. Thus, CBD and PSP can be considered different entities.

  9. Intrinsic conductances actively shape excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic responses in olfactory bulb external tufted cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaolin; Shipley, Michael T

    2008-10-08

    The initial synapse in the olfactory system is from olfactory nerve (ON) terminals to postsynaptic targets in olfactory bulb glomeruli. Recent studies have disclosed multiple presynaptic factors that regulate this important linkage, but less is known about the contribution of postsynaptic intrinsic conductances to integration at these synapses. The present study demonstrates voltage-dependent amplification of EPSPs in external tufted (ET) cells in response to monosynaptic (ON) inputs. This amplification is mainly exerted by persistent Na(+) conductance. Larger EPSPs, which bring the membrane potential to a relatively depolarized level, are further boosted by the low-voltage-activated Ca(2+) conductance. In contrast, the hyperpolarization-activated nonselective cation conductance (I(h)) attenuates EPSPs mainly by reducing EPSP duration; this also reduces temporal summation of multiple EPSPs. Regulation of EPSPs by these subthreshold, voltage-dependent conductances can enhance both the signal-to-noise ratio and the temporal summation of multiple synaptic inputs and thus help ET cells differentiate high- and low-frequency synaptic inputs. I(h) can also transform inhibitory inputs to postsynaptic excitation. When the ET cell membrane potential is relatively depolarized, as during a burst of action potentials, IPSPs produce classic inhibition. However, near resting membrane potentials where I(h) is engaged, IPSPs produce rebound bursts of action potentials. ET cells excite GABAergic PG cells. Thus, the transformation of inhibitory inputs to postsynaptic excitation in ET cells may enhance intraglomerular inhibition of mitral/tufted cells, the main output neurons in the olfactory bulb, and hence shape signaling to olfactory cortex.

  10. Olfactory Bulb Deep Short-Axon Cells Mediate Widespread Inhibition of Tufted Cell Apical Dendrites.

    PubMed

    Burton, Shawn D; LaRocca, Greg; Liu, Annie; Cheetham, Claire E J; Urban, Nathaniel N

    2017-02-01

    In the main olfactory bulb (MOB), the first station of sensory processing in the olfactory system, GABAergic interneuron signaling shapes principal neuron activity to regulate olfaction. However, a lack of known selective markers for MOB interneurons has strongly impeded cell-type-selective investigation of interneuron function. Here, we identify the first selective marker of glomerular layer-projecting deep short-axon cells (GL-dSACs) and investigate systematically the structure, abundance, intrinsic physiology, feedforward sensory input, neuromodulation, synaptic output, and functional role of GL-dSACs in the mouse MOB circuit. GL-dSACs are located in the internal plexiform layer, where they integrate centrifugal cholinergic input with highly convergent feedforward sensory input. GL-dSAC axons arborize extensively across the glomerular layer to provide highly divergent yet selective output onto interneurons and principal tufted cells. GL-dSACs are thus capable of shifting the balance of principal tufted versus mitral cell activity across large expanses of the MOB in response to diverse sensory and top-down neuromodulatory input. The identification of cell-type-selective molecular markers has fostered tremendous insight into how distinct interneurons shape sensory processing and behavior. In the main olfactory bulb (MOB), inhibitory circuits regulate the activity of principal cells precisely to drive olfactory-guided behavior. However, selective markers for MOB interneurons remain largely unknown, limiting mechanistic understanding of olfaction. Here, we identify the first selective marker of a novel population of deep short-axon cell interneurons with superficial axonal projections to the sensory input layer of the MOB. Using this marker, together with immunohistochemistry, acute slice electrophysiology, and optogenetic circuit mapping, we reveal that this novel interneuron population integrates centrifugal cholinergic input with broadly tuned feedforward sensory

  11. Tufting enteropathy revisited: the utility of MOC31 (EpCAM) immunohistochemistry in diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Sarangarajan; Schmitt, Lori A; Sindhi, Rakesh

    2014-02-01

    Tufting enteropathy (TE) is an uncommon disease causing intractable diarrheas starting in early childhood and resulting in failure to thrive, dependence on total parenteral nutrition, and eventually requiring transplantation for treatment. The diagnosis has been based on histology showing the presence of epithelial "tufts" in the small bowel and colonic mucosa and variable villus alterations with mild to no inflammatory changes and preserved brush border. The gene for TE has been identified to be the EpCAM gene on chromosome 2p21. With Institutional Review Board approval, all cases of intractable diarrhea in children in whom TE was suspected or diagnosed were retrieved from the pathology files (17 patients). Other cases of infantile, neonatal, and childhood diarrhea were also retrieved to serve as controls for the staining studies (total 37 patients). EpCAM/MOC31 antibody staining was performed on all cases. The study cohort comprised 17 patients (13 boys, 4 girls) with a diagnosis of TE ranging in age at diagnosis from 3 months to 9 years, all presenting with protracted diarrhea and/or failure to thrive, usually since birth. Staining with MOC31 was carried out in all but 2 patients (both consults) and was completely negative in the epithelium irrespective of the site of biopsy or resection. In contrast, MOC31 was positive in all other cases tested, giving a sensitivity and specificity of 100% for loss of staining. MOC31 is a diagnostic stain for TE and should be included in the panel in any case of prolonged diarrhea in children to exclude this possibility.

  12. Multiple conductances cooperatively regulate spontaneous bursting in mouse olfactory bulb external tufted cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaolin; Shipley, Michael T

    2008-02-13

    External tufted (ET) cells are juxtaglomerular neurons that spontaneously generate bursts of action potentials, which persist when fast synaptic transmission is blocked. The intrinsic mechanism of this autonomous bursting is unknown. We identified a set of voltage-dependent conductances that cooperatively regulate spontaneous bursting: hyperpolarization-activated inward current (I(h)), persistent Na+ current (I(NaP)), low-voltage-activated calcium current (I(L/T)) mediated by T- and/or L-type Ca2+ channels, and large-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ current (I(BK)). I(h) is important in setting membrane potential and depolarizes the cell toward the threshold of I(NaP) and I(T/L), which are essential to generate the depolarizing envelope that is crowned by a burst of action potentials. Action potentials depolarize the membrane and induce Ca2+ influx via high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels (I(HVA)). The combined depolarization and increased intracellular Ca2+ activates I(BK), which terminates the burst by hyperpolarizing the membrane. Hyperpolarization activates I(h) and the cycle is regenerated. A novel finding is the role of L-type Ca2+ channels in autonomous ET cells bursting. A second novel feature is the role of BK channels, which regulate burst duration. I(L) and I(BK) may go hand-in-hand, the slow inactivation of I(L) requiring I(BK)-dependent hyperpolarization to deactivate inward conductances and terminate the burst. ET cells receive monosynaptic olfactory nerve input and drive the major inhibitory interneurons of the glomerular circuit. Modulation of the conductances identified here can regulate burst frequency, duration, and spikes per burst in ET cells and thus significantly shape the impact of glomerular circuits on mitral and tufted cells, the output channels of the olfactory bulb.

  13. The discontinuity in scientific psychology at the University of Rome, 1907-1947: From general psychology to psychotechnics.

    PubMed

    Morgese, Giorgia; Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro; Albani, Alessandra

    2016-11-01

    This article examines the areas of research conducted at the Laboratory of Experimental Psychology of the University of Rome from 1907 to 1947, directed first by Sante De Sanctis (1862-1935), and then, from 1931 on, by Mario Ponzo (1882-1960). The method used to distinguish the topics and areas of research that characterized the Roman School during this period is the textual analysis of the titles of the journal in which studies completed at the laboratory were published, namely, Contributi del Laboratorio di Psicologia sperimentale [Psychological Contributions of the Laboratory of Experimental Psychology]. This empirical analysis, which complements and supports the historiographical interpretation, demonstrates the disciplines that emerged under a system managed by the directors over 2 periods of time in the pursuit of scientific psychology in Rome and in Italy. This analysis highlights the process of adjustment from a traditional, general approach to a more theoretical-technical application. This article is a new contribution to the Italian debate on the periodization of the "crisis" in Italian psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. [Medical museology the exhibition: The history of Rome medical faculty through images and documents].

    PubMed

    Serarcangeli, Carla

    2004-01-01

    The Museum and Library of History of Medicine celebrated the 700th anniversary of the foundation of the University of Rome "La Sapienza" with an exhibition of images and documents recalling the history of the medical faculty. Dissecting tools and surgical instruments testify to the long history of anatomical and surgical studies and to the great worth of the teachers at Rome University. Documents, archival papers, books and pictures document the historical inheritance of the Medical School in Rome.

  15. Flood risk changes over centuries in Rome: an empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Saccà, Smeralda; Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Crisci, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    Over centuries, the development of the historical city of Rome -close to one of the largest Italian rivers, the Tiber- has been intertwined with the magnitude and frequency of flooding events. The ancient Rome mostly developed on the (seven) hills, while the Tiber's floodplain was mainly exploited for agricultural purposes. A few small communities did settle in the riparian areas of the Tiber, but they had a relatively peaceful relationships with the frequent occurrence of flooding events. Nowadays, numerous people live in modern districts in the Tiber's floodplain, unaware of their exposure to potentially catastrophic flooding. The main goal of this research is to explore the dynamics of changing flood risk over the centuries between these two extreme pictures of the ancient and contemporary Rome. To this end, we carried out a socio-hydrological study by exploiting long time series of physical (flooding, river morphology) and social (urbanization, population dynamics) processes together with information about human interactions with the environment (flood defense structures). This empirical analysis showed how human and physical systems have been co-evolving over time, while being abruptly altered by the occurrence of extreme events. For instance, a large flooding event occurred in 1870 and contributed to the constructions of levees, which in turn facilitated the development of new urban areas in the Tiber's floodplain, while changed the societal memory of floods as well as the communities' perception of risk. This research work was also used to test the hypotheses of recent-developed models conceptualizing the interplay between floods and societies and simulating the long-term behavior of coupled human-water systems. The outcomes of this test provided interesting insights about the dynamics of flood risk, which are expected to support a better anticipation of future changes.

  16. The prevalence of coeliac disease in patients fulfilling Rome III criteria for irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Sayed A; Sayed, Moataz M; Ibrahim, Wesam A; Abdelhakam, Sara M; Rushdy, Marwa

    2016-06-01

    The clinical presentation of coeliac disease can vary from a classical malabsorption syndrome to more subtle atypical gastrointestinal manifestations similar to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of coeliac disease in Egyptian patients with clinically diagnosed diarrhoea-predominant IBS (according to Rome III criteria). This study was conducted on 100 patients with clinically diagnosed diarrhoea-predominant IBS (fulfilling Rome III criteria). They were subjected to complete clinical evaluation, routine laboratory investigations, abdominal ultrasonography and serum anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (anti-tTG) test as a predictor marker for coeliac disease. All patients who tested positive for serum anti-tTG underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with four to eight biopsy samples collected from the second part of the duodenum. All of the studied 100 patients presented with abdominal pain or discomfort, flatulence and diarrhoea. Eight patients (8%) exhibited high levels of serum anti-tTG, and their duodenal biopsy samples satisfied the histopathological criteria of coeliac disease. The studied patients were divided into two groups: Group I comprising 92 patients with IBS and negative anti-tTG results and Group II comprising eight patients with IBS and positive anti-tTG results. A non-significant difference was noted between the two groups in age, gender and duration of abdominal pain (p>0.05). The haemoglobin level was found to be significantly reduced in anti-tTG-positive patients (p<0.01), as was the Na level in anti-tTG-negative patients (p<0.05). A highly statistically significant inverse correlation was noted between anti-tTG and both serum total protein and serum albumin. Some symptoms overlap between coeliac disease and IBS. A lack of awareness may lead to a diagnostic delay in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Post-failure Analysis and Fractography of In-plane Tension-Tested Tufted Carbon Fabric-Reinforced Epoxy Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masa, Suresh Kumar; Mallya, Ambresha Basappa; Dhanapal, Karuppanan; Ramachandra, Ranganath Vemulapad; Kishore

    2015-04-01

    Tufted and plain unidirectional carbon fabric-reinforced epoxy composite laminates were fabricated by vacuum-enhanced resin infusion technology and subjected to in-plane tensile tests with a view to study the changes in mechanical properties and failure responses. Owing to the presence of tufts in the laminates, both the tensile strength and modulus decrease by ~38 and ~20%, respectively, vis- à- vis the values recorded for plain composites. The fracture features point to the fact that though both the composites fail in brittle manner, they, however, exhibit differing fiber pull out lengths. Further, it was noticed that for the tufted ones, crack originates in the vicinity of tuft thread, spreads through the composite in a brittle manner, and results in a display of shorter fiber pull out lengths. These observations and other results are discussed in this paper.

  18. [Were there infection disease specialists in Ancient Rome?].

    PubMed

    Ledermann D, Walter

    2010-04-01

    The existence of infectious diseases specialists in Ancient Rome is unlikely, but there were at least three authors able of keen observations on infectious matters, with enough merit to be considered our predecessors: Varro, Columella and Vitruvius, none of them physicians. Varro, in his first Book on Agriculture recommended, "Build the houses distant from swamps, because certain minute creatures are bred which cannot be followed with the eyes but which float in the air and enter the body through the mouth and nose, giving rise to severe diseases". Also in a text of agriculture and in the same sense, Columella says "that with heat a swamp releases a pestilential vapor and produces a very dense swarm of insects, which come flying over us armed with harmful stings Vitruvius, the great architect was worried about drinkable water: its sources and properties, how to obtain it and the methods for testing its quality. The concern on its distribution and disposal of sewage started on 614 B.C., little after the foundation of Rome, with the building of the first aqueduct, the Aqua Marcia. This aqueduct in Trajan's times (century II A.D.), reached a total of 443 km, with 49,500 meters of arcades, which were up to 32 meters high, plus 2.4 km of an underground net. This system released 947,200 m(3) of water per day, two thirds of which were for public use and one third for private customers.

  19. Isotopic evidence for age-related immigration to imperial Rome.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Tracy L; Schwarcz, Henry P; Garnsey, Peter; Knyf, Martin; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Bondioli, Luca

    2007-04-01

    Oxygen stable isotope ratios (delta(18)O) have been determined in carbonate in paired first and third molar teeth from individuals (N = 61) who lived in the town of Portus Romae ("Portus") and who were buried in the necropolis of Isola Sacra (First to Third centuries AD) near Rome, Italy. We compare these analyses with data for deciduous teeth of modern Roman children. Approximately one-third of the archaeological sample has first molar (M1) values outside the modern range, implying a large rate of population turnover at that time, consistent with historical data. Delta (18)O(ap) values suggest that a group within the sample migrated to the area before the third molar (M3) crown had completely formed (i.e., between 10 and 17.5 years of age). This is the first quantitative assessment of population mobility in Classical antiquity. This study demonstrates that migration was not limited to predominantly single adult males, as suggested by historical sources, but rather a complex phenomenon involving families. We hypothesize that migrants most likely came from higher elevations to the East and North of Rome. One individual with a higher delta(18)O value may have come (as a child) from an area isotopically similar to North Africa.

  20. [A vaccination campaign for gypsy children in Rome].

    PubMed

    Baglio, G; Cacciani, L; Napoli, P A; Geraci, S; Motta, F; Rossano, R; D'Ascanio, I; Trillò, M E; Ciuta, T S; Grandolfo, M E; Guasticchi, G

    2005-01-01

    Several studies conducted in Rome have shown low levels of vaccination coverage in gypsy communities. Thus a vaccination campaign targeting to 2400 gypsy children aged 0-13 years, present in 32 settlements in Rome, was conducted in 2002. The campaign was related to vaccinations required and recommended in Italy: diphtheria, tetanus, hepatitis B, pertussis (whooping cough), haemophilus influenzae and measles. In the majority of cases it was decided to carry out the vaccinations directly in the gypsy settlements, in accordance with the methods of pulse immunisation. In the case of small settlements a strategy for reorienting the population to vaccination centres was adopted. Around 2000 children were vaccinated, equivalent to 80% of the paediatric population present during the period. The number of children who have never been vaccinated has decreased from 40% prior to the campaign to 9% after the third week. Vaccination coverage in medium- and small-sized settlements (<200 inhabitants) after the campaign shows values of over 70%; in the large settlements, more modest increases have been recorded and coverage has rarely exceeded 50%. This experience has highlighted the importance of networking between public healthcare institutions and non-profit organisations. The mobilisation of a wide range of competences has thus enabled the attainment of a high level of effectiveness.

  1. CXC Chemokine Receptor 7 (CXCR7) Regulates CXCR4 Protein Expression and Capillary Tuft Development in Mouse Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Haege, Sammy; Mueller, Wiebke; Nietzsche, Sandor; Lupp, Amelie; Mackay, Fabienne; Schulz, Stefan; Stumm, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Background The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is involved in kidney development by regulating formation of the glomerular tuft. Recently, a second CXCL12 receptor was identified and designated CXCR7. Although it is established that CXCR7 regulates heart and brain development in conjunction with CXCL12 and CXCR4, little is known about the influence of CXCR7 on CXCL12 dependent kidney development. Methodology/Principal Findings We provided analysis of CXCR7 expression and function in the developing mouse kidney. Using in situ hybridization, we identified CXCR7 mRNA in epithelial cells including podocytes at all nephron stages up to the mature glomerulus. CXCL12 mRNA showed a striking overlap with CXCR7 mRNA in epithelial structures. In addition, CXCL12 was detected in stromal cells and the glomerular tuft. Expression of CXCR4 was complementary to that of CXCR7 as it occurred in mesenchymal cells, outgrowing ureteric buds and glomerular endothelial cells but not in podocytes. Kidney examination in CXCR7 null mice revealed ballooning of glomerular capillaries as described earlier for CXCR4 null mice. Moreover, we detected a severe reduction of CXCR4 protein but not CXCR4 mRNA within the glomerular tuft and in the condensed mesenchyme. Malformation of the glomerular tuft in CXCR7 null mice was associated with mesangial cell clumping. Conclusions/Significance We established that there is a similar glomerular pathology in CXCR7 and CXCR4 null embryos. Based on the phenotype and the anatomical organization of the CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 system in the forming glomerulus, we propose that CXCR7 fine-tunes CXCL12/CXCR4 mediated signalling between podocytes and glomerular capillaries. PMID:22880115

  2. CXC chemokine receptor 7 (CXCR7) regulates CXCR4 protein expression and capillary tuft development in mouse kidney.

    PubMed

    Haege, Sammy; Einer, Claudia; Thiele, Stefanie; Mueller, Wiebke; Nietzsche, Sandor; Lupp, Amelie; Mackay, Fabienne; Schulz, Stefan; Stumm, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is involved in kidney development by regulating formation of the glomerular tuft. Recently, a second CXCL12 receptor was identified and designated CXCR7. Although it is established that CXCR7 regulates heart and brain development in conjunction with CXCL12 and CXCR4, little is known about the influence of CXCR7 on CXCL12 dependent kidney development. We provided analysis of CXCR7 expression and function in the developing mouse kidney. Using in situ hybridization, we identified CXCR7 mRNA in epithelial cells including podocytes at all nephron stages up to the mature glomerulus. CXCL12 mRNA showed a striking overlap with CXCR7 mRNA in epithelial structures. In addition, CXCL12 was detected in stromal cells and the glomerular tuft. Expression of CXCR4 was complementary to that of CXCR7 as it occurred in mesenchymal cells, outgrowing ureteric buds and glomerular endothelial cells but not in podocytes. Kidney examination in CXCR7 null mice revealed ballooning of glomerular capillaries as described earlier for CXCR4 null mice. Moreover, we detected a severe reduction of CXCR4 protein but not CXCR4 mRNA within the glomerular tuft and in the condensed mesenchyme. Malformation of the glomerular tuft in CXCR7 null mice was associated with mesangial cell clumping. We established that there is a similar glomerular pathology in CXCR7 and CXCR4 null embryos. Based on the phenotype and the anatomical organization of the CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 system in the forming glomerulus, we propose that CXCR7 fine-tunes CXCL12/CXCR4 mediated signalling between podocytes and glomerular capillaries.

  3. Craniofacial Features Resembling Frontonasal Dysplasia with a Tubulonodular Interhemispheric Lipoma in the Adult 3H1 tuft Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Keith S. K.; Cooper, Tiffiny Baring; Drumhiller, Wallace C.; Somponpun, Jack; Yang, Shiming; Ernst, Thomas; Chang, Linda; Lozanoff, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial lipomas are rare, but 45% of them occur along the midline cisterns between the hemispheres and are often associated with corpus callosum hypoplasia and craniofacial defects. They are difficult to detect, as they are generally asymptomatic and visible by MRI or by postmortem examination. The exact cause of these interhemispheric lipomas is not known, but they arise from a developmental defect resulting in the maldifferentiation of mesenchymal cells into mesodermal derivatives that are not normally present. We have identified a new mouse mutant called tuft, exhibiting a forebrain, intracranial lipoma with midline craniofacial defects resembling frontonasal dysplasia (FND) that arose spontaneously in our wild-type 3H1 colony. The tuft trait appears to be transmitted in recessive fashion, but approximately 80% less frequent than the expected Mendelian 25%, due to either incomplete penetrance or prenatal lethality. MRI and histological analysis revealed that the intracranial lipoma occurred between the hemispheres and often protruded through the sagittal suture. We also observed a lesion at the lamina terminalis that may indicate improper closure of the anterior neuropore. We have mapped the tuft trait to within an 18 cM region on mouse chromosome 10 by microsatellite linkage analysis and identified several candidate genes involved with craniofacial development and cellular differentiation of adipose tissue. tuft is the only known mouse model for midline craniofacial defects with an intracranial lipoma. Identifying the gene(s) and mutation(s) causing this early developmental defect will help us understand the pathogenesis of FND and related craniofacial disorders. PMID:22246904

  4. Individual participation in intergroup contests is mediated by numerical assessment strategies in black howler and tufted capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed

    Van Belle, Sarie; Scarry, Clara J

    2015-12-05

    Asymmetries in resource-holding potential between opposing groups frequently determine outcomes of intergroup contests. Since both numerical superiority and high intergroup dominance rank may confer competitive advantages, group members should benefit from assessing the relative strength of rivals prior to engaging in defensive displays. However, differences in individual assessment may emerge when cost-benefit trade-offs differ among group members. We examine the influence of numerical superiority and intergroup dominance relationships on individual participation in intergroup encounters in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) and tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus). Black howlers responded with longer vocal displays during encounters with neighbours with an equal number of resident males, while tufted capuchins increased their participation with increasing relative male group size. Within each species, males and females responded similarly to varying numerical odds, suggesting that despite pay-off asymmetries between males and females, both sexes were similarly influenced by numerical asymmetries in deciding to participate in collective group defence. Whereas the outcome of contests among tufted capuchins was determined by relative male group size, reflected in a pronounced intergroup dominance hierarchy, the absence of dominance relationships among black howler groups may have provoked prolonged vocal displays in order to assess rival groups with matching competitive abilities.

  5. Individual participation in intergroup contests is mediated by numerical assessment strategies in black howler and tufted capuchin monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Van Belle, Sarie; Scarry, Clara J.

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetries in resource-holding potential between opposing groups frequently determine outcomes of intergroup contests. Since both numerical superiority and high intergroup dominance rank may confer competitive advantages, group members should benefit from assessing the relative strength of rivals prior to engaging in defensive displays. However, differences in individual assessment may emerge when cost–benefit trade-offs differ among group members. We examine the influence of numerical superiority and intergroup dominance relationships on individual participation in intergroup encounters in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) and tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus). Black howlers responded with longer vocal displays during encounters with neighbours with an equal number of resident males, while tufted capuchins increased their participation with increasing relative male group size. Within each species, males and females responded similarly to varying numerical odds, suggesting that despite pay-off asymmetries between males and females, both sexes were similarly influenced by numerical asymmetries in deciding to participate in collective group defence. Whereas the outcome of contests among tufted capuchins was determined by relative male group size, reflected in a pronounced intergroup dominance hierarchy, the absence of dominance relationships among black howler groups may have provoked prolonged vocal displays in order to assess rival groups with matching competitive abilities. PMID:26503680

  6. Distinct ATOH1 and Neurog3 requirements define tuft cells as a new secretory cell type in the intestinal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Gerbe, François; van Es, Johan H.; Makrini, Leila; Brulin, Bénédicte; Mellitzer, Georg; Robine, Sylvie; Romagnolo, Béatrice; Shroyer, Noah F.; Bourgaux, Jean-François; Pignodel, Christine; Clevers, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The unique morphology of tuft cells was first revealed by electron microscopy analyses in several endoderm-derived epithelia. Here, we explore the relationship of these cells with the other cell types of the intestinal epithelium and describe the first marker signature allowing their unambiguous identification. We demonstrate that although mature tuft cells express DCLK1, a putative marker of quiescent stem cells, they are post-mitotic, short lived, derive from Lgr5-expressing epithelial stem cells, and are found in mouse and human tumors. We show that whereas the ATOH1/MATH1 transcription factor is essential for their differentiation, Neurog3, SOX9, GFI1, and SPDEF are dispensable, which distinguishes these cells from enteroendocrine, Paneth, and goblet cells, and raises from three to four the number of secretory cell types in the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, we show that tuft cells are the main source of endogenous intestinal opioids and are the only epithelial cells that express cyclooxygenase enzymes, suggesting important roles for these cells in the intestinal epithelium physiopathology. PMID:21383077

  7. Clinical Outcomes for Systemic Corticosteroids Versus Vincristine in Treating Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma and Tufted Angioma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohan; Li, Jiaying; Qu, Xinhua; Yan, Weili; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Shanyong; Yang, Chi; Zheng, Jiawei

    2016-05-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of systemic corticosteroids versus those of vincristine in the treatment of kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) and tufted angioma (TA).A literature search of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science was performed for clinical studies on systemic corticosteroid versus vincristine therapies in treating KHE/TA. Pooled relative risks (RRs) and response rate with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to measure outcomes. Heterogeneity, subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias analysis were performed for result evaluation.Thirteen studies, comprising 344 participants, were used in the analysis. Vincristine therapy was found to be relatively more effective than systemic corticosteroids (RRs = 0.45, 95%CI: 0.35-0.58). The result of pooled adverse reactions response rate for systemic corticosteroids was 0.31 (95%CI, 0.18-0.43), significantly higher than that for vincristine, which was 0.12 (95%CI, 0.06-0.19). In subgroup analyses, factors including mean age and race of patients, and period of follow-up were examined as possible sources of heterogeneity.This is the first meta-analysis estimating the clinical outcomes of systemic corticosteroids in comparison with those of vincristine in the treatment of KHE/TA. The results showed that vincristine was considerably more effective with lower complication rates than systemic corticosteroids; thus, vincristine could be suggested as the first-line therapy for KHE/TA.

  8. Distribution and diversity of holothuroids (Echinodermata) on Cascadia Basin and Tufts Abyssal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carney, Robert S.; Carey, Andrew G.

    1982-05-01

    The pattern of diversity, species composition, and inter-sample similarity of the holothuroid fauna was examined for 95 beam trawl samples from below 2000 m on the Cascadia Basin and Tufts Abyssal Plain off Oregon, U.S.A. Abundance as inferred from catch size, diversity, species composition, and zonation all showed major change over the sampled area where there was a depth change. Where depth remained relatively constant across the floor of Cascadia Basin, faunal changes were minor in spite of progressive isolation from land. Overall bathymetric patterns of zonation and diversity were basically like those found for other faunal groups in the deep-sea depth. The distribution of minor species indicated that the holothuroid fauna at the base of the continental slope, the apron of Astoria Fan, and near Cascadia Channel might be slightly different from that at similar depths elsewhere in the sampled area. The marked uniformity of the holothuroid fauna across the basin floor appeared to be restricted to epifaunal sediment-feeding species. Infaunal forms were more abundant at the slope base, similar to previous findings for the macro-infauna.

  9. Does Presentation Format Influence Visual Size Discrimination in Tufted Capuchin Monkeys (Sapajus spp.)?

    PubMed Central

    Truppa, Valentina; Carducci, Paola; Trapanese, Cinzia; Hanus, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Most experimental paradigms to study visual cognition in humans and non-human species are based on discrimination tasks involving the choice between two or more visual stimuli. To this end, different types of stimuli and procedures for stimuli presentation are used, which highlights the necessity to compare data obtained with different methods. The present study assessed whether, and to what extent, capuchin monkeys’ ability to solve a size discrimination problem is influenced by the type of procedure used to present the problem. Capuchins’ ability to generalise knowledge across different tasks was also evaluated. We trained eight adult tufted capuchin monkeys to select the larger of two stimuli of the same shape and different sizes by using pairs of food items (Experiment 1), computer images (Experiment 1) and objects (Experiment 2). Our results indicated that monkeys achieved the learning criterion faster with food stimuli compared to both images and objects. They also required consistently fewer trials with objects than with images. Moreover, female capuchins had higher levels of acquisition accuracy with food stimuli than with images. Finally, capuchins did not immediately transfer the solution of the problem acquired in one task condition to the other conditions. Overall, these findings suggest that – even in relatively simple visual discrimination problems where a single perceptual dimension (i.e., size) has to be judged – learning speed strongly depends on the mode of presentation. PMID:25927363

  10. Anatomical aspects of the lacrimal gland of the tufted capuchin (Cebus apella).

    PubMed Central

    Veiga Neto, E R; Tamega, O J; Zorzetto, N L; Dall Pai, V

    1992-01-01

    In the tufted capuchin (Cebus apella) the main lacrimal gland is composed of 2 distinct portions with an intraorbital and extraorbital localisation, interconnected by a bridge of glandular tissue which crosses the lateral orbital wall through the lateral orbital fissure located in the sphenozygomatic suture. The intraorbital lacrimal gland is flattened and extremely thin, with a variable outline. It lies on the upper and outer third of the globe of the eye, and the aponeurosis and the belly of the lateral rectus muscle, extending antero-posteriorly from the upper lateral angle of the orbit midway along the orbital cavity. The extraorbital lacrimal gland is compact, halfmoon-shaped, with 3 surfaces, 3 borders and 2 extremities. It lies in the temporal fossa between the temporalis muscle and the temporal surface of the zygomatic bone, fitting into a depression in this bone, and totally surrounded by adipose tissue. The secretory cells have a flocculent appearance and either low or high density. They possess a basal region containing the nucleus and rich in granular endoplasmic reticulum, and an apical region filled with secretory granules varying in size, form and density. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:1452484

  11. Preliminary Tuft Testing of Metallic Bristles Versus PS212, PS300, and HVOF300

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fellenstein, James A.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Turbine engine brush seals are designed with sacrificial brushes and hard shaft coatings to minimize shaft wear and reduce the cost of engine overhauls. Replacing a worm seal is more cost and time effective than refinishing an engine shaft. However, this tribological design causes excessive brush wear and reduces long term seal efficiency. An alternative approach is to coat the shaft with a solid lubricant and allow the bristles to wear into the shaft coating similar to traditional abradable labyrinth seals. This approach can result in reduced seal leakage by forcing the leakage to flow through the seal bristle pack or through a more tortuous shaft wear track. Key to this approach is limiting the shaft wear to an acceptable level were surface refinishing would not be required during every engine overhaul. Included in this paper are brush seal tuft test results for four metallic bristles (nickel-chrome or cobalt-chrome based superalloys) tested against three solid lubricant coatings (NASA's PS212, PS300, and HVOF300). These test results are also compared to previous baseline tests conducted with plasma sprayed chrome carbide. Compared to the baseline results, no tribological benefit was achieved with the metallic bristle/solid lubricant tribopairs tested. To improve the performance of the solid lubricant coatings, issues regarding lubricant phase sizes (homogeneity), and composition need to be addressed.

  12. Hair cell tufts and afferent innervation of the bullfrog crista ampullaris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Steven F.; Lewis, Edwin R.

    1990-01-01

    Within the bullfrog semicircular canal crista, hair cell tuft types were defined and mapped with the aid of scanning electron microscopy. Dye-filled planar afferent axons had mean distal axonal diameters of 1.6-4.9 microns, highly branched arbors, and contacted 11-24 hair cells. Dye-filled isthmus afferent axons had mean distal axonal diameters of 1.8-7.9 microns, with either small or large field arbors contacting 4-9 or 25-31 hair cells. The estimated mean number of contacts per innervated hair cell was 2.2 for planar and 1.3 for isthmus afferent neurons. Data on evoked afferent responses were available only for isthmus units that were observed to respond to our microrotational stimuli. Of 21 such afferent neurons, eight were successfully dye-filled. Within this sample, high-gain units had large field arbors and lower-gain units had small field arbors. The sensitivity of each afferent neuron was analyzed in terms of noise equivalent input (NEI), the stimulus amplitude for which the afferent response amplitude is just equivalent to the rms deviation of the instantaneous spike rate. NEI for isthmus units varied from 0.63 to 8.2 deg/s; the mean was 3.2 deg/s.

  13. Expression of prox1, lymphatic endothelial nuclear transcription factor, in Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma and tufted angioma.

    PubMed

    Le Huu, Aude Rimella; Jokinen, Chris H; Rubin, Brian P; Ruben, Brian P; Mihm, Martin C; Weiss, Sharon W; North, Paula E; Dadras, Soheil S

    2010-11-01

    Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) and tufted angioma (TA) are rare tumors mainly occurring in early childhood. Our recent results showed that ectopic overexpression of human Prox1 gene, a lymphatic endothelial nuclear transcription factor, promoted an aggressive behavior in 2 murine models of KHE. This dramatic Prox1-induced phenotype prompted us to investigate immunohistochemical staining pattern of Prox1, podoplanin (D2-40), LYVE-1, and Prox1/CD34 as well as double immunofluorescent staining pattern of LYVE-1/CD31 in KHE and TA, compared with other pediatric vascular tumors. For this purpose, we examined 75 vascular lesions: KHE (n=18), TA (n=13), infantile hemangioma (n=13), pyogenic granuloma (n=18), and granulation tissue (n=13). Overall, KHE and TA shared an identical endothelial immunophenotype: the neoplastic spindle cells were Prox1, podoplanin, LYVE-1, CD31, and CD34, whereas endothelial cells within glomeruloid foci were Prox1, podoplanin, LYVE-1, CD31, and CD34. The lesional cells of all infantile hemangiomas and pyogenic granulomas were negative for Prox1 in the presence of positive internal control. These findings provide immunophenotypic evidence to support a preexisting notion that KHE and TA are closely related, if not identical. Overall, our results show, for the first time, that Prox1 is an immunohistochemical biomarker helpful in confirming the diagnosis of KHE/TA and in distinguishing it from infantile hemangioma and pyogenic granuloma.

  14. Streptococcus oricebi sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavity of tufted capuchin.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, N; Hirasawa, M; Takada, K

    2016-02-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped organism was isolated from the oral cavity of tufted capuchin (Cebus apella). Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggested classification of the organism within the genus Streptococcus. Strain M8T was related most closely to Streptococcus oralis ATCC 35037T (96.17 % similarity) followed by Streptococcus massiliensis CCUG 49690T (95.90 %) based on the 16S rRNA gene. Strain M8T was related most closely to S. massiliensis CCUG 49690T (86.58 %) based on the RNA polymerase β subunit-encoding gene (rpoB), and to Streptococcus tigurinus AZ_3aT (81.26 %) followed by S. massiliensis CCUG 49690T (80.45 %) based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The phylogenetic trees of 16S rRNA, rpoB and groEL gene sequences showed that strain M8T was most closely related to S. massiliensis. Based on phenotypic characterization as well as 16S rRNA gene and housekeeping gene (rpoB and groEL) sequence data, a novel taxon, Streptococcus oricebi sp. nov. (type strain M8T = JCM 30719T = DSM 100101T), is proposed.

  15. Robustness of sensory-evoked excitation is increased by inhibitory inputs to distal apical tuft dendrites

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Robert; Schmitt, Arno C.; Wallace, Damian J.; Sakmann, Bert; Oberlaender, Marcel; Kerr, Jason N. D.

    2015-01-01

    Cortical inhibitory interneurons (INs) are subdivided into a variety of morphologically and functionally specialized cell types. How the respective specific properties translate into mechanisms that regulate sensory-evoked responses of pyramidal neurons (PNs) remains unknown. Here, we investigated how INs located in cortical layer 1 (L1) of rat barrel cortex affect whisker-evoked responses of L2 PNs. To do so we combined in vivo electrophysiology and morphological reconstructions with computational modeling. We show that whisker-evoked membrane depolarization in L2 PNs arises from highly specialized spatiotemporal synaptic input patterns. Temporally L1 INs and L2–5 PNs provide near synchronous synaptic input. Spatially synaptic contacts from L1 INs target distal apical tuft dendrites, whereas PNs primarily innervate basal and proximal apical dendrites. Simulations of such constrained synaptic input patterns predicted that inactivation of L1 INs increases trial-to-trial variability of whisker-evoked responses in L2 PNs. The in silico predictions were confirmed in vivo by L1-specific pharmacological manipulations. We present a mechanism—consistent with the theory of distal dendritic shunting—that can regulate the robustness of sensory-evoked responses in PNs without affecting response amplitude or latency. PMID:26512104

  16. Does presentation format influence visual size discrimination in tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.)?

    PubMed

    Truppa, Valentina; Carducci, Paola; Trapanese, Cinzia; Hanus, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Most experimental paradigms to study visual cognition in humans and non-human species are based on discrimination tasks involving the choice between two or more visual stimuli. To this end, different types of stimuli and procedures for stimuli presentation are used, which highlights the necessity to compare data obtained with different methods. The present study assessed whether, and to what extent, capuchin monkeys' ability to solve a size discrimination problem is influenced by the type of procedure used to present the problem. Capuchins' ability to generalise knowledge across different tasks was also evaluated. We trained eight adult tufted capuchin monkeys to select the larger of two stimuli of the same shape and different sizes by using pairs of food items (Experiment 1), computer images (Experiment 1) and objects (Experiment 2). Our results indicated that monkeys achieved the learning criterion faster with food stimuli compared to both images and objects. They also required consistently fewer trials with objects than with images. Moreover, female capuchins had higher levels of acquisition accuracy with food stimuli than with images. Finally, capuchins did not immediately transfer the solution of the problem acquired in one task condition to the other conditions. Overall, these findings suggest that--even in relatively simple visual discrimination problems where a single perceptual dimension (i.e., size) has to be judged--learning speed strongly depends on the mode of presentation.

  17. Parental care in the buffy-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix aurita) in wild and captive groups.

    PubMed

    Santos, C V; Martins, M M

    2000-11-01

    Studies on cooperative care of offspring in callitrichid primates are biased in favor of observations in captivity. In the wild, however, individuals have to deal with environmental pressures, which may influence their social behavior. We compared the individual effort attributed to parental care offered by members of a wild group (couple, plus a subadult helper) and two captive groups (A: couple, plus an subadult helper, B: couple, plus four adult helpers) of the buffy-tufted-ear marmoset, Callithrix aurita, from weeks 1-12 after the infants' birth. The carrier (breeding male and female or helper) and the infant's feeding (food sharing and foraging for food) were recorded. Up to week four, while the wild breeding pair shared infant carrying at similar proportions, the male from captive group A carried 100% of the time. Adult helpers from group B were the main carriers. Carrying behavior extended up to week 12 only in the wild group. Food provisioning to the infant was observed earlier in the groups wild and A, but general proportion of feeding records was lower in the wild than in captivity. Energetic cost of travelling and searching for food may be associated with equal division of carrying behavior by the wild breeding pair. Higher proportions of carrying in the groups wild and B may have delayed the development of the infants' motor skills required in foraging. Our data agree with previous studies: the father's lower investment in carrying when adult helpers are present and lower contribution of subadult non-reproductive members.

  18. The Museum of the Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University of Rome.

    PubMed

    Fara, G M; Del Vecchio, R; Montacutelli, R

    2017-01-01

    This paper illustrates in detail the birth of the Museum of Public Health of the Sapienza University of Rome, which has been one of the most successful achievements of Prof Carmine Melino in the last few years of his academic career. Backed by a very thin group of enthousiastic coworkers and colleagues, he recuperated all the instruments which had been used by the research groups active since 1880 at the former Institute of Hygiene, to which he added samples of the different pieces of laboratory furniture, ancient reagents, etc. The goal was not to simply collect, restore and maintain the documents of the Institute's past, but to rebuild a vintage laboratory, as it was inhabited by the hygienists of the past and to describe the kinds of research being performed during a period more than a century long. Beginning from the days when Hygiene became a scientific discipline, he tried to demonstrate that only the transformation of Hygiene into an experimental discipline made it possible the numberless achievements, including the improvements of the environmental conditions, the reduction of infectious diseases and the successful fight against the chronic, degenerative diseases of the present times.

  19. Rome III survey of irritable bowel syndrome among ethnic Malays

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeong Yeh; Waid, Anuar; Tan, Huck Joo; Chua, Andrew Seng Boon; Whitehead, William E

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To survey irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) using Rome III criteria among Malays from the north-eastern region of Peninsular Malaysia. METHODS: A previously validated Malay language Rome III IBS diagnostic questionnaire was used in the current study. A prospective sample of 232 Malay subjects (80% power) was initially screened. Using a stratified random sampling strategy, a total of 221 Malay subjects (112 subjects in a “full time job” and 109 subjects in “no full time job”) were recruited. Subjects were visitors (friends and relatives) within the hospital compound and were representative of the local community. Red flags and psychosocial alarm symptoms were also assessed in the current study using previously translated and validated questionnaires. Subjects with IBS were sub-typed into constipation-predominant, diarrhea-predominant, mixed type and un-subtyped. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to test for association between socioeconomic factors and presence of red flags and psychosocial alarm features among the Malays with IBS. RESULTS: IBS was present in 10.9% (24/221), red flags in 22.2% (49/221) and psychosocial alarm features in 9.0% (20/221). Red flags were more commonly reported in subjects with IBS (83.3%) than psychosocial alarm features (20.8%, P < 0.001). Subjects with IBS were older (mean age 41.4 years vs 36.9 years, P = 0.08), but no difference in gender was noted (P = 0.4). Using univariable analysis, IBS was significantly associated with a tertiary education, high individual income above RM1000, married status, ex-smoker and the presence of red flags (all P < 0.05). In multiple logistic regression analysis, only the presence of red flags was significantly associated with IBS (odds ratio: 0.02, 95%CI: 0.004-0.1, P < 0.001). The commonest IBS sub-type was mixed type (58.3%), followed by constipation-predominant (20.8%), diarrhea-predominant (16.7%) and un-subtyped (4.2%). Four of 13 Malay females (30.8%) with IBS also had

  20. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information; Envisioning Information; Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative (by Edward R. Tufte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Harold H.

    1999-02-01

    The Visual Display of Quantitative Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1983. 195 pp. ISBN 0-961-39210-X. 40.00. Envisioning Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1990. 126 pp. ISBN 0-961-39211-8. 48.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1997. 156 pp. ISBN 0-9613921-2-6. $45.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative is the most recent of three books by Edward R. Tufte about the expression of information through graphs, charts, maps, and images. The most important of all the practical advice in these books is found on the first page of the first book, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Quantitative graphics should:

    Show the data Induce the viewer to think about the substance rather than the graphical design Avoid distorting what the data have to say Present many numbers in a small space Make large data sets coherent Encourage the eye to compare data Reveal the data at several levels of detail Serve a clear purpose: description, exploration, tabulation, or decoration Be closely integrated with the statistical and verbal descriptions of a data set
    Tufte illustrates these principles through all three books, going to extremes in the care with which he presents examples, both good and bad. He has designed the books so that the reader almost never has to turn a page to see the image, graph, or table that is being described in the text. The books are set in Monotype Bembo, a lead typeface designed so that smaller sizes open the surrounding white space, producing a pleasing balance. Some of the colored pages were put through more than 20 printing steps in order to render the subtle shadings required. The books are printed on heavy paper stock, and the fact that contributing artists, the typeface, the printing company, and the bindery are all credited on one of the back flyleaves is one

  1. Measurements of lower carbonyls in Rome ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Possanzini, M.; Di Palo, V.; Petricca, M.; Fratarcangeli, R.; Brocco, D.

    Ambient levels and diurnal profiles of lower carbonyls were measured in Rome during selected days of summer 1994 and winter 1995. The most abundant carbonyls were formaldehyde (up to 27 ppb) followed by ethanal (< 17 ppb) and acetone (< 9 ppb). Gas-phase concentrations of other seven carbonyls were in the 0-3 ppb range. The results were discussed with respect to direct emissions and photochemical production. Using carbonyl/CO concentration ratios mobil source emissions of carbonyls were estimated for the urban area. The secondary production of C 1-C 3 aldehydes from reactions of alkenes with O 3 and OH radicals during the early morning hours of summer days was also calculated. The daytime pattern of carbonyls was found to be similar to that of toluene in wintertime and close to that of ozone in summer periods conductive to photochemical pollution episodes.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella isolates from hospitals in Rome.

    PubMed Central

    Falbo, V.; Caprioli, A.; Mondello, F.; Cacace, M. L.; Luzi, S.; Greco, D.

    1982-01-01

    The susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of 569 salmonella isolated collected in 1977-8 from patients in hospitals in Rome was tested. Fifty-nine per cent of all isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobials. Resistance was most common to sulphathiazole, tetracycline, streptomycin, whereas colistin, gentamicin, tobramycin, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and nalidixic acid were the most active in vitro. Multiple resistance was most frequently found in strains of Salmonella wien and S. typhimurium (94% and 38% respectively). A significant change in the resistance pattern of S. wien was observed between 1977 and 1978, with a significant increase of susceptibility to some antimicrobials in 1978. Twenty-one R-plasmids transmissible to E. coli K12 were derived from 46 resistant strains of S. typhimurum. PMID:7061839

  3. Temperature dependence of Brewer UV measurements at Rome station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siani, Anna M.; Benevento, Giuseppe; Casale, Giuseppe R.

    2003-11-01

    Decreasing trends of total ozone affect mainly solar ultraviolet (UV) levels at ground level with adverse effects on the biosphere. Highly accurate measurements of solar UV irradiance have become an important issue to assess UV trends. To detect these trends stations with well calibrated instruments, with long-term stability and Quality Assurance (QA)/ Quality Control (QC) carefully followed procedures, are necessary. The Solar Radiometry Observatory of Rome, University "La Sapienza" (city center) is one of the stations regularly measuring UV irradiance in Italy. Measurements of UV spectral (290-325 nm) irradiance started in 1992, using Brewer MKIV 067. Measurements of total irradiance contained in the 280 - 320 nm waveband begun in 2000 with the YES UVB-1 broad-band radiometer. An investigation of the internal temperature dependence of the spectral responsivity to improve the quality of the Brewer UV data was carried out. The study was based on the analysis of responsivity files recorded during the years 2000-2002. Responsivities are provided by specific tests through a set of five 50 W quartz tungsten-halogen lamps, traceable to the standards of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The lamp tests allow to measure any changes in the instrument response over time. It was observed that a decrease in the instrument's responsivity resulted from an increase of the internal temperature. A methodology based on a family of responsivity files at different temperature intervals is proposed to allow correction of UV irradiances using the responsivity file at the corresponding temperatures. The mean percentage differnce between temperature corrected and non-corrected Brewer data varies from 0.8% to 1.5% over an internal temperature of 8°C-42°C. In addition the results of a field evaluation in Rome between Brewer 067 and two temperature stabilized instruments, a broad-band radiometer (YES UVB-1) and a moderate bandwidth multichannel radiometer

  4. Rome III functional dyspepsia symptoms classification: Severity vs frequency.

    PubMed

    Carbone, F; Holvoet, L; Vanuytsel, T; Tack, J

    2017-06-01

    The Rome III criteria subdivide functional dyspepsia (FD) in the epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) and the postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) based on the frequency of the symptoms to optimize the diagnostic and therapeutic approach. However, it is unclear to which extent the frequency of the symptoms is related to their severity. Our aim was to explore the frequency and severity of dyspeptic symptoms and their relationship in FD patients. Functional dyspepsia patients fulfilling the Rome III diagnostic completed a questionnaire that evaluated the frequency and severity of FD symptoms. The concordance between the severity and frequency categories was analyzed by means of spearman correlation and the concordance correlation coefficient (ρc ). In the entire patient cohort (n=421), the classification of symptoms severity and frequency showed good concordance for all symptoms. In the EPS subgroup (n=….), the symptom severity and frequency score of epigastric pain showed a poor correlation (r=.28; ρc =0.07). The PDS subgroup (n=…) showed a good correlation for most of the symptoms. Due to its limited occurrence in this group, the correlation of the severity and frequency scores for epigastric pain is of little relevance (r=.79; ρc =0.58). The overlap EPS-PDS group showed good correlation for most of the symptoms, except for epigastric pain (pain r=.24; ρc =0.09). We conclude that the information given by the assessment of frequency and severity of PDS symptoms is comparable and hence one of the scores sufficiently identifies symptom pattern in PDS patients. In EPS patients, both the symptom frequency and severity should be taken into account as two separate entities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Rome: sinkhole events and network of underground cavities (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisio, Stefania; Ciotoli, Giancarlo

    2016-04-01

    The anthropogenic sinkholes in the city of Rome are closely linked to the network of underground cavities produced by human activities in more than two thousand years of history. Over the past fifteen years the increased frequency of intense rainfall events, favors sinkhole formation. The risk assessment induced by anthropogenic sinkhole is really difficult. However, a susceptibility of the territory to sinkholes can be more easily determined as the probability that an event may occur in a given space, with unique geological-morphological characteristics, and in an infinite time. A sinkhole susceptibility map of the Rome territory, up to the ring road, has been constructed by using Geographically Weighted Regression technique and geostatistics. The spatial regression model includes the analysis of more than 2700 anthropogenic sinkholes (recorded from 1875 to 2015), as well as geological, morphological, hydrological and predisposing anthropogenic characteristics of the study area. The numerous available data (underground cavities, the ancient entrances to the quarry, bunkers, etc.) facilitate the creation of a series of maps. The density map of the cavity, updated to 2015, showed that more than 20 km2 of the Roman territory are affected by underground cavities. The census of sinkholes (over 2700) shows that over 30 km2 has been affected by sinkholes. The final susceptibility map highlights that inside the Ring Road about 40 km2 of the territory (about 11%) have a very high probability of triggering a sinkhole event. The susceptibility map was also compared with the data of ground subsidence (InSAR) to obtain a predictive model.

  6. Education and Mortality in the Rome Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Cacciani, Laura; Bargagli, Anna Maria; Cesaroni, Giulia; Forastiere, Francesco; Agabiti, Nera; Davoli, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Background A large body of evidence supports an inverse association between socioeconomic status and mortality. We analysed data from a large cohort of residents in Rome followed-up between 2001 and 2012 to assess the relationship between individual education and mortality. We distinguished five causes of death and investigated the role of age, gender, and birthplace. Methods From the Municipal Register we enrolled residents of Rome on October 21st 2001 and collected information on educational level attained from the 2001 Census. We selected Italian citizens aged 30–74 years and followed-up their vital status until 2012 (n = 1,283,767), identifying the cause of death from the Regional Mortality Registry. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for overall and cause-specific mortality in relation to education. We used age, gender, and birthplace for adjusted or stratified analyses. We used the inverse probability weighting approach to account for right censoring due to emigration. Results We observed an inverse association between education (none vs. post-secondary+ level) and overall mortality (HRs(95%CIs): 2.1(1.98–2.17), males; 1.5(1.46–1.59), females) varying according to demographic characteristics. Cause-specific analysis also indicated an inverse association with education, in particular for respiratory, digestive or circulatory system related-mortality, and the youngest people seemed to be more vulnerable to low education. Conclusion Our results confirm the inverse association between education and overall or cause-specific mortality and show differentials particularly marked among young people compared to the elderly. The findings provide further evidence from the Mediterranean area, and may contribute to national and cross-country comparisons in Europe to understand the mechanisms generating socioeconomic differentials especially during the current recession period. PMID:26376166

  7. Strange history: the fall of Rome explained in Hereditas.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Bengt O

    2014-12-01

    In 1921 Hereditas published an article on the fall of Rome written by the famous classical scholar Martin P:son Nilsson. Why was a paper on this unexpected topic printed in the newly founded journal? To Nilsson, the demise of the Roman Empire was explained by the "bastardization" occurring between "races" from different parts of the realm. Offspring from mixed couples were of a less stable "type" than their parents, due to the breaking up by recombination of the original hereditary dispositions, which led to a general loss of competence to rule and govern. Thus, the "hardness" of human genes, together with their recombination, was - according to Nilsson - the main cause of the fall of Rome. Nilsson's argument is not particularly convincingly presented. Human "races" are taken to have the same genetic structure as inbred crop strains, and Nilsson believes in a metaphysical unity between the individual and the race to which it belongs. However, in my view, Martin P:son Nilsson and his friend Herman Nilsson-Ehle had wider aims with the article than to explain a historical event. The article can be read as indicating strong support from the classical human sciences to the ambitious new science of genetics. Support is also transferred from genetics to the conservative worldview, where the immutability and inflexibility of the Mendelian genes are used to strengthen the wish for greater stability in politics and life. The strange article in Hereditas can, thus, be read as an early instance in the - still ongoing - tug-of-war between the conservative and the liberal ideological poles over how genetic results best are socially interpreted.

