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Sample records for rondonia western amazon

  1. Colonization, road development and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Basin of Rondonia

    SciTech Connect

    Frohn, R.C.; Dale, V.H. ); Jimenez, B.D. . Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences)

    1990-03-01

    Within the past two decades, the forests of Brazil have undergone widespread and large scale clearing. The clearing of tropical rainforests may have serious global and local consequences. Global effects include a decrease in biodiversity with the elimination of plant and animal species; increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, which may affect climate; and disruption of hydrological regimes. Local effects include soil erosion, siltation, decreases in soil fertility, loss of plant cover and extractive resources, and disruption of indigenous populations. Nowhere in the Brazilian Amazon has deforestation increased at a faster rate than in the state of Rondonia. Deforestation in Rondonia has grown at increasing rates during the past decade mainly because of official colonization schemes, road construction, and the subsequent settlement of farmers. This paper contains a historical summary of colonization and road construction in the Amazon Basin of Brazil relative to deforestation in Rondonia. 60 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs.

  2. Deforestation, Rondonia, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view of deforestation in Rondonia, far western Brazil, (10.0S, 63.0W) is part of an agricultural resettlement project which ultimately covers an area about 80% the size of France. The patterns of deforestation in this part of the Amazon River Basin are usually aligned adjacent to highways, secondary roads, and streams for ease of access and transportation. Compare this view with the earlier 51G-37-062 for a comparison of deforestation in the region.

  3. Land-use practices in Ouro Preto do Oeste, Rondonia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Pedlowski, M.A.; Dale, V.H.

    1992-09-01

    Road development and colonization projects have brought about wide-scale deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The state of Rondonia, located in the western Amazon Basin, best exemplifies the problems related to land-use changes because it has the highest rates of deforestation in the Amazon Basin. In order to identify the main land-use practices in Rondonia, interviews with local farmers were carried out in the central part of Rondonia, in the PIC (Integrated Colonization Project) Ouro Preto do Oeste. This is the oldest colonization project in the state. The governmental colonization programs attracted migrants to the area through the construction of roads and infrastructure necessary for the colonists to occupy the land for agricultural practices. The interviews were done on lots of the PIC Ouro Preto and in PAD Urupa to define the background of the colonists, their land-use practices, their economic situation, and their relationships with governmental institutions.

  4. Mapping Deforestation In Parts Of The Amazon Forest Using JERS-1 SAR Images: Case Study For An Area North West Of Rondonia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gens, R.; Prakash, A.; Li, S.

    2008-12-01

    Deforestation in the Amazon rain forests, especially around Rondonia, is well known and documented in literature. Time series analyses of deforestation from 1975 through 2001 using medium resolution images from the Landsat satellite are available. However, as the Brazilian rain forests are often masked with thick cloud cover, the use of satellite images acquired in the visible and infrared region for deforestation studies poses a serious limitation, as the cloud free scenes for a season in a particular year are few or not available at all. Processing images acquired by JERS-1 from 1993 through 1996, for an area just northwest of the town of Rondonia, Brazil, we demonstrated the potential of SAR images to successfully map deforested areas and to serve as a complimentary data source to optical images for monitoring deforestation activities. An important objective of our study was to devise a simple image processing scheme that could be used by novice users without the need for expensive commercially available software packages. Image pre-processing included importing, georeferencing, and subsetting all images to bring them to a common format, projection and coverage. Image processing involved classification using unsupervised maximum likelihood classifier and by density slicing (grey scale thresholding). The classified product, which showed a strong "salt pepper effect" due to high frequency variations, was smoothed out using a Gamma MAP filter of different kernel sizes to generate the final forest cover map. Simpler low pass filters were also tested. We also tested the effect of image filtering prior to image classification. Amount of deforestation was computed by taking the numeric difference in the number of pixels classified as forest and multiplying this difference by the pixel size. Processing results showed that unsupervised classification using maximum likelihood classifier gave results slightly superior to a simple density slicing. Image filtering prior to

  5. Decentralizing Education: A Successful Experience in the Brazilian Amazon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proenca, Marilene; Neneve, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the importance of education policies that aim at diminishing social disparities in poor countries, focusing on a program in higher education developed in the state of Rondonia in the Brazilian Amazon. Rondonia is a region in which people have suffered deeply from the consequences of social inequalities. Many…

  6. Oil and Gas Projects in the Western Amazon: Threats to Wilderness, Biodiversity, and Indigenous Peoples

    PubMed Central

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Pimm, Stuart L.; Keane, Brian; Ross, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Background The western Amazon is the most biologically rich part of the Amazon basin and is home to a great diversity of indigenous ethnic groups, including some of the world's last uncontacted peoples living in voluntary isolation. Unlike the eastern Brazilian Amazon, it is still a largely intact ecosystem. Underlying this landscape are large reserves of oil and gas, many yet untapped. The growing global demand is leading to unprecedented exploration and development in the region. Methodology/Principal Findings We synthesized information from government sources to quantify the status of oil development in the western Amazon. National governments delimit specific geographic areas or “blocks” that are zoned for hydrocarbon activities, which they may lease to state and multinational energy companies for exploration and production. About 180 oil and gas blocks now cover ∼688,000 km2 of the western Amazon. These blocks overlap the most species-rich part of the Amazon. We also found that many of the blocks overlap indigenous territories, both titled lands and areas utilized by peoples in voluntary isolation. In Ecuador and Peru, oil and gas blocks now cover more than two-thirds of the Amazon. In Bolivia and western Brazil, major exploration activities are set to increase rapidly. Conclusions/Significance Without improved policies, the increasing scope and magnitude of planned extraction means that environmental and social impacts are likely to intensify. We review the most pressing oil- and gas-related conservation policy issues confronting the region. These include the need for regional Strategic Environmental Impact Assessments and the adoption of roadless extraction techniques. We also consider the conflicts where the blocks overlap indigenous peoples' territories. PMID:18716679

  7. Forest response to increased disturbance in the Central Amazon and comparison to Western Amazonian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, J. A.; Chambers, J. Q.; Collins, W.; Higuchi, N.

    2014-12-01

    Uncertainties surrounding vegetation response to increased disturbance rates associated with climate change remains a major global change issue for Amazon forests. Additionally, turnover rates in the Western Amazon are doubled compared to the Central Amazon, and notable gradients currently exist in specific wood density and aboveground biomass (AGB). This study investigates the extent to which the variation in disturbance regimes contributes to these regional gradients. To address these issues, we evaluated disturbance-recovery processes under scenarios of increased disturbance rates in a Central Amazon forest using first ZELIG-TROP, a dynamic vegetation gap model which we calibrated using long-term inventory data, and second using the Community Land Model (CLM), a global land surface model. Upon doubling the mortality rate in the Central Amazon to mirror the disturbance regime in the Western Amazon of ~2% mortality, the two regions continued to differ in multiple forest processes. With the inclusion of elevated natural disturbances, at steady-state, AGB significantly decreased by 41.9% with no significant difference between modeled AGB and empirical AGB from the western Amazon datasets (104 vs. 107 Mg C ha-1). However, different processes were responsible for the reductions in AGB between the models and empirical dataset. The empirical dataset suggests that a decrease in wood density drives the reduction in AGB. While decreased stand basal area was the driver of AGB loss in ZELIG-TROP, and decreased leaf area index (LAI) was the driver in CLM, two forest attributes that do not significantly vary across the Amazon Basin. Further comparisons found that stem density, specific wood density, and growth rates differed between the two Amazonian regions. This suggests that: 1) the variability between regions cannot be entirely explained by the variability in disturbance regime, but rather potentially sensitive to intrinsic environmental factors; or 2) the models are not

  8. Projected increases in the annual flood pulse of the Western Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkafli, Zed; Buytaert, Wouter; Manz, Bastian; Véliz Rosas, Claudia; Willems, Patrick; Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Santini, William

    2016-01-01

    The impact of a changing climate on the Amazon basin is a subject of intensive research because of its rich biodiversity and the significant role of rainforests in carbon cycling. Climate change has also a direct hydrological impact, and increasing efforts have focused on understanding the hydrological dynamics at continental and subregional scales, such as the Western Amazon. New projections from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 ensemble indicate consistent climatic warming and increasing seasonality of precipitation in the Peruvian Amazon basin. Here we use a distributed land surface model to quantify the potential impact of this change in the climate on the hydrological regime of the upper Amazon river. Using extreme value analysis, historical and future projections of the annual minimum, mean, and maximum river flows are produced for a range of return periods between 1 and 100 yr. We show that the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios of climate change project an increased severity of the wet season flood pulse (7.5% and 12% increases respectively for the 100 yr return floods). These findings agree with previously projected increases in high extremes under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios climate projections, and are important to highlight due to the potential consequences on reproductive processes of in-stream species, swamp forest ecology, and socio-economy in the floodplain, amidst a growing literature that more strongly emphasises future droughts and their impact on the viability of the rainforest system over greater Amazonia.

  9. Forest response to increased disturbance in the Central Amazon and comparison to Western Amazonian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, J. A.; Chambers, J. Q.; Collins, W. D.; Higuchi, N.

    2014-05-01

    Uncertainties surrounding vegetation response to increased disturbance rates associated with climate change remains a major global change issue for Amazon forests. Additionally, turnover rates computed as the average of mortality and recruitment rates in the Western Amazon basin are doubled when compared to the Central Amazon, and notable gradients currently exist in specific wood density and aboveground biomass (AGB) between these two regions. This study investigates the extent to which the variation in disturbance regimes contributes to these regional gradients. To address these issues, we evaluated disturbance-recovery processes under two scenarios of increased disturbance rates in a complex Central Amazon forest using first ZELIG-TROP, a dynamic vegetation gap model which we calibrated using long-term inventory data, and second using the Community Land Model (CLM), a global land surface model that is part of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Upon doubling the mortality rate in the Central Amazon to mirror the natural disturbance regime in the Western Amazon of ∼2% mortality, at steady-state, AGB significantly decreased by 41.9% and there was no significant difference between the modeled AGB of 104 Mg C ha-1 and empirical AGB from the western Amazon datasets of 107 Mg C ha-1. We confirm that increases in natural disturbance rates in the Central Amazon will result in terrestrial carbon loss associated with higher turnover. However, different processes were responsible for the reductions in AGB between the models and empirical datasets. We observed that with increased turnover, the subsequent decrease in wood density drives the reduction in AGB in empirical datasets. However, decrease in stand basal area was the driver of the drop in AGB in ZELIG-TROP, and decreased leaf area index (LAI) was the driver in CLM. Further comparisons found that stem density, specific wood density, and basal area growth rates differed between the two Amazonian regions. This

  10. Incorporating SST seasonal forecast into drought and fire predictions in western Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, K.; Baethgen, W.; Bernardes, S.; DeFries, R. S.; DeWitt, D. G.; Goddard, L. M.; Lavado, W.; Lee, D.; Padoch, C.; Pinedo-Vasquez, M.; Uriarte, M.

    2011-12-01

    The prevailing wet climate in western Amazon is not favorable to the natural occurrence of fires. In the last decade, however, the region has experienced some of the most catastrophic fires in the history of Amazonia. In 2005 over 300,000 ha of burned rain forest in the Brazilian state of Acre and around 22,000 ha in the province of Coronel Portillo in Peru. In 2010 another severe drought prompted the Bolivian government to declare a state of emergency due to widespread fires and one major Amazon tributary, the Negro River, registered its lowest water lever in over 100 years. Fire dynamics in humid tropical forests are complex and involve a swath of socio-economic aspects, including replacement of forests by crops and pastures, fires for agricultural maintenance, timber extraction and infrastructure development all of which result in greater vulnerability of the natural system to fires. Despite the importance of these effects at fine spatial scales, we find that precipitation anomalies are the main drivers of interannual fire variability at large spatial and temporal scales in western Amazonia. Using real-time SST forecasts for the north tropical Atlantic sector we are able to predict precipitation and fire anomalies during the dry season months. The 2010 positive fire anomalies predicted by the 2010 seasonal forecasts for MJJ, JJA, and JAS are in agreement with the negative predicted 2010 JAS SPI and observed precipitation anomalies estimated by TRMM. Our results show that ECHAM-GML MJJ SST can be used to predict western Amazon JAS precipitation and fire anomalies as early as April, information that can be regionally used as an early warning system product.

  11. Mid-Late Pleistocene OSL chronology in western Amazonia and implications for the transcontinental Amazon pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetti, Dilce F.; Cohen, Marcelo C. L.; Tatumi, Sonia H.; Sawakuchi, André O.; Cremon, Édipo H.; Mittani, Juan C. R.; Bertani, Thiago C.; Munita, Casimiro J. A. S.; Tudela, Diego R. G.; Yee, Márcio; Moya, Gabriela

    2015-12-01

    The origin of the transcontinental Amazon drainage system remains unrevealed. Sedimentary deposits formed from the Neogene in the Amazonas and Solimões Basins constitute natural archives for reconstructing this event in space and time. However, paleoenvironmental and chronological analyses focusing on these deposits, or even their basic mapping, are still scarce to allow such investigation. In this context, primary interests are fluvial strata related to the lithostratigraphic Içá Formation, mapped over a widespread area in western Amazonian lowlands. Although long regarded as Plio-Pleistocene in age, this unit has not yet been dated and its overall depositional setting remains largely undescribed. The main goal of the present work is to contribute for improving facies analysis and chronology of these deposits, approaching an area in southwestern Amazonia and another in northern Amazonia, which are located more than 1000 km apart. Despite this great distance, the sedimentological and chronological characteristics of deposits from these two areas are analogous. Hence, facies analysis revealed paleoenvironments including active channel, abandoned channel, point bar, crevasse splay and floodplain, which are altogether compatible with meandering fluvial systems. Similarly, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating revealed thirty three ages ranging from 65.4 ± 16.9 to 219.6 ± 25.1 ky (in addition to three outliners of 54.0 ± 7.6, 337.3 ± 36.9 and 346.6 ± 48.6 ky), and nine 97.1 ± 9.9 to 254.8 ± 23.8 ky for the areas in southwestern and northern Amazonia, respectively. These data lead to establish that deposits mapped as Içá Formation over a vast area of western Brazilian Amazonia have a Mid-Late Pleistocene age, rather than the previously inferred Plio-Pleistocene age. It follows that if Plio-Pleistocene deposits exist in this region they remain to be dated and must be restricted to a narrow belt in western Amazonia, as well as isolated occurrences

  12. Projected increases in the annual flood pulse of the western Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkafli, Zed; Buytaert, Wouter; Manz, Bastian; Veliz Rosas, Claudia; Willems, Patrick; Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Santini, William

    2016-04-01

    The impact of a changing climate on the Amazon basin is a subject of intensive research due to its rich biodiversity and the significant role of rain forest in carbon cycling. Climate change has also direct hydrological impact, and there have been increasing efforts to understand such dynamics at continental and subregional scales such as the scale of the western Amazon. New projections from the Coupled Model Inter- comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) ensemble indicate consistent climatic warming and increasing seasonality of precipitation in the Peruvian Amazon basin. Here we use a distributed land surface model to quantify the potential impact of this change in the climate on the hydrological regime of the river. Using extremes value analysis, historical and future projections of the annual minimum, mean, and maximum river flows are produced for a range of return periods between 1 and 100 years. We show that the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios of climate change project an increased severity of the wet season flood pulse (7.5% and 12% increases respectively for the 100- year return floods). These findings are in agreement with previously projected increases in high extremes under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) climate projections, and are important to highlight due to the potential consequences on reproductive processes of in-stream species, swamp forest ecology, and socio-economy in the floodplain, amid a growing literature that more strongly emphasises future droughts and their impact on the viability of the rain forest system over the greater Amazonia.

  13. The recent extreme hydrological events in the Western Amazon Basin: The role of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza, J.; Ronchail, J.; Guyot, J.; Santini, W.; Lavado, W.; Ore-Hybam Observatory

    2013-05-01

    The Peruvian Amazonas River, the main western tributary of the Amazon basin, has a huge drainage (750 000 km2, 50% of which lies in the Andes) and a mean discharge estimated in 32 000 m3/s, which correspond to 15% of the Amazon discharge at the estuary. Recently, in a context of significant discharge diminution during the low-water season (1970-2012), severe hydrological events, as intense droughts and floods, have been reported in the Peruvian Amazonas River. As they have not been always observed in other regions of the Amazon basin and because they have strong impacts on vulnerable riverside residents, we shall focus on the origin and the predictability of the western Amazon extremes, providing a review of the main findings about the climate features during recent extreme hydrological events in western Amazon. While the lowest discharge value was observed in September 2010 (8 300 m3/s) at the hydrological Tamshiyacu station (near to Iquitos city), a rapid transition toward a high discharge was noticed in April 2011 (45 000 m3/s). Finally, in April 2012, during the on going high waters period, the Amazonas River is experimenting its historical highest discharge (55 000 m3/s). Our work is based on several datasets including in-situ discharge and rainfall information from ORE-HYBAM observatory. Extreme droughts (1995, 2005 and 2010) are generally associated with positive SST anomalies in the tropical North Atlantic and weak trade winds and water vapor transport toward the western Amazon, which, in association with increased subsidence over central and southern Amazon, explain the lack of rainfall and very low discharge values. But, in 1998, toward the end of the 1997-98 El Niño event, the drought has been more likely related to an anomalous divergence of water vapor in the western Amazon that is characteristic of a warm event in the Pacific. The years with a rapid transition form low waters to very high floods (e.g. September 2010 to April 2011) are characterized

  14. Severity of Scorpion Stings in the Western Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Amanda M.; Sampaio, Vanderson S.; Mendonça, Iran; Fé, Nelson F.; Sachett, Jacqueline; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos L.; Feitosa, Esaú; Wen, Fan Hui; Lacerda, Marcus; Monteiro, Wuelton

    2015-01-01

    Background Scorpion stings are a major public health problem in Brazil, with an increasing number of registered cases every year. Affecting mostly vulnerable populations, the phenomenon is not well described and is considered a neglected disease. In Brazil, the use of anti-venom formulations is provided free of charge. The associate scorpion sting case is subject to compulsory reporting. This paper describes the epidemiology and identifies factors associated with severity of scorpions stings in the state of Amazonas, in the Western Brazilian Amazon. Methodology/Principal Findings This study included all cases of scorpion stings in the state of Amazonas reported to the Brazilian Diseases Surveillance System from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2014. A case-control study was conducted to identify factors associated with scorpions sting severity. A total of 2,120 cases were reported during this period. The mean incidence rate in the Amazonas was 7.6 per 100,000 inhabitants/year. Scorpion stings showed a large spatial distribution in the state and represent a potential occupational health problem for rural populations. There was a positive correlation between the absolute number of cases and the altimetric river levels in the Central (p<0.001; Rs = 0.479 linear) and Southwest (p = 0.032; linear Rs = 0.261) regions of the state. Cases were mostly classified as mild (68.6%), followed by moderate (26.8%), and severe (4.6%). The overall lethality rate was 0.3%. Lethality rate among children ≤10 years was 1.3%. Age <10 years [OR = 2.58 (95%CI = 1.47–4.55; p = 0.001)], stings occurring in the rural area [OR = 1.97 (95%CI = 1.18–3.29; p = 0.033) and in the South region of the state [OR = 1.85 (95%CI = 1.17–2.93; p = 0.008)] were independently associated with the risk of developing severity. Conclusions/Significance Scorpion stings show an extensive distribution in the Western Brazilian Amazon threatening especially rural populations, children ≤10 in particular. Thus

  15. Depopulation of rural landscapes exacerbates fire activity in the western Amazon.

    PubMed

    Uriarte, María; Pinedo-Vasquez, Miquel; DeFries, Ruth S; Fernandes, Katia; Gutierrez-Velez, Victor; Baethgen, Walter E; Padoch, Christine

    2012-12-26

    Destructive fires in Amazonia have occurred in the past decade, leading to forest degradation, carbon emissions, impaired air quality, and property damage. Here, we couple climate, geospatial, and province-level census data, with farmer surveys to examine the climatic, demographic, and land use factors associated with fire frequency in the Peruvian Amazon from 2000 to 2010. Although our results corroborate previous findings elsewhere that drought and proximity to roads increase fire frequency, the province-scale analysis further identifies decreases in rural populations as an additional factor. Farmer survey data suggest that increased burn scar frequency and size reflect increased flammability of emptying rural landscapes and reduced capacity to control fire. With rural populations projected to decline, more frequent drought, and expansion of road infrastructure, fire risk is likely to increase in western Amazonia. Damage from fire can be reduced through warning systems that target high-risk locations, coordinated fire fighting efforts, and initiatives that provide options for people to remain in rural landscapes. PMID:23236144

  16. Depopulation of rural landscapes exacerbates fire activity in the western Amazon.

    PubMed

    Uriarte, María; Pinedo-Vasquez, Miquel; DeFries, Ruth S; Fernandes, Katia; Gutierrez-Velez, Victor; Baethgen, Walter E; Padoch, Christine

    2012-12-26

    Destructive fires in Amazonia have occurred in the past decade, leading to forest degradation, carbon emissions, impaired air quality, and property damage. Here, we couple climate, geospatial, and province-level census data, with farmer surveys to examine the climatic, demographic, and land use factors associated with fire frequency in the Peruvian Amazon from 2000 to 2010. Although our results corroborate previous findings elsewhere that drought and proximity to roads increase fire frequency, the province-scale analysis further identifies decreases in rural populations as an additional factor. Farmer survey data suggest that increased burn scar frequency and size reflect increased flammability of emptying rural landscapes and reduced capacity to control fire. With rural populations projected to decline, more frequent drought, and expansion of road infrastructure, fire risk is likely to increase in western Amazonia. Damage from fire can be reduced through warning systems that target high-risk locations, coordinated fire fighting efforts, and initiatives that provide options for people to remain in rural landscapes.

  17. Depopulation of rural landscapes exacerbates fire activity in the western Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Uriarte, María; Pinedo-Vasquez, Miquel; DeFries, Ruth S.; Fernandes, Katia; Gutierrez-Velez, Victor; Baethgen, Walter E.; Padoch, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Destructive fires in Amazonia have occurred in the past decade, leading to forest degradation, carbon emissions, impaired air quality, and property damage. Here, we couple climate, geospatial, and province-level census data, with farmer surveys to examine the climatic, demographic, and land use factors associated with fire frequency in the Peruvian Amazon from 2000 to 2010. Although our results corroborate previous findings elsewhere that drought and proximity to roads increase fire frequency, the province-scale analysis further identifies decreases in rural populations as an additional factor. Farmer survey data suggest that increased burn scar frequency and size reflect increased flammability of emptying rural landscapes and reduced capacity to control fire. With rural populations projected to decline, more frequent drought, and expansion of road infrastructure, fire risk is likely to increase in western Amazonia. Damage from fire can be reduced through warning systems that target high-risk locations, coordinated fire fighting efforts, and initiatives that provide options for people to remain in rural landscapes. PMID:23236144

  18. Canopy spectral and chemical diversity from lowland to tree line in the Western Amazon using CAO-VSWIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. E.; Asner, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    Canopy chemistry and spectroscopy offer insight into community assembly and ecosystem processes in high-diversity tropical forests. Results from one lowland site in the Peruvian Amazon suggests both an environmental and an evolutionary component of canopy trait development however, the degree to which larger environmental differences influence diversity in canopy traits and their respective spectroscopic signatures across remains poorly understood. The spectranomics approach explicitly connects phylogenetic, chemical and spectral patterns in tropical canopies providing the basis for analysis, while high-fidelity, airborne remote sensing measurements extend plot-level data to landscape-scale, achieving a comprehensive view of the region. In 2011, the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) was used to sample a large region of the Western Amazon Basin in southeastern Peru, extending from lowlands to tree line in the Andean mountains. The CAO Visible-Shortwave Imaging Spectrometer (VSWIR) collected 480-band high-fidelity imaging spectroscopy data of the forest canopy, while its high-resolution LiDAR captured information on canopy structure and the underlying terrain. The data were used to quantify relationships between environmental gradients and canopy chemical and spectral diversity. Results suggest strong environmental control with additional phylogenetic influence over canopy spectral and chemical properties, particularly those related to structure, defense and metabolic function. Data from CAO-VSWIR extends the large range in canopy chemical and spectral diversity related to environmental factors across the Western Amazon Basin.

  19. Epidemiology and Molecular Characterization of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Isolated Villages in the Western Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Castilho, Márcia da Costa; Costa de Oliveira, Cintia Mara; Gimaque, João Bosco de Lima; Leão, Jorge Di Tommaso; Braga, Wornei Silva Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Individuals from three isolated, rural communities in the western Brazilian Amazon were evaluated for serological markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, HBV genotype, and the presence of risk factors for infection and transmission. Of the 225 individuals studied, 79.1% had serological evidence of HBV infection; 10.2% individuals were chronic carriers for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg-positive). Analysis of risk factors indicates that HBV is transmitted mainly horizontally within the family from a chronic “active” carrier for hepatitis B “e” antigen (HBeAg-positive), though a strong possibility of vertical transmission remains. The predominance of HBV genotype F, with a higher genomic similarity between the isolates, indicated a relatively recent introduction of HBV, from a common source, to the area. This study sheds light on the HBV epidemiology in the Brazilian Amazon region and highlights the need for greater emphasis on HBV control and immunization programs. PMID:22908032

  20. The distribution of thiamin and pyridoxine in the western tropical North Atlantic Amazon River plume.

    PubMed

    Barada, Laila P; Cutter, Lynda; Montoya, Joseph P; Webb, Eric A; Capone, Douglas G; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A

    2013-01-01

    B-vitamins are recognized as essential organic growth factors for many organisms, although little is known about their abundance and distribution in marine ecosystems. Despite their metabolic functions regulating important enzymatic reactions, the methodology to directly measure different B-vitamins in aquatic environments has only recently been developed. Here, we present the first direct measurements of two B-vitamins, thiamin (B1), and pyridoxine (B6), in the Amazon River plume-influenced western tropical North Atlantic (WTNA) Ocean, an area known to have high productivity, carbon (C) and dinitrogen (N2) fixation, and C sequestration. The vitamins B1 and B6 ranged in concentrations from undetectable to 230 and 40 pM, respectively. Significantly higher concentrations were measured in the surface plume water at some stations and variation with salinity was observed, suggesting a possible riverine influence on those B-vitamins. The influences of vitamins B1 and B6 on biogeochemical processes such as C and N2 fixation were investigated using a linear regression model that indicated the availability of those organic factors could affect these rates in the WTNA. In fact, significant increases in C fixation and N2 fixation were observed with increasing vitamin B1 concentrations at some low and mesohaline stations (stations 9.1 and 1; p value <0.017 and <0.03, respectively). N2 fixation was also found to have a significant positive correlation with B1 concentrations at station 1 (p value 0.029), as well as vitamin B6 at station 9.1 (p value <0.017). This work suggests that there can be a dynamic interplay between essential biogeochemical rates (C and N2 fixation) and B-vitamins, drawing attention to potential roles of B-vitamins in ecosystem dynamics, community structure, and global biogeochemistry.

  1. The distribution of thiamin and pyridoxine in the western tropical North Atlantic Amazon River plume

    PubMed Central

    Barada, Laila P.; Cutter, Lynda; Montoya, Joseph P.; Webb, Eric A.; Capone, Douglas G.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.

    2013-01-01

    B-vitamins are recognized as essential organic growth factors for many organisms, although little is known about their abundance and distribution in marine ecosystems. Despite their metabolic functions regulating important enzymatic reactions, the methodology to directly measure different B-vitamins in aquatic environments has only recently been developed. Here, we present the first direct measurements of two B-vitamins, thiamin (B1), and pyridoxine (B6), in the Amazon River plume-influenced western tropical North Atlantic (WTNA) Ocean, an area known to have high productivity, carbon (C) and dinitrogen (N2) fixation, and C sequestration. The vitamins B1 and B6 ranged in concentrations from undetectable to 230 and 40 pM, respectively. Significantly higher concentrations were measured in the surface plume water at some stations and variation with salinity was observed, suggesting a possible riverine influence on those B-vitamins. The influences of vitamins B1 and B6 on biogeochemical processes such as C and N2 fixation were investigated using a linear regression model that indicated the availability of those organic factors could affect these rates in the WTNA. In fact, significant increases in C fixation and N2 fixation were observed with increasing vitamin B1 concentrations at some low and mesohaline stations (stations 9.1 and 1; p value <0.017 and <0.03, respectively). N2 fixation was also found to have a significant positive correlation with B1 concentrations at station 1 (p value 0.029), as well as vitamin B6 at station 9.1 (p value <0.017). This work suggests that there can be a dynamic interplay between essential biogeochemical rates (C and N2 fixation) and B-vitamins, drawing attention to potential roles of B-vitamins in ecosystem dynamics, community structure, and global biogeochemistry. PMID:23471170

  2. Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis delta viruses circulating in the Western Amazon region, North Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) represent important public health problems in the Western Amazon region with reported cases of fulminant hepatitis. This cross sectional study describes HBV and HDV genotypes circulating in the Brazilian Amazon region. Methods HBsAg positive individuals (n = 224) were recruited in Manaus/Amazonas State (130 blood donors from the Hematology and Hemotherapy Foundation from Amazonas/HEMOAM; 60 subjects from outpatient clinic) and in Eirunepe city (n = 34) from 2003–2009. Most participants (n = 153) lived in Manaus, 63 were from 20 remote isolated municipalities, 8 lived outside Amazonas State. Genotyping was based on PCR products: HBV genotype A-F specific primers, restricted length polymorphism for HDV. HDV isolates were directly sequenced (delta antigen 405 nucleotide fragment) and phylogenetic analysis performed (MEGA; neighbor-joining, Kimura’s two parameter). Results Most participants were young adult males and HBV mono-infection predominated (70.5%, 158/224). Among blood donors, outpatient subjects and individuals from Eirunepe, HBV/A prevailed followed by HBV/D and F (p > 0.05). HBV/A was more frequent in blood donors (p < 0.05). HBV-HDV coinfection rate was 8.5% in blood donors (11/130), 65.0% (39/60) in outpatient subjects and 47.0% (16/34) in individuals from Eirunepe. Compared to blood donors, coinfection was higher in outpatient subjects (65.0% versus 8.5%; RR = 5.0; CI 3.4-7.9; p < 0.0001) and in subjects from Eirunepe (47.0% versus 8.5%; RR = 5.5; CI 3.0-9.9; p < 0.0001). HBV-HDV coinfection rates were higher in patients from highly endemic remote cities. Only HDV genotype 3 was detected, HBV/F-HDV/3 predominated (20/38; 52.7%), followed by HBV/A-HDV/3 (31.6%; 12/38) and HBV/D-HDV/3 (15.8%; 6/38). Conclusions The description of HBV and HDV genotypes circulating in the western Amazon can contribute to a better understanding of their relevance on the

  3. Differential Response of Acidobacteria Subgroups to Forest-to-Pasture Conversion and Their Biogeographic Patterns in the Western Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Acacio A; Venturini, Andressa M; Meyer, Kyle M; Klein, Ann M; Tiedje, James M; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Nüsslein, Klaus; Tsai, Siu M; Rodrigues, Jorge L M

    2015-01-01

    Members of the phylum Acidobacteria are among the most abundant soil bacteria on Earth, but little is known about their response to environmental changes. We asked how the relative abundance and biogeographic patterning of this phylum and its subgroups responded to forest-to-pasture conversion in soils of the western Brazilian Amazon. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was employed to assess the abundance and composition of the Acidobacteria community across 54 soil samples taken using a spatially nested sampling scheme at the landscape level. Numerically, Acidobacteria represented 20% of the total bacterial community in forest soils and 11% in pasture soils. Overall, 15 different Acidobacteria subgroups of the current 26 subgroups were detected, with Acidobacteria subgroups 1, 3, 5, and 6 accounting together for 87% of the total Acidobacteria community in forest soils and 75% in pasture soils. Concomitant with changes in soil chemistry after forest-to-pasture conversion-particularly an increase in properties linked to soil acidity and nutrient availability-we observed an increase in the relative abundances of Acidobacteria subgroups 4, 10, 17, and 18, and a decrease in the relative abundances of other Acidobacteria subgroups in pasture relative to forest soils. The composition of the total Acidobacteria community as well as the most abundant Acidobacteria subgroups (1, 3, 5, and 6) was significantly more similar in composition across space in pasture soils than in forest soils. These results suggest that preponderant responses of Acidobacteria subgroups, especially subgroups 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6, to forest-to-pasture conversion effects in soils could be used to define management-indicators of agricultural practices in the Amazon Basin. These acidobacterial responses are at least in part through alterations on acidity- and nutrient-related properties of the Amazon soils.

