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Sample records for rondonia western amazon

  1. Colonization, road development and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Basin of Rondonia

    SciTech Connect

    Frohn, R.C.; Dale, V.H. ); Jimenez, B.D. . Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences)

    1990-03-01

    Within the past two decades, the forests of Brazil have undergone widespread and large scale clearing. The clearing of tropical rainforests may have serious global and local consequences. Global effects include a decrease in biodiversity with the elimination of plant and animal species; increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, which may affect climate; and disruption of hydrological regimes. Local effects include soil erosion, siltation, decreases in soil fertility, loss of plant cover and extractive resources, and disruption of indigenous populations. Nowhere in the Brazilian Amazon has deforestation increased at a faster rate than in the state of Rondonia. Deforestation in Rondonia has grown at increasing rates during the past decade mainly because of official colonization schemes, road construction, and the subsequent settlement of farmers. This paper contains a historical summary of colonization and road construction in the Amazon Basin of Brazil relative to deforestation in Rondonia. 60 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs.

  2. Land-use practices in Ouro Preto do Oeste, Rondonia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Pedlowski, M.A.; Dale, V.H.

    1992-09-01

    Road development and colonization projects have brought about wide-scale deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The state of Rondonia, located in the western Amazon Basin, best exemplifies the problems related to land-use changes because it has the highest rates of deforestation in the Amazon Basin. In order to identify the main land-use practices in Rondonia, interviews with local farmers were carried out in the central part of Rondonia, in the PIC (Integrated Colonization Project) Ouro Preto do Oeste. This is the oldest colonization project in the state. The governmental colonization programs attracted migrants to the area through the construction of roads and infrastructure necessary for the colonists to occupy the land for agricultural practices. The interviews were done on lots of the PIC Ouro Preto and in PAD Urupa to define the background of the colonists, their land-use practices, their economic situation, and their relationships with governmental institutions.

  3. Future of oil and gas development in the western Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finer, Matt; Babbitt, Bruce; Novoa, Sidney; Ferrarese, Francesco; Eugenio Pappalardo, Salvatore; De Marchi, Massimo; Saucedo, Maria; Kumar, Anjali

    2015-02-01

    The western Amazon is one of the world’s last high-biodiversity wilderness areas, characterized by extraordinary species richness and large tracts of roadless humid tropical forest. It is also home to an active hydrocarbon (oil and gas) sector, characterized by operations in extremely remote areas that require new access routes. Here, we present the first integrated analysis of the hydrocarbon sector and its associated road-building in the western Amazon. Specifically, we document the (a) current panorama, including location and development status of all oil and gas discoveries, of the sector, and (b) current and future scenario of access (i.e. access road versus roadless access) to discoveries. We present an updated 2014 western Amazon hydrocarbon map illustrating that oil and gas blocks now cover 733 414 km2, an area much larger than the US state of Texas, and have been expanding since the last assessment in 2008. In terms of access, we documented 11 examples of the access road model and six examples of roadless access across the region. Finally, we documented 35 confirmed and/or suspected untapped hydrocarbon discoveries across the western Amazon. In the Discussion, we argue that if these reserves must be developed, use of the offshore inland model—a method that strategically avoids the construction of access roads—is crucial to minimizing ecological impacts in one of the most globally important conservation regions.

  4. Decentralizing Education: A Successful Experience in the Brazilian Amazon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proenca, Marilene; Neneve, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the importance of education policies that aim at diminishing social disparities in poor countries, focusing on a program in higher education developed in the state of Rondonia in the Brazilian Amazon. Rondonia is a region in which people have suffered deeply from the consequences of social inequalities. Many…

  5. Hydrogeology of the Western Amazon Aquifer System (WAAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosário, Fátima Ferreira do; Custodio, Emilio; Silva, Gerson Cardoso da, Jr.

    2016-12-01

    The Western Amazon Aquifer System (WAAS), as defined and proposed in the present work, encompasses an area of about 2.0·106 km2 located in the northwestern portion of South America. Published and unpublished data were used to define WAAS boundaries and main hydrogeologic characteristics. Petroleum industry data, environmental data, and other diverse thematic data were compiled for this study according to the data's origin. The analysis, treatment and integration of available data allowed us to define the WAAS as a multilayered aquifer system comprised of the Tertiary Solimões Aquifer System (SAS) and the Cretaceous Tikuna Aquifer System (TAS). The thick clay-rich basal strata of the SAS appear to confine the TAS. The SAS is widely used for both domestic and industrial purposes, providing good quality freshwater. The TAS has varying water quality: it contains freshwater near its recharge areas in the Sub-Andean fault belt zone, brackish to brine water in the Sub-Andean basins, and salty water in the Solimões Basin (Brazil). The interpretation and conclusions provided by an increasing understanding of the area's hydrogeology resulting from this work made it possible to propose an improved and new WAAS regional hydrogeologic conceptual model with data and descriptions not previously available. Some surprising results have been later confirmed as true by looking at unpublished reports, logs and field notes. Therefore, this work resulted in new findings and settled the basis for future works, especially for the poorly understood TAS.

  6. Oil and Gas Projects in the Western Amazon: Threats to Wilderness, Biodiversity, and Indigenous Peoples

    PubMed Central

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Pimm, Stuart L.; Keane, Brian; Ross, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Background The western Amazon is the most biologically rich part of the Amazon basin and is home to a great diversity of indigenous ethnic groups, including some of the world's last uncontacted peoples living in voluntary isolation. Unlike the eastern Brazilian Amazon, it is still a largely intact ecosystem. Underlying this landscape are large reserves of oil and gas, many yet untapped. The growing global demand is leading to unprecedented exploration and development in the region. Methodology/Principal Findings We synthesized information from government sources to quantify the status of oil development in the western Amazon. National governments delimit specific geographic areas or “blocks” that are zoned for hydrocarbon activities, which they may lease to state and multinational energy companies for exploration and production. About 180 oil and gas blocks now cover ∼688,000 km2 of the western Amazon. These blocks overlap the most species-rich part of the Amazon. We also found that many of the blocks overlap indigenous territories, both titled lands and areas utilized by peoples in voluntary isolation. In Ecuador and Peru, oil and gas blocks now cover more than two-thirds of the Amazon. In Bolivia and western Brazil, major exploration activities are set to increase rapidly. Conclusions/Significance Without improved policies, the increasing scope and magnitude of planned extraction means that environmental and social impacts are likely to intensify. We review the most pressing oil- and gas-related conservation policy issues confronting the region. These include the need for regional Strategic Environmental Impact Assessments and the adoption of roadless extraction techniques. We also consider the conflicts where the blocks overlap indigenous peoples' territories. PMID:18716679

  7. Forest response to increased disturbance in the Central Amazon and comparison to Western Amazonian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, J. A.; Chambers, J. Q.; Collins, W.; Higuchi, N.

    2014-12-01

    Uncertainties surrounding vegetation response to increased disturbance rates associated with climate change remains a major global change issue for Amazon forests. Additionally, turnover rates in the Western Amazon are doubled compared to the Central Amazon, and notable gradients currently exist in specific wood density and aboveground biomass (AGB). This study investigates the extent to which the variation in disturbance regimes contributes to these regional gradients. To address these issues, we evaluated disturbance-recovery processes under scenarios of increased disturbance rates in a Central Amazon forest using first ZELIG-TROP, a dynamic vegetation gap model which we calibrated using long-term inventory data, and second using the Community Land Model (CLM), a global land surface model. Upon doubling the mortality rate in the Central Amazon to mirror the disturbance regime in the Western Amazon of ~2% mortality, the two regions continued to differ in multiple forest processes. With the inclusion of elevated natural disturbances, at steady-state, AGB significantly decreased by 41.9% with no significant difference between modeled AGB and empirical AGB from the western Amazon datasets (104 vs. 107 Mg C ha-1). However, different processes were responsible for the reductions in AGB between the models and empirical dataset. The empirical dataset suggests that a decrease in wood density drives the reduction in AGB. While decreased stand basal area was the driver of AGB loss in ZELIG-TROP, and decreased leaf area index (LAI) was the driver in CLM, two forest attributes that do not significantly vary across the Amazon Basin. Further comparisons found that stem density, specific wood density, and growth rates differed between the two Amazonian regions. This suggests that: 1) the variability between regions cannot be entirely explained by the variability in disturbance regime, but rather potentially sensitive to intrinsic environmental factors; or 2) the models are not

  8. Decadal covariability of Atlantic SSTs and western Amazon dry-season hydroclimate in observations and CMIP5 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Katia; Giannini, Alessandra; Verchot, Louis; Baethgen, Walter; Pinedo-Vasquez, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    The unusual severity and return time of the 2005 and 2010 dry-season droughts in western Amazon is attributed partly to decadal climate fluctuations and a modest drying trend. Decadal variability of western Amazon hydroclimate is highly correlated to the Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) north-south gradient (NSG). Shifts of dry and wet events frequencies are also related to the NSG phase, with a 66% chance of 3+ years of dry events per decade when NSG > 0 and 19% when NSG < 0. The western Amazon and NSG decadal covariability is well reproduced in general circulation models (GCMs) historical (HIST) and preindustrial control (PIC) experiments of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). The HIST and PIC also reproduce the shifts in dry and wet events probabilities, indicating potential for decadal predictability based on GCMs. Persistence of the current NSG positive phase favors above normal frequency of western Amazon dry events in coming decades.

  9. Forest response to increased disturbance in the central Amazon and comparison to western Amazonian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, J. A.; Chambers, J. Q.; Collins, W. D.; Higuchi, N.

    2014-10-01

    Uncertainties surrounding vegetation response to increased disturbance rates associated with climate change remains a major global change issue for Amazonian forests. Additionally, turnover rates computed as the average of mortality and recruitment rates in the western Amazon basin are doubled when compared to the central Amazon, and notable gradients currently exist in specific wood density and aboveground biomass (AGB) between these two regions. This study investigates the extent to which the variation in disturbance regimes contributes to these regional gradients. To address this issue, we evaluated disturbance-recovery processes in a central Amazonian forest under two scenarios of increased disturbance rates using first ZELIG-TROP, a dynamic vegetation gap model which we calibrated using long-term inventory data, and second using the Community Land Model (CLM), a global land surface model that is part of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Upon doubling the mortality rate in the central Amazon to mirror the natural disturbance regime in the western Amazon of ∼2% mortality, the two regions continued to differ in multiple forest processes. With the inclusion of elevated natural disturbances, at steady state, AGB significantly decreased by 41.9% with no significant difference between modeled AGB and empirical AGB from the western Amazon data sets (104 vs. 107 Mg C ha-1, respectively). However, different processes were responsible for the reductions in AGB between the models and empirical data set. The empirical data set suggests that a decrease in wood density is a driver leading to the reduction in AGB. While decreased stand basal area was the driver of AGB loss in ZELIG-TROP, a forest attribute that does not significantly vary across the Amazon Basin. Further comparisons found that stem density, specific wood density, and basal area growth rates differed between the two Amazonian regions. Last, to help quantify the impacts of increased disturbances on

  10. Projected increases in the annual flood pulse of the Western Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkafli, Zed; Buytaert, Wouter; Manz, Bastian; Véliz Rosas, Claudia; Willems, Patrick; Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Santini, William

    2016-01-01

    The impact of a changing climate on the Amazon basin is a subject of intensive research because of its rich biodiversity and the significant role of rainforests in carbon cycling. Climate change has also a direct hydrological impact, and increasing efforts have focused on understanding the hydrological dynamics at continental and subregional scales, such as the Western Amazon. New projections from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 ensemble indicate consistent climatic warming and increasing seasonality of precipitation in the Peruvian Amazon basin. Here we use a distributed land surface model to quantify the potential impact of this change in the climate on the hydrological regime of the upper Amazon river. Using extreme value analysis, historical and future projections of the annual minimum, mean, and maximum river flows are produced for a range of return periods between 1 and 100 yr. We show that the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios of climate change project an increased severity of the wet season flood pulse (7.5% and 12% increases respectively for the 100 yr return floods). These findings agree with previously projected increases in high extremes under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios climate projections, and are important to highlight due to the potential consequences on reproductive processes of in-stream species, swamp forest ecology, and socio-economy in the floodplain, amidst a growing literature that more strongly emphasises future droughts and their impact on the viability of the rainforest system over greater Amazonia.

  11. Severe Hemorrhagic Syndrome After Lonomia Caterpillar Envenomation in the Western Brazilian Amazon: How Many More Cases Are There?

    PubMed

    Santos, João Hugo A; Oliveira, Sâmella S; Alves, Eliane C; Mendonça-da-Silva, Iran; Sachett, Jacqueline A G; Tavares, Antonio; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos; Fan, Hui Wen; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Monteiro, Wuelton M

    2017-03-01

    Contact with Lonomia caterpillars can cause a hemorrhagic syndrome. In Brazil, Lonomia obliqua and Lonomia achelous are known to cause this venom-induced disease. In the Brazilian Amazon, descriptions of this kind of envenomation are scarce. Herein, we report a severe hemorrhagic syndrome caused by Lonomia envenomation in the Amazonas state, Western Brazilian Amazon. The patient showed signs of hemorrhage lasting 8 days and required Lonomia antivenom administration, which resulted in resolution of hemorrhagic syndrome. Thus, availability of Lonomia antivenom as well as early antivenom therapy administration should be addressed across remote areas in the Amazon.

  12. Forest response to increased disturbance in the Central Amazon and comparison to Western Amazonian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, J. A.; Chambers, J. Q.; Collins, W. D.; Higuchi, N.

    2014-05-01

    Uncertainties surrounding vegetation response to increased disturbance rates associated with climate change remains a major global change issue for Amazon forests. Additionally, turnover rates computed as the average of mortality and recruitment rates in the Western Amazon basin are doubled when compared to the Central Amazon, and notable gradients currently exist in specific wood density and aboveground biomass (AGB) between these two regions. This study investigates the extent to which the variation in disturbance regimes contributes to these regional gradients. To address these issues, we evaluated disturbance-recovery processes under two scenarios of increased disturbance rates in a complex Central Amazon forest using first ZELIG-TROP, a dynamic vegetation gap model which we calibrated using long-term inventory data, and second using the Community Land Model (CLM), a global land surface model that is part of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Upon doubling the mortality rate in the Central Amazon to mirror the natural disturbance regime in the Western Amazon of ∼2% mortality, at steady-state, AGB significantly decreased by 41.9% and there was no significant difference between the modeled AGB of 104 Mg C ha-1 and empirical AGB from the western Amazon datasets of 107 Mg C ha-1. We confirm that increases in natural disturbance rates in the Central Amazon will result in terrestrial carbon loss associated with higher turnover. However, different processes were responsible for the reductions in AGB between the models and empirical datasets. We observed that with increased turnover, the subsequent decrease in wood density drives the reduction in AGB in empirical datasets. However, decrease in stand basal area was the driver of the drop in AGB in ZELIG-TROP, and decreased leaf area index (LAI) was the driver in CLM. Further comparisons found that stem density, specific wood density, and basal area growth rates differed between the two Amazonian regions. This

  13. Projected increases in the annual flood pulse of the western Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkafli, Zed; Buytaert, Wouter; Manz, Bastian; Veliz Rosas, Claudia; Willems, Patrick; Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Santini, William

    2016-04-01

    The impact of a changing climate on the Amazon basin is a subject of intensive research due to its rich biodiversity and the significant role of rain forest in carbon cycling. Climate change has also direct hydrological impact, and there have been increasing efforts to understand such dynamics at continental and subregional scales such as the scale of the western Amazon. New projections from the Coupled Model Inter- comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) ensemble indicate consistent climatic warming and increasing seasonality of precipitation in the Peruvian Amazon basin. Here we use a distributed land surface model to quantify the potential impact of this change in the climate on the hydrological regime of the river. Using extremes value analysis, historical and future projections of the annual minimum, mean, and maximum river flows are produced for a range of return periods between 1 and 100 years. We show that the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios of climate change project an increased severity of the wet season flood pulse (7.5% and 12% increases respectively for the 100- year return floods). These findings are in agreement with previously projected increases in high extremes under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) climate projections, and are important to highlight due to the potential consequences on reproductive processes of in-stream species, swamp forest ecology, and socio-economy in the floodplain, amid a growing literature that more strongly emphasises future droughts and their impact on the viability of the rain forest system over the greater Amazonia.

  14. STS-65 Earth observation of deforestation in Rondonia, Brazil taken on OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, shows deforestation in Rondonia, Brazil. he fishbone pattern in the middle ground is the western half of the great newly deforested zone in the vast green rainforest of Rondonia (deforested area in the view is approximately 200 kilometers in length). Apart from a relatively small area of commercial forestry and some mining in the area covered by the view, clearing of rainforest has taken place since 1988. Points of complete clearing are towns aligned along the axis of the deforested zone. The somewhat cleared areas in the distance (top middle to top right) are a low range of hills (up to 500 meters) known as the Serra dos Parecis. In this south-looking view, the line of clearing in the distance is an axis of development on the main road to the Bolivian border.

  15. Severity of Scorpion Stings in the Western Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Amanda M.; Sampaio, Vanderson S.; Mendonça, Iran; Fé, Nelson F.; Sachett, Jacqueline; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos L.; Feitosa, Esaú; Wen, Fan Hui; Lacerda, Marcus; Monteiro, Wuelton

    2015-01-01

    Background Scorpion stings are a major public health problem in Brazil, with an increasing number of registered cases every year. Affecting mostly vulnerable populations, the phenomenon is not well described and is considered a neglected disease. In Brazil, the use of anti-venom formulations is provided free of charge. The associate scorpion sting case is subject to compulsory reporting. This paper describes the epidemiology and identifies factors associated with severity of scorpions stings in the state of Amazonas, in the Western Brazilian Amazon. Methodology/Principal Findings This study included all cases of scorpion stings in the state of Amazonas reported to the Brazilian Diseases Surveillance System from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2014. A case-control study was conducted to identify factors associated with scorpions sting severity. A total of 2,120 cases were reported during this period. The mean incidence rate in the Amazonas was 7.6 per 100,000 inhabitants/year. Scorpion stings showed a large spatial distribution in the state and represent a potential occupational health problem for rural populations. There was a positive correlation between the absolute number of cases and the altimetric river levels in the Central (p<0.001; Rs = 0.479 linear) and Southwest (p = 0.032; linear Rs = 0.261) regions of the state. Cases were mostly classified as mild (68.6%), followed by moderate (26.8%), and severe (4.6%). The overall lethality rate was 0.3%. Lethality rate among children ≤10 years was 1.3%. Age <10 years [OR = 2.58 (95%CI = 1.47–4.55; p = 0.001)], stings occurring in the rural area [OR = 1.97 (95%CI = 1.18–3.29; p = 0.033) and in the South region of the state [OR = 1.85 (95%CI = 1.17–2.93; p = 0.008)] were independently associated with the risk of developing severity. Conclusions/Significance Scorpion stings show an extensive distribution in the Western Brazilian Amazon threatening especially rural populations, children ≤10 in particular. Thus

  16. The extreme 2014 flood in south-western Amazon basin: the role of tropical-subtropical South Atlantic SST gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlo Espinoza, Jhan; Marengo, José Antonio; Ronchail, Josyane; Molina Carpio, Jorge; Noriega Flores, Luís; Loup Guyot, Jean

    2014-12-01

    Unprecedented wet conditions are reported in the 2014 summer (December-March) in South-western Amazon, with rainfall about 100% above normal. Discharge in the Madeira River (the main southern Amazon tributary) has been 74% higher than normal (58 000 m3 s-1) at Porto Velho and 380% (25 000 m3 s-1) at Rurrenabaque, at the exit of the Andes in summer, while levels of the Rio Negro at Manaus were 29.47 m in June 2014, corresponding to the fifth highest record during the 113 years record of the Rio Negro. While previous floods in Amazonia have been related to La Niña and/or warmer than normal tropical South Atlantic, the 2014 rainfall and flood anomalies are associated with warm condition in the western Pacific-Indian Ocean and with an exceptionally warm Subtropical South Atlantic. Our results suggest that the tropical and subtropical South Atlantic SST gradient is a main driver for moisture transport from the Atlantic toward south-western Amazon, and this became exceptionally intense during summer of 2014.

  17. Depopulation of rural landscapes exacerbates fire activity in the western Amazon.

    PubMed

    Uriarte, María; Pinedo-Vasquez, Miquel; DeFries, Ruth S; Fernandes, Katia; Gutierrez-Velez, Victor; Baethgen, Walter E; Padoch, Christine

    2012-12-26

    Destructive fires in Amazonia have occurred in the past decade, leading to forest degradation, carbon emissions, impaired air quality, and property damage. Here, we couple climate, geospatial, and province-level census data, with farmer surveys to examine the climatic, demographic, and land use factors associated with fire frequency in the Peruvian Amazon from 2000 to 2010. Although our results corroborate previous findings elsewhere that drought and proximity to roads increase fire frequency, the province-scale analysis further identifies decreases in rural populations as an additional factor. Farmer survey data suggest that increased burn scar frequency and size reflect increased flammability of emptying rural landscapes and reduced capacity to control fire. With rural populations projected to decline, more frequent drought, and expansion of road infrastructure, fire risk is likely to increase in western Amazonia. Damage from fire can be reduced through warning systems that target high-risk locations, coordinated fire fighting efforts, and initiatives that provide options for people to remain in rural landscapes.

  18. Depopulation of rural landscapes exacerbates fire activity in the western Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Uriarte, María; Pinedo-Vasquez, Miquel; DeFries, Ruth S.; Fernandes, Katia; Gutierrez-Velez, Victor; Baethgen, Walter E.; Padoch, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Destructive fires in Amazonia have occurred in the past decade, leading to forest degradation, carbon emissions, impaired air quality, and property damage. Here, we couple climate, geospatial, and province-level census data, with farmer surveys to examine the climatic, demographic, and land use factors associated with fire frequency in the Peruvian Amazon from 2000 to 2010. Although our results corroborate previous findings elsewhere that drought and proximity to roads increase fire frequency, the province-scale analysis further identifies decreases in rural populations as an additional factor. Farmer survey data suggest that increased burn scar frequency and size reflect increased flammability of emptying rural landscapes and reduced capacity to control fire. With rural populations projected to decline, more frequent drought, and expansion of road infrastructure, fire risk is likely to increase in western Amazonia. Damage from fire can be reduced through warning systems that target high-risk locations, coordinated fire fighting efforts, and initiatives that provide options for people to remain in rural landscapes. PMID:23236144

  19. Canopy spectral and chemical diversity from lowland to tree line in the Western Amazon using CAO-VSWIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. E.; Asner, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    Canopy chemistry and spectroscopy offer insight into community assembly and ecosystem processes in high-diversity tropical forests. Results from one lowland site in the Peruvian Amazon suggests both an environmental and an evolutionary component of canopy trait development however, the degree to which larger environmental differences influence diversity in canopy traits and their respective spectroscopic signatures across remains poorly understood. The spectranomics approach explicitly connects phylogenetic, chemical and spectral patterns in tropical canopies providing the basis for analysis, while high-fidelity, airborne remote sensing measurements extend plot-level data to landscape-scale, achieving a comprehensive view of the region. In 2011, the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) was used to sample a large region of the Western Amazon Basin in southeastern Peru, extending from lowlands to tree line in the Andean mountains. The CAO Visible-Shortwave Imaging Spectrometer (VSWIR) collected 480-band high-fidelity imaging spectroscopy data of the forest canopy, while its high-resolution LiDAR captured information on canopy structure and the underlying terrain. The data were used to quantify relationships between environmental gradients and canopy chemical and spectral diversity. Results suggest strong environmental control with additional phylogenetic influence over canopy spectral and chemical properties, particularly those related to structure, defense and metabolic function. Data from CAO-VSWIR extends the large range in canopy chemical and spectral diversity related to environmental factors across the Western Amazon Basin.

  20. Epidemiology and Molecular Characterization of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Isolated Villages in the Western Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Castilho, Márcia da Costa; Costa de Oliveira, Cintia Mara; Gimaque, João Bosco de Lima; Leão, Jorge Di Tommaso; Braga, Wornei Silva Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Individuals from three isolated, rural communities in the western Brazilian Amazon were evaluated for serological markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, HBV genotype, and the presence of risk factors for infection and transmission. Of the 225 individuals studied, 79.1% had serological evidence of HBV infection; 10.2% individuals were chronic carriers for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg-positive). Analysis of risk factors indicates that HBV is transmitted mainly horizontally within the family from a chronic “active” carrier for hepatitis B “e” antigen (HBeAg-positive), though a strong possibility of vertical transmission remains. The predominance of HBV genotype F, with a higher genomic similarity between the isolates, indicated a relatively recent introduction of HBV, from a common source, to the area. This study sheds light on the HBV epidemiology in the Brazilian Amazon region and highlights the need for greater emphasis on HBV control and immunization programs. PMID:22908032

  1. Mercury degassing from forested and open field soils in Rondônia, Western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Marcelo D; Marins, Rozane V; Paraquetti, Heloisa H M; Bastos, Wanderley R; Lacerda, Luiz D

    2009-09-01

    A Teflon dynamic flux chamber was used to characterize Gaseous Elemental Mercury (GEM) flux from forested and open field soils in a highly changing environment in Rondônia State, western Amazon. We simultaneously analyzed meteorological parameters at the soil level relating GEM fluxes to soil temperature, air humidity, soil moisture, solar radiation, and speed and wind direction. We also examined variations of atmospheric GEM concentration. GEM fluxes during the day and night in the open field site were significantly different (17+/-14ngm(-2) h(-1) and 0.9+/-1.9ngm(-2)h(-1), for day and night, respectively), but were similar within the forest site (4.8+/-1.4ngm(-2)h(-1) and 4.4+/-1.8ngm(-2) h(-1) for day and night periods, respectively). A comparison between 24-h periods averages in the two sites showed much larger emission from the open field site. GEM fluxes at the open field site were positively correlated with soil moisture, solar irradiation and soil temperature and inversely correlated with air humidity. At the forest site GEM fluxes showed no correlation with meteorological variables. At the open field site GEM concentrations significantly correlated with GEM flux, at least during the day. At night in the open field site and during the day and night at the forest site no correlation was found between GEM fluxes and GEM concentrations in the ambient air. Higher emissions from the open field site support earlier studies showing larger Hg remobilization following forest conversion to pasture.

  2. Stability in a changing world - palm community dynamics in the hyperdiverse western Amazon over 17 years.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Ingrid; Svenning, Jens-Christian; van Bodegom, Peter M; Valencia, Renato; Balslev, Henrik

    2017-03-01

    Are the hyperdiverse local forests of the western Amazon undergoing changes linked to global and local drivers such as climate change, or successional dynamics? We analyzed local climatic records to assess potential climatic changes in Yasuní National Park, Ecuador, and compared two censuses (1995, 2012) of a palm community to assess changes in community structure and composition. Over 17 years, the structure and composition of this palm community remained remarkably stable. Soil humidity was significantly lower and canopy conditions were significantly more open in 2012 compared to 1995, but local climatic records showed that no significant changes in precipitation, temperature or river level have occurred during the last decade. Thus, we found no evidence of recent directional shifts in climate or the palm community in Yasuní. The absence of changes in local climate and plant community dynamics in Yasuní contrasts with recent findings from eastern Amazon, where environmental change is driving significant changes in ecosystem dynamics. Our findings suggest that until now, local forests in the northwest Amazon may have escaped pressure from climate change. The stability of this rich palm community embedded in the hyperdiverse Yasuní National Park underlines its uniqueness as a sanctuary for the protection of Amazonian diversity from global change impacts.

  3. Evolution of wet-day and dry-day frequency in the western Amazon basin: Relationship with atmospheric circulation and impacts on vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza, Jhan Carlo; Segura, Hans; Ronchail, Josyane; Drapeau, Guillaume; Gutierrez-Cori, Omar

    2016-11-01

    This paper documents the spatiotemporal evolution of wet-day and dry-day frequency (WDF and DDF) in the western Amazon, its relationships with oceanic and atmospheric variability and possible impact on vegetation. WDF and DDF changed significantly during the 1980-2009 period (p < 0.05). An increase in WDF is observed after 1995 over the northern part of the western Amazon (Marañón basin). The average annual value of WDF changed from 22 days/yr before 1995 to 34 days after that date (+55% after 1995). In contrast, DDF increased significantly over the central and southern part of this region (Ucayali basin) after 1986. Average annual DDF was 16.2 days before 1986 and 23.8 days afterward (+47% after 1986). Interannual variability in WDF appears to be modulated by changes in Pacific SST and the Walker cell during the November-March season. This mechanism enhances convective activity over the northern part of the western Amazon. The increase in DDF is related to warming of the North Tropical Atlantic SST, which produces changes in the Hadley cell and subsidence over the central and the southern western Amazon. More intense seasonal hydrological extremes in the western Amazon therefore appear to be related to changes in WDF and DDF that occurred in 1995 and 1986, respectively. During the 2001-2009 period, an index of vegetation condition (NDVI) appears negatively correlated with DDF (r = -0.95; p < 0.0001). This suggests that vegetation in the western Amazon is mainly water limited, rather than light limited and indicates that the vegetation is highly sensitive to concentration of rainfall.

  4. The contribution of edaphic heterogeneity to the evolution and diversity of Burseraceae trees in the western Amazon.

    PubMed

    Fine, Paul V A; Daly, Douglas C; Villa Muñoz, Gorky; Mesones, Italo; Cameron, Kenneth M

    2005-07-01

    Environmental heterogeneity in the tropics is thought to lead to specialization in plants and thereby contribute to the diversity of the tropical flora. We examine this idea with data on the habitat specificity of 35 western Amazonian species from the genera Protium, Crepidospermum, and Tetragastris in the monophyletic tribe Protieae (Burseraceae) mapped on a molecular-based phylogeny. We surveyed three edaphic habitats that occur throughout terra firme Amazonia: white-sand, clay, and terrace soils in eight forests across more than 2000 km in the western Amazon. Twenty-six of the 35 species were found to be associated with only one of three soil types, and no species was associated with all three habitats; this pattern of edaphic specialization was consistent across the entire region. Habitat association mapped onto the phylogenetic tree shows association with terrace soils to be the probable ancestral state in the group, with subsequent speciation events onto clay and white-sand soils. The repeated gain of clay association within the clade likely coincides with the emergence of large areas of clay soils in the Miocene deposited during the Andean uplift. Character optimizations revealed that soil association was not phylogenetically clustered for white-sand and clay specialists, suggesting repeated independent evolution of soil specificity is common within the Protieae. This phylogenetic analysis also showed that multiple cases of putative sister taxa with parapatric distributions differ in their edaphic associations, suggesting that edaphic heterogeneity was an important driver of speciation in the Protieae in the Amazon basin.

  5. Goliath catfish spawning in the far western Amazon confirmed by the distribution of mature adults, drifting larvae and migrating juveniles

    PubMed Central

    Barthem, Ronaldo B.; Goulding, Michael; Leite, Rosseval G.; Cañas, Carlos; Forsberg, Bruce; Venticinque, Eduardo; Petry, Paulo; Ribeiro, Mauro L. de B.; Chuctaya, Junior; Mercado, Armando

    2017-01-01

    We mapped the inferred long-distance migrations of four species of Amazonian goliath catfishes (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, B. platynemum, B. juruense and B. vaillantii) based on the presence of individuals with mature gonads and conducted statistical analysis of the expected long-distance downstream migrations of their larvae and juveniles. By linking the distribution of larval, juvenile and mature adult size classes across the Amazon, the results showed: (i) that the main spawning regions of these goliath catfish species are in the western Amazon; (ii) at least three species—B. rousseauxii, B. platynemum, and B. juruense—spawn partially or mainly as far upstream as the Andes; (iii) the main spawning area of B. rousseauxii is in or near the Andes; and (iv) the life history migration distances of B. rousseauxii are the longest strictly freshwater fish migrations in the world. These results provide an empirical baseline for tagging experiments, life histories extrapolated from otolith microchemistry interpretations and other methods to establish goliath catfish migratory routes, their seasonal timing and possible return (homing) to western headwater tributaries where they were born. PMID:28165499

  6. Goliath catfish spawning in the far western Amazon confirmed by the distribution of mature adults, drifting larvae and migrating juveniles.

    PubMed

    Barthem, Ronaldo B; Goulding, Michael; Leite, Rosseval G; Cañas, Carlos; Forsberg, Bruce; Venticinque, Eduardo; Petry, Paulo; Ribeiro, Mauro L de B; Chuctaya, Junior; Mercado, Armando

    2017-02-06

    We mapped the inferred long-distance migrations of four species of Amazonian goliath catfishes (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, B. platynemum, B. juruense and B. vaillantii) based on the presence of individuals with mature gonads and conducted statistical analysis of the expected long-distance downstream migrations of their larvae and juveniles. By linking the distribution of larval, juvenile and mature adult size classes across the Amazon, the results showed: (i) that the main spawning regions of these goliath catfish species are in the western Amazon; (ii) at least three species-B. rousseauxii, B. platynemum, and B. juruense-spawn partially or mainly as far upstream as the Andes; (iii) the main spawning area of B. rousseauxii is in or near the Andes; and (iv) the life history migration distances of B. rousseauxii are the longest strictly freshwater fish migrations in the world. These results provide an empirical baseline for tagging experiments, life histories extrapolated from otolith microchemistry interpretations and other methods to establish goliath catfish migratory routes, their seasonal timing and possible return (homing) to western headwater tributaries where they were born.

  7. Brazilian mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna: I. Anopheles species from Porto Velho, Rondônia state, western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Morais, Sirlei Antunes; Urbinatti, Paulo Roberto; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Kuniy, Adriana Akemi; Moresco, Gilberto Gilmar; Fernandes, Aristides; Nagaki, Sandra Sayuri; Natal, Delsio

    2012-12-01

    This study contributes to knowledge of Anopheles species, including vectors of Plasmodium from the western Brazilian Amazon in Porto Velho, Rondônia State. The sampling area has undergone substantial environmental changes as a consequence of agricultural and hydroelectric projects, which have caused intensive deforestation and favored habitats for some mosquito species. The purpose of this study was to diagnose the occurrence of anopheline species from collections in three locations along an electric-power transmission line. Each locality was sampled three times from 2010 to 2011. The principal adult mosquitoes captured in Shannon trap were Anopheles darlingi, An. triannulatus, An. nuneztovari l.s., An.gilesi and An. costai. In addition, larvae were collected in ground breeding sites for Anopheles braziliensis, An. triannulatus, An. darlingi, An. deaneorum, An. marajoara, An. peryassui, An. nuneztovari l.s. and An. oswaldoi-konderi. Anopheles darlingi was the most common mosquito in the region. We discuss Culicidae systematics, fauna distribution, and aspects of malaria in altered habitats of the western Amazon.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis delta viruses circulating in the Western Amazon region, North Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) represent important public health problems in the Western Amazon region with reported cases of fulminant hepatitis. This cross sectional study describes HBV and HDV genotypes circulating in the Brazilian Amazon region. Methods HBsAg positive individuals (n = 224) were recruited in Manaus/Amazonas State (130 blood donors from the Hematology and Hemotherapy Foundation from Amazonas/HEMOAM; 60 subjects from outpatient clinic) and in Eirunepe city (n = 34) from 2003–2009. Most participants (n = 153) lived in Manaus, 63 were from 20 remote isolated municipalities, 8 lived outside Amazonas State. Genotyping was based on PCR products: HBV genotype A-F specific primers, restricted length polymorphism for HDV. HDV isolates were directly sequenced (delta antigen 405 nucleotide fragment) and phylogenetic analysis performed (MEGA; neighbor-joining, Kimura’s two parameter). Results Most participants were young adult males and HBV mono-infection predominated (70.5%, 158/224). Among blood donors, outpatient subjects and individuals from Eirunepe, HBV/A prevailed followed by HBV/D and F (p > 0.05). HBV/A was more frequent in blood donors (p < 0.05). HBV-HDV coinfection rate was 8.5% in blood donors (11/130), 65.0% (39/60) in outpatient subjects and 47.0% (16/34) in individuals from Eirunepe. Compared to blood donors, coinfection was higher in outpatient subjects (65.0% versus 8.5%; RR = 5.0; CI 3.4-7.9; p < 0.0001) and in subjects from Eirunepe (47.0% versus 8.5%; RR = 5.5; CI 3.0-9.9; p < 0.0001). HBV-HDV coinfection rates were higher in patients from highly endemic remote cities. Only HDV genotype 3 was detected, HBV/F-HDV/3 predominated (20/38; 52.7%), followed by HBV/A-HDV/3 (31.6%; 12/38) and HBV/D-HDV/3 (15.8%; 6/38). Conclusions The description of HBV and HDV genotypes circulating in the western Amazon can contribute to a better understanding of their relevance on the

  9. Differential Response of Acidobacteria Subgroups to Forest-to-Pasture Conversion and Their Biogeographic Patterns in the Western Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete, Acacio A.; Venturini, Andressa M.; Meyer, Kyle M.; Klein, Ann M.; Tiedje, James M.; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.; Nüsslein, Klaus; Tsai, Siu M.; Rodrigues, Jorge L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the phylum Acidobacteria are among the most abundant soil bacteria on Earth, but little is known about their response to environmental changes. We asked how the relative abundance and biogeographic patterning of this phylum and its subgroups responded to forest-to-pasture conversion in soils of the western Brazilian Amazon. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was employed to assess the abundance and composition of the Acidobacteria community across 54 soil samples taken using a spatially nested sampling scheme at the landscape level. Numerically, Acidobacteria represented 20% of the total bacterial community in forest soils and 11% in pasture soils. Overall, 15 different Acidobacteria subgroups of the current 26 subgroups were detected, with Acidobacteria subgroups 1, 3, 5, and 6 accounting together for 87% of the total Acidobacteria community in forest soils and 75% in pasture soils. Concomitant with changes in soil chemistry after forest-to-pasture conversion—particularly an increase in properties linked to soil acidity and nutrient availability—we observed an increase in the relative abundances of Acidobacteria subgroups 4, 10, 17, and 18, and a decrease in the relative abundances of other Acidobacteria subgroups in pasture relative to forest soils. The composition of the total Acidobacteria community as well as the most abundant Acidobacteria subgroups (1, 3, 5, and 6) was significantly more similar in composition across space in pasture soils than in forest soils. These results suggest that preponderant responses of Acidobacteria subgroups, especially subgroups 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6, to forest-to-pasture conversion effects in soils could be used to define management-indicators of agricultural practices in the Amazon Basin. These acidobacterial responses are at least in part through alterations on acidity- and nutrient-related properties of the Amazon soils. PMID:26733981

  10. High risk of respiratory diseases in children in the fire period in Western Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Pãmela Rodrigues de Souza; Ignotti, Eliane; de Oliveira, Beatriz Fátima Alves; Junger, Washington Leite; Morais, Fernando; Artaxo, Paulo; Hacon, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the toxicological risk of exposure to ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) among schoolchildren.. METHODS Toxicological risk assessment was used to evaluate the risk of exposure to O3 and PM2.5 from biomass burning among schoolchildren aged six to 14 years, residents of Rio Branco, Acre, Southern Amazon, Brazil. We used Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the potential intake dose of both pollutants. RESULTS During the slash-and-burn periods, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations reached 119.4 µg/m3 and 51.1 µg/m3, respectively. The schoolchildren incorporated medium potential doses regarding exposure to O3 (2.83 μg/kg.day, 95%CI 2.72–2.94). For exposure to PM2.5, we did not find toxicological risk (0.93 μg/kg.day, 95%CI 0.86–0.99). The toxicological risk for exposure to O3 was greater than 1 for all children (QR = 2.75; 95%CI 2.64–2.86). CONCLUSIONS Schoolchildren were exposed to high doses of O3 during the dry season of the region. This posed a toxicological risk, especially to those who had previous diseases. PMID:27305405

  11. Characterization of forest biodiversity in Western Amazon using CAO-VSWIR imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Féret, J.; Asner, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    Mapping canopy species richness is a key to the study and conservation of biological diversity in tropical forests, but to date, no reliable methods exist for operational biodiversity mapping of tropical regions. Airborne imaging spectroscopy has proven potential for the discrimination of canopy tree species, as a combination of high spectral and spatial resolution allows measurement of subtle spectral variations among individual tree crowns, corresponding to the chemical properties of the leaves in different species. We developed a method to estimate the Shannon diversity index, a popular biodiversity indicator, of a forest canopy from airborne spectral data by building upon the Spectral Variation Hypothesis, which relates biological diversity to spectral variability. We collected and analyzed hyperspectral data acquired by the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (AToMS) over the Los Amigos Conservation Concession in the Peruvian Amazon. The data have a spatial resolution of 2.0 m and 217 bands evenly spaced between 380 nm and 2510 nm. The method relies on a k-means clustering of a subset of pixels randomly selected from a site, each cluster serving as a proxy for different species. Each pixel in the image is then assigned to the nearest 'proxy-species', the Shannon index is computed for a given area, i.e. 1 ha, and the process is repeated several times to obtain the average estimated Shannon index. To test our approach, we applied the method to two types of data acquired by CAO AToMS. The first was an artificial gradient of biological diversity generated using pixels corresponding to species identified during a field campaign. This artificial gradient allowed total control on the number of species (ranging from 1 to 36 species per ha), and accurate quantification of the results. The spectral diversity index mapped using our method showed a strong correlation with the actual Shannon diversity index (R^2=0.81). The second dataset

  12. Natural Plasmodium infection in monkeys in the state of Rondônia (Brazilian Western Amazon)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Simian malaria is still an open question concerning the species of Plasmodium parasites and species of New World monkeys susceptible to the parasites. In addition, the lingering question as to whether these animals are reservoirs for human malaria might become important especially in a scenario of eradication of the disease. To aid in the answers to these questions, monkeys were surveyed for malaria parasite natural infection in the Amazonian state of Rondônia, Brazil, a state with intense environmental alterations due to human activities, which facilitated sampling of the animals. Methods Parasites were detected and identified in DNA from blood of monkeys, by PCR with primers for the 18S rRNA, CSP and MSP1 genes and sequencing of the amplified fragments. Multiplex PCR primers for the 18S rRNA genes were designed for the parasite species Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae/Plasmodium brasilianum and Plasmodium simium. Results An overall infection rate of 10.9% was observed or 20 out 184 monkey specimens surveyed, mostly by P. brasilianum. However, four specimens of monkeys were found infected with P. falciparum, two of them doubly infected with P. brasilianum and P. falciparum. In addition, a species of monkey of the family Aotidae, Aotus nigriceps, is firstly reported here naturally infected with P. brasilianum. None of the monkeys surveyed was found infected with P. simium/P. vivax. Conclusion The rate of natural Plasmodium infection in monkeys in the Brazilian state of Rondônia is in line with previous surveys of simian malaria in the Amazon region. The fact that a monkey species was found that had not previously been described to harbour malaria parasites indicates that the list of monkey species susceptible to Plasmodium infection is yet to be completed. Furthermore, finding monkeys in the region infected with P. falciparum clearly indicates parasite transfer from humans to the animals. Whether this parasite can be

  13. Terrestrial Carbon Sinks in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Region Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Huete, A.; Genovese, V.; Bustamante, M.; Ferreira, L. Guimaraes; deOliveira, R. C., Jr.; Zepp, R.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2004. Net ecosystem production (NEP) flux for atmospheric CO2 in the region for these years was estimated. Consistently high carbon sink fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems on a yearly basis were found in the western portions of the states of Acre and Rondonia and the northern portions of the state of Par a. These areas were not significantly impacted by the 2002-2003 El Nino event in terms of net annual carbon gains. Areas of the region that show periodically high carbon source fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere on yearly basis were found throughout the state of Maranhao and the southern portions of the state of Amazonas. As demonstrated though tower site comparisons, NEP modeled with monthly MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) inputs closely resembles the measured seasonal carbon fluxes at the LBA Tapajos tower site. Modeling results suggest that the capacity for use of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data to predict seasonal uptake rates of CO2 in Amazon forests and Cerrado woodlands is strong.

  14. High frequency of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the Western brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Santana, Marli S; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Costa, Mônica R F; Sampaio, Vanderson S; Brito, Marcelo A M; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Alecrim, Maria G C

    2014-07-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most common human genetic abnormalities, and it has a significant prevalence in the male population (X chromosome linked). The purpose of this study was to estimate the frequency of impaired fasting glucose and diabetes among G6PD-deficient persons in Manaus, Brazil, an area in the Western Brazilian Amazon to which malaria is endemic. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient males had more impaired fasting glucose and diabetes. This feature could be used as a screening tool for G6PD-deficient persons who are unable to use primaquine for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria.

  15. Differentiation in the fertility of Inceptisols as related to land use in the upper Solimões river region, western Amazon.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Fatima Maria de Souza; Nóbrega, Rafaela Simão Abrahão; Jesus, Ederson da Conceição; Ferreira, Daniel Furtado; Pérez, Daniel Vidal

    2009-12-20

    The Upper Solimões river region, western Amazon, is the homeland of indigenous populations and contains small-scale agricultural systems that are important for biodiversity conservation. Although traditional slash-and-burn agriculture is being practiced over many years, deforestation there is relatively small compared to other Amazon regions. Pastures are restricted to the vicinity of cities and do not spread to the small communities along the river. Inceptisols are the main soil order (>90%) in the area and have unique attributes including high Al content and high cation exchange capacity (CEC) due to the enrichment of the clay fraction with 2:1 secondary aluminosilicates. Despite its importance, few studies have focussed on this soil order when considering land use effects on the fertility of Amazon soils. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate changes in soil fertility of representative land use systems (LUSs) in the Upper Solimões region, namely: primary rainforest, old secondary forest, young secondary forest, agroforestry, pasture and agriculture. LUSs were significantly differentiated by the chemical attributes of their topsoil (0-20 cm). Secondary forests presented soil chemical attributes more similar to primary rainforest areas, while pastures exhibited the highest dissimilarity from all the other LUSs. As a whole, soil chemical changes among Inceptisols dominated LUSs showed patterns that were distinct from those reported from other Amazon soils like Oxisols and Ultisols. This is probably related to the presence of high-activity clays enriched in exchangeable aluminum that heavily influenced the soil chemical reactions over the expected importance of organic matter found in most studies conducted over Oxisol and Ultisol.

  16. Rondonin an antifungal peptide from spider (Acanthoscurria rondoniae) haemolymph

    PubMed Central

    Riciluca, K.C.T.; Sayegh, R.S.R.; Melo, R.L.; Silva, P.I.

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities were detected in the haemolymph of the spider Acanthoscurrria rondoniae. A novel antifungal peptide, rondonin, was purified by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Rondonin has an amino acid sequence of IIIQYEGHKH and a molecular mass of 1236.776 Da. This peptide has identity to a C-terminal fragment of the “d” subunit of haemocyanin from the spiders Eurypelma californicum and Acanthoscurria gomesiana. A synthetic peptide mimicking rondonin had identical characteristics to those of the isolated material, confirming its sequence. The synthetic peptide was active only against fungus. These data led us to conclude that the antifungal activity detected in the plasma of these spiders is the result of enzymatic processing of a protein that delivers oxygen in the haemolymph of many chelicerate. Several studies have suggested that haemocyanins are involved in the arthropod immune system, and the activity of this haemocyanin fragment reinforces this idea. PMID:24371568

  17. Genetic and Symbiotic Diversity of Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Isolated from Agricultural Soils in the Western Amazon by Using Cowpea as the Trap Plant

    PubMed Central

    Azarias Guimarães, Amanda; Duque Jaramillo, Paula Marcela; Simão Abrahão Nóbrega, Rafaela; Florentino, Ligiane Aparecida; Barroso Silva, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Cowpea is a legume of great agronomic importance that establishes symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. However, little is known about the genetic and symbiotic diversity of these bacteria in distinct ecosystems. Our study evaluated the genetic diversity and symbiotic efficiencies of 119 bacterial strains isolated from agriculture soils in the western Amazon using cowpea as a trap plant. These strains were clustered into 11 cultural groups according to growth rate and pH. The 57 nonnodulating strains were predominantly fast growing and acidifying, indicating a high incidence of endophytic strains in the nodules. The other 62 strains, authenticated as nodulating bacteria, exhibited various symbiotic efficiencies, with 68% of strains promoting a significant increase in shoot dry matter of cowpea compared with the control with no inoculation and low levels of mineral nitrogen. Fifty genotypes with 70% similarity and 21 genotypes with 30% similarity were obtained through repetitive DNA sequence (BOX element)-based PCR (BOX-PCR) clustering. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of strains representative of BOX-PCR clusters showed a predominance of bacteria from the genus Bradyrhizobium but with high species diversity. Rhizobium, Burkholderia, and Achromobacter species were also identified. These results support observations of cowpea promiscuity and demonstrate the high symbiotic and genetic diversity of rhizobia species in areas under cultivation in the western Amazon. PMID:22798370

  18. Amazon River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mouth of the Amazon River     View ... of the world's mightiest rivers. This image of the Amazon's mouth was captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ... available at JPL September 8, 2000 - Mouth of the mighty Amazon River. project:  MISR ...

  19. Significance of the Nova Brasilândia metasedimentary belt in western Brazil: Redefining the Mesoproterozoic boundary of the Amazon craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohver, Eric; van der Pluijm, Ben; Mezger, Klaus; Essene, Eric; Scandolara, Jaime; Rizzotto, Gilmar

    2004-12-01

    The Nova Brasilândia metasedimentary belt (NBMB) of western Brazil marks a fundamental crustal boundary in the Amazon craton. The metasedimentary rocks of the NBMB (calc-silicates, metapelites, quartzites, metabasites) contrast strongly with the older, polycyclic granitoid rocks of the adjacent Amazon craton. Aeromagnetic anomalies indicate that the belt is continuous for at least 1000 km in an E-W direction, although the easternmost extent of the NBMB is covered by the Cretaceous sediments of the Parecis Formation. Additional geologic evidence suggests that the belt extends along an E-W trend for ~2000 km. The northern portion of the NBMB preserves vestiges of an early high pressure-temperature (P-T) assemblage (kyanite + staurolite) overprinted by sillimanite during prograde metamorphism. A higher metamorphic grade is observed in the southern portion of the belt, with peak conditions calculated to be 800 MPa and 800°C for granulitic assemblages. The combined P-T path demonstrates that the competing processes of imbrication (northern domain) and magma generation (southern domain) are responsible for regional metamorphism and crustal thickening. Cooling from peak metamorphic conditions is recorded by U-Pb monazite ages of 1090 Ma and titanite ages of ~1060 Ma. Integrated cooling rates of 2°-3°C/Myr from regional metamorphism are calculated from these U/Pb ages combined with 40Ar/39Ar ages of hornblende (~970 Ma) and biotite (~910 Ma). The NBMB marks the Mesoproterozoic limit of the SW Amazon craton. The discordance of the NBMB to the NNW structural trend of the younger Aguapeí belt (200 km SE of NBMB), together with marked differences between the two belts in sedimentary environment, metamorphic grade, and timing of deformation, signify that these two belts are not geologically continuous. The ``Grenvillian'' deformation recorded by the NBMB belt marks the final docking of the Amazon craton and Paragua craton within the Rodinia framework. The Aguapeí belt, in

  20. Correlation between TH1 response standard cytokines as biomarkers in patients with the delta virus in the western Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Nicolete, Larissa Deadame de Figueiredo; Borzacov, Lourdes Maria Pinheiro; Vieira, Deusilene Souza; Nicolete, Roberto; Salcedo, Juan Miguel Villalobos

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is endemic in the Amazon Region and its pathophysiology is the most severe among viral hepatitis. Treatment is performed with pegylated interferon and the immune response appears to be important for infection control. HDV patients were studied: untreated and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive (n = 9), anti-HDV positive and PCR negative (n = 8), and responders to treatment (n = 12). The cytokines, interleukin (IL)-2 (p = 0.0008) and IL-12 (p = 0.02) were differentially expressed among the groups and were also correlated (p = 0.0143). Future studies will be conducted with patients at different stages of treatment, associating the viral load with serum cytokines produced, thereby attempting to establish a prognostic indicator of the infection. PMID:27074258

  1. Selenium Levels in the Whole Blood of Children and Teenagers from Two Riparian Communities at the Madeira River Basin in the Western Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Vega, Claudia M; Godoy, José M; Barrocas, Paulo R G; Gonçalves, Rodrigo A; De Oliveira, Beatriz F A; Jacobson, Ludmilla V; Mourão, Dennys S; Hacon, Sandra S

    2017-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient that exerts multiple functions in the organism, and both its deficiency and excess can cause health impairments. Thus, it is important to monitor its levels in the population, especially in vulnerable groups, such as children from the Brazilian Amazon region, where there is a lack of information in this regard. The aim of this research was to study Se levels in the whole blood of children and teenagers (5-16 years old) from two riparian communities at the Madeira River (Cuniã RESEX and Belmont). Se level variations related to the communities' location, seasonality, diet, and body mass index (BMI) were assessed. Blood samples were collected in both communities for Se determinations, using ICP-MS and hemogram analyses, during May and September of 2011. Food frequency questionnaires were applied to assess consumption rates of specific food items. Non-parametric tests and linear multiple regressions were applied in the data analyses. Median Se levels were significantly higher during May (Cuniã RESEX 149 μg L(-1); Belmont 85 μg L(-1)) compared to September (Cuniã RESEX 79 μg L(-1); Belmont 53 μg L(-1)). No significant differences were found between the communities regarding BMI measurements and anemia prevalence. However, Se blood levels were significantly higher at the Cuniã RESEX compared to Belmont. In addition, the former showed higher fish and Brazil nut intakes, which may be the main Se sources for this community. These results contribute to a better understanding of Se reference levels for children and teenagers of Western Amazon riparian communities.

  2. Soil and vegetation carbon stocks in Brazilian Western Amazonia: relationships and ecological implications for natural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, C E G R; do Amaral, E F; de Mendonça, B A F; Oliveira, H; Lani, J L; Costa, L M; Fernandes Filho, E I

    2008-05-01

    The relationships between soils attributes, soil carbon stocks and vegetation carbon stocks are poorly know in Amazonia, even at regional scale. In this paper, we used the large and reliable soil database from Western Amazonia obtained from the RADAMBRASIL project and recent estimates of vegetation biomass to investigate some environmental relationships, quantifying C stocks of intact ecosystem in Western Amazonia. The results allowed separating the western Amazonia into 6 sectors, called pedo-zones: Roraima, Rio Negro Basin, Tertiary Plateaux of the Amazon, Javari-Juruá-Purus lowland, Acre Basin and Rondonia uplands. The highest C stock for the whole soil is observed in the Acre and in the Rio Negro sectors. In the former, this is due to the high nutrient status and high clay activity, whereas in the latter, it is attributed to a downward carbon movement attributed to widespread podzolization and arenization, forming spodic horizons. The youthful nature of shallow soils of the Javari-Juruá-Purus lowlands, associated with high Al, results in a high phytomass C/soil C ratio. A similar trend was observed for the shallow soils from the Roraima and Rondonia highlands. A consistent east-west decline in biomass carbon in the Rio Negro Basin sector is associated with increasing rainfall and higher sand amounts. It is related to lesser C protection and greater C loss of sandy soils, subjected to active chemical leaching and widespread podzolization. Also, these soils possess lower cation exchangeable capacity and lower water retention capacity. Zones where deeply weathered Latosols dominate have a overall pattern of high C sequestration, and greater than the shallower soils from the upper Amazon, west of Madeira and Negro rivers. This was attributed to deeper incorporation of carbon in these clayey and highly pedo-bioturbated soils. The results highlight the urgent need for refining soil data at an appropriate scale for C stocks calculations purposes in Amazonia. There

  3. Epidemiology and Control of Child Toxocariasis in the Western Brazilian Amazon – A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno M.; Martins, Antonio C.; Mantovani, Saulo A. S.; Braña, Athos M.; Pereira, Thasciany M.; Branco, Fernando L. C. C.; Ramalho, Alanderson A.; Campos, Rhanderson G.; Fontoura, Pablo S.; de Araujo, Thiago S.; de Oliveira, Cristieli S. M.; Muniz, Pascoal T.; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Codeço, Cláudia T.; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2014-01-01

    Toxocara spp. infection and the seroconversion rate in the Amazon have been poorly investigated. This study analyzed individual and household-level risk factors for the presence of IgG antibodies to Toxocara spp. in urban Amazonian children over a period of 7 years and evaluated the seroconversion rates over a 1-year follow-up. In children < 59 months of age, the overall prevalence rate was 28.08% in 2003 and 23.35% in 2010. The 2010–2011 seroconversion rates were 13.90% for children 6–59 months of age and 12.30% for children 84–143 months of age. Multilevel logistic regression analysis identified child age, previous wheezing, and current infection with hookworm as significant associated factors for Toxocara spp. seropositivity in 2003. In 2010, age, previous helminthiasis, and having a dog were associated with seropositivity, whereas having piped water inside the household was a protective factor. Control programs mainly need to target at-risk children, water quality control, and animal deworming strategies. PMID:24515946

  4. Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia amblyommii in Amblyomma ticks from the State of Rondônia, Western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Whitworth, Ted; Bouyer, Donald H; McBride, Jere; Camargo, Luis Marcelo A; Camargo, Erney P; Popov, Vsevolod; Walker, David H

    2004-11-01

    This study evaluates the rickettsial presence in Amblyomma ticks from eight areas of the Amazon forest in Rondônia, Brazil. The following tick species (number in parentheses) were examined: Amblyomma ovale Koch (121), Amblyomma cajennense (F.) (41), Amblyomma naponense (Packard) (36), Amblyomma scalpturatum Neumann (35), Amblyomma oblongoguttatum Koch (30), Amblyomma incisum Neumann (27), Amblyomma rotundatum Koch (16), Amblyomma coelebs Neumann (10), and Amblyomma humerale Koch (6). Ticks were examined individually or in pools (2-10 ticks) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the gltA gene. The PCR-determined minimal infection rate for each tick species was A. ovale 28%, A. cajennense 27%, A. naponense 0%, A. scalpturatum 11%, A. oblongoguttatum 3%, A. incisum 0%, A. rotundatum 87%, A. coelebs 10%, and A. humerale 50%. Partial sequences of the gltA gene of Rickettsia from A. ovale, A. scalpturatum, A. oblongoguttatum, A. rotundatum, and A. humerale were 99.9% (349/350) identical to Rickettsia bellii. DNA sequences of PCR products from A. cajennense and A. coelebs were 100% (350/350) identical to Rickettsia amblyommii. R. bellii organisms were isolated in Vero cells from A. scalpturatum, A. ovale, A. rotundatum, and A. oblongoguttatum, but only one of the isolates, cultured from A. scalpturatum, was established in continuous cell culture passage. R. amblyommii was isolated from A. cajennense and was successfully established in continuous passage in cell culture. R. amblyommii infection of Vero cells was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. This study adds South America to the known geographic distribution of R. amblyommii and reports rickettsiae in six Amblyomma species for the first time.

  5. The Amazon-Laurentian connection as viewed from the Middle Proterozoic rocks in the central Andes, western Bolivia and northern Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tosdal, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Middle Proterozoic rocks underlying the Andes in western Bolivia, western Argentina, and northern Chile and Early Proterozoic rocks of the Arequipa massif in southern Peru?? from the Arequipa-Antofalla craton. These rocks are discontinuously exposed beneath Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks, but abundant crystalline clasts in Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the western altiplano allow indirect samples of the craton. Near Berenguela, western Bolivia, the Oligocene and Miocene Mauri Formation contains boulders of granodiorite augen gneiss (1171??20 Ma and 1158??12 Ma; U-Pb zircon), quartzose gneiss and granofels that are inferred to have arkosic protoliths (1100 Ma source region; U-Pb zircon), quartzofeldspathic and mafic orthogneisses that have amphibolite- and granulite-facies metamorphic mineral assemblages (???1080 Ma metamorphism; U-Pb zircon), and undeformed granitic rocks of Phanerozoic(?) age. The Middle Proterozoic crystalline rocks from Berenguela and elsewhere in western Bolivia and from the Middle Proterozoic Bele??n Schist in northern Chile generally have present-day low 206Pb/204Pb ( 15.57), and elevated 208Pb/204Pb (37.2 to 50.7) indicative of high time-averaged Th/U values. The Middle Proterozoic rocks in general have higher presentday 206Pb/204Pb values than those of the Early Proterozoic rocks of the Arequipa massif (206Pb/204Pb between 16.1 and 17.1) but lower than rocks of the southern Arequipa-Antofalla craton (206Pb/204Pb> 18.5), a difference inferred to reflect Grenvillian granulite metamorphism. The Pb isotopic compositions for the various Proterozoic rocks lie on common Pb isotopic growth curves, implying that Pb incorporated in rocks composing the Arequipa-Antofalla craton was extracted from a similar evolving Pb isotopic reservoir. Evidently, the craton has been a coherent terrane since the Middle Proterozoic. Moreover, the Pb isotopic compositions for the Arequipa-Antofalla craton overlap those of the Amazon craton, thereby supporting a link

  6. Two Preliminary SRTM DEMs Within the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsdorf, D.; Hess, L.; Melack, J.; Dunne, T.; Mertes, L.; Ballantine, A.; Biggs, T.; Holmes, K.; Sheng, Y.; Hendricks, G.

    2002-12-01

    Digital topography provides important measures, such as hillslope lengths and flow path networks, for understanding hydrologic and geomorphic processes (e.g., runoff response to land use change and floodplain inundation volume). Two preliminary Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation models of Manaus (1S to 5S and 59W to 63W) and Rondonia (9S to 12S and 61W to 64W) were received from NASA JPL in August 2002. The "PI Processor" produced these initial DEM segments and we are using them to assess the initial accuracy of the interferometrically derived heights and for hydrologic research. The preliminary SRTM derived absolute elevations across the Amazon floodplain in the Cabaliana region generally range from 5 to 15 m with reported errors of 1 to 3 m. This region also includes some preliminary elevations that are erroneously negative. However, topographic contours on 1:100,000 scale quadrangles of 1978 to 1980 vintage indicate elevations of 20 to 30 m. Because double-bounce travel paths are possible over the sparsely vegetated and very-flat 2400 sq-km water surface of the Balbina reservoir near Manaus, it serves to identify the relative accuracy of the SRTM heights. Here, cell-to-cell height changes are generally 0 to 1 m and changes across a ~100 km transect rarely exceed 3 m. Reported errors throughout the transect range from 1 to 2 m with some errors up to 5 m. Deforestation in Rondonia is remarkably clear in the C-band DEM where elevations are recorded from the canopy rather than bare earth. Here, elevation changes are ~30 m (with reported 1 to 2 m errors) across clear-cut areas. Field derived canopy heights are in agreement with this change. Presently, we are deriving stream networks in the Amazon floodplain for comparison with our previous network extraction from JERS-1 SAR mosaics and for hydrologic modeling.

  7. Conventional U-Pb dating versus SHRIMP of the Santa Barbara Granite Massif, Rondonia, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparrenberger, I.; Bettencourt, Jorge S.; Tosdal, R.M.; Wooden, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The Santa Ba??rbara Granite Massif is part of the Younger Granites of Rondo??nia (998 - 974 Ma) and is included in the Rondo??nia Tin Province (SW Amazonian Craton). It comprises three highly fractionated metaluminous to peraluminous within-plate A-type granite units emplaced in older medium-grade metamorphic rocks. Sn-mineralization is closely associated with the late-stage unit. U-Pb monazite conventional dating of the early-stage Serra do Cicero facies and late-stage Serra Azul facies yielded ages of 993 ?? 5 Ma and 989 ?? 13 Ma, respectively. Conventional multigrain U-Pb isotope analyses of zircon demonstrate isotopic disturbance (discordance) and the preservation of inherited older zircons of several different ages and thus yield little about the ages of Sn-granite magmatism. SHRIMP U-Pb ages for the Santa Ba??rbara facies association yielded a 207Pb/206Pb weighted-mean age of 978 ?? 13 Ma. The textural complexity of the zircon crystals of the Santa Ba??rbara facies association, the variable concentrations of U, Th and Pb, as well as the mixed inheritance of zircon populations are major obstacles to using conventional multigrain U-Pb isotopic analyses. Sm-Nd model ages and ??Nd (T) values reveal anomalous isotopic data, attesting to the complex isotopic behaviour within these highly fractionated granites. Thus, SHRIMP U-Pb zircon and conventional U-Pb monazite dating methods are the most appropriate to constrain the crystallization age of the Sn-bearing granite systems in the Rondo??nia Tin Province.

  8. The Rondonia Lightning Detection Network: Network Description, Science Objectives, Data Processing/Archival Methodology, and First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakelee, Richard

    1999-01-01

    A four station Advanced Lightning Direction Finder (ALDF) network was recently established in the state of Rondonia in western Brazil through a collaboration of U.S. and Brazilian participants from NASA, INPE, INMET, and various universities. The network utilizes ALDF IMPACT (Improved Accuracy from Combined Technology) sensors to provide cloud-to-ground lightning observations (i.e., stroke/flash locations, signal amplitude, and polarity) using both time-of-arrival and magnetic direction finding techniques. The observations are collected, processed and archived at a central site in Brasilia and at the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. Initial, non-quality assured quick-look results are made available in near real-time over the internet. The network will remain deployed for several years to provide ground truth data for the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite which was launched in November 1997. The measurements will also be used to investigate the relationship between the electrical, microphysical and kinematic properties of tropical convection. In addition, the long-term observations from this network will contribute in establishing a regional lightning climatological data base, supplementing other data bases in Brazil that already exist or may soon be implemented. Analytic inversion algorithms developed at NASA/MSFC are now being applied to the Rondonian ALDF lightning observations to obtain site error corrections and improved location retrievals. The processing methodology and the initial results from an analysis of the first 6 months of network operations will be presented.

  9. The Rondonia Lightning Detection Network: Network Description, Science Objectives, Data Processing/Archival Methodology, and First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Rich; Bailey, Jeff; Koshak, Bill

    1999-01-01

    A four station Advanced Lightning Direction Finder (ALDF) network was recently established in the state of Rondonia in western Brazil through a collaboration of U.S. and Brazilian participants from NASA, INPE, INMET, and various universities. The network utilizes ALDF IMPACT (Improved Accuracy from Combined Technology) sensors to provide cloud-to-ground lightning observations (i.e., stroke/flash locations, signal amplitude, and polarity) using both time-of-arrival and magnetic direction finding techniques. The observations are collected, processed and archived at a central site in Brasilia and at the NASA/ Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. Initial, non-quality assured quick-look results are made available in near real-time over the internet. The network will remain deployed for several years to provide ground truth data for the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite which was launched in November 1997. The measurements will also be used to investigate the relationship between the electrical, microphysical and kinematic properties of tropical convection. In addition, the long-term observations from this network will contribute in establishing a regional lightning climatological data base, supplementing other data bases in Brazil that already exist or may soon be implemented. Analytic inversion algorithms developed at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are now being applied to the Rondonian ALDF lightning observations to obtain site error corrections and improved location retrievals. The processing methodology and the initial results from an analysis of the first 6 months of network operations will be presented.

  10. Simulating spatial patterns of land-use change in Rondonia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; Southworth, F.; O`Neill, R.V.; Rosen, A.

    1992-11-09

    Large scale deforestation in the Brazilian state of Rondonia has resulted from massive colonization and has caused increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2}, soil degradation, loss of extractive resources, and disruption of indigenous populations. A simulation model has been developed that integrates colonization, socioeconomic, and ecological submodels to estimate spatial patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration policies, land tenure practices, and road development scenarios. It is used to model the socioeconomic causes and ecological impacts of rapid deforestation in Rondonia. The simulation can be used to identify scenarios that might optimize economic and agricultural sustainability or reduce emigration. Spatial analysis of the simulation projections shows that very different patterns of deforestation can result depending on whether soil suitability, distance to market or lot size is the prime factor affecting a colonist`s choice of a lot. Projections of the amount and pattern of deforestation under specific scenarios of land-use choice and management can be used to explore the socioeconomic and ecological implications of land-use change.

  11. Simulating spatial patterns of land-use change in Rondonia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; Southworth, F.; O'Neill, R.V.; Rosen, A.

    1992-11-09

    Large scale deforestation in the Brazilian state of Rondonia has resulted from massive colonization and has caused increases in atmospheric CO[sub 2], soil degradation, loss of extractive resources, and disruption of indigenous populations. A simulation model has been developed that integrates colonization, socioeconomic, and ecological submodels to estimate spatial patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration policies, land tenure practices, and road development scenarios. It is used to model the socioeconomic causes and ecological impacts of rapid deforestation in Rondonia. The simulation can be used to identify scenarios that might optimize economic and agricultural sustainability or reduce emigration. Spatial analysis of the simulation projections shows that very different patterns of deforestation can result depending on whether soil suitability, distance to market or lot size is the prime factor affecting a colonist's choice of a lot. Projections of the amount and pattern of deforestation under specific scenarios of land-use choice and management can be used to explore the socioeconomic and ecological implications of land-use change.

  12. Spatial and temporal coherence between Amazon River discharge, salinity, and light absorption by colored organic carbon in western tropical Atlantic surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, J.; Vandemark, D.; Campbell, J.; Hunt, C.; Wisser, D.; Reul, N.; Chapron, B.

    2011-07-01

    The temporal evolution and spatial distribution of surface salinity and colored detrital matter (cdm) were evaluated within and adjacent to the Amazon River Plume. Study objectives were as follows: first, to document the spatial coherence between Amazon discharge, salinity, cdm, and the nature of the salinity-cdm relationship; second, to document the temporal and spatial variability of cdm along the trajectory of the low-salinity Amazon Plume, and third, to explore the departure of cdm from conservative mixing behavior along the plume trajectory into the open ocean. Time series (2003-2007) of surface salinity estimated using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System and corresponding satellite cdm absorption (acdm) data documented a plume of freshened, colored water emanating from the Amazon. Salinity and acdm were generally coherent, but there were regions in which spatial patterns of salinity and acdm did not coincide. Salinity was oppositely phased with discharge, whereas acdm was in phase but lagged discharge and typically remained high after maximum discharge. Along the river plume trajectory, acdm was inversely correlated with salinity, yet there was considerable deviation from conservative mixing behavior during all seasons. Positive anomalies in a linear relationship between salinity and acdm corresponded to areas of enhanced satellite-retrieved net primary productivity, suggesting the importance of phytoplankton biomass or its subsequent remineralization as a source of cdm. Negative anomalies tended to predominate at the distal sections of the plume trajectories, an observation consistent with the process of photo-oxidation of cdm over observed time scales of days to weeks.