  8. [Physicians in ancient Rome--and the attitude towards them].

    PubMed

    Bröchmann, Petrine

    2005-01-01

    The paper attempts to trace and sketch very briefly the history, role and status of professional physicians in Rome from the 8th to the 3th century BC. The epigrafic sources are even at the best of times meagre and one has to draw heavily upon written sources, especially from the first century AD. A brief sketch of traditional Roman folkmedicine, traces of which still linger in later latin medical literature, and the strong traditions the Romans had of self-care, is given. The Roman public were generally suspicious of physicians, who worked for a fee, but the authorities welcomed the profession and allowed it to settle in Rome, as well as granted it certain privileges. The level of education differed enormously from one physician to the next, since anyone could profess to be a physician without training or proper skills. Thus the range goes from useless quacks to highly educated physicians. They had the right to form guilds like other craftsmen. Physicians were mainly either slaves or freedmen, but there are freeborn among them as well. They worked on all levels of society. Hospitals were built in the fortresses along the Roman borders and a description of the ones found in Vetera Castra in modern Germany is given. Literature spanning from the midfirst century BC to the end of first century AD reveals a growing resentment and an increasingly caustic tone towards physicians and their profession - the impression one gets is that these written attacks are caused by a mixture of cultural and social bias and resentment towards useless and dangerous physicians.

  9. Education and Mortality in the Rome Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Cacciani, Laura; Bargagli, Anna Maria; Cesaroni, Giulia; Forastiere, Francesco; Agabiti, Nera; Davoli, Marina

    2015-01-01

    A large body of evidence supports an inverse association between socioeconomic status and mortality. We analysed data from a large cohort of residents in Rome followed-up between 2001 and 2012 to assess the relationship between individual education and mortality. We distinguished five causes of death and investigated the role of age, gender, and birthplace. From the Municipal Register we enrolled residents of Rome on October 21st 2001 and collected information on educational level attained from the 2001 Census. We selected Italian citizens aged 30-74 years and followed-up their vital status until 2012 (n = 1,283,767), identifying the cause of death from the Regional Mortality Registry. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for overall and cause-specific mortality in relation to education. We used age, gender, and birthplace for adjusted or stratified analyses. We used the inverse probability weighting approach to account for right censoring due to emigration. We observed an inverse association between education (none vs. post-secondary+ level) and overall mortality (HRs(95%CIs): 2.1(1.98-2.17), males; 1.5(1.46-1.59), females) varying according to demographic characteristics. Cause-specific analysis also indicated an inverse association with education, in particular for respiratory, digestive or circulatory system related-mortality, and the youngest people seemed to be more vulnerable to low education. Our results confirm the inverse association between education and overall or cause-specific mortality and show differentials particularly marked among young people compared to the elderly. The findings provide further evidence from the Mediterranean area, and may contribute to national and cross-country comparisons in Europe to understand the mechanisms generating socioeconomic differentials especially during the current recession period.

  10. Water resources of the Utica-Rome area, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halberg, Henry N.; Hunt, O.P.; Pauszek, F.H.

    1963-01-01

    The Utica-Rome area is along the Mohawk River and New York State Erie (Barge) Canal about midway between Lake Ontario and Albany. It encompasses about 390 square miles centered around the industrial cities of Utica and Rome. The Mohawk River, its tributary West Canada Creek, and a system of reservoirs and diversions to maintain the flow in the barge-canal system, assure an ample water supply for the foreseeable needs of the area. The water from these sources is generally of good chemical quality requiring little treatment, although that from the Mohawk River is only fair and may require some treatment for sensitive industrial processes. Additional surface water is available from smaller streams in the area, particularly Oriskany and Sauquoit Creeks, but the water from these sources is hard, and has a dissolved-solids content of more than 250 ppm (parts per million). Ground water is available in moderate quantities from unconsolidated sand and gravel deposits in the river valleys and buried bedrock channels, and in small quantities from bedrock formations and less permeable unconsolidated deposits. The quality of water from sand and gravel, and bedrock ranges from good to poor. However, where necessary, the quality can be improved with treatment. The Mohawk River is the source of the largest quantity of water in the area. The flow of the stream below Delta Dam equals or exceeds 108 mgd (million gallons per day) 90 percent of the time, and at Little Falls it equals or exceeds 560 mgd 90 percent of the time. The flow between these two points is increased by additions from Oriskany, Sauquoit, and West Canada Creeks and from many smaller tributary streams. The flow is also increased by diversions from outside the area, from the Black and Chenango Rivers and West Canada Creek for improvement of navigation in the Erie (Barge) Canal, and from West Canada and East Branch Fish Creeks for the public supplies of Utica and Rome. Much of the public-supply water eventually

  11. Calcium permeable AMPA receptors and autoreceptors in external tufted cells of rat olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jie; Lowe, Graeme

    2007-01-01

    Glomeruli are functional units of the olfactory bulb responsible for early processing of odor information encoded by single olfactory receptor genes. Glomerular neural circuitry includes numerous external tufted (ET) cells whose rhythmic burst firing may mediate synchronization of bulbar activity with the inhalation cycle. Bursting is entrained by glutamatergic input from olfactory nerve terminals, so specific properties of ionotropic glutamate receptors on ET cells are likely to be important determinants of olfactory processing. Particularly intriguing is recent evidence that α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors of juxta-glomerular neurons may permeate calcium. This could provide a novel pathway for regulating ET cell signaling. We tested the hypothesis that ET cells express functional calcium-permeable AMPA receptors. In rat olfactory bulb slices, excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in ET cells were evoked by olfactory nerve shock, and by uncaging glutamate. We found attenuation of AMPA/kainate EPSCs by 1-naphthyl acetyl-spermine (NAS), an open-channel blocker specific for calcium permeable AMPA receptors. Cyclothiazide strongly potentiated EPSCs, indicating a major contribution from AMPA receptors. The current-voltage (I-V) relation of uncaging EPSCs showed weak inward rectification which was lost after > ~ 10 min of whole-cell dialysis, and was absent in NAS. In kainate-stimulated slices, Co2+ ions permeated cells of the glomerular layer. Large AMPA EPSCs were accompanied by fluorescence signals in fluo-4 loaded cells, suggesting calcium permeation. Depolarizing pulses evoked slow tail currents with pharmacology consistent with involvement of calcium permeable AMPA autoreceptors. Tail currents were abolished by Cd2+ and NBQX, and were sensitive to NAS block. Glutamate autoreceptors were confirmed by uncaging intracellular calcium to evoke a large inward current. Our results provide evidence that calcium permeable AMPA

  12. Social learning strategies for nut-cracking by tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.).

    PubMed

    Coelho, C G; Falótico, T; Izar, P; Mannu, M; Resende, B D; Siqueira, J O; Ottoni, E B

    2015-07-01

    The spontaneous use of stone tools for cracking nuts by tufted capuchin monkeys, now known to be habitual among wild populations in savanna environments, was first described in a semifree group living in the Tietê Ecological Park (SP, Brazil). Nut-cracking at TEP was first observed by our team in 1995 (Ottoni and Mannu in Int J Primatol 22(3):347-358, 2001), and its ontogeny and associated social dynamics, with inexperienced observers highly interested in the activities of proficient individuals, greatly tolerant to scrounging, support hypotheses about social biases on tool-use learning. Here we further analyze the social learning biases, better characterizing: the social context of nut-cracking in which observation by conspecifics occurs, the quality of the nut-cracking behavior itself and whether scrounging may be the motivation behind this behavior. We confirm that the choice of observational targets is an active one; monkeys do not simply observe those who they are socially close to. We investigate social learning strategies, describing how young capuchins choose to observe older, more proficient and dominant individuals during nut-cracking bouts. Monkeys with higher productivity rates were also more frequently targeted by observers, who were tolerated scroungers, further supporting the scrounging hypothesis. Finally, based on changes of the demographic patterns of tool use and observation, we set to retrace data from 14 years of continuous studies. We argue that we have followed the dissemination of the behavior (Transmission Phase) almost from its beginning, when juveniles were the most frequent nutcrackers, to a more common pattern where adults are the most active tool users (Tradition Phase).

  13. Virtualizing ancient Rome: 3D acquisition and modeling of a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, Gabriele; Frischer, Bernard; De Simone, Monica; Cioci, Andrea; Spinetti, Alessandro; Carosso, Luca; Micoli, Laura L.; Russo, Michele; Grasso, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    Computer modeling through digital range images has been used for many applications, including 3D modeling of objects belonging to our cultural heritage. The scales involved range from small objects (e.g. pottery), to middle-sized works of art (statues, architectural decorations), up to very large structures (architectural and archaeological monuments). For any of these applications, suitable sensors and methodologies have been explored by different authors. The object to be modeled within this project is the "Plastico di Roma antica," a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome (16x17 meters) created in the last century. Its overall size therefore demands an acquisition approach typical of large structures, but it also is characterized extremely tiny details typical of small objects (houses are a few centimeters high; their doors, windows, etc. are smaller than 1 centimeter). This paper gives an account of the procedures followed for solving this "contradiction" and describes how a huge 3D model was acquired and generated by using a special metrology Laser Radar. The procedures for reorienting in a single reference system the huge point clouds obtained after each acquisition phase, thanks to the measurement of fixed redundant references, are described. The data set was split in smaller sub-areas 2 x 2 meters each for purposes of mesh editing. This subdivision was necessary owing to the huge number of points in each individual scan (50-60 millions). The final merge of the edited parts made it possible to create a single mesh. All these processes were made with software specifically designed for this project since no commercial package could be found that was suitable for managing such a large number of points. Preliminary models are presented. Finally, the significance of the project is discussed in terms of the overall project known as "Rome Reborn," of which the present acquisition is an important component.

  14. Virtualizing ancient Rome: 3D acquisition and modeling of a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, Gabriele; Frischer, Bernard; De Simone, Monica; Cioci, Andrea; Spinetti, Alessandro; Carosso, Luca; Micoli, Laura L.; Russo, Michele; Grasso, Tommaso

    2004-12-01

    Computer modeling through digital range images has been used for many applications, including 3D modeling of objects belonging to our cultural heritage. The scales involved range from small objects (e.g. pottery), to middle-sized works of art (statues, architectural decorations), up to very large structures (architectural and archaeological monuments). For any of these applications, suitable sensors and methodologies have been explored by different authors. The object to be modeled within this project is the "Plastico di Roma antica," a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome (16x17 meters) created in the last century. Its overall size therefore demands an acquisition approach typical of large structures, but it also is characterized extremely tiny details typical of small objects (houses are a few centimeters high; their doors, windows, etc. are smaller than 1 centimeter). This paper gives an account of the procedures followed for solving this "contradiction" and describes how a huge 3D model was acquired and generated by using a special metrology Laser Radar. The procedures for reorienting in a single reference system the huge point clouds obtained after each acquisition phase, thanks to the measurement of fixed redundant references, are described. The data set was split in smaller sub-areas 2 x 2 meters each for purposes of mesh editing. This subdivision was necessary owing to the huge number of points in each individual scan (50-60 millions). The final merge of the edited parts made it possible to create a single mesh. All these processes were made with software specifically designed for this project since no commercial package could be found that was suitable for managing such a large number of points. Preliminary models are presented. Finally, the significance of the project is discussed in terms of the overall project known as "Rome Reborn," of which the present acquisition is an important component.

  15. Earthquake prediction rumors can help in building earthquake awareness: the case of May the 11th 2011 in Rome (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, A.; Arcoraci, L.; Casarotti, E.; Cultrera, G.; Di Stefano, R.; Margheriti, L.; Nostro, C.; Selvaggi, G.; May-11 Team

    2012-04-01

    , and was a great opportunity to talk with journalists and people about earthquake prediction and more in general about seismic risk in Italy. In general, the media attention to scientific topics raise up only after disasters or before fake predictions, unfortunately. This was the case of the May 11 event, for which the public fear triggered the media reaction and vice-versa. We took advantage of this circumstance to increase seismic risk awareness and build a bridge between researchers and journalists, contributing to turn a mass psychosis into an important opportunity for science communication. The May-11 Team included Simona Cerrato (SissaMedialab, Trieste, Italy), about 50 INGV colleagues from Rome and Irpinia offices, including the Press Office, the Laboratory of Scientific Education and Outreach, the Images and Graphics Laboratory, the Copies Office, and the researchers and technicians on duty in the INGV-Rome seismic monitoring room.

  16. [Health status and life style in Castel Malnome (Rome, I-II cent. A. D.)].

    PubMed

    Catalano, P; Benassi, V; Caldarini, C; Cianfriglia, L; Mosticone, R; Nava, A; Pantano, W; Porreca, F

    2010-01-01

    The necropolis of Castel Malnome, chronologically framed between the I and II century AD, is located in the vicinity of Ponte Galeria (Rome), nearby the via Portuense. The excavation of the funerary site has allowed the collection of 292 inhumations, referred to the lower social classes and for the most part adult males. Regarding the funerary ritual, only the 42.8% of the graves had a tiles cover, while about one third provided grave goods. The field analysis shows that almost all the burials are primaries, and is not possible to highlight a main position of the inhumated individuals. The laboratory analysis, till today carried out on 100 individuals, shows a high degree of skeletal robustness and of occupational markers due to heavy work load (inflammation, muscle-skeletal trauma, fractures, osteoarthritis, enthesopathies). The recording of oral pathologies and aspecific stresses, in order to obtain information about the health status of the population, shows a very high frequency of caries mainly related to poor dental hygiene, and of enamel hypoplasia.

  17. Differences in Glomerular-Layer-Mediated Feedforward Inhibition onto Mitral and Tufted Cells Lead to Distinct Modes of Intensity Coding

    PubMed Central

    Geramita, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how each of the many interneuron subtypes affects brain network activity is critical. In the mouse olfactory system, mitral cells (MCs) and tufted cells (TCs) comprise parallel pathways of olfactory bulb output that are thought to play distinct functional roles in odor coding. Here, in acute mouse olfactory bulb slices, we test how the two major classes of olfactory bulb interneurons differentially contribute to differences in MC versus TC response properties. We show that, whereas TCs respond to olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) stimulation with short latencies regardless of stimulation intensity, MC latencies correlate negatively with stimulation intensity. These differences between MCs and TCs are caused in part by weaker excitatory and stronger inhibitory currents onto MCs than onto TCs. These differences in inhibition between MCs and TCs are most pronounced during the first 150 ms after stimulation and are mediated by glomerular layer circuits. Therefore, blocking inhibition originating in the glomerular layer, but not granule-cell-mediated inhibition, reduces MC spike latency at weak stimulation intensities and distinct temporal patterns of odor-evoked responses in MCs and TCs emerge in part due to differences in glomerular-layer-mediated inhibition. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Olfactory bulb mitral and tufted cells display different odor-evoked responses and are thought to form parallel channels of olfactory bulb output. Therefore, determining the circuit-level causes that drive these differences is vital. Here, we find that longer-latency responses in mitral cells, compared with tufted cells, are due to weaker excitation and stronger glomerular-layer-mediated inhibition. PMID:28028200

  18. mTrop1/Epcam Knockout Mice Develop Congenital Tufting Enteropathy through Dysregulation of Intestinal E-cadherin/β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Emanuela; Lattanzio, Rossano; La Sorda, Rossana; Dini, Francesca; Tiboni, Gian Mario; Piantelli, Mauro; Alberti, Saverio

    2012-01-01

    Congenital tufting enteropathy (CTE) is a life-threatening hereditary disease that is characterized by enteric mucosa tufting degeneration and early onset, severe diarrhea. Loss-of-function mutations of the human EPCAM gene (TROP1, TACSTD1) have been indicated as the cause of CTE. However, loss of mTrop1/Epcam in mice appeared to lead to death in utero, due to placental malformation. This and indications of residual Trop-1/EpCAM expression in cases of CTE cast doubt on the role of mTrop1/Epcam in this disease. The aim of this study was to determine the role of TROP1/EPCAM in CTE and to generate an animal model of this disease for molecular investigation and therapy development. Using a rigorous gene-trapping approach, we obtained mTrop1/Epcam -null (knockout) mice. These were born alive, but failed to thrive, and died soon after birth because of hemorrhagic diarrhea. The intestine from the mTrop1/Epcam knockout mice showed intestinal tufts, villous atrophy and colon crypt hyperplasia, as in human CTE. No structural defects were detected in other organs. These results are consistent with TROP1/EPCAM loss being the cause of CTE, thus providing a viable animal model for this disease, and a benchmark for its pathogenetic course. In the affected enteric mucosa, E-cadherin and β-catenin were shown to be dysregulated, leading to disorganized transition from crypts to villi, with progressive loss of membrane localization and increasing intracellular accumulation, thus unraveling an essential role for Trop-1/EpCAM in the maintenance of intestinal architecture and functionality. Supporting information is available for this article. PMID:23209569

  19. mTrop1/Epcam knockout mice develop congenital tufting enteropathy through dysregulation of intestinal E-cadherin/β-catenin.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Emanuela; Lattanzio, Rossano; La Sorda, Rossana; Dini, Francesca; Tiboni, Gian Mario; Piantelli, Mauro; Alberti, Saverio

    2012-01-01

    Congenital tufting enteropathy (CTE) is a life-threatening hereditary disease that is characterized by enteric mucosa tufting degeneration and early onset, severe diarrhea. Loss-of-function mutations of the human EPCAM gene (TROP1, TACSTD1) have been indicated as the cause of CTE. However, loss of mTrop1/Epcam in mice appeared to lead to death in utero, due to placental malformation. This and indications of residual Trop-1/EpCAM expression in cases of CTE cast doubt on the role of mTrop1/Epcam in this disease. The aim of this study was to determine the role of TROP1/EPCAM in CTE and to generate an animal model of this disease for molecular investigation and therapy development. Using a rigorous gene-trapping approach, we obtained mTrop1/Epcam -null (knockout) mice. These were born alive, but failed to thrive, and died soon after birth because of hemorrhagic diarrhea. The intestine from the mTrop1/Epcam knockout mice showed intestinal tufts, villous atrophy and colon crypt hyperplasia, as in human CTE. No structural defects were detected in other organs. These results are consistent with TROP1/EPCAM loss being the cause of CTE, thus providing a viable animal model for this disease, and a benchmark for its pathogenetic course. In the affected enteric mucosa, E-cadherin and β-catenin were shown to be dysregulated, leading to disorganized transition from crypts to villi, with progressive loss of membrane localization and increasing intracellular accumulation, thus unraveling an essential role for Trop-1/EpCAM in the maintenance of intestinal architecture and functionality.Supporting information is available for this article.

  20. Jaw-muscle fiber architecture in tufted capuchins favors generating relatively large muscle forces without compromising jaw gape

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Andrea B.; Vinyard, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Cebus apella is renowned for its dietary flexibility and capacity to exploit hard and tough objects. Cebus apella differs from other capuchins in displaying a suite of craniodental features that have been functionally and adaptively linked to their feeding behavior, particularly the generation and dissipation of relatively large jaw forces. We compared fiber architecture of the masseter and temporalis muscles between the tufted capuchin (C. apella; n = 12 ) and two “untufted” capuchins (C. capuchinus, n = 3; C. albifrons, n = 5). These three species share broadly similar diets, but tufted capuchins occasionally exploit mechanically challenging tissues. We tested the hypothesis that C. apella exhibits architectural properties of their jaw muscles that facilitate relatively large forces, including relatively greater physiologic cross-sectional areas (PCSA), more pinnate fibers, and lower ratios of mass to tetanic tension (Mass/P0). Results show some evidence supporting these predictions, as C. apella has relatively greater superficial masseter, whole masseter, and temporalis PCSAs, significantly so only for the temporalis following Bonferroni adjustment. Capuchins did not differ in pinnation angle or Mass/P0. As an architectural trade-off between maximizing muscle force and muscle excursion/contraction velocity, we also tested the hypothesis that C. apella exhibits relatively shorter muscle fibers. Contrary to our prediction, there are no significant differences in relative fiber lengths between tufted and untufted capuchins. Therefore, we attribute the relatively greater PCSAs in C. apella primarily to their larger muscle masses. These findings suggest that relatively large jaw-muscle PCSAs can be added to the suite of masticatory features that have been functionally linked to the exploitation of a more resistant diet by C. apella. By enlarging jaw-muscle mass to increase PCSA, rather than reducing fiber lengths and increasing pinnation, tufted capuchins appear

  1. [Why perform history: Prosper Meniere (1799-1862) at the medical history of Rome].

    PubMed

    Gourevitch, D

    1999-01-01

    Scrutinizing the prefatory letters and the introductions of Meniere's studies on the medical history of ancient Rome, the author shows why the famous doctor of the Institution des sourds-muets was interested in history.

  2. A Thematic Approach to the Third Year Course: The City (Rome) in Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trivelli, Remo

    1974-01-01

    A course in Italian literature is outlined for the advanced high-school and the third-year college level, using a thematic approach. The choice of theme in this case is the city, specifically Rome. (AM)

  3. Seminary Formation: A Case Study from the Pontifical Beda College, Rome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strange, Roderick

    2015-01-01

    This case study account reviews issues related to seminary formation and education at the Beda College, Rome, including Fundamentals of Formation, Community Life, Organizing Formation, Intellectual Formation, Spiritual Formation, Pastoral Formation, and the challenges arising in these fields.

  4. Search for correlations between the University of Maryland and the University of Rome gravitational radiation antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrari, V.; Pizzella, G.; Lee, M.; Weber, J.

    1982-05-15

    Results are presented for analyses of the outputs of gravitational radiation antennas in Rome and in Maryland during July 1978. These data give evidence for an external background exciting both antennas.

  5. Pathological and Immunohistochemical Findings of Natural Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Infection in Tufted Ducks during 2010–2011 Outbreaks in Japan

    PubMed Central

    ABDO, Walied; HARIDY, Mohie; KATOU, Yuki; GOTO, Minami; MIZOGUCHI, Toshio; SAKODA, Yoshihiro; SAKAI, Hiroki; YANAI, Tokuma

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the winter of 2010–2011, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection occurred in wild and domestic birds in Japan. Tufted ducks were found dead in an urban area of Toyota City, Koriyama, Fukushima Prefecture. Two tufted ducks were examined histopathologically, immunohistochemically and molecularly. Gross findings included marked dark-red clotted blood in the pectoral muscles and multifocal hemorrhages on the serous membranes. Microscopically, non-suppurative meningoencephalitis, multifocal to coalescing pancreatic necrosis and severe pulmonary congestion were observed. HPAIV antigen was detected in the malacic areas, neuronal, glial and ependymal cells, pulmonary capillary endothelial cells and epithelium of pulmonary bronchioles, necrotic pancreatic acini and degenerated cardiac myocytes. The HPAIV isolate was genetically classified into clade 2.3.2.1 group A. The broad distribution of virus antigen in brain and pulmonary tissues associated with HPAIV spontaneous infection in tufted ducks might be useful in understanding its pathogenesis in nature. PMID:24881650

  6. Genome-wide association mapping and identification of candidate genes for the rumpless and ear-tufted traits of the Araucana chicken.

    PubMed

    Noorai, Rooksana E; Freese, Nowlan H; Wright, Lindsay M; Chapman, Susan C; Clark, Leigh Anne

    2012-01-01

    Araucana chickens are known for their rounded, tailless rumps and tufted ears. Inheritance studies have shown that the rumpless (Rp) and ear-tufted (Et) loci each act in an autosomal dominant fashion, segregate independently, and are associated with an increased rate of embryonic mortality. To find genomic regions associated with Rp and Et, we generated genome-wide SNP profiles for a diverse population of 60 Araucana chickens using the 60 K chicken SNP BeadChip. Genome-wide association studies using 40 rumpless and 11 tailed birds showed a strong association with rumpless on Gga 2 (P(raw) = 2.45×10(-10), P(genome) = 0.00575), and analysis of genotypes revealed a 2.14 Mb haplotype shared by all rumpless birds. Within this haplotype, a 0.74 Mb critical interval containing two Iroquois homeobox genes, Irx1 and Irx2, was unique to rumpless Araucana chickens. Irx1 and Irx2 are central for developmental prepatterning, but neither gene is known to have a role in mechanisms leading to caudal development. A second genome-wide association analysis using 30 ear-tufted and 28 non-tufted birds revealed an association with tufted on Gga 15 (P(raw) = 6.61×10(-7), P(genome) = 0.0981). We identified a 0.58 Mb haplotype common to tufted birds and harboring 7 genes. Because homozygosity for Et is nearly 100% lethal, we employed a heterozygosity mapping approach to prioritize candidate gene selection. A 60 kb region heterozygous in all Araucana chickens contains the complete coding sequence for TBX1 and partial sequence for GNB1L. TBX1 is an important transcriptional regulator of embryonic development and a key genetic determinant of human DiGeorge syndrome. Herein, we describe localization of Rp and Et and identification of positional candidate genes.

  7. A mutation in the tuft mouse disrupts TET1 activity and alters the expression of genes that are crucial for neural tube closure

    PubMed Central

    Khadka, Vedbar S.; Corley, Michael J.; Maunakea, Alika K.; Fogelgren, Ben; Ahmed, Zubair M.; Lozanoff, Scott

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genetic variations affecting neural tube closure along the head result in malformations of the face and brain. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common birth defects in humans. We previously reported a mouse mutant called tuft that arose spontaneously in our wild-type 3H1 colony. Adult tuft mice present midline craniofacial malformations with or without an anterior cephalocele. In addition, affected embryos presented neural tube closure defects resulting in insufficient closure of the anterior neuropore or exencephaly. Here, through whole-genome sequencing, we identified a nonsense mutation in the Tet1 gene, which encodes a methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET1), co-segregating with the tuft phenotype. This mutation resulted in premature termination that disrupts the catalytic domain that is involved in the demethylation of cytosine. We detected a significant loss of TET enzyme activity in the heads of tuft embryos that were homozygous for the mutation and had NTDs. RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis indicated that multiple gene pathways associated with neural tube closure were dysregulated in tuft embryo heads. Among them, the expressions of Cecr2, Epha7 and Grhl2 were significantly reduced in some embryos presenting neural tube closure defects, whereas one or more components of the non-canonical WNT signaling pathway mediating planar cell polarity and convergent extension were affected in others. We further show that the recombinant mutant TET1 protein was capable of entering the nucleus and affected the expression of endogenous Grhl2 in IMCD-3 (inner medullary collecting duct) cells. These results indicate that TET1 is an epigenetic determinant for regulating genes that are crucial to closure of the anterior neural tube and its mutation has implications to craniofacial development, as presented by the tuft mouse. PMID:26989192

  8. A mutation in the tuft mouse disrupts TET1 activity and alters the expression of genes that are crucial for neural tube closure.

    PubMed

    Fong, Keith S K; Hufnagel, Robert B; Khadka, Vedbar S; Corley, Michael J; Maunakea, Alika K; Fogelgren, Ben; Ahmed, Zubair M; Lozanoff, Scott

    2016-05-01

    Genetic variations affecting neural tube closure along the head result in malformations of the face and brain. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common birth defects in humans. We previously reported a mouse mutant called tuft that arose spontaneously in our wild-type 3H1 colony. Adult tuft mice present midline craniofacial malformations with or without an anterior cephalocele. In addition, affected embryos presented neural tube closure defects resulting in insufficient closure of the anterior neuropore or exencephaly. Here, through whole-genome sequencing, we identified a nonsense mutation in the Tet1 gene, which encodes a methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET1), co-segregating with the tuft phenotype. This mutation resulted in premature termination that disrupts the catalytic domain that is involved in the demethylation of cytosine. We detected a significant loss of TET enzyme activity in the heads of tuft embryos that were homozygous for the mutation and had NTDs. RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis indicated that multiple gene pathways associated with neural tube closure were dysregulated in tuft embryo heads. Among them, the expressions of Cecr2, Epha7 and Grhl2 were significantly reduced in some embryos presenting neural tube closure defects, whereas one or more components of the non-canonical WNT signaling pathway mediating planar cell polarity and convergent extension were affected in others. We further show that the recombinant mutant TET1 protein was capable of entering the nucleus and affected the expression of endogenous Grhl2 in IMCD-3 (inner medullary collecting duct) cells. These results indicate that TET1 is an epigenetic determinant for regulating genes that are crucial to closure of the anterior neural tube and its mutation has implications to craniofacial development, as presented by the tuft mouse.

  9. Mortality of intravenous drug users in Rome: a cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Perucci, C A; Davoli, M; Rapiti, E; Abeni, D D; Forastiere, F

    1991-01-01

    A historical cohort study was carried out in Rome to examine overall and cause-specific mortality among intravenous drug users (IVDUs). A total of 4200 IVDUs (3411 men and 789 women) enrolled in methadone treatment centers between 1980 and 1988 were studied. There were 239 deaths during the follow-up period. The overall SMR was 10.10 in the entire cohort (95% confidence interval, 8.86-11.47), 9.30 in males and 18.07 in females. A large excess of mortality in both sexes was found for infectious, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive diseases as well as for violence, overdose, AIDS, and unknown or ill-defined causes. Tumors and suicide were excessive only in males. Deaths due to drug overdose, violence or trauma, and cirrhosis accounted for 63.6%, AIDS for 7.1%, endocarditis and other bacterial infections for 7.1%, and neoplasms for 3.8% of total mortality. These findings document serious health consequences of drug abuse in Italy. PMID:1656799

  10. A canopy layer model and its application to Rome.

    PubMed

    Bonacquisti, V; Casale, G R; Palmieri, S; Siani, A M

    2006-07-01

    An urban canopy layer model based on four energy balance equations at ground level and at building level was developed to simulate and describe the urban climate and the heat storage in an urban setting. Thermal and radiative characteristics of urban and rural surfaces as well as atmospheric parameters related to the general synoptic conditions were used as data input. In addition, buildings were modelled as parallelepipeds and the hysteresis of materials was taken into account. The model provides as output skin temperature of buildings, air temperature and humidity within the canopy layer and hence the mean surface temperature and the air temperature at 2 m above surface. The latter parameter was used for the comparison with in situ temperature observations. The model was applied to Rome in radiative summer and winter episodes. The results, which agree with observations, show that the Urban Heat Island (UHI) is a nocturnal phenomenon, present both in winter (the greatest difference between urban and rural temperatures is about 2 degrees C) and summer (the temperature difference is about 5 degrees C), mainly resulting from the urban geometry and the thermal properties of materials. The anthropogenic heat does not play an important role in the UHI development. A monthly nocturnal behaviour of temperature differences between urban and surrounding rural areas shows that the maximum mean value of 4.2 degrees C occurs in August. Moreover, the parks in the city centre, where temperatures are lower, define two distinct heat islands, east and west.

  11. Indoor PAHs at schools, homes and offices in Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romagnoli, P.; Balducci, C.; Perilli, M.; Gherardi, M.; Gordiani, A.; Gariazzo, C.; Gatto, M. P.; Cecinato, A.

    2014-08-01

    Indoor and outdoor concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with PM2.5 particles were monitored in three microenvironments (schools, homes and offices) in the city of Rome, Italy, between winter 2011 and summer 2012. Molecular signatures and indoor/outdoor concentration ratios of PAHs were investigated, with special emphasis on carcinogenic congeners. At indoor locations, total PAHs ranged, on average, from 1.8 to 8.4 ng/m3 in winter and from 0.30 to 1.35 ng/m3 in spring/summer. Outdoors, total PAH concentrations were found to reach 6.3-17.9 ng/m3 in winter and 0.42-1.74 ng/m3 in spring-summer. Indoors, the concentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was as high as 1.1 ng/m3 in winter and below 0.1 ng/m3 in the warm season, independently of site type; the yearly average remained below the European guideline value. The indoor/outdoor concentration ratios of individual compounds were lower than one for most of congeners, suggesting that outdoor sources were predominant. Nonetheless, the percentages of PAH compounds changed with sites and seasons; in particular, in spring/summer, the concentration of BaP at our sites was more than twice that recorded at the regional network stations.

  12. Motivation and manipulation capacities of the blue and yellow macaw and the tufted capuchin: a comparative approach.

    PubMed

    Brunon, Anaïs; Bovet, Dalila; Bourgeois, Aude; Pouydebat, Emmanuelle

    2014-09-01

    This study compared the motivation of the blue and yellow macaw (n=8) and the tufted capuchin (n=3) to manipulate objects that presented different features, their manipulative repertoires, and their ability to solve complex manipulation tasks. Results show that both species seem to be more motivated to manipulate objects that look like food items and that manipulative behavior may be considered as play behavior in the blue and yellow macaws, and would improve foraging motor skills. The tufted capuchins performed more different action styles than the macaws when manipulating objects, and performed substrate-use behavior - the object is put in relationship with a substrate - while the macaws did not. This is an interesting difference because these characteristics are supposed to be precursory of tool-use, behavior never observed in this macaw species. It may be due to the arboreal lifestyle of the macaw and its neophobic character that do not allow it to easily contact objects. Following the same method and using more individuals, further comparative studies should be conducted in order to test these hypotheses. Both species were able to solve complex manipulation tasks.

  13. Expanding the reach of health sciences education and empowering others: the OpenCourseWare initiative at Tufts University.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mary Y; Albright, Susan; O'Leary, Lisa; Terkla, Dawn Geronimo; Wilson, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    OpenCourseWare (OCW) represents an innovative and cost-effective opportunity for institutions to take a more active role in strengthening health sciences education worldwide. OCW content can provide a supplement to curricula available in resource-rich settings, as well as provide much of the basic content critical to teaching and research in resource-limited health education environments. Educational institutions worldwide have the opportunity to explore how OCW and other open tools and materials can supplement efforts to build health education capacity to address global shortages of healthcare workers. Tufts University has worked to leverage open, digital resources to support medical education since 1994 with the creation of the Tufts University Sciences Knowledgebase (TUSK). This experience has yielded vital lessons for institutions interested in OCW, including: effectively motivating faculty participation; managing the inherent complexity of open publishing of health sciences content due to its rapidly evolving nature and reliance on copyrighted materials; generating support through internal and external communication throughout the process; and creating institutional systems that ensure the long-term sustainability of OCW initiatives.

  14. Intratumoral peripheral small papillary tufts: a diagnostic clue of renal tumors associated with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Naoto; Furuya, Mitsuko; Nagashima, Yoji; Gotohda, Hiroko; Moritani, Suzuko; Kawakami, Fumi; Imamura, Yoshiaki; Bando, Yoshimi; Takahashi, Masayuki; Kanayama, Hiro-omi; Ota, Satoshi; Michal, Michal; Hes, Ondrej; Nakatani, Yukio

    2014-06-01

    In this article, we searched for the common histologic characteristic of renal tumors in patients with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS). We selected 6 patients with histologically confirmed renal tumor in BHDS. Germline FLCN gene mutation has been identified in 5 patients. Multifocality and bilaterality of the renal tumors were pathologically or radiologically confirmed in 5 and 2 cases, respectively. Histologic subtypes of the dominant tumor included 3 previously described hybrid oncocytic tumors, one composite chromophobe/papillary/clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and one unclassified RCC resembling hybrid chromophobe/clear cell RCC. In one case, chromophobe RCC and clear cell RCC were separately observed. Small papillary lesions located in the peripheral area of the tumor, which we designated as intratumoral peripheral small papillary tufts, were identified in all patients. In conclusion, multifocality/bilaterality of renal tumors, discordance of histologic subtypes, and the presence of intratumoral peripheral small papillary tufts may be important clues to identify BHDS-associated renal tumors.

  15. Social after-effects of fur rubbing in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): increased antagonism and reduced affiliation.

    PubMed

    Paukner, Annika; Suomi, Stephen J

    2012-07-01

    Fur rubbing is widely believed to have a social bonding function in capuchin monkeys, yet a recent study of tufted capuchins revealed increased levels of aggression and reduced levels of affiliation after fur-rubbing bouts. This observed decrease in group cohesion may be attributable to increased intragroup competition for fur-rub material rather than being a direct effect of fur rubbing itself. To test this hypothesis, we separated individual tufted monkeys (Cebus apella) from their social group and provided them with fur-rub material or control material, thereby avoiding intragroup competition. After engagement with materials, we released subjects back into their social group and observed their subsequent interactions with group members. We found that subjects were more likely to encounter aggression and less likely to receive affiliation from others in the fur-rub condition than in the control condition. These results support the idea that fur rubbing carries social after-effects for capuchin monkeys. The precise mechanisms of the observed effects remain to be clarified in future studies.

  16. Physiology and anatomy of synaptic connections between thick tufted pyramidal neurones in the developing rat neocortex.

    PubMed Central

    Markram, H; Lübke, J; Frotscher, M; Roth, A; Sakmann, B

    1997-01-01

    1. Dual voltage recordings were made from pairs of adjacent, synaptically connected thick tufted layer 5 pyramidal neurones in brain slices of young rat (14-16 days) somatosensory cortex to examine the physiological properties of unitary EPSPs. Pre- and postsynaptic neurones were filled with biocytin and examined in the light and electron microscope to quantify the morphology of axonal and dendritic arbors and the number and location of synaptic contacts on the target neurone. 2. In 138 synaptic connections between pairs of pyramidal neurones 96 (70%) were unidirectional and 42 (30%) were bidirectional. The probability of finding a synaptic connection in dual recordings was 0.1. Unitary EPSPs evoked by a single presynaptic action potential (AP) had a mean peak amplitude ranging from 0.15 to 5.5 mV in different connections with a mean of 1.3 +/- 1.1 mV, a latency of 1.7 +/- 0.9 ms, a 20-80% rise time of 2.9 +/- 2.3 ms and a decay time constant of 40 +/- 18 ms at 32-24 degrees C and -60 +/- 2 mV membrane potential. 3. Peak amplitudes of unitary EPSPs fluctuated randomly from trial to trial. The coefficient of variation (c.v.) of the unitary EPSP amplitudes ranged from 0.13 to 2.8 in different synaptic connections (mean, 0.52; median, 0.41). The percentage of failures of single APs to evoke a unitary EPSP ranged from 0 to 73% (mean, 14%; median, 7%). Both c.v. and percentage of failures decreased with increasing mean EPSP amplitude. 4. Postsynaptic glutamate receptors which mediate unitary EPSPs at -60 mV were predominantly of the L-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor type. Receptors of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type contributed only a small fraction (< 20%) to the voltage-time integral of the unitary EPSP at -60 mV, but their contribution increased at more positive membrane potentials. 5. Branching patterns of dendrites and axon collaterals of forty-five synaptically connected neurones, when examined in the light microscope

  17. Ancient Rome Worldwide Links: Sharing Knowledge to Preserve the Roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolini, P.; Allegrini Simonetti, F.; Forti, G.; Corrao, A.

    2013-07-01

    Following the collaboration agreement between the SAPIENZA, S.D.R.A. Department and the "Collectivité territoriale de Corse, secteur Archéologie", this project tried to set, accomplished on the archaeological site of the ancient roman city of Aléria, a complex program of selected dataset structured for many different uses and fruitions. As for any kind of survey, the initial project definition, described in this paper, constitutes the most delicate part of the work, in this instance a certain additional significance it has to be given to it, cause of the multiple interests focalized on the Aléria site, where a new digging season is expected after a sixty years long interruption. The process can be synthesized as follows: various surveying technologies were applied on the site, as 3D Laser scanning, Topography, and GPS; Dense Stereo Matching was accomplished on a sample object there excavated and actually exposed in the local Carcopino Museum, while Computational Photography techniques were realized on an object exposed in Rome in the Etruscan Museum of "Villa Giulia" as the other twin found and exposed in Aléria, to be a purpose for future collaborations. A GIS and WEBGIS workflow followed, using a specific application in its latest version, thus collecting all of the actual and previous documents, providing to build up a complete 3D geo-database with a space and time referenced 3D Web scene to share in the GIS online Cloud Platform. These applied procedures aim to spread the complex results, articulated in different sets on the social media world.

  18. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1993. Volume 4. Rome Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    2n or in decibels as P, = G, + PD + 20logX - 7 .9 8 where, Pr = recieved power in dBm G, = receive antenna gain, which for a tuned dipole is 2.14...Information. There is also evidence that the glottal waveform changes with the vowel being vocalized (Cranen and Boris, 1985; Ananthapadmanabha and Fant...there Is a large potential for confusion of glottal wave and formant oscillations for vowels with low F 1,1 and nasalized uowels are not amenable to

  19. USAF Summer Research Program - 1993 Summer Research Extension Program Final Reports, Volume 3, Rome Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-11-01

    Missouri, Rolla, MO AL/AO Engineering 2 A Study of the Contrast Detection Modeling for Human Eye and Dr. Jer -sen Chen its Application to Computer Science... Liou Including High-Current, Electrical and Computer Universtiy of Central Florida, Orlando, FL WL/EL Engineering 24 Electrical and Thermal Modeling...of Switched Reluctance Dr. Shy-Shenq Liou Machines Engineering San Francisco State Univesity, San Francisco, CA WL/PO 25 Process Migration Facility for

  20. ARPA/NIJ/Rome Laboratory concealed weapon detection program: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Nicholas C.; Demma, Fred J.; Ferris, David D., Jr.; McMillan, Robert W.; Wicks, Michael C.

    1996-06-01

    Recent advances in passive and active imaging and non- imaging sensor technology offer the potential to detect weapons that are concealed beneath a person's clothing. Sensors that are discussed in this paper are characterized as either non-imaging or imaging. Non-imaging sensors include wide band radar and portal devices such as metal detectors. In general the strength of non-imaging sensors rest with the fact that they are generally inexpensive and can rapidly perform bulk separation between regions where persons are likely to be carrying concealed weapons and those regions that are likely to contain persons who are unarmed. The bulk process is typically accomplished at the expense of false alarm rate. Millimeter-wave (MMW), microwave, x-ray, acoustic, magnetic, and infrared (IR) imaging sensor technologies provide with greater certainty the means to isolate persons within a crowd that are carrying concealed weapons and to identify the weapon type. The increased certainty associated with imaging sensors is accomplished at the expense of cost and bulk surveillance of the crowd. CWD technologies have a variety of military and civilian applications. This technology focus area addresses specific military needs under the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA) operations other than war/law enforcement (OOTW/LE). Additionally, this technology has numerous civilian law enforcement applications that are being investigated under the National Institute of Justice's (NIJ) Concealed Weapons Detection program. This paper discusses the wide variety of sensors that might be employed in support of a typical scenario, the strengths and weaknesses of each of the sensors relative to the given scenario, and how CWD breadboards will be tested to determine the optimal CWD application. It rapidly becomes apparent that no single sensor will completely satisfy the CWD mission necessitating the fusion of two or more of these sensors.

  1. Summer Research Program (1992). High School Apprenticeship Program (HSAP) Reports. Volume 14. Rome Laboratory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-28

    devices, the reason for the sloped mount. The second test was to collect the spectrum at different positions along the device’s facet. Again, this...Reliability & Diagnostics (Analog) Abstract This year’s study focused on the theory of the C programming language under SunOS 4.1.1, in comparison with the...and how to program for it. However, due to various reasons , programs would not compile. This led to an inability to use X Windows programs for quite

  2. Summer Research Program (1992). Summer Faculty Research Program (SFRP) Reports. Volume 4. Rome Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    of their systems. At the same time, the consumers of NLP systems can benefit greatly from an evaluation tool which assists with the selection of the...so has the need for a systematic evaluation procedure for testing NLP systems. Both producers and consumers of NLP systems can benefit from a well...defined evaluation procedure. It can help the producers with conducting an unbiased evaluation of their systems, and can help the consumers with

  3. The Gran Sasso Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votano, L.

    2012-09-01

    The Gran Sasso underground laboratory is one of the four national laboratories run by the INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). It is located under the Gran Sasso massif, in central Italy, between the cities of L'Aquila and Teramo, 120 km far from Rome. It is the largest underground laboratory for astroparticle physics in the world and the most advanced in terms of complexity and completeness of its infrastructures. The scientific program at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories (Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, LNGS)is mainly focused on astroparticle, particle and nuclear physics. The laboratory presently hosts many experiments as well as R&D activities, including world-leading research in the fields of solar neutrinos, accelerator neutrinos (CNGS neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso), dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay and nuclear cross-section of astrophysical interest. Associate sciences like earth physics, biology and fundamental physics complement the activities. The laboratory is operated as an international science facility and hosts experiments whose scientific merit is assessed by an international advisory Scientific Committee. A review of the main experiments carried out at LNGS will be given, together with the most recent and relevant scientific results achieved.

  4. 3-D Finite-Difference Modeling of Earthquakes in the City of Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinci, A.; Olsen, K. B.; Rovelli, A.; Marra, F.; Malagnini, L.

    2002-12-01

    The goal of this study is to estimate 3-D amplification effects from regional and local earthquakes in the city of Rome. Mainly, two distinct seismogenic districts may affect the city of Rome: the (1) Alban Hills region, located about 25 km from downtown Rome, and (2) the Central Apennines, located 80-100 km from Rome where the most recent event occurred on January 13, 1915 (M=6.8) which was felt in Rome with a VII degree intensity. To address the seismic hazard in Rome from such sources we have simulated 0-1 Hz viscoelastic wave propagation in a three-dimensional model of the Tiber Valley, Rome, for an M5.5 scenario earthquake (1 Hz) in the seismogenic area of Alban Hills about 25 km from downtown Rome and an M7.0 earthquake (0.5 Hz) about 100 km east of the valley using a fourth-order staggered-grid finite-difference method. We used a basin model (~ 6 km by 6 km by 0.050 km) which includes sediments with shear-wave velocities as low as 250 m/s in the Tiber River sediments, constrained by more than 3000 borehole measurements. We have also estimated the amplification of the 3D model due to a 1-Hz vertically-incident planar SH wave. Our results suggest that the strongest ground motion amplification in Rome is restricted to the Holocene alluvial areas with a significant concentration close to the edges of the Tiber River valley, in agreement with the results by Tertulliani and Riguzzi (1995). In particular, the fill deposits in the Tiber River generate amplification by up to a factor of 2 with respect to the surrounding volcanics, largest near the contact between the alluvial sediments and the surrounding volcanic deposits for the incident plane wave source. We find 1-Hz peak ground velocities of up to 30 cm/sec for the M5.5, Alban Hills earthquake, largest near the northwestern edges of the Tiber River. The largest 0.5-Hz peak velocity is 24 cm/s for the M7.0 earthquake with extended durations up to about 1 min. The lower maximum frequency for this scenario is

  5. The New Rome IV Criteria for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Infants and Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Koppen, Ilan J.N.; Benninga, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are common worldwide and cover a wide range of disorders attributable to the gastrointestinal tract that cannot be explained by structural or biochemical abnormalities. The diagnosis of these disorders relies on the symptom-based Rome criteria. In 2016 the Rome criteria were revised for infants/toddlers and for children and adolescents. In this review, we discuss the novel Rome IV criteria for infants and toddlers. The criteria for infant colic were drastically changed, whereas only minor changes were made for regurgitation, cyclic vomiting syndrome, functional diarrhea, infant dyschezia and functional constipation. In addition to this, the new Rome IV discusses underlying mechanisms of pain in infants and toddlers, including the neuro-development of nociceptive and pain pathways, the various factors that are involved in pain experience, and methods of pain assessment in infants and toddlers is essential for the clinician who encounters functional pain in this age group. Overall, the Rome IV criteria have become more distinctive for all disorders in order to improve the process of diagnosing pediatric FGIDs. PMID:28401050

  6. Stratigraphic and structural data for the Conasauga Group and the Rome Formation on the Copper Creek fault block near Oak Ridge, Tennessee: preliminary results from test borehole ORNL-JOY No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, C.S.; Walls, E.C.; Farmer, C.D.

    1985-06-01

    To resolve long-standing problems with the stratigraphy of the Conasauga Group and the Rome Formation on the Copper Creek fault block near Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an 828.5-m-deep test borehole was drilled. Continuous rock core was recovered from the 17.7- to 828.5-m-deep interval; temperature, caliper, neutron, gamma-ray, and acoustic (velocity and televiewer) logs were obtained. The Conasauga Group at the study site is 572.4 m thick and comprises six formations that are - in descending stratigraphic order - Maynardville Limestone (98.8 m), Nolichucky Shale (167.9 m), Maryville Limestone (141.1 m), Rogersville Shale (39.6 m), Rutledge Limestone (30.8 m), and Pumpkin Valley Shale (94.2 m). The formations are lithologically complex, ranging from clastics that consist of shales, mudstones, and siltstones to carbonates that consist of micrites, wackestones, packstones, and conglomerates. The Rome Formation is 188.1 m thick and consists of variably bedded mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones. The Rome Formation thickness represents 88.1 m of relatively undeformed section and 100.0 m of highly deformed, jumbled, and partially repeated section. The bottom of the Rome Formation is marked by a tectonic disconformity that occurs within a 46-m-thick, intensely deformed interval caused by motion along the Copper Creek fault. Results from this study establish the stratigraphy and the lithology of the Conasauga Group and the Rome Formation near ORNL and, for the first time, allow for the unambiguous correlation of cores and geophysical logs from boreholes elsewhere in the ORNL vicinity. 45 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Sniff rhythm-paced fast and slow gamma-oscillations in the olfactory bulb: relation to tufted and mitral cells and behavioral states.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Hiroyuki; Mori, Kensaku

    2013-10-01

    Odor signals are conveyed from the olfactory bulb (OB) to the olfactory cortex by two types of projection neurons, tufted cells and mitral cells, which differ in signal timing and firing frequency in response to odor inhalation. Whereas tufted cells respond with early-onset high-frequency burst discharges starting at the middle of the inhalation phase of sniff, mitral cells show odor responses with later-onset lower-frequency burst discharges. Since odor inhalation induces prominent gamma-oscillations of local field potentials (LFPs) in the OB during the transition period from inhalation to exhalation that accompany synchronized spike discharges of tufted cells and mitral cells, we addressed the question of whether the odor-induced gamma-oscillations encompass two distinct gamma-oscillatory sources, tufted cell and mitral cell subsystems, by simultaneously recording the sniff rhythms and LFPs in the OB of freely behaving rats. We observed that individual sniffs induced nested gamma-oscillations with two distinct parts during the inhalation-exhalation transition period: early-onset fast gamma-oscillations followed by later-onset slow gamma-oscillations. These results suggest that tufted cells carry odor signals with early-onset fast gamma-synchronization at the early phase of sniff, whereas mitral cells send them with later-onset slow gamma-synchronization. We also observed that each sniff typically induced both fast and slow gamma-oscillations during awake, whereas respiration during slow-wave sleep and rapid-eye-movement sleep failed to induce these oscillations. These results suggest that behavioral states regulate the generation of sniff rhythm-paced fast and slow gamma-oscillations in the OB.

  8. Tyrosine Phosphorylation of an Actin-Binding Protein Girdin Specifically Marks Tuft Cells in Human and Mouse Gut.

    PubMed

    Kuga, Daisuke; Ushida, Kaori; Mii, Shinji; Enomoto, Atsushi; Asai, Naoya; Nagino, Masato; Takahashi, Masahide; Asai, Masato

    2017-06-01

    Tuft cells (TCs) are minor components of gastrointestinal epithelia, characterized by apical tufts and spool-shaped somas. The lack of reliable TC-markers has hindered the elucidation of its role. We developed site-specific and phosphorylation-status-specific antibodies against Girdin at tyrosine-1798 (pY1798) and found pY1798 immunostaining of mouse jejunum clearly depicted epithelial cells closely resembling TCs. This study aimed to validate pY1798 as a TC-marker. Double-fluorescence staining of intestines was performed with pY1798 and known TC-markers, for example, hematopoietic-prostaglandin-D-synthase (HPGDS), or doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1). Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated from cell counts to determine whether two markers were attracting (OR<1) or repelling (OR>1). In consequence, pY1798 signals strongly attracted those of known TC-markers. ORs for HPGDS in mouse stomach, small intestine, and colon were 0 for all, and 0.08 for DCLK1 in human small intestine. pY1798-positive cells in jejunum were distinct from other minor epithelial cells, including goblet, Paneth, and neuroendocrine cells. Thus, pY1798 was validated as a TC-marker. Interestingly, apoptosis inducers significantly increased relative TC frequencies despite the absence of proliferation at baseline. In conclusion, pY1798 is a novel TC-marker. Selective tyrosine phosphorylation and possible resistance to apoptosis inducers implied the activation of certain kinase(s) in TCs, which may become a clue to elucidate the enigmatic roles of TCs. .