  4. Differential Response of Acidobacteria Subgroups to Forest-to-Pasture Conversion and Their Biogeographic Patterns in the Western Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete, Acacio A.; Venturini, Andressa M.; Meyer, Kyle M.; Klein, Ann M.; Tiedje, James M.; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.; Nüsslein, Klaus; Tsai, Siu M.; Rodrigues, Jorge L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the phylum Acidobacteria are among the most abundant soil bacteria on Earth, but little is known about their response to environmental changes. We asked how the relative abundance and biogeographic patterning of this phylum and its subgroups responded to forest-to-pasture conversion in soils of the western Brazilian Amazon. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was employed to assess the abundance and composition of the Acidobacteria community across 54 soil samples taken using a spatially nested sampling scheme at the landscape level. Numerically, Acidobacteria represented 20% of the total bacterial community in forest soils and 11% in pasture soils. Overall, 15 different Acidobacteria subgroups of the current 26 subgroups were detected, with Acidobacteria subgroups 1, 3, 5, and 6 accounting together for 87% of the total Acidobacteria community in forest soils and 75% in pasture soils. Concomitant with changes in soil chemistry after forest-to-pasture conversion—particularly an increase in properties linked to soil acidity and nutrient availability—we observed an increase in the relative abundances of Acidobacteria subgroups 4, 10, 17, and 18, and a decrease in the relative abundances of other Acidobacteria subgroups in pasture relative to forest soils. The composition of the total Acidobacteria community as well as the most abundant Acidobacteria subgroups (1, 3, 5, and 6) was significantly more similar in composition across space in pasture soils than in forest soils. These results suggest that preponderant responses of Acidobacteria subgroups, especially subgroups 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6, to forest-to-pasture conversion effects in soils could be used to define management-indicators of agricultural practices in the Amazon Basin. These acidobacterial responses are at least in part through alterations on acidity- and nutrient-related properties of the Amazon soils. PMID:26733981

  5. Differential Response of Acidobacteria Subgroups to Forest-to-Pasture Conversion and Their Biogeographic Patterns in the Western Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Acacio A; Venturini, Andressa M; Meyer, Kyle M; Klein, Ann M; Tiedje, James M; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Nüsslein, Klaus; Tsai, Siu M; Rodrigues, Jorge L M

    2015-01-01

    Members of the phylum Acidobacteria are among the most abundant soil bacteria on Earth, but little is known about their response to environmental changes. We asked how the relative abundance and biogeographic patterning of this phylum and its subgroups responded to forest-to-pasture conversion in soils of the western Brazilian Amazon. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was employed to assess the abundance and composition of the Acidobacteria community across 54 soil samples taken using a spatially nested sampling scheme at the landscape level. Numerically, Acidobacteria represented 20% of the total bacterial community in forest soils and 11% in pasture soils. Overall, 15 different Acidobacteria subgroups of the current 26 subgroups were detected, with Acidobacteria subgroups 1, 3, 5, and 6 accounting together for 87% of the total Acidobacteria community in forest soils and 75% in pasture soils. Concomitant with changes in soil chemistry after forest-to-pasture conversion-particularly an increase in properties linked to soil acidity and nutrient availability-we observed an increase in the relative abundances of Acidobacteria subgroups 4, 10, 17, and 18, and a decrease in the relative abundances of other Acidobacteria subgroups in pasture relative to forest soils. The composition of the total Acidobacteria community as well as the most abundant Acidobacteria subgroups (1, 3, 5, and 6) was significantly more similar in composition across space in pasture soils than in forest soils. These results suggest that preponderant responses of Acidobacteria subgroups, especially subgroups 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6, to forest-to-pasture conversion effects in soils could be used to define management-indicators of agricultural practices in the Amazon Basin. These acidobacterial responses are at least in part through alterations on acidity- and nutrient-related properties of the Amazon soils. PMID:26733981

  6. High risk of respiratory diseases in children in the fire period in Western Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Pãmela Rodrigues de Souza; Ignotti, Eliane; de Oliveira, Beatriz Fátima Alves; Junger, Washington Leite; Morais, Fernando; Artaxo, Paulo; Hacon, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the toxicological risk of exposure to ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) among schoolchildren.. METHODS Toxicological risk assessment was used to evaluate the risk of exposure to O3 and PM2.5 from biomass burning among schoolchildren aged six to 14 years, residents of Rio Branco, Acre, Southern Amazon, Brazil. We used Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the potential intake dose of both pollutants. RESULTS During the slash-and-burn periods, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations reached 119.4 µg/m3 and 51.1 µg/m3, respectively. The schoolchildren incorporated medium potential doses regarding exposure to O3 (2.83 μg/kg.day, 95%CI 2.72–2.94). For exposure to PM2.5, we did not find toxicological risk (0.93 μg/kg.day, 95%CI 0.86–0.99). The toxicological risk for exposure to O3 was greater than 1 for all children (QR = 2.75; 95%CI 2.64–2.86). CONCLUSIONS Schoolchildren were exposed to high doses of O3 during the dry season of the region. This posed a toxicological risk, especially to those who had previous diseases. PMID:27305405

  7. Food insecurity and dental caries in schoolchildren: a cross-sectional survey in the western Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Frazão, Paulo; Benicio, Maria H D; Narvai, Paulo C; Cardoso, Marly A

    2014-06-01

    We analyzed the association between food insecurity and dental caries in 7- to 9-yr-old schoolchildren. We performed a cross-sectional survey nested in a population-based cohort study of 203 schoolchildren. The participants lived in the urban area of a small town within the western Brazilian Amazon. Dental examinations were performed according to criteria recommended by the World Health Organization. The number of decayed deciduous and permanent teeth as a count variable was the outcome measure. Socio-economic status, food security, behavioral variables, and child nutritional status, measured by Z-score for body mass index (BMI), were investigated, and robust Poisson regression models were used. The results showed a mean (SD) of 3.63 (3.26) teeth affected by untreated caries. Approximately 80% of schoolchildren had at least one untreated decayed tooth, and nearly 60% lived in food-insecure households. Sex, household wealth index, mother's education level, and food-insecurity scores were associated with dental caries in the crude analysis. Dental caries was 1.5 times more likely to be associated with high food-insecurity scores after adjusting for socio-economic status and sex. A significant dose-response relationship was observed. In conclusion, food insecurity is highly associated with dental caries in 7- to 9-yr-old children and may be seen as a risk factor. These findings suggest that food-security policies could reduce dental caries.

  8. Natural Plasmodium infection in monkeys in the state of Rondônia (Brazilian Western Amazon)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Simian malaria is still an open question concerning the species of Plasmodium parasites and species of New World monkeys susceptible to the parasites. In addition, the lingering question as to whether these animals are reservoirs for human malaria might become important especially in a scenario of eradication of the disease. To aid in the answers to these questions, monkeys were surveyed for malaria parasite natural infection in the Amazonian state of Rondônia, Brazil, a state with intense environmental alterations due to human activities, which facilitated sampling of the animals. Methods Parasites were detected and identified in DNA from blood of monkeys, by PCR with primers for the 18S rRNA, CSP and MSP1 genes and sequencing of the amplified fragments. Multiplex PCR primers for the 18S rRNA genes were designed for the parasite species Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae/Plasmodium brasilianum and Plasmodium simium. Results An overall infection rate of 10.9% was observed or 20 out 184 monkey specimens surveyed, mostly by P. brasilianum. However, four specimens of monkeys were found infected with P. falciparum, two of them doubly infected with P. brasilianum and P. falciparum. In addition, a species of monkey of the family Aotidae, Aotus nigriceps, is firstly reported here naturally infected with P. brasilianum. None of the monkeys surveyed was found infected with P. simium/P. vivax. Conclusion The rate of natural Plasmodium infection in monkeys in the Brazilian state of Rondônia is in line with previous surveys of simian malaria in the Amazon region. The fact that a monkey species was found that had not previously been described to harbour malaria parasites indicates that the list of monkey species susceptible to Plasmodium infection is yet to be completed. Furthermore, finding monkeys in the region infected with P. falciparum clearly indicates parasite transfer from humans to the animals. Whether this parasite can be

  9. Characterization of forest biodiversity in Western Amazon using CAO-VSWIR imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Féret, J.; Asner, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    Mapping canopy species richness is a key to the study and conservation of biological diversity in tropical forests, but to date, no reliable methods exist for operational biodiversity mapping of tropical regions. Airborne imaging spectroscopy has proven potential for the discrimination of canopy tree species, as a combination of high spectral and spatial resolution allows measurement of subtle spectral variations among individual tree crowns, corresponding to the chemical properties of the leaves in different species. We developed a method to estimate the Shannon diversity index, a popular biodiversity indicator, of a forest canopy from airborne spectral data by building upon the Spectral Variation Hypothesis, which relates biological diversity to spectral variability. We collected and analyzed hyperspectral data acquired by the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (AToMS) over the Los Amigos Conservation Concession in the Peruvian Amazon. The data have a spatial resolution of 2.0 m and 217 bands evenly spaced between 380 nm and 2510 nm. The method relies on a k-means clustering of a subset of pixels randomly selected from a site, each cluster serving as a proxy for different species. Each pixel in the image is then assigned to the nearest 'proxy-species', the Shannon index is computed for a given area, i.e. 1 ha, and the process is repeated several times to obtain the average estimated Shannon index. To test our approach, we applied the method to two types of data acquired by CAO AToMS. The first was an artificial gradient of biological diversity generated using pixels corresponding to species identified during a field campaign. This artificial gradient allowed total control on the number of species (ranging from 1 to 36 species per ha), and accurate quantification of the results. The spectral diversity index mapped using our method showed a strong correlation with the actual Shannon diversity index (R^2=0.81). The second dataset

  10. Terrestrial Carbon Sinks in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Region Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Huete, A.; Genovese, V.; Bustamante, M.; Ferreira, L. Guimaraes; deOliveira, R. C., Jr.; Zepp, R.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2004. Net ecosystem production (NEP) flux for atmospheric CO2 in the region for these years was estimated. Consistently high carbon sink fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems on a yearly basis were found in the western portions of the states of Acre and Rondonia and the northern portions of the state of Par a. These areas were not significantly impacted by the 2002-2003 El Nino event in terms of net annual carbon gains. Areas of the region that show periodically high carbon source fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere on yearly basis were found throughout the state of Maranhao and the southern portions of the state of Amazonas. As demonstrated though tower site comparisons, NEP modeled with monthly MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) inputs closely resembles the measured seasonal carbon fluxes at the LBA Tapajos tower site. Modeling results suggest that the capacity for use of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data to predict seasonal uptake rates of CO2 in Amazon forests and Cerrado woodlands is strong.

  11. Reference values of lead in blood and related factors among blood donors in the Western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carmen; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Fujimoto, Denys; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Koifman, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) determine the reference value of blood lead levels (BLL) in a sample of blood donors of Rio Branco, the capital city of Acre, in the Western Brazilian Amazon, and (2) explore factors influencing lead (Pb) exposure levels. Between 2010 and 2011, blood samples were collected from universal blood donors attending the Central Hemotherapic Unit in Rio Branco with a total number of 1196. Information on characteristics of 1183 donors was obtained through questionnaires. Blood Pb concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with detection limit of 0.003 μg/L. Association between BLL and participant characteristics was examined by linear regression analysis. Reference values of BLL were calculated as the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the 95th percentile. Reference values of BLL were 109.5 μg/L for men, 70.7 μg/L for women, 88.9 μg/L for younger individuals (18-29 yr), 115.3 μg/L for older ones (≥30 yr), 94.2 μg/L for nonsmokers, and 164.5 μg/L for smokers. Levels of BLL were significantly higher in males, subjects older than 29 yr, non-whites, smokers, regular consumers of manioc flour, and donors practicing any activity related to paints, ceramics, pottery, fishing, or firearms. Subjects with higher education, higher income, vitamin intake use, and drinkers of bottled water displayed lower BLL. In general, BLL in men and women from Rio Branco were higher than those described in other adult populations. Prevention of exposure of this population to local sources of Pb needs to be addressed.

  12. Production and economic potentials of cattle in pasture-based systems of the western Amazon region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rueda, B L; Blake, R W; Nicholson, C F; Fox, D G; Tedeschi, L O; Pell, A N; Fernandes, E C M; Valentim, J F; Carneiro, J C

    2003-12-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate strategies to improve productivity and economic returns from beef and dual-purpose cattle systems based on data collected on one dual-purpose (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) and two beef (Nellore) cattle farms in the western Amazon region of Brazil. Forage chemical composition and digestion rates of carbohydrate fractions of grazed Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu grasses and Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu) legume were measured monthly during a 9-mo period from the end of one dry season to the end of the subsequent rainy season. Measurements of milk and growth responses to grazing these forages were used to predict animal productivity responses to dietary nutrient availability throughout an annual cycle. The ME available for gain in our simulations was always more limiting than metabolizable protein. The predicted ME available for gain was 0.50 kg/d for steers grazing B. brizantha and 0.40 kg/d for finishing steers grazing B. decumbens. Grasses contained more NDF and neutral detergent insoluble protein and less ME (P < 0.05) in the rainiest months than in the less rainy season, which resulted in 20% less predicted weight gain by growing steers (P < 0.05). Supplementation with sorghum grain was required to increase milk production and growth by 25 or 50% per animal, respectively, but this strategy was less profitable than current forage-only diets. Greater productivity of land and labor from higher stocking indicated greater net margins for beef production, but not for milk. This study suggested that more intensive beef production by judicious fertilization of grass-legume pastures and greater stocking density is the preferable strategy for owners of these cattle systems to improve economic returns under current conditions. It also might help decrease the motivation for additional forest clearing.

  13. Reference values of lead in blood and related factors among blood donors in the Western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carmen; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Fujimoto, Denys; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Koifman, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) determine the reference value of blood lead levels (BLL) in a sample of blood donors of Rio Branco, the capital city of Acre, in the Western Brazilian Amazon, and (2) explore factors influencing lead (Pb) exposure levels. Between 2010 and 2011, blood samples were collected from universal blood donors attending the Central Hemotherapic Unit in Rio Branco with a total number of 1196. Information on characteristics of 1183 donors was obtained through questionnaires. Blood Pb concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with detection limit of 0.003 μg/L. Association between BLL and participant characteristics was examined by linear regression analysis. Reference values of BLL were calculated as the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the 95th percentile. Reference values of BLL were 109.5 μg/L for men, 70.7 μg/L for women, 88.9 μg/L for younger individuals (18-29 yr), 115.3 μg/L for older ones (≥30 yr), 94.2 μg/L for nonsmokers, and 164.5 μg/L for smokers. Levels of BLL were significantly higher in males, subjects older than 29 yr, non-whites, smokers, regular consumers of manioc flour, and donors practicing any activity related to paints, ceramics, pottery, fishing, or firearms. Subjects with higher education, higher income, vitamin intake use, and drinkers of bottled water displayed lower BLL. In general, BLL in men and women from Rio Branco were higher than those described in other adult populations. Prevention of exposure of this population to local sources of Pb needs to be addressed. PMID:24627997

  14. Differentiation in the fertility of Inceptisols as related to land use in the upper Solimões river region, western Amazon.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Fatima Maria de Souza; Nóbrega, Rafaela Simão Abrahão; Jesus, Ederson da Conceição; Ferreira, Daniel Furtado; Pérez, Daniel Vidal

    2009-12-20

    The Upper Solimões river region, western Amazon, is the homeland of indigenous populations and contains small-scale agricultural systems that are important for biodiversity conservation. Although traditional slash-and-burn agriculture is being practiced over many years, deforestation there is relatively small compared to other Amazon regions. Pastures are restricted to the vicinity of cities and do not spread to the small communities along the river. Inceptisols are the main soil order (>90%) in the area and have unique attributes including high Al content and high cation exchange capacity (CEC) due to the enrichment of the clay fraction with 2:1 secondary aluminosilicates. Despite its importance, few studies have focussed on this soil order when considering land use effects on the fertility of Amazon soils. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate changes in soil fertility of representative land use systems (LUSs) in the Upper Solimões region, namely: primary rainforest, old secondary forest, young secondary forest, agroforestry, pasture and agriculture. LUSs were significantly differentiated by the chemical attributes of their topsoil (0-20 cm). Secondary forests presented soil chemical attributes more similar to primary rainforest areas, while pastures exhibited the highest dissimilarity from all the other LUSs. As a whole, soil chemical changes among Inceptisols dominated LUSs showed patterns that were distinct from those reported from other Amazon soils like Oxisols and Ultisols. This is probably related to the presence of high-activity clays enriched in exchangeable aluminum that heavily influenced the soil chemical reactions over the expected importance of organic matter found in most studies conducted over Oxisol and Ultisol. PMID:19853281

  15. Genetic and symbiotic diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from agricultural soils in the western Amazon by using cowpea as the trap plant.

    PubMed

    Azarias Guimarães, Amanda; Duque Jaramillo, Paula Marcela; Simão Abrahão Nóbrega, Rafaela; Florentino, Ligiane Aparecida; Barroso Silva, Karina; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria

    2012-09-01

    Cowpea is a legume of great agronomic importance that establishes symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. However, little is known about the genetic and symbiotic diversity of these bacteria in distinct ecosystems. Our study evaluated the genetic diversity and symbiotic efficiencies of 119 bacterial strains isolated from agriculture soils in the western Amazon using cowpea as a trap plant. These strains were clustered into 11 cultural groups according to growth rate and pH. The 57 nonnodulating strains were predominantly fast growing and acidifying, indicating a high incidence of endophytic strains in the nodules. The other 62 strains, authenticated as nodulating bacteria, exhibited various symbiotic efficiencies, with 68% of strains promoting a significant increase in shoot dry matter of cowpea compared with the control with no inoculation and low levels of mineral nitrogen. Fifty genotypes with 70% similarity and 21 genotypes with 30% similarity were obtained through repetitive DNA sequence (BOX element)-based PCR (BOX-PCR) clustering. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of strains representative of BOX-PCR clusters showed a predominance of bacteria from the genus Bradyrhizobium but with high species diversity. Rhizobium, Burkholderia, and Achromobacter species were also identified. These results support observations of cowpea promiscuity and demonstrate the high symbiotic and genetic diversity of rhizobia species in areas under cultivation in the western Amazon.

  16. Genetic and Symbiotic Diversity of Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Isolated from Agricultural Soils in the Western Amazon by Using Cowpea as the Trap Plant

    PubMed Central

    Azarias Guimarães, Amanda; Duque Jaramillo, Paula Marcela; Simão Abrahão Nóbrega, Rafaela; Florentino, Ligiane Aparecida; Barroso Silva, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Cowpea is a legume of great agronomic importance that establishes symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. However, little is known about the genetic and symbiotic diversity of these bacteria in distinct ecosystems. Our study evaluated the genetic diversity and symbiotic efficiencies of 119 bacterial strains isolated from agriculture soils in the western Amazon using cowpea as a trap plant. These strains were clustered into 11 cultural groups according to growth rate and pH. The 57 nonnodulating strains were predominantly fast growing and acidifying, indicating a high incidence of endophytic strains in the nodules. The other 62 strains, authenticated as nodulating bacteria, exhibited various symbiotic efficiencies, with 68% of strains promoting a significant increase in shoot dry matter of cowpea compared with the control with no inoculation and low levels of mineral nitrogen. Fifty genotypes with 70% similarity and 21 genotypes with 30% similarity were obtained through repetitive DNA sequence (BOX element)-based PCR (BOX-PCR) clustering. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of strains representative of BOX-PCR clusters showed a predominance of bacteria from the genus Bradyrhizobium but with high species diversity. Rhizobium, Burkholderia, and Achromobacter species were also identified. These results support observations of cowpea promiscuity and demonstrate the high symbiotic and genetic diversity of rhizobia species in areas under cultivation in the western Amazon. PMID:22798370

  17. High Frequency of Diabetes and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Patients with Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in the Western Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Marli S.; Monteiro, Wuelton M.; Costa, Mônica R. F.; Sampaio, Vanderson S.; Brito, Marcelo A. M.; Lacerda, Marcus V. G.; Alecrim, Maria G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most common human genetic abnormalities, and it has a significant prevalence in the male population (X chromosome linked). The purpose of this study was to estimate the frequency of impaired fasting glucose and diabetes among G6PD-deficient persons in Manaus, Brazil, an area in the Western Brazilian Amazon to which malaria is endemic. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase–deficient males had more impaired fasting glucose and diabetes. This feature could be used as a screening tool for G6PD-deficient persons who are unable to use primaquine for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria. PMID:24865682

  18. Correlation between TH1 response standard cytokines as biomarkers in patients with the delta virus in the western Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Nicolete, Larissa Deadame de Figueiredo; Borzacov, Lourdes Maria Pinheiro; Vieira, Deusilene Souza; Nicolete, Roberto; Salcedo, Juan Miguel Villalobos

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is endemic in the Amazon Region and its pathophysiology is the most severe among viral hepatitis. Treatment is performed with pegylated interferon and the immune response appears to be important for infection control. HDV patients were studied: untreated and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive (n = 9), anti-HDV positive and PCR negative (n = 8), and responders to treatment (n = 12). The cytokines, interleukin (IL)-2 (p = 0.0008) and IL-12 (p = 0.02) were differentially expressed among the groups and were also correlated (p = 0.0143). Future studies will be conducted with patients at different stages of treatment, associating the viral load with serum cytokines produced, thereby attempting to establish a prognostic indicator of the infection. PMID:27074258

  19. Soil and vegetation carbon stocks in Brazilian Western Amazonia: relationships and ecological implications for natural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, C E G R; do Amaral, E F; de Mendonça, B A F; Oliveira, H; Lani, J L; Costa, L M; Fernandes Filho, E I

    2008-05-01

    The relationships between soils attributes, soil carbon stocks and vegetation carbon stocks are poorly know in Amazonia, even at regional scale. In this paper, we used the large and reliable soil database from Western Amazonia obtained from the RADAMBRASIL project and recent estimates of vegetation biomass to investigate some environmental relationships, quantifying C stocks of intact ecosystem in Western Amazonia. The results allowed separating the western Amazonia into 6 sectors, called pedo-zones: Roraima, Rio Negro Basin, Tertiary Plateaux of the Amazon, Javari-Juruá-Purus lowland, Acre Basin and Rondonia uplands. The highest C stock for the whole soil is observed in the Acre and in the Rio Negro sectors. In the former, this is due to the high nutrient status and high clay activity, whereas in the latter, it is attributed to a downward carbon movement attributed to widespread podzolization and arenization, forming spodic horizons. The youthful nature of shallow soils of the Javari-Juruá-Purus lowlands, associated with high Al, results in a high phytomass C/soil C ratio. A similar trend was observed for the shallow soils from the Roraima and Rondonia highlands. A consistent east-west decline in biomass carbon in the Rio Negro Basin sector is associated with increasing rainfall and higher sand amounts. It is related to lesser C protection and greater C loss of sandy soils, subjected to active chemical leaching and widespread podzolization. Also, these soils possess lower cation exchangeable capacity and lower water retention capacity. Zones where deeply weathered Latosols dominate have a overall pattern of high C sequestration, and greater than the shallower soils from the upper Amazon, west of Madeira and Negro rivers. This was attributed to deeper incorporation of carbon in these clayey and highly pedo-bioturbated soils. The results highlight the urgent need for refining soil data at an appropriate scale for C stocks calculations purposes in Amazonia. There

  20. Soil and vegetation carbon stocks in Brazilian Western Amazonia: relationships and ecological implications for natural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, C E G R; do Amaral, E F; de Mendonça, B A F; Oliveira, H; Lani, J L; Costa, L M; Fernandes Filho, E I

    2008-05-01

    The relationships between soils attributes, soil carbon stocks and vegetation carbon stocks are poorly know in Amazonia, even at regional scale. In this paper, we used the large and reliable soil database from Western Amazonia obtained from the RADAMBRASIL project and recent estimates of vegetation biomass to investigate some environmental relationships, quantifying C stocks of intact ecosystem in Western Amazonia. The results allowed separating the western Amazonia into 6 sectors, called pedo-zones: Roraima, Rio Negro Basin, Tertiary Plateaux of the Amazon, Javari-Juruá-Purus lowland, Acre Basin and Rondonia uplands. The highest C stock for the whole soil is observed in the Acre and in the Rio Negro sectors. In the former, this is due to the high nutrient status and high clay activity, whereas in the latter, it is attributed to a downward carbon movement attributed to widespread podzolization and arenization, forming spodic horizons. The youthful nature of shallow soils of the Javari-Juruá-Purus lowlands, associated with high Al, results in a high phytomass C/soil C ratio. A similar trend was observed for the shallow soils from the Roraima and Rondonia highlands. A consistent east-west decline in biomass carbon in the Rio Negro Basin sector is associated with increasing rainfall and higher sand amounts. It is related to lesser C protection and greater C loss of sandy soils, subjected to active chemical leaching and widespread podzolization. Also, these soils possess lower cation exchangeable capacity and lower water retention capacity. Zones where deeply weathered Latosols dominate have a overall pattern of high C sequestration, and greater than the shallower soils from the upper Amazon, west of Madeira and Negro rivers. This was attributed to deeper incorporation of carbon in these clayey and highly pedo-bioturbated soils. The results highlight the urgent need for refining soil data at an appropriate scale for C stocks calculations purposes in Amazonia. There

  1. Epidemiology and Control of Child Toxocariasis in the Western Brazilian Amazon – A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno M.; Martins, Antonio C.; Mantovani, Saulo A. S.; Braña, Athos M.; Pereira, Thasciany M.; Branco, Fernando L. C. C.; Ramalho, Alanderson A.; Campos, Rhanderson G.; Fontoura, Pablo S.; de Araujo, Thiago S.; de Oliveira, Cristieli S. M.; Muniz, Pascoal T.; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Codeço, Cláudia T.; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2014-01-01

    Toxocara spp. infection and the seroconversion rate in the Amazon have been poorly investigated. This study analyzed individual and household-level risk factors for the presence of IgG antibodies to Toxocara spp. in urban Amazonian children over a period of 7 years and evaluated the seroconversion rates over a 1-year follow-up. In children < 59 months of age, the overall prevalence rate was 28.08% in 2003 and 23.35% in 2010. The 2010–2011 seroconversion rates were 13.90% for children 6–59 months of age and 12.30% for children 84–143 months of age. Multilevel logistic regression analysis identified child age, previous wheezing, and current infection with hookworm as significant associated factors for Toxocara spp. seropositivity in 2003. In 2010, age, previous helminthiasis, and having a dog were associated with seropositivity, whereas having piped water inside the household was a protective factor. Control programs mainly need to target at-risk children, water quality control, and animal deworming strategies. PMID:24515946

  2. The Amazon-Laurentian connection as viewed from the Middle Proterozoic rocks in the central Andes, western Bolivia and northern Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tosdal, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Middle Proterozoic rocks underlying the Andes in western Bolivia, western Argentina, and northern Chile and Early Proterozoic rocks of the Arequipa massif in southern Peru?? from the Arequipa-Antofalla craton. These rocks are discontinuously exposed beneath Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks, but abundant crystalline clasts in Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the western altiplano allow indirect samples of the craton. Near Berenguela, western Bolivia, the Oligocene and Miocene Mauri Formation contains boulders of granodiorite augen gneiss (1171??20 Ma and 1158??12 Ma; U-Pb zircon), quartzose gneiss and granofels that are inferred to have arkosic protoliths (1100 Ma source region; U-Pb zircon), quartzofeldspathic and mafic orthogneisses that have amphibolite- and granulite-facies metamorphic mineral assemblages (???1080 Ma metamorphism; U-Pb zircon), and undeformed granitic rocks of Phanerozoic(?) age. The Middle Proterozoic crystalline rocks from Berenguela and elsewhere in western Bolivia and from the Middle Proterozoic Bele??n Schist in northern Chile generally have present-day low 206Pb/204Pb ( 15.57), and elevated 208Pb/204Pb (37.2 to 50.7) indicative of high time-averaged Th/U values. The Middle Proterozoic rocks in general have higher presentday 206Pb/204Pb values than those of the Early Proterozoic rocks of the Arequipa massif (206Pb/204Pb between 16.1 and 17.1) but lower than rocks of the southern Arequipa-Antofalla craton (206Pb/204Pb> 18.5), a difference inferred to reflect Grenvillian granulite metamorphism. The Pb isotopic compositions for the various Proterozoic rocks lie on common Pb isotopic growth curves, implying that Pb incorporated in rocks composing the Arequipa-Antofalla craton was extracted from a similar evolving Pb isotopic reservoir. Evidently, the craton has been a coherent terrane since the Middle Proterozoic. Moreover, the Pb isotopic compositions for the Arequipa-Antofalla craton overlap those of the Amazon craton, thereby supporting a link

  3. Impacts of satellite-based precipitation datasets on rainfall-runoff modeling of the Western Amazon basin of Peru and Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubieta, Ricardo; Getirana, Augusto; Espinoza, Jhan Carlo; Lavado, Waldo

    2015-09-01

    Satellites are an alternative source of rainfall data used as input to hydrological models in poorly gauged or ungauged regions. They are also useful in regions with highly heterogeneous precipitation, such as the tropical Andes. This paper evaluates three satellite precipitation datasets (TMPA, CMORPH, PERSIANN), as well as a dataset based only on rain gauge data (HYBAM), and their impacts on the water balance of the Western Amazon basin, a region where hydrological modeling and hydrological forecasting are poorly developed. These datasets were used as inputs in the MGB-IPH hydrological model to simulate streamflows for the 2003-2009 period. The impacts of precipitation on model parameterization and outputs were evaluated in two calibration experiments. In Experiment 1, parameter sets were separately defined for each catchment; in Experiment 2, a single parameter set was defined for the entire basin. TMPA shows overestimated precipitation over the northern region, while CMORPH and PERSIANN significantly underestimate rainfall in the same that region and along the Andes. TMPA and CMORPH lead to similar estimates of mean evapotranspiration (∼2 mm/day) for different regions along the entire basin, while PERSIANN is the least accurate (∼0.5 mm/day). Overall, better scores for streamflow simulations are obtained with Experiment 1 forced by HYBAM and TMPA. Nevertheless, results using the three satellite datasets indicate inter-basin differences, low performance in the northern and high in the southern regions. Low model performances are mainly related to scale issues and forcing errors in small basins over regions that present very low rainfall seasonality.

  4. Arboviral diseases in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a perspective and analysis from a tertiary health & research center in Manaus, State of Amazonas.

    PubMed

    Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes; Bastos, Michele de Souza; Figueiredo, Regina Maria Pinto de; Gimaque, João Bosco de Lima; Alves, Valquíria do Carmo Rodrigues; Saraiva, Maria das Graças Gomes; Figueiredo, Mário Luis Garcia; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2015-01-01

    The Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD), located in Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas (Western Brazilian Amazon), is a pioneering institution in this region regarding the syndromic surveillance of acute febrile illness, including arboviral infections. Based on the data from patients at the FMT-HVD, we have detected recurrent outbreaks in Manaus by the four dengue serotypes in the past 15 years, with increasing severity of the disease. This endemicity has culminated in the simultaneous circulation of all four serotypes in 2011, the first time this has been reported in Brazil. Between 1996 and 2009, 42 cases of yellow fever (YF) were registered in the State of Amazonas, and 71.4% (30/42) were fatal. Since 2010, no cases have been reported. Because the introduction of the yellow fever virus into a large city such as Manaus, which is widely infested by Aedes mosquitoes, may pose a real risk of a yellow fever outbreak, efforts to maintain an appropriate immunization policy for the populace are critical. Manaus has also suffered silent outbreaks of Mayaro and Oropouche fevers lately, most of which were misdiagnosed as dengue fever. The tropical conditions of the State of Amazonas favor the existence of other arboviruses capable of producing human disease. Under this real threat, represented by at least 4 arboviruses producing human infections in Manaus and in other neighboring countries, it is important to develop an efficient public health surveillance strategy, including laboratories that are able to make proper diagnoses of arboviruses.

  5. Conventional U-Pb dating versus SHRIMP of the Santa Barbara Granite Massif, Rondonia, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparrenberger, I.; Bettencourt, Jorge S.; Tosdal, R.M.; Wooden, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The Santa Ba??rbara Granite Massif is part of the Younger Granites of Rondo??nia (998 - 974 Ma) and is included in the Rondo??nia Tin Province (SW Amazonian Craton). It comprises three highly fractionated metaluminous to peraluminous within-plate A-type granite units emplaced in older medium-grade metamorphic rocks. Sn-mineralization is closely associated with the late-stage unit. U-Pb monazite conventional dating of the early-stage Serra do Cicero facies and late-stage Serra Azul facies yielded ages of 993 ?? 5 Ma and 989 ?? 13 Ma, respectively. Conventional multigrain U-Pb isotope analyses of zircon demonstrate isotopic disturbance (discordance) and the preservation of inherited older zircons of several different ages and thus yield little about the ages of Sn-granite magmatism. SHRIMP U-Pb ages for the Santa Ba??rbara facies association yielded a 207Pb/206Pb weighted-mean age of 978 ?? 13 Ma. The textural complexity of the zircon crystals of the Santa Ba??rbara facies association, the variable concentrations of U, Th and Pb, as well as the mixed inheritance of zircon populations are major obstacles to using conventional multigrain U-Pb isotopic analyses. Sm-Nd model ages and ??Nd (T) values reveal anomalous isotopic data, attesting to the complex isotopic behaviour within these highly fractionated granites. Thus, SHRIMP U-Pb zircon and conventional U-Pb monazite dating methods are the most appropriate to constrain the crystallization age of the Sn-bearing granite systems in the Rondo??nia Tin Province.

  6. Simulating spatial patterns of land-use change in Rondonia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; Southworth, F.; O`Neill, R.V.; Rosen, A.

    1992-11-09

    Large scale deforestation in the Brazilian state of Rondonia has resulted from massive colonization and has caused increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2}, soil degradation, loss of extractive resources, and disruption of indigenous populations. A simulation model has been developed that integrates colonization, socioeconomic, and ecological submodels to estimate spatial patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration policies, land tenure practices, and road development scenarios. It is used to model the socioeconomic causes and ecological impacts of rapid deforestation in Rondonia. The simulation can be used to identify scenarios that might optimize economic and agricultural sustainability or reduce emigration. Spatial analysis of the simulation projections shows that very different patterns of deforestation can result depending on whether soil suitability, distance to market or lot size is the prime factor affecting a colonist`s choice of a lot. Projections of the amount and pattern of deforestation under specific scenarios of land-use choice and management can be used to explore the socioeconomic and ecological implications of land-use change.

  7. Simulating spatial patterns of land-use change in Rondonia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; Southworth, F.; O'Neill, R.V.; Rosen, A.

    1992-11-09

    Large scale deforestation in the Brazilian state of Rondonia has resulted from massive colonization and has caused increases in atmospheric CO[sub 2], soil degradation, loss of extractive resources, and disruption of indigenous populations. A simulation model has been developed that integrates colonization, socioeconomic, and ecological submodels to estimate spatial patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration policies, land tenure practices, and road development scenarios. It is used to model the socioeconomic causes and ecological impacts of rapid deforestation in Rondonia. The simulation can be used to identify scenarios that might optimize economic and agricultural sustainability or reduce emigration. Spatial analysis of the simulation projections shows that very different patterns of deforestation can result depending on whether soil suitability, distance to market or lot size is the prime factor affecting a colonist's choice of a lot. Projections of the amount and pattern of deforestation under specific scenarios of land-use choice and management can be used to explore the socioeconomic and ecological implications of land-use change.

  8. Financial expense incurred by medical leaves of health professionals in Rondonia public hospitals, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Junkes, Maria Bernadete; Pessoa, Valdir Filgueiras

    2010-01-01

    The study investigates the additional payroll expense caused by absenteeism due to illness among nursing professionals and physicians at two public hospitals at Cacoal, Rondonia, Brazil. Non-programmed absences of up to 15 days which occurred at the hospital units between 2004 to 2007 were verified in the database of the institutions human resource sector. From 1,704 non-programmed absences, 1,486 were justified by medical declarations. It was verified that absenteeism caused by illness was responsible for 87.2% of all non-programmed absences. When these data are grouped by professional categories, it was observed that the nurse absenteeism due to illness reached 83.3%, when compared with 16.7% for physicians. The general absenteeism index, adding up nurses and physicians, corresponded to 0.85%, resulting in an additional payroll expense of 5.2% and 7.4% in the salaries of nursing professionals and physicians, respectively. PMID:20721430

  9. Disruption of hydroecological equilibrium in southwest Amazon mediated by drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Kim, Hyungjun; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Famiglietti, James S.; Oki, Taikan

    2015-09-01

    The impacts of droughts on the Amazon ecosystem have been broadly discussed in recent years, but a comprehensive understanding of the consequences is still missing. In this study, we show evidence of a fragile hydrological equilibrium in the western Amazon. While drainage systems located near the equator and the western Amazon do not show water deficit in years with average climate conditions, this equilibrium can be broken during drought events. More importantly, we show that this effect is persistent, taking years until the normal hydrological patterns are reestablished. We show clear links between persistent changes in forest canopy structure and changes in hydrological patterns, revealing physical evidence of hydrological mechanisms that may lead to permanent changes in parts of the Amazon ecosystem. If prospects of increasing drought frequency are confirmed, a change in the current hydroecological patterns in the western Amazon could take place in less than a decade.

  10. Brazil: Rondonia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... at better understanding the role these constituents play in Earth's climate. These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe ...

  11. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Santos, Ana Paula; Campos, Rhanderson Gardinali; Guimarães, Andréia Silva; Araújo, Thiago Santos de; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2016-06-01

    Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children's conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother's height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother's characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon.

  12. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Santos, Ana Paula; Campos, Rhanderson Gardinali; Guimarães, Andréia Silva; Araújo, Thiago Santos de; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2016-06-01

    Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children's conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother's height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother's characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:27383358

  13. Changes in CO2, N2O and NO Emissions in Response to Conventional Tillage and No-tillage Management Practices in the State of Rondonia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passianoto, C. C.; Ahrens, T. D.; Feigl, B. J.; Steudler, P. A.; Do Carmo, J. B.; Melillo, J. M.