  13. Amazon Anopheles Biology. 12. Occurrence of Anopheles Species, Malaria Control and Transmission Dynamics in the Urban Zone of Ariquemes (Rondonia)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    that in tropical rain forests, animal populations undergo changes in structure and size in response to seasonal changes. On the other hand, WOLDA... animals . These results reveal a high index of infection for A. galvoi and the density studies show a greater contact of the species with man for the period...changes in central excitability - the origin of behavioural rhythms in tsetse flies and other animals ? J.Ent.(Ser. A), 50: 79-95, 1975. 5 CHARLWOOD, J.D

  14. Disruption of hydroecological equilibrium in southwest Amazon mediated by drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Kim, Hyungjun; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Famiglietti, James S.; Oki, Taikan

    2015-09-01

    The impacts of droughts on the Amazon ecosystem have been broadly discussed in recent years, but a comprehensive understanding of the consequences is still missing. In this study, we show evidence of a fragile hydrological equilibrium in the western Amazon. While drainage systems located near the equator and the western Amazon do not show water deficit in years with average climate conditions, this equilibrium can be broken during drought events. More importantly, we show that this effect is persistent, taking years until the normal hydrological patterns are reestablished. We show clear links between persistent changes in forest canopy structure and changes in hydrological patterns, revealing physical evidence of hydrological mechanisms that may lead to permanent changes in parts of the Amazon ecosystem. If prospects of increasing drought frequency are confirmed, a change in the current hydroecological patterns in the western Amazon could take place in less than a decade.

  15. Influence Deforestation on Hydrological Cycle at Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, J. C.; Beltrao, J.; Gandu, A. W.

    2007-05-01

    The last three decades, the Amazon Basin has been affected for the occupation with consequence large deforestation. The principal area deforested is located from Maranhao state to Rondonia state. This area is common called "Arc Deforestation", and representing the transition between two important Brazilian ecosystems, Amazon Forest and Savanna Region. Theses ecosystems have precious biodiversity, and it has population about 10.331.000. The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of arc deforestation on the hydrological cycle at Amazon basin, using BRAMS (Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) including a model of dynamic vegetation, called GEMTM (General Energy and Mass Transport Model). In this study, numerical simulations were performed with a high spatial resolution regional model that allows capture some mesoscale aspects associated to the land used, topography, coastlines and large rivers. In order to predict the impact of the arc deforestation over the hydrological cycle, it was run two model simulations, conducted over a one-year period. In the first simulation, designated "control", it was used the scenarios derived from Soares Filho (2002), for the year 2002, in governance situation. In the second simulation called "deforestation", it was used the scenarios for the 2050, derived from results of Soares-Filho with governance, too. The higher-resolution regional modeling revealed important features of the deforestation process, displaying some associated mesoscale effects that are not typically represented in similar Global Circulation Model simulations. Near coastal zones and along large rivers, deforestation resulted in reduced precipitation. However, it was predicted increased precipitation over mountainous areas, especially on mountain slopes facing river valleys. Then, these higher-resolution simulations showed that, in general, orography, coastline profile and large river distribution play important roles in

  16. Agricultural colonization and malaria on the Amazon frontier.

    PubMed

    Singer, B H; de Castro, M C

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to characterize the interrelationships between macropolitical, social and economic policies, human migration, agricultural development, and malaria transmission on the Amazon frontier. We focus our analysis on a recent colonization project, POLONOROESTE, in the state of Rondonia. Employing data from field surveys in 1985-1987 and 1995, we use spatial statistical methodologies linked to a geographical information system (GIS) to describe the patterns of human settlement in the area, the ecological transformations induced by forest clearance practices, and the manner in which these factors determine gradations of malaria risk. Our findings show that land use patterns, linked to social organization of the community and the structure of the physical environment, played a key role in promoting malaria transmission. In addition, the location of each occupied area is itself an important determinant of the pattern of malaria risk. Based on lessons learned from our spatial and temporal characterization of malaria risk, we propose policies for malaria mitigation in the Brazilian Amazon.

  17. Brazil: Rondonia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-30

    ... end of the Parque Nacional de Pacaas Novos. The CLAIRE aircraft will follow these plumes as they spread over the region, and will ... D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley ...

  18. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Santos, Ana Paula; Campos, Rhanderson Gardinali; Guimarães, Andréia Silva; Araújo, Thiago Santos de; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2016-06-01

    Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children's conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother's height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother's characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon.

  19. Influence of the Amazon River on the Nd isotope composition of deep water in the western equatorial Atlantic during the Oligocene-Miocene transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Joseph A.; Gutjahr, Marcus; James, Rachael H.; Anand, Pallavi; Wilson, Paul A.

    2016-11-01

    Dissolved and particulate neodymium (Nd) are mainly supplied to the oceans via rivers, dust, and release from marine sediments along continental margins. This process, together with the short oceanic residence time of Nd, gives rise to pronounced spatial gradients in oceanic 143Nd/144Nd ratios (εNd). However, we do not yet have a good understanding of the extent to which the influence of riverine point-source Nd supply can be distinguished from changes in mixing between different water masses in the marine geological record. This gap in knowledge is important to fill because there is growing awareness that major global climate transitions may be associated not only with changes in large-scale ocean water mass mixing, but also with important changes in continental hydroclimate and weathering. Here we present εNd data for fossilised fish teeth, planktonic foraminifera, and the Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide and detrital fractions of sediments recovered from Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) Site 926 on Ceara Rise, situated approximately 800 km from the mouth of the River Amazon. Our records span the Mi-1 glaciation event during the Oligocene-Miocene transition (OMT; ∼23 Ma). We compare our εNd records with data for ambient deep Atlantic northern and southern component waters to assess the influence of particulate input from the Amazon River on Nd in ancient deep waters at this site. εNd values for all of our fish teeth, foraminifera, and Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide samples are extremely unradiogenic (εNd ≈ - 15); much lower than the εNd for deep waters of modern or Oligocene-Miocene age from the North Atlantic (εNd ≈ - 10) and South Atlantic (εNd ≈ - 8). This finding suggests that partial dissolution of detrital particulate material from the Amazon (εNd ≈ - 18) strongly influences the εNd values of deep waters at Ceara Rise across the OMT. We conclude that terrestrially derived inputs of Nd can affect εNd values of deep water many hundreds of kilometres from source. Our

  20. Changes in CO2, N2O and NO Emissions in Response to Conventional Tillage and No-tillage Management Practices in the State of Rondonia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passianoto, C. C.; Ahrens, T. D.; Feigl, B. J.; Steudler, P. A.; Do Carmo, J. B.; Melillo, J. M.

    2002-12-01

    Land management in the Brazilian State of Rondonia is undergoing a new phase at the start of 21st century. In the 1970s and afterwards, vast tracts of tropical forest were cleared and planted to pasture for cattle grazing. With decades of use, the productivity of these pastures has declined. Now, in an effort to restore productivity, new land management regimes are being implemented that involve either tillage or no-tillage options combined with various combinations of fertilizer application, herbicide use and the planting of a cash crop prior to the planting of forage grasses. We are studying a subset of these restoration practices in a large-scale (>3 ha), replicated field experiment in an area of degraded pasture at Fazenda Nova Vida, a 22,000 ha cattle ranch in central Rondonia. Here we report on the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) from the initial phases (first six months) of three of the treatments. The treatments are - 1) control; 2) conventional tillage followed by planting of forage grass (Brachiaria brizantha) and fertilizer additions; 3) no-tillage/herbicide treatment followed by two plantings, the first being a cash crop of rice followed by forage grass. In treatment 3, the rice was fertilized. Relative to the control, tillage increased CO2 emission by 37% over the first two months, while the no-tillage/herbicide regime decreased CO2 emissions by 7% over the same period. The cumulative N2O emissions over the first two months from the tillage regime (0.94 kg N ha-1) were much higher than the N2O releases from either the no-tillage/herbicide regime (0.64 kg N ha-1) or the control treatment (0.04 kg N ha-1). The highest levels of N2O fluxes from both management regimes were observed following nitrogen fertilizations. The cumulative NO releases over the first two months were largest in the tillage treatment (0.98 kg N ha-1), intermediate in the no-tillage treatment (0.72 kg N ha-1), and smallest in the control

  1. Phenotypic characterization of Leishmania spp. causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in the lower Amazon region, western Pará state, Brazil, reveals a putative hybrid parasite, Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis × Leishmania (Viannia) shawi shawi

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Yara Lins; de Souza, Adelson Alcimar Almeida; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba; Shaw, Jeffrey; Lainson, Ralph; Silveira, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We phenotypically characterized 43 leishmanial parasites from cutaneous leishmaniasis by isoenzyme electrophoresis and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (23 McAbs). Identifications revealed 11 (25.6%) strains of Leishmania (V.) braziliensis, 4 (9.3%) of L. (V.) shawi shawi, 7 (16.3%) of L. (V.) shawi santarensis, 6 (13.9%) of L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) lainsoni, 2 (4.7%) of L. (L.) amazonensis, and 7 (16.3%) of a putative hybrid parasite, L. (V.) guyanensis/L. (V.) shawi shawi. McAbs detected three different serodemes of L. (V.) braziliensis: I-7, II-1, and III-3 strains. Among the strains of L. (V.) shawi we identified two populations: one (7 strains) expressing the B19 epitope that was previously considered to be species-specific for L. (V.) guyanensis. We have given this population sub-specific rank, naming it L. (V.) s. santarensis. The other one (4 strains) did not express the B19 epitope like the L. (V.) shawi reference strain, which we now designate as L. (V.) s. shawi. For the first time in the eastern Brazilian Amazon we register a putative hybrid parasite (7 strains), L. (V.) guyanensis/L. (V.) s. shawi, characterized by a new 6PGDH three-band profile at the level of L. (V.) guyanensis. Its PGM profile, however, was very similar to that of L. (V.) s. shawi. These results suggest that the lower Amazon region – western Pará state, Brazil, represents a biome where L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) s. shawi exchange genetic information. PMID:25083790

  2. Dependence between Ventilation and Climate as recorded with Biomarkers over the last 420,000 years in the Guianas Region (North-western Amazon Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rama, O.; Lopez-Otalvaro, G.; Martrat, B.; Flores, J.; Sierro, F. J.; Grimalt, J. O.

    2009-12-01

    There is growing evidence that the majority of the Amazon rainforest survived the climatic threshold of the last ice age. This information is crucial given that this region could be currently near its critical resiliency tipping point; thus, minor climate warming, widespread reductions in precipitation and lengthening of the dry season may be sufficient to gradually contribute to the forest dieback and biodiversity loss [Cowling et al., 2004; Lenton et al., 2008; Maslin, 2004]. To contribute to this knowledge, palaeoclimatic oscillations have been identified in this study by using fossil organic compounds synthesized by marine and terrestrial flora and later accumulated on sediment strata (MD03-2616, 7N, 53W, -1233 meters below sea-level) from the Guianas region, closely linked to the Amazon Basin. Different indicators have been considered to continuously reconstruct the climate over the past 420,000 years at centennial scale: average annual sea surface temperatures (SST, Uk’37), productivity of the coccolithophora flora (alken-2-ones), continental vegetation variability (long chain n-alkanes) and changes in oxygenation of the deep-sea floor (ratio between n-alkan-1-ols and n-alkanes). At present, the Guianas region is largely influenced by migration of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), related temperature and wind patterns, together with changes in hydrological conditions, atmospheric and oceanic fronts. Annual SST is 27.7C; two rain seasons and two dry seasons occur. At the core location, surface waters present complex seasonal configuration, while oxygen-enriched and low-salinity Antarctic Intermediate waters (AAIW) flow northward from -700 to -1500 meters depth; the Upper North Atlantic Deep waters circulate southward at greater depths [World Meteo. Org.; Masson & Delecluse, 2001; Arz et al., 2001]. This study reveals that completely different hydrological conditions and much colder climate occurred in the past, e.g. a harsh drop in SST of up to 24C

  3. Land-Use Change, Soil Process and Trace Gas Fluxes in the Brazilian Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melillo, Jerry M.; Steudler, Paul A.

    1997-01-01

    We measured changes in key soil processes and the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O associated with the conversion of tropical rainforest to pasture in Rondonia, a state in the southwest Amazon that has experienced rapid deforestation, primarily for cattle ranching, since the late 1970s. These measurements provide a comprehensive quantitative picture of the nature of surface soil element stocks, C and nutrient dynamics, and trace gas fluxes between soils and the atmosphere during the entire sequence of land-use change from the initial cutting and burning of native forest, through planting and establishment of pasture grass and ending with very old continuously-pastured land. All of our work is done in cooperation with Brazilian scientists at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA) through an extant official bi-lateral agreement between the Marine Biological Laboratory and the University of Sao Paulo, CENA's parent institution.

  4. Urban and suburban malaria in Rondônia (Brazilian Western Amazon) II. Perennial transmissions with high anopheline densities are associated with human environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Gil, Luiz Herman Soares; Tada, Mauro Shugiro; Katsuragawa, Tony Hiroshi; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; da Silva, Luiz Hildebrando Pereira

    2007-06-01

    Longitudinal entomological surveys were performed in Vila Candelária and adjacent rural locality of Bate Estaca concomitantly with a clinical epidemiologic malaria survey. Vila Candelária is a riverside periurban neighborhood of Porto Velho, capital of the state of Rondônia in the Brazilian Amazon. High anopheline densities were found accompanying the peak of rainfall, as reported in rural areas of the region. Moreover, several minor peaks of anophelines were recorded between the end of the dry season and the beginning of the next rainy season. These secondary peaks were related to permanent anopheline breeding sites resulting from human activities. Malaria transmission is, therefore, observed all over the year. In Vila Candelária, the risk of malaria infection both indoors and outdoors was calculated as being 2 and 10/infecting bites per year per inhabitant respectively. Urban malaria in riverside areas was associated with two factors: (1) high prevalence of asymptomatic carriers in a stable human population and (2) high anopheline densities related to human environmental changes. This association is probably found in other Amazonian urban and suburban communities. The implementation of control measures should include environmental sanitation and better characterization of the role of asymptomatic carriers in malaria transmission.

  5. Estimates and Measurements of Photosynthetically Active Radiation and Global Solar Irradiance in Rondonia

    SciTech Connect

    Aguiar, Leonardo J. G.; Costa, Jose M. N. da; Fischer, Graciela R.; Aguiar, Renata G.

    2009-03-11

    Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and global solar irradiance (R{sub s}) were made at a LBA (The Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia) experimental site, at Fazenda Nossa Senhora (10 deg. 45' S; 62 deg. 21' W), in Rondonia, in the years of 2004 and 2005, with the objective of estimating the seasonal variation of the ratio between the photosynthetically active radiation and the global solar irradiance. The relationship between PAR and R{sub s} were made by using linear regressions equations with data from year 2004 and tested with data from the year 2005. The seasonal variation of the ratio PAR/R{sub s} ranged from 0.43 (September) to 0.48 (January). The linear regression equations between PAR and R{sub s} obtained were: a) On an hourly basis: PAR 0.747+0.478*R{sub s},(R{sup 2} = 0.99; wet season) and PAR = -4.578+0.452*R{sub s}(R{sup 2} 0.99; dry season); b) On a daily basis: PAR = 4.956+0.466*R{sub s}(R{sup 2} = 0.99; wet season) and PAR = -6.762+0.457*R{sub s}(R{sup 2} = 0.96; dry season)

  6. Sensitivity of the Amazon rainforest to convective storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negron Juarez, R. I.; Chambers, J. Q.; Rifai, S. W.; Urquiza Munoz, J. D.; Tello, R.; Alegria Munoz, W.; Marra, D.; Ribeiro, G.; Higuchi, N.

    2012-12-01

    The Amazon rainforest is the largest contiguous continental tropical forest in the world and is a world center of carbon storage, biodiversity, biogeochemical cycles and biogeophysical processes that affect the Earth climate system. Yet anthropogenic activities have produced changes in the forest-climate system. Consequently, an increase in rainfall in both the Western and Central Amazon and a decrease in the Eastern Amazon are expected due to these anthropogenic activities. While the projected decrease in rainfall has been discussed under the context of drought, deforestation, and fires, the effect of an increase in rainfall, and associated convective processes, on forest ecosystems has been overlooked. Across the Amazon rainforest, Western Amazonia has the highest precipitation rates, wood productivity, soil fertility, recruitment and mortality rates. Yet our field-measured tree mortality data from blowdowns that occurred in Western and Central Amazonia do not show a statistical difference in tree mortality between these regions. However, downburst velocities associated with these disturbances were calculated to be lower in Western Amazonia than in the Central Amazon. This suggests the Western Amazon is more highly sensitive to intense convective systems. This result is particularly relevant given the expected increase in rainfall in the Western and Central Amazon. The increase in rainfall is associated with more intense convective systems that in turn imply an increase in low level jet stream (LLJ) intensity east of the Andes. The presence of the LLJ is the main cause of squall lines and an increase in LLJ intensity will therefore cause increased propagation of squall lines into the Amazon basin. More frequent and active squall lines have the potential to increase the intensity and frequency of downbursts responsible for large forest blowdowns that will affect the biogeophysical feedbacks on the forest ecosystem and carbon budget.

  7. New species of Orientatractis (Nematoda: Atractidae), new species of Rondonia (Nematoda: Atractidae) and other helminths in Austrochaperina basipalmata (Anura: Microhylidae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Kraus, Fred

    2014-03-01

    Two new nematode species, Orientatractis hamabatrachos sp. nov. and Rondonia batrachogena sp. nov. (Nematoda: Atractidae), from the gastrointestinal tract of Austrochaperina basipalmata (Anura: Microhylidae) collected in Papua New Guinea are described. Orientatractis hamabatrachos sp. nov. is characterized by the presence of the cephalic end armed with 4 wellsclerotized structures, consisting of 2 "horns" extending outward and downward and immediately below a single well-sclerotized spine. It differs from 5 congeners in spicule lengths and caudal papillae arrangements. Rondonia batrachogena sp. nov. is characterized by the presence of a female cloaca. It differs from 2 congeners primarily in body size. Orientatractis hamabatrachos sp. nov. and Rondonia batrachogena sp. nov. represent the first species assigned to either genus found to infect anurans or to occur in the Australo-Papuan region.

  8. Influence of early life factors on body mass index trajectory during childhood: a population-based longitudinal analysis in the Western Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Barbara H; Villamor, Eduardo; Augusto, Rosângela A; Cardoso, Marly A

    2015-04-01

    Low- to middle-income countries may experience the occurrence of a dual burden of under and overnutrition. To better understand the overall progression of body mass index (BMI) during childhood, we estimated average BMI-for-age z-score (BAZ) growth curves in a population-based longitudinal study of 255 children living in the Brazilian Amazon. Children were aged 0.1-5.5 years at recruitment (2003). We collected data on socio-economic and maternal characteristics, children's birthweight and infant feeding practices. Child anthropometric measurements were taken in 2003, 2007 and 2009. BAZ differences among categories of exposure variables were calculated at 6 and 12 months, and 2, 7 and 10 years. At baseline, the mean (standard deviation) age was 2.6 (1.4) years; 12.9% were overweight and 3.9% thin. After adjustment, mean BAZ estimates were mostly negative. Boys were close to the median value for BAZ until 12 months, whereas girls were below the median (P=0.05). Children from households above the wealth median were 0.36 z- and 0.49 z-less underweight than poorer children at 7 and 10 years, respectively (P<0.01). Maternal BMI was positively associated with children's BAZ since 12 months old; BAZ in children from overweight mothers was higher by 0.69 compared with their counterparts at 10 years (P<0.01). Birthweight was positively related to BAZ up until 2 years (P=0.01). Socio-economic background and maternal nutritional status are important predictors of BAZ throughout childhood. Although excessive weight gain is a public health concern, it is critical to restrict inequities, while promoting healthier growth in developing countries.

  9. Utilization of digital LANDSAT imagery for the study of granitoid bodies in Rondonia: Case example of the Pedra Branca massif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Almeidafilho, R.; Payolla, B. L.; Depinho, O. G.; Bettencourt, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of digital multispectral MSS-LANDSAT images enhanced through computer techniques and enlarged to a video scale of 1:100.000, show the main geological and structura features of the Pedra Branca granitic massif in Rondonia. These are not observed in aerial photographs or adar images. Field work shows that LANDSAT photogeological units correspond to different facies of granitic rocks in the Pedra Branca massif. Even under the particular characteristics of Amazonia (Tropical Forest, deep weathering, and Quaternary sedimentary covers), an adequate utilization of orbital remote sensing images can be important tools for the orientation of field works.

  10. Trends in formaldehyde columns over the Amazon rainforest, as observed from space with SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME-2 spectrometers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Smedt, Isabelle; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Lerot, Christophe; Yu, Huan; François, Hendrick; Gielen, Clio; Pinardi, Gaia; Muller, Jean-François; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric formaldehyde (H2CO) is a central carbonyl compound of tropospheric chemistry. It is produced by the oxidation of a large variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), from biogenic, pyrogenic or anthropogenic emission sources. Tropical vegetation, in particular the Amazon forest that represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests, emit a wide range of highly reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Those play a critical role in atmospheric chemistry and climate, by changing the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere and thus the lifetimes of other key trace gases such as CO and CH4, and by producing organic aerosols. Satellite observations of H2CO, bringing information at the global scale and over decades, are essential to trace and understand the nature and the spatio-temporal evolution of VOC emissions. We have been developing algorithms to retrieve formaldehyde columns from satellite nadir UV spectral measurements, and we have processed the full level-1 datasets of GOME/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT, GOME-2/METOPA&B and OMI/AURA (De Smedt et al., 2008; 2012; 2015). Resulting H2CO products are openly distributed via the TEMIS website (http://h2co.aeronomie.be). In this work, we use the morning and afternoon H2CO columns between 2004 and 2014, respectively composed by the SCIAMACHY and GOME2 A&B datasets, and from the OMI observations, to study the diurnal, seasonal and long-term variations of H2CO over the Amazon rainforest. The highest H2CO columns worldwide are observed, with morning columns markedly higher than early afternoon. Very large variations between the dry and the wet seasons occur each year. Importantly, in some areas of the forest, mainly in the Rondonia Brazilian State, we observe a net decrease of the H2CO columns. We find very high correlation coefficients between the satellite H2CO columns and the reported deforestation fires that have significantly decreased in Rondonia since 2004 [INPE].

  11. Preliminary Measurements Of N2O Partial Pressures In Rivers of Amazon Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, C. B.; Rasera, M. F.; Krusche, A. V.; Victoria, R. L.; Richey, J. E.; Cunha, H. B.; Gomes, B. M.

    2006-12-01

    The concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O), an important component of the greenhouse effect and with a long residence time in the atmosphere, have significantly increased in this century. The reasons for this atmospheric increase in N2O are still partially unexplained. This uncertainty is worse in relation to aquatic environments. Here we report on preliminary measurements of N2O partial pressures in rivers of the Amazon basin. The study areas are in the state of Rondonia (rivers Ji Parana, Urupa, Comemoracao and Pimenta Bueno) and Amazonas (rivers Solimoes and Negro). The rivers were sampled from October 2005 to April 2006, using with immersion pumps, lowered in the middle of the channel to 60% of total depth. Water was pumped directly into a 1 l plastic bottle, which was overflown three times before closing. Using syringes, 60 ml of N2 were injected into the bottle, simultaenously to the withdrawn of 60 ml of sample. N2O was extracted into these 60 ml of N2 by shaking vigorously for 2 minutes. With the same syringes, the gas was taken from the bottles and injected into sealed evacuated 25 ml vials. Atmospheric samples were taken from one meter above the water column and stored the same way. N2O partial pressures were determined on a Shimadzu GC-14 Green House Gas Analyzer. All rivers showed little variations in N2O partial pressures. Average values in the rivers of Rondonia were around 0.41 ± 0.07 μ atm (n=46), whereas the Solimoes and Negro rivers, in the state of Amazonas, showed values around 0.43 ± 0.08 μ atm (n=131). Atmospheric averages were approximately 0.34 ± 0.04 μ atm (n=58) and 0.32 ± 0.03 μ atm (n=134) in the states of Rondonia and Amazonas, respectively. This means that, although these waters are supersatured in CO2, making evasive fluxes of this gas an important component of the C cycle in this basin, the same does not occur in the N cycle. Small differences in partial pressures of N2O between water and air will result in small fluxes of

  12. The Amazon and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nobre, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The climatologies of cloudiness and precipitation for the Amazon, are reviewed and the physical causes of some of the observed features and those which are not well known are explained. The atmospheric circulation over the Amazon is discussed on the large scale tropical circulations forced by deep diabatic heating sources. Weather deforestation which leads to a reduction in evapotranspiration into the atmosphere, and a reduction in precipitation and its implicated for the gobal climate is discussed. It is indicated that a large scale clearing of tropical rainforests there would be a reduction in rainfall which would have global effects on climate and weather both in the tropical and extratropical regions.

  13. Amazon basin: a system in equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Salati, E.; Vose, P.B.

    1984-07-13

    Despite very active deforestation in the last decade, the Amazon Basin is still primarily covered with trees and is a system in equilibrium. The Andes form a barrier at the western end of the basin and, coupled with the prevailing easterly winds, ensure an almost unique precipitation and water-recycling regime. On average 50% of the precipitation is recycled, and in some areas even more. The soils are poor. Most of the nitrogen and phosphorus is found in the soil, and the remaining nutrient elements are found in the standing biomass. There is some nutrient recycling and little loss from the intact ecosystem, and the small input of nutrients from precipitation maintains a small positive nutrient balance. Continued large-scale deforestation is likely to lead to increased erosion and water runoff with initial flooding in the lower Amazon, together with reduced evapotranspiration and ultimately reduced precipitation. Reduced precipitation in the Amazon could increase the tendency toward continentality and adversely affect climate and the present agriculture in south-central Brazil. 83 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  14. Changes in nutrient dynamics throughout water transfers in a Tropical Forest and Pasture of Rondonia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolo, M. D.; Neill, C.; Krusche, A.; Laclau, J. P.; Cerri, C. C.

    2006-12-01

    The clearing of tropical forest in the Brazilian Amazon for cattle pasture since the 70s is a globally important land use change that has consequences for soil biogeochemical cycles. Generally, five to ten years after deforestation, pastures become degraded due to inadequate management practices. Development of strategies for restoration of low productivity pastures constitutes the main goal for Rondônia state. We analyzed the concentrations of the main nutrient of the biogeochemical cycles in three representative land uses at Fazenda Nova Vida, in central Rondônia (10o30'S, 62o30'W). The treatments were: (1) native forest; (2) pasture dominated by the forage grass Brachiaria brizantha but containing some weeds, under non- intensive management and; (3) a section of the same pasture that was subjected to tilling, replanting and fertilization (NPK + micronutrients) to eliminate weeds and improve grass productivity. Water samples from rain, throughfall, overland flow, tension lysimeter and zero-tension lysimeter (1.0 m soil depth), were collected during the rainy seasons from January to May of 2002 and 2003. The concentrations of C (DOC and DIC), inorganic-N (NH4+, NO3- and NO2-), Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, SO42- and Cl- were measured in all treatments. Rain water was dominated by the nutrients (NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Cl-) and DOC. Forest throughfall was enriched in most of the elements. Concentrations of elements in the overland flow showed higher variations in the pasture and in the plowed pasture, however samples were not collected in forest. Soil solution waters (tension lysimeter) and lysimeter waters (zero-tension lysimeter) too had higher variations for elements concentrations in all treatments. Forest clearing for pasture and pasture submitted to tillage practices profoundly influence soil properties and, consequently, the nutrient availability in soil profiles. The soil solution composition may be indicative of altered patterns of nutrient availability in this

  15. The Amazon and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nobre, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The climatologies of cloudiness and precipitation for the Amazon are reviewed. The physical causes of observed features are explained. The question whether deforestation leads to a reduction in evapotranspiration into the atmosphere is examined, as well as the reduction in precipitation and its implication for the global climate. There are indications that for large scale clearing of tropical rain forests there would indeed be a reduction in rainfall, which would have global effects in terms of climate and weather.

  16. Storm intensity and old-growth forest disturbances in the Amazon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espírito-Santo, F. D. B.; Keller, M.; Braswell, B.; Nelson, B. W.; Frolking, S.; Vicente, G.

    2010-06-01

    We analyzed the pattern of large forest disturbances or blow-downs apparently caused by severe storms in a mostly unmanaged portion of the Brazilian Amazon using 27 Landsat images and daily precipitation estimates from NOAA satellite data. For each Landsat a spectral mixture analysis (SMA) was applied. Based on SMA, we detected and mapped 279 patches (from 5 ha to 2,223 ha) characteristic of blow-downs. A total of 21,931 ha of forest were disturbed. We found a strong correlation between occurrence of blow-downs and frequency of heavy rainfall (Spearman's rank, r2 = 0.84, p < 0.0003). The recurrence intervals of large disturbances were estimated to be 90,000 yr for the eastern Amazon and 27,000 yr for the western Amazon. This suggests that weather patterns affect the frequency of large forest disturbances that may produce different rates of forest turnover in the eastern and western Amazon basin.

  17. Mesoproterozoic rapakivi granites of the Rondonia Tin Province, southwestern border of the Amazonian craton, Brazil-I. Reconnaissance U-Pb geochronology and regional implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettencourt, Jorge S.; Tosdal, R.M.; Leite, W.B.; Payolla, B.L.

    1999-01-01

    Rapakivi granites and associated mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Rondonia Tin Province, southwestern Amazonian craton, Brazil were emplaced during six discrete episodes of magmatism between ca 1600 and 970 Ma. The seven rapakivi granite suites emplaced at this time were the Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1606 and 1532 Ma); Santo Antonio Intrusive Suite (U-Pb age 1406 Ma); Teotonio Intrusive Suite (U-Pb age 1387 Ma); Alto Candeias Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1346 and 1338 Ma); Sao Lourenco-Caripunas Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1314 and 1309 Ma); Santa Clara Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1082 and 1074 Ma); and Younger Granites of Rondonia (U-Pb ages between 998 and 974 Ma). The Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite intruded the Paleoproterozoic (1.80 to 1.70 Ga) Rio Negro-Juruena crust whereas the other suites were emplaced into the 1.50 to 1.30 Ga Rondonia-San Ignacio crust. Their intrusion was contemporaneous with orogenic activity in other parts of the southwestern Amazonian craton, except for the oldest, Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite. Orogenic events coeval with emplacement of the Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite are not clearly recognized in the region. The Santo Antonio, Teotonio, Alto Candeias and Sao Lourenco-Caripunas Intrusive Suites are interpreted to represent extensional anorogenic magmatism associated with the terminal stages of the Rondonian-San Ignacio orogeny. At least the Sao Lourenco-Caripunas rapakivi granites and coeval intra-continental rift sedimentary rocks may, in contrast, represent the products of extensional tectonics and rifting preceding the Sunsas/Aguapei orogeny (1.25 to 1.0 Ga). The two youngest rapakivi suites, the Santa Clara Intrusive Suite and Younger Granites of Rondonia, seemingly represent inboard magmatism in the Rondonian-San Ignacio Province during a younger episode of reworking in the Rio Negro-Juruena Province during the waning stages of the collisional 1.1 to 1.0 Ga

  18. The changing Amazon forest.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Oliver L; Lewis, Simon L; Baker, Timothy R; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Higuchi, Niro

    2008-05-27

    Long-term monitoring of distributed, multiple plots is the key to quantify macroecological patterns and changes. Here we examine the evidence for concerted changes in the structure, dynamics and composition of old-growth Amazonian forests in the late twentieth century. In the 1980s and 1990s, mature forests gained biomass and underwent accelerated growth and dynamics, all consistent with a widespread, long-acting stimulation of growth. Because growth on average exceeded mortality, intact Amazonian forests have been a carbon sink. In the late twentieth century, biomass of trees of more than 10cm diameter increased by 0.62+/-0.23tCha-1yr-1 averaged across the basin. This implies a carbon sink in Neotropical old-growth forest of at least 0.49+/-0.18PgCyr-1. If other biomass and necromass components are also increased proportionally, then the old-growth forest sink here has been 0.79+/-0.29PgCyr-1, even before allowing for any gains in soil carbon stocks. This is approximately equal to the carbon emissions to the atmosphere by Amazon deforestation. There is also evidence for recent changes in Amazon biodiversity. In the future, the growth response of remaining old-growth mature Amazon forests will saturate, and these ecosystems may switch from sink to source driven by higher respiration (temperature), higher mortality (as outputs equilibrate to the growth inputs and periodic drought) or compositional change (disturbances). Any switch from carbon sink to source would have profound implications for global climate, biodiversity and human welfare, while the documented acceleration of tree growth and mortality may already be affecting the interactions among millions of species.

  19. Analogical reasoning in amazons.

    PubMed

    Obozova, Tanya; Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-11-01

    Two juvenile orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) were initially trained to match visual stimuli by color, shape, and number of items, but not by size. After learning these three identity matching-to-sample tasks, the parrots transferred discriminative responding to new stimuli from the same categories that had been used in training (other colors, shapes, and numbers of items) as well as to stimuli from a different category (stimuli varying in size). In the critical testing phase, both parrots exhibited reliable relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) behavior, suggesting that they perceived and compared the relationship between objects in the sample stimulus pair to the relationship between objects in the comparison stimulus pairs, even though no physical matches were possible between items in the sample and comparison pairs. The parrots spontaneously exhibited this higher-order relational responding without having ever before been trained on RMTS tasks, therefore joining apes and crows in displaying this abstract cognitive behavior.

  20. Space-Time Controls on Carbon Sequestration Over Large-Scale Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Cooper, Harry J.; Gu, Jiujing; Grose, Andrew; Norman, John; daRocha, Humberto R.; Starr, David O. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A major research focus of the LBA Ecology Program is an assessment of the carbon budget and the carbon sequestering capacity of the large scale forest-pasture system that dominates the Amazonia landscape, and its time-space heterogeneity manifest in carbon fluxes across the large scale Amazon basin ecosystem. Quantification of these processes requires a combination of in situ measurements, remotely sensed measurements from space, and a realistically forced hydrometeorological model coupled to a carbon assimilation model, capable of simulating details within the surface energy and water budgets along with the principle modes of photosynthesis and respiration. Here we describe the results of an investigation concerning the space-time controls of carbon sources and sinks distributed over the large scale Amazon basin. The results are derived from a carbon-water-energy budget retrieval system for the large scale Amazon basin, which uses a coupled carbon assimilation-hydrometeorological model as an integrating system, forced by both in situ meteorological measurements and remotely sensed radiation fluxes and precipitation retrieval retrieved from a combination of GOES, SSM/I, TOMS, and TRMM satellite measurements. Brief discussion concerning validation of (a) retrieved surface radiation fluxes and precipitation based on 30-min averaged surface measurements taken at Ji-Parana in Rondonia and Manaus in Amazonas, and (b) modeled carbon fluxes based on tower CO2 flux measurements taken at Reserva Jaru, Manaus and Fazenda Nossa Senhora. The space-time controls on carbon sequestration are partitioned into sets of factors classified by: (1) above canopy meteorology, (2) incoming surface radiation, (3) precipitation interception, and (4) indigenous stomatal processes varied over the different land covers of pristine rainforest, partially, and fully logged rainforests, and pasture lands. These are the principle meteorological, thermodynamical, hydrological, and biophysical

  1. Potential precipitation reductions in the northwest U.S. in response to the large-scale deforestation of the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvigy, D.; Walko, R. L.; Avissar, R.; Otte, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Numerical models have long predicted that the deforestation of the Amazon would lead to large regional changes in precipitation and temperature, but the extratropical effects of deforestation have been a matter of controversy. Here, we use a numerical model to simulate the potential effects of deforestation on the northwest United States December-February climate. Integrations are carried out using the Ocean-Land Atmosphere Model (OLAM), run as a variable-resolution atmospheric GCM. When the Amazon is simulated at < 50 km resolution, deforestation causes a redistribution of precipitation within the Amazon, accompanied by vorticity and thermal anomalies. These anomalies set up Rossby waves that propagate into the extratropics and impact western North America. Ultimately, Amazon deforestation results in 10%-20% precipitation reductions for the coastal northwest United States and the Sierra Nevada. However, when the Amazon is simulated at coarse resolution, this mechanism is not resolved and precipitation is not reduced in the northwest United States. These results highlight the need for adequate model resolution in modeling the impacts of Amazon deforestation. It is concluded that the deforestation of the Amazon may act as a driver of regional climate change in the extratropics, including areas of the western United States that are agriculturally important. Such ecoclimate teleconnections warrant further investigation.

  2. Surface Soil Preparetion for Leguminous Plants Growing in Degraded Areas by Mining Located in Amazon Forest-Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irio Ribeiro, Admilson; Hashimoto Fengler, Felipe; Araújo de Medeiros, Gerson; Márcia Longo, Regina; Frederici de Mello, Giovanna; José de Melo, Wanderley

    2015-04-01

    The revegetation of areas degraded by mining usually requires adequate mobilization of surface soil for the development of the species to be implemented. Unlike the traditional tillage, which has periodicity, the mobilization of degraded areas for revegetation can only occur at the beginning of the recovery stage. In this sense, the process of revegetation has as purpose the establishment of local native vegetation with least possible use of inputs and superficial tillage in order to catalyze the process of natural ecological succession, promoting the reintegration of areas and minimizing the negative impacts of mining activities in environmental. In this context, this work describes part of a study of land reclamation by tin exploitation in the Amazon ecosystem in the National Forest Jamari- Rondonia Brazil. So, studied the influence of surface soil mobilization in pit mine areas and tailings a view to the implementation of legumes. The results show that the surface has areas of mobilizing a significant effect on the growth of leguminous plants, areas for both mining and to tailings and pit mine areas.

  3. Role of methylmercury exposure (from fish consumption) on growth and neurodevelopment of children under 5 years of age living in a transitioning (tin-mining) area of the western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Rejane C; Dórea, José G; Leão, Renata S; Dos Santos, Verusca G; Bueno, Lucélia; Marques, Rayson C; Brandão, Katiane G; Palermo, Elisabete F A; Guimarães, Jean Remy D

    2012-02-01

    Human occupation of the Amazon region has recently increased, bringing deforestation for agriculture and open-cast mining, activities that cause environmental degradation and pollution. Families of new settlers in mining areas might have a diet less dependent on abundant fish and their children might also be impacted by exposures to mining environments. Therefore, there is compounded interest in assessing young children's nutritional status and neurobehavioral development with regard to family fish consumption. Anthropometric (z-scores, WHO standards) and neurologic [Gesell developmental scores (GDS)] development in 688 preschool children (1-59 months of age) was studied. Overall, the prevalence of malnutrition [i.e., moderate stunting (≤2 H/A-Z), underweight (≤2 W/A-Z), and wasting (≤2 W/H-Z) were respectively 0.3% (n = 2), 1.6% (n = 11), and 2.5% (n = 17). Children's mean hair Hg (HHg) concentration was 2.56 μg/g (SD = 1.67); only 14% of children had HHg concentrations lower than 1 μg/g and 1.7% had ≥5 μg/g. The biomarker of fish consumption was weakly but positively correlated with GDS (Spearman r = 0.080; p = 0.035). In the bivariate model, attained W/H-Z scores were not significantly correlated with GDS. A moderate level of GDS deficits (70-84%) was seen in 20% of children. There was significant correlation between family fish consumption and children's hair Hg (HHg) (Spearman r = 0.1756; p < 0.0001) but no significant correlation between children's HHg and W/H-Z scores. However, the multivariate model showed that breastfeeding, a fish consumption biomarker (HHg), maternal education, and child's age were statistically significant associated with specific domains (language and personal-social) of the Gesell scale. In this mining environment, family fish-eating did not affect children's linear growth, but it showed a positive influence (along with maternal variables) on neurodevelopment. Health hazards attendant on a high prevalence of moderate

  4. The Amazon basin in transition.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Eric A; de Araújo, Alessandro C; Artaxo, Paulo; Balch, Jennifer K; Brown, I Foster; C Bustamante, Mercedes M; Coe, Michael T; DeFries, Ruth S; Keller, Michael; Longo, Marcos; Munger, J William; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Souza, Carlos M; Wofsy, Steven C

    2012-01-18

    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional precipitation patterns and river discharge. Although the basin-wide impacts of land use and drought may not yet surpass the magnitude of natural variability of hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, there are some signs of a transition to a disturbance-dominated regime. These signs include changing energy and water cycles in the southern and eastern portions of the Amazon basin.

  5. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Zoonotic Poxviruses Circulating in the Amazon Region of Colombia, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Usme-Ciro, Jose A.; Paredes, Andrea; Walteros, Diana M.; Tolosa-Pérez, Erica Natalia; Laiton-Donato, Katherine; Pinzón, Maria del Carmen; Petersen, Brett W.; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia F.; Li, Yu; Wilkins, Kimberly; Davidson, Whitni; Gao, Jinxin; Patel, Nishi; Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Reynolds, Mary G.; Satheshkumar, P. S.; Emerson, Ginny L.

    2017-01-01

    During 2014, cutaneous lesions were reported in dairy cattle and farmworkers in the Amazon Region of western Colombia. Samples from 6 patients were analyzed by serologic and PCR testing, and results demonstrated the presence of vaccinia virus and pseudocowpox virus. These findings highlight the need for increased poxvirus surveillance in Colombia. PMID:28322708

  6. GoAmazon – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Dubey, Manvendra Krishna

    2016-09-06

    Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1) moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We will resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional scale high frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil as part of DOE's GoAmazon project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's CLM on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's GOSAT and NASA's imminent OCO-2 satellite (launch date July 2014).

  7. Geochemistry of the Amazon Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smoak, Joseph M.; Krest, James M.; Swarzenski, Peter W

    2006-01-01

    The Amazon River supplies more freshwater to the ocean than any other river in the world. This enormous volume of freshwater forces the estuarine mixing out of the river channel and onto the continental shelf. On the continental shelf, the estuarine mixing occurs in a very dynamic environment unlike that of a typical estuary. The tides, the wind, and the boundary current that sweeps the continental shelf have a pronounced influence on the chemical and biological processes occurring within the estuary. The dynamic environment, along with the enormous supply of water, solutes and particles makes the Amazon estuary unique. This chapter describes the unique features of the Amazon estuary and how these features influence the processes occurring within the estuary. Examined are the supply and cycling of major and minor elements, and the use of naturally occurring radionuclides to trace processes including water movement, scavenging, sediment-water interaction, and sediment accumulation rates. The biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, and the significances of the Amazon estuary in the global mass balance of these elements are examined.

  8. Suspended sediments of the modern Amazon and Orinoco rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meade, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    The Amazon and Orinoco Rivers are massive transcontinental conveyance systems for suspended sediment. They derive about 90% of their sediment from the Andes that support their western headwaters, transport it for thousands of kilometers across the breadth of the continent and deposit it in the coastal zones of the Atlantic. At their points of maximum suspended-sediment discharge, the Amazon transports an average of 1100-1300 ?? 106 tons per year and the Orinoco transports about 150 ?? 106 tons per year. Relations of sediment discharge to water discharge are complicated by unusual patterns of seasonal storage and remobilization, increased storage and reduced transport of sediment in the middle Orinoco during periods of peak water discharge, and storage of suspended sediment in the lower Amazon during rising discharge and resuspension during falling discharge. Spatial distributions of suspended sediment in cross-sections of both rivers are typically heterogeneous, not only in the vertical sense but also in the lateral. The cross-channel mixing of tributary inputs into the mainstem waters is a slow process that requires several hundred kilometers of downriver transport to complete. Considerable fine-grained sediment is exchanged between rivers and floodplains by the combination of overbank deposition and bank erosion. ?? 1994.

  9. The Amazon Region; A Vision of Sovereignty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    or government agency. STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE AMAZON REGION; A VISION OF SOVEREIGNTY BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL EDUARDO JOSE BARBOSA...BARRACKS, PA 17013-5050 USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT The Amazon Region; A vision of Sovereignty by LTC Eduardo Jose Barbosa John Garofano...Distribution is unlimited. DTXG QUikLIxi’ JKsjr.^ 11 ABSTRACT AUTHOR: Eduardo Jose Barbosa TITLE: The Amazon Region; A vision of Sovereignty. FORMAT

  10. Contrasting Patterns of Damage and Recovery in Logged Amazon Forests From Small Footprint LiDAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, D. C.; Keller, M.; Cook, B. D.; Hunter, Maria; Sales, Marcio; Spinelli, L.; Victoria, D.; Andersen, H.-E.; Saleska, S.

    2012-01-01

    Tropical forests ecosystems respond dynamically to climate variability and disturbances on time scales of minutes to millennia. To date, our knowledge of disturbance and recovery processes in tropical forests is derived almost exclusively from networks of forest inventory plots. These plots typically sample small areas (less than or equal to 1 ha) in conservation units that are protected from logging and fire. Amazon forests with frequent disturbances from human activity remain under-studied. Ongoing negotiations on REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation plus enhancing forest carbon stocks) have placed additional emphasis on identifying degraded forests and quantifying changing carbon stocks in both degraded and intact tropical forests. We evaluated patterns of forest disturbance and recovery at four -1000 ha sites in the Brazilian Amazon using small footprint LiDAR data and coincident field measurements. Large area coverage with airborne LiDAR data in 2011-2012 included logged and unmanaged areas in Cotriguacu (Mato Grosso), Fiona do Jamari (Rondonia), and Floresta Estadual do Antimary (Acre), and unmanaged forest within Reserva Ducke (Amazonas). Logging infrastructure (skid trails, log decks, and roads) was identified using LiDAR returns from understory vegetation and validated based on field data. At each logged site, canopy gaps from logging activity and LiDAR metrics of canopy heights were used to quantify differences in forest structure between logged and unlogged areas. Contrasting patterns of harvesting operations and canopy damages at the three logged sites reflect different levels of pre-harvest planning (i.e., informal logging compared to state or national logging concessions), harvest intensity, and site conditions. Finally, we used multi-temporal LiDAR data from two sites, Reserva Ducke (2009, 2012) and Antimary (2010, 2011), to evaluate gap phase dynamics in unmanaged forest areas. The rates and patterns of canopy gap

  11. The Amazon River reversal explained by tectonic and surface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacek, V.

    2014-12-01

    The drainage pattern in Amazonia was expressively modified during the mountain building of central and northern Andes. In Early Miocene, the fluvial systems in western Amazonia flowed to the foreland basins and northward to the Caribbean. By Late Miocene the drainage reversal occurred and formed the transcontinental Amazon River, connecting the Andes and the equatorial Atlantic margin. This event is recorded in the stratigraphic evolution of the Foz do Amazonas Basin by the onset of Andean-derived sedimentation. Additionally, an abrupt increase in sedimentation rate after the reversal occurred in the Foz do Amazonas Basin. Based on three-dimensional numerical models that couple surface processes, flexural isostasy and crustal thickening due to orogeny, I concluded that the Miocene drainage reversal can be explained by the flexural and surface processes response to the Andes formation with no need to invoke dynamic topography induced by mantle convection, as previously proposed. I observed that the instant of drainage reversal is directly linked to the rate of crustal thickening in the orogeny, the rate of erosion and, mainly, the efficiency of sediment transport. Moreover, the numerical experiments were able to predict the increase in sedimentation rate in the Amazon fan after the drainage reversal of the Amazon River as observed in the Late Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary record. However, the present numerical model fails to fully reproduce the evolution of the Pebas system, a megawetland in western Amazonia that preceded the drainage reversal. Therefore, further investigation is necessary to evaluate the mechanisms that generated and sustained the Pebas system.

  12. Severe storms and blow-down disturbances in the Amazon forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espirito-Santo, F. D.; Keller, M.; Braswell, B.; Nelson, B. W.; Vicente, G.; Frolking, S.

    2007-12-01

    Large natural disturbances (> 1 ha) in old-growth tropical forests are caused by a variety of processes such as landslides, fires, wind, and cyclonic storms. We analyzed the pattern of large forest disturbances apparently caused by severe winds (blow-downs) in a mostly unmanaged portion of the Brazilian Amazon using a longitudinal transect of Landsat images (27 scenes between 6°43'W 68°50'S and 2°16'W 51°51'S) and daily precipitation estimates based on NOAA satellite data. We found 170 blow-downs with an average area of 3 km2. Most blow-down disturbances occurred in the Western Amazon between 67°W and 58°W. A map of heavy rainfall (> 20 mm d-1) showed that the maximum frequency of heavy daily rainfall (~80 days y-1) occurred around 63°W in our study region. We found a close relationship between the frequency of heavy storms and the occurrence of blow-down disturbances events. This, in turns, suggests a close connection between severe weather and the rate of forest turnover caused by blow-down disturbances. The forest turnover time calculated for these disturbances within 9 Eastern Landsat scenes studied was almost 9000 years whereas for the 18 scenes in the Western Amazon, turnover time was closer to 1200 year. Large disturbances may have a significant influence on the spatial pattern of forest dynamics and productivity of the Amazon.

  13. Partition of the relative contribution of nitrification and denitrification from Amazon forest soils using a model based on bulk 15N of N2O natural abundance determinations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, T. J.; Trumbore, S. E.; Tyler, S. C.; Park, S.; Boering, K.; Decamargo, P.

    2004-12-01

    Most of the available methods for the determination of the relative contribution of nitrification and denitrification to the soil emitted N2O are invasive. Therefore, they could produce biased results due to the change in soil structure, alteration to the microbial community and substrates. However, the soil community bacterial activity has intrinsic properties such as isotopic fractionation factors that are relative constant through different sets of soil conditions. We took advantage of these bacterial properties and devised a mass balance method for partitioning the relative contribution of each process by using: (1) The 15N enrichment factors for N2O production via nitrification and denitrification for soils (determined previously by acetylene addition soil incubation methods) and (2) the δ 15N-N2O soil emission values from the selected studied soils. We selected soils from a forest soil texture gradient from the Tapajos National Forest (TNF), in the Amazon Basin, Pará State, Brazil and Nova Vida Farm (NV), Rondonia State, Brazil where we had determined the 15N enrichment factors for each microbial process and collected N2O soil emissions for bulk stable isotope analysis during the rainy season of 2002. The soils selected were Oxisol (clay) and Ultison (sandy) at TNF and Latosol (sandy loam) at NV. We found that for all studied soils, the relative contribution of nitrification was smaller than 40 %. This corroborates the assumption that the N2O emitted from Amazon forest is mostly denitrification-derived. The advantage of this method is that is non invasive. However, the uncertainties associated with the method increase when δ 15N-N2O values of emitted N2O are smaller than -25 per mil.

  14. Amazon deforestation and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, J.; Nobre, C.; Sellers, P. )

    1990-03-16

    A coupled numerical model of the global atmosphere and biosphere has been used to assess the effects of Amazon deforestation on the regional and global climate. When the tropical forests in the model were replaced by degraded grass (pasture), there was a significant increase in surface temperature and a decrease in evapotranspiration and precipitation over Amazonia. In the simulation, the length of the dry season also increased; such an increase could make reestablishment of the tropical forests after massive deforestation particularly difficult. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Potential Hydrologic Changes in the Amazon By the End of the 21st Century and the Groundwater Buffer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Y. N.; Fan, Y.; Miguez-Macho, G.

    2014-12-01

    This study contributes to the discussions on the future of the Amazon rainforest under a projected warmer-drier climate from the perspectives of land hydrology. Using IPCC HadGEM2-ES simulations of the present and future Amazon climate to drive a land hydrology model that accounts for groundwater constraint on land drainage, we assess potential hydrologic changes in soil water, evapotranspiration (ET), water table depth, and river discharge, assuming unchanged vegetation. We ask: how will ET regimes shift at the end of the 21st century, and will the groundwater help buffer the anticipated water stress in some places-times? We conducted four 10yr model simulations, at the end of 20th and 21st century, with and without the groundwater. Our model results suggest that, first, over the western and central Amazon, ET will increase due to increased potential evapotranspiration (PET) with warmer temperatures, despite a decrease in soil water; that is, ET will remain atmosphere or demand-limited. Second, in the eastern Amazon dry season, ET will decrease in response to decreasing soil water, despite increasing PET demand; that is, ET in these regions-seasons will remain or become more soil water or supply-limited. Third, the area of water-limited regions will likely expand in the eastern Amazonia, with the dry season, as indicated by soil water store, even drier and longer. Fourth, river discharge will be significantly reduced over the entire Amazon but particularly so in the southeastern Amazon. By contrasting model results with and without the groundwater, we found that the slow soil drainage constrained by a shallow groundwater can buffer soil water stress, particularly in southeastern Amazon dry season. Our model suggests that, if the groundwater buffering effect is accounted for, the future Amazon water stress may be less than projected by most climate models.

  16. Marine environmental changes at the Brazilian equatorial margin related to Amazon River evolution during the Neogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammertsma, Emmy; Troelstra, Simon; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Chemale, Farid, Jr.; do Carmo, Dermeval A.; D'Avila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Today, the nutrient-rich Amazon River outflow causes massive algal blooms in the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean, forming a considerable carbon sink as well as a primary food source in the otherwise oligotrophic surface water. However, the history of this high-productivity system is largely unknown, although a strong relation to the evolution of the Amazon River can be expected. The Amazon submarine fan provides direct evidence for the development of a transcontinental river system, of which the base of the primarily Andean-sourced siliciclastic deposits is dated as late Miocene. Ditch cuttings from Amazon Fan exploration 'Well 2' were made available by Petrobras for microfossil and lithological research. 'Well 2' is located on the uppermost fan at a water depth of 750 meters. Organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst and foraminifer assemblages were studied to reconstruct Neogene marine environmental changes in relation to the Amazon River development. Planktonic foraminifera are present throughout the studied section and largely confirm the already available biostratigraphic age determination based on nannofossils. Benthic foraminifer assemblages indicate that the paleo-water depth has not substantially deviated from current conditions. The ecological affinities of most observed dinocyst taxa are well known, which allows us to reconstruct changes in paleo-productivity based on the assemblages. Mineral composition suggests that local river systems already drained into the Amazon basin before the onset of the transcontinental system, but environmental conditions remained oligotrophic at this time. Decreased abundances of both dinocysts and planktonic foraminifera during the Pleistocene are related to highest sedimentation rates (dilution effect). Overall, a complex interplay of orogenesis, climatic and sea level variations during the Neogene are responsible for the fluvially-induced changes in the marine environment at the Atlantic margin.

  17. Distribution of Aboveground Live Biomass in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, S. S.; Houghton, R. A.; DosSantos Alvala, R. C.; Soares, J. V.; Yu, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The amount and spatial distribution of forest biomass in the Amazon basin is a major source of uncertainty in estimating the flux of carbon released from land-cover and land-use change. Direct measurements of aboveground live biomass (AGLB) are limited to small areas of forest inventory plots and site-specific allometric equations that cannot be readily generalized for the entire basin. Furthermore, there is no spaceborne remote sensing instrument that can measure tropical forest biomass directly. To determine the spatial distribution of forest biomass of the Amazon basin, we report a method based on remote sensing metrics representing various forest structural parameters and environmental variables, and more than 500 plot measurements of forest biomass distributed over the basin. A decision tree approach was used to develop the spatial distribution of AGLB for seven distinct biomass classes of lowland old-growth forests with more than 80% accuracy. AGLB for other vegetation types, such as the woody and herbaceous savanna and secondary forests, was directly estimated with a regression based on satellite data. Results show that AGLB is highest in Central Amazonia and in regions to the east and north, including the Guyanas. Biomass is generally above 300Mgha(sup 1) here except in areas of intense logging or open floodplains. In Western Amazonia, from the lowlands of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia to the Andean mountains, biomass ranges from 150 to 300Mgha(sup 1). Most transitional and seasonal forests at the southern and northwestern edges of the basin have biomass ranging from 100 to 200Mgha(sup 1). The AGLB distribution has a significant correlation with the length of the dry season. We estimate that the total carbon in forest biomass of the Amazon basin, including the dead and below ground biomass, is 86 PgC with +/- 20% uncertainty.

  18. Assessing Mammal Exposure to Climate Change in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Bruno R; Sales, Lilian P; De Marco, Paulo; Loyola, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Human-induced climate change is considered a conspicuous threat to biodiversity in the 21st century. Species' response to climate change depends on their exposition, sensitivity and ability to adapt to novel climates. Exposure to climate change is however uneven within species' range, so that some populations may be more at risk than others. Identifying the regions most exposed to climate change is therefore a first and pivotal step on determining species' vulnerability across their geographic ranges. Here, we aimed at quantifying mammal local exposure to climate change across species' ranges. We identified areas in the Brazilian Amazon where mammals will be critically exposed to non-analogue climates in the future with different variables predicted by 15 global circulation climate forecasts. We also built a null model to assess the effectiveness of the Amazon protected areas in buffering the effects of climate change on mammals, using an innovative and more realistic approach. We found that 85% of species are likely to be exposed to non-analogue climatic conditions in more than 80% of their ranges by 2070. That percentage is even higher for endemic mammals; almost all endemic species are predicted to be exposed in more than 80% of their range. Exposure patterns also varied with different climatic variables and seem to be geographically structured. Western and northern Amazon species are more likely to experience temperature anomalies while northeastern species will be more affected by rainfall abnormality. We also observed an increase in the number of critically-exposed species from 2050 to 2070. Overall, our results indicate that mammals might face high exposure to climate change and that protected areas will probably not be efficient enough to avert those impacts.

  19. Assessing Mammal Exposure to Climate Change in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Bruno R.; Sales, Lilian P.; De Marco, Paulo; Loyola, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Human-induced climate change is considered a conspicuous threat to biodiversity in the 21st century. Species’ response to climate change depends on their exposition, sensitivity and ability to adapt to novel climates. Exposure to climate change is however uneven within species’ range, so that some populations may be more at risk than others. Identifying the regions most exposed to climate change is therefore a first and pivotal step on determining species’ vulnerability across their geographic ranges. Here, we aimed at quantifying mammal local exposure to climate change across species’ ranges. We identified areas in the Brazilian Amazon where mammals will be critically exposed to non-analogue climates in the future with different variables predicted by 15 global circulation climate forecasts. We also built a null model to assess the effectiveness of the Amazon protected areas in buffering the effects of climate change on mammals, using an innovative and more realistic approach. We found that 85% of species are likely to be exposed to non-analogue climatic conditions in more than 80% of their ranges by 2070. That percentage is even higher for endemic mammals; almost all endemic species are predicted to be exposed in more than 80% of their range. Exposure patterns also varied with different climatic variables and seem to be geographically structured. Western and northern Amazon species are more likely to experience temperature anomalies while northeastern species will be more affected by rainfall abnormality. We also observed an increase in the number of critically-exposed species from 2050 to 2070. Overall, our results indicate that mammals might face high exposure to climate change and that protected areas will probably not be efficient enough to avert those impacts. PMID:27829036

  20. An extensive reef system at the Amazon River mouth

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Rodrigo L.; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M.; Moraes, Fernando C.; Brasileiro, Poliana S.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Bastos, Alex C.; Almeida, Marcelo G.; Silva, Jomar M.; Araujo, Beatriz F.; Brito, Frederico P.; Rangel, Thiago P.; Oliveira, Braulio C. V.; Bahia, Ricardo G.; Paranhos, Rodolfo P.; Dias, Rodolfo J. S.; Siegle, Eduardo; Figueiredo, Alberto G.; Pereira, Renato C.; Leal, Camille V.; Hajdu, Eduardo; Asp, Nils E.; Gregoracci, Gustavo B.; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid; Yager, Patricia L.; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Fróes, Adriana; Campeão, Mariana; Silva, Bruno S.; Moreira, Ana P. B.; Oliveira, Louisi; Soares, Ana C.; Araujo, Lais; Oliveira, Nara L.; Teixeira, João B.; Valle, Rogerio A. B.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2016-01-01

    Large rivers create major gaps in reef distribution along tropical shelves. The Amazon River represents 20% of the global riverine discharge to the ocean, generating up to a 1.3 × 106–km2 plume, and extensive muddy bottoms in the equatorial margin of South America. As a result, a wide area of the tropical North Atlantic is heavily affected in terms of salinity, pH, light penetration, and sedimentation. Such unfavorable conditions were thought to imprint a major gap in Western Atlantic reefs. We present an extensive carbonate system off the Amazon mouth, underneath the river plume. Significant carbonate sedimentation occurred during lowstand sea level, and still occurs in the outer shelf, resulting in complex hard-bottom topography. A permanent near-bottom wedge of ocean water, together with the seasonal nature of the plume’s eastward retroflection, conditions the existence of this extensive (~9500 km2) hard-bottom mosaic. The Amazon reefs transition from accretive to erosional structures and encompass extensive rhodolith beds. Carbonate structures function as a connectivity corridor for wide depth–ranging reef-associated species, being heavily colonized by large sponges and other structure-forming filter feeders that dwell under low light and high levels of particulates. The oxycline between the plume and subplume is associated with chemoautotrophic and anaerobic microbial metabolisms. The system described here provides several insights about the responses of tropical reefs to suboptimal and marginal reef-building conditions, which are accelerating worldwide due to global changes. PMID:27152336

  1. Jotï ecogony, Venezuelan Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zent, Egleé L.

    2013-03-01

    The current environmental crisis permeates the discourse and concerns of people all over the world. Consideration of diverse environmental ethics showing the alternative ways in which people conceptualize and relate to nature and natural resources are critical for bringing about more sustainable human behaviors. After a brief review of Western historical notions of nature, this work explores the ecogony, or causal reasons, that trigger the behavior of the Jotï, an Amerindian people of the Venezuelan Amazon, with other entities and the forest that they inhabit. The analysis presented synthesizes 15 years of transdisciplinary ethno-ecological research comprising quantitative and qualitative methods (collection of herbarium voucher specimens, floristic inventories in forest plots, structured interviews focused on plot vegetation, semi-structured interviews of life-histories, participant observation, time allocation studies, food resource accounting, focal person following observations, garden crop inventories and censuses, mapping of wild resource harvest locations, among others). Jotï pragmatic and ideological tenets generate a distinctive environmental ethics based on ecogonic nodes. Notions of interdependence, humanity and person are articulated on a daily basis through several dynamics: (1) hyper-awareness of all living things’ dependence on each other and other elements of the biophysical environment at macroscales and microscales, (2) the construction of human spiritual, conscious, physical and agentive constituents from a variety of diverse botanical and zoological species and mineral components of their homeland, and (3) an understanding of the aggregate surroundings, including a significant portion of the biotic and abiotic components, as potential subjects with awareness, creativity and moral stances. This condition of interdependence confers rights and duties on all the parts. Jotï horizontal communications with and among life-forms sustain their

  2. Origin, transport and deposition of leaf-wax biomarkers in the Amazon Basin and the adjacent Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häggi, Christoph; Sawakuchi, André O.; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Mulitza, Stefan; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Sawakuchi, Henrique O.; Baker, Paul A.; Zabel, Matthias; Schefuß, Enno

    2016-11-01

    Paleoenvironmental studies based on terrigenous biomarker proxies from sediment cores collected close to the mouth of large river systems rely on a proper understanding of the processes controlling origin, transport and deposition of biomarkers. Here, we contribute to the understanding of these processes by analyzing long-chain n-alkanes from the Amazon River system. We use the δD composition of long-chain n-alkanes from river bed sediments from the Amazon River and its major tributaries, as well as marine core-top samples collected off northeastern South America as tracers for different source areas. The δ13C composition of the same compounds is used to differentiate between long-chain n-alkanes from modern forest vegetation and petrogenic organic matter. Our δ13C results show depleted δ13C values (-33 to -36‰) in most samples, indicating a modern forest source for most of the samples. Enriched values (-31 to -33‰) are only found in a few samples poor in organic carbon indicating minor contributions from a fossil petrogenic source. Long-chain n-alkane δD analyses show more depleted values for the western tributaries, the Madeira and Solimões Rivers (-152 to -168‰), while n-alkanes from the lowland tributaries, the Negro, Xingu and Tocantins Rivers (-142 to -154‰), yield more enriched values. The n-alkane δD values thus reflect the mean annual isotopic composition of precipitation, which is most deuterium-depleted in the western Amazon Basin and more enriched in the eastern sector of the basin. Samples from the Amazon estuary show a mixed long-chain n-alkane δD signal from both eastern lowland and western tributaries. Marine core-top samples underlying the Amazon freshwater plume yield δD values similar to those from the Amazon estuary, while core-top samples from outside the plume showed more enriched values. Although the variability in the river bed data precludes quantitative assessment of relative contributions, our results indicate that long

  3. Amazon Forest Responses to Drought and Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    Deforestation and agricultural land uses provide a consistent source of ignitions along the Amazon frontier during the dry season. The risk of understory fires in Amazon forests is amplified by drought conditions, when fires at the forest edge may spread for weeks before rains begin. Fire activity also impacts the regional response of intact forests to drought through diffuse light effects and nutrient redistribution, highlighting the complexity of feedbacks in this coupled human and natural system. This talk will focus on recent advances in our understanding of fire-climate feedbacks in the Amazon, building on research themes initiated under NASA's Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). NASA's LBA program began in the wake of the 1997-1998 El Niño, a strong event that exposed the vulnerability of Amazon forests to drought and fire under current climate and projections of climate change. With forecasts of another strong El Niño event in 2015-2016, this talk will provide a multi-scale synthesis of Amazon forest responses to drought and fire based on field measurements, airborne lidar data, and satellite observations of fires, rainfall, and terrestrial water storage. These studies offer new insights into the mechanisms governing fire season severity in the southern Amazon and regional variability in carbon losses from understory fires. The contributions from remote sensing to our understanding of drought and fire in Amazon forests reflect the legacy of NASA's LBA program and the sustained commitment to interdisciplinary research across the Amazon region.

  4. Severe convection features in the Amazon Basin: a TRMM-based 15-year evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira Nunes, Ana; Silva Dias, Maria; Anselmo, Evandro; Rodriguez, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall in the Amazon Basin is very heterogeneous, mainly because the area encompassed is quite large. Among the systems responsible for rainfall, some stand out as extreme storm events. This study presents a criterion for identifying potentially severe convection in the Amazon region from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) database, specifically from Precipitation Features (PF) - 1998-2012 - generated and stored by the University of Utah. The seasonal and spatial distributions are similar to distributions of Mesoscale Convective Systems already catalogued in previous studies based on GOES satellite images. The seasons with the highest number of cases are austral spring, winter, and fall. With the Amazon region divided into six subregions and cases accumulated by quarter (JFM, AMJ, JAS, OND) the south of the Amazon subregion (SA) accounts for the largest number of cases with the OND quarter with higher occurrence and the lowest in AMJ. Different diurnal cycles of potentially severe convection are observed across the region with the more western areas, closer to the Andes, favoring nighttime cases, especially in the austral spring and summer. The diurnal cycle of the number of the most extreme cases is more pronounced than the diurnal cycle when a large collection of deep convection cases are included.

  5. The Late Miocene paleogeography of the Amazon Basin and the evolution of the Amazon River system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M.; Cozzuol, Mario; da Silva-Caminha, Silane A. F.; Rigsby, Catherine A.; Absy, Maria Lucia; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    On the basis of paleontological content (vertebrates and palynology) and facies analysis from river banks, road cuts, and three wells, we have assigned the uppermost levels of the Solimões Formation in western Amazonia, Brazil, to the Late Miocene. The vertebrate fossil record from outcropping sediments is assigned to the Huayquerian-Mesopotamian mammalian biozones, spanning 9-6.5 Ma. Additionally, we present results that demonstrate that deposits in Peruvian Amazonia attributed to Miocene tidal environments are actually fluvial sediments that have been misinterpreted (both environmentally and chronologically) by several authors. The entire Late Miocene sequence was deposited in a continental environment within a subsiding basin. The facies analysis, fossil fauna content, and palynological record indicate that the environment of deposition was dominated by avulsive rivers associated with megafan systems, and avulsive rivers in flood basins (swamps, lakes, internal deltas, and splays). Soils developed on the flatter, drier areas, which were dominated by grasslands and gallery forest in a tropical to subtropical climate. These Late Miocene sediments were deposited from westward of the Purus arch up to the border of Brazil with Peru (Divisor Ranges) and Bolivia (Pando block). Eastward of the Iquitos structural high, however, more detailed studies, including vertebrate paleontology, need to be performed to calibrate with more precision the ages of the uppermost levels of the Solimões Formation. The evolution of the basin during the late Miocene is mainly related to the tectonic behavior of the Central Andes (˜ 3°-15°S). At approximately 5 Ma, a segment of low angle of subduction was well developed in the Nazca Plate, and the deformation in the Subandean foreland produced the inland reactivation of the Divisor/Contamana Ranges and tectonic arrangements in the Eastern Andes. During the Pliocene southwestern Brazilian Amazonia ceased to be an effective sedimentary

  6. Pattern and process in Amazon tree turnover, 1976-2001.

    PubMed

    Phillips, O L; Baker, T R; Arroyo, L; Higuchi, N; Killeen, T J; Laurance, W F; Lewis, S L; Lloyd, J; Malhi, Y; Monteagudo, A; Neill, D A; Vargas, P Núñez; Silva, J N M; Terborgh, J; Martínez, R Vásquez; Alexiades, M; Almeida, S; Brown, S; Chave, J; Comiskey, J A; Czimczik, C I; Di Fiore, A; Erwin, T; Kuebler, C; Laurance, S G; Nascimento, H E M; Olivier, J; Palacios, W; Patiño, S; Pitman, N C A; Quesada, C A; Saldias, M; Lezama, A Torres; Vinceti, B

    2004-03-29

    Previous work has shown that tree turnover, tree biomass and large liana densities have increased in mature tropical forest plots in the late twentieth century. These results point to a concerted shift in forest ecological processes that may already be having significant impacts on terrestrial carbon stocks, fluxes and biodiversity. However, the findings have proved controversial, partly because a rather limited number of permanent plots have been monitored for rather short periods. The aim of this paper is to characterize regional-scale patterns of 'tree turnover' (the rate with which trees die and recruit into a population) by using improved datasets now available for Amazonia that span the past 25 years. Specifically, we assess whether concerted changes in turnover are occurring, and if so whether they are general throughout the Amazon or restricted to one region or environmental zone. In addition, we ask whether they are driven by changes in recruitment, mortality or both. We find that: (i) trees 10 cm or more in diameter recruit and die twice as fast on the richer soils of southern and western Amazonia than on the poorer soils of eastern and central Amazonia; (ii) turnover rates have increased throughout Amazonia over the past two decades; (iii) mortality and recruitment rates have both increased significantly in every region and environmental zone, with the exception of mortality in eastern Amazonia; (iv) recruitment rates have consistently exceeded mortality rates; (v) absolute increases in recruitment and mortality rates are greatest in western Amazonian sites; and (vi) mortality appears to be lagging recruitment at regional scales. These spatial patterns and temporal trends are not caused by obvious artefacts in the data or the analyses. The trends cannot be directly driven by a mortality driver (such as increased drought or fragmentation-related death) because the biomass in these forests has simultaneously increased. Our findings therefore indicate that

  7. Pattern and process in Amazon tree turnover, 1976-2001.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, O L; Baker, T R; Arroyo, L; Higuchi, N; Killeen, T J; Laurance, W F; Lewis, S L; Lloyd, J; Malhi, Y; Monteagudo, A; Neill, D A; Vargas, P Núñez; Silva, J N M; Terborgh, J; Martínez, R Vásquez; Alexiades, M; Almeida, S; Brown, S; Chave, J; Comiskey, J A; Czimczik, C I; Di Fiore, A; Erwin, T; Kuebler, C; Laurance, S G; Nascimento, H E M; Olivier, J; Palacios, W; Patiño, S; Pitman, N C A; Quesada, C A; Saldias, M; Lezama, A Torres; Vinceti, B

    2004-01-01

    Previous work has shown that tree turnover, tree biomass and large liana densities have increased in mature tropical forest plots in the late twentieth century. These results point to a concerted shift in forest ecological processes that may already be having significant impacts on terrestrial carbon stocks, fluxes and biodiversity. However, the findings have proved controversial, partly because a rather limited number of permanent plots have been monitored for rather short periods. The aim of this paper is to characterize regional-scale patterns of 'tree turnover' (the rate with which trees die and recruit into a population) by using improved datasets now available for Amazonia that span the past 25 years. Specifically, we assess whether concerted changes in turnover are occurring, and if so whether they are general throughout the Amazon or restricted to one region or environmental zone. In addition, we ask whether they are driven by changes in recruitment, mortality or both. We find that: (i) trees 10 cm or more in diameter recruit and die twice as fast on the richer soils of southern and western Amazonia than on the poorer soils of eastern and central Amazonia; (ii) turnover rates have increased throughout Amazonia over the past two decades; (iii) mortality and recruitment rates have both increased significantly in every region and environmental zone, with the exception of mortality in eastern Amazonia; (iv) recruitment rates have consistently exceeded mortality rates; (v) absolute increases in recruitment and mortality rates are greatest in western Amazonian sites; and (vi) mortality appears to be lagging recruitment at regional scales. These spatial patterns and temporal trends are not caused by obvious artefacts in the data or the analyses. The trends cannot be directly driven by a mortality driver (such as increased drought or fragmentation-related death) because the biomass in these forests has simultaneously increased. Our findings therefore indicate that

  8. Business as Usual: Amazon.com and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ullen, Mary K.; Germain, Carol Anne

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Steve Coffman proposed that libraries form a single interlibrary loan based entity patterned after Amazon.com. This study examined the suitability of Amazon.com's Web interface and record enhancements for academic libraries. Amazon.com could not deliver circulating monographs in the University at Albany Libraries' collection quickly…

  9. Diagnosing nonlinearities in the local and remote responses to partial Amazon deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badger, Andrew M.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.