  9. Migraine--the forgotten epidemic: development of the EHF/WHA Rome Declaration on Migraine.

    PubMed

    Diener, Hans-Christoph; Steiner, Timothy J; Tepper, Stewart J

    2006-12-01

    Despite the availability of effective treatments, many migraine sufferers in Europe still do not receive optimal treatment. A panel of specialists, primary-care physicians and patient-group representatives met in Rome on 10-11 June 2005, under the auspices of the European Headache Federation (EHF), the World Headache Alliance (WHA) and the University of Duisburg-Essen, to review the scientific background, management issues, and physician, patient and government perspectives on migraine. The goal of the meeting was to produce the EHF/WHA Rome Declaration on Migraine, a statement of the actions required to improve migraine care and the quality of life of people with migraine. The key recommendation of the EHF/WHA Rome Declaration on Migraine is education of migraine sufferers, health professionals and health-policy makers.

  10. Static and dynamic characterization of alluvial deposits in the Tiber River Valley: New data for assessing potential ground motion in the City of Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzano, F.; Caserta, A.; Govoni, A.; Marra, F.; Martino, S.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a case study conducted on the Holocene alluvial deposits of the Tiber River valley, in the city of Rome. The main test site selected for the study, Valco S. Paolo, is located about 2 km South of Rome's historical centre. The alluvial deposits were dynamically characterized in a comprehensive way via site investigations and geotechnical laboratory tests. Normalized shear modulus decay and damping curves (G/G0 and D/D0 vs γ) were obtained for the dominantly fine-grained levels. The curves demonstrate that these levels have a more marked shear stiffness decay if compared with the underlying Pliocene bedrock. Decay curves from laboratory tests for the Tiber alluvia correlated well with the trend of the function proposed by Hardin and Drnevich, making it possible to derive their specific interpolation function coefficients. Use was made of the extrapolation of the findings from the Valco S. Paolo test site to a large part of Rome's historical centre by means of two other test sites, supported by an engineering-geology model of the complex spatial distribution of the Tiber alluvia. The experimental Valco S. Paolo Vs profile was extrapolated to the other test sites on the basis of a stratigraphic criterion; the analysis of seismic noise measurements, obtained for the three test sites, validated the engineering-geology based extrapolation and showed that the main rigidity contrast occurs inside the alluvial body (at the contact with the underlying basal gravel-level G) and not between the alluvia and the Plio-Pleistocene bedrock, composed of highly consistent clay (Marne Vaticane). The 1D modeling of local seismic response to the maximum expected earthquakes in the city of Rome confirms that the deposits have one principal mode of vibration at about 1 Hz. However, the simulation also evidenced that the silty-clay deposits (level C), making up the most part of the Tiber alluvial body, play a key role in characterizing the soil column

  11. Mental disabilities in Western civilization from Ancient Rome to the Prerogativa Regis.

    PubMed

    Berkson, Gershon

    2006-02-01

    A preliminary survey of formal concepts of disability from the Twelve Tables of Rome of the 5th century BCE to the Prerogativa Regis in English law of the late 13th century CE is presented. Firm conclusions are restricted by problems in translation and other limitations in available data. However, it appears that the concept of intellectual disability and its distinction from episodic mental illness first emerged in several subcultures of Western civilization during the height of ancient imperial Rome and during the early medieval period in Northern European and Arabic civilization.

  12. Organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in human milk from Rome (Italy) and surroundings

    SciTech Connect

    Dommarco, R.; Muccio, A.D.; Camoni, I.; Gigli, B.

    1987-12-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk have been the subject of many studies. Surveys carried out in Italy are all eight years old with the exception of the latest work. Because of recent improvements in analytical methodology, the authors believe an up-to-date study would provide additional information. Thus, this paper presents a survey of the levels of human milk contamination, in Rome and surroundings, by organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. This survey is a part of a larger monitoring program covering also geographical areas outside of Rome.

  13. Did Rome Fall or Was It Pushed? Sixth Grade Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, David

    In this interdisciplinary grade 6 world history and language arts unit, students examine the fall of Rome (Italy). Working in teams to research the causes of Rome's demise, participants develop a theory explaining why Rome fell. The student guide provides detailed instructions on how to complete the activity, a list of resources, and includes…

  14. Human-flood interactions in Rome over the past 150 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Saccà, Smeralda; Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Ciullo, Alessio; Crisci, Massimiliano

    2017-02-01

    Throughout history, the socio-economic development of the city of Rome has been intertwined with the magnitude and frequency of flooding events from the Tiber, one of Italy's largest rivers. Ancient Rome mostly developed on the hills, while the Tiber's floodplain was mainly exploited for agricultural purposes. A few small communities did settle in the riparian areas of the Tiber, but they had a relatively peaceful relationship with the frequent occurrence of flooding events. Instead, numerous people live nowadays in modern districts in the Tiber's floodplain, unaware of their exposure to potentially catastrophic flooding. This research work aims to explore the dynamics of changing flood risk between these two opposite pictures of ancient and contemporary Rome. To this end, we carried out a socio-hydrological study by using long time series of hydrological (extreme flood events) and social (human population dynamics) processes, along with information about human interactions with the environment (flood defence structures). The historical analysis showed how human and water systems have been co-evolving over time, while being abruptly altered by the occurrence of an extreme flood event in 1870, just before Rome became the capital of a recently unified Italy. The outcomes of this study were then compared to the results of a socio-hydrological model simulating the dynamics emerging from the mutual shaping of floods and societies.

  15. Bristol Stool Form Scale reliability and agreement decreases when determining Rome III stool form designations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rater reproducibility of the Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS), which categorizes stools into one of seven types, is unknown. We sought to determine reliability and agreement by individual stool type and when responses are categorized by Rome III clinical designation as normal or abnormal (constipatio...

  16. #MarchOnRome: Of Alterity, Social Media, and Marching Bands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramo, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    In this online ethnography, I studied marching band identity by examining marching band enthusiasts' and music educators' responses on music teacher professional forums, Twitter, blogs, and other online media, to sports commentator Jim Rome's tweets describing marching band members as "dorks." Using a framework of alterity--or the…

  17. From Salerno to Rome: General Mark W. Clark and the Challenges of Coalition Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-15

    39 Operation Avalanche ...1943, Operation Avalanche commenced with the Fifth Army storming the beaches at Salerno. The American and British forces slowly made their way 2...in shaping their respective command philosophies. Fifth Army’s operations, from Operation Avalanche in September 1943 to the capture of Rome in June

  18. #MarchOnRome: Of Alterity, Social Media, and Marching Bands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramo, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    In this online ethnography, I studied marching band identity by examining marching band enthusiasts' and music educators' responses on music teacher professional forums, Twitter, blogs, and other online media, to sports commentator Jim Rome's tweets describing marching band members as "dorks." Using a framework of alterity--or the…

  19. Mental Disabilities in Western Civilization from Ancient Rome to the Prerogativa Regis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkson, Gershon

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary survey of formal concepts of "disability" from the Twelve Tables of Rome of the 5th century BCE to the Prerogativa Regis in English law of the late 13th century CE is presented. Firm conclusions are restricted by problems in translation and other limitations in available data. However, it appears that the concept of…

  20. Mental Disabilities in Western Civilization from Ancient Rome to the Prerogativa Regis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkson, Gershon

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary survey of formal concepts of "disability" from the Twelve Tables of Rome of the 5th century BCE to the Prerogativa Regis in English law of the late 13th century CE is presented. Firm conclusions are restricted by problems in translation and other limitations in available data. However, it appears that the concept of…

  1. The European Planetary Congress 2010 (Rome, September 19-25, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksanfomality, L. V.

    2011-08-01

    Almost 900 reports were presented at the planetary congress EPSC 2010 in Rome. The congress took place in the building of the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas. The report by A. Morbidelli et al. "The Origin of the Small Mass of Mars" was among the reports that drew the greatest attention of the participants.

  2. Jobs and Income for Rome and Floyd County: The Berry College Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Charles D.

    The economic impact of Berry College on Rome County, Georgia, was assessed using a differential value-added technique to measure the amount of induced spending. Direct spending sources associated with the college are direct purchase of goods and services and spending by faculty, staff, students, and visitors. Since every dollar initially spent in…

  3. Development and Validation of the Korean Rome III Questionnaire for Diagnosis of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kyung Ho; Min, Byung-Hoon; Youn, Young Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Keum, Bo Ra; Huh, Kyu Chan

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims A self-report questionnaire is frequently used to measure symptoms reliably and to distinguish patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) from those with other conditions. We produced and validated a cross-cultural adaptation of the Rome III questionnaire for diagnosis of FGIDs in Korea. Methods The Korean version of the Rome III (Rome III-K) questionnaire was developed through structural translational processes. Subsequently, reliability was measured by a test-retest procedure. Convergent validity was evaluated by comparing self-reported questionnaire data with the subsequent completion of the questionnaire by the physician based on an interview and with the clinical diagnosis. Concurrent validation using the validated Korean version of the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) was adopted to demonstrate discriminant validity. Results A total of 306 subjects were studied. Test-retest reliability was good, with a median Cronbach's α value of 0.83 (range, 0.71-0.97). The degree of agreement between patient-administered and physician-administered questionnaires to diagnose FGIDs was excellent; the κ index was 0.949 for irritable bowel syndrome, 0.883 for functional dyspepsia and 0.927 for functional heartburn. The physician's clinical diagnosis of functional dyspepsia showed the most marked discrepancy with that based on the self-administered questionnaire. Almost all SF-36 domains were impaired in participants diagnosed with one of these FGIDs according to the Rome III-K. Conclusions We developed the Rome III-K questionnaire though structural translational processes, and it revealed good test-retest reliability and satisfactory construct validity. These results suggest that this instrument will be useful for clinical and research assessments in the Korean population. PMID:24199012

  4. Gas potential of the Rome Trough in Kentucky: Results of recent Cambrian exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.C.; Drahovzal, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    A recent gas discovery in the Rome Trough suggests the need to re-evaluate the deep Cambrian potential of eastern Kentucky. A new phase of Cambrian exploration began in mid-1994 with a new pool discovery by the Carson Associates No. 1 Kazee well in Elliott County, Ky. This well blew out and initially flowed 11 MMcfd of gas from the upper Conasauga Group/Rome Formation at 6,258 to 6,270 feet. After this discovery, a second exploratory well (the Blue Ridge No. 1Greene) was drilled on a separate structure in Elliott County in late 1995. The Blue Ridge well was temporarily abandoned, but had shows of gas and condensate. In early 1996, Carson Associates offset their initial discovery well with the No. 33 Lawson Heirs well. This activity follows a frustrating exploration history in the Rome Trough that is marked by numerous gas and oil shows, but rare commercial production. Only three single-well pools have produced commercial gas from the trough, including the recent Kazee well. Stratigraphic units below the Cambrian-Ordovician Knox Group in the Rome Trough are dramatically thicker than their equivalents on the shelf to the north. The interval in the trough is thought to include rocks as old as Early Cambrian, consisting of a basal sandstone, equivalents of the Shady/Tomstown Dolomite, the Rome Formation, and the Conasauga Formation. Sandstones and fractured shales have been responsible for most of the production to date, but dolostone intervals may also have potential. Limited seismic data indicate possible fan-delta and basin-floor fan deposits that may have reservoir potential.

  5. Turning the rumor of May 11, 2011 earthquake prediction In Rome, Italy, into an information day on earthquake hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, A.; Cultrera, G.; Margheriti, L.; Nostro, C.; Selvaggi, G.; INGVterremoti Team

    2011-12-01

    headquarters until 9 p.m.: families, school classes with and without teachers, civil protection groups, journalists. This initiative, built up in a few weeks, had a very large feedback, also due to the media highlighting the presumed prediction. Although we could not rule out the possibility of a strong earthquake in central Italy (with effects in Rome) we tried to explain the meaning of short term earthquake prediction vs. probabilistic seismic hazard assessment. Despite many people remained with the fear (many decided to take a day off and leave the town or stay in public parks), we contributed to reduce this feeling and therefore the social cost of this strange Roman day. Moreover, another lesson learned is that these (fortunately sporadic) circumstances, when people's attention is high, are important opportunities for science communication. We thank all the INGV colleagues who contributed to the May 11 Open Day, in particular the Press Office, the Educational and Outreach laboratory, the Graphics Laboratory and SissaMedialab. P.S. no large earthquake happened

  6. The Relationship between Respiration-Related Membrane Potential Slow Oscillations and Discharge Patterns in Mitral/Tufted Cells: What Are the Rules?

    PubMed Central

    Briffaud, Virginie; Fourcaud-Trocmé, Nicolas; Messaoudi, Belkacem; Buonviso, Nathalie; Amat, Corine

    2012-01-01

    Background A slow respiration-related rhythm strongly shapes the activity of the olfactory bulb. This rhythm appears as a slow oscillation that is detectable in the membrane potential, the respiration-related spike discharge of the mitral/tufted cells and the bulbar local field potential. Here, we investigated the rules that govern the manifestation of membrane potential slow oscillations (MPSOs) and respiration-related discharge activities under various afferent input conditions and cellular excitability states. Methodology and Principal Findings We recorded the intracellular membrane potential signals in the mitral/tufted cells of freely breathing anesthetized rats. We first demonstrated the existence of multiple types of MPSOs, which were influenced by odor stimulation and discharge activity patterns. Complementary studies using changes in the intracellular excitability state and a computational model of the mitral cell demonstrated that slow oscillations in the mitral/tufted cell membrane potential were also modulated by the intracellular excitability state, whereas the respiration-related spike activity primarily reflected the afferent input. Based on our data regarding MPSOs and spike patterns, we found that cells exhibiting an unsynchronized discharge pattern never exhibited an MPSO. In contrast, cells with a respiration-synchronized discharge pattern always exhibited an MPSO. In addition, we demonstrated that the association between spike patterns and MPSO types appeared complex. Conclusion We propose that both the intracellular excitability state and input strength underlie specific MPSOs, which, in turn, constrain the types of spike patterns exhibited. PMID:22952828

  7. Intestinal tuft cells regulate the ATM mediated DNA Damage response via Dclk1 dependent mechanism for crypt restitution following radiation injury

    PubMed Central

    Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; May, Randal; Weygant, Nathaniel; Qu, Dongfeng; Berry, William L.; Sureban, Sripathi M.; Ali, Naushad; Rao, Chinthalapally; Huycke, Mark; Bronze, Michael S.; Houchen, Courtney W.

    2016-01-01

    Crypt epithelial survival and regeneration after injury require highly coordinated complex interplay between resident stem cells and diverse cell types. The function of Dclk1 expressing tuft cells regulating intestinal epithelial DNA damage response for cell survival/self-renewal after radiation-induced injury is unclear. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) were isolated and purified and utilized for experimental analysis. We found that small intestinal crypts of VillinCre;Dclk1f/f mice were hypoplastic and more apoptotic 24 h post-total body irradiation, a time when stem cell survival is p53-independent. Injury-induced ATM mediated DNA damage response, pro-survival genes, stem cell markers, and self-renewal ability for survival and restitution were reduced in the isolated intestinal epithelial cells. An even greater reduction in these signaling pathways was observed 3.5 days post-TBI, when peak crypt regeneration occurs. We found that interaction with Dclk1 is critical for ATM and COX2 activation in response to injury. We determined that Dclk1 expressing tuft cells regulate the whole intestinal epithelial cells following injury through paracrine mechanism. These findings suggest that intestinal tuft cells play an important role in regulating the ATM mediated DNA damage response, for epithelial cell survival/self-renewal via a Dclk1 dependent mechanism, and these processes are indispensable for restitution and function after severe radiation-induced injury. PMID:27876863

  8. Functional integration of the circulatory, immune, and respiratory systems in mosquito larvae: pathogen killing in the hemocyte-rich tracheal tufts.

    PubMed

    League, Garrett P; Hillyer, Julián F

    2016-09-19

    As both larvae and adults, mosquitoes encounter a barrage of immune insults, ranging from microbe-rich communities in larval habitats to ingested blood-borne pathogens in adult blood meals. Given that mosquito adults have evolved an efficient means of eliminating infections in their hemocoel (body cavity) via the coordinated action of their immune and circulatory systems, the goal of the present study was to determine whether such functional integration is also present in larvae. By fluorescently labeling hemocytes (immune cells), pericardial cells, and the heart, we discovered that fourth instar larvae, unlike adults, contain segmental hemocytes but lack the periostial hemocytes that surround the ostia (heart valves) in abdominal segments 2-7. Instead, larvae contain an abundance of sessile hemocytes at the tracheal tufts, which are respiratory structures that are unique to larvae, are located in the posterior-most abdominal segment, and surround what in larvae are the sole incurrent openings for hemolymph entry into the heart. Injection of fluorescent immune elicitors and bacteria into the larval hemocoel then showed that tracheal tuft hemocytes mount rapid and robust immune responses against foreign insults. Indeed, green fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli flowing with the hemolymph rapidly aggregate exclusively at the tracheal tufts, where they are killed within 24 h post-infection via both phagocytosis and melanization. Together, these findings show that the functional integration of the circulatory, respiratory, and immune systems of mosquitoes varies drastically across life stages.

  9. PREFACE: 1st-2nd Young Researchers Meetings in Rome - Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YRMR Organizing Committee; Cannuccia, E.; Mazzaferro, L.; Migliaccio, M.; Pietrobon, D.; Stellato, F.; Veneziani, M.

    2011-03-01

    Students in science, particularly in physics, face a fascinating and challenging future. Scientists have proposed very interesting theories, which describe the microscopic and macroscopic world fairly well, trying to match the quantum regime with cosmological scales. Between the extremes of this scenario, biological phenomena in all their complexity take place, challenging the laws we observe in the atomic and sub-atomic world. More and more accurate and complex experiments have been devised and these are now going to test the paradigms of physics. Notable experiments include: the Large Hadronic Collider (LHC), which is going to shed light on the physics of the Standard Model of Particles and its extensions; the Planck-Herschel satellites, which target a very precise measurement of the properties of our Universe; and the Free Electron Lasers facilities, which produce high-brilliance, ultrafast X-ray pulses, allowing the investigation of the fundamental processes of solid state physics, chemistry, and biology. These projects are the result of huge collaborations spread across the world, involving scientists belonging to different and complementary research fields: physicists, chemists, biologists and others, keen to make the best of these extraordinary laboratories. Even though each branch of science is experiencing a process of growing specialization, it is very important to keep an eye on the global picture, remaining aware of the deep interconnections between inherent fields. This is even more crucial for students who are beginning their research careers. These considerations motivated PhD students and young post-docs connected to the Roman scientific research area to organize a conference, to establish the background and the network for interactions and collaborations. This resulted in the 1st and 2nd Young Researchers Meetings in Rome (http://ryrm.roma2.infn.it), one day conferences aimed primarily at graduate students and post-docs, working in physics in Italy

  10. Tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) spontaneously use visual but not acoustic information to find hidden food items.

    PubMed

    Paukner, Annika; Huntsberry, Mary E; Suomi, Stephen J

    2009-02-01

    Foraging choices in tufted capuchins monkeys are guided by perceptual, cognitive, and motivational factors, but little is known about how these factors might interact. The present study investigates how different types of sensory information affect capuchins' ability to locate hidden food. In two experiments, capuchins were presented with two cups, one baited and one empty. Monkeys were given visual, acoustic, or acoustic-visual information related to the baited cup, the empty cup, or both baited and empty cup. Results show that capuchins spontaneously used visual information to locate food, and that information indicating presence and absence of food led to higher success rates than information indicating only absence of food. In contrast, acoustic information did not lead to success rates above chance levels and failed to enhance performance in combination with visual information. Capuchins spontaneously avoided a visually empty cup, but they did not appear to associate sounds with either the presence or absence of food. Being able to locate food items with the aid of acoustic cues might be a learned process that requires interactive experiences with the task's contingencies.

  11. Radiographic changes of the distal phalanx tuft of the hands in subjects with systemic sclerosis. Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Yojhan Edilberto; Calvo Páramo, Enrique; Castañeda, Luisa María; Gómez, Sandra Viviana; Zambrano, Fernán Santiago

    2016-10-13

    To determine abnormal plain radiograph findings of the distal phalanx tuft of the hand (DPTH) associated with systemic sclerosis in adults. A systematic review was developed following the parameters of the PRISMA guidelines in databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIREME, Scielo, Google Scholar and others including as primary outcomes alterations of DPTH (erosions, resorption, sclerosis and proliferation) detected by simple radiography in subjects with systemic sclerosis. The prevalence of radiographic findings was synthesized using the fixed effects model. The statistical associations were expressed in terms of relative risk or odds ratio with their respective confidence intervals and p values. Twenty-two observational studies were included; the prevalence of DPTH resorption was 28.3% (95% CI: 0.256-0.312; p < .001); I(2)=80.4%, the prevalence of calcinosis was 15.6% (95% CI: 0.113-0.210; p < .001); I(2)=0%. No study reported proliferation or erosions and only one study described sclerosis of DPTH in 5 individuals. Resorption and calcinosis of DPTH are the characteristic radiographic findings in patients with systemic sclerosis. However, new studies with greater methodological strength are needed to establish associations between these phenomena and their presence in other connective tissue diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  12. Ovicidal response of NYDA formulations on the human head louse (Anoplura: Pediculidae) using a hair tuft bioassay.

    PubMed

    Strycharz, Joseph P; Lao, Alice R; Alves, Anna-Maria; Clark, J Marshall

    2012-03-01

    Using the in vitro rearing system in conjunction with the hair tuft bioassay, NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations (92% wt:wt dimeticones) were 100% ovicidal (0% of treated eggs hatched) after an 8-h exposure of the eggs of the human head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer) following the manufacturer's instructions. Comparatively, 78 and 66% of eggs similarly exposed hatched after distilled deionized water or Nix (1% permethrin) treatments, respectively. NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations were also statistically and substantially more ovicidal than either distilled deionized water or Nix treatments after 10, 30 min, and 1 h exposures. Only the 10 min exposure of eggs to NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations resulted in hatched lice that survived to adulthood (5-8% survival). Of the lice that hatched from eggs exposed to NYDA formulations for 10 min, there were no significant differences in the time it took them to become adults, female fecundity or the viability of eggs laid by surviving females. The longevity of adults, however, was reduced after the 10 min treatments of eggs with NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations compared with either the distilled deionized water or Nix treatments.

  13. Fully Automated Evaluation of Total Glomerular Number and Capillary Tuft Size in Nephritic Kidneys Using Lightsheet Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Klingberg, Anika; Hasenberg, Anja; Ludwig-Portugall, Isis; Medyukhina, Anna; Männ, Linda; Brenzel, Alexandra; Engel, Daniel R; Figge, Marc Thilo; Kurts, Christian; Gunzer, Matthias

    2017-02-01

    The total number of glomeruli is a fundamental parameter of kidney function but very difficult to determine using standard methodology. Here, we counted all individual glomeruli in murine kidneys and sized the capillary tufts by combining in vivo fluorescence labeling of endothelial cells, a novel tissue-clearing technique, lightsheet microscopy, and automated registration by image analysis. Total hands-on time per organ was <1 hour, and automated counting/sizing was finished in <3 hours. We also investigated the novel use of ethyl-3-phenylprop-2-enoate (ethyl cinnamate) as a nontoxic solvent-based clearing reagent that can be handled without specific safety measures. Ethyl cinnamate rapidly cleared all tested organs, including calcified bone, but the fluorescence of proteins and immunohistochemical labels was maintained over weeks. Using ethyl cinnamate-cleared kidneys, we also quantified the average creatinine clearance rate per glomerulus. This parameter decreased in the first week of experimental nephrotoxic nephritis, whereas reduction in glomerular numbers occurred much later. Our approach delivers fundamental parameters of renal function, and because of its ease of use and speed, it is suitable for high-throughput analysis and could greatly facilitate studies of the effect of kidney diseases on whole-organ physiology.

  14. Effects of acute systemic cocaine administration on the cortisol, ACTH and prolactin levels of black tufted-ear marmosets.

    PubMed

    Lima, Daniela; Spíndola, Daiana B; Dias, Luana O; Tomaz, Carlos; Barros, Marilia

    2008-04-01

    The effect of acute systemic cocaine administration on total circulating cortisol, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and prolactin levels of nine adult black tufted-ear marmoset monkeys (Callithrix penicillata) was investigated. For each subject, two blood samples were obtained after an i.p. injection of 10 and 20mg/kg of cocaine: one sample was drawn 30-min post-injection, while the second was following a 60-min interval. Blood samples were also obtained 0, 30 and 60 min following a saline injection. The 20 mg/kg dose of cocaine induced a significant decrease in ACTH levels 60 min after being administered. Circulating levels of cortisol, on the other hand, increased significantly 60 min after the 20 mg/kg dose. Prolactin concentrations decreased significantly 30 and 60 min after both doses of cocaine had been administered (10 and 20 mg/kg). Finally, the content of the three hormones analyzed remained constant 0, 30 and 60 min post-saline administrations. Therefore, an acute systemic cocaine challenge alters the basal circulating levels of ACTH, cortisol and prolactin of marmoset monkeys. A distinct response pattern was observed for each hormone analyzed, possibly related to specific negative feedback mechanisms and/or this species glucocorticoid-resistance. The use of this small neotropical primate may thus provide a unique opportunity to investigate cocaine-induced neuroendocrine effects.

  15. Immediate, but no delayed, behavioral response to a snake model by captive black tufted-ear marmosets.

    PubMed

    Cagni, Priscila; Sampaio, Ana Cristhina; Ribeiro, Natália B; Barros, Marilia

    2011-07-01

    Whether callitrichids are naturally capable of detecting and responding to predators - or if such skills are learned - remains a controversial issue, with results differing in terms of species, predator and encounter conditions. Therefore, the behavioral response of naïve adult captive black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) was assessed before, during, 0 and 4 h after a 5-min encounter with a snake and flower model. Using a two-phase cross-over design, marmosets (n = 16) were submitted to one trial for each stimulus, divided into four 5-min intervals: pre-exposure, exposure and post-exposure observations held 0 and 4h later. The snake exposure increased the number of gazes made towards the stimulus and the time cage-mates spent close to each other, as well as induced tsik-tsik alarm/mobbing calls, while inhibiting foraging and decreasing the time spent near the snake's location. After the snake was removed, all changes were immediately reversed. Mobbing was not observed. The flower stimulus only increased direct gazes and time spent in proximity during its presentation. All marmosets were captive-born and snake-naïve yet had recently been confronted with a cat stimulus in a previous experiment. Thus, previous experiences with snakes may be required for marmosets to fully develop appropriate immediate and long-term responses.

  16. Back-Propagation of Physiological Action Potential Output in Dendrites of Slender-Tufted L5A Pyramidal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Grewe, Benjamin F.; Bonnan, Audrey; Frick, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Pyramidal neurons of layer 5A are a major neocortical output type and clearly distinguished from layer 5B pyramidal neurons with respect to morphology, in vivo firing patterns, and connectivity; yet knowledge of their dendritic properties is scant. We used a combination of whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging techniques in vitro to explore the specific dendritic signaling role of physiological action potential patterns recorded in vivo in layer 5A pyramidal neurons of the whisker-related ‘barrel cortex’. Our data provide evidence that the temporal structure of physiological action potential patterns is crucial for an effective invasion of the main apical dendrites up to the major branch point. Both the critical frequency enabling action potential trains to invade efficiently and the dendritic calcium profile changed during postnatal development. In contrast to the main apical dendrite, the more passive properties of the short basal and apical tuft dendrites prevented an efficient back-propagation. Various Ca2+ channel types contributed to the enhanced calcium signals during high-frequency firing activity, whereas A-type K+ and BKCa channels strongly suppressed it. Our data support models in which the interaction of synaptic input with action potential output is a function of the timing, rate and pattern of action potentials, and dendritic location. PMID:20508744

  17. Surface structures (peritrichous fibrils and tufts of fibrils) found on Streptococcus sanguis strains may be related to their ability to coaggregate with other oral genera.

    PubMed Central

    Handley, P S; Carter, P L; Wyatt, J E; Hesketh, L M

    1985-01-01

    We screened 36 strains of Streptococcus sanguis biotype I and 8 strains of S. sanguis biotype II for the presence of surface structures and for their ability to coaggregate with Actinomyces viscosus, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Negative staining under an electron microscope revealed detectable surface structures on all S. sanguis strains. The majority of strains (38 of 44) carried peritrichous fibrils, which have an irregular profile and no distinct width. They usually appeared as a fringe with a constant width around the cell. Strains selected for measurement had a fringe with an average length of 72.4 +/- 8.5 nm on biotype I strains and 51.6 +/- 3.3 nm on biotype II strains. Some fibrillar biotype I strains carried an additional, longer (158.7 +/- 33.1 nm) type of fibril projecting through the shorter fibrils. Fibrillar density was characteristic for each strain, ranging from very dense on all cells in a population to very sparse on a few cells in a population. A small group of six strains carried tufts of fibrils in a lateral or polar position on the cell. Either one or two lengths of fibril were present in the tuft depending on the strain. One strain carried both peritrichous fibrils and fimbriae. Fimbriae are flexible structures with a constant width (4.5 to 5.0 nm) all along their length but very variable lengths (less than or equal to 0.7 micron) on each cell. S. sanguis I and II both included strains with peritrichous fibrils and tufts of fibrils, but the mixed morphotype strain was confined to biotype II. Fibrils were present on cells at all stages throughout the growth cycle for the strains tested. Freshly isolated fibrillar strains coaggregated consistently well with A. viscosus and A. naeslundii, although some fibrillar reference strains lacked the ability. In addition, all tufted strains could not coaggregate, but the strains with the mixed morphotype coaggregated well. Coaggregation with F. nucleatum was very strong for the

  18. Atmospheric aerosols in Rome, Italy: sources, dynamics and spatial variations during two seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struckmeier, Caroline; Drewnick, Frank; Fachinger, Friederike; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Borrmann, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    Investigations on atmospheric aerosols and their sources were carried out in October/November 2013 and May/June 2014 consecutively in a suburban area of Rome (Tor Vergata) and in central Rome (near St Peter's Basilica). During both years a Saharan dust advection event temporarily increased PM10 concentrations at ground level by about 12-17 µg m-3. Generally, in October/November the ambient aerosol was more strongly influenced by primary emissions, whereas higher relative contributions of secondary particles (sulfate, aged organic aerosol) were found in May/June. Absolute concentrations of anthropogenic emission tracers (e.g. NOx, CO2, particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, traffic-related organic aerosol) were generally higher at the urban location. Positive matrix factorization was applied to the PM1 organic aerosol (OA) fraction of aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) data to identify different sources of primary OA (POA): traffic, cooking, biomass burning and (local) cigarette smoking. While biomass burning OA was only found at the suburban site, where it accounted for the major fraction of POA (18-24 % of total OA), traffic and cooking were more dominant sources at the urban site. A particle type associated with cigarette smoke emissions, which is associated with a potential characteristic marker peak (m/z 84, C5H10N+, a nicotine fragment) in the mass spectrum, was only found in central Rome, where it was emitted in close vicinity to the measurement location. Regarding secondary OA, in October/November, only a very aged, regionally advected oxygenated OA was found, which contributed 42-53 % to the total OA. In May/June total oxygenated OA accounted for 56-76 % of the OA. Here a fraction (18-26 % of total OA) of a fresher, less oxygenated OA of more local origin was also observed. New particle formation events were identified from measured particle number concentrations and size distributions in May/June 2014 at both sites. While they were observed

  19. Petrographic, biological, and chemical techniques used to characterize two tombs in the Protestant Cemetery of Rome (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Russa, M. F.; Ruffolo, S. A.; Malagodi, M.; Barca, D.; Cirrincione, R.; Pezzino, A.; Crisci, G. M.; Miriello, D.

    2010-09-01

    In this multidisciplinary contribution, several diagnostic tests were carried out in order to characterize the stone materials, forms of alteration, and protective products applied in the past to two monumental tombs located in the Protestant Cemetery of Rome (Italy). The Protestant Cemetery is a very important historic site, and has been included in the List of 100 Most Endangered Sites in the World since 2005. In this work, two of its tombs were studied: those of Karl (or Charles) Brjullov, a Russian painter who lived in the first half of the nineteenth century, and of Lady Elisa Temple, wife of the artist Sir Grenville Temple. The tombs are both made of white marble and travertine, and the same forms of alteration and degradation, such as blackish biological patinas, black crusts, and chromatic alterations, were found on both monuments. Petrographic analysis of the different lithotypes made it possible to determine textural characteristics, evaluate the state of preservation, and formulate some hypotheses about their provenance by means of oxygen and carbon isotopic ratios, and evaluation of maximum grain size (MGS) and shape preferred orientation (SPO) of calcite grains. Laboratory culture analysis identified autotrophic species and, in some cases, black patinas caused by fungal species were found. Lastly, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed that some synthetic protective products had been used in previous, undocumented restoration processes on some portions of both graves.

  20. Detection of cocaine in the airborne particles of the Italian cities Rome and Taranto.

    PubMed

    Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia

    2007-08-01

    Cocaine was first detected in the air of two Italian cities, Rome and Taranto, where it reached concentrations sometimes exceeding 100 pg/m(3), by HRGC-MS analysis of carbonaceous aerosol samples. By contrast, the drug was virtually absent in Algiers (Algeria). In Italy, atmospheric concentrations of cocaine were, on average, similar to those of other toxic pollutants like polychlorobiphenyls or nitrated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and higher than those of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorodibenzofurans. The cocaine concentrations seemed to correlate with regional consumption of the drug in Rome and Taranto. By contrast, it correlated neither with nicotine or caffeine, nor with benzo[a]pyrene, the sole organic compound associated with aerosols that is quoted according to Italian legislation.

  1. Eros underground: Greece and Rome in gay print culture, 1953-65.

    PubMed

    Richlin, Amy

    2005-01-01

    This essay surveys the building of intellectual community through print culture in the nascent gay movement in the United States and in Europe in the mid-twentieth century. Amateur historians, especially Jim Kepner and W. Dorr Legg of ONE, used Greece and Rome as models on which to base claims for gay rights. Ancient history figured in ONE's educational enterprises, including articles in the magazine ONE, the ONE Institute, and Homophile Studies. The magazine writers and their readership faced problems in the accessibility of knowledge, which the increasing circulation of the magazines corrected, to a degree. Biases surviving from the Victorian period caused the popular idea of ancient homophile culture to favor Greece over Rome, and made Greek a code word. Antiquity also played a large, though decreasing, role in formations of homoerotic fantasy during this period.

  2. Cutting Edge Research in Homeopathy: HRI's second international research conference in Rome.

    PubMed

    Tournier, Alexander L; Roberts, E Rachel

    2016-02-01

    Rome, 3rd-5th June 2015, was the setting for the Homeopathy Research Institute's (HRI) second conference with the theme 'Cutting Edge Research in Homeopathy'. Attended by over 250 delegates from 39 countries, this event provided an intense two and a half day programme of presentations and a forum for the sharing of ideas and the creation of international scientific collaborations. With 35 oral presentations from leaders in the field, the scientific calibre of the programme was high and the content diverse. This report summarises the key themes underpinning the cutting edge data presented by the speakers, including six key-note presentations, covering advancements in both basic and clinical research. Given the clear commitment of the global homeopathic community to high quality research, the resounding success of both Barcelona 2013 and Rome 2015 HRI conferences, and the dedicated support of colleagues, the HRI moves confidently forward towards the next biennial conference.

  3. The beginnings of theoretical condensed matter physics in Rome: a personal remembrance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Castro, Carlo; Bonolis, Luisa

    2014-02-01

    This oral history interview provides a personal view on how theoretical condensed matter physics developed in Rome starting in the sixties of the last century. It then follows along the lines of research pursued by the interviewee up to the date of the interview, in March 2006. The topics considered range from the phenomenology of superfluid helium and superconductors, critical phenomena and renormalisation group approach, quantum fluids to strongly correlated electron systems and high temperature superconductors. Within these topics, fundamental problems of condensed matter physics are touched upon, such as the microscopic derivation of scaling, the metal-insulator transition and the interaction effects on disordered electron systems beyond the Anderson localisation, and the existence of heterogeneous states in cuprates. The English text presented here and revised by the authors is based on the original oral history interview recorded in Italian at Carlo Di Castro's office, Physics Department of Sapienza University, Rome, Italy, March 2006.

  4. Reconstruction of The Extreme Flood Series of The Tiber River In Rome From The Xv Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calenda, G.; Calvani, L.; Mancini, C. P.; Volpi, E.

    The stage measurements of extreme flood events of the Tiber River in Rome constitute one of the longer available hydrologic records. In fact we are fairly sure of knowing the peak stages of all the extreme floods which flooded the town of Rome since the XV century. It is an almost complete record covering more than 500 years. An effort to evaluate the peak flow of the observed events may be very helpful for the understanding of the long term behaviour of the extreme flood events. The case of the Tiber River in Rome is particularly favourable, since several informations are available: a) a long record of daily stage measurements up to the XVIII century; b) several records of daily rainfall depth measurement at rain gauges in the Tiber catchment extending at least up to the middle of the XIX century; c) detailed surveys executed immediately after the great flood of 1870, that flooded the town of Rome, before the extensive modifications of the town and of the river bed, following the annexation of the town to the kingdom of Italy, including: the town and of the river bed, maximum flood levels in the river and in the town, the food hydrograph; d) a less detailed survey of the river bed executed in 1744; e) an extremely rich iconography, showing the conditions of the Tiber banks starting from the XVI century; f) contemporary description of several extreme floodings; g) a rich series of flow measurements and bed surveys after the great flood of 1870 to present days. Using a monodimensional steady state model to compute flow profiles in the river bed, a bidimensional hydrodinamic model to simulate the flooding of the town, and correlating the estimated flows and rainfall records for control purposes, a reasonable reconstruction of a five century long extreme flood series has been attempte.

  5. [The Museum of History of Medicine at Rome University la Sapienza].

    PubMed

    Aruta, Alessandro; Marinozzi, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    The Museum for the History of Medicine at Rome University has been--from its very origins--conceived as a didactic device. In its organization and structure, it embodies a journey through medical history, from the remote antiquity to the contemporary age and accounting for continuities and changes. Objects are contextualized through different means--detailed verbal explications as well as new medias. The Museum is thus an institution open to different publics--from sophisticated scholars to young students.

  6. Heartburn according to Rome II in Spanish-Mexico: gastroesophageal reflux must be ruled out.

    PubMed

    Schmulson, Max

    2009-01-01

    Heartburn precludes ruling out gastroesophageal reflux (GER) to diagnose functional heartburn (FH). To explore the frequency of GER in patients in Mexico reporting heartburn according to Rome II and whether GER in non-heartburn patients is related to dyspepsia. We analyzed 40 patients that answered the Rome II Questionnaire in Spanish-Mexico and were tested with pH-monitoring and/or endoscopy. GER was determined in heartburn and non-heartburn patients and dyspepsia symptoms in heartburn GER and non-heartburn GER. Heartburn was reported by 40%, GER was present in 62.5% of them vs. 29.2% of the non-heartburn (p = 0.037). Accordingly, 37.5% of those reporting heartburn had FH, for a real prevalence of 15%. Of the non-heartburn GER, 43.0% reported dyspepsia symptoms. In patients with heartburn by Rome II Spanish-Mexico, GER must be ruled out. GER is also present in a subset of non heartburn patients manifested by dyspepsia symptoms.

  7. [Rome: capital of an empire under the banner of political biology (1936-1942)].

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the symbolic conformation of Rome and Romanism as important factors in the affirmation of the power of fascism, especially after the proclamation of the Empire in 1936. Within this framework, it explores the role of science in legitimizing the direct correlation of this symbolic universe with a praxis that exalted racial superiority inherited from Ancient Rome. It investigates the links between the eugenic discourse and the exercise of power behind the "biology policy", including fascist organicism and racism. In fact, Rome was the essence of an empire that was reborn after fifteen centuries and, between its historical legacy and the new scenarios created by fascism for disciplining the population, Romanism had to condense all of the merits of the race, encouraging military conquests and promoting responsibility for maintaining racial purity and avoiding "unwanted miscegenation" with conquered peoples. The idea of Romanism also encouraged a continuation of the persecution of Jews started in Germany. Hence, science ratified a widespread idea of the Romanization as a crusade to impose a force, exaggerated on racial grounds, which integrated confidence in environmental factors with a crude biological determinism.

  8. Proximate Factors Underpinning Receiver Responses to Deceptive False Alarm Calls in Wild Tufted Capuchin Monkeys: Is It Counterdeception?

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Brandon C; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that tufted capuchin monkeys use terrestrial predator alarm calls in a functionally deceptive manner to distract conspecifics when feeding on contestable resources, although the success of this tactic is limited because listeners frequently ignore these calls when given in such situations. While this decreased response rate is suggestive of a counterstrategy to deception by receivers, the proximate factors underpinning the behavior are unclear. The current study aims to test if the decreased response rate to alarm calls in competitive contexts is better explained by the perception of subtle acoustic differences between predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms, or by receivers varying their responses based on the context in which the signal is received. This was tested by first examining the acoustic structure of predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms for any potentially perceptible acoustic differences, and second by comparing the responses of capuchins to playbacks of each of predator-elicited and false alarms, played back in noncompetitive contexts. The results indicate that deceptive false alarms and predator-elicited alarms show, at best, minimal acoustic differences based on the structural features measured. Likewise, playbacks of deceptive false alarms elicited antipredator reactions at the same rate as did predator-elicited alarms, although there was a nonsignificant tendency for false alarms to be more likely to elicit escape reactions. The lack of robust acoustic differences together with the high response rate to false alarms in noncompetitive contexts suggests that the context in which the signal is received best explains receiver responses. It remains unclear, however, if listeners ascribe different meanings to the calls based on context, or if they generally ignore all signals in competitive contexts. Whether or not the decreased response rate of receivers directly stems from the deceptive use of the calls

  9. Sequential organization and optimization of the nut-cracking behavior of semi-free tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp.).

    PubMed

    Corat, Clara; Siqueira, José; Ottoni, Eduardo B

    2016-01-01

    Stone-aided nut-cracking requires the coordination of three elements: the agent must assemble nuts, a "hammer" stone and an "anvil." Under naturalistic settings, nut-cracking sites, constituted of anvil-like surfaces and already containing a hammer stone, can be fairly stable, lasting as long as the "hammer" stays in place. In an experiment with a semi-free-ranging group of tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp.) we observed the behavioral sequences leading to nut-cracking. We positioned nuts, hammer, and anvil at the vertices of a 10-m-sided equilateral triangle. Thus, to crack a nut the individuals had to visit the vertices and gather the movable elements (nut and hammer) at the anvil. Under such conditions, the monkeys systematically employed a nut-hammer-anvil vertex visit sequence, one of the shortest and more cost-effective possible routes. In the following experiment, we examined whether the gathering of the hammer after the nuts resulted solely from a "nut first" strategy or if the monkeys were also minimizing hammer transport costs. We positioned two hammers, of the same weight, at different distances from the nuts and anvil, so the cost of hammer transportation (energy and risk of injury) would be higher or lower depending on the choice of hammer (the hammer closer to the nuts being farther from the anvil). We found that, instead of collecting the closest hammer, after collecting the nut, the monkeys systematically chose the hammer closer to (and beyond) the anvil, thus minimizing transport costs.

  10. Breeding site fidelity and winter admixture in a long-distance migrant, the tufted duck (Aythya fuligula)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y; Keller, I; Heckel, G

    2012-01-01

    Long-distance migrants are, by definition, highly mobile but it is poorly understood if this leads to high rates of gene flow and an essentially panmictic global population structure. Genetic divergence in migratory species could be promoted, for example, by fidelity to distinct migratory pathways. In this study, we investigate the population genetic structure of tufted duck (Aythya fuligula), a long-distance migrant with a largely continuous breeding distribution across Eurasia. Distinct, longitudinally oriented flyways have been postulated based on geographically disjunct wintering areas and are supported by evidence from ringing data. We generated sequences of the mitochondrial control region and multi-locus microsatellite genotypes for several hundreds of samples from the European and Asian breeding and wintering grounds including some individuals infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1. Significant differentiation between breeding sites was observed for both marker types, but FST values were approximately 10 times higher for maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA than for biparentally transmitted nuclear markers. The genetic differentiation between the postulated European and Asian flyways was similar to that observed within continents and, in general, genetic divergence was not associated with geographic distance. Neither marker type showed evidence of genetic substructure among aggregations on the European wintering grounds. Our results suggest some breeding site fidelity, especially in females, but extensive population admixture on the wintering grounds. Several scenarios may explain the observed lack of genetic divergence between Europe and Asia including non-equilibrium conditions following a recent range expansion or contemporary gene flow across the postulated migratory divides. PMID:22549516

  11. Self-control depletion in tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.): does delay of gratification rely on a limited resource?

    PubMed Central

    Petrillo, Francesca De; Gori, Emanuele; Truppa, Valentina; Ariely, Dan; Addessi, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Self-control failure has enormous personal and societal consequences. One of the most debated models explaining why self-control breaks down is the Strength Model, according to which self-control depends on a limited resource. Either previous acts of self-control or taking part in highly demanding cognitive tasks have been shown to reduce self-control, possibly due to a reduction in blood glucose levels. However, several studies yielded negative findings, and recent meta-analyses questioned the robustness of the depletion effect in humans. We investigated, for the first time, whether the Strength Model applies to a non-human primate species, the tufted capuchin monkey. We tested five capuchins in a self-control task (the Accumulation task) in which food items were accumulated within individual’s reach for as long as the subject refrained from taking them. We evaluated whether capuchins’ performance decreases: (i) when tested before receiving their daily meal rather than after consuming it (Energy Depletion Experiment), and (ii) after being tested in two tasks with different levels of cognitive complexity (Cognitive Depletion Experiment). We also tested, in both experiments, how implementing self-control in each trial of the Accumulation task affected this capacity within each session and/or across consecutive sessions. Repeated acts of self-control in each trial of the Accumulation task progressively reduced this capacity within each session, as predicted by the Strength Model. However, neither experiencing a reduction in energy level nor taking part in a highly demanding cognitive task decreased performance in the subsequent Accumulation task. Thus, whereas capuchins seem to be vulnerable to within-session depletion effects, to other extents our findings are in line with the growing body of studies that failed to find a depletion effect in humans. Methodological issues potentially affecting the lack of depletion effects in capuchins are discussed. PMID

  12. Proximate factors underpinning receiver responses to deceptive false alarm calls in wild tufted capuchin monkeys: is it counterdeception?

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Brandon C; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2013-07-01

    Previous research demonstrates that tufted capuchin monkeys use terrestrial predator alarm calls in a functionally deceptive manner to distract conspecifics when feeding on contestable resources, although the success of this tactic is limited because listeners frequently ignore these calls when given in such situations. While this decreased response rate is suggestive of a counterstrategy to deception by receivers, the proximate factors underpinning the behavior are unclear. The current study aims to test if the decreased response rate to alarm calls in competitive contexts is better explained by the perception of subtle acoustic differences between predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms, or by receivers varying their responses based on the context in which the signal is received. This was tested by first examining the acoustic structure of predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms for any potentially perceptible acoustic differences, and second by comparing the responses of capuchins to playbacks of each of predator-elicited and false alarms, played back in noncompetitive contexts. The results indicate that deceptive false alarms and predator-elicited alarms show, at best, minimal acoustic differences based on the structural features measured. Likewise, playbacks of deceptive false alarms elicited antipredator reactions at the same rate as did predator-elicited alarms, although there was a nonsignificant tendency for false alarms to be more likely to elicit escape reactions. The lack of robust acoustic differences together with the high response rate to false alarms in noncompetitive contexts suggests that the context in which the signal is received best explains receiver responses. It remains unclear, however, if listeners ascribe different meanings to the calls based on context, or if they generally ignore all signals in competitive contexts. Whether or not the decreased response rate of receivers directly stems from the deceptive use of the calls

  13. Genetic characterization of congenital tufting enteropathy: epcam associated phenotype and involvement of SPINT2 in the syndromic form.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Julie; Goulet, Olivier; Canioni, Danielle; Brousse, Nicole; Lemale, Julie; Tounian, Patrick; Coulomb, Aurore; Marinier, Evelyne; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Ruemmele, Frank; Dufier, Jean-Louis; Roche, Olivier; Bodemer, Christine; Colomb, Virginie; Talbotec, Cécile; Lacaille, Florence; Campeotto, Florence; Cerf-Bensussan, Nadine; Janecke, Andreas R; Mueller, Thomas; Koletzko, Sibylle; Bonnefont, Jean-Paul; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Munnich, Arnold; Poirier, Françoise; Smahi, Asma

    2014-03-01

    Congenital tufting enteropathy (CTE) is a rare and severe enteropathy recently ascribed to mutations in the epcam gene. Here we establish SPINT2, previously ascribed to congenital sodium diarrhea, as a second gene associated with CTE and report molecular and immunohistochemistry data in 57 CTE patients. Inclusion criteria were early onset diarrhea and intestinal insufficiency with the typical histological CTE abnormalities. The clinical phenotype was registered, the entire coding regions of epcam and SPINT2 sequenced, and immunostaining of EpCAM and SPINT2 performed on intestinal biopsies. An epcam mutation was involved in 41 patients (73 %) who mainly displayed isolated digestive symptoms. Mutations severely affected gene expression since the EpCAM signal on intestinal tissues was either undetectable or low and irregular. Twelve other patients (21 %) carried mutations in SPINT2, and were phenotypically characterized by systematic association with keratitis (p < 10(-4)) and, for half of them, with choanal atresia (p < 10(-4)). Dependency on parenteral nutrition (PN) was comparable in patients with epcam or SPINT2 mutations, but the frequent epcam mutation c.556-14A>G (abnormal splicing) was significantly associated with a better outcome (p = 0.032) with milder PN dependency to weaning in some cases. Finally, four patients (7 %) with isolated digestive symptoms had no detectable epcam or SPINT2 mutation. Two candidate genes, Elf3 and Claudin7, were excluded from this population. Our study allows us to separate CTE patients into at least three genetic classes, each with specific phenotypes. The genetics approach raises the question of the distinction between two congenital enteropathies. Our findings should help improve the diagnosis of CTE, guide toward strategies of long-term PN management, and limit indications for intestinal transplantation to life-threatening PN complications.

  14. When is it worth waiting for? Food quantity, but not food quality, affects delay tolerance in tufted capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed

    De Petrillo, Francesca; Gori, Emanuele; Micucci, Antonia; Ponsi, Giorgia; Paglieri, Fabio; Addessi, Elsa

    2015-09-01

    When faced with choices between smaller sooner options and larger later options (i.e. intertemporal choices), both humans and non-human animals discount future rewards. Apparently, only humans consistently show the magnitude effect, according to which larger options are discounted over time at a lower rate than smaller options. Most of the studies carried out in non-human animals led instead to negative results. Here, we tested ten tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) in a delay choice task to evaluate whether they show a magnitude effect when choosing between different quantities of the same food or when the options are represented by high- and low-preferred foods in different conditions. Whereas food quality did not play a role, we provided the first evidence of an effect of the reward amount on temporal preferences in a non-human primate species, a result with potential implications for the validity of comparative studies on the evolution of delay tolerance. In contrast with human results, but as shown in other animal species, capuchins' choice of the larger later option decreased as the amount of the smaller sooner option increased. Capuchins based their temporal preferences on the quantity of the smaller sooner option, rather than on that of the larger later option, probably because in the wild they virtually never have to choose between the above two options at the same time, but they more often encounter them consecutively. Thus, paying attention to the sooner option and deciding on the basis of its features may be an adaptive strategy rather than an irrational response.