    2002-12-01

    Land management in the Brazilian State of Rondonia is undergoing a new phase at the start of 21st century. In the 1970s and afterwards, vast tracts of tropical forest were cleared and planted to pasture for cattle grazing. With decades of use, the productivity of these pastures has declined. Now, in an effort to restore productivity, new land management regimes are being implemented that involve either tillage or no-tillage options combined with various combinations of fertilizer application, herbicide use and the planting of a cash crop prior to the planting of forage grasses. We are studying a subset of these restoration practices in a large-scale (>3 ha), replicated field experiment in an area of degraded pasture at Fazenda Nova Vida, a 22,000 ha cattle ranch in central Rondonia. Here we report on the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) from the initial phases (first six months) of three of the treatments. The treatments are - 1) control; 2) conventional tillage followed by planting of forage grass (Brachiaria brizantha) and fertilizer additions; 3) no-tillage/herbicide treatment followed by two plantings, the first being a cash crop of rice followed by forage grass. In treatment 3, the rice was fertilized. Relative to the control, tillage increased CO2 emission by 37% over the first two months, while the no-tillage/herbicide regime decreased CO2 emissions by 7% over the same period. The cumulative N2O emissions over the first two months from the tillage regime (0.94 kg N ha-1) were much higher than the N2O releases from either the no-tillage/herbicide regime (0.64 kg N ha-1) or the control treatment (0.04 kg N ha-1). The highest levels of N2O fluxes from both management regimes were observed following nitrogen fertilizations. The cumulative NO releases over the first two months were largest in the tillage treatment (0.98 kg N ha-1), intermediate in the no-tillage treatment (0.72 kg N ha-1), and smallest in the control

  14. Influence of the Amazon River on the Nd isotope composition of deep water in the western equatorial Atlantic during the Oligocene-Miocene transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Joseph A.; Gutjahr, Marcus; James, Rachael H.; Anand, Pallavi; Wilson, Paul A.

    2016-11-01

    Dissolved and particulate neodymium (Nd) are mainly supplied to the oceans via rivers, dust, and release from marine sediments along continental margins. This process, together with the short oceanic residence time of Nd, gives rise to pronounced spatial gradients in oceanic 143Nd/144Nd ratios (εNd). However, we do not yet have a good understanding of the extent to which the influence of riverine point-source Nd supply can be distinguished from changes in mixing between different water masses in the marine geological record. This gap in knowledge is important to fill because there is growing awareness that major global climate transitions may be associated not only with changes in large-scale ocean water mass mixing, but also with important changes in continental hydroclimate and weathering. Here we present εNd data for fossilised fish teeth, planktonic foraminifera, and the Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide and detrital fractions of sediments recovered from Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) Site 926 on Ceara Rise, situated approximately 800 km from the mouth of the River Amazon. Our records span the Mi-1 glaciation event during the Oligocene-Miocene transition (OMT; ∼23 Ma). We compare our εNd records with data for ambient deep Atlantic northern and southern component waters to assess the influence of particulate input from the Amazon River on Nd in ancient deep waters at this site. εNd values for all of our fish teeth, foraminifera, and Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide samples are extremely unradiogenic (εNd ≈ - 15); much lower than the εNd for deep waters of modern or Oligocene-Miocene age from the North Atlantic (εNd ≈ - 10) and South Atlantic (εNd ≈ - 8). This finding suggests that partial dissolution of detrital particulate material from the Amazon (εNd ≈ - 18) strongly influences the εNd values of deep waters at Ceara Rise across the OMT. We conclude that terrestrially derived inputs of Nd can affect εNd values of deep water many hundreds of kilometres from source. Our

  15. Occurrence of Mansonella ozzardi diagnosed using a polycarbonate membrane in a riverside population of Lábrea in the Western Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Basano, Sergio de Almeida; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Fontes, Gilberto; Vieira, Gabriel de Deus; Camargo, Juliana Souza de Almeida Aranha; Vera, Luana Janaína Souza; Ferreira, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2016-02-01

    INTRODUCTION Mansonella ozzardi is a widely distributed filaria worm in the Amazon region. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of M. ozzardi infection in riverine communities of Lábrea municipality, Amazonas State, Brazil. METHODS A diagnostic blood filtration method in a polycarbonate membrane was used. RESULTS M. ozzardi was found in 50.3% of the sample, with the highest prevalence in farmers/fishermen (69.4%; χ 2 = -19.14, p<0.001). The prevalence was higher in longer-term residents (≥11 years; 60.2%). CONCLUSIONS M. ozzardi infection rates are high near the Purus River, much greater than those previously reported based on diagnosis using thick blood smears. PMID:27163575

  16. Occurrence of Mansonella ozzardi diagnosed using a polycarbonate membrane in a riverside population of Lábrea in the Western Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Basano, Sergio de Almeida; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Fontes, Gilberto; Vieira, Gabriel de Deus; Camargo, Juliana Souza de Almeida Aranha; Vera, Luana Janaína Souza; Ferreira, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2016-02-01

    INTRODUCTION Mansonella ozzardi is a widely distributed filaria worm in the Amazon region. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of M. ozzardi infection in riverine communities of Lábrea municipality, Amazonas State, Brazil. METHODS A diagnostic blood filtration method in a polycarbonate membrane was used. RESULTS M. ozzardi was found in 50.3% of the sample, with the highest prevalence in farmers/fishermen (69.4%; χ 2 = -19.14, p<0.001). The prevalence was higher in longer-term residents (≥11 years; 60.2%). CONCLUSIONS M. ozzardi infection rates are high near the Purus River, much greater than those previously reported based on diagnosis using thick blood smears.

  17. Dependence between Ventilation and Climate as recorded with Biomarkers over the last 420,000 years in the Guianas Region (North-western Amazon Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rama, O.; Lopez-Otalvaro, G.; Martrat, B.; Flores, J.; Sierro, F. J.; Grimalt, J. O.

    2009-12-01

    There is growing evidence that the majority of the Amazon rainforest survived the climatic threshold of the last ice age. This information is crucial given that this region could be currently near its critical resiliency tipping point; thus, minor climate warming, widespread reductions in precipitation and lengthening of the dry season may be sufficient to gradually contribute to the forest dieback and biodiversity loss [Cowling et al., 2004; Lenton et al., 2008; Maslin, 2004]. To contribute to this knowledge, palaeoclimatic oscillations have been identified in this study by using fossil organic compounds synthesized by marine and terrestrial flora and later accumulated on sediment strata (MD03-2616, 7N, 53W, -1233 meters below sea-level) from the Guianas region, closely linked to the Amazon Basin. Different indicators have been considered to continuously reconstruct the climate over the past 420,000 years at centennial scale: average annual sea surface temperatures (SST, Uk’37), productivity of the coccolithophora flora (alken-2-ones), continental vegetation variability (long chain n-alkanes) and changes in oxygenation of the deep-sea floor (ratio between n-alkan-1-ols and n-alkanes). At present, the Guianas region is largely influenced by migration of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), related temperature and wind patterns, together with changes in hydrological conditions, atmospheric and oceanic fronts. Annual SST is 27.7C; two rain seasons and two dry seasons occur. At the core location, surface waters present complex seasonal configuration, while oxygen-enriched and low-salinity Antarctic Intermediate waters (AAIW) flow northward from -700 to -1500 meters depth; the Upper North Atlantic Deep waters circulate southward at greater depths [World Meteo. Org.; Masson & Delecluse, 2001; Arz et al., 2001]. This study reveals that completely different hydrological conditions and much colder climate occurred in the past, e.g. a harsh drop in SST of up to 24C

  18. Land-Use Change, Soil Process and Trace Gas Fluxes in the Brazilian Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melillo, Jerry M.; Steudler, Paul A.

    1997-01-01

    We measured changes in key soil processes and the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O associated with the conversion of tropical rainforest to pasture in Rondonia, a state in the southwest Amazon that has experienced rapid deforestation, primarily for cattle ranching, since the late 1970s. These measurements provide a comprehensive quantitative picture of the nature of surface soil element stocks, C and nutrient dynamics, and trace gas fluxes between soils and the atmosphere during the entire sequence of land-use change from the initial cutting and burning of native forest, through planting and establishment of pasture grass and ending with very old continuously-pastured land. All of our work is done in cooperation with Brazilian scientists at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA) through an extant official bi-lateral agreement between the Marine Biological Laboratory and the University of Sao Paulo, CENA's parent institution.

  19. New species of Orientatractis (Nematoda: Atractidae), new species of Rondonia (Nematoda: Atractidae) and other helminths in Austrochaperina basipalmata (Anura: Microhylidae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Kraus, Fred

    2014-03-01

    Two new nematode species, Orientatractis hamabatrachos sp. nov. and Rondonia batrachogena sp. nov. (Nematoda: Atractidae), from the gastrointestinal tract of Austrochaperina basipalmata (Anura: Microhylidae) collected in Papua New Guinea are described. Orientatractis hamabatrachos sp. nov. is characterized by the presence of the cephalic end armed with 4 wellsclerotized structures, consisting of 2 "horns" extending outward and downward and immediately below a single well-sclerotized spine. It differs from 5 congeners in spicule lengths and caudal papillae arrangements. Rondonia batrachogena sp. nov. is characterized by the presence of a female cloaca. It differs from 2 congeners primarily in body size. Orientatractis hamabatrachos sp. nov. and Rondonia batrachogena sp. nov. represent the first species assigned to either genus found to infect anurans or to occur in the Australo-Papuan region.

  20. [Indicator of socio-environmental vulnerability in the Western Amazon. The case of the city of Porto Velho, State of Rondônia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Karen Dos Santos; Siqueira, Alexandre San Pedro; Castro, Hermano Albuquerque de; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

    2014-09-01

    The accelerated process of urbanization in the State of Amazônia associated with changes in the patterns of exploitation of natural resources have resulted in several types of environmental impacts, such as urban air pollution produced by forest fires which alters the relationship between urban and rural areas and establishes new vulnerabilities. The scope of this study is to analyze the socio-environmental vulnerability in relation to forest fires and health effects in the urban area of Porto Velho, located in the Brazilian Amazon region. Data was analyzed using a synthetic indicator combining income and education aspects, housing infrastructure, environmental exposure and health effects. The findings indicate that 51% of the resident population, i.e. around 157,000 inhabitants, is exposed to conditions of high and extreme environmental vulnerability. Analysis of the dimensions used to construct the synthetic indicator reveals an intense heterogeneity in terms of socio-environmental vulnerability in the urban area of the city of Porto Velho. These results highlight the need for integrated actions from different government departments in order to enhance health promotion, ecological sustainability and also reduce social inequalities in health.

  1. Sensitivity of the Amazon rainforest to convective storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negron Juarez, R. I.; Chambers, J. Q.; Rifai, S. W.; Urquiza Munoz, J. D.; Tello, R.; Alegria Munoz, W.; Marra, D.; Ribeiro, G.; Higuchi, N.

    2012-12-01

    The Amazon rainforest is the largest contiguous continental tropical forest in the world and is a world center of carbon storage, biodiversity, biogeochemical cycles and biogeophysical processes that affect the Earth climate system. Yet anthropogenic activities have produced changes in the forest-climate system. Consequently, an increase in rainfall in both the Western and Central Amazon and a decrease in the Eastern Amazon are expected due to these anthropogenic activities. While the projected decrease in rainfall has been discussed under the context of drought, deforestation, and fires, the effect of an increase in rainfall, and associated convective processes, on forest ecosystems has been overlooked. Across the Amazon rainforest, Western Amazonia has the highest precipitation rates, wood productivity, soil fertility, recruitment and mortality rates. Yet our field-measured tree mortality data from blowdowns that occurred in Western and Central Amazonia do not show a statistical difference in tree mortality between these regions. However, downburst velocities associated with these disturbances were calculated to be lower in Western Amazonia than in the Central Amazon. This suggests the Western Amazon is more highly sensitive to intense convective systems. This result is particularly relevant given the expected increase in rainfall in the Western and Central Amazon. The increase in rainfall is associated with more intense convective systems that in turn imply an increase in low level jet stream (LLJ) intensity east of the Andes. The presence of the LLJ is the main cause of squall lines and an increase in LLJ intensity will therefore cause increased propagation of squall lines into the Amazon basin. More frequent and active squall lines have the potential to increase the intensity and frequency of downbursts responsible for large forest blowdowns that will affect the biogeophysical feedbacks on the forest ecosystem and carbon budget.

  2. Utilization of digital LANDSAT imagery for the study of granitoid bodies in Rondonia: Case example of the Pedra Branca massif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Almeidafilho, R.; Payolla, B. L.; Depinho, O. G.; Bettencourt, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of digital multispectral MSS-LANDSAT images enhanced through computer techniques and enlarged to a video scale of 1:100.000, show the main geological and structura features of the Pedra Branca granitic massif in Rondonia. These are not observed in aerial photographs or adar images. Field work shows that LANDSAT photogeological units correspond to different facies of granitic rocks in the Pedra Branca massif. Even under the particular characteristics of Amazonia (Tropical Forest, deep weathering, and Quaternary sedimentary covers), an adequate utilization of orbital remote sensing images can be important tools for the orientation of field works.

  3. Preliminary Measurements Of N2O Partial Pressures In Rivers of Amazon Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, C. B.; Rasera, M. F.; Krusche, A. V.; Victoria, R. L.; Richey, J. E.; Cunha, H. B.; Gomes, B. M.

    2006-12-01

    The concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O), an important component of the greenhouse effect and with a long residence time in the atmosphere, have significantly increased in this century. The reasons for this atmospheric increase in N2O are still partially unexplained. This uncertainty is worse in relation to aquatic environments. Here we report on preliminary measurements of N2O partial pressures in rivers of the Amazon basin. The study areas are in the state of Rondonia (rivers Ji Parana, Urupa, Comemoracao and Pimenta Bueno) and Amazonas (rivers Solimoes and Negro). The rivers were sampled from October 2005 to April 2006, using with immersion pumps, lowered in the middle of the channel to 60% of total depth. Water was pumped directly into a 1 l plastic bottle, which was overflown three times before closing. Using syringes, 60 ml of N2 were injected into the bottle, simultaenously to the withdrawn of 60 ml of sample. N2O was extracted into these 60 ml of N2 by shaking vigorously for 2 minutes. With the same syringes, the gas was taken from the bottles and injected into sealed evacuated 25 ml vials. Atmospheric samples were taken from one meter above the water column and stored the same way. N2O partial pressures were determined on a Shimadzu GC-14 Green House Gas Analyzer. All rivers showed little variations in N2O partial pressures. Average values in the rivers of Rondonia were around 0.41 ± 0.07 μ atm (n=46), whereas the Solimoes and Negro rivers, in the state of Amazonas, showed values around 0.43 ± 0.08 μ atm (n=131). Atmospheric averages were approximately 0.34 ± 0.04 μ atm (n=58) and 0.32 ± 0.03 μ atm (n=134) in the states of Rondonia and Amazonas, respectively. This means that, although these waters are supersatured in CO2, making evasive fluxes of this gas an important component of the C cycle in this basin, the same does not occur in the N cycle. Small differences in partial pressures of N2O between water and air will result in small fluxes of

  4. The Amazon and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nobre, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The climatologies of cloudiness and precipitation for the Amazon, are reviewed and the physical causes of some of the observed features and those which are not well known are explained. The atmospheric circulation over the Amazon is discussed on the large scale tropical circulations forced by deep diabatic heating sources. Weather deforestation which leads to a reduction in evapotranspiration into the atmosphere, and a reduction in precipitation and its implicated for the gobal climate is discussed. It is indicated that a large scale clearing of tropical rainforests there would be a reduction in rainfall which would have global effects on climate and weather both in the tropical and extratropical regions.

  5. Changes in nutrient dynamics throughout water transfers in a Tropical Forest and Pasture of Rondonia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolo, M. D.; Neill, C.; Krusche, A.; Laclau, J. P.; Cerri, C. C.

    2006-12-01

    The clearing of tropical forest in the Brazilian Amazon for cattle pasture since the 70s is a globally important land use change that has consequences for soil biogeochemical cycles. Generally, five to ten years after deforestation, pastures become degraded due to inadequate management practices. Development of strategies for restoration of low productivity pastures constitutes the main goal for Rondônia state. We analyzed the concentrations of the main nutrient of the biogeochemical cycles in three representative land uses at Fazenda Nova Vida, in central Rondônia (10o30'S, 62o30'W). The treatments were: (1) native forest; (2) pasture dominated by the forage grass Brachiaria brizantha but containing some weeds, under non- intensive management and; (3) a section of the same pasture that was subjected to tilling, replanting and fertilization (NPK + micronutrients) to eliminate weeds and improve grass productivity. Water samples from rain, throughfall, overland flow, tension lysimeter and zero-tension lysimeter (1.0 m soil depth), were collected during the rainy seasons from January to May of 2002 and 2003. The concentrations of C (DOC and DIC), inorganic-N (NH4+, NO3- and NO2-), Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, SO42- and Cl- were measured in all treatments. Rain water was dominated by the nutrients (NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Cl-) and DOC. Forest throughfall was enriched in most of the elements. Concentrations of elements in the overland flow showed higher variations in the pasture and in the plowed pasture, however samples were not collected in forest. Soil solution waters (tension lysimeter) and lysimeter waters (zero-tension lysimeter) too had higher variations for elements concentrations in all treatments. Forest clearing for pasture and pasture submitted to tillage practices profoundly influence soil properties and, consequently, the nutrient availability in soil profiles. The soil solution composition may be indicative of altered patterns of nutrient availability in this

  6. Amazon flood wave hydraulics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigg, Mark A.; Wilson, Matthew D.; Bates, Paul D.; Horritt, Matthew S.; Alsdorf, Douglas E.; Forsberg, Bruce R.; Vega, Maria C.

    2009-07-01

    SummaryA bathymetric survey of 575 km of the central Amazon River and one of its tributaries, the Purus, are combined with gauged data to characterise the Amazon flood wave, and for hydraulic modelling of the main channel for the period June 1995-March 1997 with the LISFLOOD-FP and HEC-RAS hydraulic models. Our investigations show that the Amazon flood wave is subcritical and diffusive in character and, due to shallow bed slopes, backwater conditions control significant reach lengths and are present for low and high water states. Comparison of the different models shows that it is necessary to include at least the diffusion term in any model, and the RMSE error in predicted water elevation at all cross sections introduced by ignoring the acceleration and advection terms is of the order of 0.02-0.03 m. The use of a wide rectangular channel approximation introduces an error of 0.10-0.15 m on the predicted water levels. Reducing the bathymetry to a simple bed slope and with mean cross section only, introduces an error in the order of 0.5 m. These results show that when compared to the mean annual amplitude of the Amazon flood wave of 11-12 m, water levels are relatively insensitive to the bathymetry of the channel model. The implication for remote sensing studies of the central Amazon channel, such as those proposed with the Surface Water and Ocean Topography mission (SWOT), is that even relatively crude assumptions regarding the channel bathymetry will be valid in order to derive discharge from water surface slope of the main channel, as long as the mean channel area is approximately correct.

  7. Amazon Basin: A System in Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salati, Eneas; Vose, Peter B.

    1984-07-01

    Despite the very active deforestation of the last decade, the Amazon Basin is still primarily covered with trees and is a system in equilibrium. The Andes form a barrier at the western end of the basin and, coupled with the prevailing easterly winds, ensure an almost unique precipitation and water-recycling regime. On average 50 percent of the precipitation is recycled, and in some areas even more. The soils are poor. Most of the nitrogen and phosphorus is found in the soil, and the remaining nutrient elements are found in the standing biomass. There is some nutrient recycling and little loss from the intact ecosystem, and the small input of nutrients from precipitation maintains a small positive nutrient balance. Continued large-scale deforestation is likely to lead to increased erosion and water runoff with initial flooding in the lower Amazon, together with reduced evapotranspiration and ultimately reduced precipitation. Reduced precipitation in the Amazon could increase the tendency toward continentality and adversely affect climate and the present agriculture in south-central Brazil.

  8. Amazon basin: a system in equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Salati, E; Vose, P B

    1984-07-13

    Despite the very active deforestation of the last decade, the Amazon Basin is still primarily covered with trees and is a system in equilibrium. The Andes form a barrier at the western end of the basin and, coupled with the prevailing easterly winds, ensure an almost unique precipitation and water-recycling regime. On average 50 percent of the precipitation is recycled, and in some areas even more. The soils are poor. Most of the nitrogen and phosphorus is found in the soil, and the remaining nutrient elements are found in the standing biomass. There is some nutrient recycling and little loss from the intact ecosystem, and the small input of nutrients from precipitation maintains a small positive nutrient balance. Continued large-scale deforestation is likely to lead to increased erosion and water runoff with initial flooding in the lower Amazon, together with reduced evapotranspiration and ultimately reduced precipitation. Reduced precipitation in the Amazon could increase the tendency toward continentality and adversely affect climate and the present agriculture in south-central Brazil. PMID:17837908

  9. Amazon basin: a system in equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Salati, E.; Vose, P.B.

    1984-07-13

    Despite very active deforestation in the last decade, the Amazon Basin is still primarily covered with trees and is a system in equilibrium. The Andes form a barrier at the western end of the basin and, coupled with the prevailing easterly winds, ensure an almost unique precipitation and water-recycling regime. On average 50% of the precipitation is recycled, and in some areas even more. The soils are poor. Most of the nitrogen and phosphorus is found in the soil, and the remaining nutrient elements are found in the standing biomass. There is some nutrient recycling and little loss from the intact ecosystem, and the small input of nutrients from precipitation maintains a small positive nutrient balance. Continued large-scale deforestation is likely to lead to increased erosion and water runoff with initial flooding in the lower Amazon, together with reduced evapotranspiration and ultimately reduced precipitation. Reduced precipitation in the Amazon could increase the tendency toward continentality and adversely affect climate and the present agriculture in south-central Brazil. 83 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  10. A century of Amazon burning driven by Atlantic climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makou, M.; Thompson, L. G.; Davis, M. E.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2011-12-01

    Very little is known about annual burning trends in the Amazon Basin prior to remote sensing of fires beginning in the late 1970's. Fires reduce Amazon forest biomass and species richness, release pollutant aerosols, and impact the carbon cycle, compelling further investigation of fire-climate dynamics. We measured organic compounds derived from vegetation burning in ice core samples from the Quelccaya Ice Cap in Peru at better than annual resolution to reconstruct wet and dry season burning throughout the Twentieth Century. Variations in the abundance of methyl hexadecanoate, which is produced by thermal alteration of vascular plant alkanoic acids, were used as a proxy for past fire activity. Concentrations of this compound in Quelccaya ice varied strongly on seasonal, interannual, and decadal time scales over the last 100 years, with high-amplitude dry season variability and muted, decadal-scale changes in wet season fire activity. Decade-long periods of repeatedly enhanced burning occurred during the 1930's and 1960's when dry season precipitation was perpetually reduced, as evidenced by low stages of the Rio Negro. These decadal trends suggest that changes in dry season precipitation drive fire activity in the western Amazon and highlight the potential of Amazon forests to undergo repeated strong burning. Fires occurred during years when sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the north tropical Atlantic were elevated and the north-south tropical Atlantic SST gradient was enhanced; this SST pattern likely displaced the intertropical convergence zone northward, driving subsidence and drought in the western and southern Amazon basin. Thus, our novel ice core record suggests that Amazon forest fire activity during the Twentieth Century was driven primarily by Atlantic climate processes, and future forest health will depend heavily on the evolution of tropical climate.

  11. Mesoproterozoic rapakivi granites of the Rondonia Tin Province, southwestern border of the Amazonian craton, Brazil-I. Reconnaissance U-Pb geochronology and regional implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettencourt, Jorge S.; Tosdal, R.M.; Leite, W.B.; Payolla, B.L.

    1999-01-01

    Rapakivi granites and associated mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Rondonia Tin Province, southwestern Amazonian craton, Brazil were emplaced during six discrete episodes of magmatism between ca 1600 and 970 Ma. The seven rapakivi granite suites emplaced at this time were the Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1606 and 1532 Ma); Santo Antonio Intrusive Suite (U-Pb age 1406 Ma); Teotonio Intrusive Suite (U-Pb age 1387 Ma); Alto Candeias Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1346 and 1338 Ma); Sao Lourenco-Caripunas Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1314 and 1309 Ma); Santa Clara Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1082 and 1074 Ma); and Younger Granites of Rondonia (U-Pb ages between 998 and 974 Ma). The Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite intruded the Paleoproterozoic (1.80 to 1.70 Ga) Rio Negro-Juruena crust whereas the other suites were emplaced into the 1.50 to 1.30 Ga Rondonia-San Ignacio crust. Their intrusion was contemporaneous with orogenic activity in other parts of the southwestern Amazonian craton, except for the oldest, Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite. Orogenic events coeval with emplacement of the Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite are not clearly recognized in the region. The Santo Antonio, Teotonio, Alto Candeias and Sao Lourenco-Caripunas Intrusive Suites are interpreted to represent extensional anorogenic magmatism associated with the terminal stages of the Rondonian-San Ignacio orogeny. At least the Sao Lourenco-Caripunas rapakivi granites and coeval intra-continental rift sedimentary rocks may, in contrast, represent the products of extensional tectonics and rifting preceding the Sunsas/Aguapei orogeny (1.25 to 1.0 Ga). The two youngest rapakivi suites, the Santa Clara Intrusive Suite and Younger Granites of Rondonia, seemingly represent inboard magmatism in the Rondonian-San Ignacio Province during a younger episode of reworking in the Rio Negro-Juruena Province during the waning stages of the collisional 1.1 to 1.0 Ga

  12. Relationships Between Fire and Land Use Change in the Brazilian Amazon Based on Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanin, T.; van der Werf, G.

    2014-12-01

    Fires are used as a tool in the process of deforestation. The relationship between fire and deforestation varies temporally and spatially according to the type of deforestation and climatic conditions. This study evaluates spatiotemporal variability between fire and deforestation over the 2002-2012 period in the Brazilian Legal Amazon (BLA). We based our study on four datasets: deforestation estimates from PRODES (Amazon Deforestation Monitoring Project) and forest cover loss from the Global Forest Change (GFC) project based on Landsat data, and burned area and land cover based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. While GFC and PRODES supported similar findings on spatial and temporal dynamics, the Landsat-scale comparison also highlighted a number of differences. Both datasets show a decrease after 2004 in forest loss or deforestation extent mainly from decreasing clearing rates in evergreen broadleaf forest, mostly in the states of Mato Grosso and Rondonia. However, the drop is larger and more gradual in PRODES than in GFC, with the former having less than half the forest loss of the latter. GFC indicates anomalous high forest loss in the years 2007 and 2010 not seen in PRODES. Rescaling these forest dynamics datasets to 500-meter resolution, allowed for a comparison against the MODIS datasets. The burned area data indicates that the mismatch between PRODES and GFC is largely related to increased fire occurrence during these dry years, mainly in Para. In addition it indicates that the time interval between deforestation and fire differs according to land cover, which is important when estimating the atmospheric impact of forest loss. We found that evergreen broadleaf forests are burned shortly after deforestation due to slash and burn techniques, while croplands have longer intervals depending on the crop variety. As a final step, we used these insights to better quantify carbon emissions from this region.

  13. Projections of climate change effects on discharge and inundation in the Amazon River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiva, R. C. D.; Sorribas, M.; Melack, J. M.; Jones, C.; Carvalho, L. V.; Bravo, J. M.; Beighley, E.; Forsberg, B. R.; Costa, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change and related effects on the hydrologic regime of the Amazon River basin can have major impacts on human and ecological communities, transportation, flood vulnerability, fisheries and hydropower generation. We examined projections of climate change effects on discharge and inundation within the Amazon River basin. We used the regional hydrological model MGB-IPH coupled with a 1D river hydrodynamic model simulating water storage over the floodplains. The model's capability to represent physical processes over the Amazon was demonstrated in previous validation against multi in situ and remotely sensed observations. Future climate projections for the 2070 to 2099 time period were obtained by selecting five climate models from IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), based on their ability to represent the main aspects of recent Amazon climate. The climate projections present large uncertainty and results from different climate models do not agree on the sign of changes in total Amazon flood extent or discharge along the main stem of the Amazon River. However, model projections generally show better agreement with wetter (drier) conditions over western (eastern) portions of the Amazon basin. Results indicate increased mean and maximum river discharge for large rivers draining the Andes in northwestern Amazon, with increased mean and maximum discharge and inundation extent over Peruvian floodplains and Solimões River in western and central Amazonia. Decreased river discharges (mainly in the dry season) are projected for eastern basins, and decreased inundation extent at low water period in the central and lower Amazon.

  14. Space-Time Controls on Carbon Sequestration Over Large-Scale Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Cooper, Harry J.; Gu, Jiujing; Grose, Andrew; Norman, John; daRocha, Humberto R.; Starr, David O. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A major research focus of the LBA Ecology Program is an assessment of the carbon budget and the carbon sequestering capacity of the large scale forest-pasture system that dominates the Amazonia landscape, and its time-space heterogeneity manifest in carbon fluxes across the large scale Amazon basin ecosystem. Quantification of these processes requires a combination of in situ measurements, remotely sensed measurements from space, and a realistically forced hydrometeorological model coupled to a carbon assimilation model, capable of simulating details within the surface energy and water budgets along with the principle modes of photosynthesis and respiration. Here we describe the results of an investigation concerning the space-time controls of carbon sources and sinks distributed over the large scale Amazon basin. The results are derived from a carbon-water-energy budget retrieval system for the large scale Amazon basin, which uses a coupled carbon assimilation-hydrometeorological model as an integrating system, forced by both in situ meteorological measurements and remotely sensed radiation fluxes and precipitation retrieval retrieved from a combination of GOES, SSM/I, TOMS, and TRMM satellite measurements. Brief discussion concerning validation of (a) retrieved surface radiation fluxes and precipitation based on 30-min averaged surface measurements taken at Ji-Parana in Rondonia and Manaus in Amazonas, and (b) modeled carbon fluxes based on tower CO2 flux measurements taken at Reserva Jaru, Manaus and Fazenda Nossa Senhora. The space-time controls on carbon sequestration are partitioned into sets of factors classified by: (1) above canopy meteorology, (2) incoming surface radiation, (3) precipitation interception, and (4) indigenous stomatal processes varied over the different land covers of pristine rainforest, partially, and fully logged rainforests, and pasture lands. These are the principle meteorological, thermodynamical, hydrological, and biophysical

  15. Surface Soil Preparetion for Leguminous Plants Growing in Degraded Areas by Mining Located in Amazon Forest-Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irio Ribeiro, Admilson; Hashimoto Fengler, Felipe; Araújo de Medeiros, Gerson; Márcia Longo, Regina; Frederici de Mello, Giovanna; José de Melo, Wanderley

    2015-04-01

    The revegetation of areas degraded by mining usually requires adequate mobilization of surface soil for the development of the species to be implemented. Unlike the traditional tillage, which has periodicity, the mobilization of degraded areas for revegetation can only occur at the beginning of the recovery stage. In this sense, the process of revegetation has as purpose the establishment of local native vegetation with least possible use of inputs and superficial tillage in order to catalyze the process of natural ecological succession, promoting the reintegration of areas and minimizing the negative impacts of mining activities in environmental. In this context, this work describes part of a study of land reclamation by tin exploitation in the Amazon ecosystem in the National Forest Jamari- Rondonia Brazil. So, studied the influence of surface soil mobilization in pit mine areas and tailings a view to the implementation of legumes. The results show that the surface has areas of mobilizing a significant effect on the growth of leguminous plants, areas for both mining and to tailings and pit mine areas.

  16. Role of methylmercury exposure (from fish consumption) on growth and neurodevelopment of children under 5 years of age living in a transitioning (tin-mining) area of the western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Rejane C; Dórea, José G; Leão, Renata S; Dos Santos, Verusca G; Bueno, Lucélia; Marques, Rayson C; Brandão, Katiane G; Palermo, Elisabete F A; Guimarães, Jean Remy D

    2012-02-01

    Human occupation of the Amazon region has recently increased, bringing deforestation for agriculture and open-cast mining, activities that cause environmental degradation and pollution. Families of new settlers in mining areas might have a diet less dependent on abundant fish and their children might also be impacted by exposures to mining environments. Therefore, there is compounded interest in assessing young children's nutritional status and neurobehavioral development with regard to family fish consumption. Anthropometric (z-scores, WHO standards) and neurologic [Gesell developmental scores (GDS)] development in 688 preschool children (1-59 months of age) was studied. Overall, the prevalence of malnutrition [i.e., moderate stunting (≤2 H/A-Z), underweight (≤2 W/A-Z), and wasting (≤2 W/H-Z) were respectively 0.3% (n = 2), 1.6% (n = 11), and 2.5% (n = 17). Children's mean hair Hg (HHg) concentration was 2.56 μg/g (SD = 1.67); only 14% of children had HHg concentrations lower than 1 μg/g and 1.7% had ≥5 μg/g. The biomarker of fish consumption was weakly but positively correlated with GDS (Spearman r = 0.080; p = 0.035). In the bivariate model, attained W/H-Z scores were not significantly correlated with GDS. A moderate level of GDS deficits (70-84%) was seen in 20% of children. There was significant correlation between family fish consumption and children's hair Hg (HHg) (Spearman r = 0.1756; p < 0.0001) but no significant correlation between children's HHg and W/H-Z scores. However, the multivariate model showed that breastfeeding, a fish consumption biomarker (HHg), maternal education, and child's age were statistically significant associated with specific domains (language and personal-social) of the Gesell scale. In this mining environment, family fish-eating did not affect children's linear growth, but it showed a positive influence (along with maternal variables) on neurodevelopment. Health hazards attendant on a high prevalence of moderate

  17. Mixing in the Amazon estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra, M. O.

    2010-05-01

    The research area of this work is located at the estuary of the Amazon River (Brazil), near the river mouth. The results of air movement analysis on the surface atmospheric circulation over the Mouth of the Amazonas River, salinity and temperature measures as well as measurements of currents, carried out along a longitudinal section in the navigation canal region of the Northern Bar of the Amazon River (Barra Norte do Rio Amazonas) in June 2006, during the river flood season in the quadrature tide. The dynamics effects affect hydrodynamic,meteorological and hydrographical parameters at the river mouth. The conclusion drawn include that: a) the saline wedge-type stratification can be detected approximately 100km away from the mouth of the Amazon River during the end of the rainy season in the quadrature tide; b) probably, at the Amazon estuary the quadrature entrainment processes are dominant and they are the ones responsible for increased salinity detected in the surface layer, whereas turbulence scattering mixing is not so important. c) The large flow of fresh water from the Amazon River at the end of the rainy season implies the displacement of the saline front position over the internal Amazon continental platform, and d) The tidal wave shows a positive asymmetry in the canal, with floods lasting less than in the ebb tide. This asymmetry decreases towards the ocean, eventually becoming reversed in the presence of a saline wedge. The speeds, however, have a negative asymmetry, with more intense ebb tides, due to the river flow and is more evident by the existence of quadrature tides.

  18. Forecasting terrestrial water storage changes in the Amazon Basin using Atlantic and Pacific sea surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Linage, C.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Randerson, J. T.