    2016-08-01

    Using a set of fully coupled climate model simulations, the response to partial deforestation over the Amazon due to agricultural expansion has been analyzed. Three variations of 50% deforestation (all of western half, all of eastern half, and half of each grid box) were compared with total deforestation to determine the degree and character of nonlinearity of the climate response to partial deforestation. A metric is developed to quantify the degree and distribution of nonlinearity in the response, applicable to any variable. The metric also quantifies whether the response is saturating or accelerating, meaning significantly either more or less than 50% of the simulated response to total deforestation is attained at 50% deforestation. The spatial structure of the atmospheric response to Amazon deforestation reveals large areas across the tropics that exhibit a significant nonlinear component, particularly for temperature and geopotential height. Over the domain between 45°S and 45°N across all longitudes, 50% deforestation generally provides less than half of the total response to deforestation over oceans, indicating the marine portion of climate system is somewhat resilient to progressive deforestation. However, over continents there are both accelerating and saturating responses to 50% Amazon deforestation, and the response is different depending on whether the eastern or western half of Amazonia is deforested or half of the forest is removed uniformly across the region.

  10. Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo Silveira; Nepstad, Daniel Curtis; Curran, Lisa M; Cerqueira, Gustavo Coutinho; Garcia, Ricardo Alexandrino; Ramos, Claudia Azevedo; Voll, Eliane; McDonald, Alice; Lefebvre, Paul; Schlesinger, Peter

    2006-03-23

    Expansion of the cattle and soy industries in the Amazon basin has increased deforestation rates and will soon push all-weather highways into the region's core. In the face of this growing pressure, a comprehensive conservation strategy for the Amazon basin should protect its watersheds, the full range of species and ecosystem diversity, and the stability of regional climates. Here we report that protected areas in the Amazon basin--the central feature of prevailing conservation approaches--are an important but insufficient component of this strategy, based on policy-sensitive simulations of future deforestation. By 2050, current trends in agricultural expansion will eliminate a total of 40% of Amazon forests, including at least two-thirds of the forest cover of six major watersheds and 12 ecoregions, releasing 32 +/- 8 Pg of carbon to the atmosphere. One-quarter of the 382 mammalian species examined will lose more than 40% of the forest within their Amazon ranges. Although an expanded and enforced network of protected areas could avoid as much as one-third of this projected forest loss, conservation on private lands is also essential. Expanding market pressures for sound land management and prevention of forest clearing on lands unsuitable for agriculture are critical ingredients of a strategy for comprehensive conservation.

  11. The Effects of Amazon Deforestation on Rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor); Negri, Andrew J.; Adler, Robert F.; Surratt, Jason

    2002-01-01

    This study begins with the hypothesis that heavily deforested regions will experience increased surface heating, leading to local circulations that will ultimately enhance the rainfall, or at least, change the pattern of diurnal evolution of rainfall. This would be an important finding because several modeling studies have concluded that widespread deforestation would lead to decreased rainfall. Towards that end rain estimates from a combined GOES infrared/TRMM microwave technique were analyzed with respect to percent forest cover from Landsat data (courtesy of TRFIC at Michigan State University) and GOES visible channel data over a deforested area in Rondonia (southwest Brazil). Five 1" x 1" areas of varying forest cover were examined during the onset of the wet season in Amazonia (Aug-Sept), when the effects of the surface would not be dominated by large-scale synoptic weather patterns. Preliminary results revealed that: maximum rainfall fell in most deforested area; heavily forested areas received the least rainfall; cumulus cloud development initiated at borders; the amplitude of the diurnal cycle of precipitation was a function of th surface cover. Further work will be presented detailing effects of land surface cover on the GOES infrared-measured surface heating, GOES visible observed cumulus development, thunderstorm initiation based on the location of temperature minima in the infrared data, and estimated rainfall and its diurnal cycle from a combined GOES/TRMM technique. Rainfall estimates derived from non-geosynchronous microwave observations (i.e. Goddard Profiling Algorithm, GPROF) will also be examined.

  12. Modelling basin-wide variations in Amazon forest photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado, Lina; Lloyd, Jon; Domingues, Tomas; Fyllas, Nikolaos; Patino, Sandra; Dolman, Han; Sitch, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Given the importance of Amazon rainforest in the global carbon and hydrological cycles, there is a need to use parameterized and validated ecosystem gas exchange and vegetation models for this region in order to adequately simulate present and future carbon and water balances. Recent research has found major differences in above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP), above ground biomass and tree dynamics across Amazonia. West Amazonia is more dynamic, with younger trees, higher stem growth rates and lower biomass than central and eastern Amazon (Baker et al. 2004; Malhi et al. 2004; Phillips et al. 2004). A factor of three variation in above-ground net primary productivity has been estimated across Amazonia by Malhi et al. (2004). Different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed spatial variability in ANPP (Malhi et al. 2004). First, due to the proximity to the Andes, sites from western Amazonia tend to have richer soils than central and eastern Amazon and therefore soil fertility could possibly be highly related to the high wood productivity found in western sites. Second, if GPP does not vary across the Amazon basin then different patterns of carbon allocation to respiration could also explain the observed ANPP gradient. However since plant growth depends on the interaction between photosynthesis, transport of assimilates, plant respiration, water relations and mineral nutrition, variations in plant gross photosynthesis (GPP) could also explain the observed variations in ANPP. In this study we investigate whether Amazon GPP can explain variations of observed ANPP. We use a sun and shade canopy gas exchange model that has been calibrated and evaluated at five rainforest sites (Mercado et al. 2009) to simulate gross primary productivity of 50 sites across the Amazon basin during the period 1980-2001. Such simulation differs from the ones performed with global vegetation models (Cox et al. 1998; Sitch et al. 2003) where i) single plant functional

  13. The Amazon, measuring a mighty river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1967-01-01

    The Amazon, the world's largest river, discharges enough water into the sea each day to provide fresh water to the City of New York for over 9 years. Its flow accounts for about 15 percent of all the fresh water discharged into the oceans by all the rivers of the world. By comparison, the Amazon's flow is over 4 times that of the Congo River, the world's second largest river. And it is 10 times that of the Mississippi, the largest river on the North American Continent.

  14. Biomass burning aerosol over the Amazon during SAMBBA: impact of chemical composition on radiative properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, William; Allan, James; Flynn, Michael; Darbyshire, Eoghan; Hodgson, Amy; Liu, Dantong; O'shea, Sebastian; Bauguitte, Stephane; Szpek, Kate; Langridge, Justin; Johnson, Ben; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Artaxo, Paulo; Coe, Hugh

    2014-05-01

    Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, resulting in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious impacts on public health. Globally, biomass burning aerosols are thought to exert a small warming effect but with the uncertainty being 4 times greater than the central estimate. On regional scales, the impact is substantially greater, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months. Absorption by atmospheric aerosols is underestimated by models over South America, which points to significant uncertainties relating to Black Carbon (BC) aerosol properties. Initial results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft, are presented here. Aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and a DMT Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass burning on regional air quality, weather and climate. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions including sampling of pristine Rainforest, fresh biomass burning plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass burning layers within the free troposphere. The aircraft sampled biomass burning aerosol across the southern Amazon in the states of Rondonia and Mato Grosso, as well as in a Cerrado (Savannah-like) region in Tocantins state. This presented a range of fire conditions, both in terms of their number, intensity, vegetation-type and their combustion efficiencies. Near-source sampling of fires in Rainforest environments suggested that smouldering combustion dominated, while flaming combustion dominated

  15. Black carbon over the Amazon during SAMBBA: it gets everywhere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, W.; Allan, J. D.; Flynn, M.; Darbyshire, E.; Liu, D.; Szpek, K.; Langridge, J.; Johnson, B. T.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Artaxo, P.; Coe, H.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning represents a major source of Black Carbon (BC) aerosol to the atmosphere, which can result in major perturbations to weather, climate and ecosystem development. Large uncertainties in these impacts prevail, particularly on regional scales. One such region is the Amazon Basin, where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis during the dry season. Absorption by atmospheric aerosols is underestimated by models over South America, which points to significant uncertainties relating to BC aerosol properties. Results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft, are presented here. Aerosol chemical composition was measured by a DMT Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) and an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). The physical, chemical and optical properties of BC-containing particles across the region will be characterised, with particular emphasis on the vertical distribution. BC was ubiquitous across the region, with measurements extending from heavily deforested regions in the Western Amazon Basin, through to agricultural fires in the Cerrado (Savannah-like) region and more pristine areas over the Amazon Rainforest. Measurements in the vicinity of Manaus (a city located deep into the jungle) were also conducted. BC concentrations peaked within the boundary layer at a height of around 1.5km. BC-containing particles were found to be rapidly coated in the near-field, with little evidence for additional coating upon advection and dilution. Biomass burning layers within the free troposphere were routinely observed. BC-containing particles within such layers were typically associated with less coating than those within the boundary layer, suggestive of wet removal of more coated BC particles. The importance of such properties in relation to the

  16. Vaccinia virus infection in monkeys, Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Abrahão, Jônatas S; Silva-Fernandes, André T; Lima, Larissa S; Campos, Rafael K; Guedes, Maria I M C; Cota, Marcela M G; Assis, Felipe L; Borges, Iara A; Souza-Júnior, Milton F; Lobato, Zélia I P; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Ferreira, Paulo C P; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G

    2010-06-01

    To detect orthopoxvirus in the Brazilian Amazon, we conducted a serosurvey of 344 wild animals. Neutralizing antibodies against orthopoxvirus were detected by plaque-reduction neutralizing tests in 84 serum samples. Amplicons from 6 monkey samples were sequenced. These amplicons identified vaccinia virus genetically similar to strains from bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil.

  17. Principal Connection / Amazon and the Whole Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerr, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    A recent controversy over Amazon's culture has strong implications for the whole child approach, and it offers powerful lessons for principals. A significant difference between the culture of so many businesses today and the culture at good schools is that in good schools, the welfare of the employees is very important. Student success is the…

  18. Polycystic echinococcosis in Pacas, Amazon region, Peru.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Pedro; Baquedano, Laura E; Sanchez, Elisabeth; Aramburu, Javier; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Mamani, Victor J; Gavidia, Cesar M

    2015-03-01

    In the Peruvian Amazon, paca meat is consumed by humans. To determine human risk for polycystic echinococcosis, we examined wild pacas from 2 villages; 15 (11.7%) of 128 were infected with Echinococcus vogeli tapeworms. High E. vogeli prevalence among pacas indicates potential risk for humans living in E. vogeli-contaminated areas.

  19. Polycystic Echinococcosis in Pacas, Amazon Region, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Mayor, Pedro; Baquedano, Laura E.; Sanchez, Elisabeth; Aramburu, Javier; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A.; Mamani, Victor J.

    2015-01-01

    In the Peruvian Amazon, paca meat is consumed by humans. To determine human risk for polycystic echinococcosis, we examined wild pacas from 2 villages; 15 (11.7%) of 128 were infected with Echinococcus vogeli tapeworms. High E. vogeli prevalence among pacas indicates potential risk for humans living in E. vogeli–contaminated areas. PMID:25695937

  20. Amazon Flooded Forest. Teacher Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, Todd

    This teacher's resource guide was created to accompany the Amazon Flooded Forest exhibit at the Oregon Zoo. The enclosed lessons and activities are designed to extend into several aspects of daily curriculum including science, math, reading, writing, speaking, and geography. The materials are intended for use in grades 3-6 although most activities…

  1. Vaccinia Virus Infection in Monkeys, Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Abrahão, Jônatas S.; Silva-Fernandes, André T.; Lima, Larissa S.; Campos, Rafael K.; Guedes, Maria I.M.C.; Cota, Marcela M.G.; Assis, Felipe L.; Borges, Iara A.; Souza-Júnior, Milton F.; Lobato, Zélia I.P.; Bonjardim, Cláudio A.; Ferreira, Paulo C.P.; Trindade, Giliane S.

    2010-01-01

    To detect orthopoxvirus in the Brazilian Amazon, we conducted a serosurvey of 344 wild animals. Neutralizing antibodies against orthopoxvirus were detected by plaque-reduction neutralizing tests in 84 serum samples. Amplicons from 6 monkey samples were sequenced. These amplicons identified vaccinia virus genetically similar to strains from bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil. PMID:20507750

  2. Exploring the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto with Imaging Radar: Understanding the Origins of the Modern Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, K. C.; Campbell, K.; Islam, R.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Cracraft, J.

    2013-12-01

    Amazonia is Earth's most iconic center of biological diversity and endemism and, owing to its contributions to global systems ecology, is arguably Earth's most important terrestrial biome . Amazonia includes a vast landscape of mostly lowland rainforest found in Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Venezuela. It harbors the world's highest species diversity, the largest fresh-water ecosystem in the world, and contributes substantially to shaping the Earth's atmospheric gasses and oceans and consequently its climate. Despite this global importance, we still have an incomplete understanding of how this biodiversity-rich biome developed over time. Knowing its history is crucially important for understanding how the short and long-term effects of biodiversity loss and climate change will impact the region, and the globe, in the future. Hence, we seek to understand the evolutionary and environmental-ecological history of Amazonia over the past 10 million years through a comparative approach that integrates across the disciplines of systematic biology, population biology, ecosystem structure and function, geology, Earth systems modeling and remote sensing, and paleoenvironmental history. During springtime 2013, the NASA/JPL airborne imaging radar, UAVSAR, conducted airborne studies over many regions of South America including portions of the western Amazon basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery acquired over the Madre de Dios region of southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology of the Amazon's planalto, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and its relationship to geologic processes through deep time. In the late Neogene, the Amazonian lowlands comprised either a series of independent basins or a single sedimentary basin. The Amazonian planalto is variously described as either an erosional surface or a surface of deposition. We employ UAVSAR data collections to assess (1) the utility of these high quality imaging radar

  3. Hydroclimate changes across the Amazon lowlands over the past 45,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianfeng; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Auler, Augusto S.; Cheng, Hai; Kong, Xinggong; Wang, Yongjin; Cruz, Francisco W.; Dorale, Jeffrey A.; Chiang, Hong-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Reconstructing the history of tropical hydroclimates has been difficult, particularly for the Amazon basin—one of Earth’s major centres of deep atmospheric convection. For example, whether the Amazon basin was substantially drier or remained wet during glacial times has been controversial, largely because most study sites have been located on the periphery of the basin, and because interpretations can be complicated by sediment preservation, uncertainties in chronology, and topographical setting. Here we show that rainfall in the basin responds closely to changes in glacial boundary conditions in terms of temperature and atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide. Our results are based on a decadally resolved, uranium/thorium-dated, oxygen isotopic record for much of the past 45,000 years, obtained using speleothems from Paraíso Cave in eastern Amazonia; we interpret the record as being broadly related to precipitation. Relative to modern levels, precipitation in the region was about 58% during the Last Glacial Maximum (around 21,000 years ago) and 142% during the mid-Holocene epoch (about 6,000 years ago). We find that, as compared with cave records from the western edge of the lowlands, the Amazon was widely drier during the last glacial period, with much less recycling of water and probably reduced plant transpiration, although the rainforest persisted throughout this time.

  4. Hydroclimate changes across the Amazon lowlands over the past 45,000 years.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianfeng; Edwards, R Lawrence; Auler, Augusto S; Cheng, Hai; Kong, Xinggong; Wang, Yongjin; Cruz, Francisco W; Dorale, Jeffrey A; Chiang, Hong-Wei

    2017-01-11

    Reconstructing the history of tropical hydroclimates has been difficult, particularly for the Amazon basin-one of Earth's major centres of deep atmospheric convection. For example, whether the Amazon basin was substantially drier or remained wet during glacial times has been controversial, largely because most study sites have been located on the periphery of the basin, and because interpretations can be complicated by sediment preservation, uncertainties in chronology, and topographical setting. Here we show that rainfall in the basin responds closely to changes in glacial boundary conditions in terms of temperature and atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide. Our results are based on a decadally resolved, uranium/thorium-dated, oxygen isotopic record for much of the past 45,000 years, obtained using speleothems from Paraíso Cave in eastern Amazonia; we interpret the record as being broadly related to precipitation. Relative to modern levels, precipitation in the region was about 58% during the Last Glacial Maximum (around 21,000 years ago) and 142% during the mid-Holocene epoch (about 6,000 years ago). We find that, as compared with cave records from the western edge of the lowlands, the Amazon was widely drier during the last glacial period, with much less recycling of water and probably reduced plant transpiration, although the rainforest persisted throughout this time.

  5. The legacy of cultural landscapes in the Brazilian Amazon: implications for biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Heckenberger, Michael J; Russell, J Christian; Toney, Joshua R; Schmidt, Morgan J

    2007-02-28

    For centuries Amazonia has held the Western scientific and popular imagination as a primordial forest, only minimally impacted by small, simple and dispersed groups that inhabit the region. Studies in historical ecology refute this view. Rather than pristine tropical forest, some areas are better viewed as constructed or 'domesticated' landscapes, dramatically altered by indigenous groups in the past. This paper reviews recent archaeological research in several areas along the Amazon River with evidence of large pre-European (ca 400-500 calendar years before the present) occupations and large-scale transformations of forest and wetland environments. Research from the southern margins of closed tropical forest, in the headwaters of the Xingu River, are highlighted as an example of constructed nature in the Amazon. In all cases, human influences dramatically altered the distribution, frequency and configurations of biological communities and ecological settings. Findings of historical change and cultural variability, including diverse small to medium-sized complex societies, have clear implications for questions of conservation and sustainability and, specifically, what constitutes 'hotspots' of bio-historical diversity in the Amazon region.

  6. Variations in Amazon forest productivity correlated with foliar nutrients and modelled rates of photosynthetic carbon supply.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Lina M; Patiño, Sandra; Domingues, Tomas F; Fyllas, Nikolaos M; Weedon, Graham P; Sitch, Stephen; Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Phillips, Oliver L; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Malhi, Yadvinder; Dolman, A J; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Saleska, Scott R; Baker, Timothy R; Almeida, Samuel; Higuchi, Niro; Lloyd, Jon

    2011-11-27

    The rate of above-ground woody biomass production, W(P), in some western Amazon forests exceeds those in the east by a factor of 2 or more. Underlying causes may include climate, soil nutrient limitations and species composition. In this modelling paper, we explore the implications of allowing key nutrients such as N and P to constrain the photosynthesis of Amazon forests, and also we examine the relationship between modelled rates of photosynthesis and the observed gradients in W(P). We use a model with current understanding of the underpinning biochemical processes as affected by nutrient availability to assess: (i) the degree to which observed spatial variations in foliar [N] and [P] across Amazonia affect stand-level photosynthesis; and (ii) how these variations in forest photosynthetic carbon acquisition relate to the observed geographical patterns of stem growth across the Amazon Basin. We find nutrient availability to exert a strong effect on photosynthetic carbon gain across the Basin and to be a likely important contributor to the observed gradient in W(P). Phosphorus emerges as more important than nitrogen in accounting for the observed variations in productivity. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of future tropical forests under a changing climate.

  7. Patterns of diversification in the discus fishes (Symphysodon spp. Cichlidae) of the Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Farias, Izeni Pires; Hrbek, Tomas

    2008-10-01

    We carried out a phylogeograhic and population genetic analysis of fishes of the taxonomically contentious genus Symphysodon from the Amazon basin in order to test hypotheses of relationships among taxonomic units, and potential processes driving diversification within this genus. We sampled 334 individuals of the genus Symphysodon from 24 localities that span the complete geographic distribution of this genus. The sampling scheme included all known phenotypic groups, species and subspecies. Analyses were based on 474 bp of the mitochondrial control region and 1443 bp of the exon 3 of RAG1 gene. We observed 102 mtDNA haplotypes defined by 89 segregating sites, and 5 nuDNA alleles defined by three segregating sites. Maximum-likelihood, Bayesian-inference and statistical parsimony analyses revealed three well defined monophyletic groups. These clades corresponded to the 'green' and 'blue' groups of Symphysodon aequifasciatus, and to a previously morphologically unrecognized clade from the Xingu River drainage. These three clades were nested within a paraphyletic assemblage consisting of the 'brown' group of S. aequifasciatus and of both described subspecies of S. discus, the 'Heckel' and the 'abacaxi' discus. Nuclear allele sharing was observed among groups, but there were significant differences in frequencies. We inferred several processes including past fragmentation among groups, and restricted gene flow with isolation by distance within the paraphyletic 'brown+Heckel+abacaxi' groups, and suggest that differences among the 'blue', 'Heckel' and 'brown' groups are potentially maintained by differences in water chemistry preferences. We further inferred colonization of the western Amazon basin by an ancestor of the 'green' clade. The 'green' group was the only group with a pattern of haplotype distribution consistent of a demographic expansion, and the divergence of this clade from other groups of discus was consistent with recent geologic evidence on the breach of

  8. Up-regulation of Amazon forest photosynthesis precedes elevated mortality under drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleska, S. R.; Christoffersen, B. O.; Longo, M.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Alves, L. F.; Wiedemann, K. T.; Stark, S. C.; Hayek, M.; Wu, J.; Munger, J. W.; Meir, P.; Oliveira Junior, R. C.; da Silva, R.; Camargo, P. B. D.

    2015-12-01

    Coupled climate-carbon cycle models indicate that Amazon forests may be vulnerable to drought, with some predicting drought-induced collapse of the Amazon forest and conversion to savanna, under future climate change. While much progress has been made in understanding tropical forest drought response, a holistic picture encompassing both short-term physiological (e.g., photosynthesis) and longer term demographic responses (e.g., mortality) remains elusive, mainly due to the rarity of coinciding relevant measurements and drought events. Here we address this knowledge gap by analyzing the response of an eastern Amazonian forest at both timescales to the El Nino-induced drought of late 2009 / early 2010 (distinct from the Atlantic SST-induced drought to hit Western Amazonia in mid/late 2010) using eddy flux measurements of carbon exchange and periodic tree demographic surveys. We partitioned the drought response of GPP into environmental (light, vapor pressure deficit (VPD), diffuse light) and biological responses. Based on environmental conditions alone (high VPD), we expected GPP to be 1-2 umol CO2 m-2 s-1 less than average during drought. In contrast, GPP was elevated by 2-4 umol CO2 m-2 s-1 above this expected negative response over a period of ~45 days, consistent with previously observed green-up from satelliltes during the 2005 Amazon drought. At the same time, drought significantly elevated 2009-2011 tree mortality, by ~50% above that during non-drought periods, consistent with a quantitative drought-mortality relationship reported for other Amazon forests. This work suggests that observations of "green-up" of forest canopies during drought may be consistent with subsequent drought-induced tree mortality, in contrast to expectation. More importantly, it highlights endogenous biological regulation of photosynthesis as an important mechanism, neglected by models, in mediating drought responses in tropical forests.

  9. Amazon forests green-up during 2005 drought.

    PubMed

    Saleska, Scott R; Didan, Kamel; Huete, Alfredo R; da Rocha, Humberto R

    2007-10-26

    Coupled climate-carbon cycle models suggest that Amazon forests are vulnerable to both long- and short-term droughts, but satellite observations showed a large-scale photosynthetic green-up in intact evergreen forests of the Amazon in response to a short, intense drought in 2005. These findings suggest that Amazon forests, although threatened by human-caused deforestation and fire and possibly by more severe long-term droughts, may be more resilient to climate changes than ecosystem models assume.

  10. Climate Change Impacts in the Amazon. Review of scientific literature

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-15

    The Amazon's hydrological cycle is a key driver of global climate, and global climate is therefore sensitive to changes in the Amazon. Climate change threatens to substantially affect the Amazon region, which in turn is expected to alter global climate and increase the risk of biodiversity loss. In this literature review the following subjects can be distinguished: Observed Climatic Change and Variability, Predicted Climatic Change, Impacts, Forests, Freshwater, Agriculture, Health, and Sea Level Rise.

  11. Sustainable settlement in the Brazilian Amazon

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, A.L.O.; Campari, J.S.

    1996-02-01

    Presents and analyzes the largest and most complete data set ever produced on the economic variables that influence deforestation by small farmers in the Amazon. This landmark study presents the largest and most analytically complete data set ever produced on the economic variables that influence deforestation by small farmers in the Amazon. The authors examine the changing character of the Amazon frontier based on field surveys conducted during twenty years of settlement experience. By observing the economic behavior of small farmers from colonization during the 1970s until the chaotic aftermath of the early 1990s, the authors are able to pinpoint a central paradox: unsuccessful farmers tend to be unstable, moving on to new frontiers where they will again destroy forests. Successful farmers tend to increase deforestation in the places where they remain. The findings reveal that much of the Amazonian frontier land cleared by pioneers in the 1970s is becoming agriculturally unproductive. Small farmers should be rewarded for staying where they are and for pursuing sustainable farming. Good farming methods must be promoted, and deforestation must be penalized. The authors recommend the implementation of innovative economic policies and new forms of cooperation between environmental and economic agencies, including the World Bank, at both local and international levels. The aim of these policies should be to raise agricultural incomes and reduce environmental aggression.

  12. Biomarkers of Mercury Exposure in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Nathália Santos Serrão; Lima, Marcelo de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Mercury exposure in the Amazon has been studied since the 1980s decade and the assessment of human mercury exposure in the Amazon is difficult given that the natural occurrence of this metal is high and the concentration of mercury in biological samples of this population exceeds the standardized value of normality established by WHO. Few studies have focused on the discovery of mercury biomarkers in the region's population. In this way, some studies have used genetics as well as immunological and cytogenetic tools in order to find a molecular biomarker for assessing the toxicological effect of mercury in the Amazonian population. Most of those studies focused attention on the relation between mercury exposure and autoimmunity and, because of that, they will be discussed in more detail. Here we introduce the general aspects involved with each biomarker that was studied in the region in order to contextualize the reader and add information about the Amazonian life style and health that may be considered for future studies. We hope that, in the future, the toxicological studies in this field use high technological tools, such as the next generation sequencing and proteomics skills, in order to comprehend basic questions regarding the metabolic route of mercury in populations that are under constant exposure, such as in the Amazon. PMID:24895619

  13. Chagas disease and globalization of the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Briceño-León, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    The increasing number of autochthonous cases of Chagas disease in the Amazon since the 1970s has led to fear that the disease may become a new public health problem in the region. This transformation in the disease's epidemiological pattern in the Amazon can be explained by environmental and social changes in the last 30 years. The current article draws on the sociological theory of perverse effects to explain these changes as the unwanted result of the shift from the "inward" development model prevailing until the 1970s to the "outward" model that we know as globalization, oriented by industrial forces and international trade. The current article highlights the implementation of five new patterns in agriculture, cattle-raising, mining, lumbering, and urban occupation that have generated changes in the environment and the traditional indigenous habitat and have led to migratory flows, deforestation, sedentary living, the presence of domestic animals, and changes in the habitat that facilitate colonization of human dwellings by vectors and the domestic and work-related transmission of the disease. The expansion of Chagas disease is thus a perverse effect of the globalization process in the Amazon.

  14. Introduction: Observations and modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, S. T.; Artaxo, P.; Machado, L. A. T.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F.; Schumacher, C.; Wang, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Fan, J.; Fisch, G.; Goldstein, A. H.; Guenther, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Poschl, U.; Silva Dias, M. A.; Smith, J. N.; Wendisch, M.

    2016-04-19

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin for 2 years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as the introduction to the special issue of GoAmazon2014/5, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0) upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km). In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G-1) observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO) operated in the free troposphere. During the 2-year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2) also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. In addition, the G-1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also

  15. Introduction: Observations and modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)

    DOE PAGES

    Martin, S. T.; Artaxo, P.; Machado, L. A. T.; ...

    2016-04-19

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin for 2 years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from themore » Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as the introduction to the special issue of GoAmazon2014/5, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0) upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km). In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G-1) observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO) operated in the free troposphere. During the 2-year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2) also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. In addition, the G-1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs

  16. Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S. T.; Artaxo, P.; Machado, L. A. T.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F.; Schumacher, C.; Wang, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Fan, J.; Fisch, G.; Goldstein, A. H.; Guenther, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Pöschl, U.; Silva Dias, M. A.; Smith, J. N.; Wendisch, M.

    2016-04-01

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin for 2 years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as the introduction to the special issue of GoAmazon2014/5, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0) upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km). In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G-1) observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO) operated in the free troposphere. During the 2-year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2) also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. The G-1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also correspond to the clean and

  17. Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S. T.; Artaxo, P.; Machado, L. A. T.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F.; Schumacher, C.; Wang, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Fan, J.; Fisch, G.; Goldstein, A. H.; Guenther, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Pöschl, U.; Silva Dias, M. A.; Smith, J. N.; Wendisch, M.

    2015-11-01

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin during two years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as the Introduction to the GoAmazon2014/5 Special Issue, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0) upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km). In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G1) observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO) operated in the free troposphere. During the two-year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2) also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. The G1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also correspond to the clean

  18. Rivers in the sea - Can we quantify pigments in the Amazon and the Orinoco River plumes from space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Walsh, John J.; Carder, Kendall L.; Zika, Rod G.

    1989-01-01

    Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) images of the western tropical Atlantic (1979-1982) were combined into monthly mean surface pigment fields. These suggest that Amazon River water flows along northeastern South America directly toward the Caribbean sea early in the year. After June, however, the North Brazil Current is shunted eastward, carrying a large fraction of Amazon water into the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC). This eastward flow causes diminished flow through the Caribbean, which permits northwestward dispersal of Orinoco River water due to local Ekman forcing. The Orinoco plume crosses the Caribbean, leading to seasonal variation in surface salinity near Puerto Rico. At least 50 percent of the pigment concentration estimated in these plumes seems due to viable phytoplankton.

  19. Metagenome sequencing of the microbial community of two Brazilian anthropogenic Amazon dark earth sites, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Leandro Nascimento; de Souza, Rosineide Cardoso; de Souza Cannavan, Fabiana; Patricio, André; Pylro, Victor Satler; Hanada, Rogério Eiji; Mui, Tsai Siu

    2016-12-01

    The Anthropogenic Amazon Dark Earth soil is considered one of the world's most fertile soils. These soils differs from conventional Amazon soils because its higher organic content concentration. Here we describe the metagenome sequencing of microbial communities of two sites of Anthropogenic Amazon Dark Earth soils from Amazon Rainforest, Brazil. The raw sequence data are stored under Short Read Accession number: PRJNA344917.

  20. Proliferation of Hydroelectric Dams in the Andean Amazon and Implications for Andes-Amazon Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2012-01-01

    Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1) There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2) There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3) Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics. PMID:22529979

  1. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    PubMed

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N

    2012-01-01

    Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1) There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2) There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3) Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  2. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dubey, Manvendra; Parket, Harrison; Myers, Katherine; Rahn, Thom; Christoffersson, B.; Wunch, Debra; Wennberg, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1), moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st Century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems, with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We set out to resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional-scale high-frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O, and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil, as part of DOE's GoAmazon 2014/15 project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's Community Land Model (CLM) on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50 km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 satellite (launched in July, 2014). Our data addresses these science questions: 1. How does ecosystem heterogeneity and climate variability influence the rainforest carbon cycle? 2. How well do current tropical ecosystem models simulate the observed regional carbon cycle? 3. Does nitrogen deposition (from the Manaus, Brazil, plume) enhance rainforest carbon uptake?

  3. Isoprene photochemistry over the Amazon rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yingjun; Brito, Joel; Dorris, Matthew R.; Rivera-Rios, Jean C.; Seco, Roger; Bates, Kelvin H.; Artaxo, Paulo; Duvoisin, Sergio; Keutsch, Frank N.; Kim, Saewung; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Springston, Stephen R.; Watson, Thomas B.; McKinney, Karena A.

    2016-01-01

    Isoprene photooxidation is a major driver of atmospheric chemistry over forested regions. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) and molecular oxygen to produce isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO). These radicals can react with hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) to dominantly produce hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). They can also react with nitric oxide (NO) to largely produce methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR). Unimolecular isomerization and bimolecular reactions with organic peroxy radicals are also possible. There is uncertainty about the relative importance of each of these pathways in the atmosphere and possible changes because of anthropogenic pollution. Herein, measurements of ISOPOOH and MVK + MACR concentrations are reported over the central region of the Amazon basin during the wet season. The research site, downwind of an urban region, intercepted both background and polluted air masses during the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. Under background conditions, the confidence interval for the ratio of the ISOPOOH concentration to that of MVK + MACR spanned 0.4–0.6. This result implies a ratio of the reaction rate of ISOPOO with HO2 to that with NO of approximately unity. A value of unity is significantly smaller than simulated at present by global chemical transport models for this important, nominally low-NO, forested region of Earth. Under polluted conditions, when the concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds were high (>1 ppb), ISOPOOH concentrations dropped below the instrumental detection limit (<60 ppt). This abrupt shift in isoprene photooxidation, sparked by human activities, speaks to ongoing and possible future changes in the photochemistry active over the Amazon rainforest. PMID:27185928

  4. Isoprene photochemistry over the Amazon rainforest.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingjun; Brito, Joel; Dorris, Matthew R; Rivera-Rios, Jean C; Seco, Roger; Bates, Kelvin H; Artaxo, Paulo; Duvoisin, Sergio; Keutsch, Frank N; Kim, Saewung; Goldstein, Allen H; Guenther, Alex B; Manzi, Antonio O; Souza, Rodrigo A F; Springston, Stephen R; Watson, Thomas B; McKinney, Karena A; Martin, Scot T

    2016-05-31

    Isoprene photooxidation is a major driver of atmospheric chemistry over forested regions. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) and molecular oxygen to produce isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO). These radicals can react with hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) to dominantly produce hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). They can also react with nitric oxide (NO) to largely produce methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR). Unimolecular isomerization and bimolecular reactions with organic peroxy radicals are also possible. There is uncertainty about the relative importance of each of these pathways in the atmosphere and possible changes because of anthropogenic pollution. Herein, measurements of ISOPOOH and MVK + MACR concentrations are reported over the central region of the Amazon basin during the wet season. The research site, downwind of an urban region, intercepted both background and polluted air masses during the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. Under background conditions, the confidence interval for the ratio of the ISOPOOH concentration to that of MVK + MACR spanned 0.4-0.6. This result implies a ratio of the reaction rate of ISOPOO with HO2 to that with NO of approximately unity. A value of unity is significantly smaller than simulated at present by global chemical transport models for this important, nominally low-NO, forested region of Earth. Under polluted conditions, when the concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds were high (>1 ppb), ISOPOOH concentrations dropped below the instrumental detection limit (<60 ppt). This abrupt shift in isoprene photooxidation, sparked by human activities, speaks to ongoing and possible future changes in the photochemistry active over the Amazon rainforest.

  5. Isoprene photochemistry over the Amazon rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingjun; Brito, Joel; Dorris, Matthew R.; Rivera-Rios, Jean C.; Seco, Roger; Bates, Kelvin H.; Artaxo, Paulo; Duvoisin, Sergio; Keutsch, Frank N.; Kim, Saewung; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Springston, Stephen R.; Watson, Thomas B.; McKinney, Karena A.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-05-01

    Isoprene photooxidation is a major driver of atmospheric chemistry over forested regions. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) and molecular oxygen to produce isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO). These radicals can react with hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) to dominantly produce hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). They can also react with nitric oxide (NO) to largely produce methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR). Unimolecular isomerization and bimolecular reactions with organic peroxy radicals are also possible. There is uncertainty about the relative importance of each of these pathways in the atmosphere and possible changes because of anthropogenic pollution. Herein, measurements of ISOPOOH and MVK + MACR concentrations are reported over the central region of the Amazon basin during the wet season. The research site, downwind of an urban region, intercepted both background and polluted air masses during the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. Under background conditions, the confidence interval for the ratio of the ISOPOOH concentration to that of MVK + MACR spanned 0.4-0.6. This result implies a ratio of the reaction rate of ISOPOO with HO2 to that with NO of approximately unity. A value of unity is significantly smaller than simulated at present by global chemical transport models for this important, nominally low-NO, forested region of Earth. Under polluted conditions, when the concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds were high (>1 ppb), ISOPOOH concentrations dropped below the instrumental detection limit (<60 ppt). This abrupt shift in isoprene photooxidation, sparked by human activities, speaks to ongoing and possible future changes in the photochemistry active over the Amazon rainforest.

  6. Impacts on regional climate of Amazon deforestation

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, R.E.; Kennedy, P. NCAR, Boulder, CO )

    1992-10-01

    A simulation of the climate response to Amazon deforestation has been carried out. Precipitation is decreased on the average by 25 percent or 1.4 mm/day, with ET and runoff both decreasing by 0.7 mm/day. Modifications of surface energy balance through change of albedo and roughness are complicated by cloud feedbacks. The initial decrease of the absorption of solar radiation by higher surface albedos is largely cancelled by a reduction in cloud cover, but consequent reduction in downward longwave has a substantial impact on surface energy balance. Smoke aerosols might have an effect comparable to deforestation during burning season. 8 refs.

  7. Amazon Deforestation Impacts on Pacific Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, L. A.; Randall, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Variability in eastern Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) associated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation is known to affect Amazonian precipitation, but to what extent does changing Amazonian vegetation and rainfall impact eastern Pacific SST? Correlations between Amazonian rainfall rates and other atmospheric parameters (e.g. global precipitation, surface air temperature, vertical velocity, etc.) over the eastern Pacific indicate a strong relationship between these processes, but it does not show causality. In order to investigate the impact on the Pacific climate, the Community Earth System Model is used to test an extreme case of deforestation where broadleaf evergreen trees over the Amazon are replaced by C4 grass.

  8. [The Amazon Sanitation Plan (1940-1942)].

    PubMed

    Andrade, Rômulo de Paula; Hochman, Gilberto

    2007-12-01

    The article addresses the Amazon Sanitation Plan and the political context in which it was formulated between 1940 and 1941. It examines the role of Getúlio Vargas, the activities of the plan's main protagonists (such as Evandro Chagas, João de Barros Barreto, and Valério Konder), its key proposals, and its demise as of 1942 upon creation of the Special Public Health Service (Sesp), which grew out of cooperation agreements between Brazil and the US following both nations' involvement in World War II. A reproduction of the Plan as published in the Arquivos de Higiene in 1941 is included.

  9. Contrasting andean geodynamics drive evolution of lowland taxa in western Amazonia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a palm lineage of 15 species (Astrocaryum sect. Huicungo), we tested an hypothesis that past geologic events in western Amazonia influenced the modern configuration of the upper Amazon drainage and thus diversification and distribution of these palsm, which found only in this region. The chang...

  10. How Do Atmosphere and Land Surface Influence Seasonal Changes of Convection in the Tropical Amazon?.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Rong; Zhu, Bin; Dickinson, Robert E.

    1999-05-01

    Although the wet season in the tropical Amazon (10°N-20°S) at any one place and in any one year is initiated rapidly by synoptic systems, large-scale thermodynamic conditions modulate the frequency and intensity of these synoptic systems and hence control the climatology of the wet season. In this study, the satellite radiances, radiosondes, and assimilation data of the atmosphere are analyzed to show that the conditioning of the large-scale thermodynamics for the onset of the wet season is controlled by a moistening of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and a lowering of temperature at its top, hence reducing convective inhibition energy (CINE). These changes occur either in phase with or lagging by one month the enhancement of low-level moisture convergence. Integration of a slab mixed-layer model shows how a higher humidity can reduce the drying effect of the entrainment and increase the humidity of the daytime PBL. Hence, the increase of low-level moisture convergence may provide enough moisture to initiate the wet seasons.In the southern part of the basin (5°S-20°S), the land surface warming from austral winter to spring reduces the strong stability of the dry season and increases the frequency of unstable profiles for deep convection (fCUS), but convection remains infrequent until, in addition, the PBL is moistened and the inversion decays to lower CINE in October. The latter occur one month after the moisture becomes convergent. The seasonal changes in land surface temperatures are stronger than those over the adjacent oceans and hence have more influence on the gradient between land and ocean, and so on the changes in the large-scale circulation.In the equatorial western Amazon, a warmer land surface provides high fCUS all year round, but the seasonal changes of convection are more controlled by CINE. In the eastern basin, a lower fCUS in spring suppresses the expected wet season. Hence, convection is most frequent during austral fall, but also occurs

  11. Copepods and fishes in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatcher, Vernon E.

    1998-06-01

    The Amazon basin comprises the largest river ecosystem in the world (7 million km 2) with annual high and low water peaks and a constant temperature near 29°C. Some 2000 fish species and 40 species of free-living copepods are known to occur in Amazonia. The free-living forms serve as food for most larval fishes and some adults, but they also transmit several parasites including representatives of the nematode family Camallanidae. About three dozen species of parasitic copepods have been described from the Brazilian Amazon. Females of Amazonian parasitic copepods are found on skin, gill filaments, gill rakers or within the nasal fossae. Parasitic copepods are found on fishes that are from a few millimeters long up to those over 2 m in length and they are usually quite host specific. All have body pigmentation in different patterns and colors (frequently blues, such as cerulean, cobalt, spectrum, smalt or campanula). It is suggested that the coloration serves to attract specific host fish. Copepods have evolved adaptations for attachment and feeding, especially in the second antennae and endopods. Examples of progenesis, phoresis and commensalism are shown. Some species produce pathology such as a tourniquet effect, hyperplasia, blood loss and anemia, and can kill fishes by limiting their respiration.

  12. Protecting the Amazon with protected areas

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Robert; Moore, Nathan J.; Arima, Eugenio; Perz, Stephen; Simmons, Cynthia; Caldas, Marcellus; Vergara, Dante; Bohrer, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses climate-tipping points in the Amazon Basin resulting from deforestation. It applies a regional climate model to assess whether the system of protected areas in Brazil is able to avoid such tipping points, with massive conversion to semiarid vegetation, particularly along the south and southeastern margins of the basin. The regional climate model produces spatially distributed annual rainfall under a variety of external forcing conditions, assuming that all land outside protected areas is deforested. It translates these results into dry season impacts on resident ecosystems and shows that Amazonian dry ecosystems in the southern and southeastern basin do not desiccate appreciably and that extensive areas experience an increase in precipitation. Nor do the moist forests dry out to an excessive amount. Evidently, Brazilian environmental policy has created a sustainable core of protected areas in the Amazon that buffers against potential climate-tipping points and protects the drier ecosystems of the basin. Thus, all efforts should be made to manage them effectively. PMID:19549819

  13. Drought sensitivity of the Amazon rainforest.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Oliver L; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Lewis, Simon L; Fisher, Joshua B; Lloyd, Jon; López-González, Gabriela; Malhi, Yadvinder; Monteagudo, Abel; Peacock, Julie; Quesada, Carlos A; van der Heijden, Geertje; Almeida, Samuel; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Aymard, Gerardo; Baker, Tim R; Bánki, Olaf; Blanc, Lilian; Bonal, Damien; Brando, Paulo; Chave, Jerome; de Oliveira, Atila Cristina Alves; Cardozo, Nallaret Dávila; Czimczik, Claudia I; Feldpausch, Ted R; Freitas, Maria Aparecida; Gloor, Emanuel; Higuchi, Niro; Jiménez, Eliana; Lloyd, Gareth; Meir, Patrick; Mendoza, Casimiro; Morel, Alexandra; Neill, David A; Nepstad, Daniel; Patiño, Sandra; Peñuela, Maria Cristina; Prieto, Adriana; Ramírez, Fredy; Schwarz, Michael; Silva, Javier; Silveira, Marcos; Thomas, Anne Sota; Steege, Hans Ter; Stropp, Juliana; Vásquez, Rodolfo; Zelazowski, Przemyslaw; Alvarez Dávila, Esteban; Andelman, Sandy; Andrade, Ana; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Erwin, Terry; Di Fiore, Anthony; Honorio C, Eurídice; Keeling, Helen; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, William F; Peña Cruz, Antonio; Pitman, Nigel C A; Núñez Vargas, Percy; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustín; Salamão, Rafael; Silva, Natalino; Terborgh, John; Torres-Lezama, Armando

    2009-03-06

    Amazon forests are a key but poorly understood component of the global carbon cycle. If, as anticipated, they dry this century, they might accelerate climate change through carbon losses and changed surface energy balances. We used records from multiple long-term monitoring plots across Amazonia to assess forest responses to the intense 2005 drought, a possible analog of future events. Affected forest lost biomass, reversing a large long-term carbon sink, with the greatest impacts observed where the dry season was unusually intense. Relative to pre-2005 conditions, forest subjected to a 100-millimeter increase in water deficit lost 5.3 megagrams of aboveground biomass of carbon per hectare. The drought had a total biomass carbon impact of 1.2 to 1.6 petagrams (1.2 x 10(15) to 1.6 x 10(15) grams). Amazon forests therefore appear vulnerable to increasing moisture stress, with the potential for large carbon losses to exert feedback on climate change.

  14. Protecting the Amazon with protected areas.

    PubMed

    Walker, Robert; Moore, Nathan J; Arima, Eugenio; Perz, Stephen; Simmons, Cynthia; Caldas, Marcellus; Vergara, Dante; Bohrer, Claudio

    2009-06-30

    This article addresses climate-tipping points in the Amazon Basin resulting from deforestation. It applies a regional climate model to assess whether the system of protected areas in Brazil is able to avoid such tipping points, with massive conversion to semiarid vegetation, particularly along the south and southeastern margins of the basin. The regional climate model produces spatially distributed annual rainfall under a variety of external forcing conditions, assuming that all land outside protected areas is deforested. It translates these results into dry season impacts on resident ecosystems and shows that Amazonian dry ecosystems in the southern and southeastern basin do not desiccate appreciably and that extensive areas experience an increase in precipitation. Nor do the moist forests dry out to an excessive amount. Evidently, Brazilian environmental policy has created a sustainable core of protected areas in the Amazon that buffers against potential climate-tipping points and protects the drier ecosystems of the basin. Thus, all efforts should be made to manage them effectively.

  15. Precipitation recycling in the Amazon basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eltahir, E. A. B.; Bras, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    Precipitation recycling is the contribution of evaporation within a region to precipitation in that same region. The recycling rate is a diagnostic measure of the potential for interactions between land surface hydrology and regional climate. In this paper we present a model for describing the seasonal and spatial variability of the recycling process. The precipitation recycling ratio, rho, is the basic variable in describing the recycling process. Rho is the fraction of precipitation at a certain location and time which is contributed by evaporation within the region under study. The recycling model is applied in studyiing the hydrologic cycle in the Amazon basin. It is estimated that about 25% of all the rain that falls in the Amazon basin is contributed by evaporation within the basin. This estimate is based on analysis of a data set supplied by the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The same analysis is repeated using a different data set from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). Based on this data set, the recycling ratio is estimated to be 35%. The seasonal variability of the recycling ratio is small compared with the yearly average. The new estimates of the recycling ratio are compared with results of previous studies, and the differences are explained.

  16. Size distribution of Amazon River bed sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordin, C.F.; Meade, R.H.; Curtis, W.F.; Bosio, N.J.; Landim, P.M.B.

    1980-01-01

    The first recorded observations of bed material of the Amazon River were made in 1843 by Lt William Lewis Herndon of the US Navy, when he travelled the river from its headwaters to its mouth, sounding its depths, and noting the nature of particles caught in a heavy grease smeared to the bottom of his sounding weight1. He reported the bed material of the river to be mostly sand and fine gravel. Oltman and Ames took samples at a few locations in 1963 and 1964, and reported the bed material at O??bidos, Brazil, to be fine sands, with median diameters ranging from 0.15 to 0.25 mm (ref. 2). We present here a summary of particle-size analyses of samples of streambed material collected from the Amazon River and its major tributaries along a reach of the river from Iquitos in Peru, ???3,500 km above Macapa?? Brazil, to a point 220 km above Macapa??3. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  17. Spatial Variability of the Background Diurnal Cycle of Deep Convection around the GoAmazon2014/5 Field Campaign Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Feng, Zhe; Hagos, Samson M.; Fast, Jerome; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-07-01

    The Amazon rainforest is one of a few regions of the world where continental tropical deep convection occurs. The Amazon’s isolation makes it challenging to observe, but also creates a unique natural laboratory to study anthropogenic impacts on clouds and precipitation in an otherwise pristine environment. Extensive measurements were made upwind and downwind of the large city of Manaus, Brazil during the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014-2015 (GoAmazon2014/5) field campaign. In this study, 15 years of high-resolution satellite data are analyzed to examine the spatial and diurnal variability of convection occurring around the GoAmazon2014/5 sites. Interpretation of anthropogenic differences between the upwind (T0) and downwind (T1-T3) sites is complicated by naturally-occurring spatial variability between the sites. During the rainy season, the inland propagation of the previous day’s sea-breeze front happens to be in phase with the background diurnal cycle near Manaus, but is out of phase elsewhere. Enhanced convergence between the river-breezes and the easterly trade winds generates up to 10% more frequent deep convection at the GoAmazon2014/5 sites east of the river (T0a, T0t/k, and T1) compared to the T3 site which was located near the western bank. In general, the annual and diurnal cycles during 2014 were representative of the 2000-2013 distributions. The only exceptions were in March when the monthly mean rainrate was above the 95th percentile and September when both rain frequency and intensity were suppressed. The natural spatial variability must be accounted for before interpreting anthropogenically-induced differences among the GoAmazon2014/5 sites.

  18. Spectrometry of Pasture Condition and Biogeochemistry in the Central Amazon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Townsend, Alan R.; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.

    1999-01-01

    Regional analyses of Amazon cattle pasture biogeochemistry are difficult due to the complexity of human, edaphic, biotic and climatic factors and persistent cloud cover in satellite observations. We developed a method to estimate key biophysical properties of Amazon pastures using hyperspectral reflectance data and photon transport inverse modeling. Remote estimates of live and senescent biomass were strongly correlated with plant-available forms of soil phosphorus and calcium. These results provide a basis for monitoring pasture condition and biogeochemistry in the Amazon Basin using spaceborne hyperspectral sensors.

  19. Amazon River investigations, reconnaissance measurements of July 1963

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oltman, Roy Edwin; Sternberg, H. O'R.; Ames, F.C.; Davis, L.C.

    1964-01-01

    The first measurements of the flow of the Amazon River were made in July 1963 as a joint project of the University of Brazil, the Brazilian Navy, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The discharge of the Amazon River at Obidos was 7,640,000 cfs at an annual flood stage somewhat lower than the average. For comparison the maximum known discharge of the Mississippi River at Vicksburg is about 2,300,000 cfs. Dissolved-solids concentrations and sediment loads of the Amazon River and of several major tributaries were found to be low.

  20. Potential of Best Practice to Reduce Impacts from Oil and Gas Projects in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Powers, Bill

    2013-01-01

    The western Amazon continues to be an active and controversial zone of hydrocarbon exploration and production. We argue for the urgent need to implement best practices to reduce the negative environmental and social impacts associated with the sector. Here, we present a three-part study aimed at resolving the major obstacles impeding the advancement of best practice in the region. Our focus is on Loreto, Peru, one of the largest and most dynamic hydrocarbon zones in the Amazon. First, we develop a set of specific best practice guidelines to address the lack of clarity surrounding the issue. These guidelines incorporate both engineering-based criteria and key ecological and social factors. Second, we provide a detailed analysis of existing and planned hydrocarbon activities and infrastructure, overcoming the lack of information that typically hampers large-scale impact analysis. Third, we evaluate the planned activities and infrastructure with respect to the best practice guidelines. We show that Loreto is an extremely active hydrocarbon front, highlighted by a number of recent oil and gas discoveries and a sustained government push for increased exploration. Our analyses reveal that the use of technical best practice could minimize future impacts by greatly reducing the amount of required infrastructure such as drilling platforms and access roads. We also document a critical need to consider more fully the ecological and social factors, as the vast majority of planned infrastructure overlaps sensitive areas such as protected areas, indigenous territories, and key ecosystems and watersheds. Lastly, our cost analysis indicates that following best practice does not impose substantially greater costs than conventional practice, and may in fact reduce overall costs. Barriers to the widespread implementation of best practice in the Amazon clearly exist, but our findings show that there can be great benefits to its implementation. PMID:23650541

  1. Potential of best practice to reduce impacts from oil and gas projects in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N; Powers, Bill

    2013-01-01

    The western Amazon continues to be an active and controversial zone of hydrocarbon exploration and production. We argue for the urgent need to implement best practices to reduce the negative environmental and social impacts associated with the sector. Here, we present a three-part study aimed at resolving the major obstacles impeding the advancement of best practice in the region. Our focus is on Loreto, Peru, one of the largest and most dynamic hydrocarbon zones in the Amazon. First, we develop a set of specific best practice guidelines to address the lack of clarity surrounding the issue. These guidelines incorporate both engineering-based criteria and key ecological and social factors. Second, we provide a detailed analysis of existing and planned hydrocarbon activities and infrastructure, overcoming the lack of information that typically hampers large-scale impact analysis. Third, we evaluate the planned activities and infrastructure with respect to the best practice guidelines. We show that Loreto is an extremely active hydrocarbon front, highlighted by a number of recent oil and gas discoveries and a sustained government push for increased exploration. Our analyses reveal that the use of technical best practice could minimize future impacts by greatly reducing the amount of required infrastructure such as drilling platforms and access roads. We also document a critical need to consider more fully the ecological and social factors, as the vast majority of planned infrastructure overlaps sensitive areas such as protected areas, indigenous territories, and key ecosystems and watersheds. Lastly, our cost analysis indicates that following best practice does not impose substantially greater costs than conventional practice, and may in fact reduce overall costs. Barriers to the widespread implementation of best practice in the Amazon clearly exist, but our findings show that there can be great benefits to its implementation.

  2. Remote sensing in forestry: Application to the Amazon region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Tardin, A. T.; Dossantos, A.; Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1981-01-01

    The utilization of satellite remote sensing in forestry is reviewed with emphasis on studies performed for the Brazilian Amazon Region. Timber identification, deforestation, and pasture degradation after deforestation are discussed.

  3. Evidence of Apeu Virus Infection in Wild Monkeys, Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Danilo B; Luiz, Ana Paula Moreira Franco; Fagundes, Alexandre; Pinto, Carla Amaral; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G; Abrahão, Jônatas S; Ferreira, Paulo C P

    2016-03-01

    Orthobunyaviruses are arboviruses in which at least 30 members are human pathogens. The members of group C orthobunyaviruses were first isolated in the Brazilian Amazon in 1950, since that time little information is accumulated about ecology and the medical impact of these virus groups in Brazil. Herein, we describe the evidence of Apeu virus (APEUV; an Orthobunyavirus member) infection in wild monkeys from the Brazilian Amazon forest. APEUV was detected by using a neutralizing antibody in serum and its RNA, suggesting past and acute infection of Amazonian monkeys by this virus. These results altogether represent an important contribution of orthobunyavirus ecology in the Amazon and an update about recent circulation and risk for humans with expansion of the cities to Amazon forest.

  4. Evidence of Apeu Virus Infection in Wild Monkeys, Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Danilo B.; Luiz, Ana Paula Moreira Franco; Fagundes, Alexandre; Pinto, Carla Amaral; Bonjardim, Cláudio A.; Trindade, Giliane S.; Kroon, Erna G.; Abrahão, Jônatas S.; Ferreira, Paulo C. P.

    2016-01-01

    Orthobunyaviruses are arboviruses in which at least 30 members are human pathogens. The members of group C orthobunyaviruses were first isolated in the Brazilian Amazon in 1950, since that time little information is accumulated about ecology and the medical impact of these virus groups in Brazil. Herein, we describe the evidence of Apeu virus (APEUV; an Orthobunyavirus member) infection in wild monkeys from the Brazilian Amazon forest. APEUV was detected by using a neutralizing antibody in serum and its RNA, suggesting past and acute infection of Amazonian monkeys by this virus. These results altogether represent an important contribution of orthobunyavirus ecology in the Amazon and an update about recent circulation and risk for humans with expansion of the cities to Amazon forest. PMID:26787153

  5. Lipid Panel Reference Intervals for Amazon Parrots (Amazona species).

    PubMed

    Ravich, Michelle; Cray, Carolyn; Hess, Laurie; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2014-09-01

    The lipoprotein panel is a useful diagnostic tool that allows clinicians to evaluate blood lipoprotein fractions. It is a standard diagnostic test in human medicine but is poorly understood in avian medicine. Amazon parrots (Amazona species) are popular pets that frequently lead a sedentary lifestyle and are customarily fed high-fat diets. Similar to people with comparable diets and lifestyles, Amazon parrots are prone to obesity and atherosclerosis. In human medicine, these conditions are typically correlated with abnormalities in the lipoprotein panel. To establish reference intervals for the lipoprotein panel in Amazon parrots, plasma samples from 31 captive Amazon parrots were analyzed for concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). The data were also grouped according to sex, diet, body condition score, and age. Aside from HDL levels, which were significantly different between male and female parrots, no intergroup differences were found for any of the lipoprotein fractions.

  6. The JERS-1 Amazon Multi-Season Mapping Study (JAMMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, A.; Chapman, B.; Alves, M.

    1996-01-01

    Regional mapping of the Amazon basin using imaging radar is described. Two 60-day periods of radar mapping will be conducted, one in 1995, and one in 1996. One period will view the low-water season, and the other will view during the high-flood season. The main objective of the JAMMS project is to generate a regional map showing inundation throughout the Amazon Basin by comparing the two data sets.

  7. Energy sources for detritivorous fishes in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Araujo-Lima, C A; Forsberg, B R; Victoria, R; Martinelli, L

    1986-12-05

    Detritivorous fishes form an important part of the ichthyomass in the Amazon basin. Most of these fishes are contained in the orders Characiformes and Siluriformes (catfishes). The Characiformes constitute more than 30% of the total fish yield in the Amazon basin, whereas the catfishes are of minor importance. Stable isotope data indicate that Characiformes species receive most of their carbon through food chains originating with phytoplankton, while the Siluriformes receive a significant part of their energy from other plant sources.

  8. Defending the Amazon: Conservation, Development and Security in Brazil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    State” and lasted until the late 1940s. 31 Ibid., 96. 32 Skidmore and Smith, 159. 33 Luis Bitencourt, “The Importance of the Amazon Basin Region...September 28, 2008). Bitencourt, Luis . “The Importance of the Amazon Basin Region in Brazil’s Evolving Security Agenda.” In Environment and Security in...Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988. Sugiyama, Natasha Borges . "Ideology and Networks: The Politics of Social Policy Diffusion in Brazil

  9. Evaluation of organic compounds and trace elements in Amazon Creek Basin, Oregon, September 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    Water and bottom sediment were collected from Amazon Creek, Oregon during a summer low-flow condition and analyzed for different classes of organic compounds, including many from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's priority pollutant list. Bottom sediment also was analyzed for trace elements typically associated with urban runoff. Trace-element concentrations in the less than 63 micrometer fraction of Amazon Creek bottom-sediment samples were compared with baseline concentrations (expected 95 percent confidence range) for soils from the Western United States and with concen- trations found in bottom sediment from the Willamette River Basin. Total-digestion concentrations of antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, silver, titanium, and zinc were enriched at some or all sites sampled. Whole-water samples from some sites contained concentrations of several chlorophenoxy-acid herbicides, the organophosphorus insecticide diazinon, and several semivolatile priority pollutants. Classes of compounds not detected in whole-water samples included carbamate insecticides, triazine and other nitrogen-containing herbicides, and purgeable organic compounds. Bottom-sediment samples contained many organochlorine compounds, including chlordane, DDT plus metabolites, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor epoxide (a metabolite of heptachlor), and PCBs at some or all sites sampled. Twenty-four of 54 semivolatile compounds were detected in bottom- sediment samples at some or all sites sampled.

  10. Fog and rain in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Anber, Usama; Gentine, Pierre; Wang, Shuguang; Sobel, Adam H.

    2015-01-01

    The diurnal and seasonal water cycles in the Amazon remain poorly simulated in general circulation models, exhibiting peak evapotranspiration in the wrong season and rain too early in the day. We show that those biases are not present in cloud-resolving simulations with parameterized large-scale circulation. The difference is attributed to the representation of the morning fog layer, and to more accurate characterization of convection and its coupling with large-scale circulation. The morning fog layer, present in the wet season but absent in the dry season, dramatically increases cloud albedo, which reduces evapotranspiration through its modulation of the surface energy budget. These results highlight the importance of the coupling between the energy and hydrological cycles and the key role of cloud albedo feedback for climates over tropical continents. PMID:26324902

  11. Fog and rain in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anber, Usama; Gentine, Pierre; Wang, Shuguang; Sobel, Adam H.

    2015-09-01

    The diurnal and seasonal water cycles in the Amazon remain poorly simulated in general circulation models, exhibiting peak evapotranspiration in the wrong season and rain too early in the day. We show that those biases are not present in cloud-resolving simulations with parameterized large-scale circulation. The difference is attributed to the representation of the morning fog layer, and to more accurate characterization of convection and its coupling with large-scale circulation. The morning fog layer, present in the wet season but absent in the dry season, dramatically increases cloud albedo, which reduces evapotranspiration through its modulation of the surface energy budget. These results highlight the importance of the coupling between the energy and hydrological cycles and the key role of cloud albedo feedback for climates over tropical continents.

  12. Fog and rain in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Anber, Usama; Gentine, Pierre; Wang, Shuguang; Sobel, Adam H

    2015-09-15

    The diurnal and seasonal water cycles in the Amazon remain poorly simulated in general circulation models, exhibiting peak evapotranspiration in the wrong season and rain too early in the day. We show that those biases are not present in cloud-resolving simulations with parameterized large-scale circulation. The difference is attributed to the representation of the morning fog layer, and to more accurate characterization of convection and its coupling with large-scale circulation. The morning fog layer, present in the wet season but absent in the dry season, dramatically increases cloud albedo, which reduces evapotranspiration through its modulation of the surface energy budget. These results highlight the importance of the coupling between the energy and hydrological cycles and the key role of cloud albedo feedback for climates over tropical continents.

  13. A new "Bat-Voiced" species of Dendropsophus Fitzinger, 1843 (Anura, Hylidae) from the Amazon Basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Orrico, Victor G D; Peloso, Pedro L V; Sturaro, Marcelo J; Da Silva-Filho, Heriberto F; Neckel-Oliveira, Selvino; Gordo, Marcelo; Faivovich, Julián; Haddad, Célio F B

    2014-11-06

    We describe Dendropsophus ozzyi sp. nov., a new species of treefrog, tentatively included in the Dendropsophus microcephalus Group and most notably diagnosed by the presence of pointed fingers and an advertisement call with a very high dominant frequency. The new species is known from three localities in the Brazilian Amazon forest, two on western State of Pará and one (the type locality) in eastern State of Amazonas (03°56'50"S and 58°26'36"W, 45 m a.s.l.).

  14. Dimethyl sulfide in the Amazon rain forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, K.; Yañez-Serrano, A. M.; Williams, J.; Kunert, N.; Jardine, A.; Taylor, T.; Abrell, L.; Artaxo, P.; Guenther, A.; Hewitt, C. N.; House, E.; Florentino, A. P.; Manzi, A.; Higuchi, N.; Kesselmeier, J.; Behrendt, T.; Veres, P. R.; Derstroff, B.; Fuentes, J. D.; Martin, S. T.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-01-01

    Surface-to-atmosphere emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) may impact global climate through the formation of gaseous sulfuric acid, which can yield secondary sulfate aerosols and contribute to new particle formation. While oceans are generally considered the dominant sources of DMS, a shortage of ecosystem observations prevents an accurate analysis of terrestrial DMS sources. Using mass spectrometry, we quantified ambient DMS mixing ratios within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem in the central Amazon Basin in real-time (2010-2011) and at high vertical resolution (2013-2014). Elevated but highly variable DMS mixing ratios were observed within the canopy, showing clear evidence of a net ecosystem source to the atmosphere during both day and night in both the dry and wet seasons. Periods of high DMS mixing ratios lasting up to 8 h (up to 160 parts per trillion (ppt)) often occurred within the canopy and near the surface during many evenings and nights. Daytime gradients showed mixing ratios (up to 80 ppt) peaking near the top of the canopy as well as near the ground following a rain event. The spatial and temporal distribution of DMS suggests that ambient levels and their potential climatic impacts are dominated by local soil and plant emissions. A soil source was confirmed by measurements of DMS emission fluxes from Amazon soils as a function of temperature and soil moisture. Furthermore, light- and temperature-dependent DMS emissions were measured from seven tropical tree species. Our study has important implications for understanding terrestrial DMS sources and their role in coupled land-atmosphere climate feedbacks.

  15. Socio-ecological costs of Amazon nut and timber production at community household forests in the Bolivian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Mohren, Frits; Ascarrunz, Nataly; Dressler, Wolfram; Peña-Claros, Marielos

    2017-01-01

    The Bolivian Amazon holds a complex configuration of people and forested landscapes in which communities hold secure tenure rights over a rich ecosystem offering a range of livelihood income opportunities. A large share of this income is derived from Amazon nut (Bertholletia excelsa). Many communities also have long-standing experience with community timber management plans. However, livelihood needs and desires for better living conditions may continue to place these resources under considerable stress as income needs and opportunities intensify and diversify. We aim to identify the socioeconomic and biophysical factors determining the income from forests, husbandry, off-farm and two keystone forest products (i.e., Amazon nut and timber) in the Bolivian Amazon region. We used structural equation modelling tools to account for the complex inter-relationships between socioeconomic and biophysical factors in predicting each source of income. The potential exists to increase incomes from existing livelihood activities in ways that reduce dependency upon forest resources. For example, changes in off-farm income sources can act to increase or decrease forest incomes. Market accessibility, social, financial, and natural and physical assets determined the amount of income community households could derive from Amazon nut and timber. Factors related to community households’ local ecological knowledge, such as the number of non-timber forest products harvested and the number of management practices applied to enhance Amazon nut production, defined the amount of income these households could derive from Amazon nut and timber, respectively. The (inter) relationships found among socioeconomic and biophysical factors over income shed light on ways to improve forest-dependent livelihoods in the Bolivian Amazon. We believe that our analysis could be applicable to other contexts throughout the tropics as well. PMID:28235090

  16. Socio-ecological costs of Amazon nut and timber production at community household forests in the Bolivian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Marlene; Mohren, Frits; Ascarrunz, Nataly; Dressler, Wolfram; Peña-Claros, Marielos

    2017-01-01

    The Bolivian Amazon holds a complex configuration of people and forested landscapes in which communities hold secure tenure rights over a rich ecosystem offering a range of livelihood income opportunities. A large share of this income is derived from Amazon nut (Bertholletia excelsa). Many communities also have long-standing experience with community timber management plans. However, livelihood needs and desires for better living conditions may continue to place these resources under considerable stress as income needs and opportunities intensify and diversify. We aim to identify the socioeconomic and biophysical factors determining the income from forests, husbandry, off-farm and two keystone forest products (i.e., Amazon nut and timber) in the Bolivian Amazon region. We used structural equation modelling tools to account for the complex inter-relationships between socioeconomic and biophysical factors in predicting each source of income. The potential exists to increase incomes from existing livelihood activities in ways that reduce dependency upon forest resources. For example, changes in off-farm income sources can act to increase or decrease forest incomes. Market accessibility, social, financial, and natural and physical assets determined the amount of income community households could derive from Amazon nut and timber. Factors related to community households' local ecological knowledge, such as the number of non-timber forest products harvested and the number of management practices applied to enhance Amazon nut production, defined the amount of income these households could derive from Amazon nut and timber, respectively. The (inter) relationships found among socioeconomic and biophysical factors over income shed light on ways to improve forest-dependent livelihoods in the Bolivian Amazon. We believe that our analysis could be applicable to other contexts throughout the tropics as well.

  17. Elevated rates of gold mining in the Amazon revealed through high-resolution monitoring.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Llactayo, William; Tupayachi, Raul; Luna, Ernesto Ráez

    2013-11-12

    Gold mining has rapidly increased in western Amazonia, but the rates and ecological impacts of mining remain poorly known and potentially underestimated. We combined field surveys, airborne mapping, and high-resolution satellite imaging to assess road- and river-based gold mining in the Madre de Dios region of the Peruvian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. In this period, the geographic extent of gold mining increased 400%. The average annual rate of forest loss as a result of gold mining tripled in 2008 following the global economic recession, closely associated with increased gold prices. Small clandestine operations now comprise more than half of all gold mining activities throughout the region. These rates of gold mining are far higher than previous estimates that were based on traditional satellite mapping techniques. Our results prove that gold mining is growing more rapidly than previously thought, and that high-resolution monitoring approaches are required to accurately quantify human impacts on tropical forests.