  15. Effect of sniffing on the temporal structure of mitral/tufted cell output from the olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Ryan M.; Wachowiak, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Neural activity underlying odor representations in the mammalian olfactory system is strongly patterned by respiratory behavior; these dynamics are central to many models of olfactory information processing. We have previously found that sensory inputs to the olfactory bulb change both their magnitude and temporal structure as a function of sniff frequency. Here, we asked how sniff frequency affects responses of mitral/tufted (MT) cells – the principal olfactory bulb output neuron. We recorded from MT cells in anesthetized rats while reproducing sniffs recorded previously from awake animals and varying sniff frequency. The dynamics of a sniff-evoked response were consistent from sniff to sniff but varied across cells. Compared to the dynamics of receptor neuron activation by the same sniffs, the MT response was shorter and faster, reflecting a temporal sharpening of sensory inputs. Increasing sniff frequency led to moderate attenuation of MT response magnitude and significant changes in the temporal structure of the sniff-evoked MT cell response. Most MT cells responded with a shorter duration and shorter rise-time spike burst as sniff frequency increased, reflecting increased temporal sharpening of inputs by the olfactory bulb. These temporal changes were necessary and sufficient to maintain respiratory modulation in the MT cell population across the range of sniff frequencies expressed during behavior. These results suggest that the input-output relationship in the olfactory bulb varies dynamically as a function of sniff frequency, and that one function of the postsynaptic network is to maintain robust temporal encoding of odor information across different odor sampling strategies. PMID:21775605

  16. Breeding site fidelity and winter admixture in a long-distance migrant, the tufted duck (Aythya fuligula).

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Keller, I; Heckel, G

    2012-08-01

    Long-distance migrants are, by definition, highly mobile but it is poorly understood if this leads to high rates of gene flow and an essentially panmictic global population structure. Genetic divergence in migratory species could be promoted, for example, by fidelity to distinct migratory pathways. In this study, we investigate the population genetic structure of tufted duck (Aythya fuligula), a long-distance migrant with a largely continuous breeding distribution across Eurasia. Distinct, longitudinally oriented flyways have been postulated based on geographically disjunct wintering areas and are supported by evidence from ringing data. We generated sequences of the mitochondrial control region and multi-locus microsatellite genotypes for several hundreds of samples from the European and Asian breeding and wintering grounds including some individuals infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1. Significant differentiation between breeding sites was observed for both marker types, but F(ST) values were approximately 10 times higher for maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA than for biparentally transmitted nuclear markers. The genetic differentiation between the postulated European and Asian flyways was similar to that observed within continents and, in general, genetic divergence was not associated with geographic distance. Neither marker type showed evidence of genetic substructure among aggregations on the European wintering grounds. Our results suggest some breeding site fidelity, especially in females, but extensive population admixture on the wintering grounds. Several scenarios may explain the observed lack of genetic divergence between Europe and Asia including non-equilibrium conditions following a recent range expansion or contemporary gene flow across the postulated migratory divides.

  17. Ontogeny of manipulative behavior and nut-cracking in young tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): a perception-action perspective.

    PubMed

    de Resende, Briseida Dogo; Ottoni, Eduardo B; Fragaszy, Dorothy M

    2008-11-01

    How do capuchin monkeys learn to use stones to crack open nuts? Perception-action theory posits that individuals explore producing varying spatial and force relations among objects and surfaces, thereby learning about affordances of such relations and how to produce them. Such learning supports the discovery of tool use. We present longitudinal developmental data from semifree-ranging tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) to evaluate predictions arising from Perception-action theory linking manipulative development and the onset of tool-using. Percussive actions bringing an object into contact with a surface appeared within the first year of life. Most infants readily struck nuts and other objects against stones or other surfaces from 6 months of age, but percussive actions alone were not sufficient to produce nut-cracking sequences. Placing the nut on the anvil surface and then releasing it, so that it could be struck with a stone, was the last element necessary for nut-cracking to appear in capuchins. Young chimpanzees may face a different challenge in learning to crack nuts: they readily place objects on surfaces and release them, but rarely vigorously strike objects against surfaces or other objects. Thus the challenges facing the two species in developing the same behavior (nut-cracking using a stone hammer and an anvil) may be quite different. Capuchins must inhibit a strong bias to hold nuts so that they can release them; chimpanzees must generate a percussive action rather than a gentle placing action. Generating the right actions may be as challenging as achieving the right sequence of actions in both species. Our analysis suggests a new direction for studies of social influence on young primates learning sequences of actions involving manipulation of objects in relation to surfaces.

  18. Attenuation of EphrinB2 Reverse Signaling Decreases Vascularized Area and Preretinal Vascular Tuft Formation in the Murine Model of Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Alyssa C.; Mendel, Thomas A.; Mason, Katelyn E.; Degen, Katherine E.; Yates, Paul A.; Peirce, Shayn M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. EphB4 and ephrinB2 are known key regulators of retinal vascular development, but due to their capacity for bidirectional signaling, delineation of their individual roles in this process remains unclear. To better dissect out individual contributions, a model of proliferative retinopathy in mice with attenuated ephrinB2 reverse signaling was studied. It was hypothesized that endothelial ephrinB2 reverse signaling regulates hypoxia-induced capillary sprouting, as well as the pathologic formation of neovascular tufts in postnatal retinal microvascular networks. Methods. Genetically manipulated mice with attenuated ephrinB2 reverse signaling (ephrinB2lacZ/+), along with wild-type (WT) controls, were exposed to oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), a postnatal model of proliferative retinopathy. At peak disease (postnatal day 18), microvascular networks were analyzed to examine intraretinal revascularization, capillary sprouting, and pathologic neovascularization responses. EphB4 and phosphorylated ephrinB protein expression patterns along retinal microvessels were also assessed. Results. EphrinB2lacZ/+ mice exhibited reduced hypoxia-induced revascularization (P ≤ 0.04) and reduced formation of neovascular tufts (P < 0.001), as compared with WT controls. Corresponding to the observed inhibition of retinal angiogenesis, ephrinB2lacZ/+ retinas displayed an increased number of blind-ended capillary sprout tips (P < 0.02) and endothelial filopodial processes (P = 0.001). In WT and ephrinB2lacZ/+ OIR-exposed retinas, ephrinB was confined to endothelial cells, with expression detected along angiogenic vascular processes including neovascular tufts and blind-ended capillary sprouts. Conclusions. EphrinB2 reverse signaling is a regulator of key processes during retinal vascularization and controls pathologic retinal angiogenesis through direct effects on capillary sprouting and endothelial filopodia formation. PMID:22789927

  19. Molecular relationships and classification of several tufted capuchin lineages (Cebus apella, Cebus xanthosternos and Cebus nigritus, Cebidae), by means of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-García, Manuel; Castillo, Maria Ignacia; Lichilín-Ortiz, Nicolás; Pinedo-Castro, Myreya

    2012-01-01

    The morphological systematics of the tufted capuchins is confusing. In an attempt to clarify the complex systematics and phylogeography of this taxon, we provide a first molecular analysis. We obtained mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (mtCOII) gene sequences from 49 tufted capuchins that had exact geographic origins from diverse lineages in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, French Guyana, Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay and that belonged to clearly recognized morphological taxa. This project had 4 main findings: (1) we determined 2 established and related taxa in the northern Amazon River area, which we named C. a. apella and C. a. fatuellus. C. a. apella is distributed from French Guyana until, at least, the Negro River in the northern Brazilian Amazon, whereas C. a. fatuellus is distributed throughout the Colombian Eastern Llanos and the northern Colombian Amazon. We also determined 2 other southern C. apella taxa, which we named C. a. macrodon and C. a. cay. C. a. macrodon has a western and southern Amazon distribution, while C. a. cay has a more southern distribution outside the Amazon basin. (2) In the upper Amazon basin, there is a unique lineage (C. a. macrocephalus) with 1 widely distributed haplotype. The 4 morphological subspecies (C. a. maranonis, C. a. macrocephalus, C. a. peruanus, C. a. pallidus), and maybe a fifth unknown subspecies, described in this area were molecularly undifferentiated at least for the mitochondrial gene analyzed. (3) Our molecular analysis determined that 1 individual of C. robustus fell into the lineage of C. a. macrocephalus. Therefore, this form does not receive any specific name. (4) The animals classified a priori as C. nigritus and C. xanthosternos (because of their morphological phenotypes and by their geographical origins) were clearly differentiated from the other specimens analyzed with the molecular marker employed. Therefore, we consider that these 2 lineages could be assigned the status of full species following the

  20. New species and records of Otiothopinae from the Southern Atlantic Rainforest, with notes on the claw tufts in Fernandezina Birabén (Araneae: Palpimanidae).

    PubMed

    Castro, Diogo; Baptista, Renner; Grismado, Cristian; Ramírez, Martín

    2015-09-04

    Two new species of Otiothops MacLeay, 1839 (O. atalaia sp. n. and O. goytacaz sp. n.), a new species of Fernandezina Birabén, 1951 (F. jurubatiba sp. n.) as well as the female of F. tijuca Ramírez & Grismado, 1996 are described from the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Scanning electron microscope images of the tarsi of F. jurubatiba sp. n. and F. dasilvai Platnick, Grismado & Ramírez, 1999 show that this genus has claw tufts on the posterior legs, composed of setae of variable structure.

  1. Survey of Laboratories and Implementation of the Federal Defense Laboratory Diversification Program. Annex C. Department of the Air Force Domestic Technology Transfer: A Survey of Designated Air Force Laboratories on the Implementation of the Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Development Corporation . They provided 14 mandays of testing of photonics devices in FY 1992 and 10 Mandays in FY 1993. CRDAs Rome Laboratory has 30...which enable the U.S. Air Force to remain the best in the world. The laboratory also has a corporate responsibility for developing materials, solid state...Intelligent Tutor Systems in Fundamental Skills, 28 June 91, UTSA 3) ISD/LSAR Decision Support System, 8 July 91, Dynamics Research Corporation 4

  2. Responses of mitral/tufted cells to orthodromic and antidromic electrical stimulation in the olfactory bulb of the tiger salamander.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, K A; Kauer, J S

    1988-06-01

    1. Responses evoked by electrical stimulation of the olfactory nerve and olfactory tracts were analyzed in 46 output cells of the salamander olfactory bulb, in vivo. Labeling of several cells with horseradish peroxidase indicated that they were mitral and/or tufted neurons. The responses contained reproducible sequences of depolarizing and hyperpolarizing potentials, which changed with increases in stimulus intensity. 2. Stimulation of the nerve with intensities subthreshold for evoking spikes in the recorded cell resulted in a small depolarization followed by a period of hyperpolarization, during which spontaneous spikes were suppressed. With suprathreshold stimulus intensities, a single spike or often a burst of spikes was evoked, followed by a complex prolonged hyperpolarization. When full spikes were blocked by injecting hyperpolarizing current through the recording electrode, an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) with two major components and sometimes a fast prepotential were observed at the beginning of the response. Amplitudes of the EPSP and hyperpolarization increased with graded increases in stimulus intensity. In tests with paired stimulus volleys, spike generation was inhibited for at least 1 s and often for several seconds during the hyperpolarization. 3. Stimulation of the tracts with intensities subthreshold for evoking spikes in the recorded cell resulted in a complex prolonged hyperpolarization. With suprathreshold stimulus intensities, a single spike was evoked, followed by a similar period of hyperpolarization. When full spikes were blocked by injecting hyperpolarizing current through the recording electrode, a small antidromic spike, presumably generated in the axon or initial segment, was often observed. Amplitude of the hyperpolarization increased with graded increases in stimulus intensity. In tests with paired volleys, generation of a full antidromic spike was inhibited for a period that usually began 20-30 ms, following the spike

  3. Westernization of the Filipino population resident in Rome: obesity, diabetes and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gentilucci, Umberto Vespasiani; Picardi, Antonio; Manfrini, Silvia; Khazrai, Yeganeh Manon; Fioriti, Elvira; Altomare, Maria; Guglielmi, Chiara; Di Stasio, Enrico; Pozzilli, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Aims of the present study were to examine the anthropometrical and metabolic characteristics of the Filipino population migrant to the Southern European city of Rome, Italy. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the city of Rome. Three hundred thirty-five Filipinos (95 M/240 F, mean age: 44.0+/-9.8 years, mean residence in Italy: 12.9+/-6.3 years) were studied. Data were collected by standardized questionnaires; anthropometrical parameters, arterial pressure, and fasting capillary blood glucose (FCG) were measured. Abdominal obesity was found in 52.5%, and BMI >or= 25 kg/m(2) in 44.5% of subjects. History of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension were reported by 6.0 and 9.0% of subjects, respectively. Impaired fasting glucose was found in 13.1%, and FCG >or= 110 mg/dl in 18.5% of subjects. Altered systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure was found in 34.3% of subjects. About three-fourths of subjects were unaware of being diabetic and/or hypertensive. Years of Italy residence showed a direct significant correlation with the degree of changes in alimentary behaviours (rho=0.18, p=0.001), and with weight gain (rho=0.27, p<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed only age and waist circumference to be associated with both diabetes and hypertension. In the present study, the first to examine the metabolic disorders in a migrant Filipino population resident in Rome, a high prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension was found. The alarming results emerging from this study should be seriously considered by public health practitioners and decision makers, and made known to the Filipinos resident in Europe.

  4. Estimating the impact of Saharan dust on the year 2001 PM 10 record of Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbi, G. P.; Barnaba, F.; Ammannato, L.

    This paper evaluates the role of Saharan dust advection in the exceeding of the PM 10 thresholds in the city of Rome, Italy. To this purpose, a series of observations and model forecasts recorded in the year 2001 are analysed and discussed. Lidar profiles collected over 168 days of the year are employed to both assess the presence and magnitude of Saharan dust layers over the city and to evaluate the depth of the planetary boundary layer. Backtrajectories are used to verify the Saharan origin of the lidar-sounded air masses. Model predictions of the presence of Saharan dust over the area are employed to fill the time gaps between lidar observations. PM 10 and carbon monoxide records of both a city background (Villa Ada) and a heavy traffic station (Magna Grecia) are cross-analysed with the dust events record and meteorological data. The analysis shows that: (1) Saharan dust was advected over Rome on about 30% of the days of 2001; (2) mean contribution of Saharan dust transport events to daily PM 10 levels was of the order of 20 μg m -3; (3) at the urban background station of Villa Ada, the Saharan contribution caused the surpassing of the maximum number of days in excess of 50 μg m -3 fixed by the current legislation (35 per year). Conversely, at the heavy traffic station of Magna Grecia the Saharan contribution was not determinant at causing the observed large exceeding of that limit, as well as of the maximum yearly average of 40 μg m -3; (4) 25% of the Saharan advection days (of the order of 100/year at Rome) led to a PM 10 increase >30 μg m -3, 4% caused an increase >50 μg m -3, thus leading on their own to surpassing the 50 μg m -3 daily limit.

  5. Pathogenicity and tissue tropism of currently circulating highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1; clade 2.3.2) in tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula).

    PubMed

    Bröjer, Caroline; van Amerongen, Geert; van de Bildt, Marco; van Run, Peter; Osterhaus, Albert; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Kuiken, Thijs

    2015-11-18

    Reports describing the isolation of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus (H5N1) clade 2.3.2 in feces from apparently healthy wild birds and the seemingly lower pathogenicity of this clade compared to clade 2.2 in several experimentally infected species, caused concern that the new clade might be maintained in the wild bird population. To investigate whether the pathogenicity of a clade 2.3.2 virus was lower than that of clades previously occurring in free-living wild birds in Europe, four tufted ducks were inoculated with influenza A/duck/HongKong/1091/2011 (H5N1) clade 2.3.2 virus. The ducks were monitored and sampled for virus excretion daily during 4 days, followed by pathologic, immunohistochemical, and virological investigations. The virus produced severe disease as evidenced by clinical signs, presence of marked lesions and abundant viral antigen in several tissues, especially the central nervous system. The study shows that HPAI-H5N1 virus clade 2.3.2 is highly pathogenic for tufted ducks and thus, they are unlikely to maintain this clade in the free-living population or serve as long-distance vectors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of land-use regression models for exposure assessment to ultrafine particles in Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattani, Giorgio; Gaeta, Alessandra; Di Menno di Bucchianico, Alessandro; De Santis, Antonella; Gaddi, Raffaela; Cusano, Mariacarmela; Ancona, Carla; Badaloni, Chiara; Forastiere, Francesco; Gariazzo, Claudio; Sozzi, Roberto; Inglessis, Marco; Silibello, Camillo; Salvatori, Elisabetta; Manes, Fausto; Cesaroni, Giulia

    2017-05-01

    The health effects of long-term exposure to ultrafine particles (UFPs) are poorly understood. Data on spatial contrasts in ambient ultrafine particles (UFPs) concentrations are needed with fine resolution. This study aimed to assess the spatial variability of total particle number concentrations (PNC, a proxy for UFPs) in the city of Rome, Italy, using land use regression (LUR) models, and the correspondent exposure of population here living. PNC were measured using condensation particle counters at the building facade of 28 homes throughout the city. Three 7-day monitoring periods were carried out during cold, warm and intermediate seasons. Geographic Information System predictor variables, with buffers of varying size, were evaluated to model spatial variations of PNC. A stepwise forward selection procedure was used to develop a ;base; linear regression model according to the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects project methodology. Other variables were then included in more enhanced models and their capability of improving model performance was evaluated. Four LUR models were developed. Local variation in UFPs in the study area can be largely explained by the ratio of traffic intensity and distance to the nearest major road. The best model (adjusted R2 = 0.71; root mean square error = ±1,572 particles/cm³, leave one out cross validated R2 = 0.68) was achieved by regressing building and street configuration variables against residual from the ;base; model, which added 3% more to the total variance explained. Urban green and population density in a 5,000 m buffer around each home were also relevant predictors. The spatial contrast in ambient PNC across the large conurbation of Rome, was successfully assessed. The average exposure of subjects living in the study area was 16,006 particles/cm³ (SD 2165 particles/cm³, range: 11,075-28,632 particles/cm³). A total of 203,886 subjects (16%) lives in Rome within 50 m from a high traffic road and they

  7. The flaminio obelisk in Rome: vibrational characteristics as part of preservation efforts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bongiovanni, G.; Celebi, M.; Clemente, P.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to study the vibrational characteristics of the Flaminio Obelisk in Rome as part of general studies being performed for preservation purposes. The state of preservation of the monument is described as well as the sonic method used to evaluate the integrity of the sections. The results of the sonic tests are used to determine reductions in the cross-sectional properties. A stick model including two rotational frequency independent soil springs at the basement level of the obelisk is developed. A response spectrum and stress analysis according to the Italian Seismic Code is performed considering and evaluating the degraded characteristics of sections. -from Authors

  8. Seismic response in archaeological areas: the case-histories of Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, Stefano; Funiciello, Renato; Rovelli, Antonio

    1999-03-01

    Rome is affected by earthquakes associated to three different seismogenic districts: the Central Apennines area, the Colli Albani volcanic area and the Roman area. The major effects were exclusively due to Apennine seismicity and reached in some cases felt intensities up to VII-VIII degree (MCS scale). The predominant role in the damage distribution seems to be played by the local geological conditions. The historical centre of the city is characterized by the presence of two geomorphologic domains: the alluvial plain of Tiber river and the topographic relieves of Roman Hills, where tradition indicates the first site of the city foundation. In particular, the right river side is characterized by the outcropping of the regional bedrock along the Monte Mario-Gianicolo ridge, while the eastern relieves are the remnants of the Sabatini and Albani volcanic plateau, deeply eroded by the Tiber river and its tributaries during the last glacial low-stand (Würm). These domains are characterized by a large difference in seismic response, due to the high impedance contrast between Holocene coarse deposits filling the Tiber Valley and sedimentary and volcanic Plio-Pleistocene units. Seismic damage observed in 150 monuments of downtown Rome was indicating a significant concentration on alluvial recent deposits. This result was confirmed by the geographical distribution of conservation and retrofitting activities subsequent to main earthquakes, mostly related to local geological conditions. The cases of Marcus Aurelius' Column and Colosseum confirmed the influence of the Holocene alluvial network in local seismic response. During 2500 years of history, the monuments of Rome have `memorized' the seismic effects of historical earthquakes. In some cases, the integration of historical and geological research and macroseismic observations may provide original and useful indications to seismologists to define the seismic response of the city. Local site effects represent a serious

  9. [Safety and hygiene in activities of craftsmen: a survey in the province of Rome].

    PubMed

    Spiridigliozzi, S; Bellantoni, C; Bossi, A; Abetti, P; Pisciottana, A

    2003-01-01

    The artisan firms, in the past, have paid a poor attention to hygiene's problem and to workers' safety. For this reason the Authors have promoted an investigation in 342 activities of Rome's district to verify the correct observance of some preventionistic indicators such as the evaluation of the risks, the electric plant, the use of ipd, the application of the system of signs, etc. The results of the research have proved a situation that is better in comparison with the past; the Authors analyze the causes and they auspicate that the evolutional process can guarantee the minimum safety's conditions to the all employees in the small firms.

  10. Analysis of initial performance of Solergy's HCPV/T system at Rome-Fiumicino International Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheli, Leonardo; Femia, Giuseppe; Liani, Martina; Poli, Ruggero; Banin, Yoav; Lanzara, Giovanni; Kurtz, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    A commercial HCPV/T system, developed by Solergy, is installed at the airport of Rome, in Italy, as part of a prototype smart grid. The system is rated at 15 kW AC electric and 20 kW thermal and is used to provide both electricity for charging electric vehicles and heat for a conventional thermal power plant. This paper presents an analysis of the performance of the system, operating since March 2017, which achieves a combined peak efficiency of 48%. This study incorporates also an investigation on the improvements that can benefit the system, including a new type of receiver with improved heat dissipation.

  11. Stratigraphic framework of Cambrian and Ordovician rocks across Rome Trough, central Appalachian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ryder, R.T.

    1987-09-01

    Restored stratigraphic cross sections drawn primarily through the subsurface of parts of Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee provide new detailed information to further the understanding of Cambrian and Ordovician sedimentation and tectonics associated with the Rome trough sector of the Appalachian basin. Drilled thickness of the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence ranges from a maximum of about 14,500 ft (4.5 km) along the axis of the trough to a minimum of about 3500 ft (1 km) on the western flank.

  12. Hyperspectral fluorescence lidar imaging at the Colosseum, Rome: elucidating past conservation interventions.

    PubMed

    Palombi, L; Lognoli, D; Raimondi, V; Cecchi, G; Hällström, J; Barup, K; Conti, C; Grönlund, R; Johansson, A; Svanberg, S

    2008-05-12

    Fluorescence lidar techniques offer considerable potential for remote, non-invasive diagnostics of stone cultural heritage in the outdoor environment. Here we present the results of a joint Italian-Swedish experiment, deploying two hyperspectral fluorescence lidar imaging systems, for the documentation of past conservation interventions on the Colosseum, Rome. Several portions of the monument were scanned and we show that it was possible to discriminate among masonry materials, reinforcement structures and protective coatings inserted during past conservation interventions, on the basis of their fluorescence signatures, providing useful information for a first quick, large-scale in situ screening of the monument.

  13. Hydraulic Binding Between Structural Elements and Groundwater Circulation in a Volcanic Aquifer : Insights from Riano Quarries District (Rome Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, David; Preziosi, Elisabetta; Ghergo, Stefano; Parrone, Daniele; Amalfitano, Stefano; Bruna Petrangeli, Anna; Zoppini, Annamaria

    2016-04-01

    A field survey and laboratory analysis of fracture systems crosscutting volcanic rocks was performed in the North-East of Rome urban area (Central Italy) to assess the hydraulic binding between structural elements, groundwater circulation and geochemistry. Fracture features (orientation, density, apertures, length and spacing) as well as groundwater heads and geochemical characteristics of rock and groundwater were analysed. We present and discuss the macro and mesostructural deformation pattern of the Riano quarries district (Central Italy) to highlight the close relationships between geological heterogeneity and water circulation. Laboratory analyses were carried out on rock samples: using XRF, microwave acid digestion and diffractometer to identify the chemical and mineralogical characters of the outcropping rock samples with a special focus on altered bands of fractures. On water samples using ICP-OES for major cations, ICP-MS for trace elements, IC for major anions and Spectrophotometry for NO2, PO4, NH4 . A total of 26 quarries with different dimension, shape and depth were examined by both remote and field analyses. Despite all the quarries were realized within the same tuff formation interval, a different fracture spatial distribution was recognized. From North to South a progressively increment of fracture density was observed. It was possible to observe a close relationship between orientation, spatial distribution and length. For each single fractured set, a 5° max orientation variation was observed, suggesting that fracture genesis was likely related to an extensional/transtensional tectonic process. Most of the fractures directly examined show an alteration band with different colors and thickness around the whole fracture shape. A preliminary overview of the laboratory results highlights that altered and unaltered tuffs (belonging to the same formation) show different chemical compositions. In particular, an enrichment of Mn, accompanied by a

  14. Platinum levels in natural and urban soils from Rome and Latium (Italy): significance for pollution by automobile catalytic converter.

    PubMed

    Cinti, D; Angelone, M; Masi, U; Cremisini, C

    2002-07-03

    Platinum concentrations in topsoil samples collected in 1992 (48) and in 2001 (16) from the urban area of Rome have been determined by ICP-MS. Concentrations in 47 soil samples collected in 1992 from natural sites of Latium (an area around Rome) have been determined for a first assessment of natural background levels. The Pt concentrations in Rome urban soils collected in 1992 range from 0.8 to 6.3 ng/g (mean = 3.8 +/- 1.0) overlapping the concentration range of natural soils from Latium (mean = 3.1 +/- 2.1 ng/g). No significant correlation has generally been found between Pt contents in the 'natural' soils and related bedrock or major pedogenetic parameters. These results suggest that there is no evidence of Pt pollution in Rome urban soils at that time, because the massive use of the automobile catalytic converter has only just started. Higher (up to six times more) Pt concentrations, than those measured in the 1992 samples, have been measured, in some cases, in Rome urban soils collected in 2001, suggesting a possible start of Pt accumulation because of the large-scale use in the last decade of automobile catalytic converters. At the same time, a clear decrease of lead levels in Rome urban soils with respect to the levels measured in 1992 has been observed, paralleling the decreasing number of lead gasoline-fuelled cars. Here we present one of the first systematic studies for defining background levels of Pt in Italian natural soils, thus allowing for monitoring, in the future, should any possible Pt pollution caused by the use of automobile catalytic converter, especially in urban soils, occur.

  15. Gaseous ammonia in the urban area of Rome, Italy and its relationship with traffic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrino, C.; Catrambone, M.; Di Menno Di Bucchianico, A.; Allegrini, I.

    The atmospheric concentration of gaseous ammonia has been measured during selected field campaigns from the spring of 2001 to the spring of 2002 in the urban area of Rome, at many traffic sites and at an urban background site. The concentration level at the traffic sites was in all cases about five times the background level and always much higher than the concentration in a rural near-city area. The time trend of ammonia is well correlated with the trend of a primary low-reactivity pollutant such as carbon monoxide. The concentration values of both pollutants depend on the intensity of traffic emission and on the atmospheric mixing in the boundary layer. Ammonia concentration is also dependent on the air temperature. A close link between NH 3 and CO air values has been confirmed at all the measurement stations of the Air Quality Network of Rome. These results indicate that the emissions from petrol-engine vehicles equipped with catalytic converters can be an important source of ammonia in urban areas. The implications of these findings for the chemistry of the urban atmosphere need to be carefully considered.

  16. Substance Use in the Club Scene of Rome: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Vento, Alessandro Emiliano; Martinotti, Giovanni; Cinosi, Eduardo; Acciavatti, Tiziano; Carrus, Dario; Chillemi, Eleonora; di Giannantonio, Massimo; Corazza, Ornella; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Over the last few years, a wide number of unregulated substances have been marketed on the Web and in smart and head shops; they are usually advertised as legal alternatives to commonly known drugs and are defined as “smart drugs,” “legal highs,” and “novel psychoactive substances” (NPS). Aim of our work is to describe use habits and distribution of NPS in a population of young adults in Rome club scene. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was proposed to subjects over 18 years of age at the entrance of 5 nightclubs in Rome. Socioeconomic characteristics and substance use were investigated. Results. Preliminary results give evidence that 78% of respondents have a lifetime history of NPS use. In addition, 56% of the sample has consumed illicit drugs in the past and 39% has used psychoactive substances in the 12 hours preceding the questionnaire administration. Conclusions. A significant proportion of subjects report use of novel psychoactive substances; traditional illicit drugs consumption, particularly cocaine, appears to be very high as well in the club scene. These data highlight a serious public health challenge, since pharmacological, toxicological, and psychopathological effects linked to interactions among all these substances may be unpredictable and sometimes fatal in vulnerable individuals. PMID:25243163

  17. Decennial experience of the Municipality of Rome in the fight against Asian Tiger Mosquito.

    PubMed

    Cignini, B; Di Domenicantonio, R; Chionne, M; Scirocchi, A

    2008-06-01

    Since September 1997 was detected the presence of the Asian Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus) in the peripheral areas of the city of Rome, the Environment Department has put in a strategy to combat and control the spread of this insect throughout the city, collaboration with the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) to aspects of study and monitoring of the phenomenon and with the Azienda Municipale Ambiente (AMA) for actions in the urban environment. In 1998 began the first contrast campaign in the town territory. The data coming from ISS are processed through a geographical territorial system (GIS) that allows real-time locating the degree of infestation and effectiveness of interventions, allowing the display of trends over time and the development of plans of action in urban territory. In parallel to this methodology operational, the Municipality of Rome has put in an information campaign designed to involve citizens in the fight against this insect. Today the situation in the city is under control, in case of emergency due to the spread of the virus Chikungunya is possible identify in advance the areas at greatest risk of infestation. Using this methodology work has enabled to contain operating costs and minimize the environmental impact by limiting interventions only to areas found positive.

  18. Management of feral domestic cats in the urban environment of Rome (Italy).

    PubMed

    Natoli, Eugenia; Maragliano, Laura; Cariola, Giuseppe; Faini, Anna; Bonanni, Roberto; Cafazzo, Simona; Fantini, Claudio

    2006-12-18

    In Italy, which is rabies-free, the national Law No. 281 [Legge Nazionale 14 agosto 1991. No. 281: Legge Quadro in materia di animali di affezione e prevenzione del randagismo. Gazz. Uff. Rep. Ital. no 203 del 30 agosto 1991: p. 3] on the management of pets and on the control of feral cats has introduced the no-kill policy for this species. Thus, "trap-neuter-release" (TNR) programs have been carried out for >10 years. In this paper we present data on registered colonies and censused cats in Rome from 1991 to 2000; the results of the neutering campaign from 1991 to 2000; and a survey, on 103 cat colonies, on the effects of demographic control of urban feral-cat colonies in the city of Rome, carried out by the local Veterinary Public Services (VPS) in collaboration with the associations of cat care-takers. In 10 years almost 8000 were neutered and reintroduced in their original colony. The spay/neuter campaigns brought about a general decrease in cat number but the percentage of cat immigration (due to abandonment and spontaneous arrival) is around 21%. This suggests that all these efforts without an effective education of people to control the reproduction of house cats (as a prevention for abandonment) are a waste of money, time and energy.

  19. Slavery and the social dynamics of male homosexual relations in ancient Rome.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, B C

    1980-01-01

    More than any other institution, slavery placed its stamp on male homosexual relations in ancient Rome. While the pervasive Hellenization of Roman society in the second and first centuries B.C. mitigated the traditional hostility towards homosexuality and homosexual relations and even, in cultured circles, fostered an idealizing acceptance of male pederastic relations patterned after the model of classical Greece, this transformation of attitudes would have produced less concrete effects had Rome not concurrently become a slave-owning society on a large scale, due to overseas conquests. The strictures of Roman law and tradition applied only to sexual relations among free men and women; sexual relations between freemen and female or male slaves were unlikely to incur much social stigma. Although there is evidence that some Romans did indeed exploit their slaves, fortunately the great lacuna within the law and tradition, together with the emergence of more humane values regarding slavery and sexual relations, allowed genuine love-relationships (both heterosexual and homosexual) to receive a large measure of social sanction as a form of concubinage. Roman culture, however, unlike classical Green civilization, made little contribution to an informed acceptance of homosexual relations grounded in an understanding of human ethics and psychology.

  20. Medical competence, anatomy and the polity in seventeenth-century Rome

    PubMed Central

    De Renzi, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    At the centre of this article are two physicians active in Rome between 1600 and 1630 who combined medical practice with broader involvement in the dynamic cultural, economic and political scene of the centre of the Catholic world. The city's distinctive and very influential social landscape magnified issues of career-building and allows us to recapture physicians’ different strategies of self-fashioning at a time of major social and religious reorganization. At one level, reconstructing Johannes Faber and Giulio Mancini's medical education, arrival in Rome and overlapping but different career trajectories contributes to research on physicians’ identity in early modern Italian states. Most remarkable are their access to different segments of Roman society, including a dynamic art market, and their diplomatic and political role, claimed as well as real. But following these physicians from hospitals to courts, including that of the Pope, and from tribunals to the university and analysing the wide range of their writing – from medico-legal consilia to political essays and reports of anatomical investigations – also enriches our view of medical practice, which included, but went beyond, the bedside. Furthermore, their activities demand that we reassess the complex place of anatomical investigations in a courtly society, and start recovering the fundamental role played by hospitals – those quintessential Catholic institutions – as sites of routine dissections for both medical teaching and research. (pp. 551–567) PMID:21949463

  1. The ancient city of Rome, its empire, and the spread of tuberculosis in Europe.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Jared J

    2015-06-01

    The formation of the Roman Empire constituted an unprecedented joining of Mediterranean and European lands and peoples, centering on the capital of Rome. During the late Roman Republic and early Roman Empire (ca. 200B.C.-ca. 200 A.D.) urbanization and population growth led to conditions favorable to the spread of tuberculosis throughout Italy and especially within Rome itself. Trade and military expansion would have acted as vehicles for the further extension of tuberculosis to the provinces via direct transmission from Italian-born Romans to the native populations. However, an alternative explanation may better explain the increase in the number of archeological cases of tuberculosis with the start of the Roman era. A literature review of Roman-era cases and their locations suggests that the development of an urban, Roman way of life resulted in significant increases in prevalence in regions where tuberculosis had previously been endemic only at a low level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Beta-thalassemia mutations in Rome. A high frequency of the IVSII-745 allele in subjects of latium origin.

    PubMed

    Massa, A; Cianciulli, P; Cianetti, L; Iazzone, R; Cenci, A; Sorrentino, F; Franco, G; Pecci, G; Papa, G; Peschle, C

    1994-01-01

    We studied the molecular bases of beta-thalassemia in Rome, a city centrally located in Latium, which is a region with a low incidence of beta-carriers. People also come to Rome from other regions for specific or prenatal diagnostic assessment. Only 11 patients (20%) out of 62 characterized beta-thalassemia subjects were of Latium family origin. They presented five mutations with an uncommonly high frequency of the IVSII-745 allele, that was found in homozygosis in 4 unrelated patients from a southeastern area in the province of Frosinone. These data may indicate a founder effect.

  3. Evidence of active tectonics on a Roman aqueduct system (II-III century A.D.) near Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Fabrizio; Montone, Paola; Pirro, Mario; Boschi, Enzo

    2004-04-01

    In this paper we describe evidence of strong tectonic deformation affecting two aqueducts of Roman age (II-III century A.D.). The channels are located approximately 20 km northeast of Rome along the ancient Via Tiburtina. Brittle and ductile deformation affects these two structures, including extensional joint systems, NE-oriented faults, and horizontal distortion. This deformation is consistent with right-lateral movement on major N-striking faults, and represents the first evidence that tectonic deformation took place in historical times in the vicinity of Rome, with local strike-slip movement superimposed on a regional extensional fault system.

  4. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1992 High School Apprenticeship Program (HSAP) Reports. Volume 14. Rome Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    voltages were applied and the current varied. These tests would involve placing the fiber very close to the devices, the reason for the sloped mount...Gleason Student (High School Graduate) NRDA/Klectronics, Reliability & Diagnostics (Analog) Abstract This year’s study focused on the theory of the C...inconsistencies. An effort was also made to learn the X Window System and how to program for it. However, due to various reasons , programs would not compile. This

  5. Development, Translation and Validation of Enhanced Asian Rome III Questionnaires for Diagnosis of Functional Bowel Diseases in Major Asian Languages: A Rome Foundation-Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association Working Team Report.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Uday C; Gwee, Kok-Ann; Chen, Minhu; Gong, Xiao R; Pratap, Nitesh; Hou, Xiaohua; Syam, Ari F; Abdullah, Murdani; Bak, Young-Tae; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Gonlachanvit, Sutep; Chua, Andrew S B; Chong, Kuck-Meng; Siah, Kewin T H; Lu, Ching-Liang; Xiong, Lishou; Whitehead, William E

    2015-01-01

    The development-processes by regional socio-cultural adaptation of an Enhanced Asian Rome III questionnaire (EAR3Q), a cultural adaptation of the Rome III diagnostic questionnaire (R3DQ), and its translation-validation in Asian languages are presented. As English is not the first language for most Asians, translation-validation of EAR3Q is essential. Hence, we aimed to culturally adapt the R3DQ to develop EAR3Q and linguistically validate it to show that the EAR3Q is able to allocate diagnosis according to Rome III criteria. After EAR3Q was developed by Asian experts by consensus, it was translated into Chinese, Hindi-Telugu, Indonesian, Korean and Thai, following Rome Foundation guidelines; these were then validated on native subjects (healthy [n = 60], and patients with irritable bowel syndrome [n = 59], functional dyspepsia [n = 53] and functional constipation [n = 61]) diagnosed by clinicians using Rome III criteria, negative alarm features and investigations. Experts noted words for constipation, bloating, fullness and heartburn, posed difficulty. The English back-translated questionnaires demonstrated concordance with the original EAR3Q. Sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaires were high enough to diagnose respective functional gastrointestinal disorders (gold standard: clinical diagnoses) in most except Korean and Indonesian languages. Questionnaires often uncovered overlapping functional gastrointestinal disorders. Test-retest agreement (kappa) values of the translated questionnaires were high (0.700-1.000) except in Korean (0.300-0.500) and Indonesian (0.100-0.400) languages at the initial and 2-week follow-up visit. Though Chinese, Hindi and Telugu translations were performed well, Korean and Indonesian versions were not. Questionnaires often uncovered overlapping FGIDs, which were quite common.

  6. Development, Translation and Validation of Enhanced Asian Rome III Questionnaires for Diagnosis of Functional Bowel Diseases in Major Asian Languages: A Rome Foundation-Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association Working Team Report

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Uday C; Gwee, Kok-Ann; Chen, Minhu; Gong, Xiao R; Pratap, Nitesh; Hou, Xiaohua; Syam, Ari F; Abdullah, Murdani; Bak, Young-Tae; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Gonlachanvit, Sutep; Chua, Andrew S B; Chong, Kuck-Meng; Siah, Kewin T H; Lu, Ching-Liang; Xiong, Lishou; Whitehead, William E

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The development-processes by regional socio-cultural adaptation of an Enhanced Asian Rome III questionnaire (EAR3Q), a cultural adaptation of the Rome III diagnostic questionnaire (R3DQ), and its translation-validation in Asian languages are presented. As English is not the first language for most Asians, translation-validation of EAR3Q is essential. Hence, we aimed to culturally adapt the R3DQ to develop EAR3Q and linguistically validate it to show that the EAR3Q is able to allocate diagnosis according to Rome III criteria. Methods After EAR3Q was developed by Asian experts by consensus, it was translated into Chinese, Hindi-Telugu, Indonesian, Korean, and Thai, following Rome Foundation guidelines; these were then validated on native subjects (healthy [n = 60], and patients with irritable bowel syndrome [n = 59], functional dyspepsia [n = 53] and functional constipation [n = 61]) diagnosed by clinicians using Rome III criteria, negative alarm features and investigations. Results Experts noted words for constipation, bloating, fullness and heartburn, posed difficulty. The English back-translated questionnaires demonstrated concordance with the original EAR3Q. Sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaires were high enough to diagnose respective functional gastrointestinal disorders (gold standard: clinical diagnoses) in most except Korean and Indonesian languages. Questionnaires often uncovered overlapping functional gastrointestinal disorders. Test-retest agreement (kappa) values of the translated questionnaires were high (0.700–1.000) except in Korean (0.300–0.500) and Indonesian (0.100–0.400) languages at the initial and 2-week follow-up visit. Conclusions Though Chinese, Hindi and Telugu translations were performed well, Korean and Indonesian versions were not. Questionnaires often uncovered overlapping FGIDs, which were quite common. PMID:25537673

  7. Complementary Postsynaptic Activity Patterns Elicited in Olfactory Bulb by Stimulation of Mitral/Tufted and Centrifugal Fiber Inputs to Granule Cells

    PubMed Central

    Laaris, Nora; Puche, Adam; Ennis, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Main olfactory bulb (MOB) granule cells receive spatially segregated glutamatergic synaptic inputs from the dendrites of mitral/tufted cells as well as from the axons of centrifugal fibers (CFFs) originating in olfactory cortical areas. Dendrodendritic synapses from mitral/tufted cells occur on granule cell distal dendrites in the external plexiform layer (EPL), whereas CFFs preferentially target the somata/proximal dendrites of granule cells in the granule cell layer (GCL). In the present study, tract tracing, and recordings of field potentials and voltage-sensitive dye optical signals were used to map activity patterns elicited by activation of these two inputs to granule cells in mouse olfactory bulb slices. Stimulation of the lateral olfactory tract (LOT) produced a negative field potential in the EPL and a positivity in the GCL. CFF stimulation produced field potentials of opposite polarity in the EPL and GCL to those elicited by LOT. LOT-evoked optical signals appeared in the EPL and spread subsequently to deeper layers, whereas CFF-evoked responses appeared in the GCL and then spread superficially. Evoked responses were reduced by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists and completely suppressed by AMPA receptor antagonists. Reduction of extracellular Mg2+ enhanced the strength and spatiotemporal extent of the evoked responses. These and additional findings indicate that LOT- and CFF-evoked field potentials and optical signals reflect postsynaptic activity in granule cells, with moderate NMDA and dominant AMPA receptor components. Taken together, these results demonstrate that LOT and CFF stimulation in MOB slices selectively activate glutamatergic inputs to the distal dendrites versus somata/proximal dendrites of granule cells. PMID:17035366

  8. Adult-onset tufted angiomas associated with an arteriovenous malformation in a renal transplant recipient: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Sara; Carugno, Andrea; Vignini, Mariadelaide; Rosso, Renato; Borroni, Riccardo G

    2015-02-01

    Tufted angioma (TA) is a rare benign vascular neoplasm characterized histopathologically by the proliferation of endothelial cells arranged in lobules in the dermis and subcutaneous fat. To date, about 200 cases have been reported, most of which are of Japanese ethnicity. TA predominantly affects children and young adults, developing in 80% of patients younger than 10 years. A white 72-year-old renal transplant recipient presented with 2 asymptomatic dusky red papules on his right leg. The lesions appeared 5 years after the start of immunosuppressive treatment. Histopathologic examination showed a proliferation of poorly canalized capillary-sized vascular structures with typical "cannonball" pattern in the dermis and subcutaneous fat. Eccrine glands were also evident focally in the stroma of capillary lobules. On immunohistochemistry, endothelial cells in the vascular tufts stained positive for CD31 and CD34 but were negative for factor VIII-related antigen, human herpes virus 8, and podoplanin (clone D2-40); α-smooth muscle actin stained pericytes disposed in a single layer in capillary-sized vessels and in 2-3 or more layers in vessels of larger size, respectively. The microscopic findings were suggestive of TA. In the deep dermis, venules with smooth muscle wall and arterioles, as shown by Van Gieson staining, normally not found at that level, were present and appeared surrounded by capillary lobules. Onset of TA in adulthood is rare and may be associated with pregnancy, varicella zoster virus infection, and pharmacological immunosuppression. A case of acquired adult-onset TA associated with an arteriovenous malformation in an elderly transplanted patient is described.

  9. Consequences of lethal intragroup aggression and alpha male replacement on intergroup relations and home range use in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus).

    PubMed

    Scarry, Clara J; Tujague, M Paula

    2012-09-01

    In conflicts between primate groups, the resource-holding potential (RHP) of competitors is frequently related to group size or male group size, which can remain relatively constant for long periods of time, promoting stable intergroup dominance relationships. Demographic changes in neighboring groups, however, could introduce uncertainty into existing relationships. Among tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus), dominant male replacement is a relatively infrequent demographic event that can have a profound effect on both the composition and size of the social group. Here, we report such a case and the consequences for home range use and intergroup aggression. Between June 2008 and August 2010, we periodically followed two neighboring groups (Macuco and Rita) in Iguazú National Park, recording daily paths (N = 143) and encounters between the groups (N = 28). We describe the events leading to a change in the male dominance hierarchy in the larger group (Macuco), which resulted in the death or dispersal of all adult males, followed by the succession of a young adult male to the dominant position. This takeover event reduced the numerical advantage in number of males between the two groups, although the ratio of total group sizes remained nearly constant. Following this shift in numerical asymmetry, the degree of escalation of intergroup aggression increased, and we observed reversals in the former intergroup dominance relationship. These changes in behavior during intergroup encounters were associated with changes in the use of overlapping areas. In the 6 months following the takeover, the area of home range overlap doubled, and the formerly dominant group's area of exclusive access was reduced by half. These results suggest that RHPin tufted capuchin monkeys is related to male group size. Furthermore, they highlight the importance of considering rare demographic events in attempts to understand the dynamics of aggression between primate groups.

  10. The Limits of Growth. A Report for The Club of Rome's Project on the Predicament of Mankind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Donella H.; And Others

    Reviewed in this report is a project undertaken by The Club of Rome entitled Project on the Predicament of Mankind. Its intent is to examine the complex of problems troubling men of all nations. The predicament is that man can perceive the problem, yet, despite his considerable knowledge and skills, he does not understand the origins,…

  11. Education and Occupational Decisions: The Careers of the Children of Immigrants in Rome, New York, 1910 to 1940 (CTQ).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Marianne B.

    Complete career patterns for a sample of immigrant men were studied to determine what factors influenced occupational decisions and the type and status of the jobs which the men obtained. A sample of 202 Polish, Italian, and other immigrant men in Rome, New York, provided three groups for comparison. Residential and occupational information were…

  12. The Nature of Beauty: The Arts in Greece, Rome and the Medieval Period. Program for Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garton, Harry A.; Woodbury, Virginia Garton

    One in a series of instructional units designed for gifted students, the booklet focuses on the arts in Greece, Rome, and the Medieval period. Narrative information on Greek pottery, sculpture, architecture, music, and dance is followed by lists of suggested activities for students and reference lists of texts and media. A similar unit on the…

  13. The Nature of Beauty: The Arts in Greece, Rome and the Medieval Period. Program for Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garton, Harry A.; Woodbury, Virginia Garton

    One in a series of instructional units designed for gifted students, the booklet focuses on the arts in Greece, Rome, and the Medieval period. Narrative information on Greek pottery, sculpture, architecture, music, and dance is followed by lists of suggested activities for students and reference lists of texts and media. A similar unit on the…

  14. The interpretation of Rome II criteria and method of assessment affect the irritable bowel syndrome classification of children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pediatric classification of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is complicated by the potential discrepancy, between parent and child report and by the interpretation of pain-stool relations in the Rome III classification system. The aim of this study was to compare IBS classification by diary and by chi...

  15. A Revisionary Note on Ammianus Marcellinus 14.6.18: When Did the Public Libraries of Ancient Rome Close?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, George W.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the work of the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus and other evidence for the existence of public libraries in fourth and fifth century A.D. Rome. It is concluded that a number of libraries were still in existence in the early fourth century, and at least one was open as late as A.D. 455. (MES)

  16. The Limits of Growth. A Report for The Club of Rome's Project on the Predicament of Mankind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Donella H.; And Others

    Reviewed in this report is a project undertaken by The Club of Rome entitled Project on the Predicament of Mankind. Its intent is to examine the complex of problems troubling men of all nations. The predicament is that man can perceive the problem, yet, despite his considerable knowledge and skills, he does not understand the origins,…

  17. PREFACE: Proceedings of the International School and Workshop 'Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 2006' (University of Rome Tor Vergata and the Catholic University of Rome, 6 9 November 2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, Stefano

    2007-10-01

    A strong interest in assessing the current state of the art of the fast growing fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology, as well as the need of stimulating research collaboration, prompted Dr S Bellucci, Professor A Bergamaschi and Professor E Bergamaschi to organize the International School and Workshop 'Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (n&n 2006)', November 6-9, 2006, under the patronage of the INFN (Italian Institute for Nuclear Physics), the University of Rome Tor Vergata and the Catholic University of Rome, with generous sponsorship by 3M, 2M Strumenti, Physik Instrumente, RS. The aims of this event were manifold fostering the concrete planning of future devices based on innovative (nano)materials, involving both industrial entities and public research institutes allowing the presentation by sponsoring firms of their instrumentation and success stories, based on current use by significant customers lending an opportunity for preparing and presenting joint projects, involving both industry and public research, see e.g. the EU Framework Programs exploring the possibility of integrating nanodevices from their concepts into system projects. The conference gathered at Villa Mondragone in Monteporzio Catone, Italy, leading experts in research and innovative technologies in bio-medical, aerospace, optoelectronics, instrumentation, coming both from the academic research and the industrial areas, as well as national security and military defence experts offering the opportunity for the exchange of knowledge and the collaboration among the different stakeholders in the field of nanotechnology. A special poster and equipment session was devoted to the exhibit by various firms of their institutional activities in selected areas of application where nanoscience can have a deep impact. There has been also the possibility for sample testing by the participants. Tutorial lectures were delivered at the School, addressing general and basic questions about nanotechnology, such as

  18. The archive of the History of Psychology at the University of Rome, Sapienza.

    PubMed

    Bartolucci, Chiara; Fox Lee, Shayna

    2016-02-01

    The History of Psychology Archive at the University of Rome, Sapienza was founded in 2008 in the Department of Dynamic and Clinical Psychology. The archive aspires to become an indispensable tool to (a) understand the currents, schools, and research traditions that have marked the path of Italian psychology, (b) focus on issues of general and applied psychology developed in each university, (c) identify experimental and clinical-differential methodologies specific to each lab, (d) reconstruct the genesis and consolidation of psychology institutions and, ultimately, (e) write a "story," set according to the most recent historiographical criteria. The archive is designed according to scholarship on the history of Italian psychology from the past two decades. The online archive is divided into five sections for ease of access. The Sapienza archive is a work in progress and it has plans for expansion. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. The Maxxi Museum in Rome: AN Integrated Survey Experience for the Restoration of Contemporary Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versaci, A.; Cardaci, A.

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the fate of contemporary buildings in reinforced concrete is becoming a growing concern due to the fast ageing of structures, however, often of great architectural and social interest. The procedures to put in place for their material and structural preservation require multidisciplinary expertise, but also new methodological insights as most of these edifices are the result of pioneering experiments and individual `challenges' from the morphological and technical point of views. They strictly depend on both the recognition of their peculiarities and the ability to differentiate their intrinsic characteristics of inhomogeneity from insecurity factors and degradation phenomena. This paper focuses on the experience undertaken on the MAXXI, the National Museum of the 21st century Arts, built by Zaha Hadid Architects in Rome to highlight the methodological process followed for the knowledge of this architectural work, in view of the establishment of the project for its conservation.

  20. Science and culture around the Montessori's first "Children's Houses" in Rome (1907-1915).

    PubMed

    Foschi, Renato

    2008-01-01

    Between 1907 and 1908, Maria Montessori's (1870-1952) educational method was elaborated at the Children's Houses of the San Lorenzo district in Rome. This pioneering experience was the basis for the international fame that came to Montessori after the publication of her 1909 volume dedicated to her "Method." The "Montessori Method" was considered by some to be scientific, liberal, and revolutionary. The present article focuses upon the complex contexts of the method's elaboration. It shows how the Children's Houses developed in relation to a particular scientific and cultural eclecticism. It describes the factors that both favored and hindered the method's elaboration, by paying attention to the complex network of social, institutional, and scientific relationships revolving around the figure of Maria Montessori. A number of "contradictory" dimensions of Montessori's experience are also examined with a view to helping to revise her myth and offering the image of a scholar who was a real early-twentieth-century prototype of a "multiple" behavioral scientist.

  1. The December 2008 flood event in Rome: Was it really an extreme event?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastoria, B.; Mariani, S.; Casaioli, M.; Bussettini, M.