    2013-10-01

    Floods and droughts frequently affect the Amazon River basin, impacting transportation, river navigation, agriculture, and ecosystem processes within several South American countries. Here we examined how sea surface temperatures (SSTs) influence interannual variability of terrestrial water storage anomalies (TWSAs) in different regions within the Amazon basin and propose a modeling framework for inter-seasonal flood and drought forecasting. Three simple statistical models forced by a linear combination of lagged spatial averages of central Pacific (Niño 4 index) and tropical North Atlantic (TNAI index) SSTs were calibrated against a decade-long record of 3°, monthly TWSAs observed by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. Niño 4 was the primary external forcing in the northeastern region of the Amazon basin whereas TNAI was dominant in central and western regions. A combined model using the two indices improved the fit significantly (p < 0.05) for at least 64% of the grid cells within the basin, compared to models forced solely with Niño 4 or TNAI. The combined model explained 66% of the observed variance in the northeastern region, 39% in the central and western regions, and 43% for the Amazon basin as a whole with a 3 month lead time between the SST indices and TWSAs. Model performance varied seasonally: it was higher than average during the rainfall wet season in the northeastern Amazon and during the dry season in the central and western regions. The predictive capability of the combined model was degraded with increasing lead times. Degradation was smaller in the northeastern Amazon (where 49% of the variance was explained using an 8 month lead time vs. 69% for a 1 month lead time) compared to the central and western Amazon (where 22% of the variance was explained at 8 months vs. 43% at 1 month). These relationships may enable the development of an early warning system for flood and drought risk. This work also strengthens

  19. An extensive reef system at the Amazon River mouth.

    PubMed

    Moura, Rodrigo L; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M; Moraes, Fernando C; Brasileiro, Poliana S; Salomon, Paulo S; Mahiques, Michel M; Bastos, Alex C; Almeida, Marcelo G; Silva, Jomar M; Araujo, Beatriz F; Brito, Frederico P; Rangel, Thiago P; Oliveira, Braulio C V; Bahia, Ricardo G; Paranhos, Rodolfo P; Dias, Rodolfo J S; Siegle, Eduardo; Figueiredo, Alberto G; Pereira, Renato C; Leal, Camille V; Hajdu, Eduardo; Asp, Nils E; Gregoracci, Gustavo B; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid; Yager, Patricia L; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; Fróes, Adriana; Campeão, Mariana; Silva, Bruno S; Moreira, Ana P B; Oliveira, Louisi; Soares, Ana C; Araujo, Lais; Oliveira, Nara L; Teixeira, João B; Valle, Rogerio A B; Thompson, Cristiane C; Rezende, Carlos E; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2016-04-01

    Large rivers create major gaps in reef distribution along tropical shelves. The Amazon River represents 20% of the global riverine discharge to the ocean, generating up to a 1.3 × 10(6)-km(2) plume, and extensive muddy bottoms in the equatorial margin of South America. As a result, a wide area of the tropical North Atlantic is heavily affected in terms of salinity, pH, light penetration, and sedimentation. Such unfavorable conditions were thought to imprint a major gap in Western Atlantic reefs. We present an extensive carbonate system off the Amazon mouth, underneath the river plume. Significant carbonate sedimentation occurred during lowstand sea level, and still occurs in the outer shelf, resulting in complex hard-bottom topography. A permanent near-bottom wedge of ocean water, together with the seasonal nature of the plume's eastward retroflection, conditions the existence of this extensive (~9500 km(2)) hard-bottom mosaic. The Amazon reefs transition from accretive to erosional structures and encompass extensive rhodolith beds. Carbonate structures function as a connectivity corridor for wide depth-ranging reef-associated species, being heavily colonized by large sponges and other structure-forming filter feeders that dwell under low light and high levels of particulates. The oxycline between the plume and subplume is associated with chemoautotrophic and anaerobic microbial metabolisms. The system described here provides several insights about the responses of tropical reefs to suboptimal and marginal reef-building conditions, which are accelerating worldwide due to global changes. PMID:27152336

  20. Suspended sediments of the modern Amazon and Orinoco rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meade, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    The Amazon and Orinoco Rivers are massive transcontinental conveyance systems for suspended sediment. They derive about 90% of their sediment from the Andes that support their western headwaters, transport it for thousands of kilometers across the breadth of the continent and deposit it in the coastal zones of the Atlantic. At their points of maximum suspended-sediment discharge, the Amazon transports an average of 1100-1300 ?? 106 tons per year and the Orinoco transports about 150 ?? 106 tons per year. Relations of sediment discharge to water discharge are complicated by unusual patterns of seasonal storage and remobilization, increased storage and reduced transport of sediment in the middle Orinoco during periods of peak water discharge, and storage of suspended sediment in the lower Amazon during rising discharge and resuspension during falling discharge. Spatial distributions of suspended sediment in cross-sections of both rivers are typically heterogeneous, not only in the vertical sense but also in the lateral. The cross-channel mixing of tributary inputs into the mainstem waters is a slow process that requires several hundred kilometers of downriver transport to complete. Considerable fine-grained sediment is exchanged between rivers and floodplains by the combination of overbank deposition and bank erosion. ?? 1994.

  1. Doppler RAdar Observations of Convection from the NASA/TOGA C-band Radar During TRMM-LBA in Rondonia, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickenbach, T. M.; Amitai, Eyal; Atkinson, Lester; Boccippio, Dennis; Bowie, Robert; Cifelli, Robert; Dunnemann, Neil; Frostram, Gregg; Gears, Nathan; Gerlach, John

    1999-01-01

    The Tropcial RAinfall Measuring Mission-Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (TRMM-LBA) was conducted near Ji Parana, Rondonia, Brazil during the 1999 Amazonian wet season (Jan-Feb). TRMM-LBA provided detailed observations of precipitating systems from surface and aircraft instrumentation which may be compared to measurements from the TRMM satellite. The surface-based platforms included two scanning Doppler radars (the NASA TOGA C-band radar and the NCAR SPOL S-band dual polarization radar) which collected continuous dual-Doppler measurements of precipitating convection.This paper focuses on data from the TOGA radar to provide a preliminary overview of general properties of convective organization observed during TRMM-LBA. These include squall line evolution and morphology, diurnal variation of precipitation, and the vertical intensity of convection. Mesoscale squall lines were most commonly observed in the afternoon, with associated regions of stratiform precipitation persisting into the evening. Nocturnal widespread stratiform rain often formed before sunrise, with no apparent source region of deep convection and very weak radar bright band. Reflectivity values in deep convective cells typically decreased rapidly above the melting level, reminiscent of tropical oceanic convection, and consistent with the relative scarcity of lightning (with respect to other tropical continental regions). Vertically developed electrified convection, though infrequent, did occur regularly.

  2. Genetic variability in three Amazon parrot species.

    PubMed

    Lopes, I F; Del Lama, M A; Del Lama, S N

    2007-12-01

    Parrots of the genus Amazona are among the most threatened species of the Order Pscittaciformes. This work describes allozyme polymorphisms in three Amazon parrot species--the Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva), the Orange-winged Amazon (Amazona amazonica), and the Festive Amazon (Amazona festiva) -, and provides useful data for the evaluation of their genetic variability. We electrophoretically analyzed blood samples from 68 wild-caught individuals, maintained in captivity in three Brazilian zoos. Eight of the ten studied enzyme loci exhibited polymorphism. Glucosephosphate isomerase (Gpi) proved to be a diagnostic locus for the identification of these Amazon species. The expected average heterozygosity of the Blue-fronted Amazon (0.060) differed significantly from the expected heterozygosities of the Orange-winged Amazon and the Festive Amazon (0.040 and 0.039, respectively). This result was discussed as a consequence of hybridization between two geographic A. aestiva subspecies, and alternatively as a particular trait of this species. Genetic variability of the Blue-fronted Amazon compared to birds in general is not low on a species-wide level, despite the fact that this parrot is one of the most illegally traded species. Allozyme analysis proved to be an useful tool in monitoring the genetic variation within the genus Amazona and can be applied in the management program of other threatened species of this genus.

  3. Contrasting Patterns of Damage and Recovery in Logged Amazon Forests From Small Footprint LiDAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, D. C.; Keller, M.; Cook, B. D.; Hunter, Maria; Sales, Marcio; Spinelli, L.; Victoria, D.; Andersen, H.-E.; Saleska, S.

    2012-01-01

    Tropical forests ecosystems respond dynamically to climate variability and disturbances on time scales of minutes to millennia. To date, our knowledge of disturbance and recovery processes in tropical forests is derived almost exclusively from networks of forest inventory plots. These plots typically sample small areas (less than or equal to 1 ha) in conservation units that are protected from logging and fire. Amazon forests with frequent disturbances from human activity remain under-studied. Ongoing negotiations on REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation plus enhancing forest carbon stocks) have placed additional emphasis on identifying degraded forests and quantifying changing carbon stocks in both degraded and intact tropical forests. We evaluated patterns of forest disturbance and recovery at four -1000 ha sites in the Brazilian Amazon using small footprint LiDAR data and coincident field measurements. Large area coverage with airborne LiDAR data in 2011-2012 included logged and unmanaged areas in Cotriguacu (Mato Grosso), Fiona do Jamari (Rondonia), and Floresta Estadual do Antimary (Acre), and unmanaged forest within Reserva Ducke (Amazonas). Logging infrastructure (skid trails, log decks, and roads) was identified using LiDAR returns from understory vegetation and validated based on field data. At each logged site, canopy gaps from logging activity and LiDAR metrics of canopy heights were used to quantify differences in forest structure between logged and unlogged areas. Contrasting patterns of harvesting operations and canopy damages at the three logged sites reflect different levels of pre-harvest planning (i.e., informal logging compared to state or national logging concessions), harvest intensity, and site conditions. Finally, we used multi-temporal LiDAR data from two sites, Reserva Ducke (2009, 2012) and Antimary (2010, 2011), to evaluate gap phase dynamics in unmanaged forest areas. The rates and patterns of canopy gap

  4. The Amazon River reversal explained by tectonic and surface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacek, V.

    2014-12-01

    The drainage pattern in Amazonia was expressively modified during the mountain building of central and northern Andes. In Early Miocene, the fluvial systems in western Amazonia flowed to the foreland basins and northward to the Caribbean. By Late Miocene the drainage reversal occurred and formed the transcontinental Amazon River, connecting the Andes and the equatorial Atlantic margin. This event is recorded in the stratigraphic evolution of the Foz do Amazonas Basin by the onset of Andean-derived sedimentation. Additionally, an abrupt increase in sedimentation rate after the reversal occurred in the Foz do Amazonas Basin. Based on three-dimensional numerical models that couple surface processes, flexural isostasy and crustal thickening due to orogeny, I concluded that the Miocene drainage reversal can be explained by the flexural and surface processes response to the Andes formation with no need to invoke dynamic topography induced by mantle convection, as previously proposed. I observed that the instant of drainage reversal is directly linked to the rate of crustal thickening in the orogeny, the rate of erosion and, mainly, the efficiency of sediment transport. Moreover, the numerical experiments were able to predict the increase in sedimentation rate in the Amazon fan after the drainage reversal of the Amazon River as observed in the Late Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary record. However, the present numerical model fails to fully reproduce the evolution of the Pebas system, a megawetland in western Amazonia that preceded the drainage reversal. Therefore, further investigation is necessary to evaluate the mechanisms that generated and sustained the Pebas system.

  5. Confluence of the Amazon and Topajos Rivers, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view shows the confluence of the Amazon and the Topajos Rivers at Santarem, Brazil (2.0S, 55.0W). The Am,azon flows from lower left to upper right of the photo. Below the river juncture of the Amazon and Tapajos, there is considerable deforestation activity along the Trans-Amazon Highway.

  6. Partition of the relative contribution of nitrification and denitrification from Amazon forest soils using a model based on bulk 15N of N2O natural abundance determinations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, T. J.; Trumbore, S. E.; Tyler, S. C.; Park, S.; Boering, K.; Decamargo, P.

    2004-12-01

    Most of the available methods for the determination of the relative contribution of nitrification and denitrification to the soil emitted N2O are invasive. Therefore, they could produce biased results due to the change in soil structure, alteration to the microbial community and substrates. However, the soil community bacterial activity has intrinsic properties such as isotopic fractionation factors that are relative constant through different sets of soil conditions. We took advantage of these bacterial properties and devised a mass balance method for partitioning the relative contribution of each process by using: (1) The 15N enrichment factors for N2O production via nitrification and denitrification for soils (determined previously by acetylene addition soil incubation methods) and (2) the δ 15N-N2O soil emission values from the selected studied soils. We selected soils from a forest soil texture gradient from the Tapajos National Forest (TNF), in the Amazon Basin, Pará State, Brazil and Nova Vida Farm (NV), Rondonia State, Brazil where we had determined the 15N enrichment factors for each microbial process and collected N2O soil emissions for bulk stable isotope analysis during the rainy season of 2002. The soils selected were Oxisol (clay) and Ultison (sandy) at TNF and Latosol (sandy loam) at NV. We found that for all studied soils, the relative contribution of nitrification was smaller than 40 %. This corroborates the assumption that the N2O emitted from Amazon forest is mostly denitrification-derived. The advantage of this method is that is non invasive. However, the uncertainties associated with the method increase when δ 15N-N2O values of emitted N2O are smaller than -25 per mil.

  7. Amazon deforestation and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, J.; Nobre, C.; Sellers, P. )

    1990-03-16

    A coupled numerical model of the global atmosphere and biosphere has been used to assess the effects of Amazon deforestation on the regional and global climate. When the tropical forests in the model were replaced by degraded grass (pasture), there was a significant increase in surface temperature and a decrease in evapotranspiration and precipitation over Amazonia. In the simulation, the length of the dry season also increased; such an increase could make reestablishment of the tropical forests after massive deforestation particularly difficult. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Potential Hydrologic Changes in the Amazon By the End of the 21st Century and the Groundwater Buffer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Y. N.; Fan, Y.; Miguez-Macho, G.

    2014-12-01

    This study contributes to the discussions on the future of the Amazon rainforest under a projected warmer-drier climate from the perspectives of land hydrology. Using IPCC HadGEM2-ES simulations of the present and future Amazon climate to drive a land hydrology model that accounts for groundwater constraint on land drainage, we assess potential hydrologic changes in soil water, evapotranspiration (ET), water table depth, and river discharge, assuming unchanged vegetation. We ask: how will ET regimes shift at the end of the 21st century, and will the groundwater help buffer the anticipated water stress in some places-times? We conducted four 10yr model simulations, at the end of 20th and 21st century, with and without the groundwater. Our model results suggest that, first, over the western and central Amazon, ET will increase due to increased potential evapotranspiration (PET) with warmer temperatures, despite a decrease in soil water; that is, ET will remain atmosphere or demand-limited. Second, in the eastern Amazon dry season, ET will decrease in response to decreasing soil water, despite increasing PET demand; that is, ET in these regions-seasons will remain or become more soil water or supply-limited. Third, the area of water-limited regions will likely expand in the eastern Amazonia, with the dry season, as indicated by soil water store, even drier and longer. Fourth, river discharge will be significantly reduced over the entire Amazon but particularly so in the southeastern Amazon. By contrasting model results with and without the groundwater, we found that the slow soil drainage constrained by a shallow groundwater can buffer soil water stress, particularly in southeastern Amazon dry season. Our model suggests that, if the groundwater buffering effect is accounted for, the future Amazon water stress may be less than projected by most climate models.

  9. Potential hydrologic changes in the Amazon by the end of the 21st century and the groundwater buffer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Yadu N.; Fan, Ying; Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo

    2014-08-01

    This study contributes to the discussions on the future of the Amazon rainforest under a projected warmer-drier climate from the perspectives of land hydrology. Using IPCC HadGEM2-ES simulations of the present and future Amazon climate to drive a land hydrology model that accounts for groundwater constraint on land drainage, we assess potential hydrologic changes in soil water, evapotranspiration (ET), water table depth, and river discharge, assuming unchanged vegetation. We ask: how will ET regimes shift at the end of the 21st century, and will the groundwater help buffer the anticipated water stress in some places-times? We conducted four 10 yr model simulations, at the end of 20th and 21st century, with and without the groundwater. Our model results suggest that, first, over the western and central Amazon, ET will increase due to increased potential evapotranspiration (PET) with warmer temperatures, despite a decrease in soil water; that is, ET will remain PET or atmospheric demand-limited. Second, in the eastern Amazon dry season, ET will decrease in response to decreasing soil water, despite increasing PET demand; that is, ET in these regions-seasons will remain or become more soil water or supply-limited. Third, the area of water-limited regions will likely expand in the eastern Amazonia, with the dry season, as indicated by soil water store, even drier and longer. Fourth, river discharge will be significantly reduced over the entire Amazon but particularly so in the southeastern Amazon. By contrasting model results with and without the groundwater, we found that the slow soil drainage constrained by shallow groundwater can buffer soil water stress, particularly in southeastern Amazon dry season. Our model suggests that, if groundwater buffering effect is accounted for, the future Amazon water stress may be less than that projected by most climate models.

  10. Examining how land surface effects modulate rainfall in the eastern Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzjarrald, D.; Cohen, J. P.

    2009-05-01

    In the Amazon, it is important to apportion rainfall by storm type. In the eastern Amazon (approximately from Belém to Santarém) rainfall associated with large instability lines produces nearly half of the total, and this is complemented by that produced by rainfall from local convective systems. Our recent observational studies in the indicate that the relative importance of the nocturnal squall lines is exaggerated if one relies solely on data from the climate stations along the Amazon River channel. River breezes inhibit convective rainfall near the main channel, but in some areas river proximity effects lead to enhanced nocturnal rainfall of squall origin. Moreover, enhanced rainfall to the north of the Amazon main channel could be the result of orographic uplift. In this study we complement a limited climatological study of instability lines with two mesoscale model (Brazilian version of RAMS, B-RAMS) case studies to examine the effects of topography and river proximity on rain producing mechanisms in the eastern Amazon Basin. Two numerical experiments were done to examine the relative importance of these two rain-producing mechanisms in the region. In each, three nested grids were used. Results from the prototype simulation for the propagating squall line were compared with GOES images, NCEP reanalyses, and data from the LBA-ECO surface station network near Santarém (approximately 55°W). In this case we also examined the role of topography on squall line development by performing a sensitivity test of the case study squall development with and without topography. The locally-dominated convection study was based on a case of slack easterlies during cold frontal penetration into the western Amazon region.

  11. Marine environmental changes at the Brazilian equatorial margin related to Amazon River evolution during the Neogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammertsma, Emmy; Troelstra, Simon; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Chemale, Farid, Jr.; do Carmo, Dermeval A.; D'Avila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Today, the nutrient-rich Amazon River outflow causes massive algal blooms in the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean, forming a considerable carbon sink as well as a primary food source in the otherwise oligotrophic surface water. However, the history of this high-productivity system is largely unknown, although a strong relation to the evolution of the Amazon River can be expected. The Amazon submarine fan provides direct evidence for the development of a transcontinental river system, of which the base of the primarily Andean-sourced siliciclastic deposits is dated as late Miocene. Ditch cuttings from Amazon Fan exploration 'Well 2' were made available by Petrobras for microfossil and lithological research. 'Well 2' is located on the uppermost fan at a water depth of 750 meters. Organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst and foraminifer assemblages were studied to reconstruct Neogene marine environmental changes in relation to the Amazon River development. Planktonic foraminifera are present throughout the studied section and largely confirm the already available biostratigraphic age determination based on nannofossils. Benthic foraminifer assemblages indicate that the paleo-water depth has not substantially deviated from current conditions. The ecological affinities of most observed dinocyst taxa are well known, which allows us to reconstruct changes in paleo-productivity based on the assemblages. Mineral composition suggests that local river systems already drained into the Amazon basin before the onset of the transcontinental system, but environmental conditions remained oligotrophic at this time. Decreased abundances of both dinocysts and planktonic foraminifera during the Pleistocene are related to highest sedimentation rates (dilution effect). Overall, a complex interplay of orogenesis, climatic and sea level variations during the Neogene are responsible for the fluvially-induced changes in the marine environment at the Atlantic margin.

  12. Eighth millennium pottery from a prehistoric shell midden in the brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Roosevelt, A C; Housley, R A; DA Silveira, M I; Maranca, S; Johnson, R

    1991-12-13

    The earliest pottery yet found in the Western Hemisphere has been excavated from a prehistoric shell midden near Santarém in the lower Amazon, Brazil. Calibrated accelerator radiocarbon dates on charcoal, shell, and pottery and a thermoluminescence date on pottery from the site fall from about 8000 to 7000 years before the present. The early fishing village is part of a long prehistoric trajectory that contradicts theories that resource poverty limited cultural evolution in the tropics.

  13. Distribution of Aboveground Live Biomass in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, S. S.; Houghton, R. A.; DosSantos Alvala, R. C.; Soares, J. V.; Yu, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The amount and spatial distribution of forest biomass in the Amazon basin is a major source of uncertainty in estimating the flux of carbon released from land-cover and land-use change. Direct measurements of aboveground live biomass (AGLB) are limited to small areas of forest inventory plots and site-specific allometric equations that cannot be readily generalized for the entire basin. Furthermore, there is no spaceborne remote sensing instrument that can measure tropical forest biomass directly. To determine the spatial distribution of forest biomass of the Amazon basin, we report a method based on remote sensing metrics representing various forest structural parameters and environmental variables, and more than 500 plot measurements of forest biomass distributed over the basin. A decision tree approach was used to develop the spatial distribution of AGLB for seven distinct biomass classes of lowland old-growth forests with more than 80% accuracy. AGLB for other vegetation types, such as the woody and herbaceous savanna and secondary forests, was directly estimated with a regression based on satellite data. Results show that AGLB is highest in Central Amazonia and in regions to the east and north, including the Guyanas. Biomass is generally above 300Mgha(sup 1) here except in areas of intense logging or open floodplains. In Western Amazonia, from the lowlands of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia to the Andean mountains, biomass ranges from 150 to 300Mgha(sup 1). Most transitional and seasonal forests at the southern and northwestern edges of the basin have biomass ranging from 100 to 200Mgha(sup 1). The AGLB distribution has a significant correlation with the length of the dry season. We estimate that the total carbon in forest biomass of the Amazon basin, including the dead and below ground biomass, is 86 PgC with +/- 20% uncertainty.

  14. An extensive reef system at the Amazon River mouth

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Rodrigo L.; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M.; Moraes, Fernando C.; Brasileiro, Poliana S.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Bastos, Alex C.; Almeida, Marcelo G.; Silva, Jomar M.; Araujo, Beatriz F.; Brito, Frederico P.; Rangel, Thiago P.; Oliveira, Braulio C. V.; Bahia, Ricardo G.; Paranhos, Rodolfo P.; Dias, Rodolfo J. S.; Siegle, Eduardo; Figueiredo, Alberto G.; Pereira, Renato C.; Leal, Camille V.; Hajdu, Eduardo; Asp, Nils E.; Gregoracci, Gustavo B.; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid; Yager, Patricia L.; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Fróes, Adriana; Campeão, Mariana; Silva, Bruno S.; Moreira, Ana P. B.; Oliveira, Louisi; Soares, Ana C.; Araujo, Lais; Oliveira, Nara L.; Teixeira, João B.; Valle, Rogerio A. B.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2016-01-01

    Large rivers create major gaps in reef distribution along tropical shelves. The Amazon River represents 20% of the global riverine discharge to the ocean, generating up to a 1.3 × 106–km2 plume, and extensive muddy bottoms in the equatorial margin of South America. As a result, a wide area of the tropical North Atlantic is heavily affected in terms of salinity, pH, light penetration, and sedimentation. Such unfavorable conditions were thought to imprint a major gap in Western Atlantic reefs. We present an extensive carbonate system off the Amazon mouth, underneath the river plume. Significant carbonate sedimentation occurred during lowstand sea level, and still occurs in the outer shelf, resulting in complex hard-bottom topography. A permanent near-bottom wedge of ocean water, together with the seasonal nature of the plume’s eastward retroflection, conditions the existence of this extensive (~9500 km2) hard-bottom mosaic. The Amazon reefs transition from accretive to erosional structures and encompass extensive rhodolith beds. Carbonate structures function as a connectivity corridor for wide depth–ranging reef-associated species, being heavily colonized by large sponges and other structure-forming filter feeders that dwell under low light and high levels of particulates. The oxycline between the plume and subplume is associated with chemoautotrophic and anaerobic microbial metabolisms. The system described here provides several insights about the responses of tropical reefs to suboptimal and marginal reef-building conditions, which are accelerating worldwide due to global changes. PMID:27152336

  15. Origin, transport and deposition of leaf-wax biomarkers in the Amazon Basin and the adjacent Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häggi, Christoph; Sawakuchi, André O.; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Mulitza, Stefan; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Sawakuchi, Henrique O.; Baker, Paul A.; Zabel, Matthias; Schefuß, Enno

    2016-11-01

    Paleoenvironmental studies based on terrigenous biomarker proxies from sediment cores collected close to the mouth of large river systems rely on a proper understanding of the processes controlling origin, transport and deposition of biomarkers. Here, we contribute to the understanding of these processes by analyzing long-chain n-alkanes from the Amazon River system. We use the δD composition of long-chain n-alkanes from river bed sediments from the Amazon River and its major tributaries, as well as marine core-top samples collected off northeastern South America as tracers for different source areas. The δ13C composition of the same compounds is used to differentiate between long-chain n-alkanes from modern forest vegetation and petrogenic organic matter. Our δ13C results show depleted δ13C values (-33 to -36‰) in most samples, indicating a modern forest source for most of the samples. Enriched values (-31 to -33‰) are only found in a few samples poor in organic carbon indicating minor contributions from a fossil petrogenic source. Long-chain n-alkane δD analyses show more depleted values for the western tributaries, the Madeira and Solimões Rivers (-152 to -168‰), while n-alkanes from the lowland tributaries, the Negro, Xingu and Tocantins Rivers (-142 to -154‰), yield more enriched values. The n-alkane δD values thus reflect the mean annual isotopic composition of precipitation, which is most deuterium-depleted in the western Amazon Basin and more enriched in the eastern sector of the basin. Samples from the Amazon estuary show a mixed long-chain n-alkane δD signal from both eastern lowland and western tributaries. Marine core-top samples underlying the Amazon freshwater plume yield δD values similar to those from the Amazon estuary, while core-top samples from outside the plume showed more enriched values. Although the variability in the river bed data precludes quantitative assessment of relative contributions, our results indicate that long

  16. Jotï ecogony, Venezuelan Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zent, Egleé L.

    2013-03-01

    The current environmental crisis permeates the discourse and concerns of people all over the world. Consideration of diverse environmental ethics showing the alternative ways in which people conceptualize and relate to nature and natural resources are critical for bringing about more sustainable human behaviors. After a brief review of Western historical notions of nature, this work explores the ecogony, or causal reasons, that trigger the behavior of the Jotï, an Amerindian people of the Venezuelan Amazon, with other entities and the forest that they inhabit. The analysis presented synthesizes 15 years of transdisciplinary ethno-ecological research comprising quantitative and qualitative methods (collection of herbarium voucher specimens, floristic inventories in forest plots, structured interviews focused on plot vegetation, semi-structured interviews of life-histories, participant observation, time allocation studies, food resource accounting, focal person following observations, garden crop inventories and censuses, mapping of wild resource harvest locations, among others). Jotï pragmatic and ideological tenets generate a distinctive environmental ethics based on ecogonic nodes. Notions of interdependence, humanity and person are articulated on a daily basis through several dynamics: (1) hyper-awareness of all living things’ dependence on each other and other elements of the biophysical environment at macroscales and microscales, (2) the construction of human spiritual, conscious, physical and agentive constituents from a variety of diverse botanical and zoological species and mineral components of their homeland, and (3) an understanding of the aggregate surroundings, including a significant portion of the biotic and abiotic components, as potential subjects with awareness, creativity and moral stances. This condition of interdependence confers rights and duties on all the parts. Jotï horizontal communications with and among life-forms sustain their

  17. Amazon Forest Responses to Drought and Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    Deforestation and agricultural land uses provide a consistent source of ignitions along the Amazon frontier during the dry season. The risk of understory fires in Amazon forests is amplified by drought conditions, when fires at the forest edge may spread for weeks before rains begin. Fire activity also impacts the regional response of intact forests to drought through diffuse light effects and nutrient redistribution, highlighting the complexity of feedbacks in this coupled human and natural system. This talk will focus on recent advances in our understanding of fire-climate feedbacks in the Amazon, building on research themes initiated under NASA's Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). NASA's LBA program began in the wake of the 1997-1998 El Niño, a strong event that exposed the vulnerability of Amazon forests to drought and fire under current climate and projections of climate change. With forecasts of another strong El Niño event in 2015-2016, this talk will provide a multi-scale synthesis of Amazon forest responses to drought and fire based on field measurements, airborne lidar data, and satellite observations of fires, rainfall, and terrestrial water storage. These studies offer new insights into the mechanisms governing fire season severity in the southern Amazon and regional variability in carbon losses from understory fires. The contributions from remote sensing to our understanding of drought and fire in Amazon forests reflect the legacy of NASA's LBA program and the sustained commitment to interdisciplinary research across the Amazon region.

  18. The dispersal of the Amazon's water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Mcclain, Charles R.; Richardson, Philip L.

    1988-01-01

    New information obtained with NASA's Coastal Zone Color Scanner and with drifting buoys reveals that the discharge of the Amazon is carried offshore around a retroflection of the North Brazil Current and into the North Equatorial Countercurrent towards Africa between June and January each year. From about February to May, the countercurrent and the retroflection weaken or vanish, and Amazon water flows northwestward toward the Caribbean Sea.

  19. Severe convection features in the Amazon Basin: a TRMM-based 15-year evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira Nunes, Ana; Silva Dias, Maria; Anselmo, Evandro; Rodriguez, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall in the Amazon Basin is very heterogeneous, mainly because the area encompassed is quite large. Among the systems responsible for rainfall, some stand out as extreme storm events. This study presents a criterion for identifying potentially severe convection in the Amazon region from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) database, specifically from Precipitation Features (PF) - 1998-2012 - generated and stored by the University of Utah. The seasonal and spatial distributions are similar to distributions of Mesoscale Convective Systems already catalogued in previous studies based on GOES satellite images. The seasons with the highest number of cases are austral spring, winter, and fall. With the Amazon region divided into six subregions and cases accumulated by quarter (JFM, AMJ, JAS, OND) the south of the Amazon subregion (SA) accounts for the largest number of cases with the OND quarter with higher occurrence and the lowest in AMJ. Different diurnal cycles of potentially severe convection are observed across the region with the more western areas, closer to the Andes, favoring nighttime cases, especially in the austral spring and summer. The diurnal cycle of the number of the most extreme cases is more pronounced than the diurnal cycle when a large collection of deep convection cases are included.

  20. Variability of the latent heat flux in the Amazon over ten years of use and occupation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan, D. N.; Ballester, M. V.; Andrade, R. G.; Victoria, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    An alternative to determine the latent heat flux, which is the amount of energy available for evapotranspiration, is the use of data obtained by remote sensing. Among the models that use these data, the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land - SEBAL (Bastiaanssen et al., 1998) has been increasing and has become widely used because it determines the evapotranspiration from the bullet full of radiation and energy on the surface land, using remote sensing data and a few additional data collected by surface weather station, as wind speed and temperature. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial variability of the latent heat flux according to the change of use and land cover. Thus, the algorithm was used to determine the SEBAL latent heat flux rate defined as the latent heat transferred from the surface due to the evaporation process or obtained by simple evaporation difference between the radiation balance, the heat flow in the soil and latent heat flux: (λET=RN-G-H). Where the value of the latent heat instantaneous flow, ie., its value at the time of satellite passage. To determine the latent heat flux were used Landsat 5 TM orbit and point 231/068 the following dates: 06/08/1999, 11/08/2001, 13/07/2005 and 09/08/2009.The study area is located in the central region of the Rondonia state in the Brazilian Amazon. This region has undergone an accelerated process of land use and soil in the last 30 years, which caused significant replacement of forest areas for other classes land use practices, mainly as grazing and agriculture.The results show that the area where the latent heat flux was greater decreased over ten years in analysis due to reduction of forest areas (Figure 1).These results show the latent heat flux in Rondônia in a very dry period, which is in July and August. Due to the long drought period, the topsoil dries faster and areas that are covered by pastures and agriculture have lower evapotranspiration values due to the root system are smaller and do

  1. The Late Miocene paleogeography of the Amazon Basin and the evolution of the Amazon River system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M.; Cozzuol, Mario; da Silva-Caminha, Silane A. F.; Rigsby, Catherine A.; Absy, Maria Lucia; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    On the basis of paleontological content (vertebrates and palynology) and facies analysis from river banks, road cuts, and three wells, we have assigned the uppermost levels of the Solimões Formation in western Amazonia, Brazil, to the Late Miocene. The vertebrate fossil record from outcropping sediments is assigned to the Huayquerian-Mesopotamian mammalian biozones, spanning 9-6.5 Ma. Additionally, we present results that demonstrate that deposits in Peruvian Amazonia attributed to Miocene tidal environments are actually fluvial sediments that have been misinterpreted (both environmentally and chronologically) by several authors. The entire Late Miocene sequence was deposited in a continental environment within a subsiding basin. The facies analysis, fossil fauna content, and palynological record indicate that the environment of deposition was dominated by avulsive rivers associated with megafan systems, and avulsive rivers in flood basins (swamps, lakes, internal deltas, and splays). Soils developed on the flatter, drier areas, which were dominated by grasslands and gallery forest in a tropical to subtropical climate. These Late Miocene sediments were deposited from westward of the Purus arch up to the border of Brazil with Peru (Divisor Ranges) and Bolivia (Pando block). Eastward of the Iquitos structural high, however, more detailed studies, including vertebrate paleontology, need to be performed to calibrate with more precision the ages of the uppermost levels of the Solimões Formation. The evolution of the basin during the late Miocene is mainly related to the tectonic behavior of the Central Andes (˜ 3°-15°S). At approximately 5 Ma, a segment of low angle of subduction was well developed in the Nazca Plate, and the deformation in the Subandean foreland produced the inland reactivation of the Divisor/Contamana Ranges and tectonic arrangements in the Eastern Andes. During the Pliocene southwestern Brazilian Amazonia ceased to be an effective sedimentary

  2. Pattern and process in Amazon tree turnover, 1976-2001.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, O L; Baker, T R; Arroyo, L; Higuchi, N; Killeen, T J; Laurance, W F; Lewis, S L; Lloyd, J; Malhi, Y; Monteagudo, A; Neill, D A; Vargas, P Núñez; Silva, J N M; Terborgh, J; Martínez, R Vásquez; Alexiades, M; Almeida, S; Brown, S; Chave, J; Comiskey, J A; Czimczik, C I; Di Fiore, A; Erwin, T; Kuebler, C; Laurance, S G; Nascimento, H E M; Olivier, J; Palacios, W; Patiño, S; Pitman, N C A; Quesada, C A; Saldias, M; Lezama, A Torres; Vinceti, B

    2004-01-01

    Previous work has shown that tree turnover, tree biomass and large liana densities have increased in mature tropical forest plots in the late twentieth century. These results point to a concerted shift in forest ecological processes that may already be having significant impacts on terrestrial carbon stocks, fluxes and biodiversity. However, the findings have proved controversial, partly because a rather limited number of permanent plots have been monitored for rather short periods. The aim of this paper is to characterize regional-scale patterns of 'tree turnover' (the rate with which trees die and recruit into a population) by using improved datasets now available for Amazonia that span the past 25 years. Specifically, we assess whether concerted changes in turnover are occurring, and if so whether they are general throughout the Amazon or restricted to one region or environmental zone. In addition, we ask whether they are driven by changes in recruitment, mortality or both. We find that: (i) trees 10 cm or more in diameter recruit and die twice as fast on the richer soils of southern and western Amazonia than on the poorer soils of eastern and central Amazonia; (ii) turnover rates have increased throughout Amazonia over the past two decades; (iii) mortality and recruitment rates have both increased significantly in every region and environmental zone, with the exception of mortality in eastern Amazonia; (iv) recruitment rates have consistently exceeded mortality rates; (v) absolute increases in recruitment and mortality rates are greatest in western Amazonian sites; and (vi) mortality appears to be lagging recruitment at regional scales. These spatial patterns and temporal trends are not caused by obvious artefacts in the data or the analyses. The trends cannot be directly driven by a mortality driver (such as increased drought or fragmentation-related death) because the biomass in these forests has simultaneously increased. Our findings therefore indicate that

  3. Pattern and process in Amazon tree turnover, 1976-2001.

    PubMed

    Phillips, O L; Baker, T R; Arroyo, L; Higuchi, N; Killeen, T J; Laurance, W F; Lewis, S L; Lloyd, J; Malhi, Y; Monteagudo, A; Neill, D A; Vargas, P Núñez; Silva, J N M; Terborgh, J; Martínez, R Vásquez; Alexiades, M; Almeida, S; Brown, S; Chave, J; Comiskey, J A; Czimczik, C I; Di Fiore, A; Erwin, T; Kuebler, C; Laurance, S G; Nascimento, H E M; Olivier, J; Palacios, W; Patiño, S; Pitman, N C A; Quesada, C A; Saldias, M; Lezama, A Torres; Vinceti, B

    2004-03-29

    Previous work has shown that tree turnover, tree biomass and large liana densities have increased in mature tropical forest plots in the late twentieth century. These results point to a concerted shift in forest ecological processes that may already be having significant impacts on terrestrial carbon stocks, fluxes and biodiversity. However, the findings have proved controversial, partly because a rather limited number of permanent plots have been monitored for rather short periods. The aim of this paper is to characterize regional-scale patterns of 'tree turnover' (the rate with which trees die and recruit into a population) by using improved datasets now available for Amazonia that span the past 25 years. Specifically, we assess whether concerted changes in turnover are occurring, and if so whether they are general throughout the Amazon or restricted to one region or environmental zone. In addition, we ask whether they are driven by changes in recruitment, mortality or both. We find that: (i) trees 10 cm or more in diameter recruit and die twice as fast on the richer soils of southern and western Amazonia than on the poorer soils of eastern and central Amazonia; (ii) turnover rates have increased throughout Amazonia over the past two decades; (iii) mortality and recruitment rates have both increased significantly in every region and environmental zone, with the exception of mortality in eastern Amazonia; (iv) recruitment rates have consistently exceeded mortality rates; (v) absolute increases in recruitment and mortality rates are greatest in western Amazonian sites; and (vi) mortality appears to be lagging recruitment at regional scales. These spatial patterns and temporal trends are not caused by obvious artefacts in the data or the analyses. The trends cannot be directly driven by a mortality driver (such as increased drought or fragmentation-related death) because the biomass in these forests has simultaneously increased. Our findings therefore indicate that

  4. Diagnosing nonlinearities in the local and remote responses to partial Amazon deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badger, Andrew M.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.