  18. Demographic and health attributes of the Nahua, initial contact population of the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Culqui, Dante R; Ayuso-Alvarez, Ana; Munayco, Cesar V; Quispe-Huaman, Carlos; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Campos, Juan de Mata Donado

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of the Nahua population of Santa Rosa de Serjali, Peruvian Amazon's population, considered of initial contact. This population consists of human groups that for a long time decided to live in isolation, but lately have begun living a more sedentary lifestyle and in contact with Western populations. There are two fully identified initial contact groups in Peru: the Nahua and the Nanti. The health statistics of the Nahua are scarce. This study offers an interpretation of demographic and epidemiological indicators of the Nahua people, trying to identify if a certain degree of health vulnerability exists. We performed a cross sectional study, and after analyzing their health indicators, as well as the supplemental qualitative analysis of the population, brought us to conclude that in 2006, the Nahua, remained in a state of health vulnerability.

  19. Elevated rates of gold mining in the Amazon revealed through high-resolution monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Asner, Gregory P.; Llactayo, William; Tupayachi, Raul; Luna, Ernesto Ráez

    2013-01-01

    Gold mining has rapidly increased in western Amazonia, but the rates and ecological impacts of mining remain poorly known and potentially underestimated. We combined field surveys, airborne mapping, and high-resolution satellite imaging to assess road- and river-based gold mining in the Madre de Dios region of the Peruvian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. In this period, the geographic extent of gold mining increased 400%. The average annual rate of forest loss as a result of gold mining tripled in 2008 following the global economic recession, closely associated with increased gold prices. Small clandestine operations now comprise more than half of all gold mining activities throughout the region. These rates of gold mining are far higher than previous estimates that were based on traditional satellite mapping techniques. Our results prove that gold mining is growing more rapidly than previously thought, and that high-resolution monitoring approaches are required to accurately quantify human impacts on tropical forests. PMID:24167281

  20. Granular cell tumor in an endangered Puerto Rican Amazon parrot (Amazon vittata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quist, C.F.; Latimer, K.S.; Goldade, S.L.; Rivera, A.; Dein, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    A 3 cm diameter mass from the metacarpus of a Puerto Rican Amazon parrot was diagnosed as a granular cell tumour based on light microscopy. The cytoplasmic granules were periodic-acid Schiff positive and diastase resistant. Ultrastructural characteristics of the cells included convoluted nuclei and the presence of numerous cytoplasmic tertiary lysosomes. This is only the second granular cell tumour reported in a bird. We speculate that most granular cell tumours are derived from cells that are engaged in some type of cellular degradative process, creating a similar morphologic appearance, but lacking a uniform histogenesis.

  1. Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Genovese, V.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; gC/sq m) for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006) were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazonia) project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP) sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C/yr (1 Pg=10(exp 15)g) and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C/yr from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C/yr in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from

  2. Carbon emissions from deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Genovese, V.

    2009-11-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; g C m-2) for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006) were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazônia) project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP) sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C yr-1 (1 Pg{=}1015 g) and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C yr-1 from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C yr-1 in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from

  3. Spatiotemporal variability of methane over the Amazon from satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Igor Oliveira; de Souza, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira; Andreoli, Rita Valéria; Kayano, Mary Toshie; Costa, Patrícia dos Santos

    2016-07-01

    The spatiotemporal variability of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the atmosphere over the Amazon is studied using data from the space-borne measurements of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder on board NASA's AQUA satellite for the period 2003-12. The results show a pronounced variability of this gas over the Amazon Basin lowlands region, where wetland areas occur. CH4 has a well-defined seasonal behavior, with a progressive increase of its concentration during the dry season, followed by a decrease during the wet season. Concerning this variability, the present study indicates the important role of ENSO in modulating the variability of CH4 emissions over the northern Amazon, where this association seems to be mostly linked to changes in flooded areas in response to ENSO-related precipitation changes. In this region, a CH4 decrease (increase) is due to the El Niño-related (La Niña-related) dryness (wetness). On the other hand, an increase (decrease) in the biomass burning over the southeastern Amazon during very dry (wet) years explains the increase (decrease) in CH4 emissions in this region. The present analysis identifies the two main areas of the Amazon, its northern and southeastern sectors, with remarkable interannual variations of CH4. This result might be useful for future monitoring of the variations in the concentration of CH4, the second-most important greenhouse gas, in this area.

  4. Methane emissions from floodplain trees of the Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pangala, Sunitha; Bastviken, David; Enrich-Prast, Alex; Gauci, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are the largest source of methane to the atmosphere, but emission estimates are highly uncertain leading to large discrepancies between emission inventories and much larger estimates of the Amazon methane source derived at larger scales. We examined methane emissions from all emission pathways including aquatic surfaces, emergent soils and herbaceous vegetation and more than 2000 trees from 13 locations across the central Amazon floodplain in 2014. Our data are the first measurements of stem emission from emergent portions of inundated trees in the Amazon and they demonstrate that regionally, tree stems are the dominant means of emissions for soil produced methane to the atmosphere. Emissions via the range of egress pathways varied substantially between sample locations and water-table exerted some control over emissions from ~2m below the soil surface upto 0.5-1m of inundation. Higher water (upto ~10m of inundation) exerted no further control over emissions. Applying our measurements to models of whole tree emission and scaling to the entire Amazon lowland basin demonstrates the significant contribution of trees to regional emissions that can close the Amazon basin methane budget.

  5. Recent and subrecent changes in the dispersal of amazon mud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisma, D.; Augustinus, P. G. E. F.; Alexander, C.

    The dispersal of Amazon mud reaches from the mouth of the Amazon river to the Orinoco delta and to the eastern Caribbean, a distance of more than 1500 km. The present dispersal system has been in existence for at least 10 3 years, but the deposition of mud from this system has not been constant during that period. A change from net erosion to net deposition along the Suriname coast between 1947 and 1981 was found to coincide with a shift of the trade winds from a dominantly NE to a more ENE direction from 1959 onward, accompanied by an increase in mean wind velocity. The change to net-deposition can be explained by enhanced longshore transport of suspended matter with simulataneous reduction of erosion by reduction of the onshore wave energy component. The sequence of a recent mud deposit 100-200 years old off the Amazon river mouth separated by a period of non-deposition from an older mud deposit less than 1000 years old, agrees well with indications for a wetter period in the Amazon basin and in the Colombian Andes since about 200 years BP and a wetter period between 500 and 900 y BP. This implies that during wetter periods the suspended-sediment supply from the Amazon (and the Orinoco) was (is) higher.

  6. Carbon Tetrachloride Emissions from the Amazon Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, K.; Chambers, J. Q.; Higuchi, N.; Jardine, A. B.; Martin, S. T.; Manzi, A. O.

    2014-12-01

    As a chemically inert greenhouse gas in the troposphere with lifetimes up to 50 years but active in ozone destruction in the stratosphere, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) plays a major role in the atmospheric chlorine budget and is widely considered strictly of anthropogenic origin deriving from numerous industrial processes and products. However, satellite remote sensing studies have shown higher concentrations at the Equator, and earlier work has suggested possible biogenic sources. Here we present highly vertically-resolved atmospheric gradients of CCl4 within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem from three towers in the Central Amazon. The observed buildup of CCl4 mixing ratios near the top of the main canopies provides new evidence for a potentially large biogenic source from the Basin. By demonstrating the need to represent tropical forests as biogenic sources of CCl4, our study may help narrow the gap between remote sensing observations of CCl4 and emission, chemistry, and transport models and therefore lead to improved predictions of its role in atmospheric chemistry and climate.

  7. Boosted carbon emissions from Amazon deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loarie, Scott R.; Asner, Gregory P.; Field, Christopher B.

    2009-07-01

    Standing biomass is a major, often poorly quantified determinate of carbon losses from land clearing. We analyzed maps from the 2001-2007 PRODES deforestation time series with recent regional pre-deforestation aboveground biomass estimates to calculate carbon emission trends for the Brazilian Amazon basin. Although the annual rate of deforestation has not changed significantly since the 1990s (ANOVA, p = 0.3), the aboveground biomass lost per unit of forest cleared increased from 2001 to 2007 (183 to 201 Mg C ha-1 slope of regression significant: p < 0.01). Remaining unprotected forests harbor significantly higher aboveground biomass still, averaging 231 Mg C ha-1. This difference is large enough that, even if the annual area deforested remains unchanged, future clearing will increase regional emissions by ˜0.04 Pg C yr-1 - a ˜25% increase over 2001-2007 annual carbon emissions. These results suggest increased climate risk from future deforestation, but highlight opportunities through reductions in deforestation and forest degradation (REDD).

  8. Rickettsial Disease in the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Kocher, Claudine; Morrison, Amy C; Leguia, Mariana; Loyola, Steev; Castillo, Roger M; Galvez, Hugo A; Astete, Helvio; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Ampuero, Julia S; Bausch, Daniel G; Halsey, Eric S; Cespedes, Manuel; Zevallos, Karine; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L

    2016-07-01

    Using a large, passive, clinic-based surveillance program in Iquitos, Peru, we characterized the prevalence of rickettsial infections among undifferentiated febrile cases and obtained evidence of pathogen transmission in potential domestic reservoir contacts and their ectoparasites. Blood specimens from humans and animals were assayed for spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) and typhus group rickettsiae (TGR) by ELISA and/or PCR; ectoparasites were screened by PCR. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between patient history, demographic characteristics of participants and symptoms, clinical findings and outcome of rickettsial infection. Of the 2,054 enrolled participants, almost 2% showed evidence of seroconversion or a 4-fold rise in antibody titers specific for rickettsiae between acute and convalescent blood samples. Of 190 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and 60 ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) tested, 185 (97.4%) and 3 (5%), respectively, were positive for Rickettsia spp. Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis was identified in 100% and 33% of the fleas and ticks tested, respectively. Collectively, our serologic data indicates that human pathogenic SFGR are present in the Peruvian Amazon and pose a significant risk of infection to individuals exposed to wild, domestic and peri-domestic animals and their ectoparasites.

  9. Rickettsial Disease in the Peruvian Amazon Basin

    PubMed Central

    Kocher, Claudine; Morrison, Amy C.; Leguia, Mariana; Loyola, Steev; Castillo, Roger M.; Galvez, Hugo A.; Astete, Helvio; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Ampuero, Julia S.; Bausch, Daniel G.; Halsey, Eric S.; Cespedes, Manuel; Zevallos, Karine; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L.

    2016-01-01

    Using a large, passive, clinic-based surveillance program in Iquitos, Peru, we characterized the prevalence of rickettsial infections among undifferentiated febrile cases and obtained evidence of pathogen transmission in potential domestic reservoir contacts and their ectoparasites. Blood specimens from humans and animals were assayed for spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) and typhus group rickettsiae (TGR) by ELISA and/or PCR; ectoparasites were screened by PCR. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between patient history, demographic characteristics of participants and symptoms, clinical findings and outcome of rickettsial infection. Of the 2,054 enrolled participants, almost 2% showed evidence of seroconversion or a 4-fold rise in antibody titers specific for rickettsiae between acute and convalescent blood samples. Of 190 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and 60 ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) tested, 185 (97.4%) and 3 (5%), respectively, were positive for Rickettsia spp. Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis was identified in 100% and 33% of the fleas and ticks tested, respectively. Collectively, our serologic data indicates that human pathogenic SFGR are present in the Peruvian Amazon and pose a significant risk of infection to individuals exposed to wild, domestic and peri-domestic animals and their ectoparasites. PMID:27416029

  10. Resilience of Amazon forests emerges from plant trait diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakschewski, Boris; von Bloh, Werner; Boit, Alice; Poorter, Lourens; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Heinke, Jens; Joshi, Jasmin; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2016-11-01

    Climate change threatens ecosystems worldwide, yet their potential future resilience remains largely unquantified. In recent years many studies have shown that biodiversity, and in particular functional diversity, can enhance ecosystem resilience by providing a higher response diversity. So far these insights have been mostly neglected in large-scale projections of ecosystem responses to climate change. Here we show that plant trait diversity, as a key component of functional diversity, can have a strikingly positive effect on the Amazon forests' biomass under future climate change. Using a terrestrial biogeochemical model that simulates diverse forest communities on the basis of individual tree growth, we show that plant trait diversity may enable the Amazon forests to adjust to new climate conditions via a process of ecological sorting, protecting the Amazon's carbon sink function. Therefore, plant trait diversity, and biodiversity in general, should be considered in large-scale ecosystem projections and be included as an integral part of climate change research and policy.

  11. Boundary layer ozone - An airborne survey above the Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Browell, Edward V.; Warren, Linda S.

    1988-01-01

    Ozone data obtained over the forest canopy of the Amazon Basin during July and August 1985 in the course of NASA's Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2A are discussed, and ozone profiles obtained during flights from Belem to Tabatinga, Brazil, are analyzed to determine any cross-basin effects. The analyses of ozone data indicate that the mixed layer of the Amazon Basin, for the conditions of undisturbed meteorology and in the absence of biomass burning, is a significant sink for tropospheric ozone. As the coast is approached, marine influences are noted at about 300 km inland, and a transition from a forest-controlled mixed layer to a marine-controlled mixed layer is noted.

  12. Deforestation and increased flooding of the upper Amazon.

    PubMed

    Gentry, A H; Lopez-Parodi, J

    1980-12-19

    The height of the annual flood crest of the Amazon at Iquitos has increased markedly in the last decade. During this same period, there has been greatly increased deforestation in the upper parts of the Amazon watershed in Peru and Ecuador, but no significant changes in regional patterns of precipitation. The change in Amazonian water balance during the last decade appears to be the result of increased runoff due to deforestation. If so, the long-predicted regional climatic and hydrological changes that would be the expected result of Amazonian deforestation may already be beginning.

  13. Osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    PubMed

    Cardoso, João Felipe Rito; Levy, Marcelo Guilherme Bezerra; Liparisi, Flavia; Romão, Mario Antonio Pinto

    2013-09-01

    Osteoma is an uncommon bone formation documented in avian species and other animals. A blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) with clinical respiratory symptoms was examined because of a hard mass present on the left nostril. Radiographs suggested a bone tumor, and the mass was surgically excised. Histopathologic examination revealed features of an osteoma. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot. Osteoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in birds with respiratory distress and swelling of the nostril.

  14. Assessing the Amazon Cloud Suitability for CLARREO's Computational Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldin, Daniel; Vakhnin, Andrei A.; Currey, Jon C.

    2015-01-01

    In this document we compare the performance of the Amazon Web Services (AWS), also known as Amazon Cloud, with the CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) cluster and assess its suitability for computational needs of the CLARREO mission. A benchmark executable to process one month and one year of PARASOL (Polarization and Anistropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar) data was used. With the optimal AWS configuration, adequate data-processing times, comparable to the CLARREO cluster, were found. The assessment of alternatives to the CLARREO cluster continues and several options, such as a NASA-based cluster, are being considered.

  15. Evolution of biomass burning aerosol over the Amazon: airborne measurements of aerosol chemical composition, microphysical properties, mixing state and optical properties during SAMBBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, W.; Allan, J. D.; Flynn, M.; Darbyshire, E.; Hodgson, A.; Liu, D.; O'Shea, S.; Bauguitte, S.; Szpek, K.; Johnson, B.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Artaxo, P.; Coe, H.

    2013-12-01

    Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, resulting in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious impacts on public health. On regional scales, the impacts are substantial, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months. Absorption by atmospheric aerosols is underestimated by models over South America, which points to significant uncertainties relating to Black Carbon (BC) aerosol properties. Initial results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft, are presented here. Aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and a DMT Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass burning on regional air quality, weather and climate. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions including sampling of pristine Rainforest, fresh biomass burning plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass burning layers within the free troposphere. The aircraft sampled biomass burning aerosol across the southern Amazon in the states of Rondonia and Mato Grosso, as well as in a Cerrado (Savannah-like) region in Tocantins state. This presented a range of fire conditions, in terms of their number, intensity, vegetation-type and their combustion efficiencies. Near-source sampling of fires in Rainforest environments suggested that smouldering combustion dominated, while flaming combustion dominated in the Cerrado. This led to significant differences in aerosol chemical composition, particularly in terms of the BC content, with BC being enhanced in the Cerrado

  16. Amazon Forests Response to Droughts: A Perspective from the MAIAC Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bi, Jian; Myneni, Ranga; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie; Park, Taejin; Chi, Chen; Yan, Kai; Knyazikhin, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Amazon forests experienced two severe droughts at the beginning of the 21st century: one in 2005 and the other in 2010. How Amazon forests responded to these droughts is critical for the future of the Earth's climate system. It is only possible to assess Amazon forests' response to the droughts in large areal extent through satellite remote sensing. Here, we used the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index (VI) data to assess Amazon forests' response to droughts, and compared the results with those from the standard (Collection 5 and Collection 6) MODIS VI data. Overall, the MAIAC data reveal more realistic Amazon forests inter-annual greenness dynamics than the standard MODIS data. Our results from the MAIAC data suggest that: (1) the droughts decreased the greenness (i.e., photosynthetic activity) of Amazon forests; (2) the Amazon wet season precipitation reduction induced by El Niño events could also lead to reduced photosynthetic activity of Amazon forests; and (3) in the subsequent year after the water stresses, the greenness of Amazon forests recovered from the preceding decreases. However, as previous research shows droughts cause Amazon forests to reduce investment in tissue maintenance and defense, it is not clear whether the photosynthesis of Amazon forests will continue to recover after future water stresses, because of the accumulated damages caused by the droughts.

  17. Recent Amazon climate as background for possible ongoing and future changes of Amazon humid forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloor, M.; Barichivich, J.; Ziv, G.; Brienen, R.; Schöngart, J.; Peylin, P.; Ladvocat Cintra, B. Barcante; Feldpausch, T.; Phillips, O.; Baker, J.

    2015-09-01

    Recent analyses of Amazon runoff and gridded precipitation data suggest an intensification of the hydrological cycle over the past few decades in the following sense: wet season precipitation and peak river runoff (since ˜1980) as well as annual mean precipitation (since ˜1990) have increased, while dry season precipitation and minimum runoff have slightly decreased. There has also been an increase in the frequency of anomalously severe floods and droughts. To provide context for the special issue on Amazonia and its forests in a warming climate we expand here on these analyses. The contrasting recent changes in wet and dry season precipitation have continued and are generally consistent with changes in catchment-level peak and minimum river runoff as well as a positive trend of water vapor inflow into the basin. Consistent with the river records, the increased vapor inflow is concentrated to the wet season. Temperature has been rising by 0.7°C since 1980 with more pronounced warming during dry months. Suggestions for the cause of the observed changes of the hydrological cycle come from patterns in tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Tropical and North Atlantic SSTs have increased rapidly and steadily since 1990, while Pacific SSTs have shifted during the 1990s from a positive Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) phase with warm eastern Pacific temperatures to a negative phase with cold eastern Pacific temperatures. These SST conditions have been shown to be associated with an increase in precipitation over most of the Amazon except the south and southwest. If ongoing changes continue, we expect forests to continue to thrive in those regions where there is an increase in precipitation with the exception of floodplain forests. An increase in flood pulse height and duration could lead to increased mortality at higher levels of the floodplain and, over the long term, to a lateral shift of the zonally stratified floodplain forest communities. Negative effects on

  18. Biomedical cloud computing with Amazon Web Services.

    PubMed

    Fusaro, Vincent A; Patil, Prasad; Gafni, Erik; Wall, Dennis P; Tonellato, Peter J

    2011-08-01

    In this overview to biomedical computing in the cloud, we discussed two primary ways to use the cloud (a single instance or cluster), provided a detailed example using NGS mapping, and highlighted the associated costs. While many users new to the cloud may assume that entry is as straightforward as uploading an application and selecting an instance type and storage options, we illustrated that there is substantial up-front effort required before an application can make full use of the cloud's vast resources. Our intention was to provide a set of best practices and to illustrate how those apply to a typical application pipeline for biomedical informatics, but also general enough for extrapolation to other types of computational problems. Our mapping example was intended to illustrate how to develop a scalable project and not to compare and contrast alignment algorithms for read mapping and genome assembly. Indeed, with a newer aligner such as Bowtie, it is possible to map the entire African genome using one m2.2xlarge instance in 48 hours for a total cost of approximately $48 in computation time. In our example, we were not concerned with data transfer rates, which are heavily influenced by the amount of available bandwidth, connection latency, and network availability. When transferring large amounts of data to the cloud, bandwidth limitations can be a major bottleneck, and in some cases it is more efficient to simply mail a storage device containing the data to AWS (http://aws.amazon.com/importexport/). More information about cloud computing, detailed cost analysis, and security can be found in references.

  19. Viruses and bacteria in floodplain lakes along a major Amazon tributary respond to distance to the Amazon River.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Rafael M; Roland, Fábio; Cardoso, Simone J; Farjalla, Vinícius F; Bozelli, Reinaldo L; Barros, Nathan O

    2015-01-01

    In response to the massive volume of water along the Amazon River, the Amazon tributaries have their water backed up by 100s of kilometers upstream their mouth. This backwater effect is part of the complex hydrodynamics of Amazonian surface waters, which in turn drives the variation in concentrations of organic matter and nutrients, and also regulates planktonic communities such as viruses and bacteria. Viruses and bacteria are commonly tightly coupled to each other, and their ecological role in aquatic food webs has been increasingly recognized. Here, we surveyed viral and bacterial abundances (BAs) in 26 floodplain lakes along the Trombetas River, the largest clear-water tributary of the Amazon River's north margin. We correlated viral and BAs with temperature, pH, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), phosphorus, nitrogen, turbidity, water transparency, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), phytoplankton abundance, and distance from the lake mouth until the confluence of the Trombetas with the Amazon River. We hypothesized that both bacterial and viral abundances (VAs) would change along a latitudinal gradient, as the backwater effect becomes more intense with increased proximity to the Amazon River; different flood duration and intensity among lakes and waters with contrasting sources would cause spatial variation. Our measurements were performed during the low water period, when floodplain lakes are in their most lake-like conditions. Viral and BAs, DOC, pCO2, and water transparency increased as distance to the Amazon River increased. Most viruses were bacteriophages, as viruses were strongly linked to bacteria, but not to phytoplankton. We suggest that BAs increase in response to DOC quantity and possibly quality, consequently leading to increased VAs. Our results highlight that hydrodynamics plays a key role in the regulation of planktonic viral and bacterial communities in Amazonian floodplain lakes.

  20. Viruses and bacteria in floodplain lakes along a major Amazon tributary respond to distance to the Amazon River

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Rafael M.; Roland, Fábio; Cardoso, Simone J.; Farjalla, Vinícius F.; Bozelli, Reinaldo L.; Barros, Nathan O.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the massive volume of water along the Amazon River, the Amazon tributaries have their water backed up by 100s of kilometers upstream their mouth. This backwater effect is part of the complex hydrodynamics of Amazonian surface waters, which in turn drives the variation in concentrations of organic matter and nutrients, and also regulates planktonic communities such as viruses and bacteria. Viruses and bacteria are commonly tightly coupled to each other, and their ecological role in aquatic food webs has been increasingly recognized. Here, we surveyed viral and bacterial abundances (BAs) in 26 floodplain lakes along the Trombetas River, the largest clear-water tributary of the Amazon River’s north margin. We correlated viral and BAs with temperature, pH, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), phosphorus, nitrogen, turbidity, water transparency, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), phytoplankton abundance, and distance from the lake mouth until the confluence of the Trombetas with the Amazon River. We hypothesized that both bacterial and viral abundances (VAs) would change along a latitudinal gradient, as the backwater effect becomes more intense with increased proximity to the Amazon River; different flood duration and intensity among lakes and waters with contrasting sources would cause spatial variation. Our measurements were performed during the low water period, when floodplain lakes are in their most lake-like conditions. Viral and BAs, DOC, pCO2, and water transparency increased as distance to the Amazon River increased. Most viruses were bacteriophages, as viruses were strongly linked to bacteria, but not to phytoplankton. We suggest that BAs increase in response to DOC quantity and possibly quality, consequently leading to increased VAs. Our results highlight that hydrodynamics plays a key role in the regulation of planktonic viral and bacterial communities in Amazonian floodplain lakes. PMID:25788895

  1. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163), i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. Results The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP), urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers) were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Conclusions Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid economic and demographic

  2. Aquatic Biodiversity in the Amazon: Habitat Specialization and Geographic Isolation Promote Species Richness.

    PubMed

    Albert, James S; Carvalho, Tiago P; Petry, Paulo; Holder, Meghan A; Maxime, Emmanuel L; Espino, Jessica; Corahua, Isabel; Quispe, Roberto; Rengifo, Blanca; Ortega, Hernan; Reis, Roberto E

    2011-04-29

    The Neotropical freshwater ichthyofauna has among the highest species richness and density of any vertebrate fauna on Earth, with more than 5,600 species compressed into less than 12% of the world's land surface area, and less than 0.002% of the world's total liquid water supply. How have so many species come to co-exist in such a small amount of total habitat space? Here we report results of an aquatic faunal survey of the Fitzcarrald region in southeastern Peru, an area of low-elevation upland (200-500 m above sea level) rainforest in the Western Amazon, that straddles the headwaters of four large Amazonian tributaries; the Juruá (Yurúa), Ucayali, Purús, and Madre de Dios rivers. All measures of fish species diversity in this region are high; there is high alpha diversity with many species coexisting in the same locality, high beta diversity with high turnover between habitats, and high gamma diversity with high turnover between adjacent tributary basins. Current data show little species endemism, and no known examples of sympatric sister species, within the Fitzcarrald region, suggesting a lack of localized or recent adaptive divergences. These results support the hypothesis that the fish species of the Fitzcarrald region are relatively ancient, predating the Late Miocene-Pliocene (c. 4 Ma) uplift that isolated its several headwater basins. The results also suggest that habitat specialization (phylogenetic niche conservatism) and geographic isolation (dispersal limitation) have contributed to the maintenance of high species richness in this region of the Amazon Basin.

  3. Do the Amazon and Orinoco freshwater plumes really matter for hurricane-induced ocean surface cooling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, O.; Jouanno, J.; Durand, F.

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies suggested that the plume of low-saline waters formed by the discharge of the Amazon and Orinoco rivers could favor Atlantic Tropical Cyclone (TC) intensification by weakening the cool wake and its impact on the hurricane growth potential. The main objective of this study is to quantify the effects of the Amazon-Orinoco river discharges in modulating the amplitude of TC-induced cooling in the western Tropical Atlantic. Our approach is based on the analysis of TC cool wake statistics obtained from an ocean regional numerical simulation with ¼º horizontal resolution over the 1998-2012 period, forced with realistic TC winds. In both model and observations, the amplitude of TC-induced cooling in plume waters (0.3-0.4ºC) is reduced significantly by around 50-60% compared to the cooling in open ocean waters out of the plume (0.6-0.7ºC). A twin simulation without river runoff shows that TC-induced cooling over the plume region (defined from the reference experiment) is almost unchanged (˜0.03ºC) despite strong differences in salinity stratification and the absence of barrier layers. This argues for a weaker than thought cooling inhibition effect of salinity stratification and barrier layers in this region. Indeed, results suggest that haline stratification and barrier layers caused by the river runoff may explain only ˜10% of the cooling difference between plume waters and open ocean waters. Instead, the analysis of the background oceanic conditions suggests that the regional distribution of the thermal stratification is the main factor controlling the amplitude of cooling in the plume region.

  4. Mimivirus Circulation among Wild and Domestic Mammals, Amazon Region, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dornas, Fábio P.; Rodrigues, Felipe P.; Boratto, Paulo V.M.; Silva, Lorena C.F.; Ferreira, Paulo C.P.; Bonjardim, Cláudio A.; Trindade, Giliane S.; Kroon, Erna G.; La Scola, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    To investigate circulation of mimiviruses in the Amazon Region of Brazil, we surveyed 513 serum samples from domestic and wild mammals. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in 15 sample pools, and mimivirus DNA was detected in 9 pools of serum from capuchin monkeys and in 16 pools of serum from cattle. PMID:24564967

  5. Mayaro virus infection, Amazon Basin region, Peru, 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Eric S; Siles, Crystyan; Guevara, Carolina; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Jhonston, Erik J; Ramal, Cesar; Aguilar, Patricia V; Ampuero, Julia S

    2013-11-01

    During 2010-2013, we recruited 16 persons with confirmed Mayaro virus infection in the Peruvian Amazon to prospectively follow clinical symptoms and serologic response over a 12-month period. Mayaro virus infection caused long-term arthralgia in more than half, similar to reports of other arthritogenic alphaviruses.

  6. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: A Classroom Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijman, Jan; Hill, A. David

    1991-01-01

    Presents a classroom project dealing with tropical deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Addresses environmental consequences and economic, social, and political causes. Involves both lectures and individual research and reports by student groups on deforestation causes. Includes a note-playing activity in which students make recommendations for…

  7. Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meade, R.H.; Rayol, J.M.; Da Conceicao, S.C.; Natividade, J.R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater in the lowermost 800 km of two large southern tributaries, the Madeira and Puru??s rivers, causes falling river stages to be as much as 2-3 m higher than rising stages at any given discharge. Large tributaries that drain the northernmost Amazon River basin reach their annual minimum discharges three to four months later than does the mainstem. In the lowermost 300-400 km of the Negro River, the largest northern tributary and the fifth largest river in the world, the lowest stages of the year correspond to those of the Amazon River mainstem rather than to those in the upstream reaches of the Negro River. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  8. Kindling: The Amazon e-Reader as an Educational Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brezicki, Colin

    2011-01-01

    The revolutionary electronic reading device, Amazon's Kindle, is already obsolete. Such is the breakneck speed of technology that the machine touted to spell the death of printed books is already heading for the scrap heap, replaced by e-readers like the iPad that access the Internet, make phone calls, download movies, and connect users with all…

  9. Condition and fate of logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Broadbent, Eben N; Oliveira, Paulo J C; Keller, Michael; Knapp, David E; Silva, José N M

    2006-08-22

    The long-term viability of a forest industry in the Amazon region of Brazil depends on the maintenance of adequate timber volume and growth in healthy forests. Using extensive high-resolution satellite analyses, we studied the forest damage caused by recent logging operations and the likelihood that logged forests would be cleared within 4 years after timber harvest. Across 2,030,637 km2 of the Brazilian Amazon from 1999 to 2004, at least 76% of all harvest practices resulted in high levels of canopy damage sufficient to leave forests susceptible to drought and fire. We found that 16+/-1% of selectively logged areas were deforested within 1 year of logging, with a subsequent annual deforestation rate of 5.4% for 4 years after timber harvests. Nearly all logging occurred within 25 km of main roads, and within that area, the probability of deforestation for a logged forest was up to four times greater than for unlogged forests. In combination, our results show that logging in the Brazilian Amazon is dominated by highly damaging operations, often followed rapidly by deforestation decades before forests can recover sufficiently to produce timber for a second harvest. Under the management regimes in effect at the time of our study in the Brazilian Amazon, selective logging would not be sustained.

  10. Neogene origins and implied warmth tolerance of Amazon tree species.

    PubMed

    Dick, Christopher W; Lewis, Simon L; Maslin, Mark; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2012-01-01

    Tropical rain forest has been a persistent feature in South America for at least 55 million years. The future of the contemporary Amazon forest is uncertain, however, as the region is entering conditions with no past analogue, combining rapidly increasing air temperatures, high atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, possible extreme droughts, and extensive removal and modification by humans. Given the long-term Cenozoic cooling trend, it is unknown whether Amazon forests can tolerate air temperature increases, with suggestions that lowland forests lack warm-adapted taxa, leading to inevitable species losses. In response to this uncertainty, we posit a simple hypothesis: the older the age of a species prior to the Pleistocene, the warmer the climate it has previously survived, with Pliocene (2.6-5 Ma) and late-Miocene (8-10 Ma) air temperature across Amazonia being similar to 2100 temperature projections under low and high carbon emission scenarios, respectively. Using comparative phylogeographic analyses, we show that 9 of 12 widespread Amazon tree species have Pliocene or earlier lineages (>2.6 Ma), with seven dating from the Miocene (>5.6 Ma) and three >8 Ma. The remarkably old age of these species suggest that Amazon forests passed through warmth similar to 2100 levels and that, in the absence of other major environmental changes, near-term high temperature-induced mass species extinction is unlikely.

  11. The riverine silicon isotope composition of the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, H. J.; Sondag, F.; Santos, R. V.; André, L.; Cardinal, D.

    2013-11-01

    We present here the first large-scale study of riverine silicon isotope signatures in the Amazon Basin. The Amazon and five of its main tributaries were studied at different seasons of the annual hydrological cycle. The δ30Si signature of the dissolved silicon (DSi) exported to the estuary (weighted for DSi flux) for the period considered is estimated at +0.92‰. A river cross-section shows the homogeneity of the Amazon River regarding DSi concentration and isotope ratio. The biogenic silica (BSi) concentration measured in surface water from all rivers is generally small compared to the DSi reservoir but large variations exist between rivers. Very low isotope signatures were measured in the upper Rio Negro (δ30Si = +0.05 ± 0.06‰), which we explain both by an equilibrium between clay formation and dissolution and by gibbsite formation. The Si isotope fractionation in the Andean tributaries and the Amazon main stem can be explained by clay formation and follow either a Rayleigh or a batch equilibrium fractionation model. Our results also suggest that the formation of 2:1 clays induces a fractionation factor similar to that of kaolinite formation.

  12. Andes Hantavirus Variant in Rodents, Southern Amazon Basin, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M.; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M. Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A. Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O.; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T.; Hirschberg, David L.; Lipkin, W. Ian; Bausch, Daniel G.; Montgomery, Joel M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted. PMID:24447689

  13. Andes hantavirus variant in rodents, southern Amazon Basin, Peru.

    PubMed

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T; Hirschberg, David L; Lipkin, W Ian; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M

    2014-02-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  14. Long-term decline of the Amazon carbon sink.

    PubMed

    Brienen, R J W; Phillips, O L; Feldpausch, T R; Gloor, E; Baker, T R; Lloyd, J; Lopez-Gonzalez, G; Monteagudo-Mendoza, A; Malhi, Y; Lewis, S L; Vásquez Martinez, R; Alexiades, M; Álvarez Dávila, E; Alvarez-Loayza, P; Andrade, A; Aragão, L E O C; Araujo-Murakami, A; Arets, E J M M; Arroyo, L; Aymard C, G A; Bánki, O S; Baraloto, C; Barroso, J; Bonal, D; Boot, R G A; Camargo, J L C; Castilho, C V; Chama, V; Chao, K J; Chave, J; Comiskey, J A; Cornejo Valverde, F; da Costa, L; de Oliveira, E A; Di Fiore, A; Erwin, T L; Fauset, S; Forsthofer, M; Galbraith, D R; Grahame, E S; Groot, N; Hérault, B; Higuchi, N; Honorio Coronado, E N; Keeling, H; Killeen, T J; Laurance, W F; Laurance, S; Licona, J; Magnussen, W E; Marimon, B S; Marimon-Junior, B H; Mendoza, C; Neill, D A; Nogueira, E M; Núñez, P; Pallqui Camacho, N C; Parada, A; Pardo-Molina, G; Peacock, J; Peña-Claros, M; Pickavance, G C; Pitman, N C A; Poorter, L; Prieto, A; Quesada, C A; Ramírez, F; Ramírez-Angulo, H; Restrepo, Z; Roopsind, A; Rudas, A; Salomão, R P; Schwarz, M; Silva, N; Silva-Espejo, J E; Silveira, M; Stropp, J; Talbot, J; ter Steege, H; Teran-Aguilar, J; Terborgh, J; Thomas-Caesar, R; Toledo, M; Torello-Raventos, M; Umetsu, R K; van der Heijden, G M F; van der Hout, P; Guimarães Vieira, I C; Vieira, S A; Vilanova, E; Vos, V A; Zagt, R J

    2015-03-19

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide records indicate that the land surface has acted as a strong global carbon sink over recent decades, with a substantial fraction of this sink probably located in the tropics, particularly in the Amazon. Nevertheless, it is unclear how the terrestrial carbon sink will evolve as climate and atmospheric composition continue to change. Here we analyse the historical evolution of the biomass dynamics of the Amazon rainforest over three decades using a distributed network of 321 plots. While this analysis confirms that Amazon forests have acted as a long-term net biomass sink, we find a long-term decreasing trend of carbon accumulation. Rates of net increase in above-ground biomass declined by one-third during the past decade compared to the 1990s. This is a consequence of growth rate increases levelling off recently, while biomass mortality persistently increased throughout, leading to a shortening of carbon residence times. Potential drivers for the mortality increase include greater climate variability, and feedbacks of faster growth on mortality, resulting in shortened tree longevity. The observed decline of the Amazon sink diverges markedly from the recent increase in terrestrial carbon uptake at the global scale, and is contrary to expectations based on models.

  15. Extreme Drought Events Revealed in Amazon Tree Ring Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, H. S.; Baker, P. A.; Guilderson, T. P.

    2010-12-01

    The Amazon basin is a center of deep atmospheric convection and thus acts as a major engine for global hydrologic circulation. Yet despite its significance, a full understanding of Amazon rainfall variability remains elusive due to a poor historical record of climate. Temperate tree rings have been used extensively to reconstruct climate over the last thousand years, however less attention has been given to the application of dendrochronology in tropical regions, in large part due to a lower frequency of tree species known to produce annual rings. Here we present a tree ring record of drought extremes from the Madre de Dios region of southeastern Peru over the last 190 years. We confirm that tree ring growth in species Cedrela odorata is annual and show it to be well correlated with wet season precipitation. This correlation is used to identify extreme dry (and wet) events that have occurred in the past. We focus on drought events identified in the record as drought frequency is expected to increase over the Amazon in a warming climate. The Cedrela chronology records historic Amazon droughts of the 20th century previously identified in the literature and extends the record of drought for this region to the year 1816. Our analysis shows that there has been an increase in the frequency of extreme drought (mean recurrence interval = 5-6 years) since the turn of the 20th century and both Atlantic and Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) forcing mechanisms are implicated.

  16. Neogene origins and implied warmth tolerance of Amazon tree species

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Christopher W; Lewis, Simon L; Maslin, Mark; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2013-01-01

    Tropical rain forest has been a persistent feature in South America for at least 55 million years. The future of the contemporary Amazon forest is uncertain, however, as the region is entering conditions with no past analogue, combining rapidly increasing air temperatures, high atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, possible extreme droughts, and extensive removal and modification by humans. Given the long-term Cenozoic cooling trend, it is unknown whether Amazon forests can tolerate air temperature increases, with suggestions that lowland forests lack warm-adapted taxa, leading to inevitable species losses. In response to this uncertainty, we posit a simple hypothesis: the older the age of a species prior to the Pleistocene, the warmer the climate it has previously survived, with Pliocene (2.6–5 Ma) and late-Miocene (8–10 Ma) air temperature across Amazonia being similar to 2100 temperature projections under low and high carbon emission scenarios, respectively. Using comparative phylogeographic analyses, we show that 9 of 12 widespread Amazon tree species have Pliocene or earlier lineages (>2.6 Ma), with seven dating from the Miocene (>5.6 Ma) and three >8 Ma. The remarkably old age of these species suggest that Amazon forests passed through warmth similar to 2100 levels and that, in the absence of other major environmental changes, near-term high temperature-induced mass species extinction is unlikely. PMID:23404439

  17. Geochemistry of Amazon Basin supported by the ADCP measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paca, Victor; Moreira, Daniel; Monteiro, Achiles; Roig, Henrique

    2014-05-01

    The Amazon River is the largest river in the world in volume of water. The basin has 6.915.000 Km2, but the last gauging station of Amazon River with regular and continuous measurements of discharge and sediment transport are Óbidos station with 4.670.000 Km2. Óbidos It is also the last stream gauge station with no or less tidal effect observed from Atlantic Ocean and registered. The Clim-Amazon Project has been done the first measurements with the purpose to acquire geochemical and hydrological informations downstream Óbidos station. The system studied has input data of sediments load after Óbidos, and the output of the system, at the Amazon River is at Macapá, close to the mouth of Amazon river. And flow the main tributaries along this way, between these two stations. To evaluate the geochemical source, the mass balance, and isotopic geochemistry is necessary the informations about the traces the main chemical elements, transported by the discharge from the main rivers of this area: Tapajos, Xingu, Paru, Jari, and the Amazon River at Monte Alegre and at Macapá. The ADCP - Acoustic Doppler Current Profile, equipment is used to get the stream discharge value at the moment of transect. But also get two more informations necessary for the geochemistry, and do the collecting points profiles. The place with most velocity at transect or the place with more backscatter. These informations are related with the sediment load of the river. Or which one can provide the better idea of how are transported the sediments at the measured transects. What was to observe was the main speed of the stream flow or the main backscatter sectional. The main purpose of the work is to show how works the correlation between the backscatter and speed data given by the ADCP, downstream Óbidos, and the main confluences of Amazon River, until Macapá. The ADCP measurements support the geochemical studies and the course of sediments load transported by the discharge of these rivers.

  18. Monitoring the Amazon plume northwestward transport along Lagrangian pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Severine; Gaultier, Lucile; Vandemark, Douglas; Lee, Tong; Gierach, Michelle

    2016-04-01

    Large rivers are important to marine air-sea interactions and local biogeochemistry. By modifying the local and regional sea surface salinity (SSS), the freshwater inputs associated with major river plumes cause the formation of a layer near the surface with salinity stratification but near-uniform temperature, known as the barrier layer (BL). The BL prevent exchanges between the warm mixed layer and the cold ocean interior, and thus affect the vertical mixing of heat between the mixed layer and the thermocline. This can have an important impact on air-sea interactions such as hurricanes intensification. Our study focuses on the Amazon and Orinoco rivers, respectively the first and fourth world's largest rivers in terms of discharge. Amazon-Orinoco waters are carried northwestward by the North Brazilian Current (NBC) during the first part of the year and then eastward along the North Equatorial Counter Current. The hurricane season in the tropical Atlantic extends from June through November, the period of Amazon-Orinoco plume maximum northwestward extension, on a hurricane route. Being able to monitor the spatial and temporal dispersal of the Amazon and Orinoco river plumes is therefore important to better understand their impact on barrier layer thickness and SST variation at seasonal to interannual time scales. Variations from year to year in spatial extent of the plume may result from several processes including changes in Amazon discharge, ocean advection, turbulent mixing, and wind field. Satellite remote sensing data provide several means to visualize the surface dispersal of the Amazon plume, with ocean color data being the first to track it in the tropical Atlantic ocean further than 1000 km from shore. With the launches of the ESA Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and the NASA Aquarius/SAC-D missions, we are now able to use the SSS observations in combination with ocean color, altimetry and sea surface temperature observations to track surface plume

  19. Amazon forest response to repeated droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldpausch, T. R.; Phillips, O. L.; Brienen, R. J. W.; Gloor, E.; Lloyd, J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, G.; Monteagudo-Mendoza, A.; Malhi, Y.; Alarcón, A.; Álvarez Dávila, E.; Alvarez-Loayza, P.; Andrade, A.; Aragao, L. E. O. C.; Arroyo, L.; Aymard C., G. A.; Baker, T. R.; Baraloto, C.; Barroso, J.; Bonal, D.; Castro, W.; Chama, V.; Chave, J.; Domingues, T. F.; Fauset, S.; Groot, N.; Honorio Coronado, E.; Laurance, S.; Laurance, W. F.; Lewis, S. L.; Licona, J. C.; Marimon, B. S.; Marimon-Junior, B. H.; Mendoza Bautista, C.; Neill, D. A.; Oliveira, E. A.; Oliveira dos Santos, C.; Pallqui Camacho, N. C.; Pardo-Molina, G.; Prieto, A.; Quesada, C. A.; Ramírez, F.; Ramírez-Angulo, H.; Réjou-Méchain, M.; Rudas, A.; Saiz, G.; Salomão, R. P.; Silva-Espejo, J. E.; Silveira, M.; Steege, H.; Stropp, J.; Terborgh, J.; Thomas-Caesar, R.; Heijden, G. M. F.; Vásquez Martinez, R.; Vilanova, E.; Vos, V. A.

    2016-07-01

    The Amazon Basin has experienced more variable climate over the last decade, with a severe and widespread drought in 2005 causing large basin-wide losses of biomass. A drought of similar climatological magnitude occurred again in 2010; however, there has been no basin-wide ground-based evaluation of effects on vegetation. We examine to what extent the 2010 drought affected forest dynamics using ground-based observations of mortality and growth from an extensive forest plot network. We find that during the 2010 drought interval, forests did not gain biomass (net change: -0.43 Mg ha-1, confidence interval (CI): -1.11, 0.19, n = 97), regardless of whether forests experienced precipitation deficit anomalies. This contrasted with a long-term biomass sink during the baseline pre-2010 drought period (1998 to pre-2010) of 1.33 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (CI: 0.90, 1.74, p < 0.01). The resulting net impact of the 2010 drought (i.e., reversal of the baseline net sink) was -1.95 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (CI:-2.77, -1.18; p < 0.001). This net biomass impact was driven by an increase in biomass mortality (1.45 Mg ha-1 yr-1 CI: 0.66, 2.25, p < 0.001) and a decline in biomass productivity (-0.50 Mg ha-1 yr-1, CI:-0.78, -0.31; p < 0.001). Surprisingly, the magnitude of the losses through tree mortality was unrelated to estimated local precipitation anomalies and was independent of estimated local pre-2010 drought history. Thus, there was no evidence that pre-2010 droughts compounded the effects of the 2010 drought. We detected a systematic basin-wide impact of the 2010 drought on tree growth rates across Amazonia, which was related to the strength of the moisture deficit. This impact differed from the drought event in 2005 which did not affect productivity. Based on these ground data, live biomass in trees and corresponding estimates of live biomass in lianas and roots, we estimate that intact forests in Amazonia were carbon neutral in 2010 (-0.07 Pg C yr-1 CI:-0.42, 0.23), consistent with results from an

  20. Ecological diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the Amazon basin. The main scenaries in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Coura, J R; Junqueira, A C V

    2015-11-01

    The ecological diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the Brazilian Amazon region is directly interlinked with the parasite's extensive reservoir, composed of 33 species of wild mammals within the following orders: Marsupialia, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Xenarthra, Carnivora and Primates; and of 16 species of wild triatomines, of which ten may be infected with T. cruzi. Four scenarios for the diversity of T. cruzi transmission in the Brazilian Amazon region are evident: (i) T. cruzi transmission between vectors and wild mammals, which is characterized as a wild enzooty encompassing the entire Amazon basin; (ii) accidental T. cruzi transmission from vectors and wild mammals to humans, when they invade the wild ecotope or when these vectors and wild mammals invade human homes; (iii) occupational Chagas disease among piassava (Leopoldinia piassaba) palm fiber gatherers, transmitted by the vector Rhodnius brethesi, for which these palm trees are the specific ecotope; (IV) oral T. cruzi transmission to humans through food contamination, particularly in juices from plants such as assai, which today is considered to be endemic in the Brazilian Amazon region, with more than 1500 cases notified.

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

  3. Biogeography of squirrel monkeys (genus Saimiri): South-central Amazon origin and rapid pan-Amazonian diversification of a lowland primate.

    PubMed

    Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W; Boubli, Jean P; Paim, Fernanda P; Ribas, Camila C; Silva, Maria Nazareth F da; Messias, Mariluce R; Röhe, Fabio; Mercês, Michelle P; Silva Júnior, José S; Silva, Claudia R; Pinho, Gabriela M; Koshkarian, Gohar; Nguyen, Mai T T; Harada, Maria L; Rabelo, Rafael M; Queiroz, Helder L; Alfaro, Michael E; Farias, Izeni P

    2015-01-01

    The squirrel monkey, Saimiri, is a pan-Amazonian Pleistocene radiation. We use statistical phylogeographic methods to create a mitochondrial DNA-based timetree for 118 squirrel monkey samples across 68 localities spanning all Amazonian centers of endemism, with the aim of better understanding (1) the effects of rivers as barriers to dispersal and distribution; (2) the area of origin for modern Saimiri; (3) whether ancestral Saimiri was a lowland lake-affiliated or an upland forest taxa; and (4) the effects of Pleistocene climate fluctuation on speciation. We also use our topology to help resolve current controversies in Saimiri taxonomy and species relationships. The Rondônia and Inambari centers in the southern Amazon were recovered as the most likely areas of origin for Saimiri. The Amazon River proved a strong barrier to dispersal, and squirrel monkey expansion and diversification was rapid, with all speciation events estimated to occur between 1.4 and 0.6Ma, predating the last three glacial maxima and eliminating climate extremes as the main driver of squirrel monkey speciation. Saimiri expansion was concentrated first in central and western Amazonia, which according to the "Young Amazon" hypothesis was just becoming available as floodplain habitat with the draining of the Amazon Lake. Squirrel monkeys also expanded and diversified east, both north and south of the Amazon, coincident with the formation of new rivers. This evolutionary history is most consistent with a Young Amazon Flooded Forest Taxa model, suggesting Saimiri has always maintained a lowland wetlands niche and was able to greatly expand its range with the transition from a lacustrine to a riverine system in Amazonia. Saimiri vanzolinii was recovered as the sister group to one clade of Saimiri ustus, discordant with the traditional Gothic vs. Roman morphological division of squirrel monkeys. We also found paraphyly within each of the currently recognized species: S. sciureus, S. ustus, and S

  4. Supply of terrestrial organic matter to Amazon Shelf sediments of the last 1000 years deduced from bacteriohopanepolyols and other lipid biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallweit, Wiebke; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Talbot, Helen M.; Wagner, Thomas; Zabel, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    In the Amazon Shelf and Fan region large amounts of particulate material - mainly derived from the Andes - are transported via the Amazon River into the western tropical Atlantic Ocean. Previous studies have shown that the Amazon Fan sediments dominantly consist of terrigenous material. In this study we investigate the distribution of lipid biomarkers for terrigenous and soil organic matter (SOM), in particular bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs), and other lipid biomarkers in a sediment core covering approximately the last 1000 years, recovered on the Amazon Shelf about 350 km north of the Amazon River mouth at about 50 m water depth. Here we present the first evidence for the presence of soil-specific and other BHPs in these sediments. Concentrations of soil BHP within the range of 70 to 220 µg/g TOC are amongst the highest reported to date from marine environments confirming the exceptional role of SOM export from major tropical rivers. Enhanced concentrations of 35-amino-BHPs in the sediments also suggest intense aerobic methane-oxidation, testifying for intense and active microbial cycling of labile organic matter. However, we can not rule out the possibility that this signal is exported from the catchment with the soil-marker BHPs. The concentrations of n-alkanes also show fluctuations, albeit less distinctive and not correlated with the cyclic variations of the BHPs. Very low concentrations of alkenones as molecular markers for prymnesiophyte algae imply comparatively small contributions of marine organic matter. The relative abundances of different groups of BHPs remain rather constant downcore, arguing that the type of SOM being exported over the last >1000 years was uniform. The concentrations of all individual BHPs reveal a cyclic pattern that might be related to changes in the supply of terrestrial material due to climatic fluctuations. This is also supported by the Al/Ti record of our core showing a similar cyclicity as the BHPs. The current observations

  5. New tick records from the state of Rondônia, western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, Thiago F; Venzal, José M; Terassini, Flávio A; Costa, Francisco B; Marcili, Arlei; Camargo, Luis M A; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2014-01-01

    From 2005 to 2012, ticks were collected from different hosts at different localities of the state of Rondônia. The following 16 ixodid tick species were identified: Ixodes fuscipes, Amblyomma auricularium, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma geayi, Amblyomma humerale, Amblyomma latepunctatum, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma naponense, Amblyomma nodosum, Amblyomma oblongoguttatum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma romitii, Amblyomma rotundatum, Amblyomma scalpturatum, and Amblyomma varium. From these, A. auricularium, A. dubitatum, and A. geayi are reported for the first time in the state of Rondônia. We provide the following tick-host associations that have not been reported anywhere: A. longirostre on Pteroglossus bitorquatus, A. rotundatum on Hydrodynastes gigas, and A. latepunctatum and A. scalpturatum on Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. An adult male specimen of A. rotundatum is reported on Boa constrictor, comprising only the fourth male specimen to be recorded for this obligate parthenogenetic tick species. We also report the presence of the argasid species Ornithodoros kohlsi for the first time in Brazil, based on larval specimens collected on bats Molossops (Neoplatymops) mattogrossensis in Monte Negro, Rondônia. The present study increases the Brazilian tick fauna to 65 species, from which 34 species (52 %) are now registered to Rondônia. Such high diversity of ticks in a relatively small state, associated with increasing environmental alteration due to deforestation and human occupation, makes Rondônia a potential source of tick-borne diseases.

  6. A new species of monadal coral snake of the genus Micrurus (Serpentes, Elapidae) from western Amazon.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Darlan Tavares; Da Silva, Nelson Jorge Jr; Pires, Matheus Godoy; Zaher, Hussam; Prudente, Ana Lúcia Da Costa

    2015-06-24

    We described a new species of monadal coral snake of the genus Micrurus from the region of Tabatinga and Leticia, along the boundaries of Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. The new species can be distinguished from the other congeners by the combination of the following characters: absence of a pale nuchal collar; black cephalic-cap extending from rostral to firstdorsal scale and enclosing white tipped prefrontal scales; upper half of first to four supralabials and postoculars black; tricolor body coloration, with 27-31 black rings bordered by narrower white rings and 27-31 red rings; tail coloration similar to body, with alternating black rings bordered by irregular narrow white rings, red rings of the same width as the black rings; ventral scales 205-225; subcaudal scales 39-47.

  7. Retinal diseases in a reference center from a Western Amazon capital city

    PubMed Central

    Malerbi, Fernando Korn; Matsudo, Nilson Hideo; Carneiro, Adriano Biondi Monteiro; Lottenberg, Claudio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To describe retinal diseases found in patients who were waiting for treatment at a tertiary care hospital in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. Methods Patients underwent slit lamp biomicroscopy, dilated fundus exam and ocular ultrasound. Patients were classified according to phakic status and retinal disease of the most severely affected eye. Results A total of 138 patients were examined. The mean age was 51.3 years. Diabetes was present in 35.3% and hypertension in 45.4% of these patients. Cataract was found in 23.2% of patients, in at least one eye. Retinal examination was possible in 129 patients. The main retinal diseases identified were rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (n=23; 17.8%) and diabetic retinopathy (n=32; 24.8%). Out of 40 patients evaluated due to diabetes, 13 (32.5%) had absent or mild forms of diabetic retinopathy and did not need further treatment, only observation. Conclusion Diabetic retinopathy was the main retinal disease in this population. It is an avoidable cause of blindness and can be remotely evaluated, in its initial stages, by telemedicine strategies. In remote Brazilian areas, telemedicine may be an important tool for retinal diseases diagnosis and follow-up. PMID:26761550

  8. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chronic Hepatitis B and C Patients from Western Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, A. C. M.; Maia, D. R.; Neto, S. M.; Lima, E. M.; Twycross, M.; Baquette, R. F.; Lobato, C. M. O.

    2012-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a wide spectrum of histological conditions, extending from simple steatosis to end-stage liver failure. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of NAFLD and its associations in chronic hepatitis B and C patients. Methods. We included all patients diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B and C who underwent a liver biopsy between January 2010 and October 2011 (n = 104). Parameters studied included hepatitis type, anthropometric data, histologic, hepatic, metabolic and lipid assessments, presence of hypertension and viral load. Results. Hepatitis B was presented in 28.8% (n = 30) of patients, while hepatitis C was presented in 71.2% (n = 74). In addition, hepatic steatosis was present in 25% (n = 26) of the patients. Steatosis was frequently found in hepatitis C patients (31.1%; 25% n = 23), but infrequently in hepatitis B patients (10%; n = 3) (P = 0.024). It was also found that steatosis was frequently present in hepatitis C patients with intense fibrosis (52.94%) (P = 0.025). Discussion. Our results suggest that steatosis is a common feature in patients with viral chronic hepatitis, and that it plays a different role in each type of hepatitis. PMID:22934189

  9. Using water chemistry time series to model dissolved inorganic carbon dynamics in the western Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vihermaa, Leena; Waldron, Susan; Newton, Jason

    2013-04-01

    Two small streams (New Colpita and Main Trail) and two rivers (Tambopata and La Torre), in the Tambopata National Reserve, Madre de Dios, Peru, were sampled for water chemistry (conductivity, pH and dissolved oxygen) and hydrology (stage height and flow velocity). In the small streams water chemistry and hydrology variables were logged at 15 minute intervals from Feb 2011 to November 2012. Water samples were collected from all four channels during field campaigns spanning different seasons and targeting the hydrological extremes. All the samples were analysed for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration and δ13C (sample size ranging from 77 to 172 depending on the drainage system) and a smaller subset for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) concentrations. Strong positive relationships were found between conductivity and both DIC concentration and δ13C in the New Colpita stream and the La Torre river. In Tambopata river the trends were less clear and in the Main Trail stream there was very little change in DIC and isotopic composition. The conductivity data was used to model continuous DIC time series for the New Colpita stream. The modelled DIC data agreed well with the measurements; the concordance correlation coefficients between predicted and measured data were 0.91 and 0.87 for mM-DIC and δ13C-DIC, respectively. The predictions of δ13C-DIC were improved when calendar month was included in the model, which indicates seasonal differences in the δ13C-DIC conductivity relationship. At present, continuous DIC sampling still requires expensive instrumentation. Therefore, modelling DIC from a proxy variable which can be monitored continuously with ease and at relatively low cost, such as conductivity, provides a powerful alternative method of DIC determination.

  10. The Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment - Wet season 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harriss, R. C.; Beck, S. M.; Bendura, R. J.; Drewry, J. W.; Hoell, J. M., Jr.; Matson, P. A.; Mcneal, R. J.; Navarro, R. L.; Rabine, V.; Snell, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the overall experimental design for the Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2B), which used data from aircraft, ground-based, and satellite platforms to characterize the chemistry and dynamics of the lower atmosphere over the Amazon Basin during wet season conditions in April-May 1987. The ABLE 2B focused on determining the spatial and temporal scales of variability in trace gases and aerosols in the lower and midtroposphere over the Amazonian rain forest during wet season conditions, and assessing the role of local-to-regional atmospheric scales of motion on determining the distribution of atmospheric chemical species and their photochemical environment. A summary of the results from the combined ABLE 2A and ABLE 2B are presented.

  11. Methane emissions to the troposphere from the Amazon floodplain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devol, Allen H.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Clark, Wayne A.; King, Stagg L.; Martinelli, Luiz A.

    1988-01-01

    The magnitudes of CH4 emissions to the troposphere from the Amazon River floodplain and the mechanism of these emissions were investigated using the data of 94 individual flux measurements made along a 1700-km stretch of the river during July/August 1985. The overall average rate of CH4 emission from wetlands was found to be 390 mg CH4/sq m per day, with the highest emissions (590 mg CH4/sq m per day) attributed to the water surfaces covered by aquatic macrophytes. Ebullition was the dominant mechanism of emission, accounting for 85 percent of the total. Surface-water CH4 concentrations were highly supersaturated, averaging 6.4 micromolar. The annual emission of CH4 from the Amazon Basin to the troposphere, estimated from the area and the known emission rate, is about 10 CH4 Tg/yr, indicating the importance of the area in the global atmospheric CH4 cycle.

  12. Remote tropical and sub-tropical responses to Amazon deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badger, Andrew M.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.

    2016-05-01

    Replacing natural vegetation with realistic tropical crops over the Amazon region in a global Earth system model impacts vertical transport of heat and moisture, modifying the interaction between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free atmosphere. Vertical velocity is decreased over a majority of the Amazon region, shifting the ascending branch and modifying the seasonality of the Hadley circulation over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific oceans. Using a simple model that relates circulation changes to heating anomalies and generalizing the upper-atmosphere temperature response to deforestation, agreement is found between the response in the fully-coupled model and the simple solution. These changes to the large-scale dynamics significantly impact precipitation in several remote regions, namely sub-Saharan Africa, Mexico, the southwestern United States and extratropical South America, suggesting non-local climate repercussions for large-scale land use changes in the tropics are possible.

  13. [Globalization and environmentalism: polyphonic ethnicities in the Amazon].

    PubMed

    Garnelo, Luiza; Sampaio, Sully

    2005-01-01

    The article examines the issue of globalization, along with its contradictions and the ways in which it guides and shapes specific situations within the Amazon's present-day reality, while simultaneously engendering the uniformization of economic production and the valorization of cultural differences. The discussion explores the nuances of implementing a massified, standardized productive base that paradoxically fosters the valorization of cultural differences and favors alliances between, on the one hand, ethno-political leaders from indigenous Amazon groups and, on the other, environmentalists and other transworld actors who wield strong decision-making power. The article analyzes the indigenous movement's network of alliances and highlights the polyphony of the different political agents that come to clash with each other within this post-modern geopolitical setting.

  14. Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere over the Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wofsy, Steven C.; Kaplan, Warren A.; Harriss, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    As a part of the NASA's Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2A mission, the cycle of atmospheric CO2 over the Amazon Basin was examined using measured vertical profiles of CO2 concentrations in the canopy and aloft, and direct measurements of CO2 emissions from soils. The results provide a detailed picture of daily exchanges of air between the tropical forest (0-30) and the atmospheric boundary layer (30-2000 m). A comparison of atmospheric CO2 distributions over forests, wetlands, and rivers shows that the lower atmosphere over forests functions separately from that over rivers or wetlands during the night and to some extent during the day; the basic diurnal cycle of CO2 over wetlands is much weaker than over forests, and the cycle is almost absent over rivers. This result is consistent with expectations based on the biogeochemistry of organic carbon in these systems.

  15. Planetary boundary layer dynamics over the Amazon rain forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereiradeoliveira, Amauri

    Observations of the diurnal evolution of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over the Amazon rain forest, in the area of the Amazon boundary layer experiment (ABLE) 2A and 2B experiments showed the existence of a low level circulation with low level nocturnal maxima winds. These circulations are shown to be induced by the thermal contrast between the river and the forest. A linear model was applied to identify the horizontal extent of these circulations and an associated perturbation pressure gradient consistent with the observations. A second order closure model was used to simulate changes in the PBL caused by the thermal circulation. Good agreement with the observations was obtained when the forcing was a horizontal pressure gradient equal to 0.5 mb/100km of limited vertical extent. The dynamics of the equatorial PBL was shown to be plausibly explained using a hypothesis of a river breeze circulation.

  16. Reserves Protect against Deforestation Fires in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Adeney, J. Marion; Christensen, Norman L.; Pimm, Stuart L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. Methodology/Principal Findings Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. Conclusions/Significance Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon. PMID:19352423

  17. [Ground-clearing fires in the amazon and respiratory disease].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Karen dos Santos; de Castro, Hermano Albuquerque; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

    2012-06-01

    The intentional burning of forest biomass commonly known as "ground-clearing fires" is an age-old and widespread practice in the country and is seen as a major contributor to global emissions of greenhouse gases. However, global awareness of their potential impact is relatively recent. The occurrence of large ground-clearing fires in the Brazilian and international scenarios drew attention to the problem, but the measures taken to prevent and/or control the fires are still insufficient. In the Amazon region, with distinct geographical and environmental features from the rest of the country, with its historic process of land occupation, every year the ground-clearing fires expose larger portions of the population making them vulnerable to its effects. In this context, this non-systematic review presents the papers written over the past five years about the fires in the Brazilian Amazon and respiratory illness. The main objective is to provide information for managers and leaders on environmental issues about the problems related to biomass burning in the Amazon region.

  18. Deforestation, floodplain dynamics, and carbon biogeochemistry in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, M. L.; Dunne, T.; Richey, J.; Melack, J.; Simonett, D. S.; Woodwell, G.

    1984-01-01

    Three aspects of the physical geographic environment of the Amazon Basin are considered: (1) deforestation and reforestation, (2) floodplain dynamics, and (3) fluvial geomorphology. Three independent projects are coupled in this experiment to improve the in-place research and to ensure that the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) experiment stands on a secure base of ongoing work. Major benefits to be obtained center on: (1) areal and locational information, (2) data from various depression angles, and (3) digital radar signatures. Analysis will be conducted for selected sites to define how well SIR-B data can be used for: (1) definition of extent and location of deforestation in a tropical moist forest, (2) definition and quantification of the nature of the vegetation and edaphic conditions on the (floodplain) of the Amazon River, and (3) quantification of the accuracy with which the geometry and channel shifting of the Amazon River may be mapped using SIR-B imagery in conjunction with other remote sensing data.

  19. New products made with lignocellulosic nanofibers from Brazilian amazon forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufalino, L.; Mendes, L. M.; Tonoli, G. H. D.; Rodrigues, A.; Fonseca, A.; Cunha, P. I.; Marconcini, J. M.

    2014-08-01

    The biodiversity of the Amazon forest is undoubtedly rich; hence there is considerable variety of plant fibers regarding their morphological, chemical and structural properties. The legal exploration of the Brazilian Amazon is based on sustainable management techniques, but the generation of a relevant amount of plant wastes still cant be avoided. The correct destination of such materials is a challenge that Brazilian companies have to face. In this context, the National Council of Science and Technology (CNPq) promoted the creation of investigation nets on sustainability of Brazilian agribusiness. The Brazilian Net on Lignocellulosic Composites and Nanocomposites was then created, with partnership between several national and international research institutions. Until the moment, the results showed that Amazon plant fibers that are discarded as residues have great potential to nanofiber production. Nanopapers with considerable high mechanical and physical strength, proper opacity and great crystalline index were produced by using a clean and simple mechanical method. Those materials are candidates to several uses such as packaging, substrates transparent conductive films, gas barrier films, solar cells and e-papers.

  20. Ballast water: a threat to the Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Newton Narciso; Botter, Rui Carlos; Folena, Rafael Dompieri; Pereira, José Pinheiro Fragoso Neto; da Cunha, Alan Cavalcanti

    2014-07-15

    Ballast water exchange (BWE) is the most efficient measure to control the invasion of exotic species from ships. This procedure is being used for merchant ships in national and international voyages. The ballast water (BW) salinity is the main parameter to evaluate the efficacy of the mid-ocean ballast water exchange. The vessels must report to the Port State Control (PSC), via ballast water report (BWR), where and how the mid-ocean BWE was performed. This measure allows the PSC to analyze this information before the ship arrives at the port, and to decide whether or not it should berth. Ship BW reporting forms were collected from the Captaincy of Santana and some ships were visited near the Port of Santana, located in Macapá (Amazon River), to evaluate the BW quality onboard. We evaluated data submitted in these BWR forms and concluded that the BWE efficacy might be compromised, because data contained in these BWR indicate that some ships did not change their BW. We found mistakes in filling the BWR forms and lack of information. Moreover, these ships had discharged BW with high level of salinity, Escherichia coli and total coliforms into the Amazon River. We concluded that the authorities of the Amazon Region need to develop more efficient proceedings to evaluate the ballast water reporting forms and BW quality, as there is potential risk of future invasion of exotic species in Brazilian ports.

  1. Contrasting Strategies of Tree Function in a Seasonal Amazon Rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. Y.; Oliveira, R.; Agee, E.; Brum, M., Jr.; Saleska, S. R.; Fatichi, S.; Ewing, G.

    2015-12-01

    The increased frequency and severity of drought conditions in the Amazon Basin region have emphasized the question of rainforest vulnerability and resilience to heat and drought-induced stresses. However, what emerges from much research is that the impacts of droughts, essential controlling factors of the rainforest function, and variability of tree-scale strategies are yet to be fully understood. We present here a preliminary analysis of hydraulic relations of a seasonal Amazon rainforest using a set of ecohydrologic data collected through the GoAmazon project over dry and wet seasons. Expressions of different hydraulic strategies are identified that convey different implications for tree resilience during short- (diurnal) and longer-term (seasonal) stress periods. These hydraulic strategies appear to be inter-related with the tree growth and non-structural carbohydrate dynamics, contributing to the understanding of trait coordination at the whole-plant scale. Integration of individual responses is conducted over a range of wood density and exposure conditions. The results of this research thus shed light on the implication of variations in the rainforest function for future stresses, vital for predictive models of ecosystem dynamics of next generation.

  2. Artisanal fisheries of the Xingu River basin in Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Isaac, V J; Almeida, M C; Cruz, R E A; Nunes, L G

    2015-08-01

    The present study characterises the commercial fisheries of the basin of the Xingu River, a major tributary of the Amazon River, between the towns of Gurupá (at the mouth of the Amazon) and São Félix do Xingu. Between April, 2012, and March, 2014, a total of 23,939 fishing trips were recorded, yielding a total production of 1,484 tons of fish, harvested by almost three thousand fishers. The analysis of the catches emphasizes the small-scale and artisanal nature of the region's fisheries, with emphasis on the contribution of the motorised canoes powered by "long-tail" outboard motors. Larger motorboats operate only at the mouth of the Xingu and on the Amazon. Peacock bass (Cichla spp.), croakers (Plagioscion spp.), pacu (a group containing numerous serrasalmid species), aracu (various anostomids), and curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans) together contributed more than 60% of the total catch. Mean catch per unit effort was 18 kg/fisher-1.day-1, which varied among fishing methods (type of vessel and fishing equipment used), river sections, and time of the year. In most cases, yields varied little between years (2012 and 2013). The technical database provided by this study constitutes an important resource for the regulation of the region's fisheries, as well as for the evaluation of future changes resulting from the construction of the Belo Monte dam on the Xingu River.

  3. Forest Structure at Five Sites in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, M. O.; Keller, M.; Camargo, P.; Palace, M.; de Oliveira, R. C.; Espirito-Santo, F. D.; Keizer, E.; Lefsky, M.; Asner, G.

    2006-12-01

    Insufficient knowledge of the spatial distribution of forest biomass in the Amazon limits the accuracy of estimates for carbon release resulting from deforestation. Recent research has attempted to improve the estimation of Amazon forest biomass through detailed analysis of extensive plot studies, remotely sensed variables, and knowledge of regional soils and climate. Because plot surveys are scarce, remote sensing offers an alternative approach to improve our knowledge of regional biomass. Remotely sensed variables are sensitive to underlying forest structural properties. We measured forest structure variables during field studies at five old growth forest sites in the Brazilian Amazon. The data collected included the frequency of stem diameters, tree heights, and crown diameters. Above-ground biomass at the sites ranged from 155 to 297 Mg ha-1 using an allometric equation developed by Chave et al. (2005) based on tree diameter at breast height (DBH), total height, and wood density. A single Weibull function based on DBH for 1539 trees fit total tree height with a small uncertainty (RMS error = 1.2 m) and a minimal bias (mean of residuals = -0.2 m) for all sites. These results suggest that remotely sensed tree height may be a useful predictor of forest biomass at a regional scale.