    2009-04-01

    In mid December 2008, Italy suffered bad weather with heavy snowfall blanketing the north and strong winds and downpours pelting the centre-south. In particular, during the period between 10th and 12th December, intense precipitation struck the Tyrrhenian Sea side of the peninsula, inducing a flood event, which captured the attention of the national and international media, on the Tiber river and on its tributary, the Aniene. The relevance of the event was caused by the actual damages occurred in several zones over Rome area, in particular due to the downpours and to damages which would have occurred if Tiber river had overflowed its banks. The event, which was initially considered as extreme, was indeed severe but not so exceptional as shown by the meteo-hydrological post-event analysis. The peak water level of 12.55 m, recorded on 13th December at 1:30 a.m. (local time) at the Ripetta station, which is situated along the Tiber river in the centre of Rome, was higher than those observed during the last ten years (which to the utmost reached 11.41 m in December 2005). However, it did not reach the historical maximum of 16.90 m observed in 1937. Moreover, on the basis of the Ripetta historical series, such a level is associated to an ordinary flood event. Even if the flood was ordinary, a state of emergency was declared by the Rome's Mayor, since the event caused severe damages by disrupting flight and train services, blocking off major roads leading into Rome, flooding underpasses and sealing off industrial activities sited in the flooded areas, in particular nearby the confluence of the Aniene river with the Tiber river. In addition, hundreds of people were evacuated and a woman died in a her car which was submerged by a wave of water and mud in an underpass. Given these premises, the present work examines the relation between a severe, but not extraordinary, event and the considerable damages that occurred as a consequence. First, the meteorological evolution of

  2. Analysis of Geomagnetic Disturbances and Cosmic Ray Intensity Variations in Relation to Medical Data from Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannaropoulou, E.; Papailiou, M.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Tsipis, A.

    2010-07-01

    Over the last few years many studies have been conducted concerning the possible influence of geomagnetic and solar activity and cosmic ray activity on human physiological state and in particular on human cardio - health state. As it is shown the human organism is sensitive to environmental changes and reacts to them through a series of variations of its physiological parameters such as heart rate, arterial systolic and diastolic blood pressure, etc. In this paper daily mean values of heart rate, as they were registered for a group of 2.028 volunteers during medical examinations in the Polyclinico Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy are analyzed in relation to daily cosmic ray intensity variations, as measured by the Neutron Monitor of the University of Athens and daily variations of the geomagnetic indices Dst, Ap and Kp. The results from this study show that geomagnetic activity changes and cosmic rays intensity variations may regulate the human homeostasis.

  3. [Musculoskeletal diseases among musicians of the "teatro dell'Opera" of Rome].

    PubMed

    Monaco, Edoardo; Vicaro, Vincenzo; Catarinozzi, Elena; Rossi, Marina; Prestigiacomo, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Musculo-skeletal injuries represent a significant medical problem in professional musicians for which was coined the following acronym PRMDs (that stands for Playing Related Musculoskeletal disorders). A little osteo-articular problem in the professional musicians can impact on a real decreasing performance activity. The purpose of this study is to quantify prevalence of PRMDs syntoms among the professional musicians and to verify their relative impact on quality lives. This study has investigated the orchestral staff of the principal lyric theatre of Rome to which it was distributed DASH OUTCOME and SF-36 questionnaires to identify the presence of musculoskeletal complaints for cervical brachial syndrome and the general quality of life respectively. The employment of the above methodology furnish statistically significant results, pointing out that the musicians quality life suffering from musculo-skeletal symptomatology (DASH SF > or = 15) was lower than ones without a clinical symptomatology. Subsequently these results were compared with the Italian population benchmarking values.

  4. An investigation into the ancient abortion laws: comparing ancient Persia with ancient Greece and Rome.

    PubMed

    Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Zargaran, Arman; Vatanpour, Azadeh; Abedini, Ehsan; Adhami, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    Since the dawn of medicine, medical rights and ethics have always been one of mankind's concerns. In any civilisation, attention paid to medical laws and ethics depends on the progress of human values and the advancement of medical science. The history of various civilisations teaches that each had its own views on medical ethics, but most had something in common. Ancient civilisations such as Greece, Rome, or Assyria did not consider the foetus to be alive and therefore to have human rights. In contrast, ancient Persians valued the foetus as a living person equal to others. Accordingly, they brought laws against abortion, even in cases of sexual abuse. Furthermore, abortion was considered to be a murder and punishments were meted out to the mother, father, and the person performing it.

  5. Leptospirosis survey in wild rodents living in urban areas of Rome.

    PubMed

    Pezzella, M; Lillini, E; Sturchio, E; Ierardi, L A; Grassi, M; Traditi, F; Cristaldi, M

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to survey the current extension of the infected brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) living on the site Ripa Grande-San Michele port located in the center of the sity along the accessible right bank of the Tiber river by using a specific molecular technology. The detection of Leptospira, in 11 trapped brown rats, by tube-based Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed. The amplified samples were analysed by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Sequence analysis of the amplified DNAs confirmed the specificity of the detection of leptospires. Five out of 11 brown rats exhibited positivity for Leptospira. The survey points out the high rate of leptospiral infection in the brown rats living in the most ancient urban area of Rome.

  6. Possible human sacrifice at the origins of Rome: novel skeletal evidences.

    PubMed

    Ottini, Laura; Angeletti, Luciana Rita; Pantano, Walter Benedetto; Falchetti, Mario; Minozzi, Simona; Fortini, Patrizia; Catalano, Paola; Mariani-Costantini, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Recent archaeological excavations at the Carcer/Tullianum, in the Roman Forum, allowed the unexpected recovery of human burials associated with the very early foundations of the monument, at the beginning of the iron age. The study of these burials resulted in interesting paleopathological discoveries, concerning the skeleton of a strongly-built male, radiocarbon-dated between 830 and 780 BC. The telltale posture of the skeleton and the presence of a massive perimortal blunt force trauma of the skull shed light on the mode and circumstances of the death of this subject, and are suggestive of ritual sacrifice. The archaeological, mythological and historical backgrounds, combined with the paleopathological evidence, help us to get a glimpse of life and death at the origins of Rome.

  7. [Concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 particulate material in the atmosphere of Rome].

    PubMed

    Marconi, A; Menichini, E; Ziemacki, G; Cattani, G; Stacchini, G

    2000-01-01

    Starting from 1993, various monitoring campaigns were carried out in Rome to determine PM10 and PM2.5. Their results are presented here cumulatively, with the aim of obtaining preliminary information on relationships among these size fractions, in various seasonal periods and in two sites with different characteristics (a road site and an urban background site in a public park). Particles were collected on filter and gravimetrically determined. Both PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations show temporal fluctuations with higher values during winter months. Background concentrations are lower than those contemporaneously measured at the road site only to a limited extent (10-17%). The contribution of PM2.5 to PM10 during the winter semester is higher than during the summer one (67 vs. 52%), with no substantial intersite differences.

  8. Report on the International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology (Rome, 12–14 March 2014)

    PubMed Central

    Ewer, Michael; Gianni, Luca; Pane, Fabrizio; Sandri, Maria Teresa; Steiner, Rudolf K; Wojnowski, Leszek; Yeh, Edward T; Carver, Joseph R; Lipshultz, Steven E; Minotti, Giorgio; Armstrong, Gregory T; Cardinale, Daniela; Colan, Steven D; Darby, Sarah C; Force, Thomas L; Kremer, Leontien CM; Lenihan, Daniel J; Sallan, Stephen E; Sawyer, Douglas B; Suter, Thomas M; Swain, Sandra M; van Leeuwen, Flora E

    2014-01-01

    Cardio-oncology is a relatively new discipline that focuses on the cardiovascular sequelae of anti-tumour drugs. As any other young adolescent discipline, cardio-oncology struggles to define its scientific boundaries and to identify best standards of care for cancer patients or survivors at risk of cardiovascular events. The International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology was held in Rome, Italy, 12–14 March 2014, with the aim of illuminating controversial issues and unmet needs in modern cardio-oncology. This colloquium embraced contributions from different kind of disciplines (oncology and cardiology but also paediatrics, geriatrics, genetics, and translational research); in fact, cardio-oncology goes way beyond the merging of cardiology with oncology. Moreover, the colloquium programme did not review cardiovascular toxicity from one drug or the other, rather it looked at patients as we see them in their fight against cancer and eventually returning to everyday life. This represents the melting pot in which anti-cancer therapies, genetic backgrounds, and risk factors conspire in producing cardiovascular sequelae, and this calls for screening programmes and well-designed platforms of collaboration between one key professional figure and another. The International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology was promoted by the Menarini International Foundation and co-chaired by Giorgio Minotti (Rome), Joseph R Carver (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States), and Steven E Lipshultz (Detroit, Michigan, United States). The programme was split into five sessions of broad investigational and clinical relevance (what is cardiotoxicity?, cardiotoxicity in children, adolescents, and young adults, cardiotoxicity in adults, cardiotoxicity in special populations, and the future of cardio-oncology). Here, the colloquium chairs and all the session chairs briefly summarised what was said at the colloquium. Topics and controversies were reported on behalf of all members of the working group

  9. Rome Foundation-Asian working team report: Asian functional gastrointestinal disorder symptom clusters.

    PubMed

    Siah, Kewin Tien Ho; Gong, Xiaorong; Yang, Xi Jessie; Whitehead, William E; Chen, Minhu; Hou, Xiaohua; Pratap, Nitesh; Ghoshal, Uday C; Syam, Ari F; Abdullah, Murdani; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Bak, Young-Tae; Lu, Ching-Liang; Gonlachanvit, Sutep; Boon, Chua Seng; Fang, Fan; Cheong, Pui Kuan; Wu, Justin C Y; Gwee, Kok-Ann

    2017-06-07

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are diagnosed by the presence of a characteristic set of symptoms. However, the current criteria-based diagnostic approach is to some extent subjective and largely derived from observations in English-speaking Western patients. We aimed to identify latent symptom clusters in Asian patients with FGID. 1805 consecutive unselected patients with FGID who presented for primary or secondary care to 11 centres across Asia completed a cultural and linguistic adaptation of the Rome III Diagnostic Questionnaire that was translated to the local languages. Principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation was used to identify symptom clusters. Nine symptom clusters were identified, consisting of two oesophageal factors (F6: globus, odynophagia and dysphagia; F9: chest pain and heartburn), two gastroduodenal factors (F5: bloating, fullness, belching and flatulence; F8 regurgitation, nausea and vomiting), three bowel factors (F2: abdominal pain and diarrhoea; F3: meal-related bowel symptoms; F7: upper abdominal pain and constipation) and two anorectal factors (F1: anorectal pain and constipation; F4: diarrhoea, urgency and incontinence). We found that the broad categorisation used both in clinical practice and in the Rome system, that is, broad anatomical divisions, and certain diagnoses with long historical records, that is, IBS with diarrhoea, and chronic constipation, are still valid in our Asian societies. In addition, we found a bowel symptom cluster with meal trigger and a gas cluster that suggests a different emphasis in our populations. Future studies to compare a non-Asian cohort and to match to putative pathophysiology will help to verify our findings. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. A day at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia in Rome, Italy seen from the kids point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Addezio, G.; Burrato, P.; Marsili, A.; Team, L.

    2008-12-01

    The Laboratorio di Didattica e Divulgazione Scientifica Group of the INGV organizes every year intense educational and outreach activities with schools of different grades. The visit to the scientific laboratories of the INGV center of Rome represents the earliest and the most continuous project started about 10 years ago. During these years the INGV center was visited by more than 20,000 students. The researchers and the technicians of the INGV receive with competence and enthusiasm the students in order to transfer scientific knowledge and enthusiasm for scientific research, science and nature. Since Italy is a place prone to seismic and volcanic activities our lessons focalize in particular on causes of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and how to behave properly during these events. This approach derived from the consciousness that preparedness is the best way to live with and to mitigate natural hazards. The visit consists of a theoretical lesson in a conference hall supported by multimedia tools, and a practical experiences based on exhibitions and hands-on experiments focused on earthquakes, plate tectonics and the inner structure of the Earth. A special experience is the visit to the control room of the INGV National Seismic Surveillance where the students can see in real time the seismic activity and how it is important its continuous monitoring 24-hours a day all year round. In the 2007-2008 scholastic year about 50 classes for more than 2,500 students and their teachers interacted with about 40 scientists. For some of the classes the visit gave the start to independent and original work. This is the case of a IVth primary school class that once back to the desk and encouraged by the teachers resumed their impressions and what their better grasped. The result is a "book" realized like a diary from their original drawings with a final section devoted to a research work they have independently done on volcanoes. The kids with a scientifically correct

  11. Flight Investigation at High Speeds of Flow Conditions Over an Airplane Wing as Indicated by Surface Tufts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-06-01

    WHB AS INDICATED BY SURFACE TOFTS By Clotalre Wood, and John A. Zalovcik Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory Langley Field, Va. • r^CHH, T R<a...motion-picture filii t*’.ren c!urin3 flight ’s shown as figure l+. The quality of the ohotographs was, in general, too poor to oermit

  12. Laboratory Reagents

    SciTech Connect

    CARLSON, D.D.

    1999-10-08

    Replaced by WMH-310, Section 4.17. This document outlined the basic methodology for preparing laboratory reagents used in the 222-S Standards Laboratory. Included were general guidelines for drying, weighing, transferring, dissolving, and diluting techniques common when preparing laboratory reagents and standards. Appendix A contained some of the reagents prepared by the laboratory.

  13. GeoguideRome, urban geotourism offer powered by mobile application technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pica, Alessia; Grangier, Lucien; Reynard, Emmanuel; Kaiser, Christian; Del Monte, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Geoheritage studies have been highly intensified and diversified in recent years. This field of research has a strong applicability, especially in interdisciplinary and sustainable forms of tourism. For this purpose the most modern technologies are used for supporting the dissemination of research results, in particular for educational purposes (Kenteris et al., 2011 and references therein). This is the case of smartphone and tablet applications developed by the Institute of Geography and Sustainability of Lausanne University (IGD), devoted to geotourist itineraries. This work presents the application developed for the city of Rome, based on the itinerary proposed by the Earth Sciences Department of the Sapienza University (Del Monte et al., 2013; Pica et al., 2015). The Aeterna Urbs, with more than 3000 years of historical development, is a very good place to develop urban geotourism, especially because most of the cultural places are related to morphological features (Pica et al., 2015). As shown by the Geoguide Lausanne (Reynard et al., 2015) - a virtual itinerary showing the relationships between geology/geomorphology, climate/hydrology, and urban development in Lausanne (Switzerland) - and TOURinSTONES - a virtual guide on the rocks used for the construction of urban monuments and infrastructures in the city of Turin (Italy) - the urban context has the advantage of easily showing the links between natural features and human activities. From a technical point of view the application is an updated version of Geoguide Lausanne using jQuery Mobile as development framework, which allowed for increasing the usability and solved some gaps of the previous versions. The contents are organized the same way as for the Geoguide Lausanne, proposing three educational themes, an itinerary arranged in georeferenced stops shown by images and described in their characterizing aspects. The themes are Geology, History and Legends. By means of the relationships between them they

  14. Saharan Dust and Associations between Particulate Matter and Daily Mortality in Rome, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Mallone, Sandra; Faustini, Annunziata; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Marconi, Achille; Forastiere, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Background: Outbreaks of Saharan-Sahel dust over Euro-Mediterranean areas frequently induce exceedances of the Europen Union's 24-hr standard of 50 μg/m3 for particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter ≤ than 10 μm (PM10). Objectives: We evaluated the effect of Saharan dust on the association between different PM fractions and daily mortality in Rome, Italy. Methods: In a study of 80,423 adult residents who died in Rome between 2001 and 2004, we performed a time-series analysis to explore the effects of PM2.5, PM2.5–10, and PM10 on natural, cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory mortality. We defined Saharan dust days by combining light detection and ranging (LIDAR) observations and analyses from operational models. We tested a Saharan dust–PM interaction term to evaluate the hypothesis that the effects of PM, especially coarse PM (PM2.5–10), on mortality would be enhanced on dust days. Results: Interquartile range increases in PM2.5–10 (10.8 μg/m3) and PM10 (19.8 μg/m3) were associated with increased mortality due to natural, cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory causes, with estimated effects ranging from 2.64% to 12.65% [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18–25.42%] for the association between PM2.5–10 and respiratory mortality (0- to 5-day lag). Associations of PM2.5–10 with cardiac mortality were stronger on Saharan dust days (9.73%; 95% CI, 4.25–15.49%) than on dust-free days (0.86%; 95% CI, –2.47% to 4.31%; p = 0.005). Saharan dust days also modified associations between PM10 and cardiac mortality (9.55% increase; 95% CI, 3.81–15.61%; vs. dust-free days: 2.09%; 95% CI, –0.76% to 5.02%; p = 0.02). Conclusions: We found evidence of effects of PM2.5–10 and PM10 on natural and cause-specific mortality, with stronger estimated effects on cardiac mortality during Saharan dust outbreaks. Toxicological and biological effects of particles from desert sources need to be further investigated and taken into account in air quality

  15. Exposure to benzene in urban workers: environmental and biological monitoring of traffic police in Rome

    PubMed Central

    Crebelli, R; Tomei, F; Zijno, A; Ghittori, S; Imbriani, M; Gamberale, D; Martini, A; Carere, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To evaluate the contribution of traffic fumes to exposure to benzene in urban workers, an investigation on personal exposure to benzene in traffic police from the city of Rome was carried out.
METHODS—The study was performed from December 1998 to June 1999. Diffusive Radiello personal samplers were used to measure external exposures to benzene and alkyl benzenes during the workshift in 139 policemen who controlled medium to high traffic areas and in 63 office police. Moreover, as biomarkers of internal exposure to benzene, blood benzene, and urinary trans, trans-muconic and S-phenyl mercapturic acids were measured at the beginning and at the end of the workshift in 124 traffic police and 58 office police.
RESULTS—Time weighted average (TWA) exposure to benzene was consistently higher among traffic police than among indoor workers (geometric mean 6.8 and 3.5 µg/m3, respectively). Among the traffic police, the distribution of individual exposures was highly asymmetric, skewed toward higher values. Mean ambient benzene concentrations measured by municipal air monitoring stations during workshifts of traffic police were generally higher (geometric mean 12.6 µg/m3) and did not correlat with personal exposure values. In particular, no association was found between highest personal exposure scores and environmental benzene concentrations. Among the exposure biomarkers investigated, only blood benzene correlated slightly with on-shift exposure to benzene, but significant increases in both urinary trans, trans-muconic and S-phenylmercapturic acids were found in active smokers compared with non-smokers, irrespective of their job.
CONCLUSION—The exposure to traffic fumes during working activities in medium to high traffic areas in Rome may give a relatively greater contribution to personal exposure to benzene than indoor sources present in confined environments. Smoking significantly contributed to internal exposure to benzene in both

  16. Occupational biological risk knowledge and perception: results from a large survey in Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    De Giusti, Maria; Corrao, Carmela R N; Mannocci, Alice; Palazzo, Caterina; Riccardi, Roberta; Schmidt, Silvia Lisa; Sernia, Sabrina; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey on knowledge and perception of occupational biological risk among workers in several occupations was carried out in the industrial area of Rome. The study was carried out in the period of March-April 2010 using a questionnaire with 33 items on the following areas: a) socio-demographic data; b) perception of the biological risks in ordinary occupational activity; c) knowledge about biological risks; d) biological risks in the working environment. The questionnaire was submitted to a convenience sample of workers of an industrial area in Southern Rome. 729 participants entered the study from the following work activities: food, catering, service, farming and breeding, healthcare, school and research (males 57.2%; mean age 37.4 years, SD = 10.9). Significant associations were found between different activity areas with respect to the relevance of the biological risk (p = 0.044) and the perception of the biological risk (p < 0.001). With respect to vehicles of infectious agents, the highest percentages of the most common biological risk exposures were: air and physical contact for the catering and food group, 66.7% and 61.90% respectively; air and blood for the health and research group, with 73.50% and 57.00% respectively; and physical contact and blood for the service group, 63.10 % and 48.30%. Significant difference of proportions were found about the prevalent effect caused by the biological agents was the occurrence of infectious diseases (59.90% food group, 91.60% health and research and 79.30% service group) (p < 0.001). The perception of knowledge resulted in a good rank (sufficient, many or complete) in the food and catering group, 78.3% with significant difference compared to other professions (p < 0.001). All participants show good knowledge the effects induced by biological agents and it is significant that almost half of the respondents are aware of the risks concerning allergies. Nevertheless, it is surprising that this risk is

  17. [Retrospective demographic study in a small mountainous region of the province of Rome].

    PubMed

    Fasiolo, P; Percoco, M; Lupi, R; Callari, L; Antonelli, A

    1989-01-01

    This retrospective study takes into consideration demographic and epidemiological data relative to the population of Arcinazzo Romano, a little village on the mountains situated at 831 m. above sea level in the province of Rome. The socio-economic structure of the village is mainly agropastoral, though, in the last decades, 50% of the ground has been left uncultivated due to emigration and commuting. ISTAT data relative to population censuses of 1951, 1961, 1971 and 1981 have been used to study the population natural movement from 1943 to 1987. The active/passive rate and the population ageing index have also been considered. Whenever possible local population data have been compared with similar data on a provincial, regional and national level. From 1943 (1697 inhabitants according to the archives of the Civil Status Office) the population of Arcinazzo R. has been increasing until 1955 (1903 inhabitants). Afterwards, there has been a slow, but constant, decrement till 1987 (1435 inhabitants). The reason for this is undoubtedly the migration movement (mainly towards Rome) due to the scarcity of job possibilities in the zone. This has resulted in a decrease in both active population and agricultural manpower. From 1943 to 1987 there has been a continuous decrease in birth-rate. Starting from 33.5 in 1943, the lowest value (4.6) is reached in 1981; in the last decade the index has settled on average values (11.22) which are slightly higher than national and regional averages (10.2 and 9.7 respectively). The general death-rate has its highest value in 1944 (19.3) and its lowest value in 1958 (4.8). From this date on, the index settles on an average of 12.0, which is slightly higher than national and regional averages (9.5 and 8.4 respectively). The infant death-rate starts from a value of 228/1000 in 1943 to decrease in following years. Keeping into account that the number of children born each year in Arcinazzo R. is very small, a comparison with national or

  18. L'insegnamento della lingua inglese nella scuola materna: un'indagine in area romana (Teaching English in Preschool: A Survey in the Rome Area).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevetti, Franca

    1987-01-01

    Presents the results of a survey to determine the extent to which English was taught and what methods were used in public and private nursery schools in Rome, Italy, during the academic year 1985-86. (CFM)

  19. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  20. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  1. [The teaching of microbiology in the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Rome. Memories of the Institute].

    PubMed

    Orsi, N

    2008-01-01

    The Author describes the various phases of the teaching of microbiology in the Faculty of Medicine of the University, of Rome, from the unity of Italy to the end of the twentieth century. A regular course of Bacteriology was started only in the academic year 1905/1906 as separate teaching from that of Hygiene and the Institute of Bacteriology was created in 1924. It was centered in Piazza del Viminale in Rome, in the same building as the Institute of Hygiene. Prof Vittorio Puntoni was the first Director of the Institute, also in its new site of the Città Universitaria which was inaugurated in 1935. In the meantime the old name of Bacteriology was changed to Microbiology and prof Puntoni remained as Director until 1943. The bombing during the war produced heavy damage to the new Institute and with the appointment of prof Aldo Cimmino as a new Director in 1946 the Institute of Microbiology began a long period of reconstruction and development. An astonishing improvement was achieved in the availability of human and technical resources, many groups of research workers were created and several pupils became professor of Microbiology in different Italian Universities. In 1981 prof Cimmino definitely retired, leaving, the teaching of Microbiology in the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Rome "La Sapienza" to five of his pupils. One of them, prof Garaci, a few years later passed to the new University of Rome "Tor Vergata", becoming also Rector. The other four professor (Orsi, Filadoro, Pezzi, del Piano) continued their teaching in the successive years, with the collaboration of several associate professors, whose status was created by the law 382 in 1980. A later law on the short degree course required also the official participation of many researchers to the new teaching. Finally in 2001 the official activity of the Institute of Microbiology ceased and was incorporated in the Department of Public Health Sciences.

  2. Determination of barometric coefficients for total neutron intensity and neutron multiplicities on the base of Emilio Segre' Observatory data corrected for primary variations according to Rome neutron monitor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, L. I.

    By the barometric coefficients determined in a first approximation in the way from sea level to the place of stationary operation, we corrected for barometric effect the total neutron intensity and intensities of neutron multiplicities detected by a 6NM-64 neutron monitor installed inside the Emilio Segre' Israelo-Italian moving laboratory (Mt. Hermon, Israel, 2020 m a.s.l.). The period June-December 1998 was analysed. We compared the obtained results with the Rome 17NM-64 neutron monitor data and corrected the Emilio Segre' Observatory data for primary variations. We determined with high accuracy barometric coefficients for the total neutron monitor counting rate and for the intensities of detected neutron multiplicities m=1, m=2, m=3, m=4, m=5, m=6, m=7 and m≥8.

  3. Characterisation of the local topsoil contribution to airborne particulate matter in the area of Rome (Italy). Source profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrodangelo, A.; Salzano, R.; Rantica, E.; Perrino, C.

    2013-04-01

    Elemental profiles of the local resuspended natural topsoil of Rome area have been studied. Relevant compositional differences were observed either among main geological domains and rock types of this area (volcanics, flysch, marlstone, travertine) or between the two considered dimensional fractions (50 μm and PM10 resuspended from the former). A significant enrichment in trace metals (especially Pb, Ni and Cr) has been observed in the PM10 resuspended fraction of either volcanics or sedimentary outcropping rocks; volcanics show larger trace metals enrichment than sedimentary. Profiles of this study have been compared with signatures of natural crustal dust of African origin (collected either in situ or at European receptor sites, including Rome and other sites in the Latium region) and with signatures of road dust, properly selected from literature. This comparison was performed for source apportionment goals, with the aim of improving discrimination among signatures of local and non-local natural crustal materials. Elemental ratios of major and trace elements of geochemical relevance were used for the comparative study. Mg/Ca and Ti/Ca ratios appear successful in separating, by dispersion diagram, the resuspended fraction of local Rome geological topsoil from road dust and from long-range transported dust from Africa.

  4. Translation and validation of the Farsi version of Rome III diagnostic questionnaire for the adult functional gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Toghiani, Ali; Maleki, Iradj; Afshar, Hamid; Kazemian, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to validate the Farsi version of Rome III modular questionnaire which contains all functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). Materials and Methods: We used Rome foundation guidelines for translation of English version into Farsi, and all the steps were performed. In the first step, 2 forward translations into Farsi were completed by two authors separately, and then translators, who participated in Step 1, together with our monitor, compared the two target-language versions and made some changes. The product of Phase 2 was translated back into English by an American-Iranian physician. The final step was comparison of the two English versions and validation of the translation. In this step, we compared the final version item by item, and also we used focus groups of patients after pretesting. Results: Our results showed that FGIDs questionnaire diagnosed 153 patients among 169 patients who were diagnosed to have different types of FGIDs. The sensitivity of this questionnaire was 90.5%. It was determined that the odd questions' values of Cronbach’s alpha was 0.77 (very reliable), and it was 0.71 (very reliable) in other sections. The split-half test reliability of whole items value was 0.72, which is statistically significant. Conclusion: Our findings showed that the Farsi version of Rome III diagnostic questionnaire for the adult functional gastrointestinal disorders demonstrated good validity and reliability and could be used in clinical studies. PMID:28250780

  5. United States Air Force Summer Research Program 1991. Graduate Student Research Program (GSRP) Reports. Volume 8. Rome Laboratory, Arnold Engineering Development Center, F. J. Seiler Research Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-09

    temp Call Sub rp Yea ste ewr still connected? -- No Write the et of nodes as cut-vortex at Program 1-18 a Siad~e Form aUbgrqji for al Cal Fwiion...defines the component, EMVIC calculates the MTF and a for it and displays these values on the screen. The user can choose to write the simulation...out can also be selected by the user. Then, EMVIC-2 calculates MTF and a at evenly dis- tributed points in the range of analysis and writes the results

  6. United States Air Force Summer Research Program 1991. Summer Faculty Research Program (SFRP) Reports. Volume 4. Rome Laboratory, Arnold Engineering Development Center, F. J. Seiler Research Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-09

    Lifetimes in Aluminum Thin - Film Stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 36, pp. 968-970, 1980. [5] S. Vaidya, T.T. Sheng and A.K. Sinha, "Linewidth Dependence of...a thin film of liquid crystal material. A reflective chromium mask creates 100 liquid crystal elements (pixels) in a 10x10 array pattern. Transparent...or as a Kubelka - Munk solid sample with KBr. El mass spectra were recorded on a HP Model 5985 mass spectrometer, with an HP 1000 Data Station, operating

  7. A statistical analysis on the relationship between thunderstorms and the sporadic E Layer over Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, V.; Scotto, C.; Pietrella, M.; Sgrigna, V.; Conti, L.; Sátori, G.

    2013-11-01

    Meteorological processes (cold fronts, mesoscale convective complexes, thunderstorms) in the troposphere can generate upward propagating waves in the neutral atmosphere affecting the behaviour of the ionosphere. One type of these waves are the internal atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) which are often generated by thunderstorms. Davis & Johnson (2005) found in low pressure systems that a localized intensification of the sporadic E layer (Es) can be attributed to lightnings. To confirm this result, we have performed two different statistical analysis using the time series of the critical frequency (foEs), the virtual height of the sporadic E layer (h'Es), and meteorological observations (lightnings, Infrared maps) over the ionospheric station of Rome (41.9o N, 12.5o E). In the first statistical analysis, we separated the days of 2009 into two groups: stormy days and fair-weather days, then we studied the occurrence and the properties of the Es separately for the two different groups. No significant differences have been found. In the second case, a superposed epoch analysis (SEA) was used to study the behaviour of the critical frequency and virtual height 100 hours before and after the lightnings. The SEA shows a statistically significant decrease in the critical frequency after the time of the lightnings, which indicates a sudden decrease in the electron density of the sporadic E layer associated with lightnings.

  8. Constipation in children: an epidemiological study in Sri Lanka using Rome III criteria.

    PubMed

    Rajindrajith, Shaman; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Adhikari, Chandralatha; Pannala, Waruni; Benninga, Marc A

    2012-01-01

    Constipation is a common paediatric problem, but its prevalence in Asia is unknown. A cross-sectional survey using a previously validated, self-administered questionnaire was conducted in randomly selected children aged 10-16 years, in five randomly selected schools in Sri Lanka. Two schools were in Eastern Province, which has been affected by the separatist war. Constipation was defined using Rome III criteria. Of 2694 children included in the analysis, 416 (15.4%) had constipation. Symptoms independently associated with constipation were straining (71.6% vs 28.4% of controls), bleeding per rectum (14.2% vs 2.2%) and abdominal pain (55% vs 35.2%). The prevalence of constipation was significantly higher in those with a family history of constipation (49% vs 14.8%), living in a war affected area (18.1% vs 13.7%) and attending an urban school (16.7% vs 13.3%). In conclusion, chronic constipation is a significant problem affecting 15% of Sri Lankan school children and adolescents.

  9. Seasonal dynamics of tick species in an urban park of Rome.

    PubMed

    Di Luca, Marco; Toma, Luciano; Bianchi, Riccardo; Quarchioni, Elisa; Marini, Luca; Mancini, Fabiola; Ciervo, Alessandra; Khoury, Cristina

    2013-12-01

    Regular collections were obtained in the Natural Reserve of the Insugherata of Rome during 2011 in order to obtain the tick species composition and the respective seasonal dynamics of the area. A total of 325 ticks was collected in selected sites by means of drag sampling. Among the identified species, Rhipicephalus turanicus was the most abundant (72.3%), followed by Ixodes ricinus (19.7%), Dermacentor marginatus (6.5%), Haemaphysalis punctata (1.2%), and Rhipicephalus bursa (0.3%). R. turanicus occurred mainly in pastures, showing a mono-modal seasonal activity pattern from spring to early summer. Questing I. ricinus were prevalent in woodland from October to May, and the seasonal trend of specimens showed a weak peak in winter. Although adult D. marginatus exhibited seasonal dynamics similar to I. ricinus, with an activity period from October to April, this species occurred in a different environment (pasture) and with considerably lower densities. Haemaphysalis punctata and R. bursa were rare, with an apparent autumn and autumn-winter seasonal activity, respectively. While the species diversity recorded appears as an unequivocal consequence of the natural state of the park, the remarkable R. turanicus density could be a direct effect of the recent introduction of wild boar, as carriers, from the close Veio Park. The presence of the species, a proven vector of various diseases in humans and domestic animals, is discussed in the light of the possible risk of tick-bite exposure of park workers and visitors.

  10. Investigation of Ionospheric Slab Thickness behaviour over Rome during high solar activity period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, Richa; Gwal, Ashok Kumar; Jain, Sudhir

    The subject of the present study is to analyze the characteristic variations of the ionospheric slab thickness at Rome (41°N, 12°E, LT= (UT+1h), DIP=57°.4) for the period August, 2011 to July, 2012. The work deals with diurnal, seasonal, solar and magnetic activity variations of slab thickness. We observed that the seasonal mean value of slab thickness is higher during summer months than equinox and winter months and the mean diurnal variations of the slab thickness characterised with night-time values that are substantially higher than the day-time values during winter (night-to-day ratio between 1.01), but higher day-time and lower night-time values during summer (night-to-day ratio of 0.65). The slab thickness decreases with increase in solar flux value for mid-latitude. The results have been compared with the earlier ones and discussed in terms of possible source mechanism responsible for the variation of slab thickness at mid-latitude region. Keywords: F2 layer critical frequency (foF2); F2-layer electron density (NmF2); Slab thickness (τ); Solar Flux.

  11. Characterisation of artificial patinas on bronze sculptures of the Carlo Bilotti Museum (Rome)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanova Municchia, A.; Bellatreccia, F.; D'Ercoli, G.; Lo Mastro, S.; Reho, I.; Ricci, M. A.; Sodo, A.

    2016-12-01

    Two bronze sculptures, Ettore e Andromaca, a reproduction of a plaster model by Giorgio de Chirico, and Cardinale, a cast made from an original by Giacomo Manzù, stand outside the Carlo Bilotti contemporary art museum in Villa Borghese park (Rome). The composition of the artificial brown patina present on the statues' surface, which was applied for aesthetic purposes, is unknown. This paper reports analysis carried out to identify the composition of the artificial patina and describe the corrosion products formed in outdoor conditions. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy equipped with X-ray microanalysis were performed on sample fragments and powder scrapings taken from the bronze statues. X-ray powder diffraction was used whenever possible and subject to conservation priorities. Our data revealed, in the artificial brown patina, the formation of copper oxides (cuprite and tenorite) on the surface of both sculptures as possible result of oxidisation treatments performed with a blowtorch before the artificial patination process began. Furthermore, a copper nitrate (gerhardtite) was identified as an ingredient in the preparation applied to the bronze surfaces. The green areas revealed the presence of corrosion products as copper sulphate hydroxide (brochantite) and copper sulphate-chloride (connellite), which form under acid rains conditions.

  12. Understanding the acoustics of Papal Basilicas in Rome by means of a coupled-volumes approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martellotta, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    The paper investigates the acoustics of the four World-famous Papal Basilicas in Rome, namely Saint Peter's, St. John Lateran's, St. Paul's outside the Walls, and Saint Mary's Major. They are characterized by different dimensions, materials, and architectural features, as well as by a certain number of similarities. In addition, their complexity determines significant variation in their acoustics depending on the relative position of source and receivers. A detailed set of acoustic measurements was carried out in each church, using both spatial (B-format) and binaural microphones, and determining the standard ISO 3382 descriptors. The results are analyzed in relation to the architectural features, pointing out the differences observed in terms of listening experience. Finally, in order to explain some of the results found in energy-based parameters, the churches were analyzed as a system of acoustically coupled volumes. The latter explained most of the anomalies observed in the distribution of acoustic parameters, while showing at the same time that secondary spaces (aisles, chapels) play a different role depending on the amount of sound absorption located in the main nave.

  13. Witnesses of the body: medico-legal cases in seventeenth-century Rome.

    PubMed

    De Renzi, Silvia

    2002-06-01

    Studying early modern medico-legal testimonies can enrich our understanding of witnessing, the focus of much research in the history of science. Expert testimonies were well established in the Roman Cannon law, but the sphere of competence of expert witnesses - one of the grounds on which seventeenth-century physicians claimed social and intellectual authority- troubled contemporary jurists. By reconstructing these debates in Counter Reformation Rome, and by placing in them the testimonies given by Poalo Zacchia, one of the founding fathers of legal medicine, this article discusses the epistemological and social issues surrounding the definition of expertise about the body in court. It shows how a high-ranking expert witness would define his competence versus the legal authority on the one hand, lower-status expert witnesses on the other. But it also explores the interactions between specific legal constraints, for example about eye witnessing, and the ways in which different kinds of witnesses would use the body as a source of evidence for testimony. While engaging with medico-legal issues including the ambiguous signs of childbirth and the (in)visibility of pain, the article examines their meanings within Counter Reformation social controversies, including control over sexuality, imposition of discipline and the social status of physicians. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Air pollution in an urban area nearby the Rome-Ciampino city airport].

    PubMed

    Di Menno di Bucchianico, Alessandro; Cattani, Giorgio; Gaeta, Alessandra; Caricchia, Anna Maria; Troiano, Francesco; Sozzi, Roberto; Bolignano, Andrea; Sacco, Fabrizio; Damizia, Sesto; Barberini, Silvia; Caleprico, Roberta; Fabozzi, Tina; Ancona, Carla; Ancona, Laura; Cesaroni, Giulia; Forastiere, Francesco; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Costabile, Francesca; Angelini, Federico; Barnaba, Francesca; Inglessis, Marco; Tancredi, Francesco; Palumbo, Lorenzo; Fontana, Luca; Bergamaschi, Antonio; Iavicoli, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    to assess air pollution spatial and temporal variability in the urban area nearby the Ciampino International Airport (Rome) and to investigate the airport-related emissions contribute. the study domain was a 64 km2 area around the airport. Two fifteen-day monitoring campaigns (late spring, winter) were carried out. Results were evaluated using several runs outputs of an airport-related sources Lagrangian particle model and a photochemical model (the Flexible Air quality Regional Model, FARM). both standard and high time resolution air pollutant concentrations measurements: CO, NO, NO2, C6H6, mass and number concentration of several PM fractions. 46 fixed points (spread over the study area) of NO2 and volatile organic compounds concentrations (fifteen days averages); deterministic models outputs. standard time resolution measurements, as well as model outputs, showed the airport contribution to air pollution levels being little compared to the main source in the area (i.e. vehicular traffic). However, using high time resolution measurements, peaks of particles associated with aircraft takeoff (total number concentration and soot mass concentration), and landing (coarse mass concentration) were observed, when the site measurement was downwind to the runway. the frequently observed transient spikes associated with aircraft movements could lead to a not negligible contribute to ultrafine, soot and coarse particles exposure of people living around the airport. Such contribute and its spatial and temporal variability should be investigated when assessing the airports air quality impact.

  15. Food as a weapon: Bucharest, Rome and the politics of starvation.

    PubMed

    Segal, B

    1974-01-01

    At the convention of the World Food Conference, leaders of the underdeveloped nations hoped to press for changes in international trade relations while U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger hoped to use the conference as a forum to link food shortages to overpopulation. Kissinger tried to put the blame for the food crisis on the oil producing nations and the "energy crisis" they brought about and made it clear that the U.S. no longer plans to provide most of the world's food aid. The underdeveloped nations did not accept this. They still blame the crisis on the U.S., which they say controls more food than the fuel the oil producing nations control. The U.S. has historically used food as a tool of foreign policy, and with the increasing dependency of the U.S. on the raw supplies of the underdeveloped world, there is growing talk of using food to blackmail nations into adopting population control programs. One such proposal came in Rome by former U.S. government official Richard Gardner, who suggested a "global survival pact" under which rich nations would conserve food, energy, and raw materials in return for commitments by Third World nations to change their suicidal demographic, agricultural and environmental practices. Another proposal was made by Congressman Jerry Litton who said he would introduce legislation banning food aid to any country with above average population growth and which was not doing anything to reduce it.

  16. Chemical characterization of indoor and outdoor fine particulate matter in an occupied apartment in Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Perrino, C; Tofful, L; Canepari, S

    2016-08-01

    The daily concentration and chemical composition of PM2.5 was determined in indoor and outdoor 24-h samples simultaneously collected for a total of 5 weeks during a winter and a summer period in an apartment sited in Rome, Italy. The use of a specifically developed very quiet sampler (<35 dB) allowed the execution of the study while the family living in the apartment led its normal life. The indoor concentration of PM2.5 showed a small seasonal variation, while outdoor values were much higher during the winter study. Outdoor sources were found to contribute significantly to indoor PM concentration especially during the summer, when the apartment was naturally ventilated by opening the windows. During the winter the infiltration of outdoor PM components was lower and mostly regulated by the particle dimensions. Organics displayed In/Out ratios higher than unity during both periods; their indoor production increased significantly during the weekends, where the family stayed mostly at home. PM components were grouped into macrosources (soil, sea, secondary inorganics, traffic, organics). During the summer the main contributions to outdoor PM2.5 came from soil (30%), secondary inorganics (29%) and organics (22%). Organics dominated both indoor PM2.5 during the summer (60%) and outdoor and indoor PM2.5 during the winter (51% and 66%, respectively). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. [The patient and family satisfaction with the department of mental health in Rome].

    PubMed

    Cozza, M; Amara, M; Butera, N; Infantino, G; Monti, A M; Provénzano, R

    1997-01-01

    Satisfaction's measurement with Mental Health Services in patients and their relatives. Satisfaction scale administration to the patients who were treated in community-based psychiatric service from 1.1.1996 to 31.3.1996 and the relatives who were primarily involved in caring for the patient. The ASL Rome "C" community-based psychiatric service. Verona Service Satisfaction Scale-54, a multidimensional instrument which measure satisfaction with community-based psychiatric service. Main results (301 scales for patients, 163 scales for relatives), pointed out for patients a higher satisfaction for the technical and interpersonal skills of psychiatrists and psychologists (score of specific items > 4). Lowest scores of satisfaction were towards the appearance, comfort level and physical layout of the facility (score 2.95) and towards the response of the service to emergencies during the night, weekend and Bank Holidays (score 2.87). Relatives were not particularly keen for the item regarding help to find open employment (score 2.76). Furthermore patients and their relatives gave a negative evaluation of the publicity and information offered by Mental Health Services. Dimension's analysis reaches the same conclusions deduced items's average score. The result of this study emphasizes the patients higher degree of satisfaction than the relatives. The above results point out three aspects to be improved by the Mental Health Service in order to satisfy the demands of the patients and relatives: 1. appearance, comfort level and physical layout of the facility, 2. publicity and information, 3. social activities and social skills.

  18. Multitemporal floristic analysis on a humid area in Rome's archaeological site as indicator for environmental change.

    PubMed

    Ceschin, Simona; Salerno, Giovanni; Caneva, Giulia

    2009-02-01

    A multitemporal analysis on a humid area in Rome's archaeological site is presented; the floristic data are used as bioindicators for main environmental changes over the last 50 years. By comparing the structural, biogeographical and ecological features of today's florula with the ones of a 1955 survey, and by assessing the new, the rare and the locally disappeared species, it was possible to define and analyse the main floristic changes and their ecological meaning for this site. Our results show that the floristic richness of the area did not differ significantly from 1955. However, the species composition has changed considerably: over 40% of the species have disappeared. More than half of these were rare and typical of humid environments. Approximately the same number of species has appeared but these are mainly ruderal and widespread entities, with the overall result being a progressive and general vulgarization of the local flora. Finally, we analyse the main reasons, linked for the most part to human activities, which led to the reported floristic changes.

  19. Tuberculosis case finding based on symptom screening among immigrants, refugees and asylum seekers in Rome.

    PubMed

    Sañé Schepisi, Monica; Gualano, Gina; Fellus, Claudia; Bevilacqua, Nazario; Vecchi, Marco; Piselli, Pierluca; Battagin, Giuliana; Silvestrini, Giulia; Attanasio, Andrea; Vela, Alberto; Rocca, Giorgia; Rinaldi, Alessandro; Benedetti, Pietro; Geraci, Salvatore; Lauria, Francesco Nicola; Girardi, Enrico

    2013-09-22

    In Italy the proportion of cases of tuberculosis in persons originating from high-prevalence countries has been increasing in the last decade. We designed a study to assess adherence to and yield of a tuberculosis screening programme based on symptom screening conducted at primary care centres for regular and irregular immigrants and refugees/asylum seekers. Presence of symptoms suggestive of active tuberculosis was investigated by verbal screening in migrants presenting for any medical condition to 3 free primary care centres in the province of Rome. Individuals reporting at least one symptom were referred to a tuberculosis clinic for diagnostic workup. Among 2142 migrants enrolled, 254 (11.9%) reported at least one symptom suggestive of active tuberculosis and 176 were referred to the tuberculosis clinic. Of them, 80 (45.4%) did not present for diagnostic evaluation. Tuberculosis was diagnosed in 7 individuals representing 0.33% of those screened and 7.3% of those evaluated for tuberculosis. The overall yield of this intervention was in the range reported for other tuberculosis screening programmes for migrants, although we recorded an unsatisfactory adherence to diagnostic workup. Possible advantages of this intervention include low cost and reduced burden of medical procedures for the screened population. Further evaluation of this approach appears to be warranted.

  20. [Hand washing: comparison between professionals and students behaviours in a large University hospital of Rome].

    PubMed

    Sansoni, Julita; Mariani, Paola; De Caro, Walter; Sorrentino, Milena; Marucci, Anna Rita; Giammarco, Enrichetta; Di Foggia, Fernanda; Cristofaro, Domenico; van de Mortel, Thea

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the study is assessing knowledge, opinions and compliance with the procedures of health professionals (physician, nurses, medical and nursing students) about Hand Hygiene (HH). There is a number of research which indicates that physicians respect less than nurses Hand Hygiene, there are a smaller number which investigates the differences in the attitude of the aforementioned subjects during their studies. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 756 participants (252 doctors, 268 nurses, 117 nursing students and 119 students of medicine) at a large University Hospital in Rome, to determine their knowledge, compliance and procedures with Hand Hygiene. Knowledge of medical students is lower than that of nursing students, as well as they have lower values in adherence to practice. In both HH Beliefs Scale (HBS) and HH Practices Inventory (HHPI) questionnaires, nursing students have higher scores than nurses, doctors and medical students. The questions on the use of alcohol-based cleaners have been those where there was the lowest number of correct responses, across all professions. Physicians compared to nurses have a lower adherence to Hand Hygiene. Future research should clarify what the differences are in the construction of the study on the practice of washing hands, what are the barriers to health professionals and best methods for teaching habits, namely the effectiveness of hand washing. Professionals should be more involved in the fight against Healthcare-associated infections.

  1. Disabled patients and oral health in Rome, Italy: long-term evaluation of educational initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Avenali, Laura; Guerra, Fabrizio; Cipriano, Luigi; Corridore, Denise; Ottolenghi, Livia

    2012-01-01

    Summary This study is concerned with the educational intervention layout proposed as a possible answer for the disparities in healthcare services for disabled persons. Material and methods The data sampling was performed on individuals in Rome, affected by psychophysical disabilities, living in residential care facilities. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: Study and Control Group, consisting of patients who did or did not participate in the Educational Phase. All the caregivers participated in an educational course. Screening period: September 2008 – March 2009. Examinations were performed using Visible Plaque Index (VPI), Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and Microbiological Analysis. Results The total number of patients utilized for the study was 36 (18 in each group). The final sample amounted to 70% (14/20) in the Study Group and to 75% (15/20) in the Control Group. In both examined groups Oral Hygiene, Gingival Health State and Microbiological Analysis show an overall improvement of the indices, compared with the initial status, mostly at a follow-up after 4 weeks. However, Study Group show a significantly better improvement. Conversely, after 6 months the overall clinical indices worsened again. Conclusion The difference in the significant improvements of the groups, even if only over a short-time evaluation, endorses that the participation of the patients as well as tutors in the educational phase is an effective strategy for the short-term. PMID:22545186

  2. Management of fractures of the humerus in Ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome: an historical review.

    PubMed

    Brorson, Stig

    2009-07-01

    Fractures of the humerus have challenged medical practitioners since the beginning of recorded medical history. In the earliest known surgical text, The Edwin Smith Papyrus (copied circa 1600 BC), three cases of humeral fractures were described. Reduction by traction followed by bandaging with linen was recommended. In Corpus Hippocraticum (circa 440-340 BC), the maneuver of reduction was fully described: bandages of linen soaked in cerate and oil were applied followed by splinting after a week. In The Alexandrian School of Medicine (third century BC), shoulder dislocations complicated with fractures of the humerus were mentioned and the author discussed whether the dislocation should be reduced before or after the fracture. Celsus (25 BC-AD 50) distinguished shaft fractures from proximal and distal humeral fractures. He described different fracture patterns, including transverse, oblique, and multifragmented fractures. In Late Antiquity, complications from powerful traction or tight bandaging were described by Paul of Aegina (circa AD 625-690). Illustrations from sixteenth and seventeenth century surgical texts are included to show the ancient methods of reduction and bandaging. The richness of written sources points toward a multifaceted approach to the diagnosis, reduction, and bandaging of humeral fracture in Ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome.

  3. [Aspects of senile dementia in ancient Rome: literary fiction and factual reality].

    PubMed

    Moog, Ferdinand Peter; Schäfer, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Old people and their pecularities have been the object of writers since the beginning of Western literature. The aim of this study is to verify the social and juridical significance of senile dementia in ancient Rome. Among the few relevant sources the 10th satire of Juvenal attracts attention. It describes a demented patient who revises his succession in favour of a lady with bad reputation. Logically, we wonder whether such dispositions were possible and after all legally binding. Or did Juvenal exaggerate? A look at the Roman legislation shows: Since the Twelve Tablet Law there were instruments to control or to help demented people. This meant care in the sense of the today's curatorship or guardianship. These measures were supposed to prevent extravagancy or doing business and legal acts like marriages or last wills in the state of diminished responsibility. Nevertheless, it must be assumed that there was a considerable discrepancy between juridical theory and daily practice, because the position of the "pater familias" was virtually untouchable, the individual freedom of the full citizen was firmly underlined and the Roman civil law allowed only little executive interferences. Juvenal's bizarre example should not only be taken as good literary fiction. It might reflect the sad, but nevertheless probable reality of the people directly concerned. Apart from that it has to be said that senile dementia played only a minor role in Roman legislation. Mainly because there were considerably less very old people--and in particular people with senile dementia--than today.

  4. Bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD) control programme in an area in the Rome province (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ferrari, G; Scicluna, M T; Bonvicini, D; Gobbi, C; Della Verità, F; Valentini, A; Autorino, G L

    1999-01-01

    A BVD control programme based on the identification and removal of persistently infected (PI) animals is being undertaken in an area in the Rome province, where BVD outbreaks had been previously detected. It involves 174 mainly dairy herds, from which blood samples of all bovines older than 1 year are obtained through the national brucellosis and leukosis eradication programme. Samples sufficient to detect the presence of seropositive animals at a prevalence of 5% or more are initially screened for antibodies against BVD virus (BVDV) using an immunoenzymatic assay. Upon identification of seroreagents additional blood samples are tested from the 6-12-month age category not included in the initial samples. Animals are considered immunotolerant if BVDV is demonstrated twice at a minimum 30-day interval. When no seropositive animals are detected during the first serological screening the herd is declared BVD-free if a second testing, preferably carried on the same animals previously tested, confirms the seronegative status of the herd. At present 147 farms have been tested, of which 63 (42.9%) are negative with respect to antibodies against BVDV. Of the 84 remaining herds in which one or more seropositives are detected, 13 are classified as recently infected. In eight of these recently infected herds, 22 PI animals have been identified.

  5. The Case of Capogrossi in Rome: Collecting Data with Different Technologies on a Contemporary Mural Painting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzadri, P.; Russo, J.

    2017-05-01

    This paper focuses on the presentation of a part of the main thematic data documenting the pathologies and the degradation problems of a contemporary mural painting, which was designed and carried out by the italian artist Giuseppe Capogrossi in 1954. This forgotten masterpiece is developed on the ceilings of the main double stairscase at the entrance of the Airone, an ex-cinema-theatre in Rome (Italy). In time, the original project was completely damaged and now the Airone cinema is abandoned since 1999; the decoration, strictly connected to the function of the original project, has been completely covered by synthetic coatings. The documentation of the observed pathologies and the original materials of the lower ceiling takes place during a restoration project in 2015-2016 and was accomplished by utilizing different technologies in order to facilitate the collecting of the main data within several graphic thematic tables. The challenge of this documentation was to create a contact point, and perhaps also a contamination, between the practices of CAD graphic documentation, restoration and GIS technology.