    2016-08-01

    Using a set of fully coupled climate model simulations, the response to partial deforestation over the Amazon due to agricultural expansion has been analyzed. Three variations of 50% deforestation (all of western half, all of eastern half, and half of each grid box) were compared with total deforestation to determine the degree and character of nonlinearity of the climate response to partial deforestation. A metric is developed to quantify the degree and distribution of nonlinearity in the response, applicable to any variable. The metric also quantifies whether the response is saturating or accelerating, meaning significantly either more or less than 50% of the simulated response to total deforestation is attained at 50% deforestation. The spatial structure of the atmospheric response to Amazon deforestation reveals large areas across the tropics that exhibit a significant nonlinear component, particularly for temperature and geopotential height. Over the domain between 45°S and 45°N across all longitudes, 50% deforestation generally provides less than half of the total response to deforestation over oceans, indicating the marine portion of climate system is somewhat resilient to progressive deforestation. However, over continents there are both accelerating and saturating responses to 50% Amazon deforestation, and the response is different depending on whether the eastern or western half of Amazonia is deforested or half of the forest is removed uniformly across the region.

  5. Indications of regional scale groundwater flows in the Amazon Basins: Inferences from results of geothermal studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, Elizabeth T.; Hamza, Valiya M.

    2012-08-01

    The present work deals with determination groundwater flows in the Amazon region, based on analysis of geothermal data acquired in shallow and deep wells. The method employed is based on the model of simultaneous heat transfer by conduction and advection in permeable media. Analysis of temperature data acquired in water wells indicates down flows of groundwaters with velocities in excess of 10-7 m/s at depths less than 300 m in the Amazonas basin. Bottom-hole temperature (BHT) data sets have been used in determining characteristics of fluid movements at larger depths in the basins of Acre, Solimões, Amazonas, Marajó and Barreirinhas. The results of model simulations point to down flow of groundwaters with velocities of the order of 10-8 to 10-9 m/s, at depths of up to 4000 m. No evidence has been found for up flow typical of discharge zones. The general conclusion compatible with such results is that large-scale groundwater recharge systems operate at both shallow and deep levels in all sedimentary basins of the Amazon region. However, the basement rock formations of the Amazon region are relatively impermeable and hence extensive down flow systems through the sedimentary strata are possible only in the presence of generalized lateral movement of groundwater in the basal parts of the sedimentary basins. The direction of this lateral flow, inferred from the basement topography and geological characteristics of the region, is from west to east, following roughly the course of surface drainage system of the Amazon River, with eventual discharge into the Atlantic Ocean. The estimated flow rate at the continental margin is 3287 m3/s, with velocities of the order of 218 m/year. It is possible that dynamic changes in the fluvial systems in the western parts of South American continent have been responsible for triggering alterations in the groundwater recharge systems and deep seated lateral flows in the Amazon region.

  6. Business as Usual: Amazon.com and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ullen, Mary K.; Germain, Carol Anne

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Steve Coffman proposed that libraries form a single interlibrary loan based entity patterned after Amazon.com. This study examined the suitability of Amazon.com's Web interface and record enhancements for academic libraries. Amazon.com could not deliver circulating monographs in the University at Albany Libraries' collection quickly…

  7. Modelling basin-wide variations in Amazon forest photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado, Lina; Lloyd, Jon; Domingues, Tomas; Fyllas, Nikolaos; Patino, Sandra; Dolman, Han; Sitch, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Given the importance of Amazon rainforest in the global carbon and hydrological cycles, there is a need to use parameterized and validated ecosystem gas exchange and vegetation models for this region in order to adequately simulate present and future carbon and water balances. Recent research has found major differences in above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP), above ground biomass and tree dynamics across Amazonia. West Amazonia is more dynamic, with younger trees, higher stem growth rates and lower biomass than central and eastern Amazon (Baker et al. 2004; Malhi et al. 2004; Phillips et al. 2004). A factor of three variation in above-ground net primary productivity has been estimated across Amazonia by Malhi et al. (2004). Different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed spatial variability in ANPP (Malhi et al. 2004). First, due to the proximity to the Andes, sites from western Amazonia tend to have richer soils than central and eastern Amazon and therefore soil fertility could possibly be highly related to the high wood productivity found in western sites. Second, if GPP does not vary across the Amazon basin then different patterns of carbon allocation to respiration could also explain the observed ANPP gradient. However since plant growth depends on the interaction between photosynthesis, transport of assimilates, plant respiration, water relations and mineral nutrition, variations in plant gross photosynthesis (GPP) could also explain the observed variations in ANPP. In this study we investigate whether Amazon GPP can explain variations of observed ANPP. We use a sun and shade canopy gas exchange model that has been calibrated and evaluated at five rainforest sites (Mercado et al. 2009) to simulate gross primary productivity of 50 sites across the Amazon basin during the period 1980-2001. Such simulation differs from the ones performed with global vegetation models (Cox et al. 1998; Sitch et al. 2003) where i) single plant functional

  8. Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo Silveira; Nepstad, Daniel Curtis; Curran, Lisa M; Cerqueira, Gustavo Coutinho; Garcia, Ricardo Alexandrino; Ramos, Claudia Azevedo; Voll, Eliane; McDonald, Alice; Lefebvre, Paul; Schlesinger, Peter

    2006-03-23

    Expansion of the cattle and soy industries in the Amazon basin has increased deforestation rates and will soon push all-weather highways into the region's core. In the face of this growing pressure, a comprehensive conservation strategy for the Amazon basin should protect its watersheds, the full range of species and ecosystem diversity, and the stability of regional climates. Here we report that protected areas in the Amazon basin--the central feature of prevailing conservation approaches--are an important but insufficient component of this strategy, based on policy-sensitive simulations of future deforestation. By 2050, current trends in agricultural expansion will eliminate a total of 40% of Amazon forests, including at least two-thirds of the forest cover of six major watersheds and 12 ecoregions, releasing 32 +/- 8 Pg of carbon to the atmosphere. One-quarter of the 382 mammalian species examined will lose more than 40% of the forest within their Amazon ranges. Although an expanded and enforced network of protected areas could avoid as much as one-third of this projected forest loss, conservation on private lands is also essential. Expanding market pressures for sound land management and prevention of forest clearing on lands unsuitable for agriculture are critical ingredients of a strategy for comprehensive conservation. PMID:16554817

  9. The Effects of Amazon Deforestation on Rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor); Negri, Andrew J.; Adler, Robert F.; Surratt, Jason

    2002-01-01

    This study begins with the hypothesis that heavily deforested regions will experience increased surface heating, leading to local circulations that will ultimately enhance the rainfall, or at least, change the pattern of diurnal evolution of rainfall. This would be an important finding because several modeling studies have concluded that widespread deforestation would lead to decreased rainfall. Towards that end rain estimates from a combined GOES infrared/TRMM microwave technique were analyzed with respect to percent forest cover from Landsat data (courtesy of TRFIC at Michigan State University) and GOES visible channel data over a deforested area in Rondonia (southwest Brazil). Five 1" x 1" areas of varying forest cover were examined during the onset of the wet season in Amazonia (Aug-Sept), when the effects of the surface would not be dominated by large-scale synoptic weather patterns. Preliminary results revealed that: maximum rainfall fell in most deforested area; heavily forested areas received the least rainfall; cumulus cloud development initiated at borders; the amplitude of the diurnal cycle of precipitation was a function of th surface cover. Further work will be presented detailing effects of land surface cover on the GOES infrared-measured surface heating, GOES visible observed cumulus development, thunderstorm initiation based on the location of temperature minima in the infrared data, and estimated rainfall and its diurnal cycle from a combined GOES/TRMM technique. Rainfall estimates derived from non-geosynchronous microwave observations (i.e. Goddard Profiling Algorithm, GPROF) will also be examined.

  10. Biomass burning aerosol over the Amazon during SAMBBA: impact of chemical composition on radiative properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, William; Allan, James; Flynn, Michael; Darbyshire, Eoghan; Hodgson, Amy; Liu, Dantong; O'shea, Sebastian; Bauguitte, Stephane; Szpek, Kate; Langridge, Justin; Johnson, Ben; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Artaxo, Paulo; Coe, Hugh

    2014-05-01

    Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, resulting in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious impacts on public health. Globally, biomass burning aerosols are thought to exert a small warming effect but with the uncertainty being 4 times greater than the central estimate. On regional scales, the impact is substantially greater, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months. Absorption by atmospheric aerosols is underestimated by models over South America, which points to significant uncertainties relating to Black Carbon (BC) aerosol properties. Initial results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft, are presented here. Aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and a DMT Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass burning on regional air quality, weather and climate. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions including sampling of pristine Rainforest, fresh biomass burning plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass burning layers within the free troposphere. The aircraft sampled biomass burning aerosol across the southern Amazon in the states of Rondonia and Mato Grosso, as well as in a Cerrado (Savannah-like) region in Tocantins state. This presented a range of fire conditions, both in terms of their number, intensity, vegetation-type and their combustion efficiencies. Near-source sampling of fires in Rainforest environments suggested that smouldering combustion dominated, while flaming combustion dominated

  11. The Amazon, measuring a mighty river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1967-01-01

    The Amazon, the world's largest river, discharges enough water into the sea each day to provide fresh water to the City of New York for over 9 years. Its flow accounts for about 15 percent of all the fresh water discharged into the oceans by all the rivers of the world. By comparison, the Amazon's flow is over 4 times that of the Congo River, the world's second largest river. And it is 10 times that of the Mississippi, the largest river on the North American Continent.

  12. The Amazon hydrometeorology: Climatology, variability and links to changes in weather patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Katia De Avila

    -Southern Oscillation. During El Nino (La Nina) a strong (weak) subtropical jet stream over South America tends to prevent transient systems from moving to southern Amazon, resulting in decreased (increased) CAI days during SON. The second mode of co-variability shows an anomalously warm western Indian Ocean also related to strong subtropical jet stream, except the jet is positioned farther north in South America, which along with the absence of a well defined subpolar jet stream, favors the northward displacement of transient waves into central South America, but show little response in southern Amazon. The CAI days reconstructed from the first and second modes do not present any significant trend in southern Amazon. CAI days reconstructed from the third mode of co-variability on the other hand, reproduces the SON observed trend in almost its entirety. The third mode of co-variability describes negative (positive) anomalies in CAI days associated with cold (warm) SST anomalies in the eastern tropical Pacific, anomalous wavetrain in the Southern Hemisphere and Walker Cell displacement that are unfavorable (favorable) to the incursion of CAI into southern Amazon. The temporal evolution of this mode correlates negatively with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, suggesting that the recent gradual shift in PDO polarity reflected on the interannual response of Southern Pacific atmospheric patterns, hence on the behavior of transients propagation. The negative PDO index and its related atmospheric patterns are in agreement with the reduced observed CAI days, which also related to a delayed wet season onset in the southern Amazon.

  13. Black carbon over the Amazon during SAMBBA: it gets everywhere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, W.; Allan, J. D.; Flynn, M.; Darbyshire, E.; Liu, D.; Szpek, K.; Langridge, J.; Johnson, B. T.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Artaxo, P.; Coe, H.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning represents a major source of Black Carbon (BC) aerosol to the atmosphere, which can result in major perturbations to weather, climate and ecosystem development. Large uncertainties in these impacts prevail, particularly on regional scales. One such region is the Amazon Basin, where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis during the dry season. Absorption by atmospheric aerosols is underestimated by models over South America, which points to significant uncertainties relating to BC aerosol properties. Results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft, are presented here. Aerosol chemical composition was measured by a DMT Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) and an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). The physical, chemical and optical properties of BC-containing particles across the region will be characterised, with particular emphasis on the vertical distribution. BC was ubiquitous across the region, with measurements extending from heavily deforested regions in the Western Amazon Basin, through to agricultural fires in the Cerrado (Savannah-like) region and more pristine areas over the Amazon Rainforest. Measurements in the vicinity of Manaus (a city located deep into the jungle) were also conducted. BC concentrations peaked within the boundary layer at a height of around 1.5km. BC-containing particles were found to be rapidly coated in the near-field, with little evidence for additional coating upon advection and dilution. Biomass burning layers within the free troposphere were routinely observed. BC-containing particles within such layers were typically associated with less coating than those within the boundary layer, suggestive of wet removal of more coated BC particles. The importance of such properties in relation to the

  14. Polycystic Echinococcosis in Pacas, Amazon Region, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Mayor, Pedro; Baquedano, Laura E.; Sanchez, Elisabeth; Aramburu, Javier; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A.; Mamani, Victor J.

    2015-01-01

    In the Peruvian Amazon, paca meat is consumed by humans. To determine human risk for polycystic echinococcosis, we examined wild pacas from 2 villages; 15 (11.7%) of 128 were infected with Echinococcus vogeli tapeworms. High E. vogeli prevalence among pacas indicates potential risk for humans living in E. vogeli–contaminated areas. PMID:25695937

  15. Principal Connection / Amazon and the Whole Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerr, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    A recent controversy over Amazon's culture has strong implications for the whole child approach, and it offers powerful lessons for principals. A significant difference between the culture of so many businesses today and the culture at good schools is that in good schools, the welfare of the employees is very important. Student success is the…

  16. Amazon Flooded Forest. Teacher Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, Todd

    This teacher's resource guide was created to accompany the Amazon Flooded Forest exhibit at the Oregon Zoo. The enclosed lessons and activities are designed to extend into several aspects of daily curriculum including science, math, reading, writing, speaking, and geography. The materials are intended for use in grades 3-6 although most activities…

  17. Exploring the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto with Imaging Radar: Understanding the Origins of the Modern Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, K. C.; Campbell, K.; Islam, R.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Cracraft, J.

    2013-12-01

    Amazonia is Earth's most iconic center of biological diversity and endemism and, owing to its contributions to global systems ecology, is arguably Earth's most important terrestrial biome . Amazonia includes a vast landscape of mostly lowland rainforest found in Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Venezuela. It harbors the world's highest species diversity, the largest fresh-water ecosystem in the world, and contributes substantially to shaping the Earth's atmospheric gasses and oceans and consequently its climate. Despite this global importance, we still have an incomplete understanding of how this biodiversity-rich biome developed over time. Knowing its history is crucially important for understanding how the short and long-term effects of biodiversity loss and climate change will impact the region, and the globe, in the future. Hence, we seek to understand the evolutionary and environmental-ecological history of Amazonia over the past 10 million years through a comparative approach that integrates across the disciplines of systematic biology, population biology, ecosystem structure and function, geology, Earth systems modeling and remote sensing, and paleoenvironmental history. During springtime 2013, the NASA/JPL airborne imaging radar, UAVSAR, conducted airborne studies over many regions of South America including portions of the western Amazon basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery acquired over the Madre de Dios region of southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology of the Amazon's planalto, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and its relationship to geologic processes through deep time. In the late Neogene, the Amazonian lowlands comprised either a series of independent basins or a single sedimentary basin. The Amazonian planalto is variously described as either an erosional surface or a surface of deposition. We employ UAVSAR data collections to assess (1) the utility of these high quality imaging radar

  18. The legacy of cultural landscapes in the Brazilian Amazon: implications for biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Heckenberger, Michael J; Russell, J Christian; Toney, Joshua R; Schmidt, Morgan J

    2007-02-28

    For centuries Amazonia has held the Western scientific and popular imagination as a primordial forest, only minimally impacted by small, simple and dispersed groups that inhabit the region. Studies in historical ecology refute this view. Rather than pristine tropical forest, some areas are better viewed as constructed or 'domesticated' landscapes, dramatically altered by indigenous groups in the past. This paper reviews recent archaeological research in several areas along the Amazon River with evidence of large pre-European (ca 400-500 calendar years before the present) occupations and large-scale transformations of forest and wetland environments. Research from the southern margins of closed tropical forest, in the headwaters of the Xingu River, are highlighted as an example of constructed nature in the Amazon. In all cases, human influences dramatically altered the distribution, frequency and configurations of biological communities and ecological settings. Findings of historical change and cultural variability, including diverse small to medium-sized complex societies, have clear implications for questions of conservation and sustainability and, specifically, what constitutes 'hotspots' of bio-historical diversity in the Amazon region. PMID:17255029

  19. Patterns of diversification in the discus fishes (Symphysodon spp. Cichlidae) of the Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Farias, Izeni Pires; Hrbek, Tomas

    2008-10-01

    We carried out a phylogeograhic and population genetic analysis of fishes of the taxonomically contentious genus Symphysodon from the Amazon basin in order to test hypotheses of relationships among taxonomic units, and potential processes driving diversification within this genus. We sampled 334 individuals of the genus Symphysodon from 24 localities that span the complete geographic distribution of this genus. The sampling scheme included all known phenotypic groups, species and subspecies. Analyses were based on 474 bp of the mitochondrial control region and 1443 bp of the exon 3 of RAG1 gene. We observed 102 mtDNA haplotypes defined by 89 segregating sites, and 5 nuDNA alleles defined by three segregating sites. Maximum-likelihood, Bayesian-inference and statistical parsimony analyses revealed three well defined monophyletic groups. These clades corresponded to the 'green' and 'blue' groups of Symphysodon aequifasciatus, and to a previously morphologically unrecognized clade from the Xingu River drainage. These three clades were nested within a paraphyletic assemblage consisting of the 'brown' group of S. aequifasciatus and of both described subspecies of S. discus, the 'Heckel' and the 'abacaxi' discus. Nuclear allele sharing was observed among groups, but there were significant differences in frequencies. We inferred several processes including past fragmentation among groups, and restricted gene flow with isolation by distance within the paraphyletic 'brown+Heckel+abacaxi' groups, and suggest that differences among the 'blue', 'Heckel' and 'brown' groups are potentially maintained by differences in water chemistry preferences. We further inferred colonization of the western Amazon basin by an ancestor of the 'green' clade. The 'green' group was the only group with a pattern of haplotype distribution consistent of a demographic expansion, and the divergence of this clade from other groups of discus was consistent with recent geologic evidence on the breach of

  20. Up-regulation of Amazon forest photosynthesis precedes elevated mortality under drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleska, S. R.; Christoffersen, B. O.; Longo, M.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Alves, L. F.; Wiedemann, K. T.; Stark, S. C.; Hayek, M.; Wu, J.; Munger, J. W.; Meir, P.; Oliveira Junior, R. C.; da Silva, R.; Camargo, P. B. D.

    2015-12-01

    Coupled climate-carbon cycle models indicate that Amazon forests may be vulnerable to drought, with some predicting drought-induced collapse of the Amazon forest and conversion to savanna, under future climate change. While much progress has been made in understanding tropical forest drought response, a holistic picture encompassing both short-term physiological (e.g., photosynthesis) and longer term demographic responses (e.g., mortality) remains elusive, mainly due to the rarity of coinciding relevant measurements and drought events. Here we address this knowledge gap by analyzing the response of an eastern Amazonian forest at both timescales to the El Nino-induced drought of late 2009 / early 2010 (distinct from the Atlantic SST-induced drought to hit Western Amazonia in mid/late 2010) using eddy flux measurements of carbon exchange and periodic tree demographic surveys. We partitioned the drought response of GPP into environmental (light, vapor pressure deficit (VPD), diffuse light) and biological responses. Based on environmental conditions alone (high VPD), we expected GPP to be 1-2 umol CO2 m-2 s-1 less than average during drought. In contrast, GPP was elevated by 2-4 umol CO2 m-2 s-1 above this expected negative response over a period of ~45 days, consistent with previously observed green-up from satelliltes during the 2005 Amazon drought. At the same time, drought significantly elevated 2009-2011 tree mortality, by ~50% above that during non-drought periods, consistent with a quantitative drought-mortality relationship reported for other Amazon forests. This work suggests that observations of "green-up" of forest canopies during drought may be consistent with subsequent drought-induced tree mortality, in contrast to expectation. More importantly, it highlights endogenous biological regulation of photosynthesis as an important mechanism, neglected by models, in mediating drought responses in tropical forests.

  1. Climate Change Impacts in the Amazon. Review of scientific literature

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-15

    The Amazon's hydrological cycle is a key driver of global climate, and global climate is therefore sensitive to changes in the Amazon. Climate change threatens to substantially affect the Amazon region, which in turn is expected to alter global climate and increase the risk of biodiversity loss. In this literature review the following subjects can be distinguished: Observed Climatic Change and Variability, Predicted Climatic Change, Impacts, Forests, Freshwater, Agriculture, Health, and Sea Level Rise.

  2. [Folklore and popular medicine in the Amazon].

    PubMed

    Henrique, Márcio Couto

    2009-01-01

    This discussion of the relations between folklore and popular medicine in the Amazon takes Canuto Azevedo's story "Filhos do boto" (Children of the porpoise) as an analytical reference point. Replete with elements of cultural reality, folk tales can serve as historical testimonies expressing clashes between different traditions. Folk records are fruit of what is often a quarrelsome dialogue between folklorists, social scientists, physicians, and pajés and their followers, and their analysis should take into account the conditions under which they were produced. Based on the imaginary attached to the figure of the porpoise--a seductive creature with healing powers--the article explores how we might expand knowledge of popular medicine as practiced in the Amazon, where the shamanistic rite known as pajelança cabocla has a strong presence.

  3. Chagas disease and globalization of the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Briceño-León, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    The increasing number of autochthonous cases of Chagas disease in the Amazon since the 1970s has led to fear that the disease may become a new public health problem in the region. This transformation in the disease's epidemiological pattern in the Amazon can be explained by environmental and social changes in the last 30 years. The current article draws on the sociological theory of perverse effects to explain these changes as the unwanted result of the shift from the "inward" development model prevailing until the 1970s to the "outward" model that we know as globalization, oriented by industrial forces and international trade. The current article highlights the implementation of five new patterns in agriculture, cattle-raising, mining, lumbering, and urban occupation that have generated changes in the environment and the traditional indigenous habitat and have led to migratory flows, deforestation, sedentary living, the presence of domestic animals, and changes in the habitat that facilitate colonization of human dwellings by vectors and the domestic and work-related transmission of the disease. The expansion of Chagas disease is thus a perverse effect of the globalization process in the Amazon.

  4. Sustainable settlement in the Brazilian Amazon

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, A.L.O.; Campari, J.S.

    1996-02-01

    Presents and analyzes the largest and most complete data set ever produced on the economic variables that influence deforestation by small farmers in the Amazon. This landmark study presents the largest and most analytically complete data set ever produced on the economic variables that influence deforestation by small farmers in the Amazon. The authors examine the changing character of the Amazon frontier based on field surveys conducted during twenty years of settlement experience. By observing the economic behavior of small farmers from colonization during the 1970s until the chaotic aftermath of the early 1990s, the authors are able to pinpoint a central paradox: unsuccessful farmers tend to be unstable, moving on to new frontiers where they will again destroy forests. Successful farmers tend to increase deforestation in the places where they remain. The findings reveal that much of the Amazonian frontier land cleared by pioneers in the 1970s is becoming agriculturally unproductive. Small farmers should be rewarded for staying where they are and for pursuing sustainable farming. Good farming methods must be promoted, and deforestation must be penalized. The authors recommend the implementation of innovative economic policies and new forms of cooperation between environmental and economic agencies, including the World Bank, at both local and international levels. The aim of these policies should be to raise agricultural incomes and reduce environmental aggression.

  5. Petrobras eyes LNG project in Amazon region

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-07

    The Brazilian state oil company has proved gas reserves in the Rio Urucu area of the Amazon jungle totaling 1.84 tcf. That compares with 3.08 tcf contained in the offshore Campos basin, source of most of Brazil`s oil and gas production. The environmentally sensitive Urucu region is one of the most dense, remote jungles in the world. Because of environmental concerns about pipelines in the rain forest and a government emphasis on boosting the natural gas share of Brazil`s energy mix, a small liquefied natural gas project is shaping up as the best option for developing and marketing Urucu gas. The amazon campaign underscores a government initiative to boost Brazilian consumption of natural gas. In Brazil natural gas accounts for only 4% of primary energy consumption. Some years ago, the government set an official goal of boosting the gas share of the primary energy mix to 10% by 2000. The paper discusses current drilling activities, gas production and processing, the logistics of the upper Amazon, and gas markets.

  6. Biomarkers of Mercury Exposure in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Nathália Santos Serrão; Lima, Marcelo de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Mercury exposure in the Amazon has been studied since the 1980s decade and the assessment of human mercury exposure in the Amazon is difficult given that the natural occurrence of this metal is high and the concentration of mercury in biological samples of this population exceeds the standardized value of normality established by WHO. Few studies have focused on the discovery of mercury biomarkers in the region's population. In this way, some studies have used genetics as well as immunological and cytogenetic tools in order to find a molecular biomarker for assessing the toxicological effect of mercury in the Amazonian population. Most of those studies focused attention on the relation between mercury exposure and autoimmunity and, because of that, they will be discussed in more detail. Here we introduce the general aspects involved with each biomarker that was studied in the region in order to contextualize the reader and add information about the Amazonian life style and health that may be considered for future studies. We hope that, in the future, the toxicological studies in this field use high technological tools, such as the next generation sequencing and proteomics skills, in order to comprehend basic questions regarding the metabolic route of mercury in populations that are under constant exposure, such as in the Amazon. PMID:24895619

  7. Biomarkers of mercury exposure in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Nathália Santos Serrão; Lima, Marcelo de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Mercury exposure in the Amazon has been studied since the 1980s decade and the assessment of human mercury exposure in the Amazon is difficult given that the natural occurrence of this metal is high and the concentration of mercury in biological samples of this population exceeds the standardized value of normality established by WHO. Few studies have focused on the discovery of mercury biomarkers in the region's population. In this way, some studies have used genetics as well as immunological and cytogenetic tools in order to find a molecular biomarker for assessing the toxicological effect of mercury in the Amazonian population. Most of those studies focused attention on the relation between mercury exposure and autoimmunity and, because of that, they will be discussed in more detail. Here we introduce the general aspects involved with each biomarker that was studied in the region in order to contextualize the reader and add information about the Amazonian life style and health that may be considered for future studies. We hope that, in the future, the toxicological studies in this field use high technological tools, such as the next generation sequencing and proteomics skills, in order to comprehend basic questions regarding the metabolic route of mercury in populations that are under constant exposure, such as in the Amazon.

  8. Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S. T.; Artaxo, P.; Machado, L. A. T.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F.; Schumacher, C.; Wang, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Fan, J.; Fisch, G.; Goldstein, A. H.; Guenther, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Pöschl, U.; Silva Dias, M. A.; Smith, J. N.; Wendisch, M.

    2015-11-01

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin during two years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as the Introduction to the GoAmazon2014/5 Special Issue, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0) upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km). In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G1) observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO) operated in the free troposphere. During the two-year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2) also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. The G1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also correspond to the clean

  9. Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S. T.; Artaxo, P.; Machado, L. A. T.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F.; Schumacher, C.; Wang, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Fan, J.; Fisch, G.; Goldstein, A. H.; Guenther, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Pöschl, U.; Silva Dias, M. A.; Smith, J. N.; Wendisch, M.

    2016-04-01

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin for 2 years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as the introduction to the special issue of GoAmazon2014/5, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0) upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km). In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G-1) observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO) operated in the free troposphere. During the 2-year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2) also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. The G-1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also correspond to the clean and

  10. Introduction: Observations and modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Martin, S. T.; Artaxo, P.; Machado, L. A. T.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F.; Schumacher, C.; Wang, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Fan, J.; et al

    2016-04-19

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin for 2 years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from themore » Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as the introduction to the special issue of GoAmazon2014/5, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0) upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km). In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G-1) observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO) operated in the free troposphere. During the 2-year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2) also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. In addition, the G-1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs

  11. Cholangiocarcinoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona estiva).

    PubMed

    Elangbam, C S; Panciera, R J

    1988-01-01

    A case of cholangiocarcinoma in a 3-year-old blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona estiva) is reported. Neoplastic tissue was limited to the liver, where it infiltrated and replaced much of the hepatic parenchyma. The only other reported cases of cholangiocarcinoma in an Amazon parrot (Amazona xanthops) also occurred in a bird in its fourth year of age.

  12. Rivers in the sea - Can we quantify pigments in the Amazon and the Orinoco River plumes from space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Walsh, John J.; Carder, Kendall L.; Zika, Rod G.

    1989-01-01

    Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) images of the western tropical Atlantic (1979-1982) were combined into monthly mean surface pigment fields. These suggest that Amazon River water flows along northeastern South America directly toward the Caribbean sea early in the year. After June, however, the North Brazil Current is shunted eastward, carrying a large fraction of Amazon water into the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC). This eastward flow causes diminished flow through the Caribbean, which permits northwestward dispersal of Orinoco River water due to local Ekman forcing. The Orinoco plume crosses the Caribbean, leading to seasonal variation in surface salinity near Puerto Rico. At least 50 percent of the pigment concentration estimated in these plumes seems due to viable phytoplankton.

  13. Contrasting andean geodynamics drive evolution of lowland taxa in western Amazonia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a palm lineage of 15 species (Astrocaryum sect. Huicungo), we tested an hypothesis that past geologic events in western Amazonia influenced the modern configuration of the upper Amazon drainage and thus diversification and distribution of these palsm, which found only in this region. The chang...

  14. Proliferation of Hydroelectric Dams in the Andean Amazon and Implications for Andes-Amazon Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2012-01-01

    Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1) There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2) There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3) Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics. PMID:22529979

  15. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    PubMed

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N

    2012-01-01

    Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1) There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2) There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3) Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  16. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    PubMed

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N

    2012-01-01

    Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1) There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2) There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3) Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics. PMID:22529979

  17. Isoprene photochemistry over the Amazon rainforest.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingjun; Brito, Joel; Dorris, Matthew R; Rivera-Rios, Jean C; Seco, Roger; Bates, Kelvin H; Artaxo, Paulo; Duvoisin, Sergio; Keutsch, Frank N; Kim, Saewung; Goldstein, Allen H; Guenther, Alex B; Manzi, Antonio O; Souza, Rodrigo A F; Springston, Stephen R; Watson, Thomas B; McKinney, Karena A; Martin, Scot T

    2016-05-31

    Isoprene photooxidation is a major driver of atmospheric chemistry over forested regions. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) and molecular oxygen to produce isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO). These radicals can react with hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) to dominantly produce hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). They can also react with nitric oxide (NO) to largely produce methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR). Unimolecular isomerization and bimolecular reactions with organic peroxy radicals are also possible. There is uncertainty about the relative importance of each of these pathways in the atmosphere and possible changes because of anthropogenic pollution. Herein, measurements of ISOPOOH and MVK + MACR concentrations are reported over the central region of the Amazon basin during the wet season. The research site, downwind of an urban region, intercepted both background and polluted air masses during the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. Under background conditions, the confidence interval for the ratio of the ISOPOOH concentration to that of MVK + MACR spanned 0.4-0.6. This result implies a ratio of the reaction rate of ISOPOO with HO2 to that with NO of approximately unity. A value of unity is significantly smaller than simulated at present by global chemical transport models for this important, nominally low-NO, forested region of Earth. Under polluted conditions, when the concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds were high (>1 ppb), ISOPOOH concentrations dropped below the instrumental detection limit (<60 ppt). This abrupt shift in isoprene photooxidation, sparked by human activities, speaks to ongoing and possible future changes in the photochemistry active over the Amazon rainforest. PMID:27185928

  18. Isoprene photochemistry over the Amazon rainforest.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingjun; Brito, Joel; Dorris, Matthew R; Rivera-Rios, Jean C; Seco, Roger; Bates, Kelvin H; Artaxo, Paulo; Duvoisin, Sergio; Keutsch, Frank N; Kim, Saewung; Goldstein, Allen H; Guenther, Alex B; Manzi, Antonio O; Souza, Rodrigo A F; Springston, Stephen R; Watson, Thomas B; McKinney, Karena A; Martin, Scot T

    2016-05-31

    Isoprene photooxidation is a major driver of atmospheric chemistry over forested regions. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) and molecular oxygen to produce isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO). These radicals can react with hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) to dominantly produce hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). They can also react with nitric oxide (NO) to largely produce methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR). Unimolecular isomerization and bimolecular reactions with organic peroxy radicals are also possible. There is uncertainty about the relative importance of each of these pathways in the atmosphere and possible changes because of anthropogenic pollution. Herein, measurements of ISOPOOH and MVK + MACR concentrations are reported over the central region of the Amazon basin during the wet season. The research site, downwind of an urban region, intercepted both background and polluted air masses during the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. Under background conditions, the confidence interval for the ratio of the ISOPOOH concentration to that of MVK + MACR spanned 0.4-0.6. This result implies a ratio of the reaction rate of ISOPOO with HO2 to that with NO of approximately unity. A value of unity is significantly smaller than simulated at present by global chemical transport models for this important, nominally low-NO, forested region of Earth. Under polluted conditions, when the concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds were high (>1 ppb), ISOPOOH concentrations dropped below the instrumental detection limit (<60 ppt). This abrupt shift in isoprene photooxidation, sparked by human activities, speaks to ongoing and possible future changes in the photochemistry active over the Amazon rainforest.