  4. Public policies and communication affecting forest cover in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami Savaget, E.; Batistella, M.; Aguiar, A. P. D.

    2014-12-01

    The research program Amazalert was based on information delivered by the IPCC through its 2007 report, which indicates forest degradation processes in the Amazonian region as a consequence of anthropogenic actions. Such processes affecting the structural and functional characteristics of ecosystems would harm environmental services that guarantee, for example, the regulation of climate and the provision of fresh water. A survey was organized, through a multidisciplinary perspective, on the main policies and programs that can affect forest cover in the Amazon. These rules and norms seek to regulate societal actions by defining a developmental model for the region. Although deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon have decreased significantly since 2004, some locations maintain high levels of deforestation. In 2013, for example, the municipalities of Monte Alegre, Óbidos, Alenquer, Oriximiná, Curuá and Almeirin, in the northern region of the state of Para, showed the highest rates of deforestation in the Amazon. Managers and stakeholders within these areas are being interviewed to provide insights on how policies are interpreted and applied locally. There is an understanding delay between discourses normalized by federal governmental institutions and claims of local societies. The possible lack of clarity in official discourses added to the absence of a local communicative dynamics cause the phenomenon of incomplete information. Conflicts often occur in local institutional arenas resulting in violence and complex social and historical dissonances, enhanced by other public policies idealized in different temporal and spatial conditions.

  5. Interagency Command and Control Approaches in Amazon Environment to Include, Trust, Cultural and Personal Relationship into a C2 Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    the Amazon today are environmental crimes, such as deforestation and illegal mining, the "land grabbing", lack of formal...generate and integrate data and information relating to the protection of the Amazon (local deforestation , illegal traffic, increasing

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, P S; Albuquerque, G R; da Silva, V M F; Martin, A R; Marvulo, M F V; Souza, S L P; Ragozo, A M A; Nascimento, C C; Gennari, S M; Dubey, J P; Silva, J C R

    2011-12-29

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate the water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve (RDSM), Tefé, Amazonas, Central Amazon, Brazil were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT ≥ 25) to T. gondii were found in 82 (86.3%) dolphins with titers of 1:25 in 24, 1:50 in 56, and 1:500 in 2. Results suggest a high level contamination of the aquatic environment of the home range of these animals.

  7. New observations of sinuous channels on the Amazon Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flood, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    High-sinuosity submarine fan channels on the Amazon Fan were first observed using long-range (GLORIA) side-scan sonar in 1982 and mapped in greater detail using multibeam sonar in 1984. These data have provided important insights into the nature and evolution of submarine channel systems. Subsequent studies on the Amazon Fan have focused on avulsion patterns, sedimentation patterns, fan growth and the climate record contained in fan sediments, and there has been relatively little additional work on the details of sinuous channel morphology. Channels on the Amazon Fan have been imaged by multibeam sonar on several occasions since 1984 during focused studies, regional mapping and ship transit. These multibeam data are being compiled and studied to better characterize these iconic channels. One observation of particular interest is that, on the Amazon Fan, channel-wall slumps appear to be more common than previously thought. Drilling of a cut-off meander during ODP Leg 155 on the Amazon Fan showed the presence of slumped material deeper in the channel suggesting that failure of the channel wall was in part responsible for the abandonment and filling of that meander loop. The failure also apparently created a sandy debris flow with clasts of fine-grained levee material transported in a sandy matrix. This sandy debris flow may have been able to flow along the channel and deposit at the seaward end where similar sediments can be found. Disturbed zones now visible on the inner walls of channels at several other places along the channels suggest that these kinds of inner-wall slumps may play important roles in channel evolution and fan growth. Channel-blocking slumps can isolate channel loops which can then fill with sandy sediments, and avulsions are likely if this kind of slump fills the channel. The failure of channel walls can also lead to new channel segments that tend to straighten the channel. Dramatic changes to the shape of the channel can likely lead to large and

  8. Biogeochemistry of the Amazon River Basin: the role of aquatic ecosystems in the Amazon functioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victoria, R. L.; Ballester, V. R.; Krushe, A. V.; Richey, J. E.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Kavaguishi, N. L.; Gomes, B. M.; Victoria, D. D.; Montebello, A. A.; Niell, C.; Deegan, L.

    2004-12-01

    In this study we present the results of an integrated analysis of physical and anthropogenic controls of river biogeochemistry in Amazônia. At the meso-scale level, our results show that both soil properties and land use are the main drivers of river biogeochemistry and metabolism, with pasture cover and soil exchange cation capacity explaining 99% (p < 0.01) of the variability observed in surface water ions and nutrients concentrations. In small rivers, forest clearing can increase cations, P and C inputs. P and light are the main PPL limiting factors in forested streams, while in pasture streams N becomes limiting. P export to streams may increase or remain nearly undetectable after forest-to-pasture conversion, depending on soil type. Pasture streams on Oxisols have very low P export, while on Ultisols P export is increased. Conversions of forest to pasture leads to extensive growth of in channel Paspalum resulting in higher DOC concentrations and respiration rates. Pasture streams have higher DOC fluxes when compared to the forest ones. In pasture areas the soil are compacted, there is less infiltration and higher surface run off, leaching soil superficial layers and caring more DOC to the streams. In forest areas infiltration is deeper into the soils and canopy interaction is higher. Mineralogy and soil properties are key factors determining exports of nutrients to streams. Therefore, land use change effects on nutrient export from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems and the atmosphere must be understood within the context of varying soil properties across the Amazon Basin.

  9. Assessing the Amazon Basin Circulation with Stable Water Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuffie, K.; Henderson-Sellers, A.

    2004-05-01

    The isotopic abundances of Oxygen-18 (δ 18O) and Deuterium (δ D) over the Amazon are used to constrain simulations of the water cycle in this, the largest river basin in the world. Tracking the two stable but rare isotopes of water (1HD16O and 1H218O) makes it possible to trace Amazonian regional evaporative and condensation processes. This offers isotopic constraints on regional to global-scale atmospheric moisture budgets. Based on data in the Global Network on Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) database, we analyse the simulation of the land surface hydrology and water cycling. Temporal changes between 1965 and 2000 in stable water isotopic signatures in the Amazon have been used to evaluate global climate model (GCM) predictions revealing notable anomalies. For example, the differences in the wet season deuterium excess between Belem and Manaus are consistent with recent GCM simulations only if there has been a relative increase in evaporation from non-fractionating water sources over this period. Despite earlier predictions that land-use change signals would be found, late twentieth century data reveal no significant change in dry season isotopic characteristics. On the other hand, more recent isotopic data do show trends at stations in the Andes, where as much as 88% of the rainfall is thought to be derived from recycled moisture. At Izobamba the wet season depletions are enhanced (greater depletion) and the dry season ones decreased (less depletion). At Bogota only the wet months show statistically significant changes - also an enhancement. More depletion in the wet months is consistent with reductions in non-fractioning recycling such as through transpiration and in full re-evaporation of canopy-intercepted rainfall. These data might be linked to deforestation impacts. Results of GCM and simpler model simulations of the Amazon suggest that the recent stable isotope record is consistent with the predicted effects of forest removal, perhaps combined with

  10. Detecting climate change concurrent with deforestation in the Amazon Basin: Which way has it gone

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P.S.; Yu, Z.P. ); Hastenrath, S. )

    1994-04-01

    To detect climate change in the Amazon Basin, as possibly induced by deforestation, time series of monthly mean outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), an index of tropical convection, and monthly rainfall totals at Belem and Manaus for the past 15 years are analyzed. A systematic bias in the original OLR series was removed prior to the analysis. Linear regression analysis and nonlinear Mann-Kendall rank statistic are employed to detect trends. Over almost all of the basin, the OLR trend values are negative, indicating an increase of convection with time. The largest negative and statistically significant values are found in the western equatorial portion of Amazonia, where rainfall is most abundant. Consistent with this, the rainfall series at Belem and Manaus also feature upward trends. Small positive and statistically insignificant, OLR trend values are confined to the southern fringe of the basin, where deforestation has been most drastic. Thus, there is little indication for a rainfall increase associated with deforestation, but rather a strong signal of enhanced convection in the portion of Amazonia contributing most strongly to the total precipitation over the basin. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Functional and biological diversity of foliar spectra in tree canopies throughout the Andes to Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Martin, Roberta E; Carranza-Jiménez, Loreli; Sinca, Felipe; Tupayachi, Raul; Anderson, Christopher B; Martinez, Paola

    2014-10-01

    Spectral properties of foliage express fundamental chemical interactions of canopies with solar radiation. However, the degree to which leaf spectra track chemical traits across environmental gradients in tropical forests is unknown. We analyzed leaf reflectance and transmittance spectra in 2567 tropical canopy trees comprising 1449 species in 17 forests along a 3400-m elevation and soil fertility gradient from the Amazonian lowlands to the Andean treeline. We developed quantitative links between 21 leaf traits and 400-2500-nm spectra, and developed classifications of tree taxa based on spectral traits. Our results reveal enormous inter-specific variation in spectral and chemical traits among canopy trees of the western Amazon. Chemical traits mediating primary production were tightly linked to elevational changes in foliar spectral signatures. By contrast, defense compounds and rock-derived nutrients tracked foliar spectral variation with changing soil fertility in the lowlands. Despite the effects of abiotic filtering on mean foliar spectral properties of tree communities, the spectra were dominated by phylogeny within any given community, and spectroscopy accurately classified 85-93% of Amazonian tree species. Our findings quantify how tropical tree canopies interact with sunlight, and indicate how to measure the functional and biological diversity of forests with spectroscopy.

  12. Paleoproterozoic felsic volcanism of the Tapajós Mineral Province, Southern Amazon Craton, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roverato, M.; Giordano, D.; Echeverri-Misas, C. M.; Juliani, C.

    2016-01-01

    Amazonian rocks record one amongst the most complete and best-preserved Paleoproterozoic magmatic episodes on Earth. The present contribution documents the extremely well preserved paleoproterozoic architecture of a series of felsic rocks found in the Tapajós Mineral Province (TMP), located in the western part of Pará State, southern Amazon Craton, north of Brazil. These rocks are the first to be investigated to comprehend, based on their textural evidences, their emplacement mechanisms. Textural characterization allowed to identify three main facies with, as following reported, 1) chaotic ("Breccia") group, 2) eutaxitic ("Eutax") group and 3) parataxitic ("Paratax") group vitrophyric textures. Given the superb preservation of our samples, the investigated rocks are grouped, according to their grade of welding, into a wide variety of lithofacies from very low-grade to high-grade and rheomorphic ignimbrites. In the "Paratax group" strong similarities with banding in lava flows are observed. Based on the presented data we discuss the effusive or explosive origin of the observed flow mechanisms.

  13. Molecular characterization of an earliest cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) collection from Peruvian Amazon using microsatllite DNA markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is indigenous to the Amazon region of South America. The Peruvian Amazon harbors a large number of diverse cacao populations. Since the 1930s, several numbers of populations have been collected from the Peruvian Amazon and maintained as ex situ germplasm repositories in ...

  14. Metagenomics Analysis of Microorganisms in Freshwater Lakes of the Amazon Basin

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, Danyelle; Kishi, Luciano Takeshi; Santos-Júnior, Célio Dias; Soares-Costa, Andrea; de Oliveira, Tereza Cristina Souza; de Miranda, Fernando Pellon

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon Basin is the largest hydrographic basin on the planet, and the dynamics of its aquatic microorganisms strongly impact global biogeochemical cycles. However, it remains poorly studied. This metagenome project was performed to obtain a snapshot of prokaryotic microbiota from four important lakes in the Amazon Basin. PMID:28007865

  15. A Slippery Slope: Children's Perceptions of Their Role in Environmental Preservation in the Peruvian Amazon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galeano, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Despite international attention and attempts to preserve the environmental diversity of the Amazon, it is an accepted fact that those who inhabit the forest must be the ones who preserve it. This article presents an analysis of how children in small rural riverine communities along the Amazon understand the importance of environmental preservation…

  16. Atmospheric correction analysis on LANDSAT data over the Amazon region. [Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Dias, L. A. V.; Dossantos, J. R.; Formaggio, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    The Amazon Region natural resources were studied in two ways and compared. A LANDSAT scene and its attributes were selected, and a maximum likelihood classification was made. The scene was atmospherically corrected, taking into account Amazonic peculiarities revealed by (ground truth) of the same area, and the subsequent classification. Comparison shows that the classification improves with the atmospherically corrected images.

  17. Metagenomics Analysis of Microorganisms in Freshwater Lakes of the Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Danyelle; Kishi, Luciano Takeshi; Santos-Júnior, Célio Dias; Soares-Costa, Andrea; de Oliveira, Tereza Cristina Souza; de Miranda, Fernando Pellon; Henrique-Silva, Flávio

    2016-12-22

    The Amazon Basin is the largest hydrographic basin on the planet, and the dynamics of its aquatic microorganisms strongly impact global biogeochemical cycles. However, it remains poorly studied. This metagenome project was performed to obtain a snapshot of prokaryotic microbiota from four important lakes in the Amazon Basin.

  18. The JERS Amazon Multi-Season Mapping Study (JAMMS): Observation Strategies and Data Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, B.; Freeman, A.; Siqueira, P.

    2000-01-01

    The JERS-1 Amazon Multi-season Mapping Study (JAMMS), part of the Global Rain Forest Mapping (GRFM) project led by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), had an ambitious agenda to completely map the Amazon River floodpain (and surrounding areas) twice at high resolution.

  19. Vibrio cholerae O1 from superficial water of the Tucunduba Stream, Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Sá, L.L.C.; Vale, E.R.V.; Garza, D.R.; Vicente, A.C.P.

    2012-01-01

    Isolation and genetic characterization of an environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 from the Amazon is reported. This strain lacks two major virulence factors - CTX and TCP - but carries other genes related to virulence. Genetic similarity with epidemic strains is evaluated and the importance of V. cholerae surveillance in the Amazon is emphasized. PMID:24031874

  20. Tropical North Atlantic ocean-atmosphere interactions synchronize forest carbon losses from hurricanes and Amazon fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Randerson, James T.; Morton, Douglas C.

    2015-08-01

    We describe a climate mode synchronizing forest carbon losses from North and South America by analyzing time series of tropical North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), landfall hurricanes and tropical storms, and Amazon fires during 1995-2013. Years with anomalously high tropical North Atlantic SSTs during March-June were often followed by a more active hurricane season and a larger number of satellite-detected fires in the southern Amazon during June-November. The relationship between North Atlantic tropical cyclones and southern Amazon fires (r = 0.61, p < 0.003) was stronger than links between SSTs and either cyclones or fires alone, suggesting that fires and tropical cyclones were directly coupled to the same underlying atmospheric dynamics governing tropical moisture redistribution. These relationships help explain why seasonal outlook forecasts for hurricanes and Amazon fires both failed in 2013 and may enable the design of improved early warning systems for drought and fire in Amazon forests.

  1. An explicit GIS-based river basin framework for aquatic ecosystem conservation in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venticinque, Eduardo; Forsberg, Bruce; Barthem, Ronaldo; Petry, Paulo; Hess, Laura; Mercado, Armando; Cañas, Carlos; Montoya, Mariana; Durigan, Carlos; Goulding, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Despite large-scale infrastructure development, deforestation, mining and petroleum exploration in the Amazon Basin, relatively little attention has been paid to the management scale required for the protection of wetlands, fisheries and other aspects of aquatic ecosystems. This is due, in part, to the enormous size, multinational composition and interconnected nature of the Amazon River system, as well as to the absence of an adequate spatial model for integrating data across the entire Amazon Basin. In this data article we present a spatially uniform multi-scale GIS framework that was developed especially for the analysis, management and monitoring of various aspects of aquatic systems in the Amazon Basin. The Amazon GIS-Based River Basin Framework is accessible as an ESRI geodatabase at doi:10.5063/F1BG2KX8.

  2. What We Can Learn from Amazon for Clinical Decision Support Systems.

    PubMed

    Abid, Sidra; Keshavjee, Karim; Karim, Arsalan; Guergachi, Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Health care continue to lag behind other industries, such as retail and financial services, in the use of decision-support-like tools. Amazon is particularly prolific in the use of advanced predictive and prescriptive analytics to assist its customers to purchase more, while increasing satisfaction, retention, repeat-purchases and loyalty. How can we do the same in health care? In this paper, we explore various elements of the Amazon website and Amazon's data science and big data practices to gather inspiration for re-designing clinical decision support in the health care sector. For each Amazon element we identified, we present one or more clinical applications to help us better understand where Amazon's.

  3. A forensic entomology case from the Amazon rain forest of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pujol-Luz, José R; Marques, Helder; Ururahy-Rodrigues, Alexandre; Rafael, José Albertino; Santana, Fernando H A; Arantes, Luciano C; Constantino, Reginaldo

    2006-09-01

    The first case of application of forensic entomology in the Brazilian Amazonia is described. The corpses of 26 men were found in the rainforest in Rondonia State, Brazil. Fly larvae collected on the bodies during autopsy were identified as Paralucilia fulvinota (Diptera, Calliphoridae). No data or specimens were collected at the crime scene. At the laboratory, the larvae developed into pupae in 58 h and into adults in 110.5 h. The total development time for P. fulvinota was measured in field experiments inside the forest. The age of the larvae when collected from the bodies was estimated as the difference between the time required for them to become adults and the total development time for this species. The estimated age of the maggots and the minimum postmortem interval was 5.7 days.

  4. Patterns of Transcript Abundance of Eukaryotic Biogeochemically-Relevant Genes in the Amazon River Plume

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Andrew E.; Carpenter, Edward J.; Coles, Victoria J.; Crump, Byron C.; Doherty, Mary; Foster, Rachel A.; Goes, Joaquim I.; Gomes, Helga R.; Hood, Raleigh R.; McCrow, John P.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Moustafa, Ahmed; Satinsky, Brandon M.; Sharma, Shalabh; Smith, Christa B.; Yager, Patricia L.; Paul, John H.

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon River has the largest discharge of all rivers on Earth, and its complex plume system fuels a wide array of biogeochemical processes, across a large area of the western tropical North Atlantic. The plume thus stimulates microbial processes affecting carbon sequestration and nutrient cycles at a global scale. Chromosomal gene expression patterns of the 2.0 to 156 μm size-fraction eukaryotic microbial community were investigated in the Amazon River Plume, generating a robust dataset (more than 100 million mRNA sequences) that depicts the metabolic capabilities and interactions among the eukaryotic microbes. Combining classical oceanographic field measurements with metatranscriptomics yielded characterization of the hydrographic conditions simultaneous with a quantification of transcriptional activity and identity of the community. We highlight the patterns of eukaryotic gene expression for 31 biogeochemically significant gene targets hypothesized to be valuable within forecasting models. An advantage to this targeted approach is that the database of reference sequences used to identify the target genes was selectively constructed and highly curated optimizing taxonomic coverage, throughput, and the accuracy of annotations. A coastal diatom bloom highly expressed nitrate transporters and carbonic anhydrase presumably to support high growth rates and enhance uptake of low levels of dissolved nitrate and CO2. Diatom-diazotroph association (DDA: diatoms with nitrogen fixing symbionts) blooms were common when surface salinity was mesohaline and dissolved nitrate concentrations were below detection, and hence did not show evidence of nitrate utilization, suggesting they relied on ammonium transporters to aquire recently fixed nitrogen. These DDA blooms in the outer plume had rapid turnover of the photosystem D1 protein presumably caused by photodegradation under increased light penetration in clearer waters, and increased expression of silicon transporters as

  5. Aquatic Biodiversity in the Amazon: Habitat Specialization and Geographic Isolation Promote Species Richness

    PubMed Central

    Albert, James S.; Carvalho, Tiago P.; Petry, Paulo; Holder, Meghan A.; Maxime, Emmanuel L.; Espino, Jessica; Corahua, Isabel; Quispe, Roberto; Rengifo, Blanca; Ortega, Hernan; Reis, Roberto E.

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary The immense rainforest ecosystems of tropical America represent some of the greatest concentrations of biodiversity on the planet. Prominent among these are evolutionary radiations of freshwater fishes, including electric eels, piranhas, stingrays, and a myriad of small-bodied and colorful tetras, cichlids, and armored catfishes. In all, the many thousands of these forms account for nearly 10% of all the vertebrate species on Earth. This article explores the complimentary roles that ecological and geographic filters play in limiting dispersal in aquatic species, and how these factors contribute to the accumulation of species richness over broad geographic and evolutionary time scales. Abstract The Neotropical freshwater ichthyofauna has among the highest species richness and density of any vertebrate fauna on Earth, with more than 5,600 species compressed into less than 12% of the world's land surface area, and less than 0.002% of the world's total liquid water supply. How have so many species come to co-exist in such a small amount of total habitat space? Here we report results of an aquatic faunal survey of the Fitzcarrald region in southeastern Peru, an area of low-elevation upland (200–500 m above sea level) rainforest in the Western Amazon, that straddles the headwaters of four large Amazonian tributaries; the Juruá (Yurúa), Ucayali, Purús, and Madre de Dios rivers. All measures of fish species diversity in this region are high; there is high alpha diversity with many species coexisting in the same locality, high beta diversity with high turnover between habitats, and high gamma diversity with high turnover between adjacent tributary basins. Current data show little species endemism, and no known examples of sympatric sister species, within the Fitzcarrald region, suggesting a lack of localized or recent adaptive divergences. These results support the hypothesis that the fish species of the Fitzcarrald region are relatively ancient

  6. Volcanic Ashes Intercalated with Cultural Vestiges at Archaeological Sites from the Piedmont to the Amazon, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde, Viviana; Mothes, Patricia; Andrade, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Huapula and Pablo VI sites (in the western Amazon region of Ecuador), the reworked ashes are predominantly of Sangay volcano (in permanent eruptive activity since 1628). Finally, the work shared between archaeologists and volcanologists allowed us to discover more deposits of volcanic ashes at archaeological sites. These layers sometimes have more than 30 cm thickness in distal regions, such as the thick ash layer left by Pululahua's 2400 yBP eruption, a fact which helps us to comprehend the impact of volcanoes on past cultures.

  7. Climatic variability between SST and river discharge at Amazon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, M. E.; Silva, E. R. L.

    2012-04-01

    Climatic variability, related both to precipitation and river discharge, has been associated to ocean variability. Authors commonly relate Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) variation to South America (SA) precipitation. Zonal displacement of Walker cell, with intensified subsidence over northern portion of SA, Subtropical Jet strengthening/weakening over extratropical latitudes of SA are, respectively, dynamical reasons scientifically accepted for increasing and depletion of precipitation at the respective areas. Many studies point out the influence of tropical Atlantic SST anomalies in relation to precipitation/river discharge variability over northeast of Brazil. Aliseos variability at tropical Atlantic is also a physic process that contributes to explain precipitation and river flow variability over SA, mainly over the north portion. In this study, we aim to investigate the temporal correlation between SST, mainly from Pacific and Atlantic oceans, and rivers discharge at the Amazon region. Ji-Parana, Madeira and Tapajós river discharge in monthly and annual scale, between 1968 and 2008, were the time series selected to reach the purpose. Time series for river discharge were obtained from Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA, in Portuguese) and, SST data were obtained from CDC/NOAA. Before linear correlation computations between river discharge and SST have been made, seasonal cycle and linear tendency were removed from all original time series. Areas better correlated to river discharge at Amazon region show oceanic patterns apparently associated to PDO (Pacific Decadal Oscillation) and ENSO (El Niño-South Oscillation) variability, with absolute values greater than 0.3 and reaching 0.5 or 0.6. The spatial pattern observed at Pacific basin is similar to that showed by the first mode of PCA (Principal Component Analysis), such seen in many studies (the "horse shoe" pattern). In general, negative correlation values appear far more to the west of Pacific basin

  8. Climatic impact of Amazon deforestation - a mechanistic model study

    SciTech Connect

    Ning Zeng; Dickinson, R.E.; Xubin Zeng

    1996-04-01

    Recent general circulation model (GCM) experiments suggest a drastic change in the regional climate, especially the hydrological cycle, after hypothesized Amazon basinwide deforestation. To facilitate the theoretical understanding os such a change, we develop an intermediate-level model for tropical climatology, including atmosphere-land-ocean interaction. The model consists of linearized steady-state primitive equations with simplified thermodynamics. A simple hydrological cycle is also included. Special attention has been paid to land-surface processes. It generally better simulates tropical climatology and the ENSO anomaly than do many of the previous simple models. The climatic impact of Amazon deforestation is studied in the context of this model. Model results show a much weakened Atlantic Walker-Hadley circulation as a result of the existence of a strong positive feedback loop in the atmospheric circulation system and the hydrological cycle. The regional climate is highly sensitive to albedo change and sensitive to evapotranspiration change. The pure dynamical effect of surface roughness length on convergence is small, but the surface flow anomaly displays intriguing features. Analysis of the thermodynamic equation reveals that the balance between convective heating, adiabatic cooling, and radiation largely determines the deforestation response. Studies of the consequences of hypothetical continuous deforestation suggest that the replacement of forest by desert may be able to sustain a dry climate. Scaling analysis motivated by our modeling efforts also helps to interpret the common results of many GCM simulations. When a simple mixed-layer ocean model is coupled with the atmospheric model, the results suggest a 1{degrees}C decrease in SST gradient across the equatorial Atlantic Ocean in response to Amazon deforestation. The magnitude depends on the coupling strength. 66 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Recent variations in Amazon carbon balance driven by climate anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding tropical rainforest response to heat and drought is critical for quantifying the effects of climate change on tropical ecosystems, including global climate-carbon feedbacks. Of particular importance for the global carbon budget is net ecosystem exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere (NEE), a metric that represents the total integrated signal of carbon fluxes into and out of ecosystems. Sub-annual and sub-basin NEE estimates have previously been derived from process-based biosphere models, despite often disagreeing with plot-scale observations. Our analysis of airborne CO2 and CO measurements reveals monthly, sub-Basin scale (~106 km2) NEE variations in a framework that is largely independent of bottom-up estimates. As such, our approach provides new insights about tropical forest response to climate. We find acute sensitivity of NEE to daily and monthly climate extremes. In particular, increased central-Amazon NEE was associated with wet-season heat and dry-season drought in 2010. We analyze satellite proxies for photosynthesis and find that suppression of photosynthesis may have contributed to increased carbon loss in the 2010 drought, consistent with recent analysis of plot-scale measurements. In the eastern Amazon, pulses of increased NEE (i.e. net respiration) persisted through 2011, suggesting legacy effects of the drought that occurred in 2010. Regional differences in post-drought recovery in 2011 and 2012 appear related to long-term water availability. These results provide novel evidence of the vulnerability of Amazon carbon stocks to short-term temperature and moisture extremes.

  10. Socioeconomic drivers of deforestation in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Mena, Carlos F; Bilsborrow, Richard E; McClain, Michael E

    2006-06-01

    Investigations of land use/land cover (LULC) change and forest management are limited by a lack of understanding of how socioeconomic factors affect land use. This lack also constrains the predictions of future deforestation, which is especially important in the Amazon basin, where large tracts of natural forest are being converted to managed uses. Research presented in this article was conducted to address this lack of understanding. Its objectives are (a) to quantify deforestation in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (NEA) during the periods 1986-1996 and 1996-2002; and (b) to determine the significance and magnitude of the effects of socioeconomic factors on deforestation rates at both the parroquia (parish) and finca (farm) levels. Annual deforestation rates were quantified via satellite image processing and geographic information systems. Linear spatial lag regression analyses were then used to explore relationships between socioeconomic factors and deforestation. Socioeconomic factors were obtained, at the finca level, from a detailed household survey carried out in 1990 and 1999, and at the parroquia level from data in the 1990 and 2001 Ecuadorian censuses of population. We found that the average annual deforestation rate was 2.5% and 1.8%/year for 1986-1996 and 1996-2002, respectively. At the parroquia level, variables representing demographic factors (i.e., population density) and accessibility factors (i.e., road density), among others, were found to be significantly related to deforestation. At the farm level, the factors related to deforestation were household size, distance by road to main cities, education, and hired labor. The findings of this research demonstrate both the severity of deforestation in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon and the array of factors affecting deforestation in the tropics.

  11. Consistency of vegetation index seasonality across the Amazon rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Moura, Yhasmin Mendes; Wagner, Fabien; Hilker, Thomas; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Chave, Jérôme; Mõttus, Matti; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Shimabukuro, Yosio

    2016-10-01

    Vegetation indices (VIs) calculated from remotely sensed reflectance are widely used tools for characterizing the extent and status of vegetated areas. Recently, however, their capability to monitor the Amazon forest phenology has been intensely scrutinized. In this study, we analyze the consistency of VIs seasonal patterns obtained from two MODIS products: the Collection 5 BRDF product (MCD43) and the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction algorithm (MAIAC). The spatio-temporal patterns of the VIs were also compared with field measured leaf litterfall, gross ecosystem productivity and active microwave data. Our results show that significant seasonal patterns are observed in all VIs after the removal of view-illumination effects and cloud contamination. However, we demonstrate inconsistencies in the characteristics of seasonal patterns between different VIs and MODIS products. We demonstrate that differences in the original reflectance band values form a major source of discrepancy between MODIS VI products. The MAIAC atmospheric correction algorithm significantly reduces noise signals in the red and blue bands. Another important source of discrepancy is caused by differences in the availability of clear-sky data, as the MAIAC product allows increased availability of valid pixels in the equatorial Amazon. Finally, differences in VIs seasonal patterns were also caused by MODIS collection 5 calibration degradation. The correlation of remote sensing and field data also varied spatially, leading to different temporal offsets between VIs, active microwave and field measured data. We conclude that recent improvements in the MAIAC product have led to changes in the characteristics of spatio-temporal patterns of VIs seasonality across the Amazon forest, when compared to the MCD43 product. Nevertheless, despite improved quality and reduced uncertainties in the MAIAC product, a robust biophysical interpretation of VIs seasonality is still missing.

  12. On the sources of hydrological prediction uncertainty in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiva, R. C. D.; Collischonn, W.; Bonnet, M. P.; Gonçalves, L. G. G.

    2012-03-01

    Recent extreme events in the Amazon River basin and the vulnerability of local population motivate the development of hydrological forecast systems (HFSs) using process based models for this region. In this direction, the knowledge of the source of errors in HFSs may guide the choice on improving model structure, model forcings or developing data assimilation (DA) systems for estimation of initial model states. We evaluate the relative importance of hydrologic initial conditions (ICs) and model meteorological forcings (MFs) errors (precisely precipitation) as sources of stream flow forecast uncertainty in the Amazon River basin. We used a hindcast approach developed by Wood and Lettenmaier (2008) that contrasts Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) and a reverse Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (reverse-ESP). Simulations were performed using the physically-based and distributed hydrological model MGB-IPH, comprising surface energy and water balance, soil water, river and floodplain hydrodynamics processes. Model was forced using TRMM 3B42 precipitation estimates. Results show that uncertainty on initial conditions play an important role for discharge predictability even for large lead times (~1 to 3 months) on main Amazonian Rivers. ICs of surface waters state variables are the major source of hydrological forecast uncertainty, mainly in rivers with low slope and large floodplains. ICs of groundwater state variables are important mostly during low flow period and southeast part of the Amazon, where lithology and the strong rainfall seasonality with a marked dry season may be the explaining factors. Analyses indicate that hydrological forecasts based on a hydrological model forced with historical meteorological data and optimal initial conditions, may be feasible. Also, development of DA methods is encouraged for this region.

  13. Oil Extraction and Indigenous Livelihoods in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Bozigar, Matthew; Gray, Clark L.; Bilsborrow, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Globally, the extraction of minerals and fossil fuels is increasingly penetrating into isolated regions inhabited by indigenous peoples, potentially undermining their livelihoods and well-being. To provide new insight to this issue, we draw on a unique longitudinal dataset collected in the Ecuadorian Amazon over an 11-year period from 484 indigenous households with varying degrees of exposure to oil extraction. Fixed and random effects regression models of the consequences of oil activities for livelihood outcomes reveal mixed and multidimensional effects. These results challenge common assumptions about these processes and are only partly consistent with hypotheses drawn from the Dutch disease literature. PMID:26543302

  14. Roads Investments, Spatial Intensification and Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Walker, Robert; Aldrich, Steven; Caldas, Marcellus; Reis, Eustaquio; Perz, Stephen; Bohrer, Claudio; Arima, Eugenio; Laurance, William; Kibry, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the impact of road investments on deforestation is part of a complete evaluation of the expansion of infrastructure for development. We find evidence of spatial spillovers from roads in the Brazilian Amazon: deforestation rises in the census tracts that lack roads but are in the same county as and within 100 km of a tract with a new paved or unpaved road. At greater distances from the new roads the evidence is mixed, including negative coefficients of inconsistent significance between 100 and 300 km, and if anything, higher neighbor deforestation at distances over 300 km.

  15. Seasonal variations in methane emission from Amazon River and tributaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawakuchi, H. O.; Krusche, A. V.; Ballester, M. V.; Sawakuchi, A. O.; Richey, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Inland waters are known as important sources of methane to atmosphere. Methane is produced in anaerobic environments usually found in lake and floodplain bottom sediments, which is the main reason why most of the information regarding methane fluxes come from this environments. However, while floodplains dry during low water season, reducing methanogenesis, rivers keep the capacity to emit methane throughout the year. Here we present results of CH4 flux measurements from 4 large tropical rivers within the Amazon basin obtained with floating chambers in 10 sampling sites during low water (between September and November of 2011) and high water seasons (May, 2012). Sampling sites were located in three main tributaries of Amazon Rivers, Madeira, Xingu and Tapajós, and in the Amazon River mainstem. In the Madeira River high water fluxes ranged from 2.85 to 30.99 mmol m-2 yr-1 while during low water from 77.47 to 183.31 mmol m-2 yr-1. Fluxes for the Amazon and Tapajós were, respectively, 110.99 and 80.01 mmol m-2 yr-1 for the high water season and 169.71 and 193.18 mmol m-2 yr-1 for low water. In the Xingu River two sites had higher fluxes during low water, 314.90 and 571.49 mmol m-2 yr-1 (91.93 and 51.11 mmol m-2 yr-1 in the high water respectively). The two other sites had an opposite pattern with 296.56 and 60.80 mmol m-2 yr-1 in the low water and 846.95 and 360.93 mmol m-2 yr-1 during high water; one site showed equal fluxes for both seasons. Most of the fluxes were higher during low water, with the exception of the three sites at the Xingu River, where fluxes during high water were higher or equal than in low water. These results show a different pattern than described before for these riverine systems, in which higher methane fluxes during high water were expected due to inputs from surrounding anoxic floodplain environments. Instead, our data shows that methane in rivers can be produced within river channels. Lower fluxes during high water could be related to

  16. Cloacolith in a blue-fronted amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    PubMed

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N

    2010-06-01

    A 4-year-old blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) was admitted for vocalization secondary to constipation. Saline infusion cloacoscopy revealed the presence of a 2-cm-diameter cloacolith within the coprodeum that was obstructing the rectal opening. The cloacolith was fragmented with a pair of biopsy forceps and the pieces removed. The cloacolith was subsequently analyzed and was composed of 100% uric acid salts. The bird improved completely and was able to defecate normally after the procedure. Cloacoliths are relative uncommon cloacal conditions, and this case documents cloacoscopic findings, rectal obstruction, and confirmation of its uric acid composition by urolith analysis.

  17. First documented outbreak of dengue in the Peruvian Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Phillips, I; Need, J; Escamilla, J; Colán, E; Sánchez, S; Rodríguez, M; Vásquez, L; Seminario, J; Betz, T; da Rosa, A T

    1992-01-01

    This article describes a classical dengue outbreak caused by dengue serotypes 1 and 4 that occurred from March to July 1990 in the city of Iquitos and surrounding areas of Loreto Department in the Peruvian Amazon. Epidemiologic data indicate that more than 150,000 persons may have been affected in Iquitos alone. Another dengue outbreak occurred in Tarapoto, a city in the neighboring department of San Martín. Laboratory data indicate that the same dengue serotypes were involved in both outbreaks. No cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever/shock syndrome appear to have occurred. Prior to this outbreak, no indigenous dengue cases had been documented in Peru.

  18. TRMM Observations of Convective Regimes in the Amazon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, W. A.; Nesbitt, S. W.; Blakeslee, Robert J.; Hein, P.; Cifelli, R.; Rutledge, S. A.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This study utilizes TRMM satellite precipitation radar, lightning imaging sensor, and passive microwave imager data together with ground-based lightning data to investigate the vertical structure, lightning, and rainfall characteristics of Amazonian and central South American convection for three separate wet-seasons. These characteristics are partitioned as a function of 850 mb zonal wind direction, motivated by observations collected during the six-week TRMM-LBA field campaign. The TRMM-LBA field campaign observations suggest that systematic variations in Amazonian convective vertical structure, lightning, and rainfall are all linked to bimodal variations in the low-level zonal wind (e.g., easterly and westerly regimes). The more spatially and temporally comprehensive TRMM dataset used in this study extends the TRMM-LBA observations by examining regime variability in Amazonian and South American convective structure over a continental scale domain. On a continental-scale, patterns of east and west regime 850 mb winds combined with LIS lightning flash densities suggest the presence of synoptic-scale controls (e.g., intrusion of extratropical frontal systems and interaction with the SACZ) on regional-scale variability in convective vertical structure. TRMM PR, TMI and ground-based lightning data suggest that regional variability in wet-season convective structure is most evident over the southern Amazon, Mato Grosso, Altiplano, southern Brazil, and eastern coastal regions of central and southern South America. Convective vertical structure, rain fall rates, and lightning activity are all more pronounced during easterly (westerly) regimes over the southern Amazon and Mato Grosso (Altiplano, and southern Brazil). Importantly, when considered with case-study results from TRMM-LBA, the systematic differences in convective structure that occur as a function of regime suggest that associated regime-differences may exist in the vertical distribution of diabatic heating

  19. The Green Ocean Over the Amazon: Implications for Cloud Electrification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, E.; Blakeslee, R.; Boccippio, D.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A convective regime with distinct maritime characteristics (weak updraft, low CCN, prevalent coalescence and rainout, weak mixed phase reflectivity, low glaciation temperature, and little if any lightning) is documented over the Amazon basin of the South American continent, and dubbed the "green ocean". Radar, lightning, thermodynamic and AVHRR satellite observations are examined to shed light on the roles of updraft and aerosol in providing departures from the green ocean regime toward continental behavior. Extreme case studies are identified in which the updraft control is dominant and in which the aerosol control is dominant. The tentative conclusion gives importance to both updrafts and aerosol in shaping the electrification of tropical convection.

  20. Oil Extraction and Indigenous Livelihoods in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Bozigar, Matthew; Gray, Clark L; Bilsborrow, Richard E

    2016-02-01

    Globally, the extraction of minerals and fossil fuels is increasingly penetrating into isolated regions inhabited by indigenous peoples, potentially undermining their livelihoods and well-being. To provide new insight to this issue, we draw on a unique longitudinal dataset collected in the Ecuadorian Amazon over an 11-year period from 484 indigenous households with varying degrees of exposure to oil extraction. Fixed and random effects regression models of the consequences of oil activities for livelihood outcomes reveal mixed and multidimensional effects. These results challenge common assumptions about these processes and are only partly consistent with hypotheses drawn from the Dutch disease literature.

  1. PALEOCLIMATE: The Amazon Reveals Its Secrets--Partly.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, J L

    2000-12-22

    The role of the tropics in global climate change during glacial cycles is hotly debated in paleoclimate cycles today. Records from South America have not provided a clear picture of tropical climate change. In his Perspective, Betancourt highlights the study by Maslin and Burns, who have deduced the outflow of the Amazon over the past 14,000 years. This may serve as a proxy that integrates hydrology over the entire South American tropics, although the record must be interpreted cautiously because factors other than rainfall may contribute to the variability in outflow.

  2. The impact of rise of the Andes and Amazon landscape evolution on diversification of lowland terra-firme forest birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleixo, A.; Wilkinson, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    upland terra-firme forest develop. The youngest landsurfaces thus appear to lie furthest from the mountains. In this scenario major drainages were also reoriented in wholesale fashion from a northward (Caribbean) outlet to a generally eastward, Atlantic Ocean outlet. More importantly, other major river courses in western-central Amazonia will have been established at progressively younger dates with distance eastward. The bird DNA data appears to confirm the role of Amazonian rivers as primary diversification barriers, and thus probably as promoters of bird speciation. We show for the first time that a general spatio-temporal pattern of diversification for terra-firme lineages in the Amazon is associated with rivers of apparently different ages ("younging-eastward"), and furthermore parallels a specific scenario of regional drainage evolution.

  3. Effects of CO2 Physiological Forcing on Amazon Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halladay, K.; Good, P.; Kay, G.; Betts, R.

    2014-12-01

    Earth system models provide us with an opportunity to examine the complex interactions and feedbacks between land surface, vegetation and atmosphere. A more thorough understanding of these interactions is essential in reducing uncertainty surrounding the potential impacts of climate and environmental change on the future state and extent of the Amazon rainforest. This forest is a important resource for the region and globally in terms of ecosystem services, hydrology and biodiversity. We aim to investigate the effect of CO2 physiological forcing on the Amazon rainforest and its feedback on regional climate by using the CMIP5 idealised 1% CO2 simulations with a focus on HadGEM2-ES. In these simulations, the atmospheric CO2 concentration is increased by 1% per year for 140 years, reaching around 1150ppm at the end of the simulation. The use of idealised simulations allows the effect of CO2 to be separated from other forcings and the sensitivities to be quantified. In particular, it enables non-linear feedbacks to be identified. In addition to the fully coupled 1% CO2 simulation, in which all schemes respond to the forcing, we use simulations in which (a) only the biochemistry scheme sees the rising CO2 concentration, and (b) in which rising CO2 is only seen by the radiation scheme. With these simulations we examine the degree to which CO2 effects are additive or non-linear when in combination. We also show regional differences in climate and vegetation response, highlighting areas of increased sensitivity.

  4. Cloudiness over the Amazon rainforest: Meteorology and thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collow, Allison B. Marquardt; Miller, Mark A.; Trabachino, Lynne C.

    2016-07-01

    Comprehensive meteorological observations collected during GOAmazon2014/15 using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility no. 1 and assimilated observations from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 are used to document the seasonal cycle of cloudiness, thermodynamics, and precipitation above the Amazon rainforest. The reversal of synoptic-scale vertical motions modulates the transition between the wet and dry seasons. Ascending moist air during the wet season originates near the surface of the Atlantic Ocean and is advected into the Amazon rainforest, where it experiences convergence and, ultimately, precipitates. The dry season is characterized by weaker winds and synoptic-scale subsidence with little or no moisture convergence accompanying moisture advection. This combination results in the drying of the midtroposphere during June through October as indicated by a decrease in liquid water path, integrated water, and the vertical profile of water vapor mixing ratio. The vertical profile of cloud fraction exhibits a relatively consistent decline in cloud fraction from the lifting condensation level (LCL) to the freezing level where a minimum is observed, unlike many other tropical regions. Coefficients of determination between the LCL and cloud fractional coverage suggest a relatively robust relationship between the LCL and cloudiness beneath 5 km during the dry season (R2 = 0.42) but a weak relationship during the wet season (0.12).

  5. Branchial cysts in two Amazon parrots (Amazona species).

    PubMed

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Castillo-Alcala, Fernanda; Holmberg, David L; Boston, Sarah; Smith, Dale A; Taylor, W Michael

    2010-03-01

    A 37-year-old yellow-crowned Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala) and a 20-year-old red-lored Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis) each presented with a large mass localized on the lateral neck. With the first bird, there was no evidence of signs of pain or discomfort, and the bird prehended and swallowed food normally. The second bird showed signs of mild upper-gastrointestinal discomfort. Results of an ultrasound examination and aspiration of the mass on each bird revealed a cystic structure. A computed tomography performed on the second bird revealed a large polycystic mass connected to the pharynx by a lateral tract. During surgical resection, both masses were found to originate from the subpharyngeal area. Based on topography and the histopathologic and immunohistochemical results, the masses were determined to be a second branchial cleft cyst for the first case and a second branchial pouch cyst for the second case. In addition, a carcinoma was present in situ within the epithelium of case 1, and the cyst in case 2 was secondarily infected. Branchial cysts are uncommonly diagnosed in veterinary and human medicine. These 2 cases are the first documented in parrots and appear similar to second branchial cysts reported in adult humans.

  6. Fires increase Amazon forest productivity through increases in diffuse radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rap, A.; Spracklen, D. V.; Mercado, L.; Reddington, C. L.; Haywood, J. M.; Ellis, R. J.; Phillips, O. L.; Artaxo, P.; Bonal, D.; Restrepo Coupe, N.; Butt, N.

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol scatters solar radiation increasing the fraction of diffuse radiation and the efficiency of photosynthesis. We quantify the impacts of biomass burning aerosol (BBA) on diffuse radiation and plant photosynthesis across Amazonia during 1998-2007. Evaluation against observed aerosol optical depth allows us to provide lower and upper BBA emissions estimates. BBA increases Amazon basin annual mean diffuse radiation by 3.4-6.8% and net primary production (NPP) by 1.4-2.8%, with quoted ranges driven by uncertainty in BBA emissions. The enhancement of Amazon basin NPP by 78-156 Tg C a-1 is equivalent to 33-65% of the annual regional carbon emissions from biomass burning. This NPP increase occurs during the dry season and acts to counteract some of the observed effect of drought on tropical production. We estimate that 30-60 Tg C a-1 of this NPP enhancement is within woody tissue, accounting for 8-16% of the observed carbon sink across mature Amazonian forests.

  7. Vegetation dynamics and rainfall sensitivity of the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Hilker, Thomas; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Tucker, Compton J.; Hall, Forrest G.; Myneni, Ranga B.; Wang, Yujie; Bi, Jian; Mendes de Moura, Yhasmin; Sellers, Piers J.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the vegetation canopy of the Amazon rainforest is highly sensitive to changes in precipitation patterns and that reduction in rainfall since 2000 has diminished vegetation greenness across large parts of Amazonia. Large-scale directional declines in vegetation greenness may indicate decreases in carbon uptake and substantial changes in the energy balance of the Amazon. We use improved estimates of surface reflectance from satellite data to show a close link between reductions in annual precipitation, El Niño southern oscillation events, and photosynthetic activity across tropical and subtropical Amazonia. We report that, since the year 2000, precipitation has declined across 69% of the tropical evergreen forest (5.4 million km2) and across 80% of the subtropical grasslands (3.3 million km2). These reductions, which coincided with a decline in terrestrial water storage, account for about 55% of a satellite-observed widespread decline in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). During El Niño events, NDVI was reduced about 16.6% across an area of up to 1.6 million km2 compared with average conditions. Several global circulation models suggest that a rise in equatorial sea surface temperature and related displacement of the intertropical convergence zone could lead to considerable drying of tropical forests in the 21st century. Our results provide evidence that persistent drying could degrade Amazonian forest canopies, which would have cascading effects on global carbon and climate dynamics. PMID:25349419

  8. Daytime turbulent exchange between the Amazon forest and the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzjarrald, D.R.; Moore, K.E. ); Cabral, M.R. ); Scolar, J. ); Manzi, A.O.; de Abreau Sa, L.D. )

    1990-09-20

    Detailed observations of turbulence just above and below the crown of the Amazon rain forest during the wet season are presented. The forest canopy is shown to remove high-frequency turbulent fluctuations while passing lower frequencies. Filter characteristics of turbulent transfer into the Amazon rain forest canopy are quantified. In spite of the ubiquitous presence of clouds and frequent rain during this season, the average horizontal wind speed spectrum and the relationship between the horizontal wind speed and its standard deviation are well described by dry convective boundary layer similarity hypotheses originally found to apply in flat terrain. Diurnal changes in the sign of the vertical velocity skewness observed above and inside the canopy are shown to be plausibly explained by considering the skewness budget. Simple empirical formulas that relate observed turbulent heat fluxes to horizontal wind speed and variance are presented. Changes in the amount of turbulent coupling between the forest and the boundary layer associated with deep convective clouds are presented in three case studies. Even small raining clouds are capable of evacuating the canopy of substances normally trapped by persistent static stability near the forest floor. Recovery from these events can take more than an hour, even during midday.

  9. The chemical control of soluble phosphorus in the Amazon estuary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, L. E.; Wofsy, S. C.; Sager, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    The role of sediments in controlling concentrations of soluble phosphorous in the Amazon estuary is examined. The efflux of phosphorous through the estuary is calculated using data collected on field excursions in December 1982 and May 1983, and laboratory mixing experiments. It is observed that soluble phosphorus was released from bottom sediments at a rate of 0.2 micro-M/day, when in seawater and deionizd water mixtures. The relation between release rates and salinity and sediment concentrations is studied. A one-dimensional dispersion model was developed to estimate phosphate inputs to the estuary. The model predicted total fluxes of soluble inorganic phosphorous of 15 x 10 to the 6th mole/day for December 1982 and 27 x 10 to the 6th mole/day for May 1983; the predictions correlate with field observations. It is noted that phosphorous removal is between 0 and 4 ppt at a rate of 0.044 + or - 0.01 micron-M/ppt per day and the annual mean input of phophorous from Amazon to outer-estuary is 23 x 10 to the 6th moles/day.

  10. Sunphotometer network for monitoring aerosol properties in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, Brent N.; Eck, T. F.; Setzer, A.; Pereira, Alfredo; Vermote, E.; Reagan, J. A.; Kaufman, Y. A.; Tanre, D.; Slutsker, I.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite platforms have provided a methodology for regional and global remote sensing of aerosols. New systems will significantly improve that capability during the EOS era; however, the voluminous 20 year record of satellite data has produced only regional snapshots of aerosol loading and have not yielded a data base of the optical properties of those aerosols which are fundamental to our understanding of their influence on climate change. The prospect of fully understanding the properties of the aerosols with respect to climate change is small without validation and augmentation by ancillary ground based observations. Sun photometry was demonstrated to be an effective tool for ground based measurements of aerosol optical properties from fire emissions. Newer technology has expanded routine sun photometer measurements to spectral observations of solar aureole and almucantar allowing retrievals of size distribution, scattering phase function, and refractive index. A series of such observations were made in Brazil's Amazon basin from a network of six simultaneously recording instruments deployed in Sep. 1992. The instruments were located in areas removed from local aerosol sources such that sites are representative of regional aerosol conditions. The overall network was designed to cover the counter clockwise tropospheric circulation of the Amazon Basin. Spectral measurements of sun, aureole and sky data for retrieval of aerosol optical thickness, particle size distribution, and scattering phase function as well as measurements of precipitable water were made during noncloudy conditions.

  11. Vegetation Dynamics and Rainfall Sensitivity of the Amazon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilker, Thomas; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Tucker, Compton J.; Hall, Forrest G.; Myneni, Ranga B.; Wang, Yujie; Bi, Jian; Mendes de Moura, Yhasmin; Sellers, Piers J.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the vegetation canopy of the Amazon rainforest is highly sensitive to changes in precipitation patterns and that reduction in rainfall since 2000 has diminished vegetation greenness across large parts of Amazonia. Large-scale directional declines in vegetation greenness may indicate decreases in carbon uptake and substantial changes in the energy balance of the Amazon. We use improved estimates of surface reflectance from satellite data to show a close link between reductions in annual precipitation, El Nino southern oscillation events, and photosynthetic activity across tropical and subtropical Amazonia. We report that, since the year 2000, precipitation has declined across 69% of the tropical evergreen forest (5.4 million sq km) and across 80% of the subtropical grasslands (3.3 million sq km). These reductions, which coincided with a decline in terrestrial water storage, account for about 55% of a satellite-observed widespread decline in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). During El Nino events, NDVI was reduced about 16.6% across an area of up to 1.6 million sq km compared with average conditions. Several global circulation models suggest that a rise in equatorial sea surface temperature and related displacement of the intertropical convergence zone could lead to considerable drying of tropical forests in the 21st century. Our results provide evidence that persistent drying could degrade Amazonian forest canopies, which would have cascading effects on global carbon and climate dynamics.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of nebulized terbinafine in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    PubMed

    Emery, Lee C; Cox, Sherry K; Souza, Marcy J

    2012-09-01

    Aspergillosis is one of the most difficult diseases to treat successfully in avian species. Terbinafine hydrochloride offers numerous potential benefits over traditionally used antifungals for treatment of this disease. Adding nebulized antifungals to treatment strategies is thought to improve clinical outcomes in lung diseases. To determine plasma concentrations of terbinafine after nebulization, 6 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were randomly divided into 2 groups of 3. Each bird was nebulized for 15 minutes with 1 of 2 terbinafine solutions, one made with a crushed tablet and the second with raw drug powder. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at multiple time points up to 720 minutes after completing nebulization. Plasma and nebulization solutions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The terbinafine concentration of the solution made with a crushed tablet (0.87 +/- 0.05 mg/mL) was significantly lower than was that made with raw powder (1.02 +/- 0.09 mg/mL). Plasma concentrations of terbinafine did not differ significantly between birds in the 2 groups. Plasma terbinafine concentrations in birds were maintained above in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations for approximately 1 hour in birds nebulized with the crushed tablet solution and 4 hours in birds nebulized with the raw powder solution. Higher concentrations of solution, longer nebulization periods, or more frequent administration are likely needed to reach therapeutic plasma concentrations of terbinafine for clinically relevant periods in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

  13. Sensitivity of Regional Climate to Deforestation in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Bras, Rafael L.

    1994-01-01

    The deforestation results in several adverse effect on the natural environment. The focus of this paper is on the effects of deforestation on land-surface processes and regional climate of the Amazon basin. In general, the effect of deforestation on climate are likely to depend on the scale of the defrosted area. In this study, we are interested in the effects due to deforestation of areas with a scale of about 250 km. Hence, a meso-scale climate model is used in performing numerical experiments on the sensitivity of regional climate to deforestation of areas with that size. It is found that deforestation results in less net surface radiation, less evaporation, less rainfall, and warmer surface temperature. The magnitude of the of the change in temperature is of the order 0.5 C, the magnitudes of the changes in the other variables are of the order of IO%. In order to verify some of he results of the numerical experiments, the model simulations of net surface radiation are compared to recent observations of net radiation over cleared and undisturbed forest in the Amazon. The results of the model and the observations agree in the following conclusion: the difference in net surface radiation between cleared and undisturbed forest is, almost, equally partioned between net solar radiation and net long-wave radiation. This finding contributes to our understanding of the basic physics in the deforestation problem.

  14. Daytime turbulent exchange between the Amazon forest and the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzjarrald, David R.; Moore, Kathleen E.; Cabral, Osvaldo M. R.; Scolar, Jose; Manzi, Antonio O.; Deabreusa, Leonardo D.

    1989-01-01

    Detailed observations of turbulence just above and below the crown of the Amazon rain forest during the wet season are presented. The forest canopy is shown to remove high frequency turbulent fluctuations while passing lower frequencies. Filter characteristics of turbulent transfer into the Amazon rain forest canopy are quantified. Simple empirical relations that relate observed turbulent heat fluxes to horizontal wind variance are presented. Changes in the amount of turbulent coupling between the forest and the boundary layer associated with deep convective clouds are presented both as statistical averages and as a series of case studies. These convective processes during the rainy season are shown to alter the diurnal course of turbulent fluxes. In wake of giant coastal systems, no significant heat or moisture fluxes occur for up to a day after the event. Radar data is used to demonstrate that even small raining clouds are capable of evacuating the canopy of substances normally trapped by persistent static stability near the forest floor. Recovery from these events can take more than an hour, even during mid-day. In spite of the ubiquitous presence of clouds and frequent rain during this season, the average horizontal wind speed spectrum is well described by dry CBL similarity hypotheses originally found to apply in flat terrain.

  15. Daytime turbulent exchange between the Amazon forest and the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzjarrald, David R.; Moore, Kathleen E.; Cabral, Osvaldo M. R.; Scolar, Jose; Manzi, Antonio

    1990-01-01

    Detailed observations of turbulence just above and below the crown of the Amazon rain forest during the wet season are presented. The forest canopy is shown to remove high frequency turbulent fluctuations while passing lower frequencies. Filter characteristics of turbulent transfer into the Amazon rain forest canopy are quantified. Simple empirical relations that relate observed turbulent heat fluxes to horizontal wind variance are presented. Changes in the amount of turbulent coupling between the forest and the boundary layer associated with deep convective clouds are presented both as statistical averages and as a series of case studies. These convective processes during the rainy season are shown to alter the diurnal course of turbulent fluxes. In wake of giant coastal systems, no significant heat or moisture fluxes occur for up to a day after the event. Radar data is used to demonstrate that even small raining clouds are capable of evacuating the canopy of substances normally trapped by persistent static stability near the forest floor. Recovery from these events can take more than an hour, even during mid-day. In spite of the ubiquitous presence of clouds and frequent rain during this season, the average horizontal wind speed spectrum is well described by dry CBL similarity hypotheses originally found to apply in flat terrain.

  16. Iron cycling in the Amazon River Basin: the isotopic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poitrasson, Franck; Vieira, Lucieth; Mulholland, Daniel; Seyler, Patrick; Sondag, Francis; Allard, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    With the global climate change and increasing anthropic pressure on nature, it is important to find new indicators of the response of complex systems like the Amazon River Basin. In particular, new tracers like iron isotopes may tell us much on processes such as the chemical exchanges between rivers, soils and the biosphere. Pioneering studies revealed that for some river waters, large δ57Fe fractionations are observed between the suspended and dissolved load (Bergquist and Boyle, 2006), and isotopic variations were also recognized on the suspended matter along the hydrological cycle (Ingri et al., 2006). On land, soil studies from various locations have shown that δ57Fe signatures depend mostly on the weathering regime (Fantle and DePaolo, 2004; Emmanuel et al., 2005; Wiederhold et al., 2007; Poitrasson et al., 2008). It thus seems that Fe isotopes could become an interesting new tracer of the exchanges between soils, rivers and the biosphere. We therefore conducted Fe isotope surveys through multidisciplinary field missions on rivers from the Amazon Basin. It was confirmed that acidic, organic-rich black waters show strong Fe isotope fractionation between particulate and dissolved loads. Furthermore, this isotopic fractionation varies along the hydrological cycle, like previously uncovered in boreal waters suspended matter. In contrast, unfiltered waters show very little variation with time. It was also found that Fe isotopes remain a conservative tracer even in the case of massive iron loss during the mixing of chemically contrasted waters such as the Negro and Solimões tributaries of the Amazon River. Given that >95% of the Fe from the Amazon River is carried as detrital materials, our results lead to the conclusion that the Fe isotope signature delivered to the Atlantic Ocean is undistinguishable from the continental crust value, in contrast to previous inferences. The results indicate that Fe isotopes in rivers represent a promising indicator of the

  17. Constancy in the vegetation of the Amazon Basin during the late Pleistocene: Evidence from the organic matter composition of Amazon deep sea fan sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastner, Thomas P.; Goñi, Miguel A.

    2003-04-01

    Analyses of more than 60 sediment samples from the Amazon deep sea fan show remarkably constant terrigenous biomarkers (lignin phenols and cutin acids) and stable carbon isotopic compositions of organic matter (δ13COM) deposited from 10 to 70 ka. Sediments from the nine Amazon deep sea fan channel-levee systems investigated in this study yielded relatively narrow ranges for diagnostic parameters such as organic carbon (OC) normalized total lignin yields (Λ = 3.1 ± 1.1 mg/100 mg OC), syringyl:vanillyl phenol ratios (S/V = 0.84 ± 0.06), cinnamyl:vanillyl phenol ratios (C/V = 0.08 ± 0.02), isomeric abundances of cutin-derived dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid (f10,16-OH = 0.65 ± 0.02), and δ13COM (-27.6% ± 0.6 ‰). Our measurements support the hypothesis that the vegetation of the Amazon Basin did not change significantly during the late Pleistocene, even during the Last Glacial Maximum. Moreover, the compositions obtained from the Amazon deep sea fan are similar to those of modern Amazon River suspended sediments. Such results strongly indicate that the current tropical rainforest vegetation has been a permanent and dominant feature of the Amazon River watershed over the past 70 k.y. Specifically, we found no evidence for the development of large savannas that had been previously postulated as indicators of increased glacial aridity in Amazonia. Climate models need to be modified to account for the uninterrupted input of moisture to the tropical Amazon region over the late Pleistocene Holocene period.

  18. Sparse pre-Columbian human habitation in western Amazonia.

    PubMed

    McMichael, C H; Piperno, D R; Bush, M B; Silman, M R; Zimmerman, A R; Raczka, M F; Lobato, L C

    2012-06-15

    Locally extensive pre-Columbian human occupation and modification occurred in the forests of the central and eastern Amazon Basin, but whether comparable impacts extend westward and into the vast terra firme (interfluvial) zones, remains unclear. We analyzed soils from 55 sites across central and western Amazonia to assess the history of human occupation. Sparse occurrences of charcoal and the lack of phytoliths from agricultural and disturbance species in the soils during pre-Columbian times indicated that human impacts on interfluvial forests were small, infrequent, and highly localized. No human artifacts or modified soils were found at any site surveyed. Riverine bluff areas also appeared less heavily occupied and disturbed than similar settings elsewhere. Our data indicate that human impacts on Amazonian forests were heterogeneous across this vast landscape.

  19. Surveillance, health promotion and control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region - Medical attention in the Brazilian Amazon Region: a proposal

    PubMed Central

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela CV

    2015-01-01

    We refer to Oswaldo Cruz's reports dating from 1913 about the necessities of a healthcare system for the Brazilian Amazon Region and about the journey of Carlos Chagas to 27 locations in this region and the measures that would need to be adopted. We discuss the risks of endemicity of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region. We recommend that epidemiological surveillance of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region and Pan-Amazon region should be implemented through continuous monitoring of the human population that lives in the area, their housing, the environment and the presence of triatomines. The monitoring should be performed with periodic seroepidemiological surveys, semi-annual visits to homes by health agents and the training of malaria microscopists and healthcare technicians to identify Trypanosoma cruzi from patients' samples and T. cruzi infection rates among the triatomines caught. We recommend health promotion and control of Chagas disease through public health policies, especially through sanitary education regarding the risk factors for Chagas disease. Finally, we propose a healthcare system through base hospitals, intermediate-level units in the areas of the Brazilian Amazon Region and air transportation, considering the distances to be covered for medical care. PMID:26560976

  20. Surveillance, health promotion and control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region--Medical attention in the Brazilian Amazon Region: a proposal.

    PubMed

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela C V

    2015-11-01

    We refer to Oswaldo Cruz's reports dating from 1913 about the necessities of a healthcare system for the Brazilian Amazon Region and about the journey of Carlos Chagas to 27 locations in this region and the measures that would need to be adopted. We discuss the risks of endemicity of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region. We recommend that epidemiological surveillance of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region and Pan-Amazon region should be implemented through continuous monitoring of the human population that lives in the area, their housing, the environment and the presence of triatomines. The monitoring should be performed with periodic seroepidemiological surveys, semi-annual visits to homes by health agents and the training of malaria microscopists and healthcare technicians to identify Trypanosoma cruzi from patients' samples and T. cruzi infection rates among the triatomines caught. We recommend health promotion and control of Chagas disease through public health policies, especially through sanitary education regarding the risk factors for Chagas disease. Finally, we propose a healthcare system through base hospitals, intermediate-level units in the areas of the Brazilian Amazon Region and air transportation, considering the distances to be covered for medical care.

  1. Biomass Burning Emissions and Deforestation in The Legal Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellicott, E. A.; Vermote, E. F.

    2010-12-01

    Biomass burning, often concomitant with deforestation, is recognized as a significant source of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols and has received attention from the scientific community as an important agent in climate change. Earth observing satellites have made significant contributions to fire and deforestation detection, monitoring, and characterization for nearly three decades. In this work, we demonstrate the application of our approach to estimate fire radiative energy (FRE) released from biomass burning to infer CO2 and organic and black carbon aerosol (OCBC) emissions from biomass burning in the Legal Amazon. We then compared emission estimates with deforestation rates produced by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE). Our research offers a new approach and insights to the dynamics of fire, deforestation, emissions. The annual mean CO2 and OCBC emitted for the study period (2001-2009) from the Legal Amazon biomass burning was estimated to be 253 Tg and 2.3 Tg, respectively. This represents 9% and 14% of the global CO2 and OCBC, respectively, emitted from fires. In general, the trend in emission estimates mirrored deforestation rates. However, 2007 was an anomalous year in Brazil as it was one of the highest years in emissions from fire, but a relatively low year for deforestation (Fig. 1). This discrepancy is a result of an abnormally dry year which resulted in a greater frequency of fires not directly associated with deforestation, but which may be tied to agricultural and pasture maintenance fires. A similar discrepancy was observed when comparing deforestation and emission rates from Mato Grosso and Pará; the two states responsible for most of the deforestation (71%) and emissions (~65%) from the Legal Amazon during the study period. Although as of 2006 Pará had annually surpassed Mato Grosso in annual forest loss it wasn’t until 2009 that emissions from Pará were greater. Thus, suggesting the importance of non

  2. Deforestation alters phytotelm habitat availability and mosquito production in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Yanoviak, Stephen P; Paredes, J E Ramírez; Lounibos, L Philip; Weaver, Scott C

    2006-10-01

    We quantified the effects of deforestation, and subsequent cultivation and forest regeneration, on the abundance and composition of mosquito larval habitats, specifically phytotelmata (plant-held waters), in the western Amazon basin. Recently deforested sites were characterized by increased phytotelm density (1.6 phytotelmata/m2) and greater relative abundance of fallen-plant-part phytotelmata (76%) compared to intact forests (0.9 phytotelmata/m2 and 25% fallen plant parts). As a result, the total volume of colonizable phytotelm water was significantly larger in new clearings. Subsequent cultivation of cleared land with mixed crops including pineapple and plantain had similar consequences: phytotelm density (2.2 units/m2) was significantly larger in plantations than in forests due to greater relative abundance of water-filled plant axils (71% vs. 39% in forest). Such axils are the preferred larval habitats for Wyeomyia spp. mosquitoes, which showed a similarly significant increase in production in plantations (0.25 larvae/m2) vs. forests (0.04 larvae/m2). Likewise, Limatus spp. mosquitoes were an order of magnitude more abundant in altered landscapes (especially in recently deforested and cultivated areas) than in mature forest, due to increased abundance of fallen-plant-part phytotelmata, in which they are typically the most common colonists. Because they are potential vectors of pathogens in a region of high endemic and emergent virus activity, increases in local abundance of Limatus spp. and Wyeomyia spp. due to large-scale deforestation and agriculture may influence rates of disease transmission.

  3. Carbon emissions from deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon region predicted from satellite data and ecosystem modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Genovese, V.

    2009-03-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model estimates of annual forest production were used as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; g C m-2) for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006) were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazônia) project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP) sinks for carbon are highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris are more rapid and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C yr-1 from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct carbon emissions from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6-1 in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from year to year during the period 2000-2002.

  4. Hallux amputation after a freshwater stingray injury in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Oliveira, Sâmella Silva de; Sachett, Jacqueline de Almeida Gonçalves; Silva, Iran Mendonça da; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater stingray injuries are a common problem in the Brazilian Amazon, affecting mostly riverine and indigenous populations. These injuries cause severe local and regional pain, swelling and erythema, as well as complications, such as local necrosis and bacterial infection. Herein, we report a case of bacterial infection and hallux necrosis, after a freshwater stingray injury in the Brazilian Amazon, which eventually required amputation. Different antimicrobial regimens were administered at different stages of the disease; however, avoiding amputation through effective treatment was not achieved.

  5. Exposure to mixed asymptomatic infections with Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania chagasi in the human population of the greater Amazon.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Daniella G; Lauria-Pires, Liana; Nitz, Nadjar; Lozzi, Silene P; Nascimento, Rubens J; Monteiro, Pedro S; Rebelo, Manuel M; Rosa, Ana de Cássia; Santana, Jaime M; Teixeira, Antonio R L

    2007-05-01

    Lack of conservation of the Amazon tropical rainforest has imposed severe threats to its human population living in newly settled villages, resulting in outbreaks of some infectious diseases. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey of 1100 inhabitants of 15 villages of Paço do Lumiar County, Brazil. Thirty-five (3%) individuals had been exposed to Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc), 41 (4%) to Leishmania braziliensis (Lb) and 50 (4.5%) to Leishmania chagasi (Lc) infections. Also, 35 cases had antibodies that were cross-reactive against the heterologous kinetoplastid antigens. Amongst these, the Western blot assays revealed that 11 (1%) had Tc and Lb, that seven (0.6%) had Lc and Tc, and that 17 (1.6%) had Lb and Lc infections. All of these cases of exposures to mixed infections with Leishmania sp, and eight of 11 cases of Tc and Lb were confirmed by specific PCR assays and Southern hybridizations. Two cases had triple infections. We consider these asymptomatic cases showing phenotype and genotype markers consistent with mixed infections by two or more kinetoplastid flagellates a high risk factor for association with Psychodidae and Triatominae vectors blood feeding and transmitting these protozoa infections. This is the first publication showing human exposure to mixed asymptomatic kinetoplastid infections in the Amazon.

  6. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US–Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms. PMID:24743552

  7. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  8. Fatal toxoplasmosis in a vinaceous Amazon parrot (Amazona vinacea).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Francisco Carlos; Donatti, Rogerio Venâncio; Marques, Marcus Vinícius Romero; Ecco, Roselene; Preis, Ingred Sales; Shivaprasad, H L; Vilela, Daniel Ambrózio da Rocha; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a vinaceous Amazon parrot based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The bird was prostrate on the bottom of the cage and died. Necropsy revealed edema and congestion of the lungs, cloudy air sacs, and mild hepatomegaly. Histopathology revealed severe pulmonary congestion and edema and interstitial mononuclear cell inflammation associated with many cysts containing bradyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii scattered throughout. The heart had mild multifocal lymphocytic myocarditis and free tachyzoites in the muscle fibers, and the kidneys had mild interstitial nephritis and a few cysts containing bradyzoites of T. gondii. Immunohistochemistry was negative for Sarcocystis falcatula and Neospora caninum and confirmed the protozoa as T. gondii. This is the first description of T. gondii in an endangered species ofa Brazilian psittacine.