  6. Sniff-Like Patterned Input Results in Long-Term Plasticity at the Rat Olfactory Bulb Mitral and Tufted Cell to Granule Cell Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Perez de los Cobos Pallares, Fernando; Loebel, Alex; Lukas, Michael

    2016-01-01

    During odor sensing the activity of principal neurons of the mammalian olfactory bulb, the mitral and tufted cells (MTCs), occurs in repetitive bursts that are synchronized to respiration, reminiscent of hippocampal theta-gamma coupling. Axonless granule cells (GCs) mediate self- and lateral inhibitory interactions between the excitatory MTCs via reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses. We have explored long-term plasticity at this synapse by using a theta burst stimulation (TBS) protocol and variations thereof. GCs were excited via glomerular stimulation in acute brain slices. We find that TBS induces exclusively long-term depression in the majority of experiments, whereas single bursts (“single-sniff paradigm”) can elicit both long-term potentiation and depression. Statistical analysis predicts that the mechanism underlying this bidirectional plasticity involves the proportional addition or removal of presynaptic release sites. Gamma stimulation with the same number of APs as in TBS was less efficient in inducing plasticity. Both TBS- and “single-sniff paradigm”-induced plasticity depend on NMDA receptor activation. Since the onset of plasticity is very rapid and requires little extra activity, we propose that these forms of plasticity might play a role already during an ongoing search for odor sources. Our results imply that components of both short-term and long-term olfactory memory may be encoded at this synapse. PMID:27747107

  7. Manual laterality in haptic and visual reaching tasks by tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). An association between hand preference and hand accuracy for food discrimination.

    PubMed

    Spinozzi, G; Cacchiarelli, B

    2000-01-01

    Manual laterality was examined in 26 tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) in three tasks differing in their sensorimotor demands and the availability of visual cues. The Haptic discrimination task required the monkeys to discriminate haptically between two pumpkin seeds and two tinfoil items stuck into a tray inside an opaque box. The other two tasks required the monkeys to reach for two pumpkin seeds stuck into the tray within a transparent box with vision (Visually guided reaching task) or without vision (Visual-Tactual reaching task) during reaching. A significant group-level left hand bias was found for food retrieval in both the Haptic discrimination and Visual-Tactual tasks, and a significant group-level right hand bias in the Visually guided reaching task. The strength of hand preferences did not differ among the tasks. It was found that the accuracy of food recognition in the Haptic discrimination task was greater for the left than the right hand. The results suggest that the differences in the manipulo-spatial requirements of the tasks and in the availability of visual cues can variously affect manual laterality in capuchins. The left-hand preferences for the Haptic discrimination and Visual-Tactual tasks as well as the left-hand advantage for food discrimination may reflect a greater involvement of the right hemisphere in processing haptic information.

  8. Competition between a Lawn-Forming Cynodon dactylon and a Tufted Grass Species Hyparrhenia hirta on a South-African Dystrophic Savanna.

    PubMed

    Zwerts, J A; Prins, H H T; Bomhoff, D; Verhagen, I; Swart, J M; de Boer, W F

    2015-01-01

    South African savanna grasslands are often characterised by indigestible tufted grass species whereas lawn grasses are far more desirable in terms of herbivore sustenance. We aimed to investigate the role of nutrients and/or the disturbance (grazing, trampling) by herbivores on the formation of grazing lawns. We conducted a series of common garden experiments to test the effect of nutrients on interspecific competition between a typical lawn-forming grass species (Cynodon dactylon) and a species that is frequently found outside grazing lawns (Hyparrhenia hirta), and tested for the effect of herbivore disturbance in the form of trampling and clipping. We also performed a vegetation and herbivore survey to apply experimentally derived insights to field observations. Our results showed that interspecific competition was not affected by soil nutrient concentrations. C. dactylon did show much more resilience to disturbance than H. hirta, presumably due to the regenerative capacity of its rhizomes. Results from the field survey were in line with these findings, describing a correlation between herbivore pressure and C. dactylon abundance. We conclude that herbivore disturbance, and not soil nutrients, provide C. dactylon with a competitive advantage over H. hirta, due to vegetative regeneration from its rhizomes. This provides evidence for the importance of concentrated, high herbivore densities for the creation and maintenance of grazing lawns.

  9. Firing properties of accessory olfactory bulb mitral/tufted cells in response to urine delivered to the vomeronasal organ of gray short-tailed opossums.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Ji; Huang, Guang-Zhe; Halpern, Mimi

    2007-05-01

    In comparison with many mammals, there is limited knowledge of the role of pheromones in conspecific communication in the gray short-tailed opossum. Here we report that mitral/tufted (M/T) cells of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of male opossums responded to female urine but not to male urine with two distinct patterns: excitation followed by inhibition or inhibition. Either pattern could be mimicked by application of guanosine 5'-O-3-thiotriphosphate and blocked by guanosine 5'-O-2-thiodiphosphate, indicating that the response of neurons in this pathway is through a G-protein-coupled receptor mechanism. In addition, the inhibitor of phospholipase C (PLC), U73122, significantly blocked urine-induced responses. Male and female urine were ineffective as stimuli for M/T cells in the AOB of female opossums. These results indicate that urine of diestrous females contains a pheromone that directly stimulates vomeronasal neurons through activation of PLC by G-protein-coupled receptor mechanisms and that the response to urine is sexually dimorphic.

  10. Fatal attack on black-tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) by a Boa constrictor: a simultaneous assault on two juvenile monkeys.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Danilo Simonini; dos Santos, Edmilson; Leal, Silvana Gomes; de Jesus, Andrea Karla; Vargas, Waldemir Paixão; Dutra, Irapuan; Barros, Marilia

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the first witnessed attack on a marmoset by a constrictor snake. The incident occurred mid-morning in a gallery forest within an altered landscape of the Cerrado region of central Brazil and refers to a fatal attack by a Boa constrictor on two juvenile black-tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) simultaneously. The snake captured both individuals at a height of ~ 4 m while a group of eight marmosets traveled through the subcanopy. The actual strike was not seen. After 2 min, the boa fell to the ground with both marmosets in its coils and proceeded to kill one animal at a time through constriction. Two adult marmosets immediately descended to where the snake held its victims on the ground and attacked it. The snake showed no apparent reaction, and after ~ 1-2 min, the adults rejoined the remaining group members that were mobbing and vocalizing from 5 to 6 m above. The group left the scene ~ 7 min after the onset of the attack and was not seen again. The snake loosened its coils 10 min after its initial strike, left the two carcasses on the ground and stayed behind a nearby tree. Thus, we are not sure if the victims were in fact ingested. This report confirms that marmosets are vulnerable to boid snakes and capable of highly organized and cooperative antipredation behavior. It also suggests that snakes pose a greater threat to callitrichids than previously thought.

  11. Stereotypic head twirls, but not pacing, are related to a ‘pessimistic’-like judgment bias among captive tufted capuchins (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Terkel, Joseph; Suomi, Stephen J; Paukner, Annika

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal stereotypic behaviour is widespread among captive non-human primates and is generally associated with jeopardized well-being. However, attributing the same significance to all of these repetitive, unvarying and apparently functionless behaviours may be misleading, as some behaviours may be better indicators of stress than others. Previous studies have demonstrated that the affective state of the individual can be inferred from its bias in appraising neutral stimuli in its environment. Therefore, in the present study, in order to assess the emotional state of stereotyping individuals, 16 captive tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) were tested on a judgment bias paradigm and their faecal corticoid levels were measured in order to assess the intensity of the emotional state. Capuchins with higher levels of stereotypic head twirls exhibited a negative bias while judging ambiguous stimuli and had higher levels of faecal corticoids compared to subjects with lower levels of head twirls. Levels of stereotypic pacing, however, were not correlated with the monkeys’ emotional state. This study is the first to reveal a positive correlation between levels of stereotypic behaviour and a ‘pessimistic’-like judgment bias in a non-human primate by employing a recently developed cognitive approach. Combining cognitive tests that evaluate the animals’ affective valence (positive or negative) with hormonal measurements that provide information on the strength of the emotional state conduces to a better understanding of the animals’ affective state and therefore to their well-being. PMID:22526692

  12. Variations in sexual behavior among capuchin monkeys function for conspecific mate recognition: a phylogenetic analysis and a new hypothesis for female proceptivity in tufted capuchins.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Luke J

    2012-04-01

    Researchers of capuchin monkeys have noted stereotyped body postures, facial expressions, and vocalizations that accompany copulations in this genus. Notable variations in these sexual behaviors are observed across capuchin species. Although several hypotheses exist to explain variation in the duration and vigor of sexual behaviors across species, there is no proposed explanation for variation in the forms of these behaviors. I hypothesized that the forms of sexual behaviors function as recognition signals of conspecific mates. Such signals are adaptive when F1 hybrids exhibit reduced fitness compared with nonhybrid offspring. Recent evidence from nonprimate taxa supports the existence of species recognition signals during mating. Using newly observed sexual behaviors for Cebus albifrons and a recent phylogeny of capuchins, I found significant support for a key prediction of the conspecific mate recognition hypothesis: evolutionary changes in sexual behaviors were associated with speciation. Given the resultant best model for evolution of sexual behaviors, I reconstructed the ancestral pattern of sexual behaviors for extant capuchin species (genera Cebus and Sapajus). This reconstruction suggests that the extreme female proceptivity of tufted capuchin monkeys may function to increase female reproductive choices in the context of sperm-limited males (genus Sapajus). © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Competition between a Lawn-Forming Cynodon dactylon and a Tufted Grass Species Hyparrhenia hirta on a South-African Dystrophic Savanna

    PubMed Central

    Zwerts, J. A.; Prins, H. H. T.; Bomhoff, D.; Verhagen, I.; Swart, J. M.; de Boer, W. F.

    2015-01-01

    South African savanna grasslands are often characterised by indigestible tufted grass species whereas lawn grasses are far more desirable in terms of herbivore sustenance. We aimed to investigate the role of nutrients and/or the disturbance (grazing, trampling) by herbivores on the formation of grazing lawns. We conducted a series of common garden experiments to test the effect of nutrients on interspecific competition between a typical lawn-forming grass species (Cynodon dactylon) and a species that is frequently found outside grazing lawns (Hyparrhenia hirta), and tested for the effect of herbivore disturbance in the form of trampling and clipping. We also performed a vegetation and herbivore survey to apply experimentally derived insights to field observations. Our results showed that interspecific competition was not affected by soil nutrient concentrations. C. dactylon did show much more resilience to disturbance than H. hirta, presumably due to the regenerative capacity of its rhizomes. Results from the field survey were in line with these findings, describing a correlation between herbivore pressure and C. dactylon abundance. We conclude that herbivore disturbance, and not soil nutrients, provide C. dactylon with a competitive advantage over H. hirta, due to vegetative regeneration from its rhizomes. This provides evidence for the importance of concentrated, high herbivore densities for the creation and maintenance of grazing lawns. PMID:26510157

  14. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  15. SAR interferometry monitoring along the ancient Rome City Walls -the PROTHEGO project case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carta, Cristina; Cimino, Maria gabriella; Leoni, Gabriele; Marcelli, Marina; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    Led by the Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research, in collaboration with NERC British Geological Survey, Geological and Mining Institute of Spain, University of Milano-Bicocca and Cyprus University of Technology, the PROTHEGO project, co-funded in the framework of JPI on Cultural Heritage EU program (2015-2018), brings an innovative contribution towards the analysis of geo-hazards in areas of cultural heritage in Europe. The project apply InSAR techniques to monitor monuments and sites that are potentially unstable due to natural geo-hazard. After the remote sensing investigation, detailed geological interpretation, hazard analysis, local-scale monitoring, advanced modeling and field surveying for some case studies is implemented. The selected case studies are: the Alhambra in Granada (ES); the Choirokoitia village (CY); the Derwent Valley Mills (UK); the Pompei archaeological site and Historical centre of Rome (IT). In this work, in particular, we will focus on ground deformation measurements (obtained by satellite SAR Interferometry) and on their interpretation with respect to the ancient Rome City Walls. The research activities carried out jointly with the Superintendence's technicians, foresee the implementation of a dedicated web GIS platform as a final repository for data storage and spatial data elaboration. The entire circuit of the ancient city walls (both Mura Aureliane and Mura Gianicolensi), was digitalized and georeferenced. All the elements (towers, gates and wall segments) were drawn and collected in order to produce a map of elements at risk. A detailed historical analysis (during the last twenty years) of the ground and structural deformations were performed. A specific data sheet of ruptures was created and fulfilled in order to produce a geographic inventory of past damage. This data sheet contains the following attributes: triggering data; typology of damage; dimension, triggering mechanism; presence of restoration works

  16. Landscape changes and natural hazards affecting the Pincio hill (Rome, Italy) in historical times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarino, Paolo Maria; Lucarini, Mauro; Spizzichino, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses on preliminary results achieved by means of a research project carried out by ISPRA in collaboration with Soprintendenza Capitolina (the Cultural Heritage Capitoline Superintendence), aimed at defining an interpretative model of natural and anthropic evolution of the Pincio Hill (Rome, Italy) during the last 2,500 years. The study area is located in the NE sector of the city of Rome and includes the Pincio hill Cultural Heritage site and the surrounding area of the Tiber River flood plain. The Pincio Hill is a very interesting case of interplay among: i) natural landscape setting; ii) historical urban transformations; iii) human activity and recurrence of natural hazard events impacting heavily on the territory since ancient times. During the last decades, designs of new areas to be allocated for underground parking jointly with new archaeological excavations surveys have allowed the acquisition of a large amount of new data. The study has been carried out through a new reinterpretation of recently drilled boreholes stratigraphic logs and the conspicuous related archaeological literature. The main outcome of the research activities are summarized as below. Concerning the top of the hill, latest archaeological excavations brought to the light traces of ancient structures and settlements dating from the Archaic period until the fourth century AD, highlighting the facto the character of strong agricultural and landscape appeal that have involved the western sector of the Pincio hill since the ancient times, without evidence of relevant alterations of the original landscape. In the slope sector, the information coming from geotechnical survey allowed the reconstruction of isochronous surfaces inside of landfills, divided according to their age. The profile of the slope below the landfill from the Roman period seems very steep and irregular, in strong contrast to the medieval one and the current one, characterized by multiple succession of terraces. In

  17. Particulate matter concentration and chemical composition in the metro system of Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Perrino, C; Marcovecchio, F; Tofful, L; Canepari, S

    2015-06-01

    Air quality at the main station of the metro system of Rome (Termini hub) has been characterized by the point of view of particulate matter (PM) concentration and chemical composition. Indoor air in different environments (underground train platform and shopping center, metro carriages with and without air conditioning system) has been studied and compared with outdoor air at a nearby urban site. Air quality at the railway station, located outdoor at surface level, has been also considered for comparison. PM chemical characterization included ions, elemental carbon, organic carbon, macro-elements, and the bio-accessible and residual fractions of micro- and trace elements. Train platform and carriages without air conditioning resulted to be the most polluted environments, with indoor/outdoor ratio up to two orders of magnitude for many components. PM mass concentration was determined on filter membranes by the gravimetric procedure as well as from the optical particle counter (OPC) number concentration measurements. The OPC results, taken with the original calibration factor, were below 40 % of the value obtained by the gravimetric measurements. Only a chemical and morphological characterization of the collected dust could lead to a reconciliation of the results yielded by the two methods. Macro-components were used to estimate the strength of the main macro-sources. The most significant contribution is confirmed to derive from wheels, rails, and brakes abrasion; from soil re-suspension (over 50 % at the subway platform); and from organics (about 25 %). The increase in the concentration of elements was mostly due to the residual fraction, but also the bio-accessible fraction showed a remarkable enrichment, particularly in the case of Ba, Zn, Cd, and Ni.

  18. Pathophysiology of functional heartburn based on Rome III criteria in Japanese patients

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Yasuhiro; Funaki, Yasushi; Izawa, Shinya; Iida, Akihito; Yamaguchi, Yoshiharu; Adachi, Kazunori; Ogasawara, Naotaka; Sasaki, Makoto; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Kasugai, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the pathophysiology of functional heartburn (FH) in Japanese patients. METHODS: A total of 111 patients with proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-refractory non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease underwent intraesophageal pressure testing and 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH (24MII-pH) testing. The patients also completed several questionnaires while they were receiving the PPI treatment, including the questionnaire for the diagnosis of reflux disease (QUEST), the frequency scale for the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (FSSG), the gastrointestinal symptoms rating scale (GSRS), SF-36, and the Cornell Medical Index (CMI). The subjects were classified into FH and endoscopy-negative reflux disease (ENRD) groups based on the Rome III criteria. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients with esophageal motility disorder were excluded from this study, while 22 patients with abnormal esophageal acid exposure time (pH-POS) and 34 with hypersensitive esophagus (HE) were included in the ENRD group. The FH group included 22 patients with no reflux involvement. Sex, age, and body mass index did not differ significantly between the groups. The mean SF-36 values were < 50 (normal) for all scales in these groups, with no significant differences. The GSRS scores in these groups were not different and showed overlap with other gastrointestinal symptoms. The QUEST and the FSSG scores did not differ significantly between the groups. Neuroticism was diagnosed using the CMI questionnaire in 17 of the 78 included subjects within the pH-POS (n = 4), HE (n = 8), and FH (n = 5) groups, with no significant differences. CONCLUSION: Clinical characteristics of the FH and PPI-refractory ENRD groups were similar. Therefore, esophageal function should be examined via manometry and 24MII-pH testing to differentiate between them. PMID:25945016

  19. Pathophysiology of functional heartburn based on Rome III criteria in Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yasuhiro; Funaki, Yasushi; Izawa, Shinya; Iida, Akihito; Yamaguchi, Yoshiharu; Adachi, Kazunori; Ogasawara, Naotaka; Sasaki, Makoto; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Kasugai, Kunio

    2015-04-28

    To investigate the pathophysiology of functional heartburn (FH) in Japanese patients. A total of 111 patients with proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-refractory non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease underwent intraesophageal pressure testing and 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH (24MII-pH) testing. The patients also completed several questionnaires while they were receiving the PPI treatment, including the questionnaire for the diagnosis of reflux disease (QUEST), the frequency scale for the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (FSSG), the gastrointestinal symptoms rating scale (GSRS), SF-36, and the Cornell Medical Index (CMI). The subjects were classified into FH and endoscopy-negative reflux disease (ENRD) groups based on the Rome III criteria. Thirty-three patients with esophageal motility disorder were excluded from this study, while 22 patients with abnormal esophageal acid exposure time (pH-POS) and 34 with hypersensitive esophagus (HE) were included in the ENRD group. The FH group included 22 patients with no reflux involvement. Sex, age, and body mass index did not differ significantly between the groups. The mean SF-36 values were < 50 (normal) for all scales in these groups, with no significant differences. The GSRS scores in these groups were not different and showed overlap with other gastrointestinal symptoms. The QUEST and the FSSG scores did not differ significantly between the groups. Neuroticism was diagnosed using the CMI questionnaire in 17 of the 78 included subjects within the pH-POS (n = 4), HE (n = 8), and FH (n = 5) groups, with no significant differences. Clinical characteristics of the FH and PPI-refractory ENRD groups were similar. Therefore, esophageal function should be examined via manometry and 24MII-pH testing to differentiate between them.

  20. Indoor air quality at life and work environments in Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, P; Balducci, C; Perilli, M; Vichi, F; Imperiali, A; Cecinato, A

    2016-02-01

    The air quality of three different microenvironments (school, dwelling, and coffee bar) located in the city of Rome, Italy, was assessed. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with PM2.5 particles were determined during an intensive 3-week sampling campaign conducted in March 2013. In interiors, total particulate PAHs ranged from 1.53 to 4.96 ng/m(3) while outdoor air contained from 2.75 to 3.48 ng/m(3). In addition, gaseous toxicants, i.e., NO2, NOx , SO2, O3, and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene isomers), were determined both in internal and external air. To solve the origin of indoor and outdoor PAHs, several source apportionment methods were applied. Multivariate analysis revealed that emissions from motor vehicles, biomass burning for heating purposes, and soil resuspension were the major sources of PAHs in the city. No linear correlation was established between indoor and outdoor values for PM2.5 and BTEX; the respective indoor/outdoor concentration ratios exceed unity except for PM2.5 in the no smoking home and benzene in all school floors. This suggests that important internal sources such as tobacco smoking, cleaning products, and resuspension dust contributed to indoor pollution. Using the monitoring stations of ARPA Lazio regional network as reference, the percentage within PAH group of benzo[a]pyrene, which is the WHO marker for the carcinogenic risk estimates, was ca. 50% higher in all locations investigated.

  1. [Plinius and Greek physicians in Rome: the concept of nature and medical critique in Naturalis Historia].

    PubMed

    Hahn, J

    1991-01-01

    Pliny's historical outline of the development of medicine, in Natural History 29.1-27, is our primary source concerning the reception of scientific medicine at Rome during the later Republic and early Empire. Here, as elsewhere, Pliny handles Greek doctors and their medical practices with vehement disapproval. But this attitude, at first glance anti-Hellene, traditionalistic, and critical of his coevals, arises from more deeply rooted notions: a specific conception of nature which can be shown to be the basis of Pliny's critique of medicine and his own times. Reconstruction of this "Plinean" conception reveals a view of nature marked by Stoic terminology and categories, though in fact derivate from various sources, idiosyncratic and characterized by a genuine love of and respect for nature and her creations. True comprehension of the lessons offered by nature, resulting in concrete mores of behaviour and moral categories, as opposed to theory and speculation, is the proper modus operandi for Pliny. And thus, with regard to the human process of self-discovery in the natural world, medicine plays a decisive role--for providential nature displays herself most clearly in the production of healing substances. Pliny notes among the proponents of scientific medicine, a general disregard for nature and her rules, while he finds just the opposite in traditional medicine. His own accomplishment resides not only in the safeguarding of numberless recipies from the world of folk medicine, but also in the facts that he under-pins these traditional methods of healing, and their basic principles, with a specific conception of nature, and that he marks out an exceptionally important place for traditional methods of healing in the canon of general knowledge.

  2. A Rome III survey of functional dyspepsia among the ethnic Malays in a primary care setting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds The study aimed to survey for FD in a primary care setting in a population known to have an extremely low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, with the hypothesis that in such a population, dyspepsia should have been relatively less common. Methods The Rome III FD Diagnostic Questionnaire was translated into the Malay language and later tested for reliability. A prospective cross-sectional survey was then performed involving 160 Malay patients attending primary care clinic after informed consent. Patients positive for symptoms of FD were subjected to upper endoscopy and exclusion of H. pylori infection. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to test for associated risk factors. Results The back-translated questionnaire was similar to the original English version and was reliable (Cronbach Alpha-coefficient 0.85). Of the 160 surveyed subjects, 19 of them (11.9%) had symptoms of FD. With exclusion of erosive diseases (3/160 or 1.9%) from endoscopy, 16 subjects or 10% had FD. None of the 19 subjects were positive for H. pylori infection. Epigastric pain syndrome was present in 11/16 (68.8%) and the rest, overlap with postprandial distress syndrome. With multivariable analysis, a married status (OR = 8.1; 95% CI 1.0-36.5) and positive psychosocial alarm symptoms (OR = 3.8; 95% CI 1.0-14.0) were associated with FD. Of those married subjects, females were more likely to have FD and psychosocial symptoms than men (6.3% vs. 1.9%), P = 0.04. Conclusions FD was more common than one had expected among Malays attending primary care clinic in an area with low prevalence of H. pylori. PMID:23672671

  3. Thermal Conductivity of Pyroclastic Soil ( Pozzolana) from the Environs of Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCombie, M. L.; Tarnawski, V. R.; Bovesecchi, G.; Coppa, P.; Leong, W. H.

    2017-02-01

    The paper reveals the experimental procedure and thermo-physical characteristics of a coarse pyroclastic soil ( Pozzolana), from the neighborhoods of Rome, Italy. The tested samples are comprised of 70.7 % sand, 25.9 % silt, and 3.4 % clay. Their mineral composition contained 38 % pyroxene, 33 % analcime, 20 % leucite, 6 % illite/muscovite, 3 % magnetite, and no quartz content was noted. The effective thermal conductivity of minerals was assessed to be about 2.14 W{\\cdot } m^{-1}{\\cdot } K^{-1}. A transient thermal probe method was applied to measure the thermal conductivity (λ ) over a full range of the degree of saturation (Sr), at two porosities ( n) of 0.44 and 0.50, and at room temperature of about 25°C. The λ data obtained were consistent between tests and showed an increasing trend with increasing Sr and decreasing n. At full saturation (Sr=1), a nearly quintuple λ increase was observed with respect to full dryness (Sr=0). In general, the measured data closely followed the natural trend of λ versus Sr exhibited by published data at room temperature for other unsaturated soils and sands. The measured λ data had an average root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 0.007 W{\\cdot } m^{-1}{\\cdot } K^{-1} and 0.008 W{\\cdot } m^{-1}{\\cdot } K^{-1} for n of 0.50 and 0.44, respectively, as well as an average relative standard deviation of the mean at the 95 % confidence level (RSDM_{0.95}) of 2.21 % and 2.72 % for n of 0.50 and 0.44, respectively.

  4. Aircraft mass budgeting to measure CO2 emissions of Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Gioli, Beniamino; Carfora, Maria F; Magliulo, Vincenzo; Metallo, Maria C; Poli, Attilio A; Toscano, Piero; Miglietta, Franco

    2014-04-01

    Aircraft measurements were used to estimate the CO2 emission rates of the city of Rome, assessed against high-resolution inventorial data. Three experimental flights were made, composed of vertical soundings to measure Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) properties, and circular horizontal transects at various altitudes around the city area. City level emissions and associated uncertainties were computed by means of mass budgeting techniques, obtaining a positive net CO2 flux of 14.7 ± 4.5, 2.5 ± 1.2, and 10.3 ± 1.2 μmol m(-2) s(-1) for the three flights. Inventorial CO2 fluxes at the time of flights were computed by means of spatial and temporal disaggregation of the gross emission inventory, at 10.9 ± 2.5, 9.6 ± 1.3, and 17.4 ± 9.6 μmol m(-2) s(-1). The largest differences between the two dataset are associated with a greater variability of wind speed and direction in the boundary layer during measurements. Uncertainty partitioned into components related to horizontal boundary flows and top surface flow, revealed that the latter dominates total uncertainty in the presence of a wide variability of CO2 concentration in the free troposphere (up to 7 ppm), while it is a minor term with uniform tropospheric concentrations in the study area (within 2 ppm). Overall, we demonstrate how small aircraft may provide city level emission measurements that may integrate and validate emission inventories. Optimal atmospheric conditions and measurement strategies for the deployment of aircraft experimental flights are finally discussed.

  5. Laboratory Microcomputing

    PubMed Central

    York, William B.

    1984-01-01

    Microcomputers will play a major role in the laboratory, not only in the calculation and interpretation of clinical test data, but also will have an increasing place of importance in the management of laboratory resources in the face of the transition from revenue generating to the cost center era. We will give you a glimpse of what can be accomplished with the management data already collected by many laboratories today when the data are processed into meaningful reports.

  6. Laboratory Building

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Joshua M.

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  7. Allele frequencies and genetic diversity in two groups of wild tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) living in an urban forest fragment.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Jeanne Margareth Jimenes; Simões, Aguinaldo Luiz; De Jong, David

    2005-12-30

    There have been numerous studies genetically characterizing Old World Primates using microsatellites. However, few studies have been made of New World species and none on free-ranging Cebus apella, even though it is probably the most widely distributed species of monkey in the New World. The paucity of studies is due, in part, to the lack of polymorphisms described for this species. We studied two groups of wild tufted capuchins, Cebus apella nigritus, which inhabit Mata Santa Teresa, the Ecological Reserve of Ribeirão Preto, a 158-ha forest fragment in a semi-urban zone of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Group 1 had about 60 animals, 35 of which were sampled, and group 2 had about 40 animals, 20 of which were sampled. These group sizes are much larger than the published reports of 6-30 for this species, despite, or perhaps due to the isolation and the size of the forest fragment. Allele PEPC59*1 was the most frequent of all alleles at all loci in both groups (55.7 and 55%), allele PEPC8*1 was the most common allele in group 2 (46.9%) and PEPC8*4 in group 1 (41.1%), allele PEPC3*2 was the most common in group 1 (35.7%) and allele PEPC3*4 in group 2 (31.6%). The genetic diversity, considering each locus in each group, varied from 61.9% at locus PEPC59 to 78.6% at locus PEPC3, both in group 1. The mean genetic diversity (H(S)), considering both groups for all of the loci, was 71.1%. The inter-group diversity (F(ST)) was 1.9%, indicating that these groups belong to the same population. These groups apparently have a high genetic diversity, despite their isolation in a limited forest fragment, although more data are needed to adequately characterize this population.

  8. Stronger Uricosuric Effects of the Novel Selective URAT1 Inhibitor UR-1102 Lowered Plasma Urate in Tufted Capuchin Monkeys to a Greater Extent than Benzbromarone.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sung Oh; Ohtomo, Shuichi; Kiyokawa, Jumpei; Nakagawa, Toshito; Yamane, Mizuki; Lee, Kyoung June; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Byung Ho; Tanaka, Jo; Kawabe, Yoshiki; Horiba, Naoshi

    2016-04-01

    Urate-lowering therapy is indispensable for the treatment of gout, but available drugs do not control serum urate levels tightly enough. Although the uricosurics benzbromarone and probenecid inhibit a urate reabsorption transporter known as renal urate transporter 1 (URAT1) and thus lower serum urate levels, they also inhibit other transporters responsible for secretion of urate into urine, which suggests that inhibiting URAT1 selectively would lower serum urate more effectively. We identified a novel potent and selective URAT1 inhibitor, UR-1102, and compared its efficacy with benzbromarone in vitro and in vivo. In human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells overexpressing URAT1, organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1), and OAT3, benzbromarone inhibited all transporters similarly, whereas UR-1102 inhibited URAT1 comparably to benzbromarone but inhibited OAT1 and OAT3 quite modestly. UR-1102 at 3-30 mg/kg or benzbromarone at 3-100 mg/kg was administered orally once a day for 3 consecutive days to tufted capuchin monkeys, whose low uricase activity causes a high plasma urate level. When compared with the same dosage of benzbromarone, UR-1102 showed a better pharmacokinetic profile, increased the fractional excretion of urinary uric acid, and reduced plasma uric acid more effectively. Moreover, the maximum efficacy of UR-1102 was twice that of benzbromarone, suggesting that selective inhibition of URAT1 is effective. Additionally UR-1102 showed lower in vitro potential for mechanisms causing the hepatotoxicity induced by benzbromarone. These results indicate that UR-1102 achieves strong uricosuric effects by selectively inhibiting URAT1 over OAT1 and OAT3 in monkeys, and could be a novel therapeutic option for patients with gout or hyperuricemia.

  9. Weak Sinusoidal Electric Fields Entrain Spontaneous Ca Transients in the Dendritic Tufts of CA1 Pyramidal Cells in Rat Hippocampal Slice Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Kazuma; Maruyama, Ryuichi; Nagae, Toru; Inoue, Masashi; Aonishi, Toru; Miyakawa, Hiroyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Neurons might interact via electric fields and this notion has been referred to as ephaptic interaction. It has been shown that various types of ion channels are distributed along the dendrites and are capable of supporting generation of dendritic spikes. We hypothesized that generation of dendritic spikes play important roles in the ephaptic interactions either by amplifying the impact of electric fields or by providing current source to generate electric fields. To test if dendritic activities can be modulated by electric fields, we developed a method to monitor local Ca-transients in the dendrites of a neuronal population in acute rat hippocampal slices by applying spinning-disk confocal microscopy and multi-cell dye loading technique. In a condition in which the dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons show spontaneous Ca-transients due to added 50 μM 4-aminopyridine to the bathing medium and adjusted extracellular potassium concentration, we examined the impact of sinusoidal electric fields on the Ca-transients. We have found that spontaneously occurring fast-Ca-transients in the tufts of the apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons can be blocked by applying 1 μM tetrodotoxin, and that the timing of the transients become entrained to sub-threshold 1-4 Hz electric fields with an intensity as weak as 0.84 mV/mm applied parallel to the somato-dendritic axis of the neurons. The extent of entrainment increases with intensity below 5 mV/mm, but does not increase further over the range of 5-20 mV/mm. These results suggest that population of pyramidal cells might be able to detect electric fields with biologically relevant intensity by modulating the timing of dendritic spikes. PMID:25811836

  10. Activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors enhances persistent sodium current and rhythmic bursting in main olfactory bulb external tufted cells

    PubMed Central

    Ennis, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Rhythmically bursting olfactory bulb external tufted (ET) cells are thought to play a key role in synchronizing glomerular network activity to respiratory-driven sensory input. Whereas spontaneous bursting in these cells is intrinsically generated by interplay of several voltage-dependent currents, bursting strength and frequency can be modified by local intrinsic and centrifugal synaptic input. Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) engages a calcium-dependent cation current (ICAN) that increases rhythmic bursting, but mGluRs may also modulate intrinsic mechanisms involved in bursting. Here, we used patch-clamp electrophysiology in rat olfactory bulb slices to investigate whether mGluRs modulate two key intrinsic currents involved in ET cell burst initiation: persistent sodium (INaP) and hyperpolarization-activated cation (Ih) currents. Using a BAPTA-based internal solution to block ICAN, we found that the mGluR1/5 agonist DHPG enhanced INaP but did not alter Ih. INaP enhancement consisted of increased current at membrane potentials between −60 and −50 mV and a hyperpolarizing shift in activation threshold. Both effects would be predicted to shorten the interburst interval. In agreement, DHPG modestly depolarized (∼3.5 mV) ET cells and increased burst frequency without effect on other major burst parameters. This increase was inversely proportional to the basal burst rate such that slower ET cells exhibited the largest increases. This may enable ET cells with slow intrinsic burst rates to pace with faster sniff rates. Taken with other findings, these results indicate that multiple neurotransmitter mechanisms are engaged to fine-tune rhythmic ET cell bursting to context- and state-dependent changes in sniffing frequency. PMID:24225539

  11. Recognition of a 3D snake model and its 2D photographic image by captive black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata).

    PubMed

    Emile, Nally; Barros, Marilia

    2009-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) displays of real three-dimensional (3D) objects are frequently used experimental tools in animal studies. Whether marmoset monkeys, with their highly diverse and complex anti-predation strategies, readily recognized 2D representations of potential threats has yet to be determined, as seen in other primates. Thus, the behavioral responses of adult captive black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) toward an unfamiliar motionless snake-model and its photograph were assessed. Pictorially naïve subjects were randomly divided into two groups (n = 12/each) and submitted to two trials. Group 1 was initially exposed to the 3D object and after 1 week to its photograph. Group 2 was first presented the picture and only tested with the real object 1 week later. All 15-min trials were divided into three consecutive 5-min intervals: pre-exposure, exposure and post-exposure. In the presence of the 3D snake object, regardless of its presentation order, the frequency of direct gazes, head-cocks, tsik-tsik alarm/mobbing calls and genital displays increased significantly. The photograph induced a similar response, although only when the object had been previously presented, as significantly higher levels of these behaviors were seen in Group 1 than Group 2. Proximity to the stimulus, aerial scan, terrestrial glance, displacement activities and locomotion were not consistently influenced by the stimuli's presence and/or order of presentation. Therefore, marmosets recognized and responded appropriately to biologically and emotionally relevant 3D and 2D stimuli. Since the aversive/fearful reactions toward the photograph were only seen after the snake object had been presented, the former seems to be essentially a learned response.

  12. Social influences on the acquisition of sex-typical foraging patterns by juveniles in a group of wild tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus nigritus).

    PubMed

    Agostini, Ilaria; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2005-04-01

    Foraging traditions in primates are becoming the subject of increasing debate. Recent evidence for such a phenomenon was recently provided for wild Cebus capucinus [Fragaszy & Perry, 2003]. To better understand the bases of animal traditions, one should examine intrapopulation behavioral variability and the influence of social context on within-group transmission of specific foraging patterns. We studied the variability of foraging patterns across age and sex classes, and the proximity patterns of juveniles to adults of both sexes in a group of wild tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus nigritus) living in the Iguazu National Park, Argentina. Foraging activity was examined for a period of 9 months in terms of proportions of focal samples devoted to foraging on certain food targets, microhabitats, and supports, and using specific foraging patterns. Proximity analyses were performed to reveal patterns of association between juveniles and adults. Sex differences in foraging behavior were present and overrode age differences. Overall, males ate more animal foods, foraged more for invertebrates on woody microhabitats (especially large branches), palms, and epiphytes, and used lower and larger supports than females. Females ate more fruits, foraged more on leaves and bamboo microhabitats, and used smaller supports than males. Juveniles were similar to adults of the same sex in terms of food targets, foraging substrates, and choice of supports, but were less efficient than adults. Proximity patterns indicated that juvenile males stayed in close spatial association with adult males and preferentially focused their "food interest" on them. This phenomenon was less evident in juvenile females. The degree to which juveniles, especially males, showed some of the sex-typical foraging patterns correlated positively with their proximity to adults of the same sex. These findings suggest that the acquisition of foraging behaviors by juvenile males is socially biased by their closeness to

  13. Mantle-derived CO2 migration along active faults within an extensional basin margin (Fiumicino, Rome, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigi, S.; Beaubien, S. E.; Ciotoli, G.; D'Ambrogi, C.; Doglioni, C.; Ferrante, V.; Lombardi, S.; Milli, S.; Orlando, L.; Ruggiero, L.; Tartarello, M. C.; Sacco, P.

    2014-12-01

    Fluid migration along faults can be highly complex and spatially variable, with the potential for channeled flow, accumulation in capped porous units, fault cross-flow, lateral migration along strike, or complete sealing. Extensional basin margins can be important for such migration, given the associated crustal thinning and decompression that takes place combined with potential geothermal or mantle gas sources. One such example is near the urban area of Rome, situated along the active extensional continental margin of the Tyrrhenian back arc basin and surrounded by Middle-Upper Pleistocene K-rich and arc-related volcanoes. Recent research activities in the area around Fiumicino, a town 25 km to the west of Rome, has highlighted the close spatial link between degassing CO2 and the faults that provide the necessary vertical migration pathways. In particular, detailed soil gas and gas flux surveys have highlighted the release at surface of large volumes of asthenospheric mantle CO2 in correspondence with normal faults observed in a new seismic reflection profile acquired along the Tiber River. Detailed reconstruction of the Pleistocene-Holocene stratigraphy of the area dates fault activity from 20,000 to 9000 years BP. It is proposed that the gas migrates preferentially along the cataclastic tectonic breccias of the faults until it encounters recent, unconsolidated sediments; porous units within this shallow stratigraphy act as temporary secondary traps for the leaking gas, with local gas release at the ground surface occurring where the sealing of the overlying aquitards has been compromised. Degassing and active faults confirm the extensional tectonics affecting the area and the geodynamic scenario of a mantle wedge beneath the western Apennines, associated with ongoing W-directed subduction. Moreover, degassing highlights the potential geochemical and seismic risks for the highly populated urban areas near Rome.

  14. Translation and Validation of Enhanced Asian Rome III Questionnaires in Bengali Language for Diagnosis of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M Masudur; Ghoshal, Uday C; Rowshon, A H M; Ahmed, Faruque; Kibria, Md Golam; Hasan, Mahmud; Gwee, Kok-Ann; Whitehead, William E

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), diagnosed by symptom-based criteria due to lack of biomarkers, need translated-validated questionnaires in different languages. As Bengali, the mother tongue of Bangladesh and eastern India, is the seventh most spoken language in the world, we translated and validated the Enhanced Asian Rome III questionnaire (EAR3Q) in this language. Methods The EAR3Q was translated in Bengali as per guideline from the Rome Foundation. The translated questionnaire was validated prospectively on Bengali-speaking healthy subjects (HS, n = 30), and patients with functional dyspepsia (FD, n = 35), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, n = 40) and functional constipation (FC, n = 12) diagnosed by clinicians using the Rome III criteria. The subjects were asked to fill-in the questionnaire again after 2 weeks, to check for its reproducibility. Results During translation, the original and the backward translated English versions of the questionnaire demonstrated high concordance. Sensitivity of the Bengali questionnaire to diagnose patients with FD, IBS, FC, and HS was 100%, 100%, 75%, and 100%, respectively, considering diagnosis by the clinicians as the gold standard. On test-retest reliability analysis, Kappa values for FD, IBS, FC, and HS were 1.0, 1.0, 0.83, and 1.0, respectively. The Bengali questionnaire detected considerable overlap of FD symptoms among patients with IBS, IBS among patients with FD, and FD among patients with FC, which were not detected by the clinicians. Conclusions We successfully translated and validated the EAR3Q in Bengali. We believe that this translated questionnaire will be useful for clinical evaluation and research on FGIDs in the Bengali-speaking population. PMID:26690730

  15. Children and elders exposure assessment to particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the city of Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Maria Pia; Gariazzo, Claudio; Gordiani, Andrea; L'Episcopo, Nunziata; Gherardi, Monica

    2014-12-01

    It has been amply demonstrated that exposure to fine particulate matter, containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), may have adverse effects on human health, affecting especially the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Among population, school-age children and elders present particular susceptibilities and unique exposures to environmental factors. The study presented in this paper belongs to the Project EXPAH, founded by the European (EU) LIFE+ instrument, and consists of the personal monitoring of five elementary school children and four elders during the spring and the summer/autumn of the year 2012 in the city of Rome, Italy. The average exposure, expressed as the sum of eight high-molecular-weight PAHs, resulted equal to 0.70 ng/m(3) (SD = 0.37) for children and 0.59 ng/m(3) (SD = 0.23) for the elderly people. The mean levels of gravimetric PM2.5 were equal to 23 μg/m(3) (SD = 10) and 15 μg/m(3) (SD = 4) for children and elders, respectively. During spring and summer seasons, personal BaPeq resulted well below the EU Air Quality reference value of 1 ng/m(3). The personal monitoring average values were in the same order of magnitude with available indoor and outdoor environmental data in Rome during the same periods, for both PAHs and PM2.5. The results suggest that, during non-heating seasons, the personal exposure to PAHs in the city of Rome can be mainly ascribed to the urban background, especially traffic emissions and road dust resuspension; secondhand cigarette smoke can be also considered another possible source of PAHs personal exposure.

  16. Molecular characterization of hepatitis A outbreak in the province of Rome, Lazio region, Italy, January-July 2013.

    PubMed

    Capobianchi, Maria R; Garbuglia, Anna Rosa; Agrati, Chiara; Rianda, Alessia; Noto, Pasquale; Corpolongo, Angela; Cataldo, Maria Adriana; Rosati, Silvia; Zaccaro, Paola; Loffredo, Mariarosaria; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Girardi, Enrico; Scognamiglio, Paola; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    Reduced circulation of hepatitis A virus lead to an increase of susceptible individuals, and outbreaks occurred recently. In Northern Italy an outbreak is ongoing, attributed to a monophyletic genotype IA strain, with mixed frozen berries as probable source. From 01/01/2013 to 07/15/2013, 30 cases were diagnosed at National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Rome, Italy, representing about twice the number of cases in whole 2012. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that most, although not all, infections were attributable to the same monophyletic genotype IA strain identified in the contemporary Northern Italy outbreak. This strain is also very similar to previous isolates from Venezuela.

  17. Programme notes. 36th IPA Congress, Rome, 1989. The search for common ground: clinical aims and processes.

    PubMed

    Richards, A D

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a summary and an overview of the 36th IPA Congress, 'Common ground in psychoanalysis: clinical aims and processes'. The theme emerged from Dr Robert Wallerstein's 1987 Montreal Congress Plenary Address, 'One psychoanalysis or many'. The paper focuses on the three Rome Plenary presentations and their discussions, Wallerstein's presidential address, and the final panel review. A paper presented at the meeting by Charles Hanly, 'The concept of truth in psychoanalysis', which outlines theories of truth: correspondence versus coherence, provides the conceptual tools for considering the different points of view. The author shares Hanly's support for a pragmatically qualified commitment to a correspondence theory of truth.

  18. Measures of the Earth obliquity during the 1701 winter solstice at the Clementine meridian line in Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, A.; Sigismondi, C.; Regoli, V.

    2015-08-01

    The great meridian line in the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Rome was built in 1701/1702 with the scope of measuring the obliquity of the Earth's orbit in the following eight centuries, upon the will of Pope Clement XI. During the winter solstice of 1701 the first measurements of the obliquity were taken by Francesco Bianchini. He was the astronomer who designed the meridian line, upgrading the similar instrument realized by Giandomenico Cassini in San Petronio, Bolonia. The accuracy of the data is discussed from the point of view of the use of the pinhole.

  19. Midlatitude cirrus classification at Rome Tor Vergata through a multichannel Raman-Mie-Rayleigh lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionisi, D.; Keckhut, P.; Liberti, G. L.; Cardillo, F.; Congeduti, F.

    2013-12-01

    A methodology to identify and characterize cirrus clouds has been developed and applied to the multichannel-multiwavelength Rayleigh-Mie-Raman (RMR) lidar in Rome Tor Vergata (RTV). A set of 167 cirrus cases, defined on the basis of quasi-stationary temporal period conditions, has been selected in a data set consisting of about 500 h of nighttime lidar sessions acquired between February 2007 and April 2010. The derived lidar parameters (effective height, geometrical and optical thickness and mean back-scattering ratio) and the cirrus mid-height temperature (estimated from the radiosonde data of Pratica di Mare, WMO, World Meteorological Organization, site no. 16245) of this sample have been analyzed by the means of a clustering multivariate analysis. This approach identified four cirrus classes above the RTV site: two thin cirrus clusters in mid- and upper troposphere and two thick cirrus clusters in mid-upper troposphere. These results, which are very similar to those derived through the same approach at the lidar site of the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP), allows characterization of cirrus clouds over the RTV site and attests to the robustness of such classification. To acquire some indications about the cirrus generation methods for the different classes, analyses of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio, LReff, in terms of frequency distribution functions and dependencies on the mid-height cirrus temperature, have been performed. A preliminary study relating some meteorological parameters (e.g., relative humidity, wind components) to cirrus clusters has also been conducted. The RTV cirrus results, recomputed through the cirrus classification by Sassen and Cho (1992), show good agreement with other midlatitude lidar cirrus observations for the relative occurrence of subvisible (SVC), thin and opaque cirrus classes (10%, 49% and 41%, respectively). The overall mean value of cirrus optical depth is 0.37 ± 0.18, while most retrieved LReff values

  20. Exposure to ultrafine particles in different transport modes in the city of Rome.

    PubMed

    Grana, Mario; Toschi, Nicola; Vicentini, Laura; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Magrini, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    There is evidence of adverse health impacts from human exposure to particulate air pollution, including increased rates of respiratory and cardiovascular illness, hospitalizations, and pre-mature mortality. Most recent hypotheses assign an important role to ultrafine particles (UFP) (<0.1 μm) and to associated transition metals (in particular Fe). In a large city like Rome, where many active people spend more than one hour per day in private or public transportation, it may be important to evaluate the level of exposure to harmful pollutants which occurs during urban travelling. In this context, the aim of this work was to examine the relative contribution of different transport modes to total daily exposure. We performed experimental measurements during both morning and evening traffic peak hours throughout the winter season (December 2013-March 2014), for a total of 98 trips. Our results suggest that the lowest UFP exposures are experienced by underground train commuters, with an average number concentration of 14 134 cm(-3), and are largely a reflection of the routes being at greater distance from vehicular traffic. Motorcyclists experienced significantly higher average concentrations (73 168 cm(-3)) than all other exposure classes, and this is most likely a result of the presence of high-concentration and short-duration peaks which do not occur when the same routes are traveled by car. UFP concentrations in subway train environments were found to be comparable to urban background levels. Still, in underground trains we found the highest values of PM10 mass concentration with a maximum value of 422 μg/m(3). PM10 concentration in trains was found to be four and two times higher than what was measured in car and motorbike trips, respectively. Transport mode contribution to total integrated UFP daily exposure was found to be 16.3%-20.9% while travelling by car, 28.7% for motorbike trips, and 8.7% for subway trips. Due to lower exposure times, commuting by

  1. A newly-emerged (August 2013) artificially-triggered fumarole near the Fiumicino airport, Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sella, Pio; Billi, Andrea; Mazzini, Ilaria; De Filippis, Luigi; Pizzino, Luca; Sciarra, Alessandra; Quattrocchi, Fedora

    2014-06-01

    Early in the morning of 24 August, 2013, following by hours the drilling of a shallow borehole in the same spot, a new fumarole producing emissions of CO2-rich gas, water, and mud suddenly appeared at a crossroad along the fenced area of the Fiumicino international airport of Rome, Italy. Similar episodes have been scientifically documented or simply reported in recent and past years. To understand why gases are easily entrapped in the shallow subsurface of the Fiumicino area, we used five borehole cores drilled by us, analyzed the stratigraphy of these and other nearby cores, acquired a 2D seismic refraction tomogram, and performed chemical and isotopic analyses of water samples collected from aquifers intercepted by two drilled boreholes. Our boreholes were realized with proper anti-gas measures as, while drilling, we recorded the presence of pressurized gases at a specific permeable gravel level. Results show that, in the study area, gases become mainly entrapped in a mid-Pleistocene gravel horizon at about 40-50 m depth. This horizon contains a confined aquifer that stores the endogenous upwelling gases. The gravel is interposed between two silty-clayey units. The lower unit, very hard and overconsolidated, is affected by fractures that allow ascending gases to bypass the otherwise impermeable shale, permeate the gravel, and dissolve into the aquifer. In contrast, the upper unit is impermeable to fluids and seals the gas-pressurized aquifer, which therefore constitutes a source of hazard during human activities such as well drilling, quarrying, and various building-related excavations. As the stratigraphy of the Fiumicino area is very common in large portions of the densely populated Roman area and as the adjacent volcanic districts are hydrothermally active, we conclude that phenomena similar to that observed at Fiumicino could again occur both at Fiumicino and elsewhere in the surrounding region. As a prompt confirmation of our conclusion, we signal that

  2. Numerous Iron-Rich Particles Lie on the Surface of Erionite Fibers from Rome (Oregon, USA) and Karlik (Cappadocia, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Croce, Alessandro; Allegrina, Mario; Rinaudo, Caterina; Gaudino, Giovanni; Yang, Haining; Carbone, Michele

    2015-10-01

    Erionite samples from Rome, Oregon (USA) and Karlik, Cappadocia (Turkey) were analyzed by environmental scanning electron microscopy (E-SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to verify the chemical composition of this mineral phase, and the presence of iron in particular. By means of backscattered electron images, a large number of particles/grains were observed on the surface of the erionite fibers from both locations. The particles were found to be micrometric on samples from Rome and submicrometric on samples from Karlik, and always lighter than the hosting crystal in appearance. In different areas of the same fiber or bundle of fibers, several EDS spectra were recorded. Iron was detected only when a light particle was lying in the path of the electron beam. Iron was never identified in the EDS spectra acquired on the flat erionite surface. The results from E-SEM/EDS were confirmed by micro-Raman spectroscopy, showing bands ascribing to hematite—Fe2O3, goethite—FeO(OH), or jarosite—KFe3(3+)(SO4)2(OH)6 when the laser beam was addressed on the light particles observed on the fiber surface. The evidence that iron is on the surface of erionite fibers, rather than being part of the crystalline structure, may be relevant for the carcinogenic potential of these fibers.

  3. Measurement of organic and elemental carbon in downtown Rome and background area: physical behavior and chemical speciation.

    PubMed

    Avino, Pasquale; Manigrasso, Maurizio; Rosada, Alberto; Dodaro, Alessandro

    2015-02-01

    A significant portion of the particulate matter is the total carbonaceous fraction (or total carbon, TC), composed of two main fractions, elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC), which shows a large variety of organic compounds, e.g. aliphatic, aromatic compounds, alcohols, acids, etc. In this paper, TC, EC and OC concentrations determined in a downtown Rome urban area are discussed considering the influence of meteorological conditions on the temporal-spatial aerosol distribution. Similar measurements were performed at ENEA Casaccia, an area outside Rome, which is considered as the ome background. Since 2000, TC, EC and OC measurements have been performed by means of an Ambient Carbon Particulate Monitor equipped with a NDIR detector. The EC and OC concentrations trends are compared with benzene and CO trends, which are specific indicators of autovehicular traffic, for identifying the primary EC and OC contributions and the secondary OC fraction origin. Further, a chemical investigation is reported for investigating how the main organic (i.e., n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and nitro-polyaromatic hydrocarbons) and inorganic (i.e., metals, ions) fractions vary their levels during the investigated period in relationship to new regulations and/or technological innovations.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in milk from Italian women living in Rome and Venice.