  19. Isoprene photochemistry over the Amazon rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingjun; Brito, Joel; Dorris, Matthew R.; Rivera-Rios, Jean C.; Seco, Roger; Bates, Kelvin H.; Artaxo, Paulo; Duvoisin, Sergio; Keutsch, Frank N.; Kim, Saewung; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Springston, Stephen R.; Watson, Thomas B.; McKinney, Karena A.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-05-01

    Isoprene photooxidation is a major driver of atmospheric chemistry over forested regions. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) and molecular oxygen to produce isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO). These radicals can react with hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) to dominantly produce hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). They can also react with nitric oxide (NO) to largely produce methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR). Unimolecular isomerization and bimolecular reactions with organic peroxy radicals are also possible. There is uncertainty about the relative importance of each of these pathways in the atmosphere and possible changes because of anthropogenic pollution. Herein, measurements of ISOPOOH and MVK + MACR concentrations are reported over the central region of the Amazon basin during the wet season. The research site, downwind of an urban region, intercepted both background and polluted air masses during the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. Under background conditions, the confidence interval for the ratio of the ISOPOOH concentration to that of MVK + MACR spanned 0.4–0.6. This result implies a ratio of the reaction rate of ISOPOO with HO2 to that with NO of approximately unity. A value of unity is significantly smaller than simulated at present by global chemical transport models for this important, nominally low-NO, forested region of Earth. Under polluted conditions, when the concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds were high (>1 ppb), ISOPOOH concentrations dropped below the instrumental detection limit (<60 ppt). This abrupt shift in isoprene photooxidation, sparked by human activities, speaks to ongoing and possible future changes in the photochemistry active over the Amazon rainforest.

  20. Isoprene photochemistry over the Amazon rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingjun; Brito, Joel; Dorris, Matthew R.; Rivera-Rios, Jean C.; Seco, Roger; Bates, Kelvin H.; Artaxo, Paulo; Duvoisin, Sergio; Keutsch, Frank N.; Kim, Saewung; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Springston, Stephen R.; Watson, Thomas B.; McKinney, Karena A.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-05-01

    Isoprene photooxidation is a major driver of atmospheric chemistry over forested regions. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) and molecular oxygen to produce isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO). These radicals can react with hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) to dominantly produce hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). They can also react with nitric oxide (NO) to largely produce methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR). Unimolecular isomerization and bimolecular reactions with organic peroxy radicals are also possible. There is uncertainty about the relative importance of each of these pathways in the atmosphere and possible changes because of anthropogenic pollution. Herein, measurements of ISOPOOH and MVK + MACR concentrations are reported over the central region of the Amazon basin during the wet season. The research site, downwind of an urban region, intercepted both background and polluted air masses during the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. Under background conditions, the confidence interval for the ratio of the ISOPOOH concentration to that of MVK + MACR spanned 0.4-0.6. This result implies a ratio of the reaction rate of ISOPOO with HO2 to that with NO of approximately unity. A value of unity is significantly smaller than simulated at present by global chemical transport models for this important, nominally low-NO, forested region of Earth. Under polluted conditions, when the concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds were high (>1 ppb), ISOPOOH concentrations dropped below the instrumental detection limit (<60 ppt). This abrupt shift in isoprene photooxidation, sparked by human activities, speaks to ongoing and possible future changes in the photochemistry active over the Amazon rainforest.

  1. Impacts on regional climate of Amazon deforestation

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, R.E.; Kennedy, P. NCAR, Boulder, CO )

    1992-10-01

    A simulation of the climate response to Amazon deforestation has been carried out. Precipitation is decreased on the average by 25 percent or 1.4 mm/day, with ET and runoff both decreasing by 0.7 mm/day. Modifications of surface energy balance through change of albedo and roughness are complicated by cloud feedbacks. The initial decrease of the absorption of solar radiation by higher surface albedos is largely cancelled by a reduction in cloud cover, but consequent reduction in downward longwave has a substantial impact on surface energy balance. Smoke aerosols might have an effect comparable to deforestation during burning season. 8 refs.

  2. [The Amazon Sanitation Plan (1940-1942)].

    PubMed

    Andrade, Rômulo de Paula; Hochman, Gilberto

    2007-12-01

    The article addresses the Amazon Sanitation Plan and the political context in which it was formulated between 1940 and 1941. It examines the role of Getúlio Vargas, the activities of the plan's main protagonists (such as Evandro Chagas, João de Barros Barreto, and Valério Konder), its key proposals, and its demise as of 1942 upon creation of the Special Public Health Service (Sesp), which grew out of cooperation agreements between Brazil and the US following both nations' involvement in World War II. A reproduction of the Plan as published in the Arquivos de Higiene in 1941 is included.

  3. Radionuclide tracers of sediment-water interactions on the Amazon shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Willard S.; DeMaster, David J.; Smoak, Joseph M.; McKee, Brent A.; Swarzenski, Peter W.

    1996-04-01

    adsorbed 234Th into the seabed. Once scavenged, 234Th remains part of the suspended-sediment and fluid-mud inventory for periods of at least 4-8 weeks. Another particle-reactive tracer, 210Pb, was used to evaluate the potential supply of reactive metals from offshore waters to the shelf. As open-ocean waters move into the Amazon mixing zone, in response to the estuarine-like circulation, they lose 210Ph through scavenging processes associated with delta formation. This oceanic input of 210Pb dominates other inputs to the Amazon shelf system. Based on 210Pb analyses from more than 40 ☐ and kasten cores, the flux of water moving shoreward and depositing 210Pb in the sediments was calculated to be on the order of 6 × 10 161y -1 ˜10 times the riverine flux from the Amazon. The distribution of 210Pb in the sediments suggests that if particle-reactive species (such as certain trace metals) are released in dissolved form on the shelf, they will be scavenged quickly in this turbid environment, with the largest inventories occurring in the foreset beds (although the highest concentrations occur in the bottomset beds). The large landward flow of water indicates that if particle-reactive species are released in the western equatorial Atlantic via aerosol transport or other mechanisms, there is a good chance that a sizeable portion will be buried in the Amazon delta. Fluxes of radium isotopes, 226Ra, 228Ra and 224Ra, from the bottom sediments were used to evaluate sediment resuspension across the shelf. The average flux of 226Ra from the Amazon shelf balanced the annual desorption of 226Ra from river-derived sediments; however, departures between the 226Ra flux and sediment necessary to support the flux occurred for different sampling periods. During falling and low discharge, less sediment entered the system than was required to support the sedimentary desorption 226Ra flux. During rising and high discharge, more sediment entered than was necessary to sustain the 226Ra flux

  4. Western Samoa.

    PubMed

    1985-12-01

    This discussion of Western Samoa, which lies 2575 km northeast of Auckland, New Zealand, focuses on the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; and relations the US. The population of Western Samoa, as of 1985, totals 163,000 with an annual growth rate of 0.9%. The infant mortality rate is 13/1000; life expectancy is 65 years. The main islands are formed ranges of extinct volcanoes. Volcanic activity last occurred in 1911. More than 2000 years age, waves of Polynesians migrated from Southeast Asia to the Samoan Islands. Samoans are the 2nd largest Polynesian group, after the Maoris of New Zealand, and speak a Polynesian dialect. Samoans have tended to retain their traditional ways despite exposure to European influence for more than 150 years. Most Samoans live within the traditional social system based on an extended family group, headed by a chief. Western Samoans are Christian. Education is free but not compulsory. In 1967, 95% of the children of primary school age attended school. From 1947 to 1961, a series of constitutional advances, assisted by visits from UN missions, brought Western Samoa from dependent status to self-government and finally to independence. The 1960 constitution is based on the British pattern of parliamentary democracy, modified to take Samoan customs into account. The present head of state holds his position for life. Future heads of state will be elected by the Legislative Assembly for 5-year terms. The Parliament consists of the Legislative Assembly and the head of state. The Supreme Court is the superior court of record and has full jurisdiction in civil, criminal, and constitutional matters. The "matai" of chief system still dominates the politics of Western Samoa, although several political parties have been formed and seem to be taking root. The "matai" system is a predominantly conservative force but does provide for change. Western Samoa is predominantly

  5. Copepods and fishes in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatcher, Vernon E.

    1998-06-01

    The Amazon basin comprises the largest river ecosystem in the world (7 million km 2) with annual high and low water peaks and a constant temperature near 29°C. Some 2000 fish species and 40 species of free-living copepods are known to occur in Amazonia. The free-living forms serve as food for most larval fishes and some adults, but they also transmit several parasites including representatives of the nematode family Camallanidae. About three dozen species of parasitic copepods have been described from the Brazilian Amazon. Females of Amazonian parasitic copepods are found on skin, gill filaments, gill rakers or within the nasal fossae. Parasitic copepods are found on fishes that are from a few millimeters long up to those over 2 m in length and they are usually quite host specific. All have body pigmentation in different patterns and colors (frequently blues, such as cerulean, cobalt, spectrum, smalt or campanula). It is suggested that the coloration serves to attract specific host fish. Copepods have evolved adaptations for attachment and feeding, especially in the second antennae and endopods. Examples of progenesis, phoresis and commensalism are shown. Some species produce pathology such as a tourniquet effect, hyperplasia, blood loss and anemia, and can kill fishes by limiting their respiration.

  6. Size distribution of Amazon River bed sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordin, C.F.; Meade, R.H.; Curtis, W.F.; Bosio, N.J.; Landim, P.M.B.

    1980-01-01

    The first recorded observations of bed material of the Amazon River were made in 1843 by Lt William Lewis Herndon of the US Navy, when he travelled the river from its headwaters to its mouth, sounding its depths, and noting the nature of particles caught in a heavy grease smeared to the bottom of his sounding weight1. He reported the bed material of the river to be mostly sand and fine gravel. Oltman and Ames took samples at a few locations in 1963 and 1964, and reported the bed material at O??bidos, Brazil, to be fine sands, with median diameters ranging from 0.15 to 0.25 mm (ref. 2). We present here a summary of particle-size analyses of samples of streambed material collected from the Amazon River and its major tributaries along a reach of the river from Iquitos in Peru, ???3,500 km above Macapa?? Brazil, to a point 220 km above Macapa??3. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  7. Drought sensitivity of the Amazon rainforest.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Oliver L; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Lewis, Simon L; Fisher, Joshua B; Lloyd, Jon; López-González, Gabriela; Malhi, Yadvinder; Monteagudo, Abel; Peacock, Julie; Quesada, Carlos A; van der Heijden, Geertje; Almeida, Samuel; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Aymard, Gerardo; Baker, Tim R; Bánki, Olaf; Blanc, Lilian; Bonal, Damien; Brando, Paulo; Chave, Jerome; de Oliveira, Atila Cristina Alves; Cardozo, Nallaret Dávila; Czimczik, Claudia I; Feldpausch, Ted R; Freitas, Maria Aparecida; Gloor, Emanuel; Higuchi, Niro; Jiménez, Eliana; Lloyd, Gareth; Meir, Patrick; Mendoza, Casimiro; Morel, Alexandra; Neill, David A; Nepstad, Daniel; Patiño, Sandra; Peñuela, Maria Cristina; Prieto, Adriana; Ramírez, Fredy; Schwarz, Michael; Silva, Javier; Silveira, Marcos; Thomas, Anne Sota; Steege, Hans Ter; Stropp, Juliana; Vásquez, Rodolfo; Zelazowski, Przemyslaw; Alvarez Dávila, Esteban; Andelman, Sandy; Andrade, Ana; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Erwin, Terry; Di Fiore, Anthony; Honorio C, Eurídice; Keeling, Helen; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, William F; Peña Cruz, Antonio; Pitman, Nigel C A; Núñez Vargas, Percy; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustín; Salamão, Rafael; Silva, Natalino; Terborgh, John; Torres-Lezama, Armando

    2009-03-01

    Amazon forests are a key but poorly understood component of the global carbon cycle. If, as anticipated, they dry this century, they might accelerate climate change through carbon losses and changed surface energy balances. We used records from multiple long-term monitoring plots across Amazonia to assess forest responses to the intense 2005 drought, a possible analog of future events. Affected forest lost biomass, reversing a large long-term carbon sink, with the greatest impacts observed where the dry season was unusually intense. Relative to pre-2005 conditions, forest subjected to a 100-millimeter increase in water deficit lost 5.3 megagrams of aboveground biomass of carbon per hectare. The drought had a total biomass carbon impact of 1.2 to 1.6 petagrams (1.2 x 10(15) to 1.6 x 10(15) grams). Amazon forests therefore appear vulnerable to increasing moisture stress, with the potential for large carbon losses to exert feedback on climate change. PMID:19265020

  8. Precipitation recycling in the Amazon basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eltahir, E. A. B.; Bras, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    Precipitation recycling is the contribution of evaporation within a region to precipitation in that same region. The recycling rate is a diagnostic measure of the potential for interactions between land surface hydrology and regional climate. In this paper we present a model for describing the seasonal and spatial variability of the recycling process. The precipitation recycling ratio, rho, is the basic variable in describing the recycling process. Rho is the fraction of precipitation at a certain location and time which is contributed by evaporation within the region under study. The recycling model is applied in studyiing the hydrologic cycle in the Amazon basin. It is estimated that about 25% of all the rain that falls in the Amazon basin is contributed by evaporation within the basin. This estimate is based on analysis of a data set supplied by the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The same analysis is repeated using a different data set from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). Based on this data set, the recycling ratio is estimated to be 35%. The seasonal variability of the recycling ratio is small compared with the yearly average. The new estimates of the recycling ratio are compared with results of previous studies, and the differences are explained.

  9. Patents on periphery of the Amazon rainforest.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Emanoel G; Araújo, José R G; Monroe, Paulo H M; de O Nascimento, Ivaneide; Aguiar, Alana C F

    2009-06-01

    In the humid tropics, on the edges of the Amazon forest, the technological challenges to establishing and maintaining productive and sustainable agricultural systems have yet to be overcome. The groups involved in agriculture in the north of Brazil still engage in the practice of slash and burn in order to prepare and fertilize the soil. This produces negative effects for the local and global environment, without the counter-effect of providing social benefits to rural communities. Whether this process continues is of fundamental importance to many countries because it means that slash and burn agriculture is advancing on the Amazon rainforest, with a negative effect on every dimension of national policy. Beyond social political problems the biggest challenge for researchers in the field of tropical agriculture is to offer technological alternatives that can sustain agriculture in soils derived from sedimentary rocks that have been subjected to a high degree of weathering. In this article patented information is also discussed. Experiments undertaken in this region recommend taking advantage of the rapid growth of plants in the tropics. We aimed at proposing a suitable alternative system for a sustainable soil management in the particular conditions of humid tropics, named as "no-till in alley cropping using tree leguminous mulch." This system offers the advantages of: bringing together, in the same space and at the same time, the processes of cultivation and the regeneration of soil fertility. PMID:20653534

  10. Patents on periphery of the Amazon rainforest.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Emanoel G; Araújo, José R G; Monroe, Paulo H M; de O Nascimento, Ivaneide; Aguiar, Alana C F

    2009-06-01

    In the humid tropics, on the edges of the Amazon forest, the technological challenges to establishing and maintaining productive and sustainable agricultural systems have yet to be overcome. The groups involved in agriculture in the north of Brazil still engage in the practice of slash and burn in order to prepare and fertilize the soil. This produces negative effects for the local and global environment, without the counter-effect of providing social benefits to rural communities. Whether this process continues is of fundamental importance to many countries because it means that slash and burn agriculture is advancing on the Amazon rainforest, with a negative effect on every dimension of national policy. Beyond social political problems the biggest challenge for researchers in the field of tropical agriculture is to offer technological alternatives that can sustain agriculture in soils derived from sedimentary rocks that have been subjected to a high degree of weathering. In this article patented information is also discussed. Experiments undertaken in this region recommend taking advantage of the rapid growth of plants in the tropics. We aimed at proposing a suitable alternative system for a sustainable soil management in the particular conditions of humid tropics, named as "no-till in alley cropping using tree leguminous mulch." This system offers the advantages of: bringing together, in the same space and at the same time, the processes of cultivation and the regeneration of soil fertility.

  11. Mouths of the Amazon River, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In this view of the Amazon River Mouth (0.0, 51.0W), a large sediment plume can be seen expanding outward into the Atlantic Ocean. The sediment plume can be seen hugging the coast north of the delta as a result of the northwest flowing coastal Guyana Current. In recent years, the flow of the Amazon has become heavily laden with sediment as soil runoff from the denuded landscape of the interior enters the Amazon River (and other rivers) drainage system.

  12. Amazon River investigations, reconnaissance measurements of July 1963

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oltman, Roy Edwin; Sternberg, H. O'R.; Ames, F.C.; Davis, L.C.

    1964-01-01

    The first measurements of the flow of the Amazon River were made in July 1963 as a joint project of the University of Brazil, the Brazilian Navy, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The discharge of the Amazon River at Obidos was 7,640,000 cfs at an annual flood stage somewhat lower than the average. For comparison the maximum known discharge of the Mississippi River at Vicksburg is about 2,300,000 cfs. Dissolved-solids concentrations and sediment loads of the Amazon River and of several major tributaries were found to be low.

  13. Radium and barium in the Amazon River system

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, W.S.; Edmond, J.M.

    1984-03-20

    Data for /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra in the Amazon River system show that the activity of each radium isotope is strongly correlated with barium concentrations. Two trends are apparent, one for rivers which drain shield areas and another for all other rivers. These data suggest that there has been extensive fractionation of U, Th, and Ba during weathering in the Amazon basin. The /sup 226/Ra data fit a flux model for the major ions indicating that /sup 226/Ra behaves conservatively along the main channel of the Amazon River.

  14. Spectrometry of Pasture Condition and Biogeochemistry in the Central Amazon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Townsend, Alan R.; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.

    1999-01-01

    Regional analyses of Amazon cattle pasture biogeochemistry are difficult due to the complexity of human, edaphic, biotic and climatic factors and persistent cloud cover in satellite observations. We developed a method to estimate key biophysical properties of Amazon pastures using hyperspectral reflectance data and photon transport inverse modeling. Remote estimates of live and senescent biomass were strongly correlated with plant-available forms of soil phosphorus and calcium. These results provide a basis for monitoring pasture condition and biogeochemistry in the Amazon Basin using spaceborne hyperspectral sensors.

  15. Potential of best practice to reduce impacts from oil and gas projects in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N; Powers, Bill

    2013-01-01

    The western Amazon continues to be an active and controversial zone of hydrocarbon exploration and production. We argue for the urgent need to implement best practices to reduce the negative environmental and social impacts associated with the sector. Here, we present a three-part study aimed at resolving the major obstacles impeding the advancement of best practice in the region. Our focus is on Loreto, Peru, one of the largest and most dynamic hydrocarbon zones in the Amazon. First, we develop a set of specific best practice guidelines to address the lack of clarity surrounding the issue. These guidelines incorporate both engineering-based criteria and key ecological and social factors. Second, we provide a detailed analysis of existing and planned hydrocarbon activities and infrastructure, overcoming the lack of information that typically hampers large-scale impact analysis. Third, we evaluate the planned activities and infrastructure with respect to the best practice guidelines. We show that Loreto is an extremely active hydrocarbon front, highlighted by a number of recent oil and gas discoveries and a sustained government push for increased exploration. Our analyses reveal that the use of technical best practice could minimize future impacts by greatly reducing the amount of required infrastructure such as drilling platforms and access roads. We also document a critical need to consider more fully the ecological and social factors, as the vast majority of planned infrastructure overlaps sensitive areas such as protected areas, indigenous territories, and key ecosystems and watersheds. Lastly, our cost analysis indicates that following best practice does not impose substantially greater costs than conventional practice, and may in fact reduce overall costs. Barriers to the widespread implementation of best practice in the Amazon clearly exist, but our findings show that there can be great benefits to its implementation. PMID:23650541

  16. Potential of best practice to reduce impacts from oil and gas projects in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N; Powers, Bill

    2013-01-01

    The western Amazon continues to be an active and controversial zone of hydrocarbon exploration and production. We argue for the urgent need to implement best practices to reduce the negative environmental and social impacts associated with the sector. Here, we present a three-part study aimed at resolving the major obstacles impeding the advancement of best practice in the region. Our focus is on Loreto, Peru, one of the largest and most dynamic hydrocarbon zones in the Amazon. First, we develop a set of specific best practice guidelines to address the lack of clarity surrounding the issue. These guidelines incorporate both engineering-based criteria and key ecological and social factors. Second, we provide a detailed analysis of existing and planned hydrocarbon activities and infrastructure, overcoming the lack of information that typically hampers large-scale impact analysis. Third, we evaluate the planned activities and infrastructure with respect to the best practice guidelines. We show that Loreto is an extremely active hydrocarbon front, highlighted by a number of recent oil and gas discoveries and a sustained government push for increased exploration. Our analyses reveal that the use of technical best practice could minimize future impacts by greatly reducing the amount of required infrastructure such as drilling platforms and access roads. We also document a critical need to consider more fully the ecological and social factors, as the vast majority of planned infrastructure overlaps sensitive areas such as protected areas, indigenous territories, and key ecosystems and watersheds. Lastly, our cost analysis indicates that following best practice does not impose substantially greater costs than conventional practice, and may in fact reduce overall costs. Barriers to the widespread implementation of best practice in the Amazon clearly exist, but our findings show that there can be great benefits to its implementation.

  17. Biomass burning in the Amazon region: Aerosol source apportionment and associated health risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira Alves, Nilmara; Brito, Joel; Caumo, Sofia; Arana, Andrea; de Souza Hacon, Sandra; Artaxo, Paulo; Hillamo, Risto; Teinilä, Kimmo; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia Regina; de Castro Vasconcellos, Pérola

    2015-11-01

    The Brazilian Amazon represents about 40% of the world's remaining tropical rainforest. However, human activities have become important drivers of disturbance in that region. The majority of forest fire hotspots in the Amazon arc due to deforestation are impacting the health of the local population of over 10 million inhabitants. In this study we characterize western Amazonia biomass burning emissions through the quantification of 14 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Organic Carbon, Elemental Carbon and unique tracers of biomass burning such as levoglucosan. From the PAHs dataset a toxic equivalence factor is calculated estimating the carcinogenic and mutagenic potential of biomass burning emissions during the studied period. Peak concentration of PM10 during the dry seasons was observed to reach 60 μg m-3 on the 24 h average. Conversely, PM10 was relatively constant throughout the wet season indicating an overall stable balance between aerosol sources and sinks within the filter sampling resolution. Similar behavior is identified for OC and EC components. Levoglucosan was found in significant concentrations (up to 4 μg m-3) during the dry season. Correspondingly, the estimated lung cancer risk calculated during the dry seasons largely exceeded the WHO health-based guideline. A source apportionment study was carried out through the use of Absolute Principal Factor Analysis (APFA), identifying a three-factor solution. The biomass burning factor is found to be the dominating aerosol source, having 75.4% of PM10 loading. The second factor depicts an important contribution of several PAHs without a single source class and therefore was considered as mixed sources factor, contributing to 6.3% of PM10. The third factor was mainly associated with fossil fuel combustion emissions, contributing to 18.4% of PM10. This work enhances the knowledge of aerosol sources and its impact on climate variability and local population, on a site representative of the

  18. Potential of Best Practice to Reduce Impacts from Oil and Gas Projects in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Powers, Bill

    2013-01-01

    The western Amazon continues to be an active and controversial zone of hydrocarbon exploration and production. We argue for the urgent need to implement best practices to reduce the negative environmental and social impacts associated with the sector. Here, we present a three-part study aimed at resolving the major obstacles impeding the advancement of best practice in the region. Our focus is on Loreto, Peru, one of the largest and most dynamic hydrocarbon zones in the Amazon. First, we develop a set of specific best practice guidelines to address the lack of clarity surrounding the issue. These guidelines incorporate both engineering-based criteria and key ecological and social factors. Second, we provide a detailed analysis of existing and planned hydrocarbon activities and infrastructure, overcoming the lack of information that typically hampers large-scale impact analysis. Third, we evaluate the planned activities and infrastructure with respect to the best practice guidelines. We show that Loreto is an extremely active hydrocarbon front, highlighted by a number of recent oil and gas discoveries and a sustained government push for increased exploration. Our analyses reveal that the use of technical best practice could minimize future impacts by greatly reducing the amount of required infrastructure such as drilling platforms and access roads. We also document a critical need to consider more fully the ecological and social factors, as the vast majority of planned infrastructure overlaps sensitive areas such as protected areas, indigenous territories, and key ecosystems and watersheds. Lastly, our cost analysis indicates that following best practice does not impose substantially greater costs than conventional practice, and may in fact reduce overall costs. Barriers to the widespread implementation of best practice in the Amazon clearly exist, but our findings show that there can be great benefits to its implementation. PMID:23650541

  19. Some questions related to mechanisms of slave-raids in Amazon-ant Polyergus rufescens Latr.

    PubMed

    Dobrzański, J; Dobrzańska, J

    1978-01-01

    A new hypothesis concerning the mechanism of the P. rufescens' slave-raids, is proposed. (i) The so-called pseudo-scouting does not contribute to the slave-raids. (ii) The direction of the raid is determined by the random movement of the most easily aroused individuals - the so-called activists. (iii) Once the direction has been set the army marches straight ahead and returns by the same road orienting itself by visual stimuli; single individuals who lag behind can however follow the scent-trial which had been left by the army. (iv) The slave-capturing instinct of the amazons is not directed at the abduction of pupae alone but also and even perhaps primarily at the abduction of mature individuals belonging to the slave-species; that the amazons bring almost only pupae is caused by the fact that the mature individuals offer resistance and are consequently a more troublesome prey.

  20. Lipid Panel Reference Intervals for Amazon Parrots (Amazona species).

    PubMed

    Ravich, Michelle; Cray, Carolyn; Hess, Laurie; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2014-09-01

    The lipoprotein panel is a useful diagnostic tool that allows clinicians to evaluate blood lipoprotein fractions. It is a standard diagnostic test in human medicine but is poorly understood in avian medicine. Amazon parrots (Amazona species) are popular pets that frequently lead a sedentary lifestyle and are customarily fed high-fat diets. Similar to people with comparable diets and lifestyles, Amazon parrots are prone to obesity and atherosclerosis. In human medicine, these conditions are typically correlated with abnormalities in the lipoprotein panel. To establish reference intervals for the lipoprotein panel in Amazon parrots, plasma samples from 31 captive Amazon parrots were analyzed for concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). The data were also grouped according to sex, diet, body condition score, and age. Aside from HDL levels, which were significantly different between male and female parrots, no intergroup differences were found for any of the lipoprotein fractions.

  1. Remote sensing in forestry: Application to the Amazon region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Tardin, A. T.; Dossantos, A.; Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1981-01-01

    The utilization of satellite remote sensing in forestry is reviewed with emphasis on studies performed for the Brazilian Amazon Region. Timber identification, deforestation, and pasture degradation after deforestation are discussed.

  2. Evidence of Apeu Virus Infection in Wild Monkeys, Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Danilo B; Luiz, Ana Paula Moreira Franco; Fagundes, Alexandre; Pinto, Carla Amaral; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G; Abrahão, Jônatas S; Ferreira, Paulo C P

    2016-03-01

    Orthobunyaviruses are arboviruses in which at least 30 members are human pathogens. The members of group C orthobunyaviruses were first isolated in the Brazilian Amazon in 1950, since that time little information is accumulated about ecology and the medical impact of these virus groups in Brazil. Herein, we describe the evidence of Apeu virus (APEUV; an Orthobunyavirus member) infection in wild monkeys from the Brazilian Amazon forest. APEUV was detected by using a neutralizing antibody in serum and its RNA, suggesting past and acute infection of Amazonian monkeys by this virus. These results altogether represent an important contribution of orthobunyavirus ecology in the Amazon and an update about recent circulation and risk for humans with expansion of the cities to Amazon forest.

  3. A new "Bat-Voiced" species of Dendropsophus Fitzinger, 1843 (Anura, Hylidae) from the Amazon Basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Orrico, Victor G D; Peloso, Pedro L V; Sturaro, Marcelo J; Da Silva-Filho, Heriberto F; Neckel-Oliveira, Selvino; Gordo, Marcelo; Faivovich, Julián; Haddad, Célio F B

    2014-11-06

    We describe Dendropsophus ozzyi sp. nov., a new species of treefrog, tentatively included in the Dendropsophus microcephalus Group and most notably diagnosed by the presence of pointed fingers and an advertisement call with a very high dominant frequency. The new species is known from three localities in the Brazilian Amazon forest, two on western State of Pará and one (the type locality) in eastern State of Amazonas (03°56'50"S and 58°26'36"W, 45 m a.s.l.).

  4. A new "Bat-Voiced" species of Dendropsophus Fitzinger, 1843 (Anura, Hylidae) from the Amazon Basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Orrico, Victor G D; Peloso, Pedro L V; Sturaro, Marcelo J; Da Silva-Filho, Heriberto F; Neckel-Oliveira, Selvino; Gordo, Marcelo; Faivovich, Julián; Haddad, Célio F B

    2014-01-01

    We describe Dendropsophus ozzyi sp. nov., a new species of treefrog, tentatively included in the Dendropsophus microcephalus Group and most notably diagnosed by the presence of pointed fingers and an advertisement call with a very high dominant frequency. The new species is known from three localities in the Brazilian Amazon forest, two on western State of Pará and one (the type locality) in eastern State of Amazonas (03°56'50"S and 58°26'36"W, 45 m a.s.l.). PMID:25543640

  5. Evaluation of organic compounds and trace elements in Amazon Creek Basin, Oregon, September 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    Water and bottom sediment were collected from Amazon Creek, Oregon during a summer low-flow condition and analyzed for different classes of organic compounds, including many from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's priority pollutant list. Bottom sediment also was analyzed for trace elements typically associated with urban runoff. Trace-element concentrations in the less than 63 micrometer fraction of Amazon Creek bottom-sediment samples were compared with baseline concentrations (expected 95 percent confidence range) for soils from the Western United States and with concen- trations found in bottom sediment from the Willamette River Basin. Total-digestion concentrations of antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, silver, titanium, and zinc were enriched at some or all sites sampled. Whole-water samples from some sites contained concentrations of several chlorophenoxy-acid herbicides, the organophosphorus insecticide diazinon, and several semivolatile priority pollutants. Classes of compounds not detected in whole-water samples included carbamate insecticides, triazine and other nitrogen-containing herbicides, and purgeable organic compounds. Bottom-sediment samples contained many organochlorine compounds, including chlordane, DDT plus metabolites, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor epoxide (a metabolite of heptachlor), and PCBs at some or all sites sampled. Twenty-four of 54 semivolatile compounds were detected in bottom- sediment samples at some or all sites sampled.

  6. Isolation of viruses from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in the Amazon Basin region of Peru.

    PubMed

    Turell, M J; O'Guinn, M L; Jones, J W; Sardelis, M R; Dohm, D J; Watts, D M; Fernandez, R; Travassos da Rosa, A; Guzman, H; Tesh, R; Rossi, C A; Ludwig, V; Mangiafico, J A; Kondig, J; Wasieloski, L P; Pecor, J; Zyzak, M; Schoeler, G; Mores, C N; Calampa, C; Lee, J S; Klein, T A

    2005-09-01

    As part of a comprehensive study on the ecology of arthropod-borne viruses in the Amazon Basin region of Peru, we assayed 539,694 mosquitoes captured in Loreto Department, Peru, for arboviruses. Mosquitoes were captured either by dry ice-baited miniature light traps or with aspirators while mosquitoes were landing on human collectors, identified to species, and later tested on Vero cells for virus. In total, 164 virus isolations were made and included members of the Alphavirus (eastern equine encephalomyelitis, Trocara, Una, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, and western equine encephalomyelitis viruses), Flavivirus (Ilheus and St. Louis encephalitis), and Orthobunyavirus (Caraparu, Itaqui, Mirim, Murutucu, and Wyeomyia viruses) genera. In addition, several viruses distinct from the above-mentioned genera were identified to the serogroup level. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus was associated primarily with Culex pedroi Sirivanakarn & Belkin, whereas Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus was associated primarily with Culex gnomatos Sallum, Huchings & Ferreira. Most isolations of Ilheus virus were made from Psorophora ferox (Von Humboldt). Although species of the Culex subgenus Melanoconion accounted for only 45% of the mosquitoes collected, 85% of the virus isolations were made from this subgenus. Knowledge of the viruses that are being transmitted in the Amazon Basin region of Peru will enable the development of more effective diagnostic assays, more efficient and rapid diagnoses of clinical illnesses caused by these pathogens, risk analysis for military/civilian operations, and development of potential disease control measures.

  7. Amazon River enhances diazotrophy and carbon sequestration in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, A.; Yager, P. L.; Carpenter, E. J.; Mahaffey, C.; Björkman, K.; Cooley, S.; Kustka, A. B.; Montoya, J. P.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.; Shipe, R.; Capone, D. G.

    2008-01-01

    The fresh water discharged by large rivers such as the Amazon is transported hundreds to thousands of kilometers away from the coast by surface plumes. The nutrients delivered by these river plumes contribute to enhanced primary production in the ocean, and the sinking flux of this new production results in carbon sequestration. Here, we report that the Amazon River plume supports N2 fixation far from the mouth and provides important pathways for sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in the western tropical North Atlantic (WTNA). We calculate that the sinking of carbon fixed by diazotrophs in the plume sequesters 1.7 Tmol of C annually, in addition to the sequestration of 0.6 Tmol of C yr−1 of the new production supported by NO3 delivered by the river. These processes revise our current understanding that the tropical North Atlantic is a source of 2.5 Tmol of C to the atmosphere [Mikaloff-Fletcher SE, et al. (2007) Inverse estimates of the oceanic sources and sinks of natural CO2 and the implied oceanic carbon transport. Global Biogeochem Cycles 21, doi:10.1029/2006GB002751]. The enhancement of N2 fixation and consequent C sequestration by tropical rivers appears to be a global phenomenon that is likely to be influenced by anthropogenic activity and climate change. PMID:18647838

  8. The record of the Amazon craton in two supercontinents: Paleomagnetic and geological constraints for Mesoproterozoic to Paleozoic times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohver, E.