  9. Microsatellite markers for the Amazon peacock bass (Cichla piquiti).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, D C; Oliveira, D A A; Sampaio, I; Beheregaray, L B

    2009-01-01

    A set of primers to amplify 10 microsatellite DNA loci was developed for the Neotropical fish Cichla piquiti, one of the largest sized cichlids in the Amazon Basin. These loci were used to genotype individuals from two populations, one native population from the Tocantins River, the other an introduced population in southeast Brazil, Upper Paraná River. Cross-amplification was also successful for another species of peacock bass, C. kelberi. An average of 4.4 alleles per locus (2-9 alleles) was detected. These markers will be useful for the characterization of genetic structure of native populations, and also for invasive biology studies since Cichla species have been introduced in many river basins outside their native ranges.

  10. Atmospheric surface and boundary layers of the Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garstang, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Three phases of work were performed: design of and preparation for the Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2-A); execution of the ABLE 2-A field program; and analysis of the ABLE 2-A data. Three areas of experiment design were dealt with: surface based meteorological measurements; aircraft missions; and project meteorological support. The primary goal was to obtain a good description of the structure of the atmosphere immediately above the rain forest canopy (top of canopy to a few thousand meters), to describe this region during the growing daytime phase of the boundary layer; and to examine the nighttime stratified state. A secondary objective was to examine the role that deep convective storms play in the vertical transport of heat, water vapor, and other trace gases. While significant progress was made, much of the analysis remains to be done.

  11. Brazilian Amazon Roads and Parks: Temporal & Spatial Deforestation Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaff, A.; Robalino, J.

    2011-12-01

    Heterogeneous Forest Impacts of Transport Infrastructure: spatial frontier dynamics & impacts of Brazilian Amazon road changes Prior research on road impacts has almost completely ignored heterogeneity of impacts and as a result both empirically understated potential impact and missed policy potential. We note von Thunen's model suggests not only heterogeneity with distance from market but also specifically road impacts rising then falling with distance ('non-monoThunicity') Endogenous development and partial adjustment dynamics support this for the short run. Causal effects result from studying Brazilian Amazon deforestation (1976-87, 2000-04) using matching for short-run responses to lagged new roads changes (1968-75, 1985-00). We show the critical role of prior development, proxied by 1968 and 1985 road distances, for which exact matching addresses development trends and transforms impact estimates. Splitting the sample on this measure finds confirmation of the nonmonotonic predictions: new road impacts are relatively low if a prior road was close, such that prior transport access and endogenous development dynamics compete with the new road for influence, but also if a prior road was far, since first-decade adjustment in pristine areas is limited; yet in between these bounds, investments immediately raise deforestation significantly. This pattern helps to explain lower estimates within research on a single average impact. It suggests potential for REDD if a country chooses to shift its spatial transport networks. Protected Areas & Brazilian Amazon Deforestation: modeling and testing the impacts of varied PA strategies We model and then estimate the impacts of multiple types of protected areas upon 2000 - 2004 deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Our modeling starts with federal versus state objectives and predicts differences in both choice and implementation of each PA strategy that we examine. Our empirical examination brings not only breakdowns sufficient

  12. Pseudo-dyadic "interaction" on Amazon's Mechanical Turk.

    PubMed

    Summerville, Amy; Chartier, Christopher R

    2013-03-01

    Psychological researchers have begun to utilize Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) marketplace as a participant pool. Although past work has established that MTurk is well suited to examining individual behavior, pseudo-dyadic interactions, in which participants falsely believe they are interacting with a partner, are a key element of social and cognitive psychology. The ability to conduct such interdependent research on MTurk would increase the utility of this online population for a broad range of psychologists. The present research therefore attempts to qualitatively replicate well-established pseudo-dyadic tasks on MTurk in order to establish the utility of this platform as a tool for researchers. We find that participants do behave as if a partner is real, even when doing so incurs a financial cost, and that they are sensitive to subtle information about the partner in a minimal-groups paradigm, supporting the use of MTurk for pseudo-dyadic research.

  13. Planetary Boundary Layer Dynamics Over the Amazon Rain Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Amauri Pereira De.

    1990-02-01

    Observations of the diurnal evolution of the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) over the Amazon rain forest, in the area of the ABLE 2A and 2B experiments showed the existence of a low level circulation with low level nocturnal maxima winds. These circulations are shown to be induced by the thermal contrast between the river and the forest. A linear model was applied to identify the horizontal extent of these circulations and an associated perturbation pressure gradient consistent with the observations. A second order closure model was used to simulate changes in the PBL caused by the thermal circulation. Good agreement with the observations was obtained when the forcing was a horizontal pressure gradient equal to 0.5 mb/100km of limited vertical extent. The dynamics of the equatorial PBL was shown to be plausibly explained using a hypothesis of a river breeze circulation.

  14. Amazon acai: chemistry and biological activities: a review.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Klenicy Kazumy de Lima; Pereira, Luiz Felipe Ravazi; Lamarão, Carlos Victor; Lima, Emerson Silva; da Veiga-Junior, Valdir Florêncio

    2015-07-15

    Acai (acai or assai) is one of the Amazon's most popular functional foods and widely used in the world. There are many benefits to its alleged use in the growing market for nutraceuticals. The acai extracts have a range of polyphenolic components with antioxidant properties, some of those present in greater quantity are orientin, isoorientin and vanillic acid, as well as anthocyanins cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. The presence of these substances is linked mainly to the antioxidant, anti- inflammatory, anti-proliferative and cardioprotective activities. Importantly, there are two main species of the Euterpe genus which produce acai. There are several differences between them but they are still quite unknown, from literature to producers and consumers. In this review are highlighted the chemical composition, botanical aspects, pharmacological, marketing and nutrition of these species based on studies published in the last five years in order to unify the current knowledge and dissimilarities between them.

  15. Exploring the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto and Understanding the Origin of the Modern Amazon Basin with Imaging Radar:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Campbell, K.; Cracraft, J.; Carnaval, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Amazon basin is a biodiversity biome and plays a significant role into shaping the earth's climate, ocean and atmospheric gases. Understanding the history of the formation of the basin is essential to our understanding of the region's biodiversity loss and response to climate change. Ancient River channels in lowland Amazonia exhibit right angle branching structures as well as intricately intertwined channels. Past research has attributed these characteristic as a result of subsurface faults but makes it difficult to validate this augment due to dense vegetation and sedimentation. We seek to employ remote sensing techniques for examining geomorphological features and the relationship to evolutionary processes that shaped biodiversity in the modern Amazon River Basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery gathered from the NASA/JPL airborne imaging radar over the Planalto, in the Madre de Dios region of Southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and geologic processes through deep time. In the late Neogene, the Amazonian lowlands comprised either a series of independent basins or a single sedimentary basin. The Amazonian Planalto is variously described as either erosional surface or a surface of deposition. We employ UAVSAR data collection to assess (1) the utility of these radar data for use in identifying associated geomorphologic features, and (2) UAVSAR's utility in aiding interpretation of ALOS PALSAR and STRM datasets to support a basin-wide characterization. We derive maps of river networks using a canny based edge detection method applied on the UAVSAR backscatter images. We develop an algorithm, which separates the river networks into various catchments based on connected component and then calculates angles at each branch point. We then assess distribution of right angle branching structure throughout the entire region. The results of the analysis will have a major impact on

  16. Anthropogenic Effects on the Mixing State of Aerosols over Manaus during the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraund, M. W.; Pham, D.; Harder, T.; O'Brien, R.; Wang, B.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.; Moffet, R.

    2015-12-01

    The role that anthropogenic aerosols play in cloud formation is uncertain and contributes largely to the uncertainty in predicting future climate. One region of particular importance is the Amazon rainforest, which accounts for over half of the world's rainforest. During GoAmazon2014/15 IOP2, aerosol samples were collected at multiple sites in and around the rapidly growing industrial city of Manaus in the Amazon basin. Manaus is of scientific interest due to the pristine nature of the surrounding rainforest and the high levels of pollution coming from the city in the form of SO2, NOx, and soot. Some sites, such as the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science center (TES, also designated ZF2) located to the north of Manaus, represent air masses which have not interacted with emissions from the city. The comparison of pristine atmosphere with heavy pollution allows both for the determination of a natural baseline level of pollutants, as well as the study of pollutant's impact on the conversion of biogenic volatile organic compounds to secondary organic aerosols. Towards this goal, samples from ZF2 and other unpolluted sites will be compared to samples from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) climate research facility in Manacapuru (T3), which is southwest (downwind) of Manaus. Spatially resolved spectra were recorded at the sub-particle level using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen K-absorption edges. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) was also performed on to characterize higher Z elements. These two techniques together will allow for the mass fraction of atmospherically relevant elements to be determined on a per-particle basis. We will apply established procedures to determine the mixing state index for samples collected at ZF2 and T3 using elemental mass fractions. Preliminary results will be presented which focus on investigating the difference between mixing

  17. Amazon River carbon dioxide outgassing fuelled by wetlands.

    PubMed

    Abril, Gwenaël; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Artigas, L Felipe; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Benedetti, Marc F; Vidal, Luciana; Meziane, Tarik; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Bernardes, Marcelo C; Savoye, Nicolas; Deborde, Jonathan; Souza, Edivaldo Lima; Albéric, Patrick; Landim de Souza, Marcelo F; Roland, Fabio

    2014-01-16

    River systems connect the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the ocean in the global carbon cycle. A recent estimate suggests that up to 3 petagrams of carbon per year could be emitted as carbon dioxide (CO2) from global inland waters, offsetting the carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. It is generally assumed that inland waters emit carbon that has been previously fixed upstream by land plant photosynthesis, then transferred to soils, and subsequently transported downstream in run-off. But at the scale of entire drainage basins, the lateral carbon fluxes carried by small rivers upstream do not account for all of the CO2 emitted from inundated areas downstream. Three-quarters of the world's flooded land consists of temporary wetlands, but the contribution of these productive ecosystems to the inland water carbon budget has been largely overlooked. Here we show that wetlands pump large amounts of atmospheric CO2 into river waters in the floodplains of the central Amazon. Flooded forests and floating vegetation export large amounts of carbon to river waters and the dissolved CO2 can be transported dozens to hundreds of kilometres downstream before being emitted. We estimate that Amazonian wetlands export half of their gross primary production to river waters as dissolved CO2 and organic carbon, compared with only a few per cent of gross primary production exported in upland (not flooded) ecosystems. Moreover, we suggest that wetland carbon export is potentially large enough to account for at least the 0.21 petagrams of carbon emitted per year as CO2 from the central Amazon River and its floodplains. Global carbon budgets should explicitly address temporary or vegetated flooded areas, because these ecosystems combine high aerial primary production with large, fast carbon export, potentially supporting a substantial fraction of CO2 evasion from inland waters.

  18. Amazon Land Wars in the South of Para

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Cynthia S.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Aldrich, Stephen P.; Caldas, Marcellus M.

    2007-01-01

    The South of Para, located in the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, has become notorious for violent land struggle. Although land conflict has a long history in Brazil, and today impacts many parts of the country, violence is most severe and persistent here. The purpose of this article is to examine why. Specifically, we consider how a particular Amazonian place, the so-called South of Para has come to be known as Brazil's most dangerous badland. We begin by considering the predominant literature, which attributes land conflict to the frontier expansion process with intensified struggle emerging in the face of rising property values and demand for private property associated with capitalist development. From this discussion, we distill a concept of the frontier, based on notions of property rights evolution and locational rents. We then empirically test the persistence of place-based violence in the region, and assess the frontier movement through an analysis of transportation costs. The findings from the analyses indicate that the prevalent theorization of frontier violence in Amazonia does little to explain its persistent and pervasive nature in the South of Para. To fill this gap in understanding, we develop an explanation based the geographic conception of place, and we use contentious politics theory heuristically to elucidate the ways in which general processes interact with place specific history to engender a landscape of violence. In so doing, we focus on environmental, cognitive, and relational mechanisms (and implicated structures), and attempt to deploy them in an explanatory framework that allows direct observation of the accumulating layers of the region's tragic history. We end by placing our discussion within a political ecological context, and consider the implications of the Amazon Land War for the environment.

  19. Predictive modelling of contagious deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Purves, Drew; Souza, Carlos; Ewers, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1) it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2) the overall deforestation rate emerges "bottom up", as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3) deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated-pre- and post-PPCDAM ("Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia")-the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy), annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is currently

  20. Observations of sediment transport on the Amazon subaqueous delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sternberg, R.W.; Cacchione, D.A.; Paulson, B.; Kineke, G.C.; Drake, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    A 19-day time series of fluid, flow, and suspended-sediment characteristics in the benthic boundary layer is analyzed to identify major sedimentary processes active over the prodelta region of the Amazon subaqueous delta. Measurements were made by the benthic tripod GEOPROBE placed on the seabed in 65 m depth near the base of the deltaic foreset beds from 11 February to 3 March 1990, during the time of rising water and maximum sediment discharge of the Amazon River; and the observations included: hourly measurements of velocity and suspended-sediment concentration at four levels above the seabed; waves and tides; and seabed elevation. Results of the first 14-day period of the time series record indicate that sediment resuspension occurred as a result of tidal currents (91% of the time) and surface gravity waves (46% of the time). Observations of suspended sediment indicated that particle flux in this region is 0.4-2% of the flux measured on the adjacent topset deposits and is directed to the north and landward relative to the Brazilian coast (268??T). Fortnightly variability is strong, with particle fluxes during spring tides five times greater than during neap tides. On the 15th day of the data record, a rapid sedimentation event was documented in which 44 cm of sediment was deposited at the study site over a 14-h period. Evaluation of various mechanisms of mass sediment movement suggests that this event represents downslope migration of fluid muds from the upper foreset beds that were set in motion by boundary shear stresses generated by waves and currents. This transport mechanism appears to occur episodically and may represent a major source of sediment to the lower foreset-bottomset region of the subaqueous delta.

  1. Chemodiversity of dissolved organic matter in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsior, Michael; Valle, Juliana; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Hertkorn, Norbert; Bastviken, David; Luek, Jenna; Harir, Mourad; Bastos, Wanderley; Enrich-Prast, Alex

    2016-07-01

    Regions in the Amazon Basin have been associated with specific biogeochemical processes, but a detailed chemical classification of the abundant and ubiquitous dissolved organic matter (DOM), beyond specific indicator compounds and bulk measurements, has not yet been established. We sampled water from different locations in the Negro, Madeira/Jamari and Tapajós River areas to characterize the molecular DOM composition and distribution. Ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) combined with excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) revealed a large proportion of ubiquitous DOM but also unique area-specific molecular signatures. Unique to the DOM of the Rio Negro area was the large abundance of high molecular weight, diverse hydrogen-deficient and highly oxidized molecular ions deviating from known lignin or tannin compositions, indicating substantial oxidative processing of these ultimately plant-derived polyphenols indicative of these black waters. In contrast, unique signatures in the Madeira/Jamari area were defined by presumably labile sulfur- and nitrogen-containing molecules in this white water river system. Waters from the Tapajós main stem did not show any substantial unique molecular signatures relative to those present in the Rio Madeira and Rio Negro, which implied a lower organic molecular complexity in this clear water tributary, even after mixing with the main stem of the Amazon River. Beside ubiquitous DOM at average H / C and O / C elemental ratios, a distinct and significant unique DOM pool prevailed in the black, white and clear water areas that were also highly correlated with EEM-PARAFAC components and define the frameworks for primary production and other aspects of aquatic life.

  2. Windthrows increase soil carbon stocks in a central Amazon forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Leandro T.; Magnabosco Marra, Daniel; Trumbore, Susan; de Camargo, Plínio B.; Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I.; Lima, Adriano J. N.; Ribeiro, Gabriel H. P. M.; dos Santos, Joaquim; Higuchi, Niro

    2016-03-01

    Windthrows change forest structure and species composition in central Amazon forests. However, the effects of widespread tree mortality associated with wind disturbances on soil properties have not yet been described in this vast region. We investigated short-term effects (7 years after disturbance) of widespread tree mortality caused by a squall line event from mid-January of 2005 on soil carbon stocks and concentrations in a central Amazon terra firme forest. The soil carbon stock (averaged over a 0-30 cm depth profile) in disturbed plots (61.4 ± 8.2 Mg ha-1, mean ±95 % confidence interval) was marginally higher (p = 0.09) than that from undisturbed plots (47.7 ± 13.6 Mg ha-1). The soil organic carbon concentration in disturbed plots (2.0 ± 0.17 %) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than that from undisturbed plots (1.36 ± 0.24 %). Moreover, soil carbon stocks were positively correlated with soil clay content (r2 = 0.332, r = 0.575 and p = 0.019) and with tree mortality intensity (r2 = 0.257, r = 0.506 and p = 0.045). Our results indicate that large inputs of plant litter associated with large windthrow events cause a short-term increase in soil carbon content, and the degree of increase is related to soil clay content and tree mortality intensity. The higher carbon content and potentially higher nutrient availability in soils from areas recovering from windthrows may favor forest regrowth and increase vegetation resilience.

  3. Declining fertility on the frontier: the Ecuadorian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Pan, William K. Y.; Bilsborrow, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines farm and household characteristics associated with a rapid fertility decline in a forest frontier of the Ecuadorian Amazon. The Amazon basin and other rainforests in the tropics are among the last frontiers in the ongoing global fertility transition. The pace of this transition along agricultural frontiers will likely have major implications for future forest transitions, rural development, and ultimately urbanization in frontier areas. The study here is based upon data from a probability sample of 172 women who lived on the same farm in 1990 and 1999. These data are from perhaps the first region-wide longitudinal survey of fertility in an agricultural frontier. Descriptive analyses indicate that fertility has plummeted in the region, which is surprising since it had remained high and unchanging among migrant colonists up to 1990. Thus only half of the women in our sample reported having a birth during the 1990-1999 time period, and most women report in 1999 that they do not want to have any more children. Analyses, controlling for women's age, corroborate hypotheses about land-fertility relations. For example, women from households with a legal land title had fewer than half as many children as those from households without a title. Large cattle (pasture) holdings and hiring laborers to work on the farm (which may replace household labor) are both related to socio-economic status that is traditionally associated with lower fertility. Similarly, distance to the nearest community center is positively related to fertility. Factors negatively related to fertility include increasing temporary out-migration of adult men or women from the household, asset accumulation, and access to electricity. PMID:19657468

  4. Towards quantifying uncertainty in predictions of Amazon 'dieback'.

    PubMed

    Huntingford, Chris; Fisher, Rosie A; Mercado, Lina; Booth, Ben B B; Sitch, Stephen; Harris, Phil P; Cox, Peter M; Jones, Chris D; Betts, Richard A; Malhi, Yadvinder; Harris, Glen R; Collins, Mat; Moorcroft, Paul

    2008-05-27

    Simulations with the Hadley Centre general circulation model (HadCM3), including carbon cycle model and forced by a 'business-as-usual' emissions scenario, predict a rapid loss of Amazonian rainforest from the middle of this century onwards. The robustness of this projection to both uncertainty in physical climate drivers and the formulation of the land surface scheme is investigated. We analyse how the modelled vegetation cover in Amazonia responds to (i) uncertainty in the parameters specified in the atmosphere component of HadCM3 and their associated influence on predicted surface climate. We then enhance the land surface description and (ii) implement a multilayer canopy light interception model and compare with the simple 'big-leaf' approach used in the original simulations. Finally, (iii) we investigate the effect of changing the method of simulating vegetation dynamics from an area-based model (TRIFFID) to a more complex size- and age-structured approximation of an individual-based model (ecosystem demography). We find that the loss of Amazonian rainforest is robust across the climate uncertainty explored by perturbed physics simulations covering a wide range of global climate sensitivity. The introduction of the refined light interception model leads to an increase in simulated gross plant carbon uptake for the present day, but, with altered respiration, the net effect is a decrease in net primary productivity. However, this does not significantly affect the carbon loss from vegetation and soil as a consequence of future simulated depletion in soil moisture; the Amazon forest is still lost. The introduction of the more sophisticated dynamic vegetation model reduces but does not halt the rate of forest dieback. The potential for human-induced climate change to trigger the loss of Amazon rainforest appears robust within the context of the uncertainties explored in this paper. Some further uncertainties should be explored, particularly with respect to the

  5. Simulating hydrologic and hydraulic processes throughout the Amazon River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beighley, R.E.; Eggert, K.G.; Dunne, T.; He, Y.; Gummadi, V.; Verdin, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Presented here is a model framework based on a land surface topography that can be represented with various degrees of resolution and capable of providing representative channel/floodplain hydraulic characteristics on a daily to hourly scale. The framework integrates two models: (1) a water balance model (WBM) for the vertical fluxes and stores of water in and through the canopy and soil layers based on the conservation of mass and energy, and (2) a routing model for the horizontal routing of surface and subsurface runoff and channel and floodplain waters based on kinematic and diffusion wave methodologies. The WBM is driven by satellite-derived precipitation (TRMM_3B42) and air temperature (MOD08_M3). The model's use of an irregular computational grid is intended to facilitate parallel processing for applications to continental and global scales. Results are presented for the Amazon Basin over the period Jan 2001 through Dec 2005. The model is shown to capture annual runoff totals, annual peaks, seasonal patterns, and daily fluctuations over a range of spatial scales (>1, 000 to <4D7M km2). For the period of study, results suggest basin-wide total water storage changes in the Amazon vary by approximately +/-5 to 10 cm, and the fractional components accounting for these changes are: root zone soil moisture (20%), subsurface water being routed laterally to channels (40%) and channel/floodplain discharge (40%). Annual variability in monthly water storage changes by +/-2.5 cm is likely due to 0D5 to 1 month variability in the arrival of significant rainfall periods throughout the basin. Copyright ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Predictive Modelling of Contagious Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Isabel M. D.; Purves, Drew; Souza, Carlos; Ewers, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1) it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2) the overall deforestation rate emerges “bottom up”, as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3) deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated–pre- and post-PPCDAM (“Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia”)–the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy), annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is

  7. Modelling the interplay between global and regional drivers on Amazon deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla-Nora, E. L.; Aguiar, A. P. D.; Montenegro Lapola, D.; Woltjer, G.

    2014-12-01

    Since mid-2000s, several measures have been taken to curb Amazon deforestation in Brazil, which dropped 84% up to 2012. However, this process raise concerns owed of the unintended effects of such interventions, like land use displacements. Here we explore an innovative modeling approach for the Amazon in order to simulate how the global demand for agricultural commodities and different regional land use policies could affect future deforestation trends inside and outside the Amazon, paying special attention to leakage effects over the Cerrado. A global economic model was taken to integrate supply and demand factors at both global and regional scales, coupled with a spatially explicitly land use model. Leakage effects are simulated in two different ways, regarding land demand and land allocation, based on the relative land rents of different land use types and spatial regression. Six contrasting multi-scale scenarios are explored focusing on deforestation rates and spatial pattern analysis. Our results unveil that Amazon conservation might not be the end of deforestation in Brazil once it can lead to 70% increase over the Cerrado cleared area up to 2050. Biofuels targets compliance can further press land cover changes over these regions revealing that productivity gains will be decisive for both Amazon and Cerrado conservation. In summary, closing the agricultural frontier in the Amazon cannot ensure biodiversity conservation or carbon savings in absence of complementary measures committed with land use efficiency, controlled land use expansion and new economic alternatives.

  8. Self-amplified Amazon forest loss due to vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemp, Delphine Clara; Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Hirota, Marina; Montade, Vincent; Sampaio, Gilvan; Staal, Arie; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Rammig, Anja

    2017-03-01

    Reduced rainfall increases the risk of forest dieback, while in return forest loss might intensify regional droughts. The consequences of this vegetation-atmosphere feedback for the stability of the Amazon forest are still unclear. Here we show that the risk of self-amplified Amazon forest loss increases nonlinearly with dry-season intensification. We apply a novel complex-network approach, in which Amazon forest patches are linked by observation-based atmospheric water fluxes. Our results suggest that the risk of self-amplified forest loss is reduced with increasing heterogeneity in the response of forest patches to reduced rainfall. Under dry-season Amazonian rainfall reductions, comparable to Last Glacial Maximum conditions, additional forest loss due to self-amplified effects occurs in 10-13% of the Amazon basin. Although our findings do not indicate that the projected rainfall changes for the end of the twenty-first century will lead to complete Amazon dieback, they suggest that frequent extreme drought events have the potential to destabilize large parts of the Amazon forest.

  9. Projections of future meteorological drought and wet periods in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Philip B.; Brando, Paulo; Asner, Gregory P.; Field, Christopher B.

    2015-01-01

    Future intensification of Amazon drought resulting from climate change may cause increased fire activity, tree mortality, and emissions of carbon to the atmosphere across large areas of Amazonia. To provide a basis for addressing these issues, we examine properties of recent and future meteorological droughts in the Amazon in 35 climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). We find that the CMIP5 climate models, as a group, simulate important properties of historical meteorological droughts in the Amazon. In addition, this group of models reproduces observed relationships between Amazon precipitation and regional sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans. Assuming the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario for future drivers of climate change, the models project increases in the frequency and geographic extent of meteorological drought in the eastern Amazon, and the opposite in the West. For the region as a whole, the CMIP5 models suggest that the area affected by mild and severe meteorological drought will nearly double and triple, respectively, by 2100. Extremes of wetness are also projected to increase after 2040. Specifically, the frequency of periods of unusual wetness and the area affected by unusual wetness are projected to increase after 2040 in the Amazon as a whole, including in locations where annual mean precipitation is projected to decrease. Our analyses suggest that continued emissions of greenhouse gases will increase the likelihood of extreme events that have been shown to alter and degrade Amazonian forests. PMID:26460046

  10. Projections of future meteorological drought and wet periods in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Philip B; Brando, Paulo; Asner, Gregory P; Field, Christopher B

    2015-10-27

    Future intensification of Amazon drought resulting from climate change may cause increased fire activity, tree mortality, and emissions of carbon to the atmosphere across large areas of Amazonia. To provide a basis for addressing these issues, we examine properties of recent and future meteorological droughts in the Amazon in 35 climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). We find that the CMIP5 climate models, as a group, simulate important properties of historical meteorological droughts in the Amazon. In addition, this group of models reproduces observed relationships between Amazon precipitation and regional sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans. Assuming the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario for future drivers of climate change, the models project increases in the frequency and geographic extent of meteorological drought in the eastern Amazon, and the opposite in the West. For the region as a whole, the CMIP5 models suggest that the area affected by mild and severe meteorological drought will nearly double and triple, respectively, by 2100. Extremes of wetness are also projected to increase after 2040. Specifically, the frequency of periods of unusual wetness and the area affected by unusual wetness are projected to increase after 2040 in the Amazon as a whole, including in locations where annual mean precipitation is projected to decrease. Our analyses suggest that continued emissions of greenhouse gases will increase the likelihood of extreme events that have been shown to alter and degrade Amazonian forests.

  11. Self-amplified Amazon forest loss due to vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks.

    PubMed

    Zemp, Delphine Clara; Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Barbosa, Henrique M J; Hirota, Marina; Montade, Vincent; Sampaio, Gilvan; Staal, Arie; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Rammig, Anja

    2017-03-13

    Reduced rainfall increases the risk of forest dieback, while in return forest loss might intensify regional droughts. The consequences of this vegetation-atmosphere feedback for the stability of the Amazon forest are still unclear. Here we show that the risk of self-amplified Amazon forest loss increases nonlinearly with dry-season intensification. We apply a novel complex-network approach, in which Amazon forest patches are linked by observation-based atmospheric water fluxes. Our results suggest that the risk of self-amplified forest loss is reduced with increasing heterogeneity in the response of forest patches to reduced rainfall. Under dry-season Amazonian rainfall reductions, comparable to Last Glacial Maximum conditions, additional forest loss due to self-amplified effects occurs in 10-13% of the Amazon basin. Although our findings do not indicate that the projected rainfall changes for the end of the twenty-first century will lead to complete Amazon dieback, they suggest that frequent extreme drought events have the potential to destabilize large parts of the Amazon forest.

  12. Trading forests for yields in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Holly

    2012-03-01

    Our knowledge of how agriculture expands, and the types of land it replaces, is remarkably limited across the tropics. Most remote-sensing studies focus on the net gains and losses in forests and agricultural land rather than the land-use transition pathways (Gibbs et al 2010). Only a handful of studies identify land sources for new croplands or plantations, and then only for farming systems aggregated together (e.g., Koh and Wilcove 2008, Morton et al 2006, Gibbs et al 2010). Gutiérrez-Vélez et al (2011), however, have taken a leap forward by tracking the different expansion pathways for smallholder and industrial oil palm plantations. Using a combination of Landsat, MODIS and field surveys, they investigate whether higher yields in new agricultural lands spare forests in the Peruvian Amazon and in a smaller focus area in the Ucayali region. Across the Peruvian Amazon, they show that between 2000 and 2010, new high-yield oil palm plantations replaced forests 72% of the time and accounted for 1.3% of total deforestation, with most expansion occurring after 2006. Gutiérrez-Vélez et al went further in the Ucayali region and compared land sources for new high-yield and low-yield plantations. Expansion of higher-yield agricultural lands should logically reduce the total area needed for production, thus potentially sparing forests. In the Ucayali focus area, expansion of high-yield oil palm did convert less total land area but more forest was cleared than with low-yield expansion. Smaller-scale plantations tended to expand into already cleared areas while industrial-scale plantations traded their greater yields for forests, leading to higher land-clearing carbon emissions per production unit (Gibbs et al 2008). Gutiérrez-Vélez et al show that higher yields may require less land for production but more forest may be lost in the process, and they emphasize the need for stronger incentives for land sparing. The potential land-saving nature of these high

  13. Violence the Western way.

    PubMed

    Roth, B E

    1997-10-01

    Despite the quiet revolution in response to changing conceptualizations of gender in psychoanalysis, the Western has remained the domain of aggressive phallic masculinity. The iconic imagery of the Western, when combined with its narrative trajectory, is used to tell stories of violent encounters between men. The acceptance of the genre, and its duplication by other cultures and film makers, indicates that the Westerns' imagery and moral solutions tap into some basic deep structures of anxiety and pleasure in violence between men. As long as societies require subtle sublimations of aggressive and violent drives, it is likely that men will seek imaginary regressive experiences to discharge frustrations.

  14. Low Health System Performance, Indigenous Status and Antivenom Underdosage Correlate with Spider Envenoming Severity in the Remote Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, Vanderson Souza; Gomes, André Alexandre; Silva, Iran Mendonça; Sachett, Jacqueline; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos Lima; Oliveira, Sâmella; Sabidò, Meritxell; Chalkidis, Hipócrates; Barbosa Guerra, Maria Graças Vale; Salinas, Jorge Luis; Wen, Fan Hui; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Background A better knowledge of the burden and risk factors associated with severity due to spider bites would lead to improved management with a reduction of sequelae usually seen for this neglected health problem, and would ensure proper use of antivenoms in remote localities in the Brazilian Amazon. The aim of this study was to analyze the profile of spider bites reported in the state of Amazonas in the Western Brazilian Amazon, and to investigate potential risk factors associated with severity of envenomation. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a case-control study in order to identify factors associated with spider bite severity in the Western Brazilian Amazon from 2007 to 2014. Patients evolving to any severity criteria were considered cases and those with non-severe bites were included in the control group. All variables were retrieved from the official Brazilian reporting systems. Socioeconomical and environmental components were also included in a multivariable analysis in order to identify ecological determinants of incidence and severity. A total of 1,181 spider bites were recorded, resulting in an incidence of 4 cases per 100,000 person/year. Most of the spider bites occurred in males (65.8%). Bites mostly occurred in rural areas (59.5%). The most affected age group was between 16 and 45 years old (50.9%). A proportion of 39.7% of the bites were related to work activities. Antivenom was prescribed to 39% of the patients. Envenomings recorded from urban areas [Odds ratio (OR) = 0.40 (95%CI = 0.30–0.71; p<0.001)] and living in a municipality with a mean health system performance index (MHSPI >median [OR = 0.64 (95%CI = 0.39–0.75; p<0.001)] were independently associated with decreased risk of severity. Work related accidents [OR = 2.09 (95%CI = 1.49–2.94; p<0.001)], Indigenous status [OR = 2.15 (95%CI = 1.19–3.86; p = 0.011)] and living in a municipality located >300 km away from the state capital Manaus [OR = 1.90 (95%CI = 1.28–2.40; p<0

  15. The Impact of Rise of the Andes and Amazon Landscape Evolution on Diversification of Lowland terra-firme Forest Birds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aleixo, Alexandre; Wilkinson, M. Justin

    2011-01-01

    Since the 19th Century, the unmatched biological diversity of Amazonia has stimulated a diverse set of hypotheses accounting for patterns of species diversity and distribution in mega-diverse tropical environments. Unfortunately, the evidence supporting particular hypotheses to date is at best described as ambiguous, and no generalizations have emerged yet, mostly due to the lack of comprehensive comparative phylogeographic studies with thorough trans-Amazonian sampling of lineages. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of diversification estimated from mitochondrial gene trees for 31 lineages of birds associated with upland terra-firme forest, the dominant habitat in modern lowland Amazonia. The results confirm the pervasive role of Amazonian rivers as primary barriers separating sister lineages of birds, and a protracted spatio-temporal pattern of diversification, with a gradual reduction of earlier (1st and 2nd) and older (> 2 mya) splits associated with each lineage in an eastward direction. (The easternmost tributaries of the Amazon, the Xingu and Tocantins Rivers, are not associated with any splits older than > 2 mya). For the suboscine passerines, maximum-likelihood estimates of rates of diversification point to an overall constant rate over the past 5 my (up to a significant downturn at 300,000 y ago). This "younging-eastward" pattern may have an abiotic explanation related to landscape evolution. Triggered by a new pulse of Andean uplift, it has been proposed that modern Amazon basin landscapes may have evolved successively eastward, away from the mountain chain, starting approximately 10 mya. This process was likely based on the deposition of vast fluvial sediment masses, known as megafans, that may have extended progressively and in series eastward from Andean sources. This process plausibly explains the progressive extinction of original Pebas wetland of western-central Amazonia by the present fluvial landsurfaces of a more terra-firme type

  16. Implications of Scientific Collaboration Networks on Studies of Aquatic Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Salinero, María Celeste; Michalski, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of wildlife extracted from the Amazon has increased in the past decades as a consequence of an increase in human population density and income growth. To evaluate the spatial distribution of studies on subsistence and/or commercial hunting conducted in the Brazilian Amazon, we selected eight mid-sized and large-bodied aquatic vertebrate species with a history of human exploitation in the region. We used a combination of searches in the gray and scientific literature from the past 24 years to provide an updated distributional map of studies on the target species. We calculated the distances between the study sites and the locations of the research institutes/universities that the first and last authors of the same study were affiliated to. For the period of 1990 to 2014, we found 105 studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of aquatic vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon in 271 locations that involved 43 institutions (37 Brazilian and 6 international). The spatial distribution of the studies across the Brazilian Amazon varied, but over 80% took place in the northeast and central Amazon, encompassing three States of the Legal Brazilian Amazon (Amazonas, 51.42%; Pará, 19.05%; and Amapá, 16.19%). Over half of the research study sites (52.91%) were within 500 km of the research institute/university of the first or last authors. Some research institutes/universities did not have any inter-institutional collaborations, while others collaborated with eight or more institutes. Some research institutes/universities conducted many studies, had an extensive collaboration network, and contributed greatly to the network of studies on Amazonian aquatic vertebrates. Our research contributes to the knowledge of studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of the most exploited aquatic vertebrates of the Brazilian Amazon, illustrates the impact that collaboration networks have on research, and highlights potential areas for improvement and the

  17. Sediment supply as a driver of river evolution in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Joshua; Constantine, José Antonio; Dunne, Thomas; Legleiter, Carl; Lazarus, Eli D.

    2015-04-01

    The Amazon represents the only large river basin in the world where there is a sufficient range of sediment supplies and a lack of engineering controls to assess how sediment supply drives the evolution of meandering rivers. Despite recent analytical advances (Asahi et al., 2013; Pittaluga and Seminara, 2011), modern theory does not yet identify or explain the effects of externally imposed sediment supplies, a fundamental river characteristic, on meandering river evolution. These sediment supplies would be radically reduced by the construction of large dams proposed for the Amazon Basin (Finer and Jenkins, 2012). Here, we demonstrate that the sediment loads imposed by their respective drainage basins determine planform changes in lowland rivers across the Amazon. Our analysis, based on Landsat image sequences, indicates that rivers with high sediment loads draining the Andes and associated foreland basin experience annual migration rates that are on average four times faster than rivers with lower sediment loads draining the Central Amazon Trough and shields. Incidents of meander cutoff also occur more frequently along the rivers of the Andes and foreland basin, where the number of oxbows in the floodplains is more than twice that observed in the floodplains of the Central Amazon Trough and shields. Our results, which cannot be explained by differences in channel slope or hydrology, highlight the importance of sediment supply in modulating the ability of meandering alluvial rivers to reshape the floodplain environment through river migration. Asahi, K., Shimizu, Y., Nelson, J., Parker, G., 2013. Numerical simulation of river meandering with self-evolving banks. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 118(4), 2013JF002752. Finer, M., Jenkins, C.N., 2012. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity. PLOS One, 7(4), e35126. Pittaluga, M.B., Seminara, G., 2011. Nonlinearity and unsteadiness in river

  18. Implications of Scientific Collaboration Networks on Studies of Aquatic Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Salinero, María Celeste; Michalski, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of wildlife extracted from the Amazon has increased in the past decades as a consequence of an increase in human population density and income growth. To evaluate the spatial distribution of studies on subsistence and/or commercial hunting conducted in the Brazilian Amazon, we selected eight mid-sized and large-bodied aquatic vertebrate species with a history of human exploitation in the region. We used a combination of searches in the gray and scientific literature from the past 24 years to provide an updated distributional map of studies on the target species. We calculated the distances between the study sites and the locations of the research institutes/universities that the first and last authors of the same study were affiliated to. For the period of 1990 to 2014, we found 105 studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of aquatic vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon in 271 locations that involved 43 institutions (37 Brazilian and 6 international). The spatial distribution of the studies across the Brazilian Amazon varied, but over 80% took place in the northeast and central Amazon, encompassing three States of the Legal Brazilian Amazon (Amazonas, 51.42%; Pará, 19.05%; and Amapá, 16.19%). Over half of the research study sites (52.91%) were within 500 km of the research institute/university of the first or last authors. Some research institutes/universities did not have any inter-institutional collaborations, while others collaborated with eight or more institutes. Some research institutes/universities conducted many studies, had an extensive collaboration network, and contributed greatly to the network of studies on Amazonian aquatic vertebrates. Our research contributes to the knowledge of studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of the most exploited aquatic vertebrates of the Brazilian Amazon, illustrates the impact that collaboration networks have on research, and highlights potential areas for improvement and the

  19. Sources, Properties, Aging, and Anthropogenic Influences on OA and SOA over the Southeast US and the Amazon duing SOAS, DC3, SEAC4RS, and GoAmazon

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SE US and the Amazon have large sources of biogenic VOCs, varying anthropogenic pollution impacts, and often poor organic aerosol (OA) model performance. Recent results on the sources, properties, aging, and impact of anthropogenic pollution on OA and secondary OA (SOA) over ...

  20. Investigating Landsat-derived forest evapotranspiration in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khand, K. B.; Numata, I.; Kjaersgaard, J.; Cochrane, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Nearly half of annual rainfall in the Amazon rainforest region is returned to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration (ET). However, this land-atmosphere water vapor feedback in Amazonia has been continuously disturbed by anthropogenic influence and climate change such as severe drought events. While forest ET dynamics in the Amazon have been studied from both point estimates (or in-situ measurements) and regional land-surface models as well as coarse-spatial satellite data, finer spatial data is required to address the spatial variability of forest ET associated with both forest disturbances and extreme climate events. We use Landsat-based METRIC (Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration) model to generate high-resolution (30 m) ET products and investigate its potential to characterize local and regional ET behavior by comparison to ET calculated from flux tower data. METRIC estimates actual ET as residual of the surface energy balance and is applied to capture the spatial variability of forest ET. The flux tower data were collected at two sites with different forest types: Para with wet equatorial forest and Rondônia with seasonally dry tropical forest. Our study was conducted on the dry season of the years 2003 and 2005 for Para, and 2000 through 2002 for Rondônia as a function of data availability of both cloud-free Landsat images and meteorological data for METRIC processing. Daily gridded actual ET estimates from METRIC during the dry season were obtained using a cubic spline interpolation of ETrF (fraction of reference ET) values between the satellite image dates and multiplying by daily reference ET. Across the all study years, differences between the daily ET estimates for the selected image dates from METRIC and the flux towers were less than 1.2 mm/day, while on monthly basis, these averaged daily ET differences were much lower (< 0.5 mm). At Para, the correlation (R2) between the daily ET rates from METRIC and the

  1. Composition and formation of organic aerosol particles in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöhlker, C.; Wiedemann, K.; Sinha, B.; Shiraiwa, M.; Gunthe, S. S.; Artaxo, P.; Gilles, M. K.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Moffet, R. C.; Smith, M.; Weigand, M.; Martin, S. T.; Pöschl, U.; Andreae, M. O.

    2012-04-01

    We applied scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (STXM-NEXAFS) analysis to investigate the morphology and chemical composition of aerosol samples from a pristine tropical environment, the Amazon Basin. The samples were collected in the Amazonian rainforest during the rainy season and can be regarded as a natural background aerosol. The samples were found to be dominated by secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles in the fine and primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) in the coarse mode. Lab-generated SOA-samples from isoprene and terpene oxidation as well as pure organic compounds from spray-drying of aqueous solution were measured as reference samples. The aim of this study was to investigate the microphysical and chemical properties of a tropical background aerosol in the submicron size range and its internal mixing state. The lab-generated SOA and pure organic compounds occurred as spherical and mostly homogenous droplet-like particles, whereas the Amazonian SOA particles comprised a mixture of homogeneous droplets and droplets having internal structures due to atmospheric aging. In spite of the similar morphological appearance, the Amazon samples showed considerable differences in elemental and functional group composition. According to their NEXAFS spectra, three chemically distinct types of organic material were found and could be assigned to the following three categories: (1) particles with a pronounced carboxylic acid (COOH) peak similar to those of laboratory-generated SOA particles from terpene oxidation; (2) particles with a strong hydroxy (COH) signal similar to pure carbohydrate particles; and (3) particles with spectra resembling a mixture of the first two classes. In addition to the dominant organic component, the NEXAFS spectra revealed clearly resolved potassium (K) signals for all analyzed particles. During the rainy season and in the absence of anthropogenic influence, active biota is

  2. Teaching Western Literature to Non-Western Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Eric J.; Chun, Hye Won; Kim, Chung Ah

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which Western literature can be taught to Non-western students. This paper demonstrates that non-western values do not have to be overcome but rather Western values can be highlighted and reinforced to deal with literary complexity. Values and ideals such as freedom, self-identity, religion, feminism, and equality are…

  3. AmazonFACE: Assessing the Effects of Increasing Atmospheric CO2 on the Resilience of the Amazon Forest through Integrative Model-Experiment Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapola, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The existence, magnitude and duration of a supposed "CO2 fertilization" effect in tropical forests remains largely undetermined, despite being suggested for nearly 20 years as a key knowledge gap for understanding the future resilience of Amazonian forests and its impact on the global carbon cycle. Reducing this uncertainty is critical for assessing the future of the Amazon region as well as its vulnerability to climate change. The AmazonFACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment) research program is an integrated model-experiment initiative of unprecedented scope in an old-growth Amazon forest near Manaus, Brazil - the first of its kind in tropical forest. The experimental treatment will simulate an atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] of the future in order to address the question: "How will rising atmospheric CO2 affect the resilience of the Amazon forest, the biodiversity it harbors, and the ecosystem services it provides, in light of projected climatic changes?" AmazonFACE is divided into three phases: (I) pre-experimental ecological characterization of the research site; (II) pilot experiment comprised of two 30-m diameter plots, with one treatment plot maintained at elevated [CO2] (ambient +200 ppmv), and the other control plot at ambient [CO2]; and (III) a fully-replicated long-term experiment comprised of four pairs of control/treatment FACE plots maintained for 10 years. A team of scientists from Brazil, USA, Australia and Europe will employ state-of-the-art methods to study the forest inside these plots in terms of carbon metabolism and cycling, water use, nutrient cycling, forest community composition, and interactions with environmental stressors. All project phases also encompass ecosystem-modeling activities in a way such that models provide hypothesis to be verified in the experiment, which in turn will feed models to ultimately produce more accurate projections of the environment. Resulting datasets and analyses will be a valuable resource for a broad community

  4. The AmazonFACE research program: assessing the effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 on the ecology and resilience of the Amazon forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapola, David; Quesada, Carlos; Norby, Richard; Araújo, Alessandro; Domingues, Tomas; Hartley, Iain; Kruijt, Bart; Lewin, Keith; Meir, Patrick; Ometto, Jean; Rammig, Anja

    2016-04-01

    The existence, magnitude and duration of a supposed "CO2 fertilization" effect in tropical forests remains largely undetermined, despite being suggested for nearly 20 years as a key knowledge gap for understanding the future resilience of Amazonian forests and its impact on the global carbon cycle. Reducing this uncertainty is critical for assessing the future of the Amazon region as well as its vulnerability to climate change. The AmazonFACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment) research program is an integrated model-experiment initiative of unprecedented scope in an old-growth Amazon forest near Manaus, Brazil - the first of its kind in tropical forest. The experimental treatment will simulate an atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] of the future in order to address the question: "How will rising atmospheric CO2 affect the resilience of the Amazon forest, the biodiversity it harbors, and the ecosystem services it provides, in light of projected climatic changes?" AmazonFACE is divided into three phases: (I) pre-experimental ecological characterization of the research site; (II) pilot experiment comprised of two 30-m diameter plots, with one treatment plot maintained at elevated [CO2] (ambient +200 ppmv), and the other control plot at ambient [CO2]; and (III) a fully-replicated long-term experiment comprised of four pairs of control/treatment FACE plots maintained for 10 years. A team of scientists from Brazil, USA, Australia and Europe will employ state-of-the-art methods to study the forest inside these plots in terms of carbon metabolism and cycling, water use, nutrient cycling, forest community composition, and interactions with environmental stressors. All project phases also encompass ecosystem-modeling activities in a way such that models provide hypothesis to be verified in the experiment, which in turn will feed models to ultimately produce more accurate projections of the environment. Resulting datasets and analyses will be a valuable resource for a broad community

  5. A study of Culicoides in Rondônia, in the Brazilian Amazon: species composition, relative abundance and potential vectors.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, L P C; Pereira Júnior, A M; Farias, E S; Almeida, J F; Rodrigues, M S; Resadore, F; Pessoa, F A C; Medeiros, J F

    2017-03-01

    There is very little information available about Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in the western Brazilian Amazon. However, studies of the fauna of this region are essential to knowledge of the species and potential vectors within it. Thus, the present study aims to evaluate the abundance, richness and composition of Culicoides species in rural areas in the state of Rondônia, Brazil. Culicoides specimens were collected in forest and pasture environments in the municipality of Porto Velho, using light traps. A total of 1708 individuals (1136 females and 572 males) belonging to 33 species were collected; 28 of these samples represent new records for the state of Rondônia and include the first record of Culicoides contubernalis in Brazil. Culicoides insignis was the most abundant species (86.1%). Species richness was greater in forest areas (32 species, 96.96%), whereas pastures presented the greatest number of Culicoides captured (n = 1540, 90.1%). This study shows that Culicoides populations differ between forest and pasture environments and indicates that the abundance of C. insignis is an important factor in epidemiological vigilance studies in the region.

  6. Before the flood: Miocene otoliths from eastern Amazon Pirabas Formation reveal a Caribbean-type fish fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Orangel; Schwarzhans, Werner; Moraes-Santos, Heloísa; Nepomuceno, Aguinaldo

    2014-12-01

    The Pirabas Formation of Early Miocene age represents the final stage of the central western Atlantic carbonate platform in northeastern South America, predating the emplacement of the Amazon delta system. The otolith-based fossil fish fauna is represented by 38 species typical of a shallow marine environment. A total of 18 species are described new to science from the families Congridae, Batrachoididae, Bythitidae, Sciaenidae and Paralichthyidae. The fish fauna was associated with high benthic and planktic primary productivity including seagrass meadows, calcareous algae and suspension-feeders. The break of todays shallow marine bioprovince at the Amazonas delta mouth is not evident from the fish fauna of the Pirabas Fm., which shows good correlation with the Gatunian/proto-Caribbean bioprovince known from an only slightly younger time window in Trinidad and Venezuela. Differences observed to those Early Miocene faunal associations are interpreted to be mainly due to stratigraphic and geographic and not environmental differences. We postulate that the emergence of the Amazonas river mouth close to its present day location has terminated the carbonate cycle of the Pirabas Fm. and pushed back northwards a certain proportion of the fish fauna here described.

  7. The expansion of the economic frontier and the diffusion of violence in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Souza, Patrícia Feitosa; Xavier, Diego Ricardo; Rican, Stephane; de Matos, Vanderlei Pascoal; Barcellos, Christovam

    2015-05-27

    Over the last few decades, the occupation of the Amazon and the expansion of large-scale economic activities have exerted a significant negative impact on the Amazonian environment and on the health of the Amazon's inhabitants. These processes have altered the context of the manifestation of health problems in time and space and changed the characteristics of the spatial diffusion of health problems in the region. This study analyzed the relationships between the various economic processes of territorial occupation in the Amazon and the spatial diffusion of homicidal violence through the configuration of networks of production, as well as the movements of population and merchandise. Statistical data on violence, deforestation, the production of agricultural items, and socio-economic variables, georeferenced and available for the 771 municipalities of the Legal Amazon were used in this study. The results suggest that the diffusion of violence closely follows the economic expansion front, which is related to deforestation and livestock production but has little relation to grain production, demonstrating steps and typologies of recent occupation in the Amazon that promote violence. These spatial patterns reveal environmental and socio-economic macro-determinants that materialize in geographic space through the construction of highways and the formation of city networks.

  8. Modeling River Hydrologic Regime and Spawning of Migratory Catfishes in Southeastern Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canas, C. M.; Waylen, P. R.

    2008-05-01

    Seasonal hydrologic conditions and catfish larvae production were evaluated in the Madre de Dios River in order to determine whether environmental conditions influence the reproductive activity of a group of large, commercially important catfishes, in the Southeastern Peruvian Amazon. A simple stochastic model of floods is presented to describe the influence of the natural high flow regime on observed patterns of catfish larvae release and drifting. Daily river stage records at Puerto Maldonado are related to weekly larval catches to determine the association between flood and spawning events. On the basis of hydroclimatologic characteristics of Andean- Amazon regions, available long-term historical rainfall records are employed to approximate the likely inter- annual variability of floods within this Amazon headwater basin. Major larval drift appeared associated with stages of over the 5 m, or "Biologic Hydrologic Significant Events" (BSE), which act as triggers, or a reasonable surrogates, for spawning responses of these species. The timing of BSEs, estimated from the historical rainfall records, appear to be uniformly distributed during the rain season and their inter-arrival times exponential. These observations provided the basis of the stochastic model describing the likelihood of volumes of larvae releases from the headwater region to lowland Amazon. The ecologically significant role of the hydroclimatology of this region in the complete life cycle of this important Amazon fish resource is illustrated.

  9. Revisiting the hierarchy of urban areas in the Brazilian Amazon: a multilevel approach

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sandra; Brondízio, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The Legal Brazilian Amazon, while the largest rainforest in the world, is also a region where most residents are urban. Despite close linkages between rural and urban processes in the region, rural areas have been the predominant focus of Amazon-based population-environment scholarship. Offering a focus on urban areas within the Brazilian Amazon, this paper examines the emergence of urban hierarchies within the region. Using a combination of nationally representative data and community based surveys, applied to a multivariate cluster methodology (Grade of Membership), we observe the emergence of sub-regional urban networks characterized by economic and political inter-dependency, population movement, and provision of services. These networks link rural areas, small towns, and medium and large cities. We also identify the emergence of medium-size cities as important nodes at a sub-regional level. In all, the work provides insight on the proposed model of ‘disarticulated urbanization’ within the Amazon by calling attention to the increasing role of regional and sub-regional urban networks in shaping the future expansion of land use and population distribution in the Amazon. We conclude with a discussion of implications for increasing intra-regional connectivity and fragmentation of conservation areas and ecosystems in the region. PMID:23129877

  10. Deforestation, fire susceptibility, and potential tree responses to fire in the eastern Amazon

    SciTech Connect

    Uhl, C. Agropecuria do Tropico Umnido, Para ); Kauffman, J.B. )

    1990-04-01

    In the state of Para, Brazil, in the eastern Amazon, the authors studied the potential for sustained fire events within four dominant vegetation cover types (undisturbed rain forest, selectively logged forest, second-growth forest, and open pasture), by measuring fuel availability, microclimate, and rates of fuel moisture loss. They also estimated the potential tree mortality that might result from a wide-scale Amazon forest fire by measuring the thermal properties of bark for all trees in a 5-ha stand of mature forest, followed by measurements of heat flux through bark during simulated fires. In pastures the average midday temperature was almost 10{degree}C greater and the average midday relative humidity was 30% lower than in primary forest. The most five-prone ecosystem was the open pasture followed by selectively logged forest, second growth forest, and undisturbed rain forest in which sustained combustion was not possible even after prolonged rainless periods. Even though the autogenic factors in primary forest of the eastern Amazon create a microclimate that virtually eliminates the probability of fire, they are currently a common event in disturbed areas of Amazonia. As many as 8 {times} 10{sup 6} ha burned in the Amazon Basin of Brazil in 1987 alone. In terms of current land-use patterns, altered microclimates, and fuel mass, there are also striking similarities between the eastern Amazon and East Kalimantan, Indonesia (the site of recent rain forest wildfires that burned 3.5 {times} 10{sup 6} ha).

  11. Risks of endemicity, morbidity and perspectives regarding the control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region.

    PubMed

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela Cv

    2012-03-01

    Chagas disease, in the Amazon Region as elsewhere, can be considered an enzootic disease of wild animals or an anthropozoonosis, an accidental disease of humans that is acquired when humans penetrate a wild ecosystem or when wild triatomines invade human dwellings attracted by light or searching for human blood. The risk of endemic Chagas disease in the Amazon Region is associated with the following phenomena: (i) extensive deforestation associated with the displacement of wild mammals, which are the normal sources of blood for triatomines, (ii) adaptation of wild triatomines to human dwellings due to the need for a new source of blood for feeding and (iii) uncontrolled migration of human populations and domestic animals that are already infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from areas endemic for Chagas disease to the Amazon Region. Several outbreaks of severe acute cases of Chagas disease, as well as chronic cases, have been described in the Amazon Region. Control measures targeted to avoiding endemic Chagas disease in the Amazon Region should be the following: improving health education in communities, training public health officials and communities for vector and Chagas disease surveillance and training local physicians to recognise and treat acute and chronic cases of Chagas diseases as soon as possible.

  12. Using optical and microwave data from AQUA to study the Amazon rainforests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemani, R. R.; Samanta, A.; Jones, M.; Ganguly, S.; Wang, W.; Hashimoto, H.; Kimball, J. S.; Myneni, R.

    2011-12-01

    Amazon rainforests play a dominant role in the global climate system by exerting a strong control on the exchanges of carbon, water and the energy. A comprehensive understanding of the seasonal and interannual dynamics of these forests, however, is still lacking. While field measurements have contributed greatly to our understanding of Amazon forests, they represent a small fraction of Amazonia. Satellite data, representing near daily synoptic views of these forests, are probably one of the best ways to study them. Current efforts at using optical satellite data in the Amazon have generated significant interest as well as controversy. Persistent cloud cover during the wet season and aerosols during the dry season have made the use of optical satellite data rather difficult. AQUA, with sensors collecting information in both optical and microwave wavelengths, provides a unique opportunity to address some of the long-standing issues in applying remotely sensed data in the Amazon. We will discuss the differences and similarities among optical, microwave products and ecosystem model results for representing seasonal and inter-annual variability of Amazon forests. Using products such as the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Leaf Area Index (LAI) from MODIS, and Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD) from AMSR-E, we will demonstrate the unique capabilities that AQUA brings for studying tropical rainforests.

  13. Monitoring the spreading of the Amazon freshwater plume by MODIS, SMOS, Aquarius, and TOPAZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korosov, Anton; Counillon, François; Johannessen, Johnny A.

    2015-01-01

    synergistic tool for studying the Amazon River plume dynamics based on a novel algorithm for deriving sea surface salinity (SSS) from MODIS reflectance data together with SSS data from the SMOS and Aquarius satellites and the TOPAZ data assimilation system is proposed. The new algorithm is based on a neural network to relate spectral remote sensing reflectance measured by MODIS with SSS measured by SMOS in the Amazon River plume. The algorithm is validated against independent in situ data and is found to be valid in the range of SSS from 29 to 35 psu, for the period of highest rates of Amazon River discharge with RMSE = 0.79 psu and r2 = 0.84. Monthly SSS fields were reconstructed from the MODIS data for late summers from 2002 to 2012 at a 10 km resolution and compared to surface currents and SSS derived from the TOPAZ reanalysis system. The two data sets reveal striking agreement, suggesting that the TOPAZ system could be used for a detailed study of the Amazon River plume dynamics. Both the position and speed of the North Brazilian Current as well as the spreading of the Amazon River plume are monitored. In particular, a recurrent mechanism was observed for the spreading of the rivers plumes, notably that the fresh water is usually advected toward the Caribbean Sea by the North Brazilian Current but get diverted into the tropical Atlantic when North Brazilian Current Rings are shed.

  14. Surveying the area of deforestation of the Amazon by LANDSAT satellite imagery. [Mato grosso, Goias and Para, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Tardin, A. T.; Dossantos, A. P.; Lee, D. C. L.; Soaresmaia, F. C.; Mendonca, F. J.; Assuncao, G. V.; Rodrigues, J. E.; Demouraabdon, M.; Novaes, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    LANDSAT imagery was used to determine the amount of deforestation in a study area comprising 55 million hectares of the Amazon region. Results show that more than 4 million hectares were deforested. Maps and pictures of the deforested area in relation to the total area of the Amazon are included.

  15. Fertilizing the Amazon and equatorial Atlantic with West African dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, Charlie S.; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A.; Chappell, Adrian

    2010-07-01

    Atmospheric mineral dust plays a vital role in Earth's climate and biogeochemical cycles. The Bodélé Depression in Chad has been identified as the single biggest source of atmospheric mineral dust on Earth. Dust eroded from the Bodélé is blown across the Atlantic Ocean towards South America. The mineral dust contains micronutrients such as Fe and P that have the potential to act as a fertilizer, increasing primary productivity in the Amazon rain forest as well as the equatorial Atlantic Ocean, and thus leading to N2 fixation and CO2 drawdown. We present the results of chemical analysis of 28 dust samples collected from the source area, which indicate that up to 6.5 Tg of Fe and 0.12 Tg of P are exported from the Bodélé Depression every year. This suggests that the Bodélé may be a more significant micronutrient supplier than previously proposed.

  16. Nitrogen mass balance in the Brazilian Amazon: an update.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, L A; Pinto, A S; Nardoto, G B; Ometto, J P H B; Filoso, S; Coletta, L D; Ravagnani, E C

    2012-08-01

    The main purpose of this study is to perform a nitrogen budget survey for the entire Brazilian Amazon region. The main inputs of nitrogen to the region are biological nitrogen fixation occurring in tropical forests (7.7 Tg.yr(-1)), and biological nitrogen fixation in agricultural lands mainly due to the cultivation of a large area with soybean, which is an important nitrogen-fixing crop (1.68 Tg.yr(-1)). The input due to the use of N fertilizers (0.48 Tg.yr(-1)) is still incipient compared to the other two inputs mentioned above. The major output flux is the riverine flux, equal to 2.80 Tg.yr(-1) and export related to foodstuff, mainly the transport of soybean and beef to other parts of the country. The continuous population growth and high rate of urbanization may pose new threats to the nitrogen cycle of the region through the burning of fossil fuel and dumping of raw domestic sewage in rivers and streams of the region.

  17. Biomass Change of the Landless Peasants' Settlements in Lower Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Ishimaru, K.

    2014-12-01

    Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes have been reported to occur over large areas in Legal Amazon due to the introduction of large-scale mechanized agriculture, extensive cattle ranching and uncontrolled slash-and-burn cultivation since the 1980s. Around the same time, movements which poor peoples or landless peasants settle into abandoned land have been very active in Brazil. In many cases, these people lack agricultural experiences to yield sufficient production for livelihoods. Thus, it leads to abandon the land and repeat forest clearance. In recent year, education by NGOs to these people encourage spreading of agroforestry which is a land use management system in which trees are grown around or among crops or pasture land. In this study, we specifically aimed at clarifying changes in LULC and these biomass using ground observation data, remotely-sensed LANDSAT data and GIS techniques. We focus on four different settlements: old-established settlement (around 30 years), established settlement (around 20 years), productive settlement (7 year) and unproductive settlement (7 years). These four settelements were located at Santa Barbará province, about 40 km northeast from the center of Belém, the Pará state capital, in the northern part of Brazil. We clarify that the biomass change varied according to whether the settlement are productive or not.

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Aluminum in Clay from the Colombian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Londono, S Carolina; Hartnett, Hilairy E; Williams, Lynda B

    2017-02-21

    The problems of antibiotic overuse compel us to seek alternative antibacterial agents. Some clays have been shown to kill antibiotic-resistant human pathogens and may provide an alternative to known antibiotics. Here we show that Al toxicity plays a central role in the antibacterial action of a kaolin-rich clay from the Colombian Amazon (AMZ). Antibacterial susceptibility testing shows minimum inhibitory concentrations of 80 mg/mL against a model Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922). The clay buffered the media pH to ∼4.6 and Eh values to +360 mV. Chemical analysis of AMZ and bacteria showed that Al, P, and transition metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn) were exchanged during incubation at 37 °C. Only Al derived from the clay exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentrations for E. coli under acidic conditions. Ion imaging showed elevated Al levels in the bacterial membrane, and high intracellular Fe levels, relative to those of untreated controls. Phosphorus depletion in E. coli after reaction with AMZ, together with evidence of membrane permeabilization, suggests that Al reacts with membrane phospholipids, enhancing intracellular transport of metals. These results highlight the importance of dissolved Al for amplifying the toxicity of transition metals to human pathogens.

  19. Landslides Are Common In The Amazon Rainforests Of SE Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanal, S. P.; Muttiah, R. S.; Janovec, J. P.

    2005-12-01

    The recent landslides in La Conchita, California, Mumbai, India, Ratnapura, Sri Lanka and Sugozu village, Turkey have dramatically illustrated prolonged rainfall on water induced change in soil shear stress. In these examples, the human footprint may have also erased or altered the natural river drainage from small to large scales. By studying patterns of landslides in natural ecosystems, government officials, policy makers, engineers, geologists and others may be better informed about likely success of prevention or amelioration programs in risk prone areas. Our study area in the Los Amigos basin in Amazon rainforests of Southeastern Peru, has recorded several hundred landslides. The area has no large human settlements. The basin is characterized by heavy rainfall, dense vegetation, river meander and uniform soils. Our objectives were: 1). Determine the spatial pattern of landslides using GIS and Remotely sensed data, 2). Model the statistical relationship between environmental variables and, 3). Evaluate influence of drainage on landscape and soil loss. GIS layers consisted of: 50cm aerial imagery, DEMs, digitized streams, soils, geology, rainfall from the TRMM satellite, and vegetation cover from the LANDSAT and MODIS sensors.

  20. Collecting psycholinguistic response time data using Amazon mechanical Turk.

    PubMed

    Enochson, Kelly; Culbertson, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in linguistics and related fields have recently begun exploiting online crowd-sourcing tools, like Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT), to gather behavioral data. While this method has been successfully validated for various offline measures--grammaticality judgment or other forced-choice tasks--its use for mainstream psycholinguistic research remains limited. This is because psycholinguistic effects are often dependent on relatively small differences in response times, and there remains some doubt as to whether precise timing measurements can be gathered over the web. Here we show that three classic psycholinguistic effects can in fact be replicated using AMT in combination with open-source software for gathering response times client-side. Specifically, we find reliable effects of subject definiteness, filler-gap dependency processing, and agreement attraction in self-paced reading tasks using approximately the same numbers of participants and/or trials as similar laboratory studies. Our results suggest that psycholinguists can and should be taking advantage of AMT and similar online crowd-sourcing marketplaces as a fast, low-resource alternative to traditional laboratory research.

  1. Amazon Forest maintenance as a source of environmental services.

    PubMed

    Fearnside, Philip M

    2008-03-01

    Amazonian forest produces environmental services such as maintenance of biodiversity, water cycling and carbon stocks. These services have a much greater value to human society than do the timber, beef and other products that are obtained by destroying the forest. Yet institutional mechanisms are still lacking to transform the value of the standing forest into the foundation of an economy based on maintaining rather than destroying this ecosystem. Forest management for commodities such as timber and non-timber forest products faces severe limitations and inherent contradictions unless income is supplemented based on environmental services. Amazon forest is threatened by deforestation, logging, forest fires and climate change. Measures to avoid deforestation include repression through command and control, creation of protected areas, and reformulation of infrastructure decisions and development policies. An economy primarily based on the value of environmental services is essential for long-term maintenance of the forest. Much progress has been made in the decades since I first proposed such a transition, but many issues also remain unresolved. These include theoretical issues regarding accounting procedures, improved quantification of the services and of the benefits of different policy options, and effective uses of the funds generated in ways that maintain both the forest and the human population.

  2. Public health impacts of ecosystem change in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Bauch, Simone C.; Birkenbach, Anna M.; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K.; Sills, Erin O.

    2015-01-01

    The claim that nature delivers health benefits rests on a thin empirical evidence base. Even less evidence exists on how specific conservation policies affect multiple health outcomes. We address these gaps in knowledge by combining municipal-level panel data on diseases, public health services, climatic factors, demographics, conservation policies, and other drivers of land-use change in the Brazilian Amazon. To fully exploit this dataset, we estimate random-effects and quantile regression models of disease incidence. We find that malaria, acute respiratory infection (ARI), and diarrhea incidence are significantly and negatively correlated with the area under strict environmental protection. Results vary by disease for other types of protected areas (PAs), roads, and mining. The relationships between diseases and land-use change drivers also vary by quantile of the disease distribution. Conservation scenarios based on estimated regression results suggest that malaria, ARI, and diarrhea incidence would be reduced by expanding strict PAs, and malaria could be further reduced by restricting roads and mining. Although these relationships are complex, we conclude that interventions to preserve natural capital can deliver cobenefits by also increasing human (health) capital. PMID:26082548

  3. Photochemistry of biogenic emissions over the Amazon forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Daniel J.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    1988-01-01

    The boundary layer chemistry over the Amazon forest during the dry season is simulated with a photochemical model. Results are in good agreement with measurements of isoprene, NO, ozone, and organic acids. Photochemical reactions of biogenic isoprene and NOx can supply most of the ozone observed in the boundary layer. Production of ozone is very sensitive to the availability of NOx, but is insensitive to the isoprene source strength. High concentrations of total odd nitrogen (NOy) are predicted for the planetary boundary layer, about 1 ppb in the mixed layer and 0.75 ppb in the convective cloud layer. Most of the odd nitrogen is present as PAN-type species, which are removed by dry deposition to the forest. The observed daytime variations of isoprene are explained by a strong dependence of the isoprene emission flux on sun angle. Nighttime losses of isoprene exceed rates of reaction with NO3 and O3 and appear to reflect dry-deposition processes. The 24-hour averaged isoprene emission flux is calculated to be 38 mg/sq m per day. Photooxidation of isoprene could account for a large fraction of the CO enrichment observed in the boundary layer under unpolluted conditions and could constitute an important atmospheric source of formic acid, methacrylic acid, and pyruvic acid.

  4. The origin of oriented lakes: Evidence from the Bolivian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Umberto; Veit, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The presence of hundreds of rectangular and oriented lakes is one of the most striking characteristics of the Llanos de Moxos (LM) landscape in the Bolivian Amazon. Oriented lakes also occur in the Arctic coastal plains of Russia, Alaska and Canada and along the Atlantic Coastal Plain from northeast Florida to southeast New Jersey and along the coast of northeast Brazil. Many different mechanisms have been proposed for their formation. In the LM, Plafker's (1964) tectonic model, in which subsidence results from the propagation of bedrock faults through the foreland sediments, is the most accepted. However, this model has not been verified. Here, we present new results from stratigraphic transects across the borders of three rectangular and oriented lakes in the LM. A paleosol buried under mid-Holocene sediments is used as a stratigraphic marker to assess the vertical displacement of sediments on both sides of the alleged faults. Our results show that there is no vertical displacement and, therefore, that Plafker's model can be ruled out. We suggest that, among all the proposed mechanisms behind lake formation, the combined action of wind and waves is the most likely. The evidence from the LM provides new hints for the formation of oriented lakes worldwide.

  5. Micrometeorological Conditions at the ATTO - Site in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsokankunku, Anywhere; Sörgel, Matthias; Acevedo, Otávio C.; Araùjo, Alessandro; Berger, Martina; de Abreu Sá, Leonardo D.; de Oliveira Sá, Marta; Dias, Nelson L.; Dlugi, Ralph; Manzi, Antonio O.; Oliveira, Pablo E. S.; Zelger, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The ATTO site is located in a pristine rainforest environment in the Amazon basin about 150 km north east of Manaus. The site is currently equipped with two walk-up towers (325 m and 80 m) and an 80 m high mast. The canopy height is about 35 m. A detailed description of the site and the ongoing measurements is given in the overview paper by Andreae et al. (2015). The 325 m tower was completed in 2015 and will be equipped in 2016. The 80 m walk-up tower is operational since 2012 with a full set of micrometeorological measurements (e.g. wind and temperature profile, radiation, and a few levels for flux measurements). Measurements of vertical profiles of wind velocity components, temperature, humidity, and energy fluxes, together with 3d sonic anemometer measurements at 150 m on the ATTO tower, are analysed to determine characteristics of momentum, heat and water vapour exchange. In addition, the day time influences of secondary circulation on energy fluxes is described, together with the interaction of these circulations with cloud development. The diurnal cycle of stability and the onset and development of convection is shown to be strongly dependent on the onset of cloud formation. Implications on trace gas transport are discussed.