    PubMed

    Ingelido, Anna Maria; Ballard, Terri; Dellatte, Elena; di Domenico, Alessandro; Ferri, Fabiola; Fulgenzi, Anna Rita; Herrmann, Thomas; Iacovella, Nicola; Miniero, Roberto; Päpke, Olaf; Porpora, Maria Grazia; De Felip, Elena

    2007-04-01

    The levels of selected polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in human milk samples from the areas of Venice and Rome, primarily in order to characterize the current levels of infant exposure to PCBs and PBDEs due to breast feeding in Italy. Sixteen non-dioxin-like PCBs, including the traditional indicator congeners, and 11 PBDEs, comprising the relevant PBDE-47, PBDE-99, and PBDE-153, were determined. Congeners were selected for analysis according to their relative abundance in human tissues, toxicological relevance, and diffusion in the environment. Dietary habits of the milk donors were recorded by questionnaires; mothers of the Venice area were classified into three groups according to their consumption of local fish, molluscs, and other fishery products. Sigma(16)(PCBs) and Sigma(11)(PBDEs) (ng g(-1) fat) for the areas of Venice and Rome were respectively, 250-390 and 240, and 1.6-2.8 and 4.1. An increase of fish and fishery product consumption could not be associated with an increase of PCB and PBDE levels in milk.

  5. a 3d GIS Method Applied to Cataloging and Restoring: the Case of Aurelian Walls at Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canciani, M.; Ceniccola, V.; Messi, M.; Saccone, M.; Zampilli, M.

    2013-07-01

    The project involves architecture, archaeology, restoration, graphic documentation and computer imaging. The objective is development of a method for documentation of an architectural feature, based on a three-dimensional model obtained through laser scanning technologies, linked to a database developed in GIS environment. The case study concerns a short section of Rome's Aurelian walls, including the Porta Latina. The city walls are Rome's largest single architectural monument, subject to continuous deterioration, modification and maintenance since their original construction beginning in 271 AD. The documentation system provides a flexible, precise and easily-applied instrument for recording the full appearance, materials, stratification palimpsest and conservation status, in order to identify restoration criteria and intervention priorities, and to monitor and control the use and conservation of the walls over time. The project began with an analysis and documentation campaign integrating direct, traditional recording methods with indirect, topographic instrument and 3D laser scanning recording. These recording systems permitted development of a geographic information system based on three-dimensional modelling of separate, individual elements, linked to a database and related to the various stratigraphic horizons, the construction techniques, the component materials and their state of degradation. The investigations of the extant wall fabric were further compared to historic documentation, from both graphic and descriptive sources. The resulting model constitutes the core of the GIS system for this specific monument. The methodology is notable for its low cost, precision, practicality and thoroughness, and can be applied to the entire Aurelian wall and to other monuments.

  6. Dead infants, cruel mothers, and heroic popes: the visual rhetoric of foundling care at the hospital of Santo Spirito, Rome.

    PubMed

    Presciutti, Diana Bullen

    2011-01-01

    The fresco cycle painted at the behest of Pope Sixtus IV in the late 1470s in the main ward of the hospital of Santo Spirito in rome comprises an extended pictorial biography of Sixtus, prefaced by scenes representing the legendary foundation of the hospital by his predecessor Innocent III. The legend, which tells how Innocent established Santo Spirito as a foundling hospital in response to the discovery of victims of infanticide in the Tiber River, positions the pope as the savior of the city's unwanted children. This article elucidates how the construction and renovation of the hospital is presented in the cycle as a generative product of papal will, with the care of foundlings situated as an integral part of the image of the pope as both Father of the Church and restorer of past glory to the city of Rome. While the frescoes engage with both widespread conventions for representing infanticide and commonplace notions of the social value of caring for abandoned children, I demonstrate that the ideologically potent visual rhetoric of foundling care was also flexible, and could be adapted to meet the specific needs of a particular institutional and patronal context.

  7. Life cycle assessment of urban waste management: energy performances and environmental impacts. The case of Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Cherubini, Francesco; Bargigli, Silvia; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2008-12-01

    Landfilling is nowadays the most common practice of waste management in Italy in spite of enforced regulations aimed at increasing waste pre-sorting as well as energy and material recovery. In this work we analyse selected alternative scenarios aimed at minimizing the unused material fraction to be delivered to the landfill. The methodological framework of the analysis is the life cycle assessment, in a multi-method form developed by our research team. The approach was applied to the case of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Rome, with a special focus on energy and material balance, including global and local scale airborne emissions. Results, provided in the form of indices and indicators of efficiency, effectiveness and environmental impacts, point out landfill activities as the worst waste management strategy at a global scale. On the other hand, the investigated waste treatments with energy and material recovery allow important benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction (among others) but are still affected by non-negligible local emissions. Furthermore, waste treatments leading to energy recovery provide an energy output that, in the best case, is able to meet 15% of the Rome electricity consumption.

  8. On the magnetic characterization and quantification of the superparamagnetic fraction of traffic-related urban airborne PM in Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagnotti, Leonardo; Winkler, Aldo

    2012-11-01

    The magnetic properties of traffic-related airborne particulate matter (PM) in the city of Rome, Italy, have been previously analyzed and interpreted as suitable proxies to discriminate between different vehicular sources. In this study, we carried out a new set of measurements and analyses specifically devoted to the identification and evaluation of the contribution of ultrafine superparamagnetic (SP) particles to the overall magnetic assemblage of traffic-related PM in Rome. In particular, the presence and the concentration of SP particles have been estimated on powders collected from disk brakes and gasoline exhaust pipes of circulating vehicles and from Quercus ilex leaves grown along high-traffic roads, measuring their hysteresis parameters in a range of temperatures from 293 K to 10 K and measuring the time decay of their saturation remanent magnetization (MRS) at room temperature. The SP fraction contributes for the 10-15% to the overall room temperature MRS and causes the observed changes in the hysteresis properties measured upon cooling down to 10 K. In all the analyzed samples the SP fraction is associated to a generally prevailing population of larger ferrimagnetic multidomain (MD) particles and we suppose that in traffic-related PM the SP fraction mainly occurs as coating of MD particles and originated by localized stress in the oxidized outer shell surrounding the unoxidized core of magnetite-like grains. Under this hypothesis, the estimate of SP content in traffic-related PM cannot be considered a robust proxy to estimate the overall concentration of nanometric particles.

  9. Life cycle assessment of urban waste management: Energy performances and environmental impacts. The case of Rome, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Cherubini, Francesco Bargigli, Silvia; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2008-12-15

    Landfilling is nowadays the most common practice of waste management in Italy in spite of enforced regulations aimed at increasing waste pre-sorting as well as energy and material recovery. In this work we analyse selected alternative scenarios aimed at minimizing the unused material fraction to be delivered to the landfill. The methodological framework of the analysis is the life cycle assessment, in a multi-method form developed by our research team. The approach was applied to the case of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Rome, with a special focus on energy and material balance, including global and local scale airborne emissions. Results, provided in the form of indices and indicators of efficiency, effectiveness and environmental impacts, point out landfill activities as the worst waste management strategy at a global scale. On the other hand, the investigated waste treatments with energy and material recovery allow important benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction (among others) but are still affected by non-negligible local emissions. Furthermore, waste treatments leading to energy recovery provide an energy output that, in the best case, is able to meet 15% of the Rome electricity consumption.

  10. Analysis of the data recorded by the Mont Blanc neutrino detector and by the Maryland and Rome gravitational-wave detectors during SN 1987 A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglietta, M.; Badino, G.; Bologna, G.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellina, A.

    1989-02-01

    The paper presents data recorded by the neutrino detector on Mont Blanc and by gravitational wave detectors in Maryland and Rome. The data were obtained over a period of several days and include the occurrence of the Mont Blanc five-neutrino burst. A correlation is found during a period of about two hours roughly centered on the five-neutrino burst, independently between Maryland and Mont Blanc and Rome and Mont Blanc. The probability that these two correlations are due to chance is of the order of between 10 to the -6th and 10 to the -5th.

  11. Stable isotopic evidence for fluid flow and fluid/rock interaction during thrust faulting in Pumpkin Valley shale and Rome Formation, east Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, B.K.; Haase, C.S. )

    1989-08-01

    The Pumpkin Valley Shale and the underlying Rome Formation form the lower portions of the Copper Creek and White Oak Mountain thrust sheets in east Tennessee. The Pumpkin Valley Shale consists of shale and mudstone with subordinate amounts of interbedded siltstone. The Rome Formation is composed predominantly of sandstone with interbedded shale and siltstone toward the base of the formation. The percentage of illite increases from 20% to over 80% of the bulk clay mineralogy toward the base of the section. Porosity is occluded by quartz, phyllosilicate, and calcite cements. Both formations contain calcite-filled and, less commonly, quartz-filled Alleghenian fractures and joints.

  12. Needs and challenges of daily life for people with Down syndrome residing in the city of Rome, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bertoli, M; Biasini, G; Calignano, M T; Celani, G; De Grossi, G; Digilio, M C; Fermariello, C C; Loffredo, G; Luchino, F; Marchese, A; Mazotti, S; Menghi, B; Razzano, C; Tiano, C; Zambon Hobart, A; Zampino, G; Zuccalà, G

    2011-01-01

    Background Population-based surveys on the quality of life of people with Down syndrome (DS) are difficult to perform because of ethical and legal policies regarding privacy and confidential information, but they are essential for service planning. Little is known about the sample size and variability of quality of life of people with DS living in the city of Rome, which has a population of 2.7 million inhabitants. The aim of the present study is to explore the needs and challenges in health, social integration and daily life, of people with DS living in Rome. Methodology A cross-sectional, census-based survey was conducted in 2006. All family doctors (3016 in total) of the National Health Service were involved by the Statistical Bureau of the Municipality of Rome. As per the census, every resident citizen is registered with a family doctor and every person with disabilities is coded. Associations for Down Syndrome encouraged their members to participate in the research. Questionnaires were completed by families of people with DS, in accordance with privacy laws. Findings An initial survey, conducted via a letter and a telephone contact with family doctors, identified 884 people with DS residing in the city of Rome. Data on the medical and social conditions of 518 people with DS, ranging in age from 0 to 64 years, were collected. Some 88% of these were living with their original family; 82.1% had one or more siblings, and 19.5% had lost one or both parents. A full 100% of children with DS were enrolled in the public school system. This ensures that they are fully occupied and entirely integrated in society. After secondary school there is a lack of opportunities. Thus, only 10% of adults were working with a regular contract. A mere 42.2% of people with DS aged 25–30 were involved in some form of regular activity (although not always on a daily basis). After the age of 30, the percentage of people demonstrating decline in function increased sharply, while

  13. Stability and subsidence across Rome (Italy) in 2011-2013 based on COSMO-SkyMed Persistent Scatterer Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francesca, Cigna; Lasaponara, Rosa; Nicola, Masini; Pietro, Milillo; Deodato, Tapete

    2015-04-01

    Ground stability of the built environment of the city of Rome in central Italy has been extensively investigated in the last years by using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), with focus on deformation of both the monuments of the historic centre (e.g., [1-2]) and the southern residential quarters (e.g., [3]). C-band ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT ASAR time series deformation analyses brought evidence of overall stability across the town centre, except for localized deformation concentrated in areas geologically susceptible to instability (e.g. western slope of the Palatine Hill), whereas clear subsidence patterns were detected over the compressible alluvial deposits lying in proximity of the Tiber River. To retrieve an updated picture of stability and subsidence across the city, we analysed a time series of 32 COSMO-SkyMed StripMap HIMAGE, right-looking, ascending mode scenes with an image swath of 40 km, 3-m resolution and HH polarization, acquired between 21 March 2011 and 10 June 2013, with repeat cycle mostly equal to 16 days. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) processing was undertaken by using the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) as detailed in [4], and more than 310,000 radar targets (i.e. PS) were identified, with an average target density of over 2,800 PS/km2. The performance of StaMPS to retrieve satisfactory PS coverage over the urban features of interest was assessed against their orientation and visibility to the satellite Line-Of-Sight, as well as their conservation history throughout the biennial investigated (2011-2013). In this work we discuss effects due to local land cover and land use by exploiting the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) European Urban Atlas (IT001L) of Rome at 1:10,000 scale, thereby also evaluating the capability of the X-band to spatially resolve targets coinciding with man-made structures in vegetated areas. Based on this assessment, our PSI results highlight those environmental

  14. Laboratory accreditation.

    PubMed

    Bradway, D E; Siegelman, F L

    1994-09-01

    An investigation of alleged data fraud at a pesticide analytical laboratory led EPA to take a closer look at the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) inspection program. There was special focus on changes which might be made in the program to enhance the chances of detecting fraud in regulated studies. To this end, the Assistant Administrator of the Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) requested EPA's Office of Inspector General (OIG) to examine the GLP program. Several reports were issued by the OIG, including the recommendation that a laboratory accreditation program be adopted. EPA has been examining ways to implement the OIG's recommendations, including (1) laboratory accreditation consisting of three components: document submission and assessment, site visit and assessment, and proficiency assessment; and (2) mandatory registration of all facilities participating in GLP-regulated studies, based on document submission and assessment. These two alternatives are compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed.

  15. Close proximity of the heterosexual partner reduces the physiological and behavioral consequences of novel-cage housing in black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix kuhli).

    PubMed

    Smith, T E; McGreer-Whitworth, B; French, J A

    1998-12-01

    The present studies assessed the extent to which heterosexual pairmates could buffer marmosets (Wied's black tufted-ear marmoset, Callithrix kuhli) against stress. Six male and six female marmosets from established groups were exposed to two experimental manipulations together with a control condition. Each condition lasted a total of 4 days. For the two experimental conditions, animals were removed from the family group and housed in a novel cage for 48 h in either the presence or the absence of the heterosexual pairmate. During the 48-h novel-cage housing period and for 48 h upon reunion of the subjects with the family group, concentrations of urinary cortisol were measured in the first void sample of the day and behavioral observations were conducted. When animals were housed alone in a novel cage they exhibited significant elevations in levels of urinary cortisol after 24 and 48 h of novel-cage exposure. In contrast, when marmosets were housed in the novel cage in the presence of the pairmate, levels of urinary cortisol did not change across the 4-day period. The presence of the social partner also reduced the behavioral manifestations of exposure to novelty. Upon reunion with the family group, animals that had been housed in the novel cage alone spent significantly more time in close proximity to the pairmate than animals that had been housed with the partner. A second experiment was conducted to determine the effect that separation from the pairmate, only (independent of any effects of novelty), had on levels of cortisol. Concentrations of urinary cortisol were measured in subjects housed in the familiar home cage, but in the absence of the pairmate, over a 48-h period and compared to concentrations of excreted cortisol immediately prior to separation. Separation from the pairmate did not elevate cortisol levels when the subject was housed in the home cage, suggesting that elevated cortisol levels in animals housed alone in the novel cage were in response to

  16. Evaluation of high-throughput isomiR identification tools: illuminating the early isomiRome of Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Amsel, Daniel; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Billion, André

    2017-08-03

    MicroRNAs carry out post-transcriptional gene regulation in animals by binding to the 3' untranslated regions of mRNAs, causing their degradation or translational repression. MicroRNAs influence many biological functions, and dysregulation can therefore disrupt development or even cause death. High-throughput sequencing and the mining of animal small RNA data has shown that microRNA genes can yield differentially expressed isoforms, known as isomiRs. Such isoforms are particularly relevant during early development, and the extension or truncation of the 5' end can change the profile of mRNA targets compared to the original mature sequence. We used the publicly available small RNA dataset of the model beetle Tribolium castaneum to create the first comparative isomiRome of early developmental stages in this species. Standard microRNA analysis software does not specifically account for isomiRs. We therefore carried out the first comparative evaluation of the specialized tools isomiRID, isomiR-SEA and miraligner, which can be downloaded for local use and can handle next generation sequencing data. We compared the performance of isomiRID, isomiR-SEA and miraligner using simulated Illumina HiSeq2000 and MiSeq data to test the impact of technical errors. We also created artificial microRNA isoforms to determine the effect of biological variants on the performance of each algorithm. We found that isomiRID achieved the best true positive rate among the three algorithms, but only accounted for one mutation at a time. In contrast, miraligner reported all variations simultaneously but with 78% sensitivity, yielding isomiRs with 3' or 5' deletions. Finally, isomiR-SEA achieved a sensitivity of 25-33% when the seed region was mutated or partly deleted, but was the only tool that could accommodate more than one mismatch. Using the best tool, we performed a complete isomiRome analysis of the early developmental stages of T. castaneum. Our findings will help researchers to select

  17. The European network of Biosafety-Level-4 laboratories: enhancing European preparedness for new health threats.

    PubMed

    Nisii, C; Castilletti, C; Di Caro, A; Capobianchi, M R; Brown, D; Lloyd, G; Gunther, S; Lundkvist, A; Pletschette, M; Ippolito, G

    2009-08-01

    Emerging and re-emerging infections and possible bioterrorism acts will continue to challenge both the medical community and civilian populations worldwide, urging health authorities to respond rapidly and effectively. Established in 2005, the European Community (EC)-funded European Network of Biosafety-Level-4 laboratories (Euronet-P4), which brings together the laboratories in Porton Down, London, Hamburg, Marburg, Solna, Lyon and Rome, seeks to increase international collaboration in the areas of high containment laboratory biosafety and viral diagnostic capability, to strengthen Europe's capacity to respond to an infectious disease emergency, and to offer assistance to countries not equipped with such costly facilities. Network partners have agreed on a common strategy to fill the gaps identified in the field of risk group-4 agents' laboratory diagnosis, namely the lack of standardization and of reference samples. The network has received a further 3-year funding, to offer assistance to external laboratories, and to start the planning of field activities.

  18. Multiwavelength Lidar Observation of the Atmospheric Response to the 20th March 2015 Partial Solar Eclipse in Rome Tor Vergata: Preliminary Results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberti, Gian Luigi; Dionisi, Davide; Federico, Stefano; Congeduti, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    This study reports some preliminary analyses of multichannel lidar measurements taken in Rome Tor Vergata (Italy) during the 20th March 2015 partial solar eclipse. The objective is assessing the capability of the instrument to document the effect of the eclipse in the lower troposphere, with a particular emphasis on the information content at relatively small temporal and spatial scales.

  19. Ancient Rome II: The Theater, Sculpture & Painting, Religion, Everyday Life, the Roman at Home. Teaching with Primary Sources Series, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Rosalie F.; Baker, Charles F., III

    Intended for teachers of grades 5 and up, this unit on ancient Rome introduces students to a variety of primary sources, all chosen with the idea that they can be used to form an accurate and informative picture of what it was like to be a Roman during ancient times, and the similarities and dissimilarities between life then and today. The unit…

  20. Ancient Rome I: Government and Politics; the Military; Trade and the Economy; Aqueducts, Baths, and Sewers; the Arena. Volume 7. Teaching with Primary Sources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Rosalie F.; Baker, Charles F., III

    This unit on Ancient Rome (covering a time period from 753 B.C. until A.D. 476) contains the following elements: a list of documents, with a description of each document and a brief synopsis of its historical significance to the unit's theme; the documents; and a set of activities. The unit's documents are grouped under the five categories listed…

  1. All Roads Lead to Rome: Exploring Human Migration to the Eternal City through Biochemistry of Skeletons from Two Imperial-Era Cemeteries (1st-3rd c AD).

    PubMed

    Killgrove, Kristina; Montgomery, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Migration within the Roman Empire occurred at multiple scales and was engaged in both voluntarily and involuntarily. Because of the lengthy tradition of classical studies, bioarchaeological analyses must be fully contextualized within the bounds of history, material culture, and epigraphy. In order to assess migration to Rome within an updated contextual framework, strontium isotope analysis was performed on 105 individuals from two cemeteries associated with Imperial Rome-Casal Bertone and Castellaccio Europarco-and oxygen and carbon isotope analyses were performed on a subset of 55 individuals. Statistical analysis and comparisons with expected local ranges found several outliers who likely immigrated to Rome from elsewhere. Demographics of the immigrants show men and children migrated, and a comparison of carbon isotopes from teeth and bone samples suggests the immigrants may have significantly changed their diet. These data represent the first physical evidence of individual migrants to Imperial Rome. This case study demonstrates the importance of employing bioarchaeology to generate a deeper understanding of a complex ancient urban center.

  2. Ancient Rome II: The Theater, Sculpture & Painting, Religion, Everyday Life, the Roman at Home. Teaching with Primary Sources Series, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Rosalie F.; Baker, Charles F., III

    Intended for teachers of grades 5 and up, this unit on ancient Rome introduces students to a variety of primary sources, all chosen with the idea that they can be used to form an accurate and informative picture of what it was like to be a Roman during ancient times, and the similarities and dissimilarities between life then and today. The unit…

  3. Laboratory diagnosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the first major goals of the microbiology laboratory is to isolate or detect clinically significant microorganisms from an affected site and, if more than one type of microorganism is present, to isolate them in approximately the same ratio as occurs in vivo. Whether an isolate is “clinically...

  4. Language Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education and Science, London (England).

    An educational survey of British language teachers concerning the use of the language laboratory focuses primarily on function, facilities, and performance specifications. Read in conjunction with two other reports published by the Ministry of Technology, this study is meant to help teachers, architects, and administrators develop language…

  5. [Injuries: preventive approach and progress of injuries in the construction of the line B1 of the underground of Rome].

    PubMed

    Saggio, G; Conti, E; Valentini, F; De Sio, L; Capano, M Perrone

    2010-01-01

    The line B1 is a branch of the existing Metro line B in Rome. The route is long about 5 km, is completely underground and involves the construction of four new stations: Annibaliano, Libia /Gondar, Conca d'Oro and Jonio. The line will have a capacity of transport of 24,000 people/hour in each direction. The works started in 2006 involve about 500 workers. The report provides a statistical analysis of the events that occurred in the period 2005/2010 and aims to introduce the starting and management of this study, also on the basis of the "Operating procedures" issued by the acquisition of OSHAS 18001 certification from the agent of Metro B) / R.I.M.A.T.I. This analysis aims to provide to supervisors, to social security institutions and to workers, a usefull analysis tool in the prevention of the monitored events.

  6. A Trip to Rome: Physical Replicas of Historical Objects Created in a Fully Automated Way from Photos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barazzetti, Luigi

    It is normal for tourists to take photos during their holidays, which are then printed, loaded into digital frames or shared on the Internet. This paper describes a new methodology to obtain accurate 3D digital models and material replicas of real objects, starting from digital images acquired with consumer and professional cameras. The implemented software is completely automatic and provides detailed reconstructions. It stands out from other existing approaches for the high metric accuracy of the final product, the level of detail obtainable, the speed of the algorithms and its adaptability under different viewing conditions. Several examples relating to an actual trip to Rome are reported and discussed, showing what a tourist can obtain with this package. Obviously, the method can be used for many other applications in which accurate models are needed.

  7. An epidemic of gastroenteritis and mild necrotizing enterocolitis in two neonatal units of a University Hospital in Rome, Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Faustini, A.; Forastiere, F.; Giorgi Rossi, P.; Perucci, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    In the summer of 1999 a cluster of 18 cases of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) occurred in a University Hospital in Rome, Italy. The cases presented with mild clinical and radiological signs, and none died. Seventy-two per cent had a birth weight of > 2500 g, 66.7% had a gestational age of > 37 weeks, 30% presented with respiratory diseases and/or hypoglycaemia. All cases occurred within 10 days of birth and between 5 and 7 days after two clusters of diarrhoea (14 cases). The NEC outbreak had two phases; most cases in the first phase occurred in the at-risk unit, whereas those in the second phase occurred in the full-term unit. In the multivariate analysis, invasive therapeutic procedures, pathological conditions and formula feeding were associated with NEC. Although no predominant common bacteria were isolated, we suggest an infective origin of this outbreak. PMID:15188715

  8. The Incidence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Children Using the Rome III Criteria and the Effect of Trimebutine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Beşer, Ömer F; Erginöz, Ethem; Kutlu, Tufan; Çokuğraş, Fügen Ç; Erkan, Tülay

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders and when compared to the vast knowledge pertaining to adults with IBS, very little is known about IBS in children and adolescents. We aimed to explore the prevalence of IBS, identify symptoms and contributing factors and also to examine the efficacy of trimebutine maleate in children and adolescents. Methods The study involved 345 children and adolescents (4-18 years) and parents were requested to fill in a questionnaire, Rome III criteria was used to diagnose IBS. To exclude organic disease, all patients underwent medical investigations. Half of the randomly selected IBS patients were treated with trimebutine maleate while the rest of IBS patients were not. The IBS patients were reevaluated at the end of 3 weeks. Results The prevalence of IBS according to Rome III criteria in children and adolescents was 22.6% and IBS with constipation was the predominant subtype. Back pain (OR, 6.68), headache (OR, 4.72) and chronic fatigue (OR, 3.74) were significantly higher in IBS group. The prevalence of IBS in both parents and depression in mothers was greater for the patient group than the healthy controls (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of functional dyspepsia in IBS group was 80.8% and was significantly higher than control group. Clinical recovery was seen in 94.9% of the trimebutine maleate group versus spontaneous recovery in 20.5% of the non-medicated group. The difference was significant (P < 0.0001). Conclusions IBS is a common disorder in children and adolescents. IBS is closely associated with somatic and familial factors. Trimebutine maleate is effective for pediatric IBS patients. PMID:23350053

  9. Lunar laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  10. Laboratory accreditation

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, R.B.

    1998-08-01

    Accreditation can offer many benefits to a testing or calibration laboratory, including increased marketability of services, reduced number of outside assessments, and improved quality of services. Compared to ISO 9000 registration, the accreditation process includes a review of the entire quality system, but in addition a review of testing or calibration procedures by a technical expert and participation in proficiency testing in the areas of accreditation. Within the DOE, several facilities have recently become accredited in the area of calibration, including Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, AlliedSignal FM and T; Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., and Pacific Northwest National Lab. At the national level, a new non-profit organization was recently formed called the National Cooperation for Laboratory Accreditation (NACLA). The goal of NACLA is to develop procedures, following national and international requirements, for the recognition of competent accreditation bodies in the US. NACLA is a voluntary partnership between the public and private sectors with the goal of a test or calibration performed once and accepted world wide. The NACLA accreditation body recognition process is based on the requirements of ISO Guide 25 and Guide 58. A membership drive will begin some time this fall to solicit organizational members and an election of a permanent NACLA Board of Directors will follow later this year or early 1999.

  11. Virtual Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, P.

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations playa central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simulated dialogues between code developers, thus sharing not only the code, but also the motivations behind the code.

  12. The Prevalence and Symptoms Characteristic of Functional Constipation Using Rome III Diagnostic Criteria among Tertiary Education Students

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Functional constipation is very common with heterogeneous symptoms that have substantial impact on patient quality of life as well as medical resources which are rarely reported as life-threatening. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and symptoms characteristic of functional constipation (FC) by using Rome III diagnostic criteria among tertiary education students with an intention to introduce treatment in the future. Methods Demographic, socio-economics characteristics and symptoms of FC using the Rome III criteria were sought using a questionnaire administered to Malaysian students in a tertiary education setting. Other data obtained were the general health status, lifestyle factors and anthropometric measurements. Using a simple random sampling method, a total of 1662 students were recruited in the study with a response rate of 95.0%. Sampled data are presented as frequency and percentage and stratified accordingly into categories for Chi-square analysis. Results The prevalence of functional constipation among the students was 16.2%, with a significantly higher prevalence among women (17.4%) than men (12.5%). Hard or lumpy stool, incomplete evacuation, anorectal obstruction and straining were reported as the commonest symptoms experienced. Type 3 was the most frequent stool consistency experienced among the constipated individuals (35.2%). Only 4.4% of individuals reported having less than three defecations per week. Using univariable analysis, FC was significantly associated with sex (odds ratio: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.06–2.06) and age group (odds ratio: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.01–1.79) with P value < 0.05 significance level. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only sex was found significantly associated with FC (adjusted odds ratio: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.08–2.17, P < 0.05). Conclusions Based on the prevalence rate, constipation is a common problem among tertiary education students (16.2%), with significantly more prevalence among

  13. The site of the Varian Temple of Elagabal in Rome: topographical and astronomical approach to the question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Arrizabalaga y Prado, L.; de La Fuente Marcos, R.

    2005-03-01

    Ancient historians refer to a temple in Rome, dedicated to the Syrian sun god Elagabal, by his high priest, the Roman emperor called Varius (204-222AD, commonly called Elagabalus or Heliogabalus). On the basis of their texts, it has been thought that Varius either built a new temple, or rededicated an existing one, expropriated from some other deity, in order to house his god's principal cult object: a large black meteorite, or baetyl, which Varius brought from its temple at Emesa, in Syria, to Rome. In this paper we analyze the hypothesis that the site of the Varian Temple of Elagabal may have been that now known as the Vigna Barberini. A stratigraphic analysis shows that the Vigna Barberini is an artificial platform, built on the rubble of earlier hillside structures, dating from prehistoric times to the Julio-Claudian period. The platform, with more or less its present shape, is of Flavian date, and at that time contained a portico surrounding a central garden. On top of these, a Severan level corresponds to the base of the foundations of a temple that are very solid and go very deep. The azimuth of the temple wall oriented south-east is about 113°. Using a computer program, we have thoroughly scan ned the night sky in AD 1-250, looking for celestial objects that may have been worshipped in the temple. After taking into account the effects of precession, the main candidate for a celestial body worshipped from this site appears to be the star Sirius. In several Mediterranean cultures, the heliacal ortus, or earliest pre-dawn sighting of Sirius (when Sirius again rises into visibility after being hidden by the Sun's light for about 70 days) was thought to have astrological significance. We have compiled the relevant astronomical data for the heliacal ortus of Sirius in the time span 0-250 AD. During that period of time, it falls between 18th and 20th July. The azimuth angle of Sirius, when rising on the heliacal ortus day ci rca 150 AD, is about 111°. Being

  14. D Survey and Augmented Reality for Cultural Heritage. The Case Study of Aurelian Wall at Castra Praetoria in Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canciani, M.; Conigliaro, E.; Del Grasso, M.; Papalini, P.; Saccone, M.

    2016-06-01

    The development of close-range photogrammetry has produced a lot of new possibility to study cultural heritage. 3D data acquired with conventional and low cost cameras can be used to document, investigate the full appearance, materials and conservation status, to help the restoration process and identify intervention priorities. At the same time, with 3D survey a lot of three-dimensional data are collected and analyzed by researchers, but there are a very few possibility of 3D output. The augmented reality is one of this possible output with a very low cost technology but a very interesting result. Using simple mobile technology (for iPad and Android Tablets) and shareware software (in the case presented "Augment") it is possible to share and visualize a large number of 3D models with your own device. The case study presented is a part of an architecture graduate thesis, made in Rome at Department of Architecture of Roma Tre University. We have developed a photogrammetric survey to study the Aurelian Wall at Castra Praetoria in Rome. The surveys of 8000 square meters of surface have allowed to identify stratigraphy and construction phases of a complex portion of Aurelian Wall, specially about the Northern door of Castra. During this study, the data coming out of 3D survey (photogrammetric and topographic), are stored and used to create a reverse 3D model, or virtual reconstruction, of the Northern door of Castra. This virtual reconstruction shows the door in the Tiberian period, nowadays it's totally hidden by a curtain wall but, little and significative architectural details allow to know its original feature. The 3D model of the ancient walls has been mapped with the exact type of bricks and mortar, oriented and scaled according to the existing one to use augmented reality. Finally, two kind of application have been developed, one on site, were you can see superimposed the virtual reconstruction on the existing walls using the image recognition. On the other hand

  15. A refined biomonitoring study of airborne particulate matter pollution in Rome, with magnetic measurements on Quercus Ilex tree leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szönyi, Michael; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Hirt, Ann M.

    2008-04-01

    Elevated levels of airborne particulate matter (PM) are a current problem for air quality in many major metropolitan areas. Many European cities have tightened the PM limits in the air, due to advances in monitoring PM levels. In order to establish guidelines for monitoring and curbing anthropogenic PM output, a better understanding of its origin, composition and diffusion is required. Biomonitoring of magnetic properties of tree leaves has been suggested previously to be a good approach to measure pollution levels in cities both in space and time. We report on a magnetic biomonitoring study of PM in the city of Rome, conducted from 2005 October to December. We collected approximately 180 different sample sets of tree leaves of Quercus ilex, an evergreen oak widely distributed in Rome, at 112 different locations. Specific magnetic susceptibility χ of the leaf is used as a fast, easy and cost-effective proxy to assess levels of primary anthropogenic airborne PM pollution. Highly polluted areas correlate with high traffic areas, with an average susceptibility value of χ = 3.2 × 10-7 m3 kg-1. Low traffic zones are characterized by values more than an order of magnitude lower at χ = 1.4 × 10-8 m3 kg-1, and the background magnetic susceptibility is around χ = 2.6 × 10-9 m3 kg-1. The data show that distance dependence from the source is the most significant factor for the concentration of magnetic PM, and that pollution levels and sources can be reliably delineated by measuring magnetic susceptibility values on tree leaf samples of Q. ilex. A new protocol for magnetic susceptibility measurements is proposed, in order to account for changes due to water evaporation in the leaves as a function of time after collection of the samples. Additional magnetic analyses, such as acquisition of artificial remanences and hysteresis properties, were used to characterize the mineralogy and grain size of the magnetic PM. The results indicate that the population of ferrimagnetic

  16. Origin and status of the Gran Sasso INFN Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votano, Lucia

    2014-11-01

    The Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN (LNGS) is the largest underground laboratory for astroparticle physics in the world. Located in Italy between the cities of L'Aquila and Teramo, 120 km far from Rome, is a research infrastructure mainly dedicated to astroparticle and neutrino physics. It offers the most advanced underground facility in terms of dimensions, complexity and completeness of its infrastructures. LNGS is one of the four national laboratories run by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). The scientific program at LNGS is mainly focused on astroparticle, particle and nuclear physics. The laboratory presently hosts many experiments as well as R&D activities, including world-leading research in the fields of solar neutrinos, accelerator neutrinos (CNGS neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso), dark matter (DM), neutrinoless double beta decay (2β0ν) and nuclear cross-section of astrophysical interest. Associate sciences like earth physics, biology and fundamental physics complement the activities. The laboratory is operated as an international science facility and hosts experiments whose scientific merit is assessed by an international advisory Scientific Committee. A review of the main experiments carried out at LNGS will be given, together with the most recent and relevant scientific results achieved.

  17. Origin and Status of the Gran Sasso INFN Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votano, Lucia

    2014-06-01

    The Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN (LNGS) is the largest underground laboratory for astroparticle physics in the world. Located in Italy between the cities of L'Aquila and Teramo, 120 Km far from Rome, is a research infrastructure mainly dedicated to astroparticle and neutrino physics. It offers the most advanced underground facility in terms of dimensions, complexity and completeness of its infrastructures. LNGS is one of the four national laboratories run by the INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The scientific program at LNGS is mainly focused on astroparticle, particle and nuclear physics. The laboratory presently hosts many experiments as well as R&D activities, including world-leading research in the fields of solar neutrinos, accelerator neutrinos (CNGS neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso), dark matter, neutrinoless double beta decay and nuclear cross section of astrophysical interest. Associate sciences like earth physics, biology and fundamental physics complement the activities. The laboratory is operated as an international science facility and hosts experiments whose scientific merit is assessed by an international advisory Scientific Committee. A review of the main experiments carried out at LNGS will be given, together with the most recent and relevant scientific results achieved.

  18. Laboratory investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Ray W.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory studies related to cometary grains and the nuclei of comets can be broken down into three areas which relate to understanding the spectral properties, the formation mechanisms, and the evolution of grains and nuclei: (1) Spectral studies to be used in the interpretation of cometary spectra; (2) Sample preparation experiments which may shed light on the physical nature and history of cometary grains and nuclei by exploring the effects on grain emissivities resulting from the ways in which the samples are created; and (3) Grain processing experiments which should provide insight on the interaction of cometary grains with the environment in the immediate vicinity of the cometary nucleus as the comet travels from the Oort cloud through perihelion, and perhaps even suggestions regarding the relationship between interstellar grains and cometary matter. A summary is presented with a different view of lab experiments than is found in the literature, concentrating on measurement techniques and sample preparations especially relevant to cometary dust.

  19. Monitoring Ground Deformation Using Persistent Scatters Interferometry (PSI) and Small Baselines (SBAS) Techniques Integrated in the ESA RSS Service: The Case Study of Valencia, Rome and South Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Manuel J.; Cuccu, Roberto; Rivolta, Giancarlo

    2015-05-01

    This work is focused on the infrastructure monitoring of areas which had experienced significant urbanization and therefore, also an increase of the exploitation of natural resources. Persistent Scatters Interferometry (PS-InSAR) and Small Baselines (SBAS) approaches are applied to three study areas for which large datasets of SAR images are available in ascending and descending modes to finally deploy deformation maps of different buildings and infrastructures. Valencia, Rome and South Sardinia areas have been selected for this study, having experienced an increase of the exploitation of natural resources in parallel with their urban expansion. Moreover, Rome is a very special case, where Cultural Heritage permeating the city and its surroundings would suggest the necessity of a tool for monitoring the stability of the different sites. This work wants to analyse the potential deformation that had occurred in these areas during the period 1992 to 2010, by applying Persistent Scatters Interferometry to ESA ERS SAR and Envisat ASAR data.

  20. Analysis of the data recorded by the Mont Blanc neutrino detector andby the Maryland and Rome gravitational wave detectors during SN1987A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglietta, M.; Amaldi, E.; Badino, G.; Bassan, M.; Bologna, G.; Bonifazi, P.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellano, M. G.; Castellina, A.; Coccia, E.; Cosmelli, C.; Dadykin, V. L.; Frasca, S.; Fulgione, W.; Galeotti, P.; Gretz, D.; Kalchukov, F. F.; Malguin, A. S.; Modena, I.; Pallottino, G. V.; Pizzella, G.; Rapagnani, P.; Ricci, F.; Ryassny, V. G.; Ryazhskaya, O. G.; Saavedra, O.; Trinchero, G.; Vannaroni, G.; Vernetto, S.; Weber, J.; Wilmot, G.; Zatsepin, G. T.

    The data recorded by the gravitational wave and neutrino detectors have been analyzed over a period of 18h that includes the Mont Blanc 5ν burst occurrence time. A correlation is found during a period of about two hours roughly centered on the 5ν burst, independently between Maryland and Mont Blanc and Rome and Mont Blanc. The probability that these two correlations be due to chance is of the order of 3×10-6.

  1. Violence against women in Rome: An analysis of cases treated in the gynecology emergency department of the hospital Umberto I between 1999 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Aleandri, V; Bertazzoni, G; Vetrano, G; Carlomagno, L; Osborn, J F

    2015-01-01

    The gynecological emergency department of the Policlinico Umberto I, Rome sees an average of about 30 cases of violence against females each year. It is stressed that these cases are not representative of all cases of violence against women in Rome and they cannot be used to estimate the prevalence or incidence of the phenomenon, but they may provide some insight on the victims and their aggressors, the use of drugs or alcohol, factors which may affect the decision to report the attack to the police and attacks on children. The case records of all 458 females seen in the emergency department between 1999 and 2013 were retrieved, data were extracted and an Excel worksheet was prepared. Temporal variation in the numbers of cases, the types of aggression, the use of drugs or alcohol, reporting the attack to the police and violence against children were specifically investigated using frequency tabulations and appropriate statistical tests. There has been little change in the number of cases seen during the 15 year period; there is no significant seasonal effect or difference between the days of the week. Just over half of the attacks were reported to the police, but this was less likely among the older victims. About 87% of the cases involved vaginal and/or anal penetration. The use of drugs and/or alcohol was most common, 43%, among unmarried women aged 21-25. There were 32 cases of violence against children aged under 16. There has been little change in the number and characteristics of violent attacks on women seen at this large hospital in Rome over the years 1999-2013.These cases provide little information about the general epidemiology of violence against women, although they do imply that this great social and cultural problem continues unabated in Rome.

  2. HAIRVEQ 2006: evolution of laboratories' performance after different educational actions.

    PubMed

    Ventura, M; Stramesi, C; Pichini, S; Ventura, R; Pujadas, M; Di Giovannandrea, R; Zuccaro, P; Pacifici, R; Langohr, K; de la Torre, R

    2008-03-21

    HAIRVEQ is a proficiency testing program for hair analysis of illicit drugs organized by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (Rome, Italy) and the Institut Municipal d'Investigació Mèdica (Barcelona, Spain). The aim of the three exercises performed in 2006 was the evaluation of 32 laboratories' performance when analyzing the same hair sample containing opiates, cocaine and methadone, after carrying out some specific educational interventions. In the first round, the sample was sent to be analyzed following laboratory routine methodology. In the second round, standard operating procedures (SOP) for hair testing including sample preparation, method validation and qualitative and quantitative data evaluation, and an open hair sample for SOP training were also sent together with other hair samples including the one used for performance evaluation. After the second round, a workshop was held with participant laboratories to discuss methodological issues and interpretation of obtained results. An additional amount of open samples was distributed to the laboratories for implementing the SOPs. In the third round, the same unknown sample containing opiates, cocaine and methadone was resent for the final evaluation of laboratory performance. In the first round, 11 incorrect qualitative results (10 false negative and 1 false positive) were reported by seven laboratories (22%), in the second round, a reduction in the number of incorrect results was observed (4 false negatives and 1 false positive were reported by four laboratories, 13%) and in the third round, 5 false positives and 5 false negatives were reported by seven laboratories (22%). Concerning quantitative results, the scatter was similar between the three rounds and similar to the ones reported by other proficiency tests in hair analysis. More educational actions should be addressed to a group of laboratories, which did not yet show satisfying qualitative and quantitative results.

  3. All Roads Lead to Rome: Exploring Human Migration to the Eternal City through Biochemistry of Skeletons from Two Imperial-Era Cemeteries (1st-3rd c AD)

    PubMed Central

    Killgrove, Kristina; Montgomery, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Migration within the Roman Empire occurred at multiple scales and was engaged in both voluntarily and involuntarily. Because of the lengthy tradition of classical studies, bioarchaeological analyses must be fully contextualized within the bounds of history, material culture, and epigraphy. In order to assess migration to Rome within an updated contextual framework, strontium isotope analysis was performed on 105 individuals from two cemeteries associated with Imperial Rome—Casal Bertone and Castellaccio Europarco—and oxygen and carbon isotope analyses were performed on a subset of 55 individuals. Statistical analysis and comparisons with expected local ranges found several outliers who likely immigrated to Rome from elsewhere. Demographics of the immigrants show men and children migrated, and a comparison of carbon isotopes from teeth and bone samples suggests the immigrants may have significantly changed their diet. These data represent the first physical evidence of individual migrants to Imperial Rome. This case study demonstrates the importance of employing bioarchaeology to generate a deeper understanding of a complex ancient urban center. PMID:26863610

  4. The Aggradational Successions of the Aniene River Valley in Rome: Age Constraints to Early Neanderthal Presence in Europe.

    PubMed

    Marra, Fabrizio; Ceruleo, Piero; Pandolfi, Luca; Petronio, Carmelo; Rolfo, Mario F; Salari, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    We revise the chronostratigraphy of several sedimentary successions cropping out along a 5 km-long tract of the Aniene River Valley in Rome (Italy), which yielded six hominin remains previously attributed to proto- or archaic Neanderthal individuals, as well as a large number of lithic artefacts showing intermediate characteristics somewhere between the local Acheulean and Mousterian cultures. Through a method of correlation of aggradational successions with post-glacial sea-level rises, relying on a large set of published 40Ar/39Ar ages of interbedded volcanic deposits, we demonstrate that deposition of the sediments hosting the human remains spans the interval 295-220 ka. This is consistent with other well constrained ages for lithic industries recovered in England, displaying transitional features from Lower to Middle Paleolithic, suggesting the appearance of Mode 3 during the MIS 9-MIS 8 transition. Moreover, the six human bone fragments recovered in the Aniene Valley should be regarded as the most precisely dated and oldest hominin remains ascribable to Neanderthal-type individuals in Europe, discovered to date. The chronostratigraphic study presented here constitutes the groundwork for addressing re-analysis of these remains and of their associated lithic industries, in the light of their well-constrained chronological picture.

  5. Indicators reflecting local and transboundary sources of PM2.5 and PMCOARSE in Rome - Impacts in air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2014-10-01

    The keystone of this paper was to calculate and interpret indicators reflecting sources and air quality impacts of PM2.5 and PMCOARSE (PM10-PM2.5) in Rome (Italy), focusing on potential exogenous influences. A backward atmospheric trajectory cluster analysis was implemented. The likelihood of daily PM10 exceedances was studied in conjunction with atmospheric patterns, whereas a Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) based on air mass residence time was deployed on a grid of a 0.5° × 0.5° resolution. Higher PM2.5 concentrations were associated with short/medium range airflows originated from Balkan Peninsula, whereas potential PMCOARSE sources were localized across the Mediterranean and coastal North Africa, due to dust and sea spray transportation. According to the outcome of a daily Pollution Index (PI), a slightly increased degradation of air quality is induced due to the additional quantity of exogenous PM but nevertheless, average levels of PI in all trajectory clusters belong in the low pollution category. Gaseous and particulate pollutants were also elaborated by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which produced 4 components: [Traffic], [photochemical], [residential] and [Secondary Coarse Aerosol], reflecting local sources of air pollution. PM2.5 levels were strongly associated with traffic, whereas PMCOARSE were produced autonomously by secondary sources.

  6. The Aggradational Successions of the Aniene River Valley in Rome: Age Constraints to Early Neanderthal Presence in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Ceruleo, Piero; Pandolfi, Luca; Petronio, Carmelo; Rolfo, Mario F.; Salari, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    We revise the chronostratigraphy of several sedimentary successions cropping out along a 5 km-long tract of the Aniene River Valley in Rome (Italy), which yielded six hominin remains previously attributed to proto- or archaic Neanderthal individuals, as well as a large number of lithic artefacts showing intermediate characteristics somewhere between the local Acheulean and Mousterian cultures. Through a method of correlation of aggradational successions with post-glacial sea-level rises, relying on a large set of published 40Ar/39Ar ages of interbedded volcanic deposits, we demonstrate that deposition of the sediments hosting the human remains spans the interval 295–220 ka. This is consistent with other well constrained ages for lithic industries recovered in England, displaying transitional features from Lower to Middle Paleolithic, suggesting the appearance of Mode 3 during the MIS 9-MIS 8 transition. Moreover, the six human bone fragments recovered in the Aniene Valley should be regarded as the most precisely dated and oldest hominin remains ascribable to Neanderthal-type individuals in Europe, discovered to date. The chronostratigraphic study presented here constitutes the groundwork for addressing re-analysis of these remains and of their associated lithic industries, in the light of their well-constrained chronological picture. PMID:28125602

  7. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Micro Economic Activities in Rome Reveals Patterns of Mixed-Use Urban Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Fiasconaro, Alessandro; Strano, Emanuele; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Porta, Sergio; Latora, Vito

    2016-01-01

    Understanding urban growth is one with understanding how society evolves to satisfy the needs of its individuals in sharing a common space and adapting to the territory. We propose here a quantitative analysis of the historical development of a large urban area by investigating the spatial distribution and the age of commercial activities in the whole city of Rome. We find that the age of activities of various categories presents a very interesting double exponential trend, with a transition possibly related to the long-term economical effects determined by the oil crisis of the Seventies. The diversification of commercial categories, studied through various measures of entropy, shows, among other interesting features, a saturating behaviour with the density of activities. Moreover, different couples of commercial categories exhibit over the years a tendency to attract in space. Our results demonstrate that the spatio-temporal distribution of commercial activities can provide important insights on the urbanisation processes at work, revealing specific and non trivial socio-economical dynamics, as the presence of crisis periods and expansion trends, and contributing to the characterisation of the maturity of urban areas. PMID:26982028

  8. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Micro Economic Activities in Rome Reveals Patterns of Mixed-Use Urban Evolution.

    PubMed

    Fiasconaro, Alessandro; Strano, Emanuele; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Porta, Sergio; Latora, Vito

    2016-01-01

    Understanding urban growth is one with understanding how society evolves to satisfy the needs of its individuals in sharing a common space and adapting to the territory. We propose here a quantitative analysis of the historical development of a large urban area by investigating the spatial distribution and the age of commercial activities in the whole city of Rome. We find that the age of activities of various categories presents a very interesting double exponential trend, with a transition possibly related to the long-term economical effects determined by the oil crisis of the Seventies. The diversification of commercial categories, studied through various measures of entropy, shows, among other interesting features, a saturating behaviour with the density of activities. Moreover, different couples of commercial categories exhibit over the years a tendency to attract in space. Our results demonstrate that the spatio-temporal distribution of commercial activities can provide important insights on the urbanisation processes at work, revealing specific and non trivial socio-economical dynamics, as the presence of crisis periods and expansion trends, and contributing to the characterisation of the maturity of urban areas.

  9. A Comparison of Rome Observatory Sunspot Area and Sunspot Number Determinations With International Measures, 1958-1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2005-01-01

    Two changes in recording the sunspot record have occurred in recent years. First, in 1976, the longer-than-100-yr daily photographic record of the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO), used for determination of numbers and positions of sunspot groups and sunspot areas ended, and second, at the end of 1980, after more than 130 years, Zurich s Swiss Federal Observatory stopped providing daily sunspot numbers. To extend the sunspot record beyond 1976, use of United States Air Force/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (USAF/NOAA) sunspot drawing observations from the Solar Optical Observing Network began in 1977, and the combined record of sunspot activity from RGO/USAF/NOAA was made accessible at http://science.nasa.gov/ssl/PAD/SOLAR/greenwch.htm. Also, in 1981, the task of providing daily sunspot numbers was taken up by the Royal Observatory of Belgium s Solar Influences and Data analysis Center, and the combined Zurich/International sunspot number database was made available at http://sidc.oma.be/index.php3. In this study, Rome Observatory 1958-1998 photographic records of sunspot areas, numbers of groups, and derived sunspot numbers are compared against same-day international values to determine relative behaviors and to evaluate whether any potential changes might have been introduced in the overall sunspot record, due to the aforementioned changes.

  10. Detection and typing by molecular techniques of respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute respiratory infection in Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pierangeli, Alessandra; Gentile, Massimo; Di Marco, Paola; Pagnotti, Paolo; Scagnolari, Carolina; Trombetti, Simona; Lo Russo, Lelia; Tromba, Valeria; Moretti, Corrado; Midulla, Fabio; Antonelli, Guido

    2007-04-01

    Detection of a broad number of respiratory viruses is not undertaken currently for the diagnosis of acute respiratory infection due to the large and always increasing list of pathogens involved. A 1-year study was undertaken on children hospitalized consecutively for acute respiratory infection in a Pediatric Department in Rome to characterize the viruses involved. Two hundred twenty-seven children were enrolled in the study with a diagnosis of asthma, bronchiolitis, bronchopneumonia, or laringo-tracheo bronchitis. A molecular approach was adopted using specific reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assays detecting 13 respiratory viruses including metapneumovirus (hMPV) and the novel coronaviruses NL63 and HKU1; most amplified fragments were sequenced to confirm positive results and differentiate the strain. Viral pathogens were detected in 97 samples (42.7%), with 4.8% of dual infections identified; respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was detected in 17.2% of children, followed by rhinovirus (9.7%), parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) (7.5%), and influenza type A (4.4%). Interestingly, more than half the patients (9/17) that have rhinovirus as the sole respiratory pathogen had pneumonia. HMPV infected children below 3 years in two peaks in March and June causing bronchiolitis and pneumonia. One case of NL63 infection is described, documenting NL63 circulation in central Italy. In conclusion, the use of a comprehensive number of PCR-based tests is recommended to define the burden of viral pathogens in patients with respiratory tract infection.

  11. Seasonal and yearly polarimetric time series analysis of Radarsat 2 quad pol data over the area around Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, C.; Schiavon, G.; Lasaponara, R.

    2012-04-01

    A study is being carried out to analyse the potential of high resolution polarimetric SAR data to detect seasonal and yearly changes for archaeological applications. The area under study includes the city of Rome and the area to the south east of the city, towards the Alban Hills. The data comprises Radarsat 2 Fine Quad data of various beams, from FQ2 to FQ19, acquired throughout 2008 and 2011, and provided within the Science and Operational Application Research for RADARSAT-2 program SOAR Project 1488 and SOAR-EU Project 6795. Two different analyses are performed: One is a seasonal analysis, investigating changes taking place on a monthly basis in 2008; the other is an analysis of changes taking place between 2008 and 2011. The processing chain involves the following: multilooking, extraction of the T3 matrix, speckle filtering, geocoding, and finally the application of a range of coherent and incoherent polarimetric decompositions. The software NEST and PolSARPro (both ESA OS software) are used for this processing chain. Different change detection techniques are then discussed for analysis of the dataset to detect potential changes in the time series.