    2008-05-01

    The Amazon craton plays a fundamental role in the evolution of two supercontinents, the late Mesoproterozoic Rodinia, the break-up of which led to thethe late Neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic formation of Gondwana. A recent review of the paleomagnetic database for South America and Africa highlights the different role of the principal elements of western Gondwana elements Amazonia, conjoined with West Africa, versus the more centrally- located pieces of Gondwana; -Congo-São Francisco, Kalahari, the Rio de Plata, and the accreted terranes of the Arabia-Nubia shield. Whereas the Amazon-West Africa conjoined craton appears to have been alongside Laurentia within the framework of Rodinia, the other "central Gondwana" cratons were not part of Rodinia. New paleomagnetic data from the SW Amazon craton demonstrate the transpressive evolution of the Grenvillian collision, which resulted in thousands of kilometers of along-strike between the Amazon and Laurentia cratons. Portions of Amazonian crust stranded within the North American craton, notably the Blue Ridge province of the southern Appalachians, is evidence for this long-lived motion. An extensive review of recent thermochronological data from the North American Grenville Province and new data from the SW Amazon belts of "Grenvillian" age reveals the effects of differential post-orogenic exhumation. Restoration of this exhumation gives us a crustal-scale cross-section of the synorogenic structure, marked by thrust-related imbrication on the North American side, and large-scale, strike-slip faults on the Amazon side. It is this asymmetric structure that accounts for the differences in tectonic style between the two cratons. The timing of the break-up of Rodinia is still mostly unconstrained by geochronological data from rift-related sediments from the Amazon side. The Paraguai belt that marks the SE margin of the Amazon craton is a curved, fold-and-thrust belt that affected the late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian sediments that

  9. The JERS-1 Amazon Multi-Season Mapping Study (JAMMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, A.; Chapman, B.; Alves, M.

    1996-01-01

    Regional mapping of the Amazon basin using imaging radar is described. Two 60-day periods of radar mapping will be conducted, one in 1995, and one in 1996. One period will view the low-water season, and the other will view during the high-flood season. The main objective of the JAMMS project is to generate a regional map showing inundation throughout the Amazon Basin by comparing the two data sets.

  10. Smoking rain clouds over the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Andreae, M O; Rosenfeld, D; Artaxo, P; Costa, A A; Frank, G P; Longo, K M; Silva-Dias, M A F

    2004-02-27

    Heavy smoke from forest fires in the Amazon was observed to reduce cloud droplet size and so delay the onset of precipitation from 1.5 kilometers above cloud base in pristine clouds to more than 5 kilometers in polluted clouds and more than 7 kilometers in pyro-clouds. Suppression of low-level rainout and aerosol washout allows transport of water and smoke to upper levels, where the clouds appear "smoking" as they detrain much of the pollution. Elevating the onset of precipitation allows invigoration of the updrafts, causing intense thunderstorms, large hail, and greater likelihood for overshooting cloud tops into the stratosphere. There, detrained pollutants and water vapor would have profound radiative impacts on the climate system. The invigorated storms release the latent heat higher in the atmosphere. This should substantially affect the regional and global circulation systems. Together, these processes affect the water cycle, the pollution burden of the atmosphere, and the dynamics of atmospheric circulation. PMID:14988556

  11. Smoking rain clouds over the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Andreae, M O; Rosenfeld, D; Artaxo, P; Costa, A A; Frank, G P; Longo, K M; Silva-Dias, M A F

    2004-02-27

    Heavy smoke from forest fires in the Amazon was observed to reduce cloud droplet size and so delay the onset of precipitation from 1.5 kilometers above cloud base in pristine clouds to more than 5 kilometers in polluted clouds and more than 7 kilometers in pyro-clouds. Suppression of low-level rainout and aerosol washout allows transport of water and smoke to upper levels, where the clouds appear "smoking" as they detrain much of the pollution. Elevating the onset of precipitation allows invigoration of the updrafts, causing intense thunderstorms, large hail, and greater likelihood for overshooting cloud tops into the stratosphere. There, detrained pollutants and water vapor would have profound radiative impacts on the climate system. The invigorated storms release the latent heat higher in the atmosphere. This should substantially affect the regional and global circulation systems. Together, these processes affect the water cycle, the pollution burden of the atmosphere, and the dynamics of atmospheric circulation.

  12. Fog and rain in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Anber, Usama; Gentine, Pierre; Wang, Shuguang; Sobel, Adam H.

    2015-01-01

    The diurnal and seasonal water cycles in the Amazon remain poorly simulated in general circulation models, exhibiting peak evapotranspiration in the wrong season and rain too early in the day. We show that those biases are not present in cloud-resolving simulations with parameterized large-scale circulation. The difference is attributed to the representation of the morning fog layer, and to more accurate characterization of convection and its coupling with large-scale circulation. The morning fog layer, present in the wet season but absent in the dry season, dramatically increases cloud albedo, which reduces evapotranspiration through its modulation of the surface energy budget. These results highlight the importance of the coupling between the energy and hydrological cycles and the key role of cloud albedo feedback for climates over tropical continents. PMID:26324902

  13. Fog and rain in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Anber, Usama; Gentine, Pierre; Wang, Shuguang; Sobel, Adam H

    2015-09-15

    The diurnal and seasonal water cycles in the Amazon remain poorly simulated in general circulation models, exhibiting peak evapotranspiration in the wrong season and rain too early in the day. We show that those biases are not present in cloud-resolving simulations with parameterized large-scale circulation. The difference is attributed to the representation of the morning fog layer, and to more accurate characterization of convection and its coupling with large-scale circulation. The morning fog layer, present in the wet season but absent in the dry season, dramatically increases cloud albedo, which reduces evapotranspiration through its modulation of the surface energy budget. These results highlight the importance of the coupling between the energy and hydrological cycles and the key role of cloud albedo feedback for climates over tropical continents.

  14. Dimethyl sulfide in the Amazon rain forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, K.; Yañez-Serrano, A. M.; Williams, J.; Kunert, N.; Jardine, A.; Taylor, T.; Abrell, L.; Artaxo, P.; Guenther, A.; Hewitt, C. N.; House, E.; Florentino, A. P.; Manzi, A.; Higuchi, N.; Kesselmeier, J.; Behrendt, T.; Veres, P. R.; Derstroff, B.; Fuentes, J. D.; Martin, S. T.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-01-01

    Surface-to-atmosphere emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) may impact global climate through the formation of gaseous sulfuric acid, which can yield secondary sulfate aerosols and contribute to new particle formation. While oceans are generally considered the dominant sources of DMS, a shortage of ecosystem observations prevents an accurate analysis of terrestrial DMS sources. Using mass spectrometry, we quantified ambient DMS mixing ratios within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem in the central Amazon Basin in real-time (2010-2011) and at high vertical resolution (2013-2014). Elevated but highly variable DMS mixing ratios were observed within the canopy, showing clear evidence of a net ecosystem source to the atmosphere during both day and night in both the dry and wet seasons. Periods of high DMS mixing ratios lasting up to 8 h (up to 160 parts per trillion (ppt)) often occurred within the canopy and near the surface during many evenings and nights. Daytime gradients showed mixing ratios (up to 80 ppt) peaking near the top of the canopy as well as near the ground following a rain event. The spatial and temporal distribution of DMS suggests that ambient levels and their potential climatic impacts are dominated by local soil and plant emissions. A soil source was confirmed by measurements of DMS emission fluxes from Amazon soils as a function of temperature and soil moisture. Furthermore, light- and temperature-dependent DMS emissions were measured from seven tropical tree species. Our study has important implications for understanding terrestrial DMS sources and their role in coupled land-atmosphere climate feedbacks.

  15. Western blots.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Lita A

    2013-01-01

    Western analysis of apolipoproteins, lipoproteins, and proteins involved in lipoprotein metabolism can be challenging due to their size, hydrophobic nature, and, in some cases, low abundance. Here we describe a Western blotting method that has been used successfully for many proteins involved in lipoprotein metabolism, as well as intact LDL or HDL particles. Proteins or lipoprotein particles separated by gel electrophoresis are transferred to a PVDF membrane in a Hoefer TE22 transfer tank with Tris-Glycine-SDS-Methanol transfer buffer. The membrane is blocked with 3 % BSA/5 % milk to prevent nonspecific binding of antibody to the membrane and is then incubated with primary antibody that binds specifically to the protein of interest. After washing away unbound primary antibody, the membrane is then incubated with an HRP-labeled secondary antibody that binds primary antibody. After washing away unbound secondary antibody, the membrane is then incubated with a substrate for HRP, generating a chemiluminescent signal at the location of the protein of interest. The protein is visualized by exposing the membrane to an autoradiography film or an imaging device. Information on the use of several human antibodies, including apoA-I, A-II, apoB, apoC-II, apoC-III, apoD, apoL1, apoM, PON1, SAA, ABCA1, nitrotyrosine, and LCAT, is provided. This method can be used for Western blotting of virtually any protein as well as native lipoprotein particles. PMID:23912997

  16. Elevated rates of gold mining in the Amazon revealed through high-resolution monitoring.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Llactayo, William; Tupayachi, Raul; Luna, Ernesto Ráez

    2013-11-12

    Gold mining has rapidly increased in western Amazonia, but the rates and ecological impacts of mining remain poorly known and potentially underestimated. We combined field surveys, airborne mapping, and high-resolution satellite imaging to assess road- and river-based gold mining in the Madre de Dios region of the Peruvian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. In this period, the geographic extent of gold mining increased 400%. The average annual rate of forest loss as a result of gold mining tripled in 2008 following the global economic recession, closely associated with increased gold prices. Small clandestine operations now comprise more than half of all gold mining activities throughout the region. These rates of gold mining are far higher than previous estimates that were based on traditional satellite mapping techniques. Our results prove that gold mining is growing more rapidly than previously thought, and that high-resolution monitoring approaches are required to accurately quantify human impacts on tropical forests. PMID:24167281

  17. Elevated rates of gold mining in the Amazon revealed through high-resolution monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Asner, Gregory P.; Llactayo, William; Tupayachi, Raul; Luna, Ernesto Ráez

    2013-01-01

    Gold mining has rapidly increased in western Amazonia, but the rates and ecological impacts of mining remain poorly known and potentially underestimated. We combined field surveys, airborne mapping, and high-resolution satellite imaging to assess road- and river-based gold mining in the Madre de Dios region of the Peruvian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. In this period, the geographic extent of gold mining increased 400%. The average annual rate of forest loss as a result of gold mining tripled in 2008 following the global economic recession, closely associated with increased gold prices. Small clandestine operations now comprise more than half of all gold mining activities throughout the region. These rates of gold mining are far higher than previous estimates that were based on traditional satellite mapping techniques. Our results prove that gold mining is growing more rapidly than previously thought, and that high-resolution monitoring approaches are required to accurately quantify human impacts on tropical forests. PMID:24167281

  18. Elevated rates of gold mining in the Amazon revealed through high-resolution monitoring.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Llactayo, William; Tupayachi, Raul; Luna, Ernesto Ráez

    2013-11-12

    Gold mining has rapidly increased in western Amazonia, but the rates and ecological impacts of mining remain poorly known and potentially underestimated. We combined field surveys, airborne mapping, and high-resolution satellite imaging to assess road- and river-based gold mining in the Madre de Dios region of the Peruvian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. In this period, the geographic extent of gold mining increased 400%. The average annual rate of forest loss as a result of gold mining tripled in 2008 following the global economic recession, closely associated with increased gold prices. Small clandestine operations now comprise more than half of all gold mining activities throughout the region. These rates of gold mining are far higher than previous estimates that were based on traditional satellite mapping techniques. Our results prove that gold mining is growing more rapidly than previously thought, and that high-resolution monitoring approaches are required to accurately quantify human impacts on tropical forests.

  19. 77 FR 14852 - Advanced Growing Systems, Inc., Advantage Capital Development Corp., Amazon Biotech, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Advanced Growing Systems, Inc., Advantage Capital Development Corp., Amazon Biotech, Inc., Andover... of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Amazon ] Biotech, Inc. because...

  20. Granular cell tumor in an endangered Puerto Rican Amazon parrot (Amazon vittata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quist, C.F.; Latimer, K.S.; Goldade, S.L.; Rivera, A.; Dein, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    A 3 cm diameter mass from the metacarpus of a Puerto Rican Amazon parrot was diagnosed as a granular cell tumour based on light microscopy. The cytoplasmic granules were periodic-acid Schiff positive and diastase resistant. Ultrastructural characteristics of the cells included convoluted nuclei and the presence of numerous cytoplasmic tertiary lysosomes. This is only the second granular cell tumour reported in a bird. We speculate that most granular cell tumours are derived from cells that are engaged in some type of cellular degradative process, creating a similar morphologic appearance, but lacking a uniform histogenesis.

  1. Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Genovese, V.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; gC/sq m) for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006) were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazonia) project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP) sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C/yr (1 Pg=10(exp 15)g) and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C/yr from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C/yr in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from

  2. The impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spracklen, D. V.; Garcia-Carreras, L.

    2015-11-01

    We completed a meta-analysis of regional and global climate model simulations (n = 96) of the impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall. Across all simulations, mean (±1σ) change in annual mean Amazon basin rainfall was -12 ± 11%. Variability in simulated rainfall was not explained by differences in model resolution or surface parameters. Across all simulations we find a negative linear relationship between rainfall and deforestation extent, although individual studies often simulate a nonlinear response. Using the linear relationship, we estimate that deforestation in 2010 has reduced annual mean rainfall across the Amazon basin by 1.8 ± 0.3%, less than the interannual variability in observed rainfall. This may explain why a reduction in Amazon rainfall has not consistently been observed. We estimate that business-as-usual deforestation (based on deforestation rates prior to 2004) would lead to an 8.1 ± 1.4% reduction in annual mean Amazon basin rainfall by 2050, greater than natural variability.

  3. Spatiotemporal variability of methane over the Amazon from satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Igor Oliveira; de Souza, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira; Andreoli, Rita Valéria; Kayano, Mary Toshie; Costa, Patrícia dos Santos

    2016-07-01

    The spatiotemporal variability of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the atmosphere over the Amazon is studied using data from the space-borne measurements of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder on board NASA's AQUA satellite for the period 2003-12. The results show a pronounced variability of this gas over the Amazon Basin lowlands region, where wetland areas occur. CH4 has a well-defined seasonal behavior, with a progressive increase of its concentration during the dry season, followed by a decrease during the wet season. Concerning this variability, the present study indicates the important role of ENSO in modulating the variability of CH4 emissions over the northern Amazon, where this association seems to be mostly linked to changes in flooded areas in response to ENSO-related precipitation changes. In this region, a CH4 decrease (increase) is due to the El Niño-related (La Niña-related) dryness (wetness). On the other hand, an increase (decrease) in the biomass burning over the southeastern Amazon during very dry (wet) years explains the increase (decrease) in CH4 emissions in this region. The present analysis identifies the two main areas of the Amazon, its northern and southeastern sectors, with remarkable interannual variations of CH4. This result might be useful for future monitoring of the variations in the concentration of CH4, the second-most important greenhouse gas, in this area.

  4. Methane emissions from floodplain trees of the Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pangala, Sunitha; Bastviken, David; Enrich-Prast, Alex; Gauci, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are the largest source of methane to the atmosphere, but emission estimates are highly uncertain leading to large discrepancies between emission inventories and much larger estimates of the Amazon methane source derived at larger scales. We examined methane emissions from all emission pathways including aquatic surfaces, emergent soils and herbaceous vegetation and more than 2000 trees from 13 locations across the central Amazon floodplain in 2014. Our data are the first measurements of stem emission from emergent portions of inundated trees in the Amazon and they demonstrate that regionally, tree stems are the dominant means of emissions for soil produced methane to the atmosphere. Emissions via the range of egress pathways varied substantially between sample locations and water-table exerted some control over emissions from ~2m below the soil surface upto 0.5-1m of inundation. Higher water (upto ~10m of inundation) exerted no further control over emissions. Applying our measurements to models of whole tree emission and scaling to the entire Amazon lowland basin demonstrates the significant contribution of trees to regional emissions that can close the Amazon basin methane budget.

  5. Rickettsial Disease in the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Kocher, Claudine; Morrison, Amy C; Leguia, Mariana; Loyola, Steev; Castillo, Roger M; Galvez, Hugo A; Astete, Helvio; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Ampuero, Julia S; Bausch, Daniel G; Halsey, Eric S; Cespedes, Manuel; Zevallos, Karine; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L

    2016-07-01

    Using a large, passive, clinic-based surveillance program in Iquitos, Peru, we characterized the prevalence of rickettsial infections among undifferentiated febrile cases and obtained evidence of pathogen transmission in potential domestic reservoir contacts and their ectoparasites. Blood specimens from humans and animals were assayed for spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) and typhus group rickettsiae (TGR) by ELISA and/or PCR; ectoparasites were screened by PCR. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between patient history, demographic characteristics of participants and symptoms, clinical findings and outcome of rickettsial infection. Of the 2,054 enrolled participants, almost 2% showed evidence of seroconversion or a 4-fold rise in antibody titers specific for rickettsiae between acute and convalescent blood samples. Of 190 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and 60 ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) tested, 185 (97.4%) and 3 (5%), respectively, were positive for Rickettsia spp. Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis was identified in 100% and 33% of the fleas and ticks tested, respectively. Collectively, our serologic data indicates that human pathogenic SFGR are present in the Peruvian Amazon and pose a significant risk of infection to individuals exposed to wild, domestic and peri-domestic animals and their ectoparasites.

  6. Rickettsial Disease in the Peruvian Amazon Basin

    PubMed Central

    Kocher, Claudine; Morrison, Amy C.; Leguia, Mariana; Loyola, Steev; Castillo, Roger M.; Galvez, Hugo A.; Astete, Helvio; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Ampuero, Julia S.; Bausch, Daniel G.; Halsey, Eric S.; Cespedes, Manuel; Zevallos, Karine; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L.

    2016-01-01

    Using a large, passive, clinic-based surveillance program in Iquitos, Peru, we characterized the prevalence of rickettsial infections among undifferentiated febrile cases and obtained evidence of pathogen transmission in potential domestic reservoir contacts and their ectoparasites. Blood specimens from humans and animals were assayed for spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) and typhus group rickettsiae (TGR) by ELISA and/or PCR; ectoparasites were screened by PCR. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between patient history, demographic characteristics of participants and symptoms, clinical findings and outcome of rickettsial infection. Of the 2,054 enrolled participants, almost 2% showed evidence of seroconversion or a 4-fold rise in antibody titers specific for rickettsiae between acute and convalescent blood samples. Of 190 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and 60 ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) tested, 185 (97.4%) and 3 (5%), respectively, were positive for Rickettsia spp. Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis was identified in 100% and 33% of the fleas and ticks tested, respectively. Collectively, our serologic data indicates that human pathogenic SFGR are present in the Peruvian Amazon and pose a significant risk of infection to individuals exposed to wild, domestic and peri-domestic animals and their ectoparasites. PMID:27416029

  7. SEROEPIDEMIOLOGY OF STRONGYLOIDIASIS IN THE PERUVIAN AMAZON

    PubMed Central

    YORI, PABLO P.; KOSEK, MARGARET; GILMAN, ROBERT H.; CORDOVA, JULIANNA; BERN, CARYN; CHAVEZ, CESAR BANDA; OLORTEGUI, MARIBEL PAREDES; MONTALVAN, CARMEN; SANCHEZ, GRACIELA MEZA; WORTHEN, BEVELLE; WORTHEN, JAMES; LEUNG, FAY; ORÉ, CARLOS VIDAL

    2006-01-01

    A stool and serosurvey for Strongyloides stercoralis was conducted in a community in the Peruvian Amazon region. Strongyloidiasis stercoralis was identified in the stool of 69 (8.7%) of 792 participants. Six hundred nine sera were tested using by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which had a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 94%; 442 (72%) were positive. In multivariable logistic regression models, having S. stercoralis in stool was associated with hookworm in the same specimen (odds ratio [OR] = 4.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.02-9.79), occasionally or never wearing shoes (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.10-3.27), and increasing age (OR = 1.012 for each one-year increase, 95% CI = 1.00-1.03). Similarly, occasionally or never wearing shoes (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.01-2.37) and increasing age (OR = 1.04 for each one-year increase, 95% CI = 1.02-1.06) were associated with an increased risk of a positive S. stercoralis ELISA result. The ELISA had a negative predictive value of 98% and is an excellent screening test for strongyloidiasis. PMID:16407351

  8. Rickettsial Disease in the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Kocher, Claudine; Morrison, Amy C; Leguia, Mariana; Loyola, Steev; Castillo, Roger M; Galvez, Hugo A; Astete, Helvio; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Ampuero, Julia S; Bausch, Daniel G; Halsey, Eric S; Cespedes, Manuel; Zevallos, Karine; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L

    2016-07-01

    Using a large, passive, clinic-based surveillance program in Iquitos, Peru, we characterized the prevalence of rickettsial infections among undifferentiated febrile cases and obtained evidence of pathogen transmission in potential domestic reservoir contacts and their ectoparasites. Blood specimens from humans and animals were assayed for spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) and typhus group rickettsiae (TGR) by ELISA and/or PCR; ectoparasites were screened by PCR. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between patient history, demographic characteristics of participants and symptoms, clinical findings and outcome of rickettsial infection. Of the 2,054 enrolled participants, almost 2% showed evidence of seroconversion or a 4-fold rise in antibody titers specific for rickettsiae between acute and convalescent blood samples. Of 190 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and 60 ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) tested, 185 (97.4%) and 3 (5%), respectively, were positive for Rickettsia spp. Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis was identified in 100% and 33% of the fleas and ticks tested, respectively. Collectively, our serologic data indicates that human pathogenic SFGR are present in the Peruvian Amazon and pose a significant risk of infection to individuals exposed to wild, domestic and peri-domestic animals and their ectoparasites. PMID:27416029

  9. Climate extremes in the amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marengo, José; Mendes, David

    2010-05-01

    Changes in extreme weather and climate events have significant impacts and are among the most serious challenges to society in coping with a changing climate (CCSP, 2008). Indeed, according to IPCC AR4, confidence has increased that some extremes will become more frequent, more widespread and/or more intense during the 21st century . Until recently, there had been little published work on rainfall extremes in South America, and emphasis has been given to the La Plata Basin, where data coverage is much better. In this study, we use the indices of extremes derived by the WMO and used for the IPCC AR4 applied to 100 stations in Amazon Basin for the period from 1971 to 2005, with focus on rainfall extremes. The quality control involved carefully evaluating numerous detailed graphs of daily data to detect evidence of possible quality issues with the data as well as statistically identifying outliers. Each outlier or potential data problem was manually validated using metadata information of our climate data.

  10. Boundary layer ozone - An airborne survey above the Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Browell, Edward V.; Warren, Linda S.

    1988-01-01

    Ozone data obtained over the forest canopy of the Amazon Basin during July and August 1985 in the course of NASA's Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2A are discussed, and ozone profiles obtained during flights from Belem to Tabatinga, Brazil, are analyzed to determine any cross-basin effects. The analyses of ozone data indicate that the mixed layer of the Amazon Basin, for the conditions of undisturbed meteorology and in the absence of biomass burning, is a significant sink for tropospheric ozone. As the coast is approached, marine influences are noted at about 300 km inland, and a transition from a forest-controlled mixed layer to a marine-controlled mixed layer is noted.

  11. Evolution of biomass burning aerosol over the Amazon: airborne measurements of aerosol chemical composition, microphysical properties, mixing state and optical properties during SAMBBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, W.; Allan, J. D.; Flynn, M.; Darbyshire, E.; Hodgson, A.; Liu, D.; O'Shea, S.; Bauguitte, S.; Szpek, K.; Johnson, B.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Artaxo, P.; Coe, H.

    2013-12-01

    Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, resulting in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious impacts on public health. On regional scales, the impacts are substantial, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months. Absorption by atmospheric aerosols is underestimated by models over South America, which points to significant uncertainties relating to Black Carbon (BC) aerosol properties. Initial results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft, are presented here. Aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and a DMT Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass burning on regional air quality, weather and climate. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions including sampling of pristine Rainforest, fresh biomass burning plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass burning layers within the free troposphere. The aircraft sampled biomass burning aerosol across the southern Amazon in the states of Rondonia and Mato Grosso, as well as in a Cerrado (Savannah-like) region in Tocantins state. This presented a range of fire conditions, in terms of their number, intensity, vegetation-type and their combustion efficiencies. Near-source sampling of fires in Rainforest environments suggested that smouldering combustion dominated, while flaming combustion dominated in the Cerrado. This led to significant differences in aerosol chemical composition, particularly in terms of the BC content, with BC being enhanced in the Cerrado

  12. Osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    PubMed

    Cardoso, João Felipe Rito; Levy, Marcelo Guilherme Bezerra; Liparisi, Flavia; Romão, Mario Antonio Pinto

    2013-09-01

    Osteoma is an uncommon bone formation documented in avian species and other animals. A blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) with clinical respiratory symptoms was examined because of a hard mass present on the left nostril. Radiographs suggested a bone tumor, and the mass was surgically excised. Histopathologic examination revealed features of an osteoma. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot. Osteoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in birds with respiratory distress and swelling of the nostril.

  13. Assessing the Amazon Cloud Suitability for CLARREO's Computational Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldin, Daniel; Vakhnin, Andrei A.; Currey, Jon C.

    2015-01-01

    In this document we compare the performance of the Amazon Web Services (AWS), also known as Amazon Cloud, with the CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) cluster and assess its suitability for computational needs of the CLARREO mission. A benchmark executable to process one month and one year of PARASOL (Polarization and Anistropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar) data was used. With the optimal AWS configuration, adequate data-processing times, comparable to the CLARREO cluster, were found. The assessment of alternatives to the CLARREO cluster continues and several options, such as a NASA-based cluster, are being considered.

  14. Paleogeography of the Amazon craton at 1.2 Ga: early Grenvillian collision with the Llano segment of Laurentia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohver, Eric; van der Pluijm, B. A.; Van der Voo, R.; Rizzotto, G.; Scandolara, J. E.

    2002-05-01

    A paleomagnetic, geochronologic and petrographic study was undertaken on the flat-lying gabbros and basalts of the Nova Floresta Formation of Rondônia state, western Brazil in order to constrain the Mesoproterozoic paleogeography of the Amazon craton. Measurement of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility on the gabbroic samples reveals a flat-lying foliation with a radiating pattern of lineations, supporting the field evidence that the gabbros are part of a large, undeformed sill. Petrographic observations of oxides in the gabbros reveals two populations of magnetite grains produced during the original cooling of the sill: large, oxyexsolved titanomagnetite grains and fine-grained magnetite in igneous reaction rims. New 40Ar/ 39Ar age dating of biotite and plagioclase yield ages of ˜1.2 Ga, which represent the rapid cooling following emplacement of the mafic magma. Whole rock dating of basalt samples yields total gas ages of 1062±3 Ma, similar to the ˜1.0 Ga K/Ar ages reported by previous workers. However, the strong compositional dependence of the age spectrum renders this younger whole rock age unreliable except as a minimum constraint. A single magnetic component is found in the basalts, indistinguishable from the characteristic remanence found in the gabbros that is oriented WNW and steeply upward. This magnetization is considered to be primary and was acquired during the cooling of the sill and associated lavas. A paleomagnetic pole calculated from the Nova Floresta Formation ( n=16 sites, Plat.=24.6°N, Plong.=164.6°E, A95=5.5°, Q=5), the first reported pole for the Amazon craton for the 1200-600 Ma Rodinia time period, constrains the paleogeographic position of Amazonia at ˜1.2 Ga. Juxtaposition of the western Amazon craton with the Llano segment of the Laurentia's Grenville margin causes the NF pole to lie on the 1.2 Ga portion of the combined APWP for Laurentia and Greenland, which indicates that a collision with the Amazon craton could have

  15. Amazon Forests Response to Droughts: A Perspective from the MAIAC Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bi, Jian; Myneni, Ranga; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie; Park, Taejin; Chi, Chen; Yan, Kai; Knyazikhin, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Amazon forests experienced two severe droughts at the beginning of the 21st century: one in 2005 and the other in 2010. How Amazon forests responded to these droughts is critical for the future of the Earth's climate system. It is only possible to assess Amazon forests' response to the droughts in large areal extent through satellite remote sensing. Here, we used the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index (VI) data to assess Amazon forests' response to droughts, and compared the results with those from the standard (Collection 5 and Collection 6) MODIS VI data. Overall, the MAIAC data reveal more realistic Amazon forests inter-annual greenness dynamics than the standard MODIS data. Our results from the MAIAC data suggest that: (1) the droughts decreased the greenness (i.e., photosynthetic activity) of Amazon forests; (2) the Amazon wet season precipitation reduction induced by El Niño events could also lead to reduced photosynthetic activity of Amazon forests; and (3) in the subsequent year after the water stresses, the greenness of Amazon forests recovered from the preceding decreases. However, as previous research shows droughts cause Amazon forests to reduce investment in tissue maintenance and defense, it is not clear whether the photosynthesis of Amazon forests will continue to recover after future water stresses, because of the accumulated damages caused by the droughts.

  16. Viruses and bacteria in floodplain lakes along a major Amazon tributary respond to distance to the Amazon River

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Rafael M.; Roland, Fábio; Cardoso, Simone J.; Farjalla, Vinícius F.; Bozelli, Reinaldo L.; Barros, Nathan O.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the massive volume of water along the Amazon River, the Amazon tributaries have their water backed up by 100s of kilometers upstream their mouth. This backwater effect is part of the complex hydrodynamics of Amazonian surface waters, which in turn drives the variation in concentrations of organic matter and nutrients, and also regulates planktonic communities such as viruses and bacteria. Viruses and bacteria are commonly tightly coupled to each other, and their ecological role in aquatic food webs has been increasingly recognized. Here, we surveyed viral and bacterial abundances (BAs) in 26 floodplain lakes along the Trombetas River, the largest clear-water tributary of the Amazon River’s north margin. We correlated viral and BAs with temperature, pH, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), phosphorus, nitrogen, turbidity, water transparency, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), phytoplankton abundance, and distance from the lake mouth until the confluence of the Trombetas with the Amazon River. We hypothesized that both bacterial and viral abundances (VAs) would change along a latitudinal gradient, as the backwater effect becomes more intense with increased proximity to the Amazon River; different flood duration and intensity among lakes and waters with contrasting sources would cause spatial variation. Our measurements were performed during the low water period, when floodplain lakes are in their most lake-like conditions. Viral and BAs, DOC, pCO2, and water transparency increased as distance to the Amazon River increased. Most viruses were bacteriophages, as viruses were strongly linked to bacteria, but not to phytoplankton. We suggest that BAs increase in response to DOC quantity and possibly quality, consequently leading to increased VAs. Our results highlight that hydrodynamics plays a key role in the regulation of planktonic viral and bacterial communities in Amazonian floodplain lakes. PMID:25788895

  17. Viruses and bacteria in floodplain lakes along a major Amazon tributary respond to distance to the Amazon River.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Rafael M; Roland, Fábio; Cardoso, Simone J; Farjalla, Vinícius F; Bozelli, Reinaldo L; Barros, Nathan O

    2015-01-01

    In response to the massive volume of water along the Amazon River, the Amazon tributaries have their water backed up by 100s of kilometers upstream their mouth. This backwater effect is part of the complex hydrodynamics of Amazonian surface waters, which in turn drives the variation in concentrations of organic matter and nutrients, and also regulates planktonic communities such as viruses and bacteria. Viruses and bacteria are commonly tightly coupled to each other, and their ecological role in aquatic food webs has been increasingly recognized. Here, we surveyed viral and bacterial abundances (BAs) in 26 floodplain lakes along the Trombetas River, the largest clear-water tributary of the Amazon River's north margin. We correlated viral and BAs with temperature, pH, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), phosphorus, nitrogen, turbidity, water transparency, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), phytoplankton abundance, and distance from the lake mouth until the confluence of the Trombetas with the Amazon River. We hypothesized that both bacterial and viral abundances (VAs) would change along a latitudinal gradient, as the backwater effect becomes more intense with increased proximity to the Amazon River; different flood duration and intensity among lakes and waters with contrasting sources would cause spatial variation. Our measurements were performed during the low water period, when floodplain lakes are in their most lake-like conditions. Viral and BAs, DOC, pCO2, and water transparency increased as distance to the Amazon River increased. Most viruses were bacteriophages, as viruses were strongly linked to bacteria, but not to phytoplankton. We suggest that BAs increase in response to DOC quantity and possibly quality, consequently leading to increased VAs. Our results highlight that hydrodynamics plays a key role in the regulation of planktonic viral and bacterial communities in Amazonian floodplain lakes.

  18. Biomedical cloud computing with Amazon Web Services.

    PubMed

    Fusaro, Vincent A; Patil, Prasad; Gafni, Erik; Wall, Dennis P; Tonellato, Peter J

    2011-08-01

    In this overview to biomedical computing in the cloud, we discussed two primary ways to use the cloud (a single instance or cluster), provided a detailed example using NGS mapping, and highlighted the associated costs. While many users new to the cloud may assume that entry is as straightforward as uploading an application and selecting an instance type and storage options, we illustrated that there is substantial up-front effort required before an application can make full use of the cloud's vast resources. Our intention was to provide a set of best practices and to illustrate how those apply to a typical application pipeline for biomedical informatics, but also general enough for extrapolation to other types of computational problems. Our mapping example was intended to illustrate how to develop a scalable project and not to compare and contrast alignment algorithms for read mapping and genome assembly. Indeed, with a newer aligner such as Bowtie, it is possible to map the entire African genome using one m2.2xlarge instance in 48 hours for a total cost of approximately $48 in computation time. In our example, we were not concerned with data transfer rates, which are heavily influenced by the amount of available bandwidth, connection latency, and network availability. When transferring large amounts of data to the cloud, bandwidth limitations can be a major bottleneck, and in some cases it is more efficient to simply mail a storage device containing the data to AWS (http://aws.amazon.com/importexport/). More information about cloud computing, detailed cost analysis, and security can be found in references. PMID:21901085

  19. Anaerobic methane oxidation on the Amazon shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, N.E.; Aller, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    Anaerobic methane oxidation on the Amazon shelf is strongly controlled by dynamic physical sedimentation processes. Rapidly accumulating, physically reworked deltaic sediments characteristic of much of the shelf typically support what appear to be low rates of steady state anaerobic methane oxidation at depths of 5-8 m below the sediment-water interface. Methane oxidation in these cases is responsible for < {approximately}10% of the {Sigma}CO{sub 2} inventory in the oxidation zone and is limited largely by the steady-state diffusive flux of methane into the overlying sulfate reduction zone. In contrast, a large area of the shelf has been extensively eroded, reexposing once deeply buried (>10 m) methane-charged sediment directly to seawater. In this nonsteady-state situation, methane is a major source of recently produced {Sigma}CO{sub 2} and an important reductant for sulfate. These observations suggest that authigenic sedimentary carbonates derived from anaerobic methane oxidation may sometimes reflect physically enhanced nonsteady-state exposure of methane to sulfate in otherwise biogeochemically unreactive deposits. The concentration profiles of CH{sub 4}, SO{sub 4}{sup =}, and {Sigma}CO{sub 2} in the eroded deposit were reproduced by a coupled reaction-transport model. This area of the shelf was reexposed to seawater approximately 5-10 years ago based on the model results and the assumption that the erosion of the deposit occurred as a single event that has now ceased. The necessary second order rate constant for anaerobic methane oxidation was {le}0.1 mM{sup -1} d{sup -1}.

  20. Biomedical cloud computing with Amazon Web Services.

    PubMed

    Fusaro, Vincent A; Patil, Prasad; Gafni, Erik; Wall, Dennis P; Tonellato, Peter J

    2011-08-01

    In this overview to biomedical computing in the cloud, we discussed two primary ways to use the cloud (a single instance or cluster), provided a detailed example using NGS mapping, and highlighted the associated costs. While many users new to the cloud may assume that entry is as straightforward as uploading an application and selecting an instance type and storage options, we illustrated that there is substantial up-front effort required before an application can make full use of the cloud's vast resources. Our intention was to provide a set of best practices and to illustrate how those apply to a typical application pipeline for biomedical informatics, but also general enough for extrapolation to other types of computational problems. Our mapping example was intended to illustrate how to develop a scalable project and not to compare and contrast alignment algorithms for read mapping and genome assembly. Indeed, with a newer aligner such as Bowtie, it is possible to map the entire African genome using one m2.2xlarge instance in 48 hours for a total cost of approximately $48 in computation time. In our example, we were not concerned with data transfer rates, which are heavily influenced by the amount of available bandwidth, connection latency, and network availability. When transferring large amounts of data to the cloud, bandwidth limitations can be a major bottleneck, and in some cases it is more efficient to simply mail a storage device containing the data to AWS (http://aws.amazon.com/importexport/). More information about cloud computing, detailed cost analysis, and security can be found in references.