  6. Assessing Model Treatment of Drought Legacy Effects in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolus, H. R.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Schwalm, C.; Fisher, J. B.; Cook, R. B.; Fang, Y.; Jacobson, A. R.; Michalak, A.; Schaefer, K. M.; Wei, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme climate events play an important and potentially lasting role in terrestrial carbon cycling and storage. In particular, satellite and in-situ measurements have shown that forest recovery time following severe drought can extend several years beyond the return to normal climate conditions. However, terrestrial ecosystem models generally do not account for the physiological mechanisms that cause these legacy effects and, instead, assume complete and rapid vegetation recovery from drought. Using a suite of fifteen land surface models from the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP), we assess models' ability to capture legacy effects by analyzing the spatial and temporal extent of modeled vegetation response to the 2005 Amazon drought. We compare the simulated primary production and ecosystem exchange (GPP, NPP, NEE) to previous recovery-focused analysis of satellite microwave observations of canopy backscatter. Further, we evaluate the specific model characteristics that control the timescale and magnitude of simulated vegetation recovery from drought. Since climate change is expected to increase the frequency and severity of extreme climate events, improving models' ability to simulate the legacy effects of these events will likely refine estimates of the land carbon sink and its interannual variability.

  7. Drought impacts on the Amazon forest: the remote sensing perspective.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Alencar, Ane

    2010-08-01

    Drought varies spatially and temporally throughout the Amazon basin, challenging efforts to assess ecological impacts via field measurements alone. Remote sensing offers a range of regional insights into drought-mediated changes in cloud cover and rainfall, canopy physiology, and fire. Here, we summarize remote sensing studies of Amazônia which indicate that: fires and burn scars are more common during drought years; hydrological function including floodplain area is significantly affected by drought; and land use affects the sensitivity of the forest to dry conditions and increases fire susceptibility during drought. We highlight two controversial areas of research centering on canopy physiological responses to drought and changes in subcanopy fires during drought. By comparing findings from field and satellite studies, we contend that current remote sensing observations and techniques cannot resolve these controversies using current satellite observations. We conclude that studies integrating multiple lines of evidence from physiological, disturbance-fire, and hydrological remote sensing, as well as field measurements, are critically needed to narrow our uncertainty of basin-level responses to drought and climate change.

  8. Retrobulbar adenocarcinoma in an Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis).

    PubMed

    Watson, Victoria E; Murdock, Jessica H; Cazzini, Paola; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Divers, Stephen J; Sakamoto, Kaori

    2013-03-01

    Retrobulbar neoplasms are not common in mammals and are even more infrequently seen in nonmammalian species. The current report describes a retrobulbar mass creating exophthalmia and neurologic signs in a red-lored Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis). A 27-year-old female parrot presented for a 3-day history of anorexia and a 2-week history of periocular soft tissue swelling and exophthalmia of the right eye. Physical examination revealed 9% dehydration and right eye exophthalmia with inability to retropulse the globe. A fine-needle aspirate was performed, and cytologic evaluation revealed necrotic debris with scattered clusters of epithelial cells, moderate numbers of macrophages, and few heterophils. Given the possibility of neoplasia and paucity of treatment options, the owners elected euthanasia and submitted the body for necropsy. A large, fluctuant, friable, red, retrobulbar mass with multiple areas of hemorrhage, on cut surface, was noted at necropsy. Histologically, the mass was composed of neoplastic, cuboidal to columnar epithelial cells, forming rosette-like glandular structures, admixed with abundant necrotic debris. The neoplastic cells were strongly positive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) by immunohistochemistry. Based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry, the mass was diagnosed as an adenocarcinoma.

  9. Sediment transport and sedimentation along the Amazon floodplain

    SciTech Connect

    Dunne, T.; Mertes, A.K.L.; Meade, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    As the Amazon River leaves the Andean foothills and crosses the structural trough in its Brazilian segment, it receives a large increment of discharge, but a small increase in sediment load from the bounding cratons. The gradient of the river declines gradually from Iquitos, Peru, downstream to Coari, Brazil, before increasing downstream to the vicinity of Manaus as the river crosses a structural arch. Between Manaus and Obidos, the river slope declines sharply. The interplay of the variable gradient and increasing discharge creates a pattern of boundary shear stress and sediment transport which the authors have defined by measurement and calculation. The downstream divergence of suspended and bed load transport is responsible for the patterns of aggradation, channel behavior and floodplain morphology. Aggradation has been computed on the basis of three years of sediment transport measurements; floodplain morphology was documented from radar photography and navigation charts; and channel migration from these charts and from aerial and satellite photography. In the reach between the Peruvian border and Coari, the river deposits sand bars within and alongside the channel and shifts laterally at a relatively rapid rate, forming a scroll-bar floodplain topography with long, narrow lakes. In the middle, steeper reach no net aggradation was measured, sand-bar development and channel shifting are limited. Below Manaus, the rapid decline in gradient and the large influx of Andean sediment from the Rio Madeira result in deposition of almost the entire sand load and a portion of the silt.

  10. Unofficial Road Building in the Amazon: Socioeconomic and Biophysical Explanations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Arima, Eugenio; Walker, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Roads have manifold social and environmental impacts, including regional development, social conflicts and habitat fragmentation. 'Road ecology' has emerged as an approach to evaluate the various ecological and hydrological impacts of roads. This article aims to complement road ecology by examining the socio-spatial processes of road building itself. Focusing on the Brazilian Amazon, a heavily-studied context due to forest fragmentation by roads, the authors consider non-state social actors who build 'unofficial roads' for the purpose of gaining access to natural resources to support livelihoods and community development. They examine four case studies of roads with distinct histories in order to explain the socio-spatial processes behind road building in terms of profit maximization, land tenure claims, co-operative and conflictive political ecologies, and constraints as well as opportunities afforded by the biophysical environment. The study cases illustrate the need for a multi-pronged theoretical approach to understanding road building, and call for more attention to the role of non-state actors in unofficial road construction.

  11. Collecting Response Times using Amazon Mechanical Turk and Adobe Flash

    PubMed Central

    Simcox, Travis; Fiez, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    Crowdsourcing systems like Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) allow data to be collected from a large sample of people in a short amount of time. This use has garnered considerable interest from behavioral scientists. So far, most experiments conducted on AMT have focused on survey-type instruments because of difficulties inherent in running many experimental paradigms over the Internet. This article investigated the viability of presenting stimuli and collecting response times using Adobe Flash to run ActionScript 3 code in conjunction with AMT. First, the timing properties of Adobe Flash were investigated using a phototransistor and two desktop computers running under several conditions mimicking those that may be present in research using AMT. This experiment revealed some strengths and weaknesses of the timing capabilities of this method. Next, a flanker task and a lexical decision task implemented in Adobe Flash were administered to participants recruited with AMT. The expected effects in these tasks were replicated. Power analyses were conducted to describe the number of participants needed to replicate these effects. A questionnaire was used to investigate previously undescribed computer use habits of 100 participants on AMT. We conclude that a Flash program in conjunction with AMT can be successfully used for running many experimental paradigms that rely on response times, although experimenters must understand the limitations of the method. PMID:23670340

  12. Collecting Psycholinguistic Response Time Data Using Amazon Mechanical Turk

    PubMed Central

    Enochson, Kelly; Culbertson, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in linguistics and related fields have recently begun exploiting online crowd-sourcing tools, like Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT), to gather behavioral data. While this method has been successfully validated for various offline measures—grammaticality judgment or other forced-choice tasks—its use for mainstream psycholinguistic research remains limited. This is because psycholinguistic effects are often dependent on relatively small differences in response times, and there remains some doubt as to whether precise timing measurements can be gathered over the web. Here we show that three classic psycholinguistic effects can in fact be replicated using AMT in combination with open-source software for gathering response times client-side. Specifically, we find reliable effects of subject definiteness, filler-gap dependency processing, and agreement attraction in self-paced reading tasks using approximately the same numbers of participants and/or trials as similar laboratory studies. Our results suggest that psycholinguists can and should be taking advantage of AMT and similar online crowd-sourcing marketplaces as a fast, low-resource alternative to traditional laboratory research. PMID:25822348

  13. Large seasonal swings in leaf area of Amazon rainforests.

    PubMed

    Myneni, Ranga B; Yang, Wenze; Nemani, Ramakrishna R; Huete, Alfredo R; Dickinson, Robert E; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Didan, Kamel; Fu, Rong; Negrón Juárez, Robinson I; Saatchi, Sasan S; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Ichii, Kazuhito; Shabanov, Nikolay V; Tan, Bin; Ratana, Piyachat; Privette, Jeffrey L; Morisette, Jeffrey T; Vermote, Eric F; Roy, David P; Wolfe, Robert E; Friedl, Mark A; Running, Steven W; Votava, Petr; El-Saleous, Nazmi; Devadiga, Sadashiva; Su, Yin; Salomonson, Vincent V

    2007-03-20

    Despite early speculation to the contrary, all tropical forests studied to date display seasonal variations in the presence of new leaves, flowers, and fruits. Past studies were focused on the timing of phenological events and their cues but not on the accompanying changes in leaf area that regulate vegetation-atmosphere exchanges of energy, momentum, and mass. Here we report, from analysis of 5 years of recent satellite data, seasonal swings in green leaf area of approximately 25% in a majority of the Amazon rainforests. This seasonal cycle is timed to the seasonality of solar radiation in a manner that is suggestive of anticipatory and opportunistic patterns of net leaf flushing during the early to mid part of the light-rich dry season and net leaf abscission during the cloudy wet season. These seasonal swings in leaf area may be critical to initiation of the transition from dry to wet season, seasonal carbon balance between photosynthetic gains and respiratory losses, and litterfall nutrient cycling in moist tropical forests.

  14. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) From the Northwestern Brazilian Amazon: Padauari River.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, R S G; Hutchings, R W; Menezes, I S; Motta, M de A; Sallum, M A M

    2016-11-01

    The mosquito fauna (Culicidae) from remote northern areas of the State of Amazonas were sampled using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Shannon, Malaise, and Suspended traps, together with net sweeping and immature collections. One hundred and seven collections were performed in five localities along the Padauari River, State of Amazonas, Brazil, during June 2010. The 20,557 mosquitoes collected are distributed in 17 genera, representing 117 different species, of which four are new distributional records for the State of Amazonas. Furthermore, there are 10 morphospecies that may represent undescribed new taxa, eight of which are also new records for the State of Amazonas. The genus Culex had the highest number of species and the largest number of individuals. Aedes and Psorophora both represented 10% of the total sample and had the second highest number of species and individuals. The most abundant species was Culex (Melanoconion) gnomatos Sallum, Hutchings & Ferreira, followed by Aedes (Ochlerotatus) fulvus (Wiedemann), Culex (Melanoconion) vaxus Dyar, Culex (Melanoconion) portesi Senevet & Abonnenc, Psorophora (Janthinosoma) amazonica Cerqueira, Culex (Culex) mollis Dyar & Knab, Psorophora (Janthinosoma) albigenu (Peryassú), and Culex (Melanoconion) theobaldi Lutz. The epidemiological and ecological implications of mosquito species found are discussed and are compared with other mosquito inventories from the Amazon region. The results represent the most diverse standardized inventory of mosquitoes along the Padauari River, with the identification of 127 species-level taxa distributed in five localities, within two municipalities (Barcelos and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro).

  15. Isolation of fungi from bats of the Amazon basin.

    PubMed Central

    Mok, W Y; Luizão, R C; Barreto da Silva, M do S

    1982-01-01

    A total of 2,886 bats captured in the Amazon Basin of Brazil were processed for the isolation of fungi. From the livers, spleens, and lungs of 155 bats (5.4%), 186 fungal isolates of the genera Candida (123 isolates), Trichosporon (26 isolates), Torulopsis (25 isolates), Kluyveromyces (11 isolates), and Geotrichum (1 isolate) were recovered. Seven known pathogenic species were present: Candida parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, C. albicans, C. stellatoidea, C. pseudotropicalis, Trichosporon beigelii, and Torulopsis glabrata. Twenty-three culture-positive bats showed identical fungal colonization in multiple organs or mixed colonization in a single organ. The fungal isolation rates for individual bat species varied from 1 fungus per 87 bats to 3 fungi per 13 bats, and the mycoflora diversity for members of an individual fungus-bearing bat species varied from 16 fungi per 40 bats to 7 fungi per 6 bats. Of the 38 fungal species isolated, 36 had not been previously described as in vivo bat isolates. Of the 27 culture-positive bat species, 21 had not been previously described as mammalian hosts for medically or nonmedically important fungi. PMID:6890326

  16. Naming and Shaming for Conservation: Evidence from the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Cisneros, Elías; Zhou, Sophie Lian; Börner, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon has dropped substantially after a peak of over 27 thousand square kilometers in 2004. Starting in 2008, the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment has regularly published blacklists of critical districts with high annual forest loss. Farms in blacklisted districts face additional administrative hurdles to obtain authorization for clearing forests. In this paper we add to the existing literature on evaluating the Brazilian anti-deforestation policies by specifically quantifying the impact of blacklisting on deforestation. We first use spatial matching techniques using a set of covariates that includes official blacklisting criteria to identify control districts. We then explore the effect of blacklisting on change in deforestation in double difference regressions with panel data covering the period from 2002 to 2012. Multiple robustness checks are conducted including an analysis of potential causal mechanisms behind the success of the blacklist. We find that the blacklist has considerably reduced deforestation in the affected districts even after controlling for the potential mechanism effects of field-based enforcement, environmental registration campaigns, and rural credit. PMID:26398096

  17. Lead exposure in indigenous communities of the Amazon basin, Peru.

    PubMed

    Anticona, Cynthia; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Lundh, Thomas; Alegre, Yuri; Sebastian, Miguel San

    2011-12-01

    Since 2006, three studies have reported elevated levels of lead (Pb) among the indigenous population of the Corrientes river, in the Amazon basin of Peru. Due to the large evidence of environmental pollution related to oil exploitation in the area, this activity has been suggested as the source of exposure. This study aimed to evaluate Pb levels in the population and environment of two communities exposed and one community non-exposed to the oil exploitation activity. Blood lead levels (BLL) were determined by the instrument Leadcare. A comparison with the graphite furnace atomic absorption technique was performed in order to validate the Leadcare results. Environmental samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Among 361 capillary samples, the mean BLL was 9.4 μg/dl. Mean BLL of the communities exposed (n=171, x¯=9.5 μg/dl) and non-exposed (n=190, x¯=9.2 μg/dl) to the oil activity were not significantly different. Pb levels in environmental samples were below the maximum permissible levels. The sources of exposure could not be identified. Elevated levels of Pb in the oil-non-exposed community pointed out at other sources not yet clarified.

  18. Sun Protection Belief Clusters: Analysis of Amazon Mechanical Turk Data.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Rivas, Marimer; Schnur, Julie B; Jandorf, Lina

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed (i) to determine whether people could be differentiated on the basis of their sun protection belief profiles and individual characteristics and (ii) explore the use of a crowdsourcing web service for the assessment of sun protection beliefs. A sample of 500 adults completed an online survey of sun protection belief items using Amazon Mechanical Turk. A two-phased cluster analysis (i.e., hierarchical and non-hierarchical K-means) was utilized to determine clusters of sun protection barriers and facilitators. Results yielded three distinct clusters of sun protection barriers and three distinct clusters of sun protection facilitators. Significant associations between gender, age, sun sensitivity, and cluster membership were identified. Results also showed an association between barrier and facilitator cluster membership. The results of this study provided a potential alternative approach to developing future sun protection promotion initiatives in the population. Findings add to our knowledge regarding individuals who support, oppose, or are ambivalent toward sun protection and inform intervention research by identifying distinct subtypes that may best benefit from (or have a higher need for) skin cancer prevention efforts.

  19. Turbulent transport observed just above the Amazon forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzjarrald, David R.; Stormwind, Brian L.; Fisch, Gilberto; Cabral, Osvaldo M. R.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of turbulent heat, moisture, and momentum transport made at two levels, approximately 5 and 10 m above the Amazon rain forest canopy, are presented. Data acquired at 10 Hz included variances and some mixed third moments of vertical velocity, temperature, and humidity. Two features of the data appear to question the displacement height hypothesis: (1) the characteristic dissipation length scale in the near-canopy layer varied between 20 m in stable conditions to approximately 150 m during afternoon convective conditions, generally larger scales than would be expected, and (2) no appreciable differences in dissipation scales was seen at two observed levels. Heat budgets on selected days show that frequent periods with negative heat flux concurrent with continuing positive moisture flux occur in early afternoon, and this is believed to indicate the patchy nature of canopy-atmosphere coupling. Vertical velocity skewness was observed to be negative on three successive days and exhibited a sharp positive gradient. Time series of some of the terms in the turbulence budgets of vertical velocity variance and kinematic heat flux are presented.

  20. Rings dominate western Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal L., Francisco V.; Vidal L., Victor M. V.; Molero, José María Pérez

    Surface and deep circulation of the central and western Gulf of Mexico is controlled by interactions of rings of water pinched from the gulf's Loop Current. The discovery was made by Mexican oceanographers who are preparing a full-color, 8-volume oceanographic atlas of the gulf.Anticyclonic warm-core rings pinch off the Loop Current at a rate of about one to two per year, the scientists of the Grupo de Estudios Oceanográficos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas (GEO-IIE) found. The rings migrate west until they collide with the continental shelf break of the western gulf, almost always between 22° and 23°N latitude. On their westward travel they transfer angular momentum and vorticity to the surrounding water, generating cyclonic circulations and vortex pairs that completely dominate the entire surface and deep circulation of the central and western gulf.

  1. Western Aeronautical Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of the Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR). NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). Maps show the general location of the WATR area that is used for aeronautical testing and evaluation. The products, services and facilities of WATR are discussed,

  2. Changes in the Carbon Cycle of Amazon Ecosystems During the 2010 Drought

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Christophera; Klooster, Steven; Hiatt, Cyrus; Genovese, Vanessa; Castilla-Rubino, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing was combined with the NASA-CASA carbon cycle simulation model to evaluate the impact of the 2010 drought (July through September) throughout tropical South America. Results indicated that net primary production (NPP) in Amazon forest areas declined by an average of 7% in 2010 compared to 2008. This represented a loss of vegetation CO2 uptake and potential Amazon rainforest growth of nearly 0.5 Pg C in 2010. The largest overall decline in ecosystem carbon gains by land cover type was predicted for closed broadleaf forest areas of the Amazon River basin, including a large fraction of regularly flooded forest areas. Model results support the hypothesis that soil and dead wood carbon decomposition fluxes of CO2 to the atmosphere were elevated during the drought period of 2010 in periodically flooded forest areas, compared to forests outside the main river floodplains.

  3. The Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2A) - Dry season 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harriss, R. C.; Browell, E. V.; Hoell, J. M., Jr.; Bendura, R. J.; Beck, S. M.; Wofsy, S. C.; Mcneal, R. J.; Navarro, R. L.; Riley, J. T.; Snell, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    The Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2A) used data from aircraft, ground-based, and satellite platforms to characterize the chemistry and dynamics of the lower atmosphere over the Amazon Basin during the early-to-middle dry season, July and August 1985. This paper reports the conceptual framework and experimental approach used in ABLE 2A and serves as an introduction to the detailed papers which follow in this issue. The results of ABLE 2A demonstrate that isoprene, methane, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, dimethylsulfide, and organic aerosol emissions from soils and vegetation play a major role in determining the chemical composition of the atmospheric mixed layer over undisturbed forest and wetland environments. As the dry season progresses, emissions from both local and distant biomass burning become an important source of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and ozone in the atmosphere over the central Amazon Basin.

  4. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Rainfall in Eastern Amazon during the Rainy Season

    PubMed Central

    Batista da Silva Ferreira, Douglas; Barreiros de Souza, Everaldo; Cavalcanti de Moraes, Bergson; Meira Filho, Luiz Gylvan

    2015-01-01

    Empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) and composites analysis were employed on pentad data in order to investigate the tropical atmospheric-ocean patterns over the Atlantic Ocean and the spatial-temporal characteristics of the rainfall in eastern Amazon during the peak of the rainy season (February to April). The EOF results evidenced that the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the main rainfall-producing system in eastern Amazon during the rainy season. Conditions associated with the southward SST gradient in the intertropical Atlantic formed the dynamic patterns that favored the position of the ITCZ to south of the equator, thus explaining the predominance of positive precipitation anomalies in eastern Amazon, especially in the state of Maranhão and northeastern Pará during the February and April months. PMID:25793218

  5. Spectral tuning of Amazon parrot feather coloration by psittacofulvin pigments and spongy structures.

    PubMed

    Tinbergen, Jan; Wilts, Bodo D; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2013-12-01

    The feathers of Amazon parrots are brightly coloured. They contain a unique class of pigments, the psittacofulvins, deposited in both barbs and barbules, causing yellow or red coloured feathers. In specific feather areas, spongy nanostructured barb cells exist, reflecting either in the blue or blue-green wavelength range. The blue-green spongy structures are partly enveloped by a blue-absorbing, yellow-colouring pigment acting as a spectral filter, thus yielding a green coloured barb. Applying reflection and transmission spectroscopy, we characterized the Amazons' pigments and spongy structures, and investigated how they contribute to the feather coloration. The reflectance spectra of Amazon feathers are presumably tuned to the sensitivity spectra of the visual photoreceptors.

  6. Mycotoxins and cyanogenic glycosides in staple foods of three indigenous people of the Colombian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Gonzalo J; Krska, Rudolf; Sulyok, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the incidence and levels of mycotoxins in the main staple foods of three indigenous people of the Colombian Amazon. A total of 20 corn, 24 rice and 59 cassava samples were analysed by a multi-analyte liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method covering the major classes of mycotoxins. In addition, cassava samples were also analysed for cyanogenic glycosides. The indigenous Amazon communities tested are exposed to potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins (particularly aflatoxins), as well as other mycotoxins, mainly through the intake of locally grown corn. Citrinin content in this corn was unusually high and has not been reported elsewhere. Two cassava samples contained high levels of cyanogenic glycosides. It is strongly recommended not to grow corn in the Amazon but instead purchase it from vendors capable of guaranteeing mycotoxin levels below the maximum allowable concentration in Colombia.

  7. A social-ecological database to advance research on infrastructure development impacts in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Tucker Lima, Joanna M; Valle, Denis; Moretto, Evandro Mateus; Pulice, Sergio Mantovani Paiva; Zuca, Nadia Lucia; Roquetti, Daniel Rondinelli; Beduschi, Liviam Elizabeth Cordeiro; Praia, Amanda Salles; Okamoto, Claudia Parucce Franco; da Silva Carvalhaes, Vinicius Leite; Branco, Evandro Albiach; Barbezani, Bruna; Labandera, Emily; Timpe, Kelsie; Kaplan, David

    2016-08-30

    Recognized as one of the world's most vital natural and cultural resources, the Amazon faces a wide variety of threats from natural resource and infrastructure development. Within this context, rigorous scientific study of the region's complex social-ecological system is critical to inform and direct decision-making toward more sustainable environmental and social outcomes. Given the Amazon's tightly linked social and ecological components and the scope of potential development impacts, effective study of this system requires an easily accessible resource that provides a broad and reliable data baseline. This paper brings together multiple datasets from diverse disciplines (including human health, socio-economics, environment, hydrology, and energy) to provide investigators with a variety of baseline data to explore the multiple long-term effects of infrastructure development in the Brazilian Amazon.

  8. Hepatitis A virus in environmental water samples from the Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    De Paula, V S; Diniz-Mendes, L; Villar, L M; Luz, S L B; Silva, L A; Jesus, M S; da Silva, N M V S; Gaspar, A M C

    2007-03-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a significant waterborne human pathogen. Of the global supply of potable water, Brazil retains 13%, of which 75% resides in the Amazon Basin. Although hepatitis A morbidity has declined progressively in Brazil as a whole, it remains high in the Amazon region. We used nested and real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect and quantify the viral load in water samples from the Amazon Basin. Most samples tested positive (92%), with viral loads varying from 60 to 5500 copies /L, depending on sanitary conditions and the degree of flooding. Nested RT-PCR of the VP1-2A region detected HAV RNA in 23% of the samples. In low viral load samples, HAV was detected only with real-time RT-PCR, suggesting that this technique is useful for monitoring HAV contamination. The presence of HAV in water samples constitutes a serious public health problem.

  9. Changes in the carbon cycle of Amazon ecosystems during the 2010 drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Christopher; Klooster, Steven; Hiatt, Cyrus; Genovese, Vanessa; Castilla-Rubio, Juan Carlos

    2011-07-01

    Satellite remote sensing was combined with the NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) carbon cycle simulation model to evaluate the impact of the 2010 drought (July through September) throughout tropical South America. Results indicated that net primary production in Amazon forest areas declined by an average of 7% in 2010 compared to 2008. This represented a loss of vegetation CO2 uptake and potential Amazon rainforest growth of nearly 0.5 Pg C in 2010. The largest overall decline in ecosystem carbon gains by land cover type was predicted for closed broadleaf forest areas of the Amazon river basin, including a large fraction of regularly flooded forest areas. Model results support the hypothesis that soil and dead wood carbon decomposition fluxes of CO2 to the atmosphere were elevated during the drought period of 2010 in periodically flooded forest areas, compared to those for forests outside the main river floodplains.

  10. [Characteristics of malaria epidemics in the municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon, 2010].

    PubMed

    Braz, Rui Moreira; Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen; Tauil, Pedro Luiz

    2013-05-01

    Malaria epidemics occur annually in various municipalities (counties) in the Brazilian Amazon. However, health services do not systematically adopt tools to detect and promptly control these events. This article aimed to characterize malaria epidemics in the Brazilian Amazon Region based on their duration, the Plasmodium species involved, and the population's degree of vulnerability. An automatic malaria incidence monitoring system based on quartiles was assessed for prompt identification of malaria epidemics. In 2010, epidemics were identified in 338 (41.9%) of the counties in the Brazilian Amazon. P. falciparum and P. vivax epidemics were detected, both singly and in combination. Epidemics lasted from 1 to 4 months in 58.3% of the counties, 5 to 8 months in 34.5%, and 9 to 12 months in 17.4%. Systematic monitoring of malaria incidence could contribute to early detection of epidemics and improve the effectiveness of control measures.

  11. Spatial and temporal variability of rainfall in eastern Amazon during the rainy season.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Douglas Batista da Silva; de Souza, Everaldo Barreiros; de Moraes, Bergson Cavalcanti; Meira Filho, Luiz Gylvan

    2015-01-01

    Empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) and composites analysis were employed on pentad data in order to investigate the tropical atmospheric-ocean patterns over the Atlantic Ocean and the spatial-temporal characteristics of the rainfall in eastern Amazon during the peak of the rainy season (February to April). The EOF results evidenced that the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the main rainfall-producing system in eastern Amazon during the rainy season. Conditions associated with the southward SST gradient in the intertropical Atlantic formed the dynamic patterns that favored the position of the ITCZ to south of the equator, thus explaining the predominance of positive precipitation anomalies in eastern Amazon, especially in the state of Maranhão and northeastern Pará during the February and April months.

  12. Amazon Forest Response to Changes in Rainfall Regime: Results from an Individual-Based Dynamic Vegetation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, Marcos

    The Amazon is the largest tropical rainforest in the world, and thus plays a major role on global water, energy, and carbon cycles. However, it is still unknown how the Amazon forest will respond to the ongoing changes in climate, especially droughts, which are expected to become more frequent. To help answering this question, in this thesis I developed and improved the representation of biophysical processes and photosynthesis in the Ecosystem Demography model (ED-2.2), an individual-based land ecosystem model. I also evaluated the model biophysics against multiple data sets for multiple forest and savannah sites in tropical South America. Results of this comparison showed that ED-2.2 is able to represent the radiation and water cycles, but exaggerates heterotrophic respiration seasonality. Also, the model generally predicted correct distribution of biomass across different areas, although it overestimated biomass in subtropical savannahs. To evaluate the forest resilience to droughts, I used ED-2.2 to simulate the plant community dynamics at two sites in Eastern Amazonia, and developed scenarios by resampling observed annual rainfall but increasing the probability of selecting dry years. While the model predicted little response at French Guiana, results at the mid-Eastern Amazonia site indicated substantial biomass loss at modest rainfall reductions. Also, the response to drier climate varied within the plant community, with evergreen, early-successional, and larger trees being the most susceptible. The model also suggests that competition for water during prolonged periods of drought caused the largest impact on larger trees, when insufficient wet season rainfall did not recharge deeper soil layers. Finally, results suggested that a decrease in return period of long-lasting droughts could prevent ecosystem recovery. Using different rainfall datasets, I defined vulnerability based on the change in climate needed to reduce the return period of long droughts. The

  13. Annual Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Amazon Basin between 2000 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Peng; Huang, Chengquan; Saatchi, Sassan S; Hansen, Matthew C; Townshend, John R

    2015-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is considered one of the most cost-effective strategies for mitigating climate change. However, historical deforestation and emission rates-critical inputs for setting reference emission levels for REDD+-are poorly understood. Here we use multi-source, time-series satellite data to quantify carbon emissions from deforestation in the Amazon basin on a year-to-year basis between 2000 and 2010. We first derive annual deforestation indicators by using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Continuous Fields (MODIS VCF) product. MODIS indicators are calibrated by using a large sample of Landsat data to generate accurate deforestation rates, which are subsequently combined with a spatially explicit biomass dataset to calculate committed annual carbon emissions. Across the study area, the average deforestation and associated carbon emissions were estimated to be 1.59 ± 0.25 M ha•yr(-1) and 0.18 ± 0.07 Pg C•yr(-1) respectively, with substantially different trends and inter-annual variability in different regions. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon increased between 2001 and 2004 and declined substantially afterwards, whereas deforestation in the Bolivian Amazon, the Colombian Amazon, and the Peruvian Amazon increased over the study period. The average carbon density of lost forests after 2005 was 130 Mg C•ha(-1), ~11% lower than the average carbon density of remaining forests in year 2010 (144 Mg C•ha(-1)). Moreover, the average carbon density of cleared forests increased at a rate of 7 Mg C•ha(-1)•yr(-1) from 2005 to 2010, suggesting that deforestation has been progressively encroaching into high-biomass lands in the Amazon basin. Spatially explicit, annual deforestation and emission estimates like the ones derived in this study are useful for setting baselines for REDD+ and other emission mitigation programs, and for evaluating the performance of such efforts.

  14. A second hydrocarbon boom threatens the Peruvian Amazon: trends, projections, and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finer, Matt; Orta-Martínez, Martí

    2010-01-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is home to extraordinary biological and cultural diversity, and vast swaths of this mega-diverse region remain largely intact. Recent analysis indicates, however, that the rapid proliferation of oil and gas exploration zones now threatens the region's biodiversity, indigenous peoples, and wilderness areas. To better elucidate this dynamic situation, we analyzed official Peruvian government hydrocarbon information and generated a quantitative analysis of the past, present, and future of oil and gas activities in the Peruvian Amazon. We document an extensive hydrocarbon history for the region—over 104 000 km of seismic lines and 679 exploratory and production wells—highlighted by a major exploration boom in the early 1970s. We show that an unprecedented 48.6% of the Peruvian Amazon has been recently covered by oil and gas concessions, up from just 7.1% in 2003. These oil and gas concessions overlap 17.1% of the Peruvian Amazon protected area system and over half of all titled indigenous lands. Moreover, we found that up to 72% of the Peruvian Amazon has been zoned for hydrocarbon activities (concessions plus technical evaluation agreements and proposed concessions) in the past two years, and over 84% at some point during the past 40 years. We project that the recent rapid proliferation of hydrocarbon zones will lead to a second exploration boom, characterized by over 20 000 km of new seismic testing and construction of over 180 new exploratory wells in remote, intact, and sensitive forest areas. As the Peruvian Amazon oil frontier rapidly expands, we conclude that a rigorous policy debate is urgently needed in order to avoid the major environmental impacts associated with the first exploration boom of the 1970s and to minimize the social conflict that recently led to deadly encounters between indigenous protesters and government forces.

  15. The spatial extent of change in tropical forest ecosystem services in the Amazon delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araujo Barbosa, C. C.; Atkinson, P.; Dearing, J.

    2014-12-01

    Deltas hold major economic potential due their strategic location, close to seas and inland waterways, thereby supporting intense economic activity. The increasing pace of human development activities in coastal deltas over the past five decades has also strained environmental resources and produced extensive economic and sociocultural impacts. The Amazon delta is located in the Amazon Basin, North Brazil, the largest river basin on Earth and also one of the least understood. A considerable segment of the population living in the Amazon delta is directly dependent on the local extraction of natural resources for their livelihood. Areas sparsely inhabited may be exploited with few negative consequences for the environment. However, increasing pressure on ecosystem services is amplified by large fluxes of immigrants from other parts of the country, especially from the semi-arid zone in Northeast Brazil to the lowland forests of the Amazon delta. Here we present partial results from a bigger research project. Therefore, the focus will be on presenting an overview of the current state, and the extent of changes on forest related ecosystem services in the Amazon delta over the last three decades. We aggregated a multitude of datasets, from a variety of sources, for example, from satellite imagery such as the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), the Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and climate datasets at meteorological station level from the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) and social and economic statistics data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and from the Brazilian Institute of Applied Economic Research (IPEA). Through analysis of socioeconomic and satellite earth observation data we were able to produce and present spatially-explicit information with the current state and transition in forest cover and its impacts to forest

  16. A vicious circle of fire, deforestation and climate change: an integrative study for the Amazon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thonicke, K.; Rammig, A.; Gumpenberger, M.; Vohland, K.; Poulter, B.; Cramer, W.

    2009-04-01

    The Amazon rainforest is threatened by deforestation due to wood extraction and agricultural production leading to increasing forest fragmentation and forest degradation. These changes in land surface characteristics and water fluxes are expected to further reduce convective precipitation. Under future climate change the stability of the Amazon rainforest is likely to decrease thus leading to forest dieback (savannization) or forest degradation (secondarization). This puts the Amazon rainforest at risk to reduce the generation of precipitation, to act as a carbon sink and biodiversity hotspot. Fires increased in the past during drought years and in open vegetation thereby further accelerating forest degradation. Deforestation as a result of socioeconomic development in the Amazon basin is projected to further increase in the 21st century and brings climate-induced changes forward. Combined effects of deforestation vs. climate change on the stability of the Amazon rainforest and the role of fire in this system need to be quantified in an integrated study. We present simulation results from future climate (AR4) and deforestation (SimAmazon) experiments using the LPJmL-SPITFIRE vegetation model. Land use change is the main driving factor of forest degradation before 2050, whereas extreme climate change scenarios lead to forest degradation by the end of 2100. Forest fires increase with increasing drought conditions during the 21st century. The resulting effects on vegetation secondarization and savannization and their feedbacks on fire spread and emissions will be presented. The effect of wildfires and intentional burning on forest degradation under future climate and socioeconomic change will be discussed, and recommendations for an integrated land use and fire management are given.

  17. Annual Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Amazon Basin between 2000 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiao-Peng; Huang, Chengquan; Saatchi, Sassan S.; Hansen, Matthew C.; Townshend, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is considered one of the most cost-effective strategies for mitigating climate change. However, historical deforestation and emission rates―critical inputs for setting reference emission levels for REDD+―are poorly understood. Here we use multi-source, time-series satellite data to quantify carbon emissions from deforestation in the Amazon basin on a year-to-year basis between 2000 and 2010. We first derive annual deforestation indicators by using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Continuous Fields (MODIS VCF) product. MODIS indicators are calibrated by using a large sample of Landsat data to generate accurate deforestation rates, which are subsequently combined with a spatially explicit biomass dataset to calculate committed annual carbon emissions. Across the study area, the average deforestation and associated carbon emissions were estimated to be 1.59 ± 0.25 M ha•yr−1 and 0.18 ± 0.07 Pg C•yr−1 respectively, with substantially different trends and inter-annual variability in different regions. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon increased between 2001 and 2004 and declined substantially afterwards, whereas deforestation in the Bolivian Amazon, the Colombian Amazon, and the Peruvian Amazon increased over the study period. The average carbon density of lost forests after 2005 was 130 Mg C•ha−1, ~11% lower than the average carbon density of remaining forests in year 2010 (144 Mg C•ha−1). Moreover, the average carbon density of cleared forests increased at a rate of 7 Mg C•ha−1•yr−1 from 2005 to 2010, suggesting that deforestation has been progressively encroaching into high-biomass lands in the Amazon basin. Spatially explicit, annual deforestation and emission estimates like the ones derived in this study are useful for setting baselines for REDD+ and other emission mitigation programs, and for evaluating the performance of such efforts

  18. Vocalizations of Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis): Characterization, effect of physical environment and differences between populations.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Thiago Orion Simões; Andriolo, Artur; Reis, Sarah S; dos Santos, Manuel E

    2016-03-01

    The vocal repertoire of the Amazon river dolphin and its geographic variations are still poorly known, especially in relation to ecological variables. Here the acoustic characteristics of low frequency pulsed vocalizations, with single or multiple pulses, recorded in two protected areas of the Amazon were described and differences in acoustic emissions related to water properties were analyzed. Both frequency and time parameters differ relative to abiotic condition of water turbidity. Changes in the animals' acoustic behavior might be due to differences in sound propagation between rich-sediment water and clear water. Geographic variation was found in frequency and time parameters, requiring further investigation.

  19. New species of Microcentrum Scudder, 1862 (Orthoptera: Tettigonioidea: Phaneropteridae) from Amazon rainforest.

    PubMed

    Da Silva Sovano, Rafael S; Cadena-Castañeda, Oscar J

    2015-03-26

    A regional study is performed for the Amazonian species of the genus Microcentrum Scudder, 1862, its proposed Microcentrum punctifrons Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1891 as nomen dubium n. stat. and two new species are described: Microcentrum amacayacu Cadena-Casteñada, Sovano n. sp. and Microcentrum xavieri Sovano, Cadena-Casteñada n. sp. the Colombian and Brazilian Amazon, respectively. A list and a key to the Amazonian species are also provided, along with a discussion on their distribution, according to endemism areas established to Amazon rainforest.

  20. HIGH PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL ADENOCARCINOMA IN A CAPTIVE POPULATION OF AMAZON MILK FROG (TRACHYCEPHALUS RESINIFICTRIX).

    PubMed

    López, Javier; Barbón, Alberto R; Smithyman, Juliet; Goetz, Matt; Marschang, Rachel E; Dastjerdi, Akbar; Stidworthy, Mark F

    2016-12-01

    :  A series of eight cases of intestinal adenocarcinoma in Amazon milk frog (Trachycephalus resinifictrix) is described. All cases presented with signs of inappetence and weight loss, and evidence of large intestinal distention on gross postmortem, with six of the eight cases showing a grossly visible large intestinal mass. Histologic examination identified the mass as an intestinal adenocarcinoma in all cases. No specific etiologic agent could be identified. This is the first report of neoplasia in the Amazon milk frog, and the first reported series of amphibian gastrointestinal neoplasia.

  1. Migration decisions among settler families in the Ecuadorian Amazon: the second generation.

    PubMed

    Laurian, L; Bilsborrow, R E; Murphy, L

    1998-01-01

    The authors use survey data collected in 1990 from 418 household heads of recent settlements in the Ecuadorian Amazon to study the extent of and reasons for out-migration of the settlers' children. "Our research identifies the types and incidence of out-migration of young adults from settler households in the Ecuadorian Amazon, as well as the effects of individual and household-level factors of out-migration. Important gender differences in both the levels and patterns of migration and in the factors affecting migration decisions are documented."

  2. Description of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Peruvian Amazon Basin

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Roberto; Lopez, Victor; Cardenas, Roldan; Requena, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    A new species of sand fly, which we describe as Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., was collected in the northern Peruvian Amazon Basin. In this region of Peru, cutaneous leishmaniasis is transmitted primarily by anthropophilic sand flies; however, zoophilic sand flies of the subgenus Trichophoromyia may also be incriminated in disease transmission. Detection of Leishmania spp. in Lutzomyia auraensis Mangabeira captured in the southern Peruvian Amazon indicates the potential of this and other zoophilic sand flies for human disease transmission, particularly in areas undergoing urban development. Herein, we describe Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., and report new records of sand flies in Peru. PMID:26335468

  3. Description of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Roberto; Lopez, Victor; Cardenas, Roldan; Requena, Edwin

    2015-07-01

    A new species of sand fly, which we describe as Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., was collected in the northern Peruvian Amazon Basin. In this region of Peru, cutaneous leishmaniasis is transmitted primarily by anthropophilic sand flies; however, zoophilic sand flies of the subgenus Trichophoromyia may also be incriminated in disease transmission. Detection of Leishmania spp. in Lutzomyia auraensis Mangabeira captured in the southern Peruvian Amazon indicates the potential of this and other zoophilic sand flies for human disease transmission, particularly in areas undergoing urban development. Herein, we describe Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., and report new records of sand flies in Peru.

  4. A new species of Japanagromyza Sasakawa (Diptera: Agromyzidae) from the Brazilian Amazon with notes on biology.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Nilton Juvencio Santiago; Carvalho-Filho, Fernando Da Silva; Esposito, Maria Cristina

    2015-02-18

    Japanagromyza sasakawai sp. n. is described from the Brazilian Amazon, based on the male, female, third instar larva and puparium. This species is a leaf-miner of Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae), which is an introduced plant from the Old World tropics used in Brazil as an ornamental. The male aedeagus of J. sasakawai sp. n. differs from other species mainly in having the mesophallus covered with many spine-like processes. This is the third record of Japanagromyza Sasakawa in Brazil and first in the Brazilian Amazon. The key to Neotropical species of Japanagromyza by Sousa & Couri (2014) is modified to include this new species.

  5. Histidine-rich protein 2 (pfhrp2) and pfhrp3 gene deletions in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from select sites in Brazil and Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Rachid Viana, Giselle Maria; Akinyi Okoth, Sheila; Silva-Flannery, Luciana; Lima Barbosa, Danielle Regina; Macedo de Oliveira, Alexandre; Goldman, Ira F; Morton, Lindsay C; Huber, Curtis; Anez, Arletta; Dantas Machado, Ricardo Luiz; Aranha Camargo, Luís Marcelo; Costa Negreiros do Valle, Suiane; Marins Póvoa, Marinete; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Barnwell, John W

    2017-01-01

    More than 80% of available malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are based on the detection of histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2) for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Recent studies have shown the genes that code for this protein and its paralog, histidine-rich protein-3 (PfHRP3), are absent in parasites from the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Lack of PfHRP2 protein through deletion of the pfhrp2 gene leads to false-negative RDT results for P. falciparum. We have evaluated the extent of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions in a convenience sample of 198 isolates from six sites in three states across the Brazilian Amazon Basin (Acre, Rondonia and Para) and 25 isolates from two sites in Bolivia collected at different times between 2010 and 2012. Pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene and their flanking genes on chromosomes 7 and 13, respectively, were amplified from 198 blood specimens collected in Brazil. In Brazil, the isolates collected in Acre state, located in the western part of the Brazilian Amazon, had the highest percentage of deletions for pfhrp2 25 (31.2%) of 79, while among those collected in Rondonia, the prevalence of pfhrp2 gene deletion was only 3.3% (2 out of 60 patients). In isolates from Para state, all parasites were pfhrp2-positive. In contrast, we detected high proportions of isolates from all 3 states that were pfhrp3-negative ranging from 18.3% (11 out of 60 samples) to 50.9% (30 out of 59 samples). In Bolivia, only one of 25 samples (4%) tested had deleted pfhrp2 gene, while 68% (17 out of 25 samples) were pfhrp3-negative. Among the isolates tested, P. falciparum pfhrp2 gene deletions were present mainly in those from Acre State in the Brazilian Amazon. These results indicate it is important to reconsider the use of PfHRP2-based RDTs in the western region of the Brazilian Amazon and to implement appropriate surveillance systems to monitor pfhrp2 gene deletions in this and other parts of the Amazon region.

  6. Histidine-rich protein 2 (pfhrp2) and pfhrp3 gene deletions in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from select sites in Brazil and Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Rachid Viana, Giselle Maria; Akinyi Okoth, Sheila; Silva-Flannery, Luciana; Lima Barbosa, Danielle Regina; Macedo de Oliveira, Alexandre; Goldman, Ira F.; Morton, Lindsay C.; Huber, Curtis; Anez, Arletta; Dantas Machado, Ricardo Luiz; Aranha Camargo, Luís Marcelo; Costa Negreiros do Valle, Suiane; Marins Póvoa, Marinete; Barnwell, John W.

    2017-01-01

    More than 80% of available malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are based on the detection of histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2) for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Recent studies have shown the genes that code for this protein and its paralog, histidine-rich protein-3 (PfHRP3), are absent in parasites from the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Lack of PfHRP2 protein through deletion of the pfhrp2 gene leads to false-negative RDT results for P. falciparum. We have evaluated the extent of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions in a convenience sample of 198 isolates from six sites in three states across the Brazilian Amazon Basin (Acre, Rondonia and Para) and 25 isolates from two sites in Bolivia collected at different times between 2010 and 2012. Pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene and their flanking genes on chromosomes 7 and 13, respectively, were amplified from 198 blood specimens collected in Brazil. In Brazil, the isolates collected in Acre state, located in the western part of the Brazilian Amazon, had the highest percentage of deletions for pfhrp2 25 (31.2%) of 79, while among those collected in Rondonia, the prevalence of pfhrp2 gene deletion was only 3.3% (2 out of 60 patients). In isolates from Para state, all parasites were pfhrp2-positive. In contrast, we detected high proportions of isolates from all 3 states that were pfhrp3-negative ranging from 18.3% (11 out of 60 samples) to 50.9% (30 out of 59 samples). In Bolivia, only one of 25 samples (4%) tested had deleted pfhrp2 gene, while 68% (17 out of 25 samples) were pfhrp3-negative. Among the isolates tested, P. falciparum pfhrp2 gene deletions were present mainly in those from Acre State in the Brazilian Amazon. These results indicate it is important to reconsider the use of PfHRP2-based RDTs in the western region of the Brazilian Amazon and to implement appropriate surveillance systems to monitor pfhrp2 gene deletions in this and other parts of the Amazon region. PMID:28301474

  7. Western Policy Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In December 2008, with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and in partnership with the Data Quality Campaign, the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) hosted a meeting of the West's key leaders in building state-wide integrated longitudinal data systems. Such data systems are essential to developing a better…

  8. Rethinking the "Western Tradition"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslin, Penny; Horsthemke, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the "Western tradition" has increasingly come under attack in anti-colonialist and postmodernist discourses. It is not difficult to sympathise with the concerns that underlie advocacy of historically marginalised traditions, and the West undoubtedly has a lot to answer for. Nonetheless, while arguing a qualified yes to…

  9. Origins of Western Environmentalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Richard H.

    1992-01-01

    Traces Western conservationism from it roots in colonial exploitation during the mideighteenth century when scientists employed by trading companies voiced concern over large-scale ecological changes. Indicates that our contemporary understanding of the threat to the global environment is a reassertion of ideas that reached maturity over a century…

  10. Western Europe's America Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Andrei S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Europe's anti-Americanism stance. He observes that Europe's aversion to America has become greater, louder, and more determined, and that it has unified Western Europeans more than any other political emotion (with the exception of a common hostility toward Israel). The author contends that the many disastrous…

  11. Regions and Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunt, Barry M.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that regional geography is undergoing important changes in its method of study to achieve a greater degree of relevancy in the context of a global system. Presents Western Europe as a case study to reflect this new approach. Includes 11 maps illustrating 6 generalizations applied to regional patterns. (CFR)

  12. The western blot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western blotting is a technique that involves the separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis, their blotting or transfer to a membrane, and selective immunodetection of an immobilized antigen. This is an important and routine method for protein analysis that depends on the specificity of antibod...

  13. Comparison between measurements of black carbon, charcoal and associated nutrients in western Amazonan soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, A. R.; McMichael, C.; Hanlon, C.; Bush, M. B.

    2011-12-01

    To construct fire and climate history and human occupation records from soils and lake sediment profiles, climatologists and anthropologists have traditionally measured charcoal abundances by microscopic image analysis. In contrast, geochemists have developed methods of black carbon (BC) quantification using chemical extraction. We compared charcoal (>0.5 mm particle size) versus BC (measured via the CTO-340 method of Kuhlbusch, 1995) in multiple soil profiles from four western Amazon regions with evidence of pre-Columbian occupation. A secondary goal of this project was to understand the relative influence of climate and humans in the fire and ecological history of the Amazon. BC concentration in soils of the Amazon varied widely from an average of 0.5 mg g 1 in cores around Lake Gentry (southeastern Peru) to 5.5 mg g 1 around Lake Ayauchi (southeastern Ecuador), corresponding to the evidence of greater land use around the latter. Surprising, BC concentrations in habitation horizon soils at Quistococha, near Iquitos, Peru were similar to Lake Gentry, averaging about 0.6 mg g 1. However, BC as a percent of soil organic carbon (SOC) was much more uniform with an average of 12.0, 13.3, 14.6, and 13.0% in Quistococha, Gentry, Ayauchi, and Los Amigos (central-eastern Peru) soils, respectively, suggesting that the same processes that concentrate SOC also concentrate BC. BC may act to protect SOC via sorption or produce SOC via microbial community enhancement. These findings also show that BC is not regionally enriched as it might be were climate to be a predominant factor in BC production, and seem to track land use more closely. Charcoal and BC concentrations were linearly correlated in only about half the soil profiles and neither BC nor charcoal were consistently correlated with chemical anthropogenic indicators such as P or Ca within soil profiles or specific regions. However, there was a statistical covariance between each of these parameters suggesting that each

  14. Antioxidant activity and potential photoprotective from amazon native flora extracts.

    PubMed

    Martins, Francislene J; Caneschi, César A; Vieira, José L F; Barbosa, Wagner; Raposo, Nádia R B

    2016-08-01

    Plant species are sources of active compounds that can fight and/or prevent damage caused by reactive oxygen species, which enables the development of natural products that can help to prevent premature aging caused by exposure to solar radiation. This study assessed the antioxidant and photoprotective activities of six dried extracts of plants from the Brazilian Amazon biome. Plant extracts were prepared in 70% (v/v) ethanol by dynamic maceration for 72h in the dark, and then filtered, concentrated and lyophilized. The extracts were subjected to a phytochemical screening. The antioxidant activity was measured using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and the photoprotection assay was performed using the diffuse transmittance technique. The data obtained from the antioxidant activity assay was evaluated by Student's t-test for independent samples, with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences v.14.0 for Windows software. The flavonoids represent a special metabolites class present in all analyzed extracts. The antioxidant activity (μgmL(-1)) decreased in the following order: Aniba canelilla (1.80±0.16), Brosimum acutifolium (2.84±0.38), Dalbergia monetaria (5.46±0.17) or Caesalpinia pyramidalis (6.45±1.18), Arrabidaea chica (15.35±0.86), and Aspidosperma nitidum (99.14±2.3). Only D. monetaria showed a considerable sun protection factor allowing for labeling (6.0±0.3). The D. monetaria extract was considered the most promising sample because it had optimal antioxidant and photoprotective activities against solar radiation, considering the limit established by regulatory agencies. These extracts with antioxidant potential can be used in photoprotective formulations, providing synergistic photoprotective effect or elevating the adeed value of the product. Additionally, these formulations are attractive to a population who searchs for products made with natural ingredients.

  15. Conservation Efforts May Increase Malaria Burden in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Denis; Clark, James

    2013-01-01

    Background Large-scale forest conservation projects are underway in the Brazilian Amazon but little is known regarding their public health impact. Current literature emphasizes how land clearing increases malaria incidence, leading to the conclusion that forest conservation decreases malaria burden. Yet, there is also evidence that proximity to forest fringes increases malaria incidence, which implies the opposite relationship between forest conservation and malaria. We compare the effect of these environmental factors on malaria and explore its implications. Methods and Findings Using a large malaria dataset (∼1,300,000 positive malaria tests collected over ∼4.5 million km2), satellite imagery, permutation tests, and hierarchical Bayesian regressions, we show that greater forest cover (as a proxy for proximity to forest fringes) tends to be associated with higher malaria incidence, and that forest cover effect was 25 times greater than the land clearing effect, the often cited culprit of malaria in the region. These findings have important implications for land use/land cover (LULC) policies in the region. We find that cities close to protected areas (PA’s) tend to have higher malaria incidence than cities far from PA’s. Using future LULC scenarios, we show that avoiding 10% of deforestation through better governance might result in an average 2-fold increase in malaria incidence by 2050 in urban health posts. Conclusions Our results suggest that cost analysis of reduced carbon emissions from conservation efforts in the region should account for increased malaria morbidity, and that conservation initiatives should consider adopting malaria mitigation strategies. Coordinated actions from disparate science fields, government ministries, and global initiatives (e.g., Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation; Millenium Development Goals; Roll Back Malaria; and Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria), will be required to decrease

  16. Cropland expansion changes deforestation dynamics in the southern Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Morton, Douglas C; DeFries, Ruth S; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Anderson, Liana O; Arai, Egidio; del Bon Espirito-Santo, Fernando; Freitas, Ramon; Morisette, Jeff

    2006-09-26

    Intensive mechanized agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon grew by >3.6 million hectares (ha) during 2001-2004. Whether this cropland expansion resulted from intensified use of land previously cleared for cattle ranching or new deforestation has not been quantified and has major implications for future deforestation dynamics, carbon fluxes, forest fragmentation, and other ecosystem services. We combine deforestation maps, field surveys, and satellite-based information on vegetation phenology to characterize the fate of large (>25-ha) clearings as cropland, cattle pasture, or regrowing forest in the years after initial clearing in Mato Grosso, the Brazilian state with the highest deforestation rate and soybean production since 2001. Statewide, direct conversion of forest to cropland totaled >540,000 ha during 2001-2004, peaking at 23% of 2003 annual deforestation. Cropland deforestation averaged twice the size of clearings for pasture (mean sizes, 333 and 143 ha, respectively), and conversion occurred rapidly; >90% of clearings for cropland were planted in the first year after deforestation. Area deforested for cropland and mean annual soybean price in the year of forest clearing were directly correlated (R(2) = 0.72), suggesting that deforestation rates could return to higher levels seen in 2003-2004 with a rebound of crop prices in international markets. Pasture remains the dominant land use after forest clearing in Mato Grosso, but the growing importance of larger and faster conversion of forest to cropland defines a new paradigm of forest loss in Amazonia and refutes the claim that agricultural intensification does not lead to new deforestation.

  17. Sediment driven meander migration in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, J.; Constantine, J. A.; Dunne, T.

    2015-12-01

    Meander migration is the principal process controlling how river channels lengthen through time; despite this universal observation, little analysis has been dedicated to evaluating the mechanisms by which meanders accomplish this lengthening. Using an almost yearly archive of Landsat imagery, we show that meandering rivers in the Andes-Foreland Basin of the Amazon Basin lengthen linearly with centreline migration rate, in the absence of cutoff events. We characterised the dominant meander movement mechanism by defining an index we term the symmetry index. The index measures the ratio between downstream and upstream meander erosion about the apex and bounded by inflection points. Indices greater than one represent more translational meander deformation, that is, downstream migration, whereas indices close to one indicate more extensional migration (i.e., increasing meander amplitude). We expanded our dataset to 25 reaches from varying physiographic provinces across the basin. Our results suggest that rivers located in sediment-rich regions migrate more rapidly, and possess higher symmetry indices indicative of more translational bend development. Conversely, rivers with low sediment yields show more extensional bend development. Since alluvial material is responsible for the construction of point bars, rivers conveying larger sediment fluxes have the ability to build bars more quickly. Point bar growth increases channel curvature and deflects high-velocity fluid towards the outer bank encouraging bank erosion. An analysis of point bar locations along the banks of two meandering streams shows that bars positioned downstream of the apex correlate with bends that undergo translational development, whilst material deposited in the centre and upstream of the apex show more extensional and lobing evolution. These results suggest that point bar growth and its relationship to the sediment budget of rivers play an important role in meander migration.

  18. Mercury pollution and childhood in Amazon riverside villages.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, M C N; Crespo-López, M E; Vieira, J L F; Oikawa, T; Guimarães, G A; Araújo, C C; Amoras, W W; Ribeiro, D R; Herculano, A M; do Nascimento, J L M; Silveira, L C L

    2007-01-01

    Mercury is a hazardous metal responsible for environmental contamination and human intoxication. Methylmercury, a very toxic organic compound, bio-accumulates through food chain, and is responsible for chronic mercury exposure of riverside Amazonian communities with a diet rich in fish. Uncertainties about the reference exposure dose that could have damaging consequences for nervous system development makes necessary the biomonitoring of these Amazonian populations, especially children. In this work, a comparative study was performed in exposed and non-exposed children living in the Amazon. A total of 168 children were analyzed to find possible correlations between gender, age, location, and hair mercury content. For each location, no statistically significant differences (P<0.05) were detected for gender and age versus mercury content. However, mean mercury levels in hair samples may indicate a tendency of boys to average higher hair concentrations. Also, in the community with highest levels of mercury, the limit of 10 micro g/g of mercury was surpassed by 65% of 2-6 years and 50% of 7-12 years children but only by 27% of 0-1 year babies, pointing to a lower bioaccumulation and/or the existence of a protection mechanism in babies. Log normal distributions of mercury concentrations for each location showed that children from populations under influence of gold mining activity contain the highest mercury levels in hair samples, though this intoxication may have decreased when compared to previous studies. Knowledge originated by this monitoring will better assist in the development of prevention strategies and government actions targeting the mercury contamination of Amazonian environment.

  19. Genetic uniqueness of the Waorani tribe from the Ecuadorian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, S; Alfonso-Sánchez, M A; Valverde, L; Sánchez, D; Zarrabeitia, M T; Odriozola, A; Martínez-Jarreta, B; de Pancorbo, M M

    2012-01-01

    South America and especially the Amazon basin is known to be home to some of the most isolated human groups in the world. Here, we report on a study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the Waorani from Ecuador, probably the most warlike human population known to date. Seeking to look in more depth at the characterization of the genetic diversity of this Native American tribe, molecular markers from the X and Y chromosomes were also analyzed. Only three different mtDNA haplotypes were detected among the Waorani sample. One of them, assigned to Native American haplogroup A2, accounted for more than 94% of the total diversity of the maternal gene pool. Our results for sex chromosome molecular markers failed to find close genetic kinship between individuals, further emphasizing the low genetic diversity of the mtDNA. Bearing in mind the results obtained for both the analysis of the mtDNA control region and complete mitochondrial genomes, we suggest the existence of a ‘Waorani-specific' mtDNA lineage. According to current knowledge on the phylogeny of haplogroup A2, we propose that this lineage could be designated as subhaplogroup A2s. Its wide predominance among the Waorani people might have been conditioned by severe genetic drift episodes resulting from founding events, long-term isolation and a traditionally small population size most likely associated with the striking ethnography of this Amazonian community. In all, the Waorani constitute a fine example of how genetic imprint may mirror ethnopsychology and sociocultural features in human populations. PMID:22234246

  20. Branch xylem density variations across the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patiño, S.; Lloyd, J.; Paiva, R.; Baker, T. R.; Quesada, C. A.; Mercado, L. M.; Schmerler, J.; Schwarz, M.; Santos, A. J. B.; Aguilar, A.; Czimczik, C. I.; Gallo, J.; Horna, V.; Hoyos, E. J.; Jimenez, E. M.; Palomino, W.; Peacock, J.; Peña-Cruz, A.; Sarmiento, C.; Sota, A.; Turriago, J. D.; Villanueva, B.; Vitzthum, P.; Alvarez, E.; Arroyo, L.; Baraloto, C.; Bonal, D.; Chave, J.; Costa, A. C. L.; Herrera, R.; Higuchi, N.; Killeen, T.; Leal, E.; Luizão, F.; Meir, P.; Monteagudo, A.; Neil, D.; Núñez-Vargas, P.; Peñuela, M. C.; Pitman, N.; Priante Filho, N.; Prieto, A.; Panfil, S. N.; Rudas, A.; Salomão, R.; Silva, N.; Silveira, M.; Soares Dealmeida, S.; Torres-Lezama, A.; Vásquez-Martínez, R.; Vieira, I.; Malhi, Y.; Phillips, O. L.

    2009-04-01

    Xylem density is a physical property of wood that varies between individuals, species and environments. It reflects the physiological strategies of trees that lead to growth, survival and reproduction. Measurements of branch xylem density, ρx, were made for 1653 trees representing 598 species, sampled from 87 sites across the Amazon basin. Measured values ranged from 218 kg m-3 for a Cordia sagotii (Boraginaceae) from Mountagne de Tortue, French Guiana to 1130 kg m-3 for an Aiouea sp. (Lauraceae) from Caxiuana, Central Pará, Brazil. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in average ρx across regions and sampled plots as well as significant differences between families, genera and species. A partitioning of the total variance in the dataset showed that species identity (family, genera and species) accounted for 33% with environment (geographic location and plot) accounting for an additional 26%; the remaining "residual" variance accounted for 41% of the total variance. Variations in plot means, were, however, not only accountable by differences in species composition because xylem density of the most widely distributed species in our dataset varied systematically from plot to plot. Thus, as well as having a genetic component, branch xylem density is a plastic trait that, for any given species, varies according to where the tree is growing in a predictable manner. Within the analysed taxa, exceptions to this general rule seem to be pioneer species belonging for example to the Urticaceae whose branch xylem density is more constrained than most species sampled in this study. These patterns of variation of branch xylem density across Amazonia suggest a large functional diversity amongst Amazonian trees which is not well understood.

  1. Genetic uniqueness of the Waorani tribe from the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, S; Alfonso-Sánchez, M A; Valverde, L; Sánchez, D; Zarrabeitia, M T; Odriozola, A; Martínez-Jarreta, B; de Pancorbo, M M

    2012-06-01

    South America and especially the Amazon basin is known to be home to some of the most isolated human groups in the world. Here, we report on a study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the Waorani from Ecuador, probably the most warlike human population known to date. Seeking to look in more depth at the characterization of the genetic diversity of this Native American tribe, molecular markers from the X and Y chromosomes were also analyzed. Only three different mtDNA haplotypes were detected among the Waorani sample. One of them, assigned to Native American haplogroup A2, accounted for more than 94% of the total diversity of the maternal gene pool. Our results for sex chromosome molecular markers failed to find close genetic kinship between individuals, further emphasizing the low genetic diversity of the mtDNA. Bearing in mind the results obtained for both the analysis of the mtDNA control region and complete mitochondrial genomes, we suggest the existence of a 'Waorani-specific' mtDNA lineage. According to current knowledge on the phylogeny of haplogroup A2, we propose that this lineage could be designated as subhaplogroup A2s. Its wide predominance among the Waorani people might have been conditioned by severe genetic drift episodes resulting from founding events, long-term isolation and a traditionally small population size most likely associated with the striking ethnography of this Amazonian community. In all, the Waorani constitute a fine example of how genetic imprint may mirror ethnopsychology and sociocultural features in human populations.

  2. The ARM Climate Research Facility in the Amazon Basin. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Scot T.

    2016-03-01

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin during two years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as Introduction to the GoAmazon2014/5 Special Issue, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0) upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km). In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G1) observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO) operated in the free troposphere. During the two-year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2) also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. The G1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also correspond to the clean and

  3. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) in the remote Amazon Basin: overview of first results from ecosystem ecology, meteorology, trace gas, and aerosol measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Acevedo, O. C.; Araùjo, A.; Artaxo, P.; Barbosa, C. G. G.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Brito, J.; Carbone, S.; Chi, X.; Cintra, B. B. L.; da Silva, N. F.; Dias, N. L.; Dias-Júnior, C. Q.; Ditas, F.; Ditz, R.; Godoi, A. F. L.; Godoi, R. H. M.; Heimann, M.; Hoffmann, T.; Kesselmeier, J.; Könemann, T.; Krüger, M. L.; Lavric, J. V.; Manzi, A. O.; Moran-Zuloaga, D.; Nölscher, A. C.; Santos Nogueira, D.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Pöhlker, C.; Pöschl, U.; Rizzo, L. V.; Ro, C.-U.; Ruckteschler, N.; Sá, L. D. A.; Sá, M. D. O.; Sales, C. B.; Santos, R. M. N. D.; Saturno, J.; Schöngart, J.; Sörgel, M.; de Souza, C. M.; de Souza, R. A. F.; Su, H.; Targhetta, N.; Tóta, J.; Trebs, I.; Trumbore, S.; van Eijck, A.; Walter, D.; Wang, Z.; Weber, B.; Williams, J.; Winderlich, J.; Wittmann, F.; Wolff, S.; Yáñez-Serrano, A. M.

    2015-04-01

    The Amazon Basin plays key roles in the carbon and water cycles, climate change, atmospheric chemistry, and biodiversity. It already has been changed significantly by human activities, and more pervasive change is expected to occur in the next decades. It is therefore essential to establish long-term measurement sites that provide a baseline record of present-day climatic, biogeochemical, and atmospheric conditions and that will be operated over coming decades to monitor change in the Amazon region as human perturbations increase in the future. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) has been set up in a pristine rain forest region in the central Amazon Basin, about 150 km northeast of the city of Manaus. An ecological survey including a biodiversity assessment has been conducted in the forest region surrounding the site. Two 80 m towers have been operated at the site since 2012, and a 325 m tower is nearing completion in mid-2015. Measurements of micrometeorological and atmospheric chemical variables were initiated in 2012, and their range has continued to broaden over the last few years. The meteorological and micrometeorological measurements include temperature and wind profiles, precipitation, water and energy fluxes, turbulence components, soil temperature profiles and soil heat fluxes, radiation fluxes, and visibility. A tree has been instrumented to measure stem profiles of temperature, light intensity, and water content in cryptogamic covers. The trace gas measurements comprise continuous monitoring of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, and ozone at 5 to 8 different heights, complemented by a variety of additional species measured during intensive campaigns (e.g., VOC, NO, NO2, and OH reactivity). Aerosol optical, microphysical, and chemical measurements are made above the canopy as well as in the canopy space. They include light scattering and absorption, aerosol fluorescence, number and volume size distributions, chemical composition, cloud

  4. Crop damage of Eriotheca gracilipes (Bombacaceae) by the Blue-Fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva, Psittacidae), in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Ragusa-Netto, J

    2014-11-01

    Seed predation has major effects on the reproductive success of individuals, spatial patterns of populations, genetic variability, interspecific interactions and ultimately in the diversity of tree communities. At a Brazilian savanna, I evaluated the proportional crop loss of Eriotheca gracilipes due the Blue-Fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) during a fruiting period. Also, I analyzed the relationship between proportional crop loss to Amazons and both fruit crop size and the distance from the nearest damaged conspecific. Trees produced from 1 to 109 fruits, so that Amazons foraged more often on trees bearing larger fruit crop size, while seldom visited less productive trees. Moreover, the relationship between fruit crop sizes and the number of depredated fruits was significant. However, when only damaged trees were assessed, I found a negative and significant relation between fruit crop size and proportional crop loss to Blue-Fronted Amazons. Taking into account this as a measure more directly related to the probability of seed survival, a negative density dependent effect emerged. Also, Amazons similarly damaged the fruit crops of either close or distant neighboring damaged trees. Hence, in spite of Blue-Fronted Amazons searched for E. gracilipes bearing large fruit crops, they were swamped due to the presence of more fruits than they could eat. Moderate seed predation by Blue-Fronted Amazons either at trees with large fruit crops or in areas where fruiting trees were aggregated implies in an enhanced probability of E. gracilipes seed survival and consequent regeneration success.

  5. Multispecies Fisheries in the Lower Amazon River and Its Relationship with the Regional and Global Climate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Buss de Souza, Ronald; Freire, Juan; Isaac, Victoria Judith

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the spatial-temporal variability in catch of the main fishery resources of the Amazon River and floodplain lakes of the Lower Amazon, as well as relating the Catch per Unit of Effort with anomalies of some of the Amazon River, atmosphere and Atlantic Ocean system variables, determining the influence of the environment on the Amazonian fishery resources. Finfish landings data from the towns and villages of the Lower Amazon for the fisheries of three sites (Óbidos, Santarém and Monte Alegre), were obtained for the period between January 1993 and December 2004. Analysis of variance, detrended correspondence analysis, redundancy analysis and multiple regression techniques were used for the statistical analysis of the distinct time series. Fisheries production in the Lower Amazon presents differences between the Amazon River and the floodplain lakes. Production in the Amazon River is approximately half of the one of the floodplain lakes. This variability occurs both along the Lower Amazon River region (longitudinal gradient) and laterally (latitudinal gradient) for every fishing ground studied here. The distinct environmental variables alone or in association act differently on the fishery stocks and the success of catches in each fishery group studied here. Important variables are the flooding events; the soil the sea surface temperatures; the humidity; the wind and the occurence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation events. Fishery productivity presents a large difference in quantity and distribution patterns between the river and floodplain lakes. This variability occurs in the region of the Lower Amazon as well as laterally for each fishery group studied, being dependent on the ecological characteristics and life strategies of each fish group considered here. PMID:27314951

  6. A GCM investigation of impact of aerosols on the precipitation in Amazon during the dry to wet transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yu; Liou, K. N.; Jiang, J. H.; Fu, R.; Lu, Sarah; Xue, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The climatic effects of aerosols on the precipitation over the Amazon during the dry to wet transition period have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/AGCM, and the aerosol climatology data. We found increased instability during the dry season and delayed wet season onset with aerosols included in the model simulation, leading to the delay of the maximum precipitation over the Amazon by about half a month. In particular, our GCM simulations show that surface solar flux is reduced in the Amazon due to the absorption and scattering of the solar radiation by aerosols, leading to decreased surface temperature. Reduced surface solar flux is balanced by decreases in both surface sensible heat and latent heat fluxes. During the wet season, the subtropical system over the Amazon has a shallower convection. With the inclusion of aerosols in the simulation, precipitation in the rainy season over the Amazon decreases in the major rainfall band, which partially corrects the overestimate of the simulated precipitation in that region. The reduced surface temperature by aerosols is also coupled with a warming in the middle troposphere, leading to increased atmosphere stability and moisture divergence over the Amazon. However, during the dry season when the convective system is stronger over the Amazon, rainfall increases in that region due to the warming of the air over the upper troposphere produced by biomass burning aerosols, which produces an anomalous upward motion and a convergence of moisture flux over the Amazon and draws the moisture and precipitation further inland. Therefore, aerosol effects on precipitation depend on the large-scale atmospheric stability, resulting in their different roles over the Amazon during the dry and wet seasons.

  7. Multispecies Fisheries in the Lower Amazon River and Its Relationship with the Regional and Global Climate Variability.