  12. Fluorescence lidar measurements at the archaeological site House of Augustus at Palatino, Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimondi, Valentina; Alisi, Chiara; Barup, Kerstin; Bracciale, Maria Paola; Broggi, Alessandra; Conti, Cinzia; Hällström, Jenny; Lognoli, David; Palombi, Lorenzo; Santarelli, Maria Laura; Sprocati, Anna Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Early diagnostics and documentation fulfill an essential role for an effective planning of conservation and restoration of cultural heritage assets. In particular, remote sensing techniques that do not require the use of scaffolds or lifts, such as fluoresence lidar, can provide useful information to obtain an overall assessment of the status of the investigated surfaces and can be exploited to address analytical studies in selected areas. Here we present the results of a joint Italian-Swedish project focused on documenting and recording the status of some sections of the part closed to the public by using fluorescence hyperspectral imaging lidar. The lidar used a tripled-frequency Nd:YAG laser emitting at 355 nm as excitation source and an intensified, gated 512x512-pixel CCD as detector. The lidar had imaging capabilities thanks to a computer-controlled scanning mirror. The fluorescence characteristics of fresco wall paintings were compared to those of fresco fragments found at the same archaeological site and separately examined in the lab using FT-IR and Raman techniques for the identification of pigments. The fluorescence lidar was also used to remotely detect the growth of phototrophic biodeteriogens on the walls. The fluorescence lidar data were compared with results from biological sampling, cultivation and laboratory analysis by molecular techniques.

  13. Good laboratory practice and laboratory accreditation.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, J; McQuaker, N

    1993-12-01

    Principles of good laboratory practice (GLP) and laboratory accreditation programs, particularly as they pertain to the environmental sector, are reviewed. The multitude of programs is proving costly for many laboratories and there is mounting pressure to develop reciprocity agreements between programs and to consolidate nationally and internationally. Inclusion of GLP and laboratory accreditation requirements in government regulations is resulting in a significantly increased number of laboratories participating in these programs.

  14. Changes in particulate matter physical properties during Saharan advections over Rome (Italy): a four-year study, 2001-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbi, G. P.; Angelini, F.; Barnaba, F.; Costabile, F.; Baldasano, J. M.; Basart, S.; Sozzi, R.; Bolignano, A.

    2013-02-01

    Particulate matter mass concentrations measured in the city of Rome (Italy) in the period 2001-2004 have been cross-analysed with concurrent Saharan dust advection events to infer the impact these natural episodes bear on the standard air quality parameter PM10 observed at two city stations and at one regional background station. Natural events as Saharan dust advections are associated to a definite health risk. At the same time, the Directive 2008/50/EC allows subtraction of PM exceedances caused by natural contributions from statistics used to determine air-quality of EU sites. In this respect, it is important to detect and characterize such advections by means of reliable, operational techniques. To assess the PM10 increase we used both the "regional-background method" suggested by EC Guidelines and a "local background" one, demonstrated to be most suited to this central Mediterranean region. The two approaches provided results within 20% from each other. The sequence of Saharan advections over the city has been either detected by Polarization Lidar (laser radar) observations or forecast by the operational numerical regional mineral dust model BSC-DREAM8b of the Barcelona Supercomputing Centre. Lidar observations were also employed to retrieve the average physical properties of the dust clouds as a function of height. Along the four-year period, Lidar measurements (703 evenly distributed days) revealed Saharan plumes transits over Rome on 28.6% of the days, with minimum occurrence in wintertime. Dust was observed to reach the ground on 17.5% of the days totalling 88 episodes. Most (90%) of these advections lasted up to 5 days, averaging to ~3 days. Median time lag between advections was 7 days. Typical altitude range of the dust plumes was 0-6 km, with centre of mass at ~3 km a.g.l. BSC-DREAM8b model simulations (1461 days) predicted Lidar detectable (532nm extinction coefficient >0.005 km-1) dust advections on 25.9% of the days, with ground contacts on 13% of

  15. Changes in particulate matter physical properties during Saharan advections over Rome (Italy): a four-year study, 2001-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbi, G. P.; Angelini, F.; Barnaba, F.; Costabile, F.; Baldasano, J. M.; Basart, S.; Sozzi, R.; Bolignano, A.

    2013-08-01

    Particulate matter mass concentrations measured in the city of Rome (Italy) in the period 2001-2004 have been cross-analysed with concurrent Saharan dust advection events to infer the impact these natural episodes bear on the standard air quality parameter PM10 observed at two city stations and at one regional background station. Natural events such as Saharan dust advections are associated with a definite health risk. At the same time, the Directive 2008/50/EC allows subtraction of PM exceedances caused by natural contributions from statistics used to determine air quality of EU sites. In this respect, it is important to detect and characterise such advections by means of reliable, operational techniques. To assess the PM10 increase we used both the "regional-background method" suggested by EC Guidelines and a "local background" method, demonstrated to be most suited to this central Mediterranean region. In terms of exceedances, the two approaches provided results within ~20% of each other at background sites, and at ~50% of each other in traffic conditions. The sequence of Saharan advections over the city has been either detected by Polarization Lidar (laser radar) observations or forecast by the operational numerical regional mineral dust model BSC-DREAM8b of the Barcelona Supercomputing Centre. Lidar observations were also employed to retrieve the average physical properties of the dust clouds as a function of height. Over the four-year period, Lidar measurements (703 evenly distributed days) revealed Saharan plumes transits over Rome on 28.6% of the days, with minimum occurrence in wintertime. Dust was observed to reach the ground on 17.5% of the days totalling 88 episodes. Most (90%) of these advections lasted up to 5 days, averaging to ~3 days. Median time lag between advections was 7 days. Typical altitude range of the dust plumes was 0-6 km, with the centre of mass at ~3 km a.g.l. BSC-DREAM8b model simulations (1461 days) predicted Lidar detectable (532 nm

  16. Fully exploitation of SBAS-DInSAR deformation time series for assessing structural damage: the case study of Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonano, Manuela; Arangio, Stefania; Calò, Fabiana; Di Mauro, Maria; Marsella, Maria; Manunta, Michele

    2014-05-01

    Remote sensing techniques have demonstrated to be effective tools to support natural and man-made risk mitigation activities. Among these, the Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry (DInSAR) technology is largely exploited in geoscience, oil and gas extraction, and landslide fields. Recently, thanks to the large availability of high resolution SAR systems (10 m or less), as well as to the development of advanced data processing techniques, DInSAR products have also started to be effectively used for applications in urban areas to detect localized displacements affecting single buildings and infrastructures. The advanced DInSAR technique referred to as Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) (Lanari et al., 2004) allows us to generate very long deformation time series, by exploiting large SAR datasets spanning up to 20 years (Bonano et al., 2012). Thanks to its capability to investigate wide areas, the SBAS-DInSAR technique is particularly suitable to remotely analyse the structural conditions of buildings located in densely urbanized zones. In this work, we fully exploit the results achieved over the city of Rome, Italy, through the well-established SBAS-DInSAR approach, aimed at performing a quantitative assessment of structural damage in urban areas affected by ground deformation (Arangio et al., 2013). More in details, we present an innovative methodology that integrates the SBAS-DInSAR measurements within an existing model, in order to assess the damage, and possibly estimate the future structural conditions, of single buildings affected by significant foundation settlements. In particular, a semi-empirical approach, based on a laminated beam model (Finno et al., 2005), is applied to investigate the damage of buildings located in the southern part of the city. The obtained results are in substantial agreement with in situ surveys, proving that the presented approach is an effective tool for the preliminary evaluation of the structural conditions in

  17. Tiber delta CO2-CH4 degassing: A possible hybrid, tectonically active Sediment-Hosted Geothermal System near Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciotoli, G.; Etiope, G.; Marra, F.; Florindo, F.; Giraudi, C.; Ruggiero, L.

    2016-01-01

    Fiumicino town in the Tiber River delta, near Rome International Airport (Italy), is historically affected by large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ground and gas eruptions triggered by shallow drilling. While it is known that CO2 originates from carbonate thermometamorphism and/or mantle degassing, the origin of methane (CH4) associated with CO2 is uncertain and the outgassing spatial distribution is unknown. Combining isotope gas geochemistry, soil gas, and structural-stratigraphic analyses, we provide evidence for a hybrid fluid source system, classifiable as Sediment-Hosted Geothermal System (SHGS), where biotic CH4 from sedimentary rocks is carried by deep geothermic CO2 through active segments of a half-graben. Molecular and isotopic composition of CH4 and concentration of heavier alkanes (ethane and propane), obtained from gas vents and soil gas throughout the delta area, reveal that thermogenic CH4 (up to 3.7 vol% in soil gas; δ13CCH4: -37 to -40‰ VPDB-Vienna Peedee Belemnite, and δ2HCH4: -162 to -203‰ VSMOW - Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water in gas vents) prevails over possible microbial and abiotic components. The hydrocarbons likely result from known Meso-Cenozoic petroleum systems of the Latium Tyrrhenian coast. Overmaturation of source rocks or molecular fractionation induced by gas migration are likely responsible for increased C1/C2+ ratios. CO2 and CH4 soil gas anomalies are scattered along NW-SE and W-E alignments, which, based on borehole, geomorphologic, and structural-stratigraphic analyses, coincide with active faults of a half-graben that seems to have controlled the recent evolution of the Tiber delta. This SHGS can be a source of considerable greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere and hazards for humans and buildings.

  18. Irritable Bowel Syndrome on the US Mexico Border: A Survey in an Indigent Population Using Rome III Criteria.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Marc J; Schmulson, Max J; Bashashati, Mohammad; Jia, Yi; Dwivedi, Alok; Ortiz, Melchor; Casner, Nancy; Byrd, Theresa; Shokar, Navkiran

    2017-08-04

    To investigate the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and its association with health perception and health care-seeking behavior in this Mexican American population. The prevalence of IBS ranges from 3% to 20.4% in the United States and 4.4% to 16% in Mexico, based on Rome III and II criteria. However, its epidemiological profile in the US Mexico border is unknown. We conducted a survey in a randomly selected indigent population (N=521) recruited into a colon cancer screening program (ACCION). The prevalence of IBS was estimated and a multivariable logistic regression was carried out to determine the associated risk factors. Results are summarized using odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 464 (89%) completed the survey (mean age, 56.7 y; female, 74.8%). Country of birth was Mexico in 90.5% and the United States in 8.2% and acculturation was more Spanish (94.8%) than English (5.2%). Overall, 5.6% (95% CI, 3.7-8.1) fulfilled criteria for IBS with a predominance among women (6.9%) versus men (1.7%) (P=0.03). On the basis of multivariable analysis, lower number of bowel movements/week (odds ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-1.00), having a primary care physician: 4.09 (1.51-11.12), using herbal treatments: 2.76 (1.08-7.06) and a previous IBS diagnosis: 23.11 (3.44-155.45), were significantly associated with the presence of IBS. The prevalence of IBS on the US Mexico border is comparable with data obtained from studies in both countries. Consulting a primary care physician as an associated factor may reveal the high rate of health-care seeking in IBS patients, while herbal treatments may reflect a cultural influence.

  19. New Contributions on the Dome of the Pantheon in Rome: Comparison Between the Ideal Model and the Survey Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliberti, L.; Canciani, M.; Alonso Rodriguéz, M. A.

    2015-02-01

    This work proposes an integrated survey and a study of the intrados of the dome of the Pantheon in Rome. An actualized architectural survey of the interior of the dome can generate useful material for future studies. The survey has been realized by using in a first stage the digital photogrammetry and in a second stage the three-dimensional laser scan technology. The compared analysis between different methods applied in the same object is useful towards a closer approximation to real dimension. Among several aspects that arise in dealing with the Pantheon this work focuses mainly on the study of the geometry of the inner surface of the dome. The specific goal of the research is to verify the spherical form of the surface and the coffers' distribution. In this sense it takes an important place the extracting data system. In order to realize the analysis it was applied a critical treatment of selected information contained in the point cloud. The use of plan and section drawings connects to the study of three dimensional models. The research is based on the construction of an ideal geometrical model that derives from the theoretical model described in the historical documents. The survey points model, which keeps the irregularities of the actual form, determines the creation of an average sphere, that is a regular model defined by clarifying geometrical laws. The direct comparison between the survey model and the ideal model contributes to the building understanding. It detects irregularities or deformities where they exist, and provides objective and quantifiable data.

  20. Analysis of Gastric and Duodenal Eosinophils in Children with Abdominal Pain Related Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders According to Rome III Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Hye; Yang, Hye Ran; Lee, Hye Seung

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder (AP-FGID) is common in children and adults. However, the mechanism of AP-FGID is not clearly known. Recently, micro-inflammation, especially eosinophilia in the gastrointestinal tract, was suggested in the pathophysiology of AP-FGID in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of gastric and duodenal eosinophilia with pediatric AP-FGID. Methods In total, 105 pediatric patients with AP-FGID were recruited and classified into 4 subgroups based on the Rome III criteria. Eosinophil counts in the gastric and duodenal tissues of children with AP-FGID were compared to those from normal pathology references or those of children with Helicobacter pylori infection. Tissue eosinophil counts were also compared among the 4 subtypes of AP-FGID. Results Eosinophil counts in the gastric antrum and body were significantly higher in children with AP-FGID than normal reference values. Duodenal eosinophil counts were higher in children with AP-FGID, but not significantly when compared with normal reference values. There were no significant differences in eosinophil counts of the stomach or duodenum among the 4 subtypes of AP-FGID. Eosinophils counts in the gastric antrum and body were significantly higher in children with H. pylori infection than in those with AP-FGID. Duodenal eosinophilia was prominent in cases of H. pylori infection, but not statistically significant when compared with AP-FGID. Conclusions Our study revealed that gastric eosinophilia is associated with AP-FGID in children, regardless of the subtype of functional abdominal pain. This suggests some contribution of gastrointestinal eosinophils in the development of pediatric AP-FGID. PMID:27053514

  1. Occurrence of selected pharmaceuticals in the principal sewage treatment plants in Rome (Italy) and in the receiving surface waters.

    PubMed

    Patrolecco, Luisa; Capri, Silvio; Ademollo, Nicoletta

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides data on the occurrence of selected human pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, clofibric acid, diclofenac, fenofibrate, fenoprofen, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen) including steroid hormones (17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, and estrone) in influents/effluents to/from the four principal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) serving the city of Rome (Italy), in two different sampling campaigns. Target compounds were also analyzed in the receiving River Tiber and River Aniene. Analytical determination was carried out by LC-MS/MS after sample cleanup and concentration by off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE). The aim of the study was to increase the information currently available on the presence and persistence of pharmaceuticals in Italian urban wastewaters and to evaluate the environmental impact of the pharmaceutical residues discharged through effluents into the receiving rivers. Results indicated that after the treatment processes, most of pharmaceuticals were not completely eliminated, as average removal efficiencies were in the 14-100% wide range during both sampling periods, with higher yields in spring than in winter. Levels detected in overall samples ranged from 5 to 2,230 ng/L in influents and from 5 to 1,424 ng/L in effluents. Carbamazepine, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and gemfibrozil showed the highest persistence to removal. Concentrations in the receiving waters were about one order of magnitude lower than in effluents, with a tendency to increase progressively through the urban tract of the river. Finally, an environmental risk analysis showed that carbamazepine, gemfibrozil, and estrone can pose a high risk at the concentrations detected in effluents and a medium risk in rivers, highlighting their potential hazard for the health of the aquatic ecosystem.

  2. Conducting multinational, cross-cultural research in the functional gastrointestinal disorders: issues and recommendations. A Rome Foundation working team report.

    PubMed

    Sperber, A D; Gwee, K A; Hungin, A P; Corazziari, E; Fukudo, S; Gerson, C; Ghoshal, U C; Kang, J-Y; Levy, R L; Schmulson, M; Dumitrascu, D; Gerson, M-J; Chen, M; Myung, S-J; Quigley, E M M; Whorwell, P J; Zarzar, K; Whitehead, W E

    2014-11-01

    Cross-cultural, multinational research can advance the field of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). Cross-cultural comparative research can make a significant contribution in areas such as epidemiology, genetics, psychosocial modulators, symptom reporting and interpretation, extra-intestinal co-morbidity, diagnosis and treatment, determinants of disease severity, health care utilisation, and health-related quality of life, all issues that can be affected by geographical region, culture, ethnicity and race. To identify methodological challenges for cross-cultural, multinational research, and suggest possible solutions. This report, which summarises the full report of a working team established by the Rome Foundation that is available on the Internet, reflects an effort by an international committee of FGID clinicians and researchers. It is based on comprehensive literature reviews and expert opinion. Cross-cultural, multinational research is important and feasible, but has barriers to successful implementation. This report contains recommendations for future research relating to study design, subject recruitment, availability of appropriate study instruments, translation and validation of study instruments, documenting confounders, statistical analyses and reporting of results. Advances in study design and methodology, as well as cross-cultural research competence, have not matched technological advancements. The development of multinational research networks and cross-cultural research collaboration is still in its early stages. This report is intended to be aspirational rather than prescriptive, so we present recommendations, not guidelines. We aim to raise awareness of these issues and to pose higher standards, but not to discourage investigators from doing what is feasible in any particular setting. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [Respiratory effects of exposure to chlorine vapors during a swimming pool accident in a recreational center in Rome].

    PubMed

    Di Napoli, Anteo; Agabiti, Nera; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco; Lo Presti, Elena; Corbo, Giuseppe M; D'Orsi, Fulvio; Perucci, Carlo A

    2002-01-01

    When inhaled, chlorine is a highly irritating gas that can damage larger airways as well as distal lung structure. We examined the short-term respiratory effects of acute chlorine inhalation during a swimming pool accident. On October 22, 1998, an emission of chlorine vapours occurred in the chlorinating maintenance procedures room of a recreational center in Rome. A total of 282 subjects (134 children) inhaled hydrogen chloride and sodium hypochlorite. Most people received bronchodilators and cortisone at the emergency room; five children were hospitalised. A telephone follow-up was taken on 260 (92.2%) subjects to obtain information about duration of exposure (less than 3 minutes, 3-5 minutes, more than 5 minutes), intensity of exposure (not at all/a little, a fair amount, a lot), and acute respiratory symptoms. A total of 236 (90.7% of the target) individuals underwent clinical examinations, which took place 15-30 days after the accident. Lung function was measured in 184 people (82 children) after 15-30 days. A multiple linear regression was run to test the association between chlorine exposure and lung function, separately in adults and in children. Acute respiratory symptoms occurred among 66.7% adults and 71.6% children. The incidence rates were highest among those who had chronic respiratory disease and had a longer duration of exposure. In about 30% of the subjects, respiratory symptoms persisted 15-30 days after the accident. Lung function levels were reduced among those who reported high intensity of exposure in comparison to those who reported low exposure, both in children and in adults (forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV1, ml differences: -109 (CI 95%: -310, 93) and -275 (CI 95%: -510, -40). Given high prevalence of potential exposed people, findings from this study should alert public health authority about the possible clinical consequences.

  4. Plants as bioindicators for archaeological prospection: a case of study from Domitian's Stadium in the Palatine (Rome, Italy).

    PubMed

    Ceschin, S; Caneva, G

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we analyzed the relationship between buried archaeological remains (masonries, pavements, and ancient ruins) and spontaneous vegetation growing above them. We carried out several vegetation surveys in the Domitian's Stadium at the archaeological site of the Palatine (Rome). Vegetation data were collected using the Braun-Blanquet approach and elaborated using statistical analyses (cluster analysis) to assess the similarity among surveys. Structural, chorological, and ecological features of the plant communities were analyzed. Results showed that the vegetation responds significantly to the presence of sub-emerging ancient remains. The plant bioindication of this phenomenon occurs through the following floristic-vegetation variations: phenological alterations in single individuals (reduction in height, displacement of flowering/fruiting period), increase of annual species and decrease of perennial ones, decrease of total plant coverage, reduction of maturity level of the vegetation which remains blocked at a pioneer evolutive stage. The presence of sub-surfacing ruins manifests itself through the dominant occurrence of xerophilous and not-nitrophilous species (e.g., Hypochaeris achyrophorus L., Aira elegantissima Schur, Trifolium scabrum L. ssp. scabrum, Trifolium stellatum L., Plantago lagopus L., Medicago minima (L.) L., and Catapodium rigidum (L.) C.E. Hubb. ex Dony ssp. rigidum) and in a rarefaction of more mesophilous and nitrophilous species (e.g., Plantago lanceolata L., Trifolium pratense L. ssp. pratense, Trifolium repens L. ssp. repens, and Poa trivialis L.). Therefore, the vegetation can be used as bioindicator for the detection of buried ruins, contributing in the archaeological prospection for a general, fast, and inexpensive interpretation of the underground.

  5. Geochemical investigation of a sediment core from the Trajan basin at Portus, the harbor of ancient Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delile, H.; Mazzini, I.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Goiran, J. P.; Arnaud-Godet, F.; Salomon, F.; Albarède, F.

    2014-03-01

    From the 1st century AD and for the duration of the Roman Empire, the Portus complex was the main harbor of Rome. Its location on the Tiber delta next to the Tyrrhenian Sea produced rapid environmental changes that, together with historical vicissitudes, largely determined the fate of the harbor. We have assembled data on the mineralogy, sedimentology, geochemistry, and ostracod populations of a sediment core drilled in the access channel of the hexagonal basin of Trajan, with the expectation that such a combined data set will shed new light on how the connections of the inland Trajan basin with the Tiber river, the earlier Claudius harbor on the nearby shoreline, and the sea evolved through the centuries. The data define four distinct periods which geochemistry characterizes by different conditions of salinity and oxygenation. These in turn can be related to historical periods and events by means of 14C data. The early Imperial Period was dominated by input of well-oxygenated freshwater from the Tiber. During the Late Empire, harbor water became relatively more influenced by seawater and increasingly oxygen deficient, which attests to a decommissioning of the Canale Trasverso connecting the harbor to the Tiber. The strong anthropogenic signal, which is visible very clearly in geochemical parameters, attests to the human occupation of the harbor area up to the Early Middle Ages, when human activity was brought to an abrupt end. The simultaneous use in this study of multiple complementary tracers has allowed for the sedimentary sources of the different classes of particles in the harbor basin to be identified and assigned to either the freshwater supply from the Canale Trasverso or the seawater of the Claudius harbor.

  6. Taphonomy of the fossil hominid bones from the Acheulean site of Castel di Guido near Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Mariani-Costantini, R; Ottini, L; Caramiello, S; Palmirotta, R; Mallegni, F; Rossi, A; Frati, L; Capasso, L

    2001-09-01

    Castel di Guido near Rome is one of the few open air Middle Pleistocene European sites that has yielded hominid skeletal remains associated with fossil fauna and Acheulean implements. The fossil hominid bones include two femoral shafts, respectively designated Castel di Guido-1 (CdG-1) and CdG-2, an occipital fragment (CdG-3), a right maxilla lacking teeth (CdG-4), a portion of right parietal (CdG-5), a right temporal (CdG-6), and a fragment of left parietal vault (CdG-7). CdG-1 through CdG-4 were collected in 1979-1982 on the surface, together with fossil fauna, where ploughing incised fossiliferous tuffaceous sands. Excavations conducted in the same area from 1980 to 1990 led to the discovery of CdG-5, CdG-6 and CdG-7 within the tuffaceous sands, which were shown to overlay a bone-bearing paleosurface, with abundant evidence of hominid activities. The Castel di Guido hominid assemblage poses intriguing taphonomic questions. The analysis of the physical evidence offered by the bone surfaces, reported in the present study, indicates that the hominid skeletal remains were heavily fragmented before fossilization and exposed to carnivores and rodents, as well as to trampling and/or friction in abrasive sediment. Although definitive conclusions cannot be reached on the basis of the available evidence, it is possible that clusters of incisions localized on specific regions of the Castel di Guido fossil hominid bones might reflect deliberate human manipulations.

  7. The sudden death of Alaric I (c. 370-410AD), the vanquisher of Rome: A tale of malaria and lacking immunity.

    PubMed

    Galassi, Francesco M; Bianucci, Raffaella; Gorini, Giacomo; Paganotti, Giacomo M; Habicht, Michael E; Rühli, Frank J

    2016-06-01

    Alaric I (c. 370-410AD), King of the Visigoths, sacked Rome for the second time in over eight centuries of history. Historians suggest that malaria, probably contracted either in Rome or in the Pontine Marshes, was responsible for his sudden death in Cosenza (Calabria) in the autumn of 410AD, where he was allegedly buried in the River Busento. In this article, we aim to examine this hypothesis through a full pathographic reassessment of the most likely cause of Alaric's demise. To achieve this, we resorted to a dual philological-medical approach: clinical likelihood and malaria seasonality coupled with primary historical sources (mainly Jordanes' work De origine actibusque Getarum) and the reconstruction of the itineraries followed by Alaric and his army after the sack of Rome. Sudden death is caused by several factors. The possibility that Alaric died of a cardiovascular disease was discarded since no description of potentially pathological signs emerged from the available sources. Given his lack of semi-immunity, falciparum malaria was considered as the most likely cause of his demise. It took him over two months to reach the coasts of Calabria during the peak of malaria's transmission (summer-autumn). During the march, Alaric did not suffer from recurrent fevers or other ailments, which would have been reported by historians. The scenario emerging from this multidisciplinary reanalysis allows us to hypothesise that Plasmodium falciparum malaria, contracted during his journey through Calabria, was the most likely candidate responsible for Alaric's unexpected demise. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. SN1987A: correlation between the data recorded by the Mont Blanc neutrino detector and by the Maryland and Rome gravitational wave antennas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallottino, G. V.

    The author reports the analysis of gravitational wave and neutrino detectors over a period of 18 hours that includes the Mont Blanc 5 neutrino burst time. There is statistical evidence for correlations during a period of about two hours, centered on the 5 neutrino burst: the effect is mainly due to a dozen of large amplitude Maryland and Rome events. The interpretation of these events as due to gravitational radiation from SN1987A should be rejected, according to the standard theory of the cross-section of g.w. detectors, since it would imply an emission of energy too large by a factor of about 104.

  9. Spacecraft contamination programs within the Air Force Systems Command Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murad, Edmond

    1990-01-01

    Spacecraft contamination programs exist in five independent AFSC organizations: Geophysics Laboratory (GL), Arnold Engineering and Development Center (AEDC), Rome Air Development Center (RADC/OSCE), Wright Research and Development Center (MLBT), Armament Laboratory (ATL/SAI), and Space Systems Division (SSD/OL-AW). In addition, a sizable program exists at Aerospace Corp. These programs are complementary, each effort addressing a specific area of expertise: GL's effort is aimed at addressing the effects of on-orbit contamination; AEDC's effort is aimed at ground simulation and measurement of optical contamination; RADC's effort addresses the accumulation, measurement, and removal of contamination on large optics; MLBT's effort is aimed at understanding the effect of contamination on materials; ATL's effort is aimed at understanding the effect of plume contamination on systems; SSD's effort is confined to the integration of some contamination experiments sponsored by SSD/CLT; and Aerospace Corp.'s effort is aimed at supporting the needs of the using System Program Offices (SPO) in specific areas, such as contamination during ground handling, ascent phase, laboratory measurements aimed at understanding on-orbit contamination, and mass loss and mass gain in on-orbit operations. These programs are described in some detail, with emphasis on GL's program.

  10. Mid-latitude cirrus classification at Rome Tor Vergata through a multi-channel Raman-Mie-Rayleigh lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionisi, D.; Keckhut, P.; Liberti, G. L.; Cardillo, F.; Congeduti, F.

    2013-04-01

    A methodology to identify and characterize cirrus clouds has been developed and applied to the multichannel-multiwavelength Rayleigh-Mie-Raman (RMR) lidar in Rome-Tor Vergata (RTV). A set of 167 cirrus cases, defined on the basis of quasi-stationary temporal period conditions, has been selected in a dataset consisting of about 500 h of nighttime lidar sessions acquired between February 2007 and April 2010. The derived lidar parameters (effective height, geometrical and optical thickness and mean back-scattering ratio) and the cirrus mid-height temperature (estimated from the radiosoundings of Pratica di Mare, WMO site #16245) of this sample have been analyzed by the means of a clustering multivariate analysis. This approach identified four cirrus classes above the RTV site: two thin cirrus clusters in mid and upper troposphere and two thick cirrus clusters in mid-upper troposphere. These results, which are very similar to those derived through the same approach in the lidar site of the Observatoire of Haute Provence (OHP), allows characterizing cirrus clouds over RTV site and attests the robustness of such classification. To have some indications about the cirrus generation methods for the different classes, the analyses of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio, LReff), in terms of the frequency distribution functions and depending on the mid-height cirrus temperature have been performed. This study suggests that smaller (larger) ice crystals compose thin (thick) cirrus classes. This information, together with the value of relative humidity over ice (110 ± 30%), calculated through the simultaneous WV Raman measurements for the mid-tropospheric thin class, indicates that this class could be formed by an heterogeneous nucleation mechanism. The RTV cirrus results, re-computed through the cirrus classification by Sassen and Cho (1992), shows good agreement to other mid-latitude lidar cirrus observation for the relative occurrence of subvisible (SVC), thin

  11. Geochemistry of the Albano and Nemi crater lakes in the volcanic district of Alban Hills (Rome, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carapezza, M. L.; Lelli, M.; Tarchini, L.

    2008-12-01

    Lake Albano, located 20 km to the SE of Rome, is hosted within the most recent crater of the quiescent Alban Hills volcanic complex that produced hydromagmatic eruptions in Holocene times. Stratigraphic, archaeological and historical evidence indicates that the lake level underwent important variations in the Bronze Age. Before the IV century B.C. several lahars were generated by water overflows from the lake and in the IV century B.C. Romans excavated a drainage tunnel. The lake is located above a buried carbonate horst that contains a pressurized medium-enthalpy geothermal reservoir from which fluids escape to the surface to produce many important gas manifestations of mostly CO 2. Previous studies recognized the presence of gas emissions also from the crater bottom. In 1997 the possibility of a Nyos-type event triggered by a lake rollover was considered very low, because the CO 2 water concentration at depth was found to be far from saturation. However, considering the high population density nearby, the Italian Civil Protection Department recommended that periodical monitoring be carried out. To this scope we initiated in 2001 a systematic geochemical study of the lake. Thirteen vertical profiles have been repeatedly carried out in 2001-2006, especially in the deepest part of the lake (167 m in 2006), measuring T, pH, dissolved O 2 and electrical conductivity. Water samples were collected from various depths and chemically and isotopically analysed. Two similar profiles have been measured also in the nearby Nemi crater lake. Results indicate that in the 4.5 years of monitoring the pressure of gas dissolved in the Lake Albano deep waters remained much lower than the hydrostatic pressure. A CO 2 soil survey carried out on the borders of the two lakes, indicates the presence of some zones of anomalous degassing of likely magmatic origin. A water overturn or a heavy mixing of deep and shallow waters likely occurred in winter 2003-2004, when cold rainfall cooled the

  12. Non-B HIV type 1 subtypes among men who have sex with men in Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, M; Montieri, S; Palamara, G; Latini, A; Alteri, C; Perno, C F; Santoro, M M; Rezza, G; Ciccozzi, M

    2009-02-01

    An increase in the circulation of HIV-1 non-B subtypes has been observed in recent years in Western European countries. Due to the lack of data on the circulation of HIV-1 non-B subtypes among European HIV-1-infected men who have sex with men (MSM), a biomolecular study was conducted in Rome, Italy. HIV-1 partial pol gene sequences from 111 MSM individuals (76 drug naive and 35 drug experienced) were collected during the years 2004-2006. All these sequences were analyzed using the REGA HIV-1 Subtyping Tool, and aligned using CLUSTAL X followed by manual editing using the Bioedit software. A BLAST search for non-B subtype sequences was also performed. Twenty-six (23.4%) MSM were not Italians. Eight individuals (7.2%) were diagnosed as HIV infected before 1991, 20 (18.0%) between 1991 and 1999, and 83 (74.8%) from 2000 to 2006. Fifteen (15/111, 13.5%) individuals were infected with the non-B subtype. The percentage of infection with HIV-1 non-B subtypes was 8.2% (7/85) among Italian MSM and 30.8% (8/26) among the non-Italians (OR = 4.95 95% IC: 1.40-17.87). Individuals infected with the non-B subtype were significantly younger than those infected with the HIV-1 B subtype (28 years vs. 34 years, p = 0.003). The CRFs were more prevalent (8.1%) than pure subtypes (5.4%), which were distributed as follows: subtype C (2.6%), subtype A1 (1.7%), and subtype F1 (0.9%). Major mutations conferring resistance to antiretroviral drugs (ARV) were not found among HIV-1 non-B subtype drug-naive patients but were found in two ARV-experienced individuals. The data show that viral diversity is likely increasing in a population group that had been previously characterized by the circulation of HIV-1 subtype B.

  13. Winter urban air particles from Rome (Italy): effects on the monocytic-macrophagic RAW 264.7 cell line.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Roberta; De Berardis, Barbara; Paoletti, Luigi; Guastadisegni, Cecilia

    2005-11-01

    Epidemiological data show an association between exposure to elevated levels of particulate matter (PM), in particular the fine fraction (<2.5 microm in diameter), and an increase in cardiovascular mortality and respiratory symptoms. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro toxicity of coarse and fine particulate matter collected with a cascade impactor during winter in an urban area of Rome in relation to their physicochemical characterization (size distribution and chemical composition) as assessed by analytical electron microscopy (SEM/EDX). The X-ray microanalysis data of single particles of coarse and fine matter were analyzed by hierarchical cluster analysis to determine the principal component of the two granulometric fractions. The main chemical difference between the two fractions was the greater abundance of carbonaceous particles in the fine fraction. We compared the ability of coarse and fine fractions, carbon black (CB), and residual oil fly ash (ROFA) to induce arachidonic acid release and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production in the monocytic-macrophagic RAW 264.7 cell line at concentrations of 30 and 120 microg/mL. Our results showed that CB and ROFA were consistently less effective than both fractions of urban particles at inducing an inflammatory reaction in RAW 264.7 cells. Both PM fractions dose-dependently increased TNF-alpha production in RAW 264.7 cells after 5 and 24h of incubation, and only the TNF-alpha production induced by coarse particles at 30 microg/mL decreased significantly (P<0.01) after 24h of treatment. In our in vitro model the winter fine fraction was more reactive than the winter coarse fraction, in contrast to a previously examined summer sample. In the summer sample, coarse particles produced higher levels of inflammatory mediators than fine particles and the CB was consistently less effective than the urban particles. The different behaviors between summer and winter urban fractions may be due to their

  14. Chemistry Laboratory Safety Check

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patnoe, Richard L.

    1976-01-01

    An accident prevention/safety check list for chemistry laboratories is printed. Included are checks of equipment, facilities, storage and handling of chemicals, laboratory procedures, instruction procedures, and items to be excluded from chemical laboratories. (SL)

  15. [Greek nannies in Rome?].

    PubMed

    Dasen, Véronique

    2010-01-01

    In Roman society, parents often entrusted their newborn to a wet nurse, usually a slave or a lower-class freeborn woman, who normally lived with them. It was advised to choose with care the right person, as milk is not a neutral bodily substance but transmits many properties, physical and moral. Soranus devotes an entire chapter to the meticulous inspection of the nurse's milk and temper. The nurse's character must be checked as thoroughly as her physical health. The mind of the newborn, compared with wax, is from the start and forever impressed positively or negatively. Mnesitheus and others even advise choosing a woman resembling physically the mother, or a handsome person; Favorinus and others reject violently the recourse to wet nursing as immoral; submitting the child to the pernicious influence of a foreign non-kin person implies the destruction of family ties. Wet nurses had to follow a specific diet and to accept giving up their sexual life, which would corrupt the milk in case of a new pregnancy. Roman upper-class families attributed different qualities to nurses according to their ethnic origin: Egyptians were allegedly fond of children, Thracians robust and devoted, Spartans tough. The best were the Greeks, because they would teach Greek language - and culture - to their nurslings. The nurse's social function was extensive. Her role did not stop at the weaning period. Much evidence shows that she was a lifelong companion. In positive circumstances, she could construct non-kin relationships and became, through connections not of blood but of milk, a member of an extended family. Funerary inscriptions and literary sources show that some nurses were rewarded by freedom. Breast-feeding also created milk-ties between the nurslings, who could gain social elevation thanks to this bonding.

  16. [Theme: Using Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Jack; Braker, Clifton

    1982-01-01

    Pritchard discusses the opportunities for applied learning afforded by laboratories. Braker describes the evaluation of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills in the agricultural mechanics laboratory. (SK)

  17. Normative values for stool frequency and form using Rome III diagnostic criteria for functional constipation in adults: systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E.; Ibarra, Alvin; Ouwehand, Arthur C.; Zimmermann, Angela K.

    2017-01-01

    When designing clinical trials focused on functional constipation therapies, understanding the normative values of populations selected using the Rome III criteria is important for estimating baseline symptom severity, and for power analysis and sample size calculations. The objective of this review was to determine normative ranges for stool frequency and form in adults with functional constipation (Rome III criteria). Eligible studies reported stool frequency or form; random effects meta-analysis was performed with subgroup analyses to explore sources of heterogeneity. A total of 25 studies (43 groups, 2292 subjects) were included. Pooled estimates were 2.7 (95% CI 2.4-3.0) for weekly stools and 2.4 (95% CI 2.1-2.6) for stool form (Bristol scale). Heterogeneity was high for both outcomes (both I2=96%, P<0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed that weekly bowel movement frequency was higher in larger than in smaller studies (3.1 vs. 2.3, P<0.001) and in studies conducted in Europe compared with those in the Americas (3.1 vs. 2.2, P=0.02). For stool form, the use of a daily diary versus subject recall was the sole explanatory variable (2.5 vs. 2.1, P<0.05). We conclude that adults with functional constipation have significant variation in stool frequency and form, explained in part by geography and study design. PMID:28243036

  18. Normative values for stool frequency and form using Rome III diagnostic criteria for functional constipation in adults: systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Miller, Larry E; Ibarra, Alvin; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Zimmermann, Angela K

    2017-01-01

    When designing clinical trials focused on functional constipation therapies, understanding the normative values of populations selected using the Rome III criteria is important for estimating baseline symptom severity, and for power analysis and sample size calculations. The objective of this review was to determine normative ranges for stool frequency and form in adults with functional constipation (Rome III criteria). Eligible studies reported stool frequency or form; random effects meta-analysis was performed with subgroup analyses to explore sources of heterogeneity. A total of 25 studies (43 groups, 2292 subjects) were included. Pooled estimates were 2.7 (95% CI 2.4-3.0) for weekly stools and 2.4 (95% CI 2.1-2.6) for stool form (Bristol scale). Heterogeneity was high for both outcomes (both I(2)=96%, P<0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed that weekly bowel movement frequency was higher in larger than in smaller studies (3.1 vs. 2.3, P<0.001) and in studies conducted in Europe compared with those in the Americas (3.1 vs. 2.2, P=0.02). For stool form, the use of a daily diary versus subject recall was the sole explanatory variable (2.5 vs. 2.1, P<0.05). We conclude that adults with functional constipation have significant variation in stool frequency and form, explained in part by geography and study design.

  19. Jurisdiction and applicable law in cases of damage from space in Europe—The advent of the most suitable choice—Rome II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Lesley Jane; Doldirina, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Liability for space activities is a much discussed subject and the advent of commercial space operations has only added to its importance. Articles VI and VII Outer Space Treaty, together with Articles II and III Liability Convention, remain the main entry level for state liability for damage arising from private space activities. Few space-faring nations have introduced national space statutes that include a flow down of their international obligations. The European Union (EU) Regulation on the law applicable to non-contractual obligations—hereinafter Rome II Regulation—could harbour developments for liability law in the context of damage resulting from space operations. Space activities were not the main focus of the Regulation but may well turn out to be an interesting spin-off. The Regulation prescribes general rules that will determine the law applicable to damage scenarios where more than one legal system applies. It is important for trans-national tort cases in that it does not limit the rules of applicable law to EU Member States only. This paper focuses on the common rules applicable to damage actions based on torts or other non-contractual obligations as they apply to damage caused by space activities. After an assessment of the relevant international and national law norms, the impact of the Rome II Regulation will be addressed.

  20. Evidence for Cambrian petroleum source rocks in the Rome trough of West Virginia and Kentucky, Appalachian basin: Chapter G.8 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T.; Harris, David C.; Gerome, Paul; Hainsworth, Timothy J.; Burruss, Robert A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Jarvie, Daniel M.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The bitumen extract from the Rogersville Shale compares very closely with oils or condensates from Cambrian reservoirs in the Carson Associates No. 1 Kazee well, Homer gas field, Elliott County, Ky.; the Inland No. 529 White well, Boyd County, Ky.; and the Miller No. 1 well, Wolfe County, Ky. These favorable oil-source rock correlations suggest a new petroleum system in the Appalachian basin that is characterized by a Conasauga Group source rock and Rome Formation and Conasauga Group reservoirs. This petroleum system probably extends along the Rome trough from eastern Kentucky to at least central West Virginia.

  1. Laboratory Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Henricks, Walter H

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory information systems (LISs) supply mission-critical capabilities for the vast array of information-processing needs of modern laboratories. LIS architectures include mainframe, client-server, and thin client configurations. The LIS database software manages a laboratory's data. LIS dictionaries are database tables that a laboratory uses to tailor an LIS to the unique needs of that laboratory. Anatomic pathology LIS (APLIS) functions play key roles throughout the pathology workflow, and laboratories rely on LIS management reports to monitor operations. This article describes the structure and functions of APLISs, with emphasis on their roles in laboratory operations and their relevance to pathologists.

  2. Laboratory Animal Facilities. Laboratory Design Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Albert M.

    1965-01-01

    Design of laboratory animal facilities must be functional. Accordingly, the designer should be aware of the complex nature of animal research and specifically the type of animal research which will be conducted in a new facility. The building of animal-care facilities in research institutions requires special knowledge in laboratory animal…

  3. Bill Kerslake Preparing a Test in the Rocket Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1952-10-21

    William Kerslake, a combustion researcher at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory, examines the setup of a transparent rocket in a Rocket Laboratory test cell. Kerslake joined NACA Lewis the previous summer after graduating from the Case Institute of Technology with a chemistry degree. His earliest professional research concentrated on combustion instability in small rocket engines. While at Case the quiet, 250-pound Kerslake also demonstrated his athletic prowess on the wrestling team. He continued wrestling for roughly a decade afterwards while conducting his research with the NACA. Kerslake participated in Olympic competitions in Helsinki (1952), Melbourne (1956), and Rome (1960). He won 30 national championships in three different weight classes and captured the gold at the 1955 Pan American Games in Mexico City. Kerslake accomplished all this while maintaining his research career, raising a family, and paying his own expenses. As his wrestling career was winding down in the early 1960s, Kerslake’s professional career changed, as well. He was transferred to Harold Kaufman’s Electrostatic Propulsion Systems Section in the new Electromagnetic Propulsion Division. Kaufman was developing the first successful ion engine at the time, and Kerslake spent the remainder of his career working in the electric propulsion field. He was heavily involved in the two Space Electric Rocket Test (SERT) missions which demonstrated that the ion thrusters could successfully operate in space. Kerslake retired in 1985 with over 30 years of service.

  4. [DIFFERENT APPROACHES FOR CHEMICAL RISK ASSESSMENT IN LABORATORIES].

    PubMed

    Caporossi, Lidia; Papaleo, Bruno; Capanna, Silvia; Calicchia, Sara; Marcellini, Laura; De Rosa, Mariangela; Castellano, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the different approaches used for chemical risk assessment, in relation to the perception of riskfor operators, in some research laboratories of a hospital in Rome. All information regarding the chemicals used for the application of three algorithmic models for chemical risk assessment ("Movarisch", "Inforisk", "Archimede") were collected. An environmental and biological monitoring and a study on the combined exposure to multiple chemicals using the World Health Organization proposed steps were carried out. A questionnaire was prepared for the identification of risk perception. An estimation of chemical risk with algorithms was compared with data from monitoring: findings showed that estimated risk was higher than those identified with airborne or urine concentrations, always under their limit values. The study of multiple exposure showed a possible cumulative risk, in some cases, but the conditions of use (volume and time) often bring to a reduced one. The perception of risk attributed to the monitored hazardous substances showed a correct perception in all laboratories and for all workers, with regard to the substances manipulated.

  5. Composition, size distribution, optical properties and radiative effects of re-suspended local mineral dust of Rome area by individual-particle microanalysis and radiative transfer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrodangelo, A.; Salzano, R.; Bassani, C.; Pareti, S.; Perrino, C.

    2015-05-01

    New information on the PM10 mineral dust from site-specific (Rome area, Latium) outcropped rocks, and on the microphysics, optical properties and radiative effects of mineral dust at local level were gained in this work. A multi-disciplinary approach was used, based on individual-particle scanning electron microscopy with X-ray energy-dispersive microanalysis (SEM XEDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of dust, size distribution of mineral particles, and radiative transfer modelling (RTM).The mineral composition of Rome lithogenic PM10 varies between an end-member dominated by silicate minerals and one exclusively composed of calcite. The first is obtained from volcanic lithotypes, the second from travertine or limestones; lithogenic PM10 with intermediate composition derives mainly from siliciclastic rocks or marlstones of Rome area. Size and mineral species of PM10 particles of silicate-dominated dust types are tuned mainly by weathering and, to lesser extent, by debris formation or crystallization; chemical precipitation of CaCO3 plays a major role in calcite-dominated types. These differences are evidenced by the diversity of volume distributions, within either dust types, or mineral species. Further differences are observed between volume distributions of calcite from travertine (natural source) and from road dust (anthropic source), specifically on the width, shape and enrichment of the fine fraction (unimodal at 5 μm a.d. for travertine, bimodal at 3.8 and 1.8 μm a.d. for road dust). Log-normal probability density functions of volcanics and travertine dusts affect differently the single scattering albedo (SSA) and the asymmetry parameter (g) in the VISible and Near Infrared (NIR) regions, depending also on the absorbing/non-absorbing character of volcanics and travertine, respectively. The downward component of the BOA solar irradiance simulated by RTM for a volcanics-rich or travertine-rich atmosphere shows that volcanics contribution to the solar

  6. Environmental laboratory design

    SciTech Connect

    Newill, R.F.

    1996-11-01

    An effective, efficient laboratory building, operating at a reasonable cost within performance parameters set by the owner, determines quality control, employee morale and retention, operating costs, maintenance costs and renovation costs for the next thirty years. For better or worse, a new laboratory is managerial policy cast in stone. This paper, based on the author`s environmental laboratory design experience, offers an understanding of the relationship between costs, flexibility, function and quality in environmental laboratory design and construction. The comments are generally structured around publicly owned laboratories, with notes regarding private laboratories where appropriate.

  7. Coincidences among the data recorded by the Baksan, KAMIOKA and Mont Blanc underground neutrino detectors, and by the Maryland and Rome gravitational-wave detectors during Supernova 1987 A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglietta, M.; Castellina, A.; Fulgione, W.; Trinchero, G.; Vernetto, S.

    1991-04-01

    Data recorded with neutrino detectors at Mont Blanc, Kamioka, and Baksan and with gravitational wave detectors in Maryland and Rome are analyzed. An attempt is made to find correlations associated with SN 1987 A. The time when an excess of coincidences is found is centered at a 5-pulse burst detected at Mont Blanc.

  8. Results Oriented Management in Education. Project R.O.M.E. The Verification and Validation of Principal Competencies and Performance Indicators: Assessment Design--Procedures--Instrumentation--Field Test Results. volume 1. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta.

    This document describes the processes and procedures used by the University of Georgia Project R.O.M.E. (Results Oriented Management in Education) assessment staff during 1974-75 to produce the following products: (1) performance indicators of public school principal competencies initially developed during the 1973-74 project year, (2) a report of…

  9. Results Oriented Management in Education. Project R.O.M.E. The Verification and Validation of Principal Competencies and Performance Indicators: Assessment Design--Procedures--Instrumentation--Field Test Results. Volume 2--Data Appendices to Accompany Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta.

    This document presents the data appendixes generated by the University of Georgia Project R.O.M.E. (Results Oriented Management in Education) during the 1974-75 project year. The five appendixes are "The Final Set of 80 Verified Principal Competency Statements Classified by Functional Areas of Responsibility,""Functional Area…

  10. Results Oriented Management in Education: Project R.O.M.E. Identification and Development of Competencies of Building Level Administrators of Thomas County, Georgia: A Project Report and Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta.

    Responding to the public demand for accountability, Project R.O.M.E. (Results Oriented Management in Education) is concerned with identifying and developing competencies for building-level administrators. This two-volume report, one of six interrelated documents, describes the processes and procedures used to identify school administrators'…

  11. A multi-analytical approach for the study of the pigments used in the wall paintings from a building complex on the Caelian Hill (Rome)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermo, Paola; Piazzalunga, Andrea; de Vos, Mariette; Andreoli, Martina

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, shards from Roman wall paintings (from the end of the first century to the fourth century A.D.) decorating the domus below the Basilica of SS. John and Paul on the Caelian Hill (Rome), were analyzed in order to identify the pigments used. The analytical techniques employed for the characterization of the pigments were the scanning electron microscope coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and infrared spectroscopy (ATR and micro ATR). While SEM-EDS allowed to perform a qualitative analysis of the material, by FT-IR chemical species have been identified. The pigments identified were those mentioned in the literature for the Imperial Roman fresco painting: different types of ochre (yellow and red), mixtures containing lead, green earths and precious pigments such as cinnabar and Egyptian blue. They were often used as mixtures and the use of the most valuable pigments (cinnabar and Egyptian blue) were found in the most ancient rooms.

  12. [Consensus Conference "Health surveillance of resident population exposed to tremolite in Local Health Unit 3 territory Lagonegro, PZ". Rome 22-23 February 2005].

    PubMed

    Musti, Marina; Bruno, Caterina; Cassano, Filippo; Caputo, Angelo; Cauzillo, Gabriella; Cavone, Domenica; Convertini, Luca; De Blasio, Antonio; De Mei, Barbara; Marra, Mario; Montagano, Giuseppe; Schettino, Biagio; Zona, Amerigo; Comba, Pietro

    2006-01-01

    Herein is reported the health surveillance document agreed upon during the Consensus Conference held in Rome at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità last year. The aim of the consensus conference was to define guidelines for epidemiologic and health surveillance of the resident population in the area of the Basilicata region exposed to tremolite pollution (Local Health Unit 3 territory Lagonegro, PZ). The health surveillance program for residents and the nested epidemiologic study evaluates for each resident willing to participate, individual exposure with a personal dosimeter, as well as the prevalence of obstructive, restrictive or mixed pulmonary functional patterns, searching for fiber and asbestos bodies in induced-sputum, the prevalence of non malignant asbestos disturbances related to pleural anomalies and, last but not least, provides information on risks and sensitization, advising on personal behaviour that could reduce the risks.

  13. Superfund Contract Laboratory Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Contract Laboratory Program (CLP) is a national network of EPA personnel, commercial laboratories, and support contractors whose primary mission is to provide data of known and documented quality to the Superfund program.

  14. The Microscale Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipp, Arden P.

    1990-01-01

    The materials needed and the procedures used in three microscale chemical laboratory experiments are detailed. Included are a microscale organic synthesis, a two-step synthetic sequence for the microscale organic laboratory, and a small-scale equilibrium experiment. (CW)

  15. [Laboratory of Biopolymer Compounds].

    PubMed

    Ostapchuk, A M

    2008-01-01

    General information is presented concerning the Laboratory of Biological Polymeric Compounds at the Institute of Microbiology and Virology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; equipment, analytical and biophysical methods applied in the laboratory are listed.

  16. An Electronics "Unit Laboratory"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, E. R.; Penton, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a laboratory teaching technique in which a single topic (in this case, bipolar junction transistors) is studied over a period of weeks under the supervision of one staff member, who also designs the laboratory work. (MLH)

  17. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1989-01-01

    Tethered gravity laboratories study is presented. The following subject areas are covered: variable gravity laboratory; attitude tether stabilizer; configuration analysis (AIT); dynamic analysis (SAO); and work planned for the next reporting period.

  18. The Microscale Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipp, Arden P.

    1990-01-01

    The materials needed and the procedures used in three microscale chemical laboratory experiments are detailed. Included are a microscale organic synthesis, a two-step synthetic sequence for the microscale organic laboratory, and a small-scale equilibrium experiment. (CW)

  19. An Electronics "Unit Laboratory"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, E. R.; Penton, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a laboratory teaching technique in which a single topic (in this case, bipolar junction transistors) is studied over a period of weeks under the supervision of one staff member, who also designs the laboratory work. (MLH)

  20. Environmental Response Laboratory Network (ERLN) Laboratory Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Response Laboratory Network requires its member labs follow specified quality systems, sample management, data reporting, and general, in order to ensure consistent analytical data of known and documented quality.