    PubMed

    Pinaya, Walter Hugo Diaz; Lobon-Cervia, Francisco Javier; Pita, Pablo; Buss de Souza, Ronald; Freire, Juan; Isaac, Victoria Judith

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the spatial-temporal variability in catch of the main fishery resources of the Amazon River and floodplain lakes of the Lower Amazon, as well as relating the Catch per Unit of Effort with anomalies of some of the Amazon River, atmosphere and Atlantic Ocean system variables, determining the influence of the environment on the Amazonian fishery resources. Finfish landings data from the towns and villages of the Lower Amazon for the fisheries of three sites (Óbidos, Santarém and Monte Alegre), were obtained for the period between January 1993 and December 2004. Analysis of variance, detrended correspondence analysis, redundancy analysis and multiple regression techniques were used for the statistical analysis of the distinct time series. Fisheries production in the Lower Amazon presents differences between the Amazon River and the floodplain lakes. Production in the Amazon River is approximately half of the one of the floodplain lakes. This variability occurs both along the Lower Amazon River region (longitudinal gradient) and laterally (latitudinal gradient) for every fishing ground studied here. The distinct environmental variables alone or in association act differently on the fishery stocks and the success of catches in each fishery group studied here. Important variables are the flooding events; the soil the sea surface temperatures; the humidity; the wind and the occurence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation events. Fishery productivity presents a large difference in quantity and distribution patterns between the river and floodplain lakes. This variability occurs in the region of the Lower Amazon as well as laterally for each fishery group studied, being dependent on the ecological characteristics and life strategies of each fish group considered here.

  8. Clinical aspects of envenomation caused by Tityus obscurus (Gervais, 1843) in two distinct regions of Pará state, Brazilian Amazon basin: a prospective case series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Scorpion envenomations are a major public health problem in Brazil, whose most dangerous cases are attributable to the genus Tityus. This study was designed to compare the clinical and demographic features of envenomations by Tityus obscurus in two areas of the state of Pará located in the Amazon basin. Were compared demographic findings, local and systemic signs and symptoms of human envenomations caused by T. obscurus that occurred in western and eastern areas of the state. Results Forty-eight patients with confirmed envenomation by T. obscurus were evaluated from January 2008 to July 2011. Most of them came from the eastern region, where male and female patients were present in similar numbers, while males predominated in the west. Median age groups were also similar in both areas. Most scorpion stings took place during the day and occurred significantly more frequently on the upper limbs. The time between the sting and admission to the health center was less than three hours in both areas. Most eastern patients had local manifestations while in the west, systemic manifestations predominated. Local symptoms were similar in both areas, but systemic signs and symptoms were more common in the west. Symptoms frequently observed at the sting site were local and radiating pain, paresthesia, edema, erythema, sweating, piloerection and burning. The systemic manifestations were significantly higher in patients from the west. Futhermore, neurological symptoms such as general paresthesia, ataxia, dysarthria, myoclonus, dysmetria, and electric shock-like sensations throughout the body were reported only by patients from the west. Conclusion The present study shows that two regions of Para state differ in the clinical manifestations and severity of confirmed envenomation by T. obscurus which suggests a toxicity variation resulting from the diversity of T. obscurus venom in different areas of the Brazilian Amazon basin, and that T. serrulatus antivenom can be

  9. Western Kentucky thrives

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2005-10-01

    Independents and big boys struggle to keep up with increasing demand and a lack of experienced workers in the Illinois Basin. This is the second of a two part series reviewing the coal mining industry in the Illinois Basin which also includes Indiana and Western Kentucky. It includes a classification/correction to Part 1 of the article published in the September 2005 issue (see Coal Abstracts Entry data/number Dec 2005 00204). 4 photos.

  10. Amazon boundary layer aerosol concentration sustained by vertical transport during rainfall.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Krejci, Radovan; Giangrande, Scott; Kuang, Chongai; Barbosa, Henrique M J; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Chi, Xuguang; Comstock, Jennifer; Ditas, Florian; Lavric, Jost; Manninen, Hanna E; Mei, Fan; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöhlker, Mira L; Saturno, Jorge; Schmid, Beat; Souza, Rodrigo A F; Springston, Stephen R; Tomlinson, Jason M; Toto, Tami; Walter, David; Wimmer, Daniela; Smith, James N; Kulmala, Markku; Machado, Luiz A T; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat O; Petäjä, Tuukka; Martin, Scot T

    2016-11-17

    The nucleation of atmospheric vapours is an important source of new aerosol particles that can subsequently grow to form cloud condensation nuclei in the atmosphere. Most field studies of atmospheric aerosols over continents are influenced by atmospheric vapours of anthropogenic origin (for example, ref. 2) and, in consequence, aerosol processes in pristine, terrestrial environments remain poorly understood. The Amazon rainforest is one of the few continental regions where aerosol particles and their precursors can be studied under near-natural conditions, but the origin of small aerosol particles that grow into cloud condensation nuclei in the Amazon boundary layer remains unclear. Here we present aircraft- and ground-based measurements under clean conditions during the wet season in the central Amazon basin. We find that high concentrations of small aerosol particles (with diameters of less than 50 nanometres) in the lower free troposphere are transported from the free troposphere into the boundary layer during precipitation events by strong convective downdrafts and weaker downward motions in the trailing stratiform region. This rapid vertical transport can help to maintain the population of particles in the pristine Amazon boundary layer, and may therefore influence cloud properties and climate under natural conditions.

  11. Integrating Language Documentation, Language Preservation, and Linguistic Research: Working with the Kokamas from the Amazon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallejos, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the role of speech community members on a series of interconnected projects to document, study and maintain Kokama, a deeply endangered language from the Peruvian Amazon. The remaining fluent speakers of the language are mostly older than 60 years of age, are spread out across various small villages, and speak the language in…

  12. What drives interannual variation in tree ring oxygen isotopes in the Amazon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, J. C. A.; Gloor, M.; Spracklen, D. V.; Arnold, S. R.; Tindall, J. C.; Clerici, S. J.; Leng, M. J.; Brienen, R. J. W.

    2016-11-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios in tree rings (δ18OTR) from northern Bolivia record local precipitation δ18O and correlate strongly with Amazon basin-wide rainfall. While this is encouraging evidence that δ18OTR can be used for paleoclimate reconstructions, it remains unclear whether variation in δ18OTR is truly driven by within-basin processes, thus recording Amazon climate directly, or if the isotope signal may already be imprinted on incoming vapor, perhaps reflecting a pan-tropical climate signal. We use atmospheric back trajectories combined with satellite observations of precipitation, together with water vapor transport analysis to show that δ18OTR in Bolivia are indeed controlled by basin-intrinsic processes, with rainout over the basin the most important factor. Furthermore, interannual variation in basin-wide precipitation and atmospheric circulation are both shown to affect δ18OTR. These findings suggest δ18OTR can be reliably used to reconstruct Amazon precipitation and have implications for the interpretation of other paleoproxy records from the Amazon basin.

  13. Impact of Amazon deforestation on climate simulations using the NCAR CCM2/BATS model

    SciTech Connect

    Hahmann, A.N.; Dickinson, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    Model validation and results are briefly presented for a simulation of deforestation of the Amazon rainforest. This initial study is made using assumptions regarding deforestation similar to those in earlier studies with several versions of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM) couples to the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS). The model used is a revised version of the NCAR CCM Version 2 coupled to BATS Version 1e. This paper discusses the portion of validation dealing with the distribution of precipitation; the simulation displays very good agreement with observed rainfall rates for the austral summer. Preliminary results from an 8-year simulation of deforestation are similar to that of previous studies. Annual precipitation and evaporation are reduced, while surface air temperatures show a slight increase. A substantial bimodal pattern appears in the results, with the Amazon decrease of precipitation and temperature increase accompanied by changes in the opposite sign to the southeast of the Amazon. Similar patterns have occurred in other studies, but not always in exactly the same locations. Evidently, how much of the region of rainfall increase occurs in the deforested area over the Amazon strongly affects the inferred statistics. It is likely that this pattern depends on the model control climatology and possibly other features. 16 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. GoAmazon 2014/15 Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, JN

    2016-04-01

    The Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) deployment to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility T3 site in Manacapuru, Brazil, was motivated by two main scientific objectives of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15 field campaign. 1) Study the interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions by determining important molecular species in ambient nanoparticles. To address this, TDCIMS data will be combined with coincident measurements such as gas-phase sulfuric acid to determine the contribution of sulfuric acid condensation to nucleation and growth. We can then compare that result to TDCIMS-derived nanoparticle composition to determine the fraction of growth that can be attributed to the uptake of organic compounds. The molecular composition of sampled particles will also be used to attribute specific chemical species and mechanisms to growth, such as the condensation of low-volatility species or the oligomerization of α-dicarbonyl compounds. 2) Determine the source of new ambient nanoparticles in the Amazon. The hypothesis prior to measurements was that potassium salts formed from the evaporation of primary particles emitted by fungal spores can provide a unique and important pathway for new particle production in the Amazon basin. To explore this hypothesis, the TDCIMS recorded the mass spectra of sampled ambient particles using a protonated water cluster Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS). Laboratory tests performed using potassium salts show that the TDCIMS can detect potassium with high sensitivity with this technique.

  15. Cloud Condensation Nuclei Activity of Aerosols during GoAmazon 2014/15 Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Martin, S. T.; Kleinman, L.; Thalman, R. M.

    2016-03-01

    Aerosol indirect effects, which represent the impact of aerosols on climate through influencing the properties of clouds, remain one of the main uncertainties in climate predictions (Stocker et al. 2013). Reducing this large uncertainty requires both improved understanding and representation of aerosol properties and processes in climate models, including the cloud activation properties of aerosols. The Atmospheric System Research (ASR) science program plan of January 2010 states that: “A key requirement for simulating aerosol-cloud interactions is the ability to calculate cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei (CCN and IN, respectively) concentrations as a function of supersaturation from the chemical and microphysical properties of the aerosol.” The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon 2014/15) study seeks to understand how aerosol and cloud life cycles are influenced by pollutant outflow from a tropical megacity (Manaus)—in particular, the differences in cloud-aerosol-precipitation interactions between polluted and pristine conditions. One key question of GoAmazon2014/5 is: “What is the influence of the Manaus pollution plume on the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activities of the aerosol particles and the secondary organic material in the particles?” To address this question, we measured size-resolved CCN spectra, a critical measurement for GoAmazon2014/5.

  16. Amazon boundary layer aerosol concentration sustained by vertical transport during rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Krejci, Radovan; Giangrande, Scott; Kuang, Chongai; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Chi, Xuguang; Comstock, Jennifer; Ditas, Florian; Lavric, Jost; Manninen, Hanna E.; Mei, Fan; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Saturno, Jorge; Schmid, Beat; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Toto, Tami; Walter, David; Wimmer, Daniela; Smith, James N.; Kulmala, Markku; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-11-01

    The nucleation of atmospheric vapours is an important source of new aerosol particles that can subsequently grow to form cloud condensation nuclei in the atmosphere. Most field studies of atmospheric aerosols over continents are influenced by atmospheric vapours of anthropogenic origin (for example, ref. 2) and, in consequence, aerosol processes in pristine, terrestrial environments remain poorly understood. The Amazon rainforest is one of the few continental regions where aerosol particles and their precursors can be studied under near-natural conditions, but the origin of small aerosol particles that grow into cloud condensation nuclei in the Amazon boundary layer remains unclear. Here we present aircraft- and ground-based measurements under clean conditions during the wet season in the central Amazon basin. We find that high concentrations of small aerosol particles (with diameters of less than 50 nanometres) in the lower free troposphere are transported from the free troposphere into the boundary layer during precipitation events by strong convective downdrafts and weaker downward motions in the trailing stratiform region. This rapid vertical transport can help to maintain the population of particles in the pristine Amazon boundary layer, and may therefore influence cloud properties and climate under natural conditions.

  17. Off-Farm Work among Rural Households: A Case Study in the Brazilian Amazon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanWey, Leah; Vithayathil, Trina

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes off-farm work among subsistence-level farmers in the Santarem region of the Brazilian Amazon. We build on the literature on rural livelihoods in the Global South by exploring how the opportunity to work off the farm is embedded in social relationships. We additionally differentiate our analysis by type of off-farm work, and…

  18. Bilingual Education and Language Use among the Shipibo of the Peruvian Amazon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tacelosky, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Investigates how language choice for education contributes to changes in the way a society views and uses language in the context of the Peruvian Amazon. Oral surveys were administered to Shipibo people in 13 communities along the Ucayali River of eastern Peru where a transition type bilingual education program was introduced several decades ago.…

  19. Amazon forests maintain consistent canopy structure and greenness during the dry season.

    PubMed

    Morton, Douglas C; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Carabajal, Claudia C; Rosette, Jacqueline; Palace, Michael; Cook, Bruce D; Vermote, Eric F; Harding, David J; North, Peter R J

    2014-02-13

    The seasonality of sunlight and rainfall regulates net primary production in tropical forests. Previous studies have suggested that light is more limiting than water for tropical forest productivity, consistent with greening of Amazon forests during the dry season in satellite data. We evaluated four potential mechanisms for the seasonal green-up phenomenon, including increases in leaf area or leaf reflectance, using a sophisticated radiative transfer model and independent satellite observations from lidar and optical sensors. Here we show that the apparent green up of Amazon forests in optical remote sensing data resulted from seasonal changes in near-infrared reflectance, an artefact of variations in sun-sensor geometry. Correcting this bidirectional reflectance effect eliminated seasonal changes in surface reflectance, consistent with independent lidar observations and model simulations with unchanging canopy properties. The stability of Amazon forest structure and reflectance over seasonal timescales challenges the paradigm of light-limited net primary production in Amazon forests and enhanced forest growth during drought conditions. Correcting optical remote sensing data for artefacts of sun-sensor geometry is essential to isolate the response of global vegetation to seasonal and interannual climate variability.

  20. Synergisms among fire, land use, and climate change in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Mark A; Laurance, William F

    2008-12-01

    The Amazon is being rapidly transformed by fire. Logging and forest fragmentation sharply elevate fire incidence by increasing forest desiccation and fuel loads, and forests that have experienced a low-intensity surface fire are vulnerable to far more catastrophic fires. Satellites typically detect thermal signatures from 40 000 to 50 000 separate fires in the Amazon each year, and this number could increase as new highways and infrastructure expand across the basin. Many are concerned that large-scale deforestation, by reducing regional evapotranspiration and creating moisture-trapping smoke plumes, will make the basin increasingly vulnerable to fire. The Amazon may also be affected by future global warming and atmospheric changes, although much remains uncertain. Most models suggest the basin will become warmer throughout this century, although there is no consensus about how precipitation will be affected. The most alarming scenarios project a permanent disruption of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, leading to greatly increased drought or destructive synergisms between regional and global climate change in the Amazon.

  1. Intestinal helminths in wild Peruvian red uakari monkeys (Cacajao calvus ucayalii) in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Conga, David F; Bowler, Mark; Tantalean, Manuel; Montes, Daniel; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Mayor, Pedro

    2014-04-01

    Parasites are important in the management of the health of primate populations. We examined 36 fecal samples from Peruvian red uakari monkeys (Cacajao calvus ucayalii) collected from wild animals in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon. Samples were positive for helminth infection. Nematodes egg: Strongyloididae, Trypanoxyuris sp., Spirurid, and a cestode egg were identified.

  2. Millennial-scale sea-level control on avulsion events on the Amazon Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslin, Mark; Knutz, Paul C.; Ramsay, Tony

    2006-12-01

    The Late Quaternary Amazon deep-sea fan provides a modern analogue to ancient fan systems containing coarse-grained hydrocarbon reservoirs. Sand lenses deposited within the Amazon Fan, due to abrupt shifts in channel pathways called avulsion events, were drilled as part of ODP Leg 155. The hemipelagic sediment directly on top of the avulsion sands was dated using primarily AMS radio carbon dating. This dating shows that these large sand lobes (˜1 km 3) are triggered by relatively small, millennial scale changes in marine transgression and regression (±5-10 m). Relative sea level also controls the architecture of the Channel-levee distributive systems within the Amazon Fan. For example prior to 22 k calendar years BP there is a tripartite channel system. After 22 ka there is only one active Channel-levee system. Transitions between the multi-channel and single channel configurations are related to variations in the volume of sediment supply resulting in aggradation or erosion of channel floor and levee growth in the canyon-channel transition area. The sensitivity of the Amazon deep-sea Fan sedimentation to relatively small changes in sea level supports one of the central assumptions of the theory of Sequence Stratigraphy. In addition this study demonstrates how traps for hydrocarbons may have been formed in ancient fan systems.

  3. 77 FR 14852 - Advanced Growing Systems, Inc., Advantage Capital Development Corp., Amazon Biotech, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Advanced Growing Systems, Inc., Advantage Capital Development Corp., Amazon Biotech, Inc., Andover... securities of Advantage Capital Development Corp. because it has not filed any periodic reports since...

  4. Metagenome Sequencing of Prokaryotic Microbiota Collected from Rivers in the Upper Amazon Basin

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Júnior, Célio Dias; Kishi, Luciano Takeshi; Toyama, Danyelle; Soares-Costa, Andrea; Oliveira, Tereza Cristina Souza; de Miranda, Fernando Pellon

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tropical freshwater environments, like rivers, are important reservoirs of microbial life. This study employed metagenomic sequencing to survey prokaryotic microbiota in the Solimões, Purus, and Urucu Rivers of the Amazon Basin in Brazil. We report a rich and diverse microbial community. PMID:28082494

  5. Amazon Forests Maintain Consistent Canopy Structure and Greenness During the Dry Season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Rosette, Jacqueline; Palace, Michael; Cook, Bruce D.; Vermote, Eric F.; Harding, David J.; North, Peter R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The seasonality of sunlight and rainfall regulates net primary production in tropical forests. Previous studies have suggested that light is more limiting than water for tropical forest productivity, consistent with greening of Amazon forests during the dry season in satellite data.We evaluated four potential mechanisms for the seasonal green-up phenomenon, including increases in leaf area or leaf reflectance, using a sophisticated radiative transfer model and independent satellite observations from lidar and optical sensors. Here we show that the apparent green up of Amazon forests in optical remote sensing data resulted from seasonal changes in near-infrared reflectance, an artefact of variations in sun-sensor geometry. Correcting this bidirectional reflectance effect eliminated seasonal changes in surface reflectance, consistent with independent lidar observations and model simulations with unchanging canopy properties. The stability of Amazon forest structure and reflectance over seasonal timescales challenges the paradigm of light-limited net primary production in Amazon forests and enhanced forest growth during drought conditions. Correcting optical remote sensing data for artefacts of sun-sensor geometry is essential to isolate the response of global vegetation to seasonal and interannual climate variability.

  6. A social and ecological assessment of tropical land uses at multiple scales: the Sustainable Amazon Network

    EPA Science Inventory

    Science has a critical role to play in guiding more sustainable development trajectories. Here we present the Sustainable Amazon Network (Rede Amazônia Sustentável, RAS): a multi-disciplinary research initiative involving more than 30 partner organisations working to assess both ...

  7. Local and remote climatic impacts due to land use degradation in the Amazon "Arc of Deforestation"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Pereira, Gabriel; da Rocha, Rosmeri Porfírio

    2016-08-01

    Many numerical studies, among them, global and regional models, have been used to simulate climatic impact due to Amazon deforestation. Most of them did not consider deforestation as usually observed and the induced dynamic changes. The present study explores the physical impacts due to Amazon deforestation by considering local and remote changes in the circulation and thermodynamics. For this, numerical experiments were conducted with RegCM3 using a relatively fine horizontal grid spacing (50 km), more realistic deforested areas (similar to the highway-network-shaped), and an updated land use map. The studied period was 2001-2006 October-March. As in most previous studies focusing on Amazon deforestation, the RegCM3-simulated air temperature increases over degraded areas, ranging from 1.0 to 2.5 °C, and precipitation decreases of around 10 %. This result is mainly related to depletion in evapotranspiration rates provided by lesser soil water extraction by the degraded vegetation. The weakening of upward motion in the mid-upper troposphere is an associated mechanism that explains the precipitation decrease after Amazon deforestation. A new result is the simulated precipitation increase, about 10 %, over the eastern South America and the adjacent South Atlantic Ocean. In these areas, the precipitation increase during October-March is associated with intensification of upper-level high pressure (the Bolivian high) coupled with negative geopotential height anomalies southeastward of the center of the high.

  8. Simulated Changes in Northwest U.S. Climate in Response to Amazon Deforestation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerical models have long predicted that the deforestation of the Amazon would lead to large regional changes in precipitation and temperature, but the extratropical effects of deforestation have been a matter of controversy. This paper investigates the simulated impacts of defo...

  9. Satellite Observation of El Nino Effects on Amazon Forest Phenology and Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Townsend, Alan R.; Braswell, Bobby H.

    2000-01-01

    Climate variability may affect the functioning of Amazon moist tropical forests, and recent modeling analyses suggest that the carbon dynamics of the region vary interannually in response to precipitation and temperature anomalies. However, due to persistent orbital and atmospheric artifacts in the satellite record, remote sensing observations have not provided quantitative evidence that climate variation affects Amazon forest phenology or productivity, We developed a method to minimize and quantify non-biological artifacts in NOAA AVHRR satellite data, providing a record of estimated forest phenological variation from 1982-1993. The seasonal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) amplitude (a proxy for phenology) increased throughout much of the basin during El Nino periods when rainfall was anomalously low. Wetter La Nina episodes brought consistently smaller NDVI amplitudes. Using radiative transfer and terrestrial biogeochemical models driven by these satellite data, we estimate that canopy-energy absorption and net primary production of Amazon forests varied interannually by as much as 21% and 18%, respectively. These results provide large-scale observational evidence for interannual sensitivity to El Nino of plant phenology and carbon flux in Amazon forests.

  10. Assesing Hydrophysical/Enivornmenal impacts by Dams in the Amazon (fluvial) Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wight, C.; Latrubesse, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    Growing demands from human activities are increasing the pressure and impacts on the Amazon River basin. Covering almost 40% of South America, the Amazon River basin's health is of global importance. With tributaries in 6 different countries, the anthropogenic impacts on this large system are complex and hard to synthesize. However to better understand large system responses to human impacts such an analysis is called for. Our objective is to organize a rigorous analysis of the potential hydro-physical impacts of dams on the major sub-basins of the Amazon. We are incorporating existing data of sediment fluxes, deforestation and land-use land-change to include the entire extent of the basin as defined by the fluvial unit. In addition, we will be analyzing the spatial distributions of dams (planned, under construction, and constructed) within each sub-basin. Our preliminary results have used statistical analysis and remote sensing to calculate the extent of deforestation on fluvial regimes of the legal Amazon and concentrated to identify the potential disruptions of sediment fluxes. Combining the spatial distributions of dam sites, and deforestation per sub-basin we will develop a system to interpret land-use and land-change per catchment. This in turn will allow us to better predict changes in the fluvial regimes and allow for comparisons of vulnerability.

  11. The Expansion of the Economic Frontier and the Diffusion of Violence in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Patrícia Feitosa; Xavier, Diego Ricardo; Rican, Stephane; de Matos, Vanderlei Pascoal; Barcellos, Christovam

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few decades, the occupation of the Amazon and the expansion of large-scale economic activities have exerted a significant negative impact on the Amazonian environment and on the health of the Amazon’s inhabitants. These processes have altered the context of the manifestation of health problems in time and space and changed the characteristics of the spatial diffusion of health problems in the region. This study analyzed the relationships between the various economic processes of territorial occupation in the Amazon and the spatial diffusion of homicidal violence through the configuration of networks of production, as well as the movements of population and merchandise. Statistical data on violence, deforestation, the production of agricultural items, and socio-economic variables, georeferenced and available for the 771 municipalities of the Legal Amazon were used in this study. The results suggest that the diffusion of violence closely follows the economic expansion front, which is related to deforestation and livestock production but has little relation to grain production, demonstrating steps and typologies of recent occupation in the Amazon that promote violence. These spatial patterns reveal environmental and socio-economic macro-determinants that materialize in geographic space through the construction of highways and the formation of city networks. PMID:26024359

  12. Concentration of Access to Information and Communication Technologies in the Municipalities of the Brazilian Legal Amazon.

    PubMed

    de Brito, Silvana Rossy; da Silva, Aleksandra do Socorro; Cruz, Adejard Gaia; Monteiro, Maurílio de Abreu; Vijaykumar, Nandamudi Lankalapalli; da Silva, Marcelino Silva; Costa, João Crisóstomo Weyl Albuquerque; Francês, Carlos Renato Lisboa

    2016-01-01

    This study fills demand for data on access and use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the Brazilian legal Amazon, a region of localities with identical economic, political, and social problems. We use the 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census to compile data on urban and rural households (i) with computers and Internet access, (ii) with mobile phones, and (iii) with fixed phones. To compare the concentration of access to ICT in the municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon with other regions of Brazil, we use a concentration index to quantify the concentration of households in the following classes: with computers and Internet access, with mobile phones, with fixed phones, and no access. These data are analyzed along with municipal indicators on income, education, electricity, and population size. The results show that for urban households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access and for fixed phones is lower than in other regions of the country; meanwhile, that for no access and mobile phones is higher than in any other region. For rural households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access, mobile phones, and fixed phones is lower than in any other region of the country; meanwhile, that for no access is higher than in any other region. In addition, the study shows that education and income are determinants of inequality in accessing ICT in Brazilian municipalities and that the existence of electricity in rural households is directly associated with the ownership of ICT resources.

  13. Amazon boundary layer aerosol concentration sustained by vertical transport during rainfall

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian; Krejci, Radovan; Giangrande, Scott; Kuang, Chongai; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Chi, Xuguang; Comstock, Jennifer; Ditas, Florian; Lavric, Jost; Manninen, Hanna E.; Mei, Fan; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Saturno, Jorge; Schmid, Beat; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Toto, Tami; Walter, David; Wimmer, Daniela; Smith, James N.; Kulmala, Markku; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-10-24

    The nucleation of atmospheric vapours is an important source of new aerosol particles that can subsequently grow to form cloud condensation nuclei in the atmosphere. Most field studies of atmospheric aerosols over continents are influenced by atmospheric vapours of anthropogenic origin and, in consequence, aerosol processes in pristine, terrestrial environments remain poorly understood. The Amazon rainforest is one of the few continental regions where aerosol particles and their precursors can be studied under near-natural conditions, but the origin of small aerosol particles that grow into cloud condensation nuclei in the Amazon boundary layer remains unclear. Here we present aircraft- and ground-based measurements under clean conditions during the wet season in the central Amazon basin. We find that high concentrations of small aerosol particles (with diameters of less than 50 nanometres) in the lower free troposphere are transported from the free troposphere into the boundary layer during precipitation events by strong convective downdrafts and weaker downward motions in the trailing stratiform region. Lastly, this rapid vertical transport can help to maintain the population of particles in the pristine Amazon boundary layer, and may therefore influence cloud properties and climate under natural conditions.

  14. Amazon boundary layer aerosol concentration sustained by vertical transport during rainfall

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Jian; Krejci, Radovan; Giangrande, Scott; ...

    2016-10-24

    The nucleation of atmospheric vapours is an important source of new aerosol particles that can subsequently grow to form cloud condensation nuclei in the atmosphere. Most field studies of atmospheric aerosols over continents are influenced by atmospheric vapours of anthropogenic origin and, in consequence, aerosol processes in pristine, terrestrial environments remain poorly understood. The Amazon rainforest is one of the few continental regions where aerosol particles and their precursors can be studied under near-natural conditions, but the origin of small aerosol particles that grow into cloud condensation nuclei in the Amazon boundary layer remains unclear. Here we present aircraft- andmore » ground-based measurements under clean conditions during the wet season in the central Amazon basin. We find that high concentrations of small aerosol particles (with diameters of less than 50 nanometres) in the lower free troposphere are transported from the free troposphere into the boundary layer during precipitation events by strong convective downdrafts and weaker downward motions in the trailing stratiform region. Lastly, this rapid vertical transport can help to maintain the population of particles in the pristine Amazon boundary layer, and may therefore influence cloud properties and climate under natural conditions.« less

  15. Ecosystem Diversity and Heterogeneity Determine the Resilience of the Amazon to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorcroft, P. R.; Levine, N. M.; Longo, M.; Powell, T.; Zhang, K.

    2015-12-01

    Amazon Forests, which play a vital role in global water, energy and carbon cycling, are predicted to experience both longer and more intensive dry seasons by the end of the 21st century. However, the climate sensitivity of this ecosystem remains uncertain: several studies have predicted large-scale die-back of the Amazon, while several more recent studies predict that the biome will remain largely intact. In this study we use an individual-based terrestrial ecosystem model to explore the sensitivity and ecological resilience of these forests to changes in climate. Our results show that water stress operating at the scale of individual plants, combined with spatial variation in soil texture, strongly influence the ecosystem's resilience to changes in dry season length. Further analysis shows that two key traits influencing the climatic sensitivity of individuals within the plant canopy are their phenology and hydraulic architecture. In contrast to existing predictions of either stability or catastrophic biomass loss, our analyses indicate that, as a result of these effects of ecosystem diversity and heterogeneity, the Amazon forest's response to a drying regional climate is likely to be an immediate, graded, heterogeneous transition from high biomass moist forests to transitional dry forests and woody savannah ecosystems. While fire, logging and other anthropogenic disturbances may exacerbate the impacts of climate-induced changes, our analysis indicates considerable spatial variation in the vulnerability of Amazon forests to human induced climate change.

  16. Soluble iron nutrients in Saharan dust over the central Amazon rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzolo, Joana A.; Barbosa, Cybelli G. G.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Godoi, Ana F. L.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Manzi, Antônio O.; Sá, Marta O.; Alves, Eliane G.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Angelis, Isabella H.; Ditas, Florian; Saturno, Jorge; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Rizzo, Luciana V.; Rosário, Nilton E.; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Santos, Rosa M. N.; Yamamoto, Carlos I.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Artaxo, Paulo; Taylor, Philip E.; Godoi, Ricardo H. M.

    2017-02-01

    The intercontinental transport of aerosols from the Sahara desert plays a significant role in nutrient cycles in the Amazon rainforest, since it carries many types of minerals to these otherwise low-fertility lands. Iron is one of the micronutrients essential for plant growth, and its long-range transport might be an important source for the iron-limited Amazon rainforest. This study assesses the bioavailability of iron Fe(II) and Fe(III) in the particulate matter over the Amazon forest, which was transported from the Sahara desert (for the sake of our discussion, this term also includes the Sahel region). The sampling campaign was carried out above and below the forest canopy at the ATTO site (Amazon Tall Tower Observatory), a near-pristine area in the central Amazon Basin, from March to April 2015. Measurements reached peak concentrations for soluble Fe(III) (48 ng m-3), Fe(II) (16 ng m-3), Na (470 ng m-3), Ca (194 ng m-3), K (65 ng m-3), and Mg (89 ng m-3) during a time period of dust transport from the Sahara, as confirmed by ground-based and satellite remote sensing data and air mass backward trajectories. Dust sampled above the Amazon canopy included primary biological aerosols and other coarse particles up to 12 µm in diameter. Atmospheric transport of weathered Saharan dust, followed by surface deposition, resulted in substantial iron bioavailability across the rainforest canopy. The seasonal deposition of dust, rich in soluble iron, and other minerals is likely to assist both bacteria and fungi within the topsoil and on canopy surfaces, and especially benefit highly bioabsorbent species. In this scenario, Saharan dust can provide essential macronutrients and micronutrients to plant roots, and also directly to plant leaves. The influence of this input on the ecology of the forest canopy and topsoil is discussed, and we argue that this influence would likely be different from that of nutrients from the weathered Amazon bedrock, which otherwise provides the

  17. Fluid dynamics, sediment transport and turbulent mixing at large confluences of the Amazon River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevethan, Mark; Gualtieri, Carlo; Filizola, Naziano; Ianniruberto, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The Clim-Amazon Project aims to study temporal sedimentary records to understand the mechanisms involved in climate and geodynamic changes and the processes involved in dissolved and suspended load evolution of the Amazon River basin from the Miocene to present. The knowledge of the present Amazon River sediment discharge and of its variability is fundamental since it can be linked to the on-going climatic and erosion processes at the regional scale. Understanding the relationships between these processes will be helpful to better interpret the observations of the past sedimentation rates. Within this general objective the aim of this study is to investigate the complex fluid dynamics, sediment transport and water quality processes occurring at the large confluences in the Amazon River, through a combination of theoretical, experimental (field) and numerical research. In the last decades a wide body of theoretical, experimental, and field research has emerged on the fluvial dynamics of river confluences, which are integral and ubiquitous features of river networks. Through this research substantial advances have been made into understanding the hydrodynamics and morphodynamics of river confluences which will be outlined here. However, to date most experimental studies have focused either on laboratory confluences or on small to medium sized natural confluences, whereas an extremely limited number of investigations about the confluences on large rivers. Presently little is understood about how river confluence hydrodynamics may vary with the size of the river, especially in the largest rivers. The Amazon River is the largest river in the World, with approximately 15,000 sub-branches joining the Amazon River within the Amazon Basin including some of the largest confluences on Earth. A study region containing three of the larger confluences between Manacapuru and Itacoatiara will be used as part of this study, with the primary focus being the confluence of the Rio

  18. Ecuadorean-Peruvian Rivalry in the Upper Amazon,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    Colombian forces gathering to attack Guayaquil. However, on the night of June 6 La Mar was overthrown by Gamarra and shipped off to an exile in Costa Rica ...occurred since Betancourt’s address to the Council, Venezuela and Costa Rica had refused, in line with the Betancourt doctrine, to recognize the new...called Alto Matapalo or Isla Noblecilla without orders from headquarters (July 1939). Although this place was on the western frontier, it happened to

  19. Population Genetics of Plasmodium vivax in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Ratto, Christopher; Gamboa, Dionicia; Soto-Calle, Veronica E.; Van den Eede, Peter; Torres, Eliana; Sánchez-Martínez, Luis; Contreras-Mancilla, Juan; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Rodriguez Ferrucci, Hugo; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Erhart, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Background Characterizing the parasite dynamics and population structure provides useful information to understand the dynamic of transmission and to better target control interventions. Despite considerable efforts for its control, vivax malaria remains a major health problem in Peru. In this study, we have explored the population genetics of Plasmodium vivax isolates from Iquitos, the main city in the Peruvian Amazon, and 25 neighbouring peri-urban as well as rural villages along the Iquitos-Nauta Road. Methodology/ Results From April to December 2008, 292 P. vivax isolates were collected and successfully genotyped using 14 neutral microsatellites. Analysis of the molecular data revealed a similar proportion of monoclonal and polyclonal infections in urban areas, while in rural areas monoclonal infections were predominant (p = 0.002). Multiplicity of infection was higher in urban (MOI = 1.5–2) compared to rural areas (MOI = 1) (p = 0.003). The level of genetic diversity was similar in all areas (He = 0.66–0.76, p = 0.32) though genetic differentiation between areas was substantial (PHIPT = 0.17, p<0.0001). Principal coordinate analysis showed a marked differentiation between parasites from urban and rural areas. Linkage disequilibrium was detected in all the areas (IAs = 0.08–0.49, for all p<0.0001). Gene flow among the areas was stablished through Bayesian analysis of migration models. Recent bottleneck events were detected in 4 areas and a recent parasite expansion in one of the isolated areas. In total, 87 unique haplotypes grouped in 2 or 3 genetic clusters described a sub-structured parasite population. Conclusion/Significance Our study shows a sub-structured parasite population with clonal propagation, with most of its components recently affected by bottleneck events. Iquitos city is the main source of parasite spreading for all the peripheral study areas. The routes of transmission and gene flow and the reduction of the parasite population described

  20. Determinants of partial bird migration in the Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Alex E; Levey, Douglas J; Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Mamani, Ana María

    2010-09-01

    1. Little is known about mechanisms that drive migration of birds at tropical latitudes. Because most migratory bird species in South America have populations that are present year-round, partial migration (in which only some individuals of a given population migrate at the end of the breeding season) is likely to be common, providing an opportunity to assess proximate mechanisms of migration. 2. Two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses explaining intraspecific variation in migratory behaviour were tested in a Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus population in the southern Amazon Basin, where a dramatic dry season decrease in the abundance of insect food for kingbirds may promote migration of some individuals. 3. The Dominance hypothesis predicts sub-dominant individuals migrate at the end of the breeding season and dominant individuals do not, whereas the Body Size hypothesis predicts smaller individuals migrate and larger individuals do not. 4. Based on 4 years of data on individually-marked birds, strong support was found for occurrence of partial migration in the study population. 5. In the best model, the largest males (which are typically older and dominant to younger individuals) had the highest probability of migrating. Younger females (which are the smallest individuals in the population) were also more likely to migrate than other kingbirds, except the largest males. Thus, an individual's probability of migrating was associated with a more complex interaction of size, age and sex than predicted by current hypotheses. 6. These results suggest that determinants of migratory behaviour differ between North temperate and tropical latitudes. Most tests of partial migration theory have been conducted on granivores (e.g. emberizids) or omnivores (e.g. turdids and icterids) at North temperate latitudes, where seasonality is primarily defined by temperature cycles. In tropical South America, however, the most common long-distance migrants are primarily

  1. Biomass Burning Related Ozone Damage on Vegetation Over the Amazon Forest: a Model Sensitivity Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitch, S.; Folberth, G.; Pacifico, F.; Haywood, J. M.; Malavelle, F.; Rizzo, L. V.; Artaxo, P.

    2015-12-01

    The HadGEM2 earth system climate model was used to assess the impact of biomass burning on surface ozone concentrations over the Amazon forest and its impact on vegetation, under present-day climate conditions. Here we consider biomass burning emissions from wildfires, deforestation fires, agricultural forest burning, and residential and commercial combustion. Simulated surface ozone concentration is evaluated against observations taken at two sites in the Brazilian Amazon forest for years 2010 to 2012. The model is able to reproduce the observed diurnal cycle of surface ozone mixing ratio at the two sites, but overestimates the magnitude of the monthly averaged hourly measurements by 5-15 ppb for each available month at one of the sites. We vary biomass burning emissions over South America by ± 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% to quantify the modelled impact of biomass burning on surface ozone concentrations and ozone damage on vegetation productivity over the Amazon forest. We used the ozone damage scheme in the "high" sensitivity mode to give an upper limit for this effect. Decreasing South American biomass burning emissions by 100% (i.e. to zero) reduces surface ozone concentrations (by about 15 ppb during the biomass burning season) and suggests a 15% increase in monthly mean net primary productivity averaged over the Amazon forest, with local increases up to 60 %. The simulated impact of ozone damage from present-day biomass burning on vegetation productivity is about 230 TgC yr-1. Taking into account that uncertainty in these estimates is substantial, this ozone damage impact over the Amazon forest is of the same order of magnitude as the release of carbon dioxide due to fire in South America; in effect it potentially doubles the impact of biomass burning on the carbon cycle.

  2. Measurement of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon using satellite remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Skole, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding of the role of the biota in the global carbon cycle is limited by an absence of accurate measurements of deforestation rates in the tropics. This study measures the rate and extent of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, the largest extant tropical forest biome in the world. The study uses remote sensing measurements of deforestation rates, the area of secondary vegetation, and tabular data to document deforestation. The analysis concludes: (1) AVHRR will greatly overestimate deforestation and be highly variable; the use of a brightness temperature threshold is highly sensitive and unreliable. The upward bias of AVHRR is a function of the density of deforestation. (2) Accurate measurement of deforestation requires Landsat TM data, and can be accomplished using low cost visual interpretation of photographic products at 1:250,000 scales. (3) Secondary growth in the Brazilian Amazon represents a large fraction of the total deforested area, and the abandonment of agricultural land is an important land cover transition. Abandonment rates were 70--83% of clearing rates from primary forests. At any one point in time, approximately 30% of the deforested area is in some stage of abandonment, and quite likely nearly all deforested land becomes abandoned after approximately 5 years. (4) Previous estimates of the total area deforested in the Amazon, as well as deforestation rates, have been too high by as much as 4-fold. A complete assessment of the entire Legal Amazon using over 200 Landsat images measures 251 [times] 10[sup 3] km[sup 2] deforestation as of 1988, or approximately 6% of the closed forests of the region. The average annual rate of deforestation between 1978 and 1988 was 18 [times] 10[sup 3] km[sup 2] yr[sup [minus]1]. These findings suggest the estimates of carbon emissions from the Amazon for the late 1980s have been too high, since the area of regrowth is large and rates of deforestation are lower than previously believed.

  3. Sediment dynamics within the intertidal floodplain of the lower Amazon River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, A. T.; Nittrouer, C. A.; Ogston, A. S.; Nowacki, D. J.; Asp, N. E.; Souza Filho, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    Tidal influence extends ~800 kilometers upstream of the Amazon River mouth, producing semidiurnal oscillations in water elevation and slowing or reversing the flow of the world's largest river. This tidally influenced reach, known as the tidal river, is flanked by an expansive intertidal floodplain, and includes confluences with two large tributaries, the Xingu and Tapajós. The relative magnitude of the seasonal and tidal signals changes along the length of the tidal river, yielding diverse floodplain environments that span a range of seasonal and tidal influence. Near the upstream limit of tides, natural levees isolate the river from the floodplain during low to moderate flows, while in the lower tidal river, natural levees are absent and river-floodplain exchange is dominated by the tides rather than seasonal variation in river stage. This difference between fluvial and tidal systems strongly affects the nature of sediment exchange between the channel and floodplain, including frequency, duration, and depth of inundation. Here we present data on the impact of this fluvial-tidal continuum on sedimentary processes in the floodplain and resultant depositional signatures. Changes in levee prominence, grain size, and sediment accumulation combine to produce the distinct morphologies of floodplain lakes, intertidal backswamps, and intertidal flats. In addition to sediment accumulation on the periodically exposed floodplain, Amazon River sediment accumulates within the drowned tributary confluences of the Xingu and Tapajós Rivers. Here seasonal and tidal changes in water temperature, discharge, and suspended-sediment concentration drive barotropic and baroclinic flows that transport Amazon River sediment into tributary basins. These findings help to constrain the fate of sediment within the ungauged Amazon tidal river, and will help in understanding the response of the lower Amazon River to changes in accommodation space associated with rising sea level, and changes

  4. Trapping of sediment along the Amazon tidal river in diverse floodplain environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, A. T.; Nittrouer, C. A.; Ogston, A. S.; Nowacki, D. J.; Souza Filho, P. W.; Silveira, O.; Asp, N. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Amazon tidal river, the freshwater reach that is influenced by tides, extends roughly 800 kilometers upstream of the river mouth. Previous studies suggest that up to one third of the sediment measured at the upstream limit of tides does not reach the ocean, and is likely trapped along the tidal river. Here we present data from a variety of depositional environments along this reach, including intertidal vegetated floodplains, floodplain lakes, and drowned tributary confluences. Sediment delivery to each of these environments is temporally variable as a result of changing tides and river stage, and spatially variable along the continuum from the purely fluvial upstream condition to the strongly tidal downstream environment. Short-term instrument records and direct observations are paired with sedimentological and radiochemical techniques to identify mechanisms of sediment exchange between river and floodplain and associated patterns of sediment accumulation. Sediments in vegetated intertidal floodplains exhibit tidal laminations and incised channel networks similar to muddy marine intertidal areas. Floodplain lakes experience dramatic seasonal changes in size, and during high flows of the river skim water and sediment from the Amazon River by providing a shortcut relative to the meandering mainstem. Amazon sediment is fluxed into the drowned tributary confluences (rías) of the Xingu and Tapajos Rivers by density-driven underflows. In the Tapajos Ría, sediment from the Amazon River has built a 25-km long birdfoot delta, suggesting these tributaries may be net sinks of sediment, rather than sources. These findings help define the importance of each tidal environment in trapping Amazon sediment before it reaches the marine environment.

  5. Regional atmospheric CO2 inversion reveals seasonal and geographic differences in Amazon net biome exchange.

    PubMed

    Alden, Caroline B; Miller, John B; Gatti, Luciana V; Gloor, Manuel M; Guan, Kaiyu; Michalak, Anna M; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T; Touma, Danielle; Andrews, Arlyn; Basso, Luana S; Correia, Caio S C; Domingues, Lucas G; Joiner, Joanna; Krol, Maarten C; Lyapustin, Alexei I; Peters, Wouter; Shiga, Yoichi P; Thoning, Kirk; van der Velde, Ivar R; van Leeuwen, Thijs T; Yadav, Vineet; Diffenbaugh, Noah S

    2016-10-01

    Understanding tropical rainforest carbon exchange and its response to heat and drought is critical for quantifying the effects of climate change on tropical ecosystems, including global climate-carbon feedbacks. Of particular importance for the global carbon budget is net biome exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere (NBE), which represents nonfire carbon fluxes into and out of biomass and soils. Subannual and sub-Basin Amazon NBE estimates have relied heavily on process-based biosphere models, despite lack of model agreement with plot-scale observations. We present a new analysis of airborne measurements that reveals monthly, regional-scale (~1-8 × 10(6)  km(2) ) NBE variations. We develop a regional atmospheric CO2 inversion that provides the first analysis of geographic and temporal variability in Amazon biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange and that is minimally influenced by biosphere model-based first guesses of seasonal and annual mean fluxes. We find little evidence for a clear seasonal cycle in Amazon NBE but do find NBE sensitivity to aberrations from long-term mean climate. In particular, we observe increased NBE (more carbon emitted to the atmosphere) associated with heat and drought in 2010, and correlations between wet season NBE and precipitation (negative correlation) and temperature (positive correlation). In the eastern Amazon, pulses of increased NBE persisted through 2011, suggesting legacy effects of 2010 heat and drought. We also identify regional differences in postdrought NBE that appear related to long-term water availability. We examine satellite proxies and find evidence for higher gross primary productivity (GPP) during a pulse of increased carbon uptake in 2011, and lower GPP during a period of increased NBE in the 2010 dry season drought, but links between GPP and NBE changes are not conclusive. These results provide novel evidence of NBE sensitivity to short-term temperature and moisture extremes in the Amazon, where monthly and sub

  6. The ambiguity of drought events, a bottleneck for Amazon forest drought response modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deurwaerder, Hannes; Verbeeck, Hans; Baker, Timothy; Christoffersen, Bradley; Ciais, Philippe; Galbraith, David; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Kruijt, Bart; Langerwisch, Fanny; Meir, Patrick; Rammig, Anja; Thonicke, Kirsten; Von Randow, Celso; Zhang, Ke

    2016-04-01

    Considering the important role of the Amazon forest in the global water and carbon cycle, the prognosis of altered hydrological patterns resulting from climate change provides strong incentive for apprehending the direct implications of drought on the vegetation of this ecosystem. Dynamic global vegetation models have the potential of providing a useful tool to study drought impacts on various spatial and temporal scales. This however assumes the models being able to properly represent drought impact mechanisms. But how well do the models succeed in meeting this assumption? Within this study meteorological driver data and model output data of 4 different DGVMs, i.e. ORCHIDEE, JULES, INLAND and LPGmL, are studied. Using the palmer drought severity index (PDSI) and the mean cumulative water deficit (MWD), temporal and spatial representation of drought events are studied in the driver data and are referenced to historical extreme drought events in the Amazon. Subsequently, within the resulting temporal and spatial frame, we studied the drought impact on the above ground biomass (AGB) and gross primary production (GPP) fluxes. Flux tower data, field inventory data and the JUNG data-driven GPP product for the Amazon region are used for validation. Our findings not only suggest that the current state of the studied DGVMs is inadequate in representing Amazon droughts in general, but also highlights strong inter-model differences in drought responses. Using scatterplot-studies and input-output correlations, we provide insight in the origin of these encountered inter-model differences. In addition, we present directives of model development and improvement in scope of Amazon forest drought response modelling.

  7. Amazon Basin climate under global warming: the role of the sea surface temperature.

    PubMed

    Harris, Phil P; Huntingford, Chris; Cox, Peter M

    2008-05-27

    The Hadley Centre coupled climate-carbon cycle model (HadCM3LC) predicts loss of the Amazon rainforest in response to future anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, the atmospheric component of HadCM3LC is used to assess the role of simulated changes in mid-twenty-first century sea surface temperature (SST) in Amazon Basin climate change. When the full HadCM3LC SST anomalies (SSTAs) are used, the atmosphere model reproduces the Amazon Basin climate change exhibited by HadCM3LC, including much of the reduction in Amazon Basin rainfall. This rainfall change is shown to be the combined effect of SSTAs in both the tropical Atlantic and the Pacific, with roughly equal contributions from each basin. The greatest rainfall reduction occurs from May to October, outside of the mature South American monsoon (SAM) season. This dry season response is the combined effect of a more rapid warming of the tropical North Atlantic relative to the south, and warm SSTAs in the tropical east Pacific. Conversely, a weak enhancement of mature SAM season rainfall in response to Atlantic SST change is suppressed by the atmospheric response to Pacific SST. This net wet season response is sufficient to prevent dry season soil moisture deficits from being recharged through the SAM season, leading to a perennial soil moisture reduction and an associated 30% reduction in annual Amazon Basin net primary productivity (NPP). A further 23% NPP reduction occurs in response to a 3.5 degrees C warmer air temperature associated with a global mean SST warming.

  8. SRTM C and X Band Measurements of Water Elevations in Ohio and the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiel, B.; Alsdorf, D.; Lefavour, G.

    2005-12-01

    Hydrologists, water resource managers, and engineers recognize the potential of remote sensing for acquiring hydraulic measurements necessary for estimating discharge and storage changes globally, and thus have formed a community proposing the Water Elevation Recovery satellite mission (WatER). The WatER technological heritage is directly based on the highly successful Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and its C-band and X-band digital elevation models (DEMs). SRTM is not only a technological heritage for WatER but also a baseline measurement by which we can assess the potential of remote sensing to collect measurements of h, dh/dx and dh/dt. Water surface elevations are abundant in both the C-band and X-band SRTM DEMs. Elevations from three Ohio reservoirs and several Amazon floodplain lakes have standard deviations, interpreted as errors, that are smaller in C-band compared to X-band and are smaller in Ohio than in the Amazon. These trends are also evident when comparing water surface elevations from the Muskingum River in Ohio with those of the Amazon River. Differences are attributed to increased averaging in C-band compared to X-band, greater sensitivity to surface water motion in X-band, and generally larger off-nadir look angles in X-band. Absolute water surface elevations are greater in the C-band DEM for much of the two study areas and yield expected slope values on the Amazon River. However, X-band DEM values for the Amazon River are below sea level downstream of Sao Jose do Amatari (~600 km upstream of Obidos) and have some slope values that are greater than expected. These absolute height and slope differences are attributed to the usage of differing vertical datums.

  9. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 Terrestrial Ecosystem Project (Geco) Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, Kolby

    2016-06-01

    In conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility GoAmazon campaign, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science (TES)-funded Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon 2014/15) terrestrial ecosystem project (Geco) was designed to: • evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of leaf-level algorithms for biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions in Amazon forests near Manaus, Brazil, and • conduct mechanistic field studies to characterize biochemical and physiological processes governing leaf- and landscape-scale tropical forest BVOC emissions, and the influence of environmental drivers that are expected to change with a warming climate. Through a close interaction between modeling and observational activities, including the training of MS and PhD graduate students, post-doctoral students, and technicians at the National Institute for Amazon Research (INPA), the study aimed at improving the representation of BVOC-mediated biosphere-atmosphere interactions and feedbacks under a warming climate. BVOCs can form cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that influence precipitation dynamics and modify the quality of down welling radiation for photosynthesis. However, our ability to represent these coupled biosphere-atmosphere processes in Earth system models suffers from poor understanding of the functions, identities, quantities, and seasonal patterns of BVOC emissions from tropical forests as well as their biological and environmental controls. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), the current BVOC sub-model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), was evaluated to explore mechanistic controls over BVOC emissions. Based on that analysis, a combination of observations and experiments were studied in forests near Manaus, Brazil, to test existing parameterizations and algorithm structures in MEGAN. The model was actively modified as needed to improve tropical BVOC emission simulations on

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Manacapuru, Brazil for the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON) Field Campaign

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Amazon rain forest in Brazil is the largest broadleaf forest in the world, covering 7 million square kilometers of the Amazon Basin in South America. It represents over half of the planet’s remaining rain forests, and comprises the most biodiverse tract of tropical rain forest on the planet. Due to the sheer size of the Amazon rain forest, the area has a strong impact on the climate in the Southern Hemisphere. To understand the intricacies of the natural state of the Amazon rain forest, the Green Ocean Amazon, or GOAMAZON, field campaign is a two-year scientific collaboration among U.S. and Brazilian research organizations. They are conducting a variety of different experiments with dozens of measurement tools, using both ground and aerial instrumentation, including the ARM Aerial Facility's G-1 aircraft. For more information on the holistic view of the campaign, see the Department of Energy’s GOAMAZON website. As a critical component of GOAMAZON, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) will obtain measurements near Manacapuru, south of Manaus, Brazil, from January to December 2014. The city of Manaus, with a population of 3 million, uses high-sulfur oil as their primary source of electricity. The AMF site is situated to measure the atmospheric extremes of a pristine atmosphere and the nearby cities’ pollution plume, as it regularly intersects with the site. Along with other instrument systems located at the Manacapuru site, this deployment will enable scientists to study how aerosol and cloud life cycles are influenced by pollutant outflow from a tropical megacity.

  11. Insight on the Peruvian Amazon River: A Planform Metric Characterization of its Morphodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, A. M. P.; Ortals, C.; Frias, C. E.; Abad, J. D.; Vizcarra, J.

    2014-12-01

    Starting in Peru, the Amazon River flows through Colombia and Brazil; additionally, tributaries from Bolivia, Venezuela, and Ecuador contribute to the massive river and its unique geomorphic features. Accordingly, the Amazon Basin has become an important aspect of South America; it is an area of extraordinary biodiversity, rich resources, and unique cultures. However, due to the sheer magnitude and exceptionality of the Amazon River, research regarding the morphodynamic processes that shape and define the river has been difficult. Consequently, current research has not completely understood the planform dynamics of some portions of this river that present a main channel and secondary channels known as "anabranching structures". The purpose of this research was to gain an understanding of the geomorphology of the upper Amazon, the Peruvian section, by obtaining migration rates and planform metrics, including channel count, length, width, and sinuosity, as well as island count, area, and shape. With this data, the morphodynamics of the Peruvian Amazon, especially the relationship between the main channel and its secondary channels in each "anabranching structure" along the river, could be analyzed according to correlations found between various metrics. This analysis was carried out for 5-year time spans over a period of 25 years. Preliminary results showed that the average migration rate versus channel bend radius envelope peak is lower for the secondary channels than for the main channel. However, the maximum migration rate was not always found in the main channel; for several structures, the most dynamic channels were the secondary ones. This implies a certain periodicity to the river's migratory patterns that could be related to the valley boundaries, the local channel sinuosity or geological formations in the study area.

  12. Biomass burning related ozone damage on vegetation over the Amazon forest: a model sensitivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacifico, F.; Folberth, G. A.; Sitch, S.; Haywood, J. M.; Rizzo, L. V.; Malavelle, F. F.; Artaxo, P.

    2015-03-01

    The HadGEM2 earth system climate model was used to assess the impact of biomass burning on surface ozone concentrations over the Amazon forest and its impact on vegetation, under present-day climate conditions. Here we consider biomass burning emissions from wildfires, deforestation fires, agricultural forest burning, and residential and commercial combustion. Simulated surface ozone concentration is evaluated against observations taken at two sites in the Brazilian Amazon forest for years 2010 to 2012. The model is able to reproduce the observed diurnal cycle of surface ozone mixing ratio at the two sites, but overestimates the magnitude of the monthly averaged hourly measurements by 5-15 ppb for each available month at one of the sites. We vary biomass burning emissions over South America by ±20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% to quantify the modelled impact of biomass burning on surface ozone concentrations and ozone damage on vegetation productivity over the Amazon forest. We used the ozone damage scheme in the "high" sensitivity mode to give an upper limit for this effect. Decreasing South American biomass burning emissions by 100% (i.e. to zero) reduces surface ozone concentrations (by about 15 ppb during the biomass burning season) and suggests a 15% increase in monthly mean net primary productivity averaged over the Amazon forest, with local increases up to 60%. The simulated impact of ozone damage from present-day biomass burning on vegetation productivity is about 230 TgC yr-1. Taking into account that uncertainty in these estimates is substantial, this ozone damage impact over the Amazon forest is of the same order of magnitude as the release of carbon dioxide due to fire in South America; in effect it potentially doubles the impact of biomass burning on the carbon cycle.

  13. Monitoring the spreading of the Amazon freshwater plume by MODIS, SMOS, Aquarius and TOPAZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korosov, Anton; Counillon, Francois; Johannessen, Johnny A.

    2015-04-01

    A synergistic tool for studying the Amazon River Plume dynamics based on a novel algorithm for deriving sea surface salinity (SSS) from MODIS reflectance data together with SSS data from the SMOS and Aquarius satellites and the TOPAZ data assimilation system is proposed. The new algorithm is based on a neural network to relate spectral remote sensing reflectance measured by MODIS with SSS measured by SMOS in the Amazon river plume. The algorithm is validated against independent in-situ data and is found to be valid in the range of SSS from 29 to 35 psu, for the period of highest rates of Amazon River discharge with RMSE=0.79 psu and R2=0.84. Monthly SSS fields were reconstructed from the MODIS data for late summers from 2002 to 2012 at a 10 km resolution and compared to surface currents and SSS derived from the TOPAZ reanalysis system. The two datasets reveal striking agreement, suggesting that the TOPAZ system could be used for a detailed study of the Amazon River plume dynamics. Both the position and speed of the North Brazilian Current as well as the spreading of the Amazon River plume are monitored. In particular a recurrent mechanism was observed for the spreading of the rivers plumes, notably that the fresh water is usually advected towards the Caribbean Sea by the North Brazilian Current but get diverted into the tropical Atlantic when North Brazilian Current rings are shed. Innovative method for satellite data temporal morphing based on remotely sensed surface ocean currents allow to derive SSS at unprecedented spatial (1km) and temporal (1 day) resolution.

  14. The Pools, Fluxes and Residence Time of Water Across the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, G. R.; Fisher, J. B.; McDonnell, J.; Malhi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    What can ecology tell us about the hydrology of the Amazon? And what can hydrology tell us about the ecology? From a hydrological perspective, plant water storage and use contributes to determining the rate and time scales at which water is recycled from soil to the atmosphere. From an ecological perspective, plant water storage and use contributes to determining the rate and time scales at which water plants can support function. Conceptualized as residence time, the relationship between plant water storage and use can provide fundamental insights into ecohydrology. We explore the spatial variation in the aboveground storage, use, and residence time of water across the Amazon. To do so, we pair estimates of aboveground woody biomass from 413 1-ha old growth forest census plots situated across the Amazon Basin with high resolution estimates of intra- and inter- annual evapotranspiration derived from remote sensing. Aboveground water storage capacity (17.4 ± 6.3 mm) and evapotranspiration (3.7 ± 0.4 mm day-1) result in a residence time of 4.7 ± 1.5 days, equivalent to the use of ca. 24% of stored water day-1. The results indicate that residence time varies due to a predictable relationship between evapotranspiration and biomass at local, regional and landscape scales. The ecohydrology of the Amazon plays a critical role in water and carbon cycling on a global scale. We discuss how our results can help inform our understanding of both the hydrology and ecology of the Amazon Basin in the context of anthropogenic change.

  15. Beyond a western bioethics?

    PubMed

    Ryan, Maura A

    2004-03-01

    Like theology and ethics generally, bioethics has increasingly developed a global consciousness. Controversies over AIDS research and access to affordable AIDS treatment have generated new awareness about the importance of international collaboration as well as the difficulty of achieving moral consensus across economic, political, and cultural divides. Advances in scientific and medical knowledge through initiatives such as the Human Genome Project invite new questions about the nature of health care as a common good. This budding global consciousness serves as a starting point for examining contemporary challenges to the secular, principle-based Western bioethics that has dominated national and international debate for three decades.

  16. The Western Blot.

    PubMed

    Hnasko, Thomas S; Hnasko, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Western blotting is a technique that involves the separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis, their blotting or transfer to a membrane, and selective immunodetection of an immobilized antigen. This is an important and routine method for protein analysis that depends on the specificity of antibody-antigen interaction and is useful for the qualitative or semiquantitative identification of specific proteins and their molecular weight from a complex mixture. This chapter will outline the requisite steps including gel electrophoresis of a protein sample, transfer of protein from a gel to a membrane support, and immunodetection of a target antigen.

  17. Large barchanoid dunes in the Amazon River and the rock record: Implications for interpreting large river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Renato Paes de; Galeazzi, Cristiano Padalino; Freitas, Bernardo Tavares; Janikian, Liliane; Ianniruberto, Marco; Marconato, André

    2016-11-01

    The interpretation of large river deposits from the rock record is hampered by the scarcity of direct observations of active large river systems. That is particularly true for deep-channel environments, where tens of meters deep flows dominate. These conditions are extremely different from what is found in smaller systems, from which current facies models were derived. MBES and shallow seismic surveys in a selected area of the Upper Amazonas River in Northern Brazil revealed the presence of large compound barchanoid dunes along the channel thalweg. The dunes are characterized by V-shaped, concave-downstream crest lines and convex-up longitudinal profiles, hundreds of meters wide, up to 300 m in wavelength and several meters high. Based on the morphology of compound dunes, expected preserved sedimentary structures are broad, large-scale, low-angle, concave up and downstream cross-strata, passing laterally and downstream to inclined cosets. Examples of such structures from large river deposits in the rock record are described in the Silurian Serra Grande Group and the Cretaceous São Sebastião and Marizal formations in Northeastern Brazil, as well as in Triassic Hawkesburry Sandstone in Southeastern Australia and the Plio-Pleistocene Içá Formation in the western Amazon. All these sedimentary structures are found near channel base surfaces and are somewhat coarser than the overlying fluvial deposits, favoring the interpretation of thalweg depositional settings. The recognition of large barchanoid dunes as bedforms restricted to river thalwegs and probably to large river systems brings the possibility of establishing new criteria for the interpretation of fluvial system scale in the rock record. Sedimentary structures compatible with the morphological characteristics of these bedforms seem to be relatively common in large river deposits, given their initial recognition in five different fluvial successions in Brazil and Australia, potentially enabling substantial

  18. Strong coupling of plant and fungal community structure across western Amazonian rainforests.

    PubMed

    Peay, Kabir G; Baraloto, Christopher; Fine, Paul V A

    2013-09-01

    The Amazon basin harbors a diverse ecological community that has a critical role in the maintenance of the biosphere. Although plant and animal communities have received much attention, basic information is lacking for fungal or prokaryotic communities. This is despite the fact that recent ecological studies have suggested a prominent role for interactions with soil fungi in structuring the diversity and abundance of tropical rainforest trees. In this study, we characterize soil fungal communities across three major tropical forest types in the western Amazon basin (terra firme, seasonally flooded and white sand) using 454 pyrosequencing. Using these data, we examine the relationship between fungal diversity and tree species richness, and between fungal community composition and tree species composition, soil environment and spatial proximity. We find that the fungal community in these ecosystems is diverse, with high degrees of spatial variability related to forest type. We also find strong correlations between α- and β-diversity of soil fungi and trees. Both fungal and plant community β-diversity were also correlated with differences in environmental conditions. The correlation between plant and fungal richness was stronger in fungal lineages known for biotrophic strategies (for example, pathogens, mycorrhizas) compared with a lineage known primarily for saprotrophy (yeasts), suggesting that this coupling is, at least in part, due to direct plant-fungal interactions. These data provide a much-needed look at an understudied dimension of the biota in an important ecosystem and supports the hypothesis that fungal communities are involved in the regulation of tropical tree diversity.

  19. Comment by J.P. Figueiredo, & Hoorn, C. on 'Late Miocene sedimentary environments in south-western Amazonia (Solimões Formation; Brazil)' by Martin Gross, Werner E. Piller, Maria Ines Ramos, Jackson Douglas da Silva Paz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Jorge Jesus Picanço

    2012-04-01

    In their paper Gross et al., 2011 present an excellent description of a series of outcrops from the Eirunepe region in western Amazonia (Brazil). The authors interpret these sediments as relics of a Late Miocene anastomosing fluvial system and conclude that the paleogeography of the entire western Amazon region must have been characterized by this environmental setting. They also imply that therefore a long-lived lake system - or megawetland - never existed. We contend this assumption for some reasons, amongst them, the most important are: (1) this is an inconsistent overgeneralized conclusion; (2) The authors make references to previous scientific works we published which we consider incorrect, and therefore can mislead their readers.

  20. Act No. 24994 of 19 January 1989. Basic Law on the Rural Development of the Peruvian Amazon Region.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This Act sets forth the government's policy on rural development of the Peruvian Amazon region. Major objectives of the Act include the promotion of new rural settlements in the Amazon region, the promotion of migration from the Andes to the Amazon region, and the stimulation of agriculture, livestock, and forestry activities in the Amazon region. The following are the means that the government will use, among others, to attain these goals: 1) the development of Population Displacement Programmes, which will give individual persons and families economic and logistic support in moving; 2) the establishment of Civic Colonizing Services, temporary mobile units, which will offer settlers health services, education services, technical assistance with respect to agriculture and livestock, and promotional credits; 3) the creation of the Council for Amazon River Transport to coordinate and recommend activities to improve river transport; 4) the granting to settlers of land, free education for their children, medical care, technical training and assistance with respect to agriculture, and a supply of seeds; 5) the exemption of certain investors from payment of income taxes; and 6) the granting of a wide range of incentives for agricultural production. The Act also creates a Council for Planning and Development in the Amazon Region to draw up and approve a Plan for the Development of the Amazon Region. It calls for the rational use of the natural resources of the Amazon Region in the framework of preserving the ecosystem and preventing its ruin and delegates to the regional governments the authority to enter into contracts on the use of forest materials and to undertake reforestation programs. Finally, the Act provides various guarantees for the native population, including guarantees with respect to land and preservation of ethnic and social identity.

  1. Surface water dynamics in Amazon, Congo, and Lake Chad Wetlands from remote sensing and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H.; Getirana, A.; Jasinski, M. F.

    2013-05-01

    The capability of satellites to understand and monitor surface water dynamics in tropical wetlands is presented by analysis various remote sensing technologies over the Amazon, Congo, and Lake Chad regions. Although different in size and location, all these basins are tropical, representing riparian tropical, swamp tropical and inland Saharan wetlands, respectively. First, yearly flooding in the Logone floodplain is investigated using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). Flooding has a direct impact on agricultural, pastoral and fishery systems in the Lake Chad Basin. Since the flooding extent, depth, and duration are highly variable, flood inundation mapping facilitates efficient use of water resources and have more knowledge of the coupled human-natural system in the Logone floodplain. Flood maps are generated from 33 multi-temporal ETM+ images acquired during the period 2006 to 2008. The maximum flooding extent in the study area increases up to ~5.8K km2 in late October 2008. A strong correlation is observed between the flooding extents and water height variations in both the floodplain and the river. Second, interferometric processing of JERS-1 SAR data from the central portions of both Amazon and Congo Wetlands provides centimeter-scale measurements of water level change. The Amazon is marked by a myriad of floodplain channels, but the Congo has comparatively few. Amazon floodplain channels, lakes and pans are well interconnected, whereas the Congo wetlands are expanses with few boundaries or flow routes. The hydraulic processes that build the Amazon floodplain are not similarly apparent in the Congo. Third, we evaluate the potential of large altimetry datasets as a complementary gauging network capable of providing water discharge in ungauged regions. A rating-curve-based methodology is adopted to derive water discharge from altimetric data provided by the Envisat satellite within the Amazon basin. From a global-scale perspective, the stage

  2. Wind Disturbance Produced Changes in Tree Species Assemblage in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rifai, S. W.; Chambers, J. Q.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Ramirez, F.; Tello, R.; Alegria Muñoz, W.

    2010-12-01

    Wind disturbance has been a frequently overlooked abiotic cause of mass tree mortality in the Amazon basin. In the Peruvian Amazon these wind disturbances are produced by meteorological events such as convective systems. Downbursts for example produce short term descendent wind speeds that can be in excess of 30 m s-1. These are capable of producing tree blowdowns which have been reported to be as large as 33 km2 in the Amazon basin. We used the chronosequence of Landsat Satellite imagery to find and locate where these blowdowns have occurred in the Loreto region of the Peruvian Amazon. Spectral Mixture Analysis was used to estimate the proportion landcover of green vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV), soil and shade in each pixel. The change in NPV was calculated by subtracting the NPV signal in the Landsat image prior to the blowdown occurrence, from the image following the disturbance. Our prior research has established a linear relationship between tree mortality and change in NPV. It is hypothesized that these mass tree mortality events result in changes in the tree species assemblage of affected forests. Here we present preliminary tree species assemblage data from two sites in the Peruvian Amazon near Iquitos, Peru. The site (ALP) at the Allpahuayo Mishana reserve (3.945 S, 73.455 W) is 30 km south of Iquitos, Peru, and hosts the remnants of a 50 ha blowdown that occurred in either 1992 or 1993. Another site (NAPO) on the Napo river about 60 km north of Iquitos, is the location of an approximately 300 ha blowdown that occurred in 1998. At each site, a 3000 m x 10 m transect encompassing non disturbed and disturbed areas was installed, and trees greater than 10 cm diameter at breast height were measured for diameter, height and were identified to the species. Stem density of trees with diameter at breast height > 10 cm, and tree height appear to be similar both inside and outside the blowdown affected areas of the forests at both sites. At the ALP

  3. Comparison of Amazon and Central Africa tropical vegetation dynamics using SEVIRI data from 2009 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yuhong; Zhou, Liming; Romanov, Peter; Yu, Bob; Ek, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Tropical forests play a crucial role in determining global exchanges of energy, momentum, water, CO2 and other greenhouse gases between the land surface and the atmosphere. Quantifying the areal extent, spatial distribution and vegetation status of tropical forests and their dynamics are essential for studies of climate, carbon cycle and biodiversity. Satellite remote sensing has been an indispensable tool to monitor tropical forests. However, frequent and extensive cloud presence makes mapping and monitoring tropical evergreen forests a challenging task. MODIS and AVHRR vegetation products are spatially and temporally discontinuous and inconsistent or very noisy over many pixels in tropical rainforests. The famous debate about the Amazon forest "green-up" during 2005 dry season drought is an excellent example attributed at least partly to the satellite data quality. Observations from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infra-red Imager (SEVIRI), onboard the European Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite, are used in this study to monitor tropical vegetation dynamics. The SEVIRI data used contain observations of land surface at 30-minute time intervals for the year 2009 to 2011. We used top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectance values from the spectral bands of red (0.635um), near-infrared (NIR, 0.81um) and shortwave infrared (SWIR, 1.64 um) and other satellite geometry information to calculate normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and land surface water index (LSWI). We generated daily, weekly and monthly NDVI and LSWI based on maximum NDVIs. We examined the pattern of cloud occurrence, precipitation and the seasonality of green vegetation (evergreen forests and savannas) in Amazon and Central Africa. During wet season, Amazon has much less chance to get clear-sky observations than Centra