  1. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163), i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. Results The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP), urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers) were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Conclusions Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid economic and demographic

  2. Conjoint Seasonal and Intraseasonal Dynamics of Precipitation and NDVI Over The Amazon And The Congo Rainforests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yepes, L. J.; Poveda, G.

    2014-12-01

    We study the conjoint seasonal and intraseasonal variability of precipitation and NDVI over the Amazon and the Congo rainforests, using pentad precipitation from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM; 0.25°x0.25°; from 1998 to 2010), as well as from the CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP; 2.5°x2.5°; from 1979 to 2011). NDVI is obtained from NASA (DAAC-EOSDIS) (0.25°x0.25°, from 2000 to 2010). Results for Amazonia show a uni-modal out-phased seasonal cycle of precipitation and NDVI, whereas bi-modal and in-phase over the Congo (Figure 1). Dry months over Amazonia (August-September) correspond with lagged maximum NDVI values in June-July-August (Western-Central-Eastern) and with the second wet season over the Congo, whereas wet-season months over Amazonia (March-April) coincide with the lowest NDVI values, as well as with the first wet season and maximum NDVI over the Congo. A (tropical) transatlantic Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) analysis of pentad precipitation (20-100 day filtered) indicates that EOF No. 1 (52% of variance; Fig. 2a) exhibits a meridional dipole with higher positive loadings over the tropical North Atlantic (5°N-10°N), and higher negative loadings from 5°N to the equator over the Atlantic, and to 15°S over the continents. The Principal Component No. 1 exhibits a predominant 37-day frequency. EOF No. 2 (18% of variance; Fig.2b) exhibits a tripole pattern with positive loadings over southern Amazonia, the tropical North Atlantic, and (south) equatorial Africa, and a transatlantic pattern of negative loadings from 0 to 5°N including both continents, with a 38-day periodicity. EOF No. 3 (8% of variance; Fig. 2c) exhibits a tripole between the Amazon, the Atlantic Ocean and the Congo, with a 19-day frequency. EOF No. 4 (5%; Fig. 2d) shows a dipole between the Amazon and Congo rainforests, with a predominant period of 20 days. The apparent west-to-east patterns identified in the principal EOFs could be associated with

  3. Aquatic Biodiversity in the Amazon: Habitat Specialization and Geographic Isolation Promote Species Richness.

    PubMed

    Albert, James S; Carvalho, Tiago P; Petry, Paulo; Holder, Meghan A; Maxime, Emmanuel L; Espino, Jessica; Corahua, Isabel; Quispe, Roberto; Rengifo, Blanca; Ortega, Hernan; Reis, Roberto E

    2011-01-01

    The Neotropical freshwater ichthyofauna has among the highest species richness and density of any vertebrate fauna on Earth, with more than 5,600 species compressed into less than 12% of the world's land surface area, and less than 0.002% of the world's total liquid water supply. How have so many species come to co-exist in such a small amount of total habitat space? Here we report results of an aquatic faunal survey of the Fitzcarrald region in southeastern Peru, an area of low-elevation upland (200-500 m above sea level) rainforest in the Western Amazon, that straddles the headwaters of four large Amazonian tributaries; the Juruá (Yurúa), Ucayali, Purús, and Madre de Dios rivers. All measures of fish species diversity in this region are high; there is high alpha diversity with many species coexisting in the same locality, high beta diversity with high turnover between habitats, and high gamma diversity with high turnover between adjacent tributary basins. Current data show little species endemism, and no known examples of sympatric sister species, within the Fitzcarrald region, suggesting a lack of localized or recent adaptive divergences. These results support the hypothesis that the fish species of the Fitzcarrald region are relatively ancient, predating the Late Miocene-Pliocene (c. 4 Ma) uplift that isolated its several headwater basins. The results also suggest that habitat specialization (phylogenetic niche conservatism) and geographic isolation (dispersal limitation) have contributed to the maintenance of high species richness in this region of the Amazon Basin. PMID:26486313

  4. Do the Amazon and Orinoco freshwater plumes really matter for hurricane-induced ocean surface cooling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, O.; Jouanno, J.; Durand, F.

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies suggested that the plume of low-saline waters formed by the discharge of the Amazon and Orinoco rivers could favor Atlantic Tropical Cyclone (TC) intensification by weakening the cool wake and its impact on the hurricane growth potential. The main objective of this study is to quantify the effects of the Amazon-Orinoco river discharges in modulating the amplitude of TC-induced cooling in the western Tropical Atlantic. Our approach is based on the analysis of TC cool wake statistics obtained from an ocean regional numerical simulation with ¼º horizontal resolution over the 1998-2012 period, forced with realistic TC winds. In both model and observations, the amplitude of TC-induced cooling in plume waters (0.3-0.4ºC) is reduced significantly by around 50-60% compared to the cooling in open ocean waters out of the plume (0.6-0.7ºC). A twin simulation without river runoff shows that TC-induced cooling over the plume region (defined from the reference experiment) is almost unchanged (˜0.03ºC) despite strong differences in salinity stratification and the absence of barrier layers. This argues for a weaker than thought cooling inhibition effect of salinity stratification and barrier layers in this region. Indeed, results suggest that haline stratification and barrier layers caused by the river runoff may explain only ˜10% of the cooling difference between plume waters and open ocean waters. Instead, the analysis of the background oceanic conditions suggests that the regional distribution of the thermal stratification is the main factor controlling the amplitude of cooling in the plume region.

  5. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: A Classroom Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijman, Jan; Hill, A. David

    1991-01-01

    Presents a classroom project dealing with tropical deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Addresses environmental consequences and economic, social, and political causes. Involves both lectures and individual research and reports by student groups on deforestation causes. Includes a note-playing activity in which students make recommendations for…

  6. Links between Climate, Malaria, and Wetlands in the Amazon Basin

    PubMed Central

    Gangnon, Ronald; Elguero, Eric; Durieux, Laurent; Guégan, Jean-François; Foley, Jonathan A.; Patz, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Climate changes are altering patterns of temperature and precipitation, potentially affecting regions of malaria transmission. We show that areas of the Amazon Basin with few wetlands show a variable relationship between precipitation and malaria, while areas with extensive wetlands show a negative relationship with malaria incidence. PMID:19331766

  7. Andes hantavirus variant in rodents, southern Amazon Basin, Peru.

    PubMed

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T; Hirschberg, David L; Lipkin, W Ian; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M

    2014-02-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  8. Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meade, R.H.; Rayol, J.M.; Da Conceicao, S.C.; Natividade, J.R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater in the lowermost 800 km of two large southern tributaries, the Madeira and Puru??s rivers, causes falling river stages to be as much as 2-3 m higher than rising stages at any given discharge. Large tributaries that drain the northernmost Amazon River basin reach their annual minimum discharges three to four months later than does the mainstem. In the lowermost 300-400 km of the Negro River, the largest northern tributary and the fifth largest river in the world, the lowest stages of the year correspond to those of the Amazon River mainstem rather than to those in the upstream reaches of the Negro River. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  9. Mayaro virus infection, Amazon Basin region, Peru, 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Eric S; Siles, Crystyan; Guevara, Carolina; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Jhonston, Erik J; Ramal, Cesar; Aguilar, Patricia V; Ampuero, Julia S

    2013-11-01

    During 2010-2013, we recruited 16 persons with confirmed Mayaro virus infection in the Peruvian Amazon to prospectively follow clinical symptoms and serologic response over a 12-month period. Mayaro virus infection caused long-term arthralgia in more than half, similar to reports of other arthritogenic alphaviruses.

  10. Suspended sediment dynamics in the Amazon River of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armijos, Elisa; Crave, Alain; Vauchel, Philippe; Fraizy, Pascal; Santini, William; Moquet, Jean-Sèbastien; Arevalo, Nore; Carranza, Jorge; Guyot, Jean-Loup

    2013-07-01

    The erosion and transport of sediments allow us to understand many activities of significance, such as crust evolution, climate change, uplift rates, continental processes, the biogeochemical cycling of pollutants and nutrients. The Amazon basin of Peru has contrasting physiographic and climatic characteristics between the Andean piedmont and the plains and between the north and south of the basin which is why there are 8 gauging stations located along the principal rivers of the Andean piedmont (Marañón, Huallaga, Ucayali) and the plain (Marañón, Tigre, Napo, Ucayali and Amazon rivers). Since 2003, the ORE-Hybam (IRD-SENAMHI-UNALM) observatory has performed out regular measurements at strategic points of the Amazon basin to understand and model the systems, behavior and long-term dynamics. On the Andean piedmont, the suspended yields are governed by a simple model with a relationship between the river discharge and the sediment concentration. In the plain, the dilution effect of the concentrations can create hysteresis in this relationship on a monthly basis. The Amazon basin of Peru has a sediment yield of 541 *106 t year-1, 70% comes from the southern basin.

  11. Neogene origins and implied warmth tolerance of Amazon tree species

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Christopher W; Lewis, Simon L; Maslin, Mark; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2013-01-01

    Tropical rain forest has been a persistent feature in South America for at least 55 million years. The future of the contemporary Amazon forest is uncertain, however, as the region is entering conditions with no past analogue, combining rapidly increasing air temperatures, high atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, possible extreme droughts, and extensive removal and modification by humans. Given the long-term Cenozoic cooling trend, it is unknown whether Amazon forests can tolerate air temperature increases, with suggestions that lowland forests lack warm-adapted taxa, leading to inevitable species losses. In response to this uncertainty, we posit a simple hypothesis: the older the age of a species prior to the Pleistocene, the warmer the climate it has previously survived, with Pliocene (2.6–5 Ma) and late-Miocene (8–10 Ma) air temperature across Amazonia being similar to 2100 temperature projections under low and high carbon emission scenarios, respectively. Using comparative phylogeographic analyses, we show that 9 of 12 widespread Amazon tree species have Pliocene or earlier lineages (>2.6 Ma), with seven dating from the Miocene (>5.6 Ma) and three >8 Ma. The remarkably old age of these species suggest that Amazon forests passed through warmth similar to 2100 levels and that, in the absence of other major environmental changes, near-term high temperature-induced mass species extinction is unlikely. PMID:23404439

  12. Long-term decline of the Amazon carbon sink.

    PubMed

    Brienen, R J W; Phillips, O L; Feldpausch, T R; Gloor, E; Baker, T R; Lloyd, J; Lopez-Gonzalez, G; Monteagudo-Mendoza, A; Malhi, Y; Lewis, S L; Vásquez Martinez, R; Alexiades, M; Álvarez Dávila, E; Alvarez-Loayza, P; Andrade, A; Aragão, L E O C; Araujo-Murakami, A; Arets, E J M M; Arroyo, L; Aymard C, G A; Bánki, O S; Baraloto, C; Barroso, J; Bonal, D; Boot, R G A; Camargo, J L C; Castilho, C V; Chama, V; Chao, K J; Chave, J; Comiskey, J A; Cornejo Valverde, F; da Costa, L; de Oliveira, E A; Di Fiore, A; Erwin, T L; Fauset, S; Forsthofer, M; Galbraith, D R; Grahame, E S; Groot, N; Hérault, B; Higuchi, N; Honorio Coronado, E N; Keeling, H; Killeen, T J; Laurance, W F; Laurance, S; Licona, J; Magnussen, W E; Marimon, B S; Marimon-Junior, B H; Mendoza, C; Neill, D A; Nogueira, E M; Núñez, P; Pallqui Camacho, N C; Parada, A; Pardo-Molina, G; Peacock, J; Peña-Claros, M; Pickavance, G C; Pitman, N C A; Poorter, L; Prieto, A; Quesada, C A; Ramírez, F; Ramírez-Angulo, H; Restrepo, Z; Roopsind, A; Rudas, A; Salomão, R P; Schwarz, M; Silva, N; Silva-Espejo, J E; Silveira, M; Stropp, J; Talbot, J; ter Steege, H; Teran-Aguilar, J; Terborgh, J; Thomas-Caesar, R; Toledo, M; Torello-Raventos, M; Umetsu, R K; van der Heijden, G M F; van der Hout, P; Guimarães Vieira, I C; Vieira, S A; Vilanova, E; Vos, V A; Zagt, R J

    2015-03-19

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide records indicate that the land surface has acted as a strong global carbon sink over recent decades, with a substantial fraction of this sink probably located in the tropics, particularly in the Amazon. Nevertheless, it is unclear how the terrestrial carbon sink will evolve as climate and atmospheric composition continue to change. Here we analyse the historical evolution of the biomass dynamics of the Amazon rainforest over three decades using a distributed network of 321 plots. While this analysis confirms that Amazon forests have acted as a long-term net biomass sink, we find a long-term decreasing trend of carbon accumulation. Rates of net increase in above-ground biomass declined by one-third during the past decade compared to the 1990s. This is a consequence of growth rate increases levelling off recently, while biomass mortality persistently increased throughout, leading to a shortening of carbon residence times. Potential drivers for the mortality increase include greater climate variability, and feedbacks of faster growth on mortality, resulting in shortened tree longevity. The observed decline of the Amazon sink diverges markedly from the recent increase in terrestrial carbon uptake at the global scale, and is contrary to expectations based on models.

  13. Kindling: The Amazon e-Reader as an Educational Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brezicki, Colin

    2011-01-01

    The revolutionary electronic reading device, Amazon's Kindle, is already obsolete. Such is the breakneck speed of technology that the machine touted to spell the death of printed books is already heading for the scrap heap, replaced by e-readers like the iPad that access the Internet, make phone calls, download movies, and connect users with all…

  14. Long-term decline of the Amazon carbon sink.

    PubMed

    Brienen, R J W; Phillips, O L; Feldpausch, T R; Gloor, E; Baker, T R; Lloyd, J; Lopez-Gonzalez, G; Monteagudo-Mendoza, A; Malhi, Y; Lewis, S L; Vásquez Martinez, R; Alexiades, M; Álvarez Dávila, E; Alvarez-Loayza, P; Andrade, A; Aragão, L E O C; Araujo-Murakami, A; Arets, E J M M; Arroyo, L; Aymard C, G A; Bánki, O S; Baraloto, C; Barroso, J; Bonal, D; Boot, R G A; Camargo, J L C; Castilho, C V; Chama, V; Chao, K J; Chave, J; Comiskey, J A; Cornejo Valverde, F; da Costa, L; de Oliveira, E A; Di Fiore, A; Erwin, T L; Fauset, S; Forsthofer, M; Galbraith, D R; Grahame, E S; Groot, N; Hérault, B; Higuchi, N; Honorio Coronado, E N; Keeling, H; Killeen, T J; Laurance, W F; Laurance, S; Licona, J; Magnussen, W E; Marimon, B S; Marimon-Junior, B H; Mendoza, C; Neill, D A; Nogueira, E M; Núñez, P; Pallqui Camacho, N C; Parada, A; Pardo-Molina, G; Peacock, J; Peña-Claros, M; Pickavance, G C; Pitman, N C A; Poorter, L; Prieto, A; Quesada, C A; Ramírez, F; Ramírez-Angulo, H; Restrepo, Z; Roopsind, A; Rudas, A; Salomão, R P; Schwarz, M; Silva, N; Silva-Espejo, J E; Silveira, M; Stropp, J; Talbot, J; ter Steege, H; Teran-Aguilar, J; Terborgh, J; Thomas-Caesar, R; Toledo, M; Torello-Raventos, M; Umetsu, R K; van der Heijden, G M F; van der Hout, P; Guimarães Vieira, I C; Vieira, S A; Vilanova, E; Vos, V A; Zagt, R J

    2015-03-19

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide records indicate that the land surface has acted as a strong global carbon sink over recent decades, with a substantial fraction of this sink probably located in the tropics, particularly in the Amazon. Nevertheless, it is unclear how the terrestrial carbon sink will evolve as climate and atmospheric composition continue to change. Here we analyse the historical evolution of the biomass dynamics of the Amazon rainforest over three decades using a distributed network of 321 plots. While this analysis confirms that Amazon forests have acted as a long-term net biomass sink, we find a long-term decreasing trend of carbon accumulation. Rates of net increase in above-ground biomass declined by one-third during the past decade compared to the 1990s. This is a consequence of growth rate increases levelling off recently, while biomass mortality persistently increased throughout, leading to a shortening of carbon residence times. Potential drivers for the mortality increase include greater climate variability, and feedbacks of faster growth on mortality, resulting in shortened tree longevity. The observed decline of the Amazon sink diverges markedly from the recent increase in terrestrial carbon uptake at the global scale, and is contrary to expectations based on models. PMID:25788097

  15. Modification of Atmospheric Circulations and Transports due to Amazon Deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badger, A.; Dirmeyer, P.

    2013-12-01

    Land-use change (LUC) has generally been considered a local environmental issue, but it is now becoming a force of global importance. LUC occurs on local scales, with real world social and economic benefits, that can potentially cause ecological degradation. Large-scale LUC, such as deforestation in the Amazon, can have a significant local affect on the climate and has the potential to impact the regional and global climate systems. Previous climate modeling studies have shown non-local responses due to Amazon deforestation, however, a common flaw in these studies is the use of prescribed ocean conditions, which can dampen the global response. Using fully coupled modeling simulations with the Community Earth System Model version 1.2.0, the Amazon rainforest has been replaced with a distribution of representative tropical crops. The degree of modification to the general circulation due to heating anomalies in the tropics as a response to the removal of the Amazon rainforest is quantified. Most notably, modifications to the Hadley and Walker circulations, the two fundamental circulations mediating the climate at low latitudes, occur. Coupling these circulation changes with sensible heat and latent heat fluxes, atmospheric transports of heat and moisture are affected both regionally and globally.

  16. Condition and fate of logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Broadbent, Eben N; Oliveira, Paulo J C; Keller, Michael; Knapp, David E; Silva, José N M

    2006-08-22

    The long-term viability of a forest industry in the Amazon region of Brazil depends on the maintenance of adequate timber volume and growth in healthy forests. Using extensive high-resolution satellite analyses, we studied the forest damage caused by recent logging operations and the likelihood that logged forests would be cleared within 4 years after timber harvest. Across 2,030,637 km2 of the Brazilian Amazon from 1999 to 2004, at least 76% of all harvest practices resulted in high levels of canopy damage sufficient to leave forests susceptible to drought and fire. We found that 16+/-1% of selectively logged areas were deforested within 1 year of logging, with a subsequent annual deforestation rate of 5.4% for 4 years after timber harvests. Nearly all logging occurred within 25 km of main roads, and within that area, the probability of deforestation for a logged forest was up to four times greater than for unlogged forests. In combination, our results show that logging in the Brazilian Amazon is dominated by highly damaging operations, often followed rapidly by deforestation decades before forests can recover sufficiently to produce timber for a second harvest. Under the management regimes in effect at the time of our study in the Brazilian Amazon, selective logging would not be sustained.

  17. MODIS EVI Landscape Phenology across Amazon Rainforest-Cerrado Ecotone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratana, P.; Huete, A. R.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    2012-12-01

    There is ongoing attention and controversy placed on the response of tropical rainforests to seasonal and inter-annual drought periods over Amazon basin. Many studies confirm the seasonal greening observed during dry periods and attribute the greening to increased sunlight under conditions of deep soil water access by intact rainforests. There is controversy, however, on the extent and duration of greening during inter-annual drought periods. In this study, we start with the premise that the Amazon basin is not a uniform biome with a single dry-wet seasonal cycle and therefore, drought impacts and greenness seasonality will be quite variable with location, particularly along known climate- vegetation transitions, such as the Amazon forest- cerrado ecotone transition zone. The 10+ years of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) time-series data were analyzed for seasonal/ phenology variations across Amazon rainforest-cerrado ecotone. Strong differences in phenology patterns were found in response to shifts in rainfall and sunlight. Greening in the tropical rainforests and more humid areas of the ecotone, were coincident with maximum periods of solar radiation in the dry season, while the phenology profiles of the drier Amazon forests were more strongly coupled with rainfall. Through the remaining portions of the ecotone region, there were mixed, non-synchronized phenology responses to climate with increasing lags in greening into the latter parts of the dry season. This was partially attributed to differences in vegetation composition and plant functional types in the ecotone and their phenology cycles. Phenology profiles in the transition zone were also highly sensitive to forest fragmentation and conversion, with their seasonal dynamics behaving similarly to the cerrado. In contrast to the rainforests, the ecotone region has received much less attention and is generally ignored in climate-biosphere models, yet is

  18. Geochemistry of Amazon Basin supported by the ADCP measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paca, Victor; Moreira, Daniel; Monteiro, Achiles; Roig, Henrique

    2014-05-01

    The Amazon River is the largest river in the world in volume of water. The basin has 6.915.000 Km2, but the last gauging station of Amazon River with regular and continuous measurements of discharge and sediment transport are Óbidos station with 4.670.000 Km2. Óbidos It is also the last stream gauge station with no or less tidal effect observed from Atlantic Ocean and registered. The Clim-Amazon Project has been done the first measurements with the purpose to acquire geochemical and hydrological informations downstream Óbidos station. The system studied has input data of sediments load after Óbidos, and the output of the system, at the Amazon River is at Macapá, close to the mouth of Amazon river. And flow the main tributaries along this way, between these two stations. To evaluate the geochemical source, the mass balance, and isotopic geochemistry is necessary the informations about the traces the main chemical elements, transported by the discharge from the main rivers of this area: Tapajos, Xingu, Paru, Jari, and the Amazon River at Monte Alegre and at Macapá. The ADCP - Acoustic Doppler Current Profile, equipment is used to get the stream discharge value at the moment of transect. But also get two more informations necessary for the geochemistry, and do the collecting points profiles. The place with most velocity at transect or the place with more backscatter. These informations are related with the sediment load of the river. Or which one can provide the better idea of how are transported the sediments at the measured transects. What was to observe was the main speed of the stream flow or the main backscatter sectional. The main purpose of the work is to show how works the correlation between the backscatter and speed data given by the ADCP, downstream Óbidos, and the main confluences of Amazon River, until Macapá. The ADCP measurements support the geochemical studies and the course of sediments load transported by the discharge of these rivers.

  19. Monitoring the Amazon plume northwestward transport along Lagrangian pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Severine; Gaultier, Lucile; Vandemark, Douglas; Lee, Tong; Gierach, Michelle

    2016-04-01

    Large rivers are important to marine air-sea interactions and local biogeochemistry. By modifying the local and regional sea surface salinity (SSS), the freshwater inputs associated with major river plumes cause the formation of a layer near the surface with salinity stratification but near-uniform temperature, known as the barrier layer (BL). The BL prevent exchanges between the warm mixed layer and the cold ocean interior, and thus affect the vertical mixing of heat between the mixed layer and the thermocline. This can have an important impact on air-sea interactions such as hurricanes intensification. Our study focuses on the Amazon and Orinoco rivers, respectively the first and fourth world's largest rivers in terms of discharge. Amazon-Orinoco waters are carried northwestward by the North Brazilian Current (NBC) during the first part of the year and then eastward along the North Equatorial Counter Current. The hurricane season in the tropical Atlantic extends from June through November, the period of Amazon-Orinoco plume maximum northwestward extension, on a hurricane route. Being able to monitor the spatial and temporal dispersal of the Amazon and Orinoco river plumes is therefore important to better understand their impact on barrier layer thickness and SST variation at seasonal to interannual time scales. Variations from year to year in spatial extent of the plume may result from several processes including changes in Amazon discharge, ocean advection, turbulent mixing, and wind field. Satellite remote sensing data provide several means to visualize the surface dispersal of the Amazon plume, with ocean color data being the first to track it in the tropical Atlantic ocean further than 1000 km from shore. With the launches of the ESA Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and the NASA Aquarius/SAC-D missions, we are now able to use the SSS observations in combination with ocean color, altimetry and sea surface temperature observations to track surface plume

  20. Amazon forest response to repeated droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldpausch, T. R.; Phillips, O. L.; Brienen, R. J. W.; Gloor, E.; Lloyd, J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, G.; Monteagudo-Mendoza, A.; Malhi, Y.; Alarcón, A.; Álvarez Dávila, E.; Alvarez-Loayza, P.; Andrade, A.; Aragao, L. E. O. C.; Arroyo, L.; Aymard C., G. A.; Baker, T. R.; Baraloto, C.; Barroso, J.; Bonal, D.; Castro, W.; Chama, V.; Chave, J.; Domingues, T. F.; Fauset, S.; Groot, N.; Honorio Coronado, E.; Laurance, S.; Laurance, W. F.; Lewis, S. L.; Licona, J. C.; Marimon, B. S.; Marimon-Junior, B. H.; Mendoza Bautista, C.; Neill, D. A.; Oliveira, E. A.; Oliveira dos Santos, C.; Pallqui Camacho, N. C.; Pardo-Molina, G.; Prieto, A.; Quesada, C. A.; Ramírez, F.; Ramírez-Angulo, H.; Réjou-Méchain, M.; Rudas, A.; Saiz, G.; Salomão, R. P.; Silva-Espejo, J. E.; Silveira, M.; Steege, H.; Stropp, J.; Terborgh, J.; Thomas-Caesar, R.; Heijden, G. M. F.; Vásquez Martinez, R.; Vilanova, E.; Vos, V. A.

    2016-07-01

    The Amazon Basin has experienced more variable climate over the last decade, with a severe and widespread drought in 2005 causing large basin-wide losses of biomass. A drought of similar climatological magnitude occurred again in 2010; however, there has been no basin-wide ground-based evaluation of effects on vegetation. We examine to what extent the 2010 drought affected forest dynamics using ground-based observations of mortality and growth from an extensive forest plot network. We find that during the 2010 drought interval, forests did not gain biomass (net change: -0.43 Mg ha-1, confidence interval (CI): -1.11, 0.19, n = 97), regardless of whether forests experienced precipitation deficit anomalies. This contrasted with a long-term biomass sink during the baseline pre-2010 drought period (1998 to pre-2010) of 1.33 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (CI: 0.90, 1.74, p < 0.01). The resulting net impact of the 2010 drought (i.e., reversal of the baseline net sink) was -1.95 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (CI:-2.77, -1.18; p < 0.001). This net biomass impact was driven by an increase in biomass mortality (1.45 Mg ha-1 yr-1 CI: 0.66, 2.25, p < 0.001) and a decline in biomass productivity (-0.50 Mg ha-1 yr-1, CI:-0.78, -0.31; p < 0.001). Surprisingly, the magnitude of the losses through tree mortality was unrelated to estimated local precipitation anomalies and was independent of estimated local pre-2010 drought history. Thus, there was no evidence that pre-2010 droughts compounded the effects of the 2010 drought. We detected a systematic basin-wide impact of the 2010 drought on tree growth rates across Amazonia, which was related to the strength of the moisture deficit. This impact differed from the drought event in 2005 which did not affect productivity. Based on these ground data, live biomass in trees and corresponding estimates of live biomass in lianas and roots, we estimate that intact forests in Amazonia were carbon neutral in 2010 (-0.07 Pg C yr-1 CI:-0.42, 0.23), consistent with results from an

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

  3. Ecological diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the Amazon basin. The main scenaries in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Coura, J R; Junqueira, A C V

    2015-11-01

    The ecological diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the Brazilian Amazon region is directly interlinked with the parasite's extensive reservoir, composed of 33 species of wild mammals within the following orders: Marsupialia, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Xenarthra, Carnivora and Primates; and of 16 species of wild triatomines, of which ten may be infected with T. cruzi. Four scenarios for the diversity of T. cruzi transmission in the Brazilian Amazon region are evident: (i) T. cruzi transmission between vectors and wild mammals, which is characterized as a wild enzooty encompassing the entire Amazon basin; (ii) accidental T. cruzi transmission from vectors and wild mammals to humans, when they invade the wild ecotope or when these vectors and wild mammals invade human homes; (iii) occupational Chagas disease among piassava (Leopoldinia piassaba) palm fiber gatherers, transmitted by the vector Rhodnius brethesi, for which these palm trees are the specific ecotope; (IV) oral T. cruzi transmission to humans through food contamination, particularly in juices from plants such as assai, which today is considered to be endemic in the Brazilian Amazon region, with more than 1500 cases notified.

  4. Ecological diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the Amazon basin. The main scenaries in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Coura, J R; Junqueira, A C V

    2015-11-01

    The ecological diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the Brazilian Amazon region is directly interlinked with the parasite's extensive reservoir, composed of 33 species of wild mammals within the following orders: Marsupialia, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Xenarthra, Carnivora and Primates; and of 16 species of wild triatomines, of which ten may be infected with T. cruzi. Four scenarios for the diversity of T. cruzi transmission in the Brazilian Amazon region are evident: (i) T. cruzi transmission between vectors and wild mammals, which is characterized as a wild enzooty encompassing the entire Amazon basin; (ii) accidental T. cruzi transmission from vectors and wild mammals to humans, when they invade the wild ecotope or when these vectors and wild mammals invade human homes; (iii) occupational Chagas disease among piassava (Leopoldinia piassaba) palm fiber gatherers, transmitted by the vector Rhodnius brethesi, for which these palm trees are the specific ecotope; (IV) oral T. cruzi transmission to humans through food contamination, particularly in juices from plants such as assai, which today is considered to be endemic in the Brazilian Amazon region, with more than 1500 cases notified. PMID:26254002

  5. New sediment budget calculations for the submarine Amazon Delta indicates enhanced modern sediment fluxes of the Amazon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenk, T.; Haberkern, J.; Mulitza, S.; Chiessi, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    The submarine Amazon Delta is one major sink in the Amazon source-to-sink system. It is estimated, that the Amazon transports around 1200 Mt/yr. Around 50% of this river sediment load, namely 400 - 800 Mt/yr, is stored on the submarine delta, leading to sedimentation rates of decimeters per year (Nittrouer et al., 1995). The majority of the remaining sediments is deposited on the lower delta plain of the Amazon, but another significant portion is accumulated at the Amapa shoreline or is bypassed further northwestwards. These sediment budget calculations are mainly based on radioisotopic profiles measured at sediment cores in the frame of the AmasSeds project, which was carried out in the 1980ties and 1990ties (Nittrouer et al., 1995). Here we present another approach for calculating mass fluxes in the Amazon system. Within the Project AMADEUS, a cooperation between the MARUM, Bremen, Germany and the University Sao Paulo, Brazil, high-resolution seismic multichannel seismic data and sediment echosounder data (PARASOUND) were collected during Cruise MSM20/3 in February/March 2012. Main emphases of the surveying were set to the forset and bottomset of the delta, where most of the accretion occurs. A special outcome of the new data is the comparison with PARASOUND data collected in 1996 during Cruise M34/4. Due to several crossing points of both data sets it is now possible to carry out direct measurements of the accumulation during these 16 years. Another time horizon is a prominent unconformity spreading over the submarine delta, since the sedimentation on top of this unconformity had been dated to start roughly 100 yrs ago (Sommerfield et al., 1995). Mapping of this unconformity as well as the reflector representing the seafloor of 1996 gives the opportunity to calculate volumes and mass of the sediment stored within the survey area for two different time spans. First calculations show, that the sediment accumulation on the submarine delta since 1996 is

  6. New sediment budget calculations for the submarine Amazon Delta indicates enhanced modern sediment fluxes of the Amazon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenk, T.; Haberkern, J.; Mulitza, S.; Chiessi, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    The submarine Amazon Delta is one major sink in the Amazon source-to-sink system. It is estimated, that the Amazon transports around 1200 Mt/yr. Around 50% of this river sediment load, namely 400 - 800 Mt/yr, is stored on the submarine delta, leading to sedimentation rates of decimeters per year (Nittrouer et al., 1995). The majority of the remaining sediments is deposited on the lower delta plain of the Amazon, but another significant portion is accumulated at the Amapa shoreline or is bypassed further northwestwards. These sediment budget calculations are mainly based on radioisotopic profiles measured at sediment cores in the frame of the AmasSeds project, which was carried out in the 1980ties and 1990ties (Nittrouer et al., 1995). Here we present another approach for calculating mass fluxes in the Amazon system. Within the Project AMADEUS, a cooperation between the MARUM, Bremen, Germany and the University Sao Paulo, Brazil, high-resolution seismic multichannel seismic data and sediment echosounder data (PARASOUND) were collected during Cruise MSM20/3 in February/March 2012. Main emphases of the surveying were set to the forset and bottomset of the delta, where most of the accretion occurs. A special outcome of the new data is the comparison with PARASOUND data collected in 1996 during Cruise M34/4. Due to several crossing points of both data sets it is now possible to carry out direct measurements of the accumulation during these 16 years. Another time horizon is a prominent unconformity spreading over the submarine delta, since the sedimentation on top of this unconformity had been dated to start roughly 100 yrs ago (Sommerfield et al., 1995). Mapping of this unconformity as well as the reflector representing the seafloor of 1996 gives the opportunity to calculate volumes and mass of the sediment stored within the survey area for two different time spans. First calculations show, that the sediment accumulation on the submarine delta since 1996 is

  7. Terrestrial carbon sinks in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado region predicted from MODIS satellite data and ecosystem modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Huete, A.; Genovese, V.; Bustamante, M.; Guimaraes Ferreira, L.; Cosme de Oliveira Junior, R.; Zepp, R.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2004. Net ecosystem production (NEP) flux for atmospheric CO2 in the region for these years was estimated. Consistently high carbon sink fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems on a yearly basis were found in the western portions of the states of Acre and Rondônia and the northern portions of the state of Pará. These areas were not significantly impacted by the 2002-2003 El Niño event in terms of net annual carbon gains. Areas of the region that show periodically high carbon source fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere on yearly basis were found throughout the state of Maranhão and the southern portions of the state of Amazonas. As demonstrated though tower site comparisons, NEP modeled with monthly MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) inputs closely resembles the measured seasonal carbon fluxes at the LBA Tapajos tower site. Modeling results suggest that the capacity for use of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data to predict seasonal uptake rates of CO2 in Amazon forests and Cerrado woodlands is strong.

  8. Terrestrial carbon sinks in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado region predicted from MODIS satellite data and ecosystem modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Huete, A.; Genovese, V.; Bustamante, M.; Guimaraes Ferreira, L.; de Oliveira, R. C., Jr.; Zepp, R.

    2009-06-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2004. Net ecosystem production (NEP) flux for atmospheric CO2 in the region for these years was estimated. Consistently high carbon sink fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems on a yearly basis were found in the western portions of the states of Acre and Rondônia and the northern portions of the state of Pará. These areas were not significantly impacted by the 2002-2003 El Niño event in terms of net annual carbon gains. Areas of the region that show periodically high carbon source fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere on yearly basis were found throughout the state of Maranhão and the southern portions of the state of Amazonas. As demonstrated though tower site comparisons, NEP modeled with monthly MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) inputs closely resembles the measured seasonal carbon fluxes at the LBA Tapajos tower site. Modeling results suggest that the capacity for use of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data to predict seasonal uptake rates of CO2 in Amazon forests and Cerrado woodlands is strong.

  9. New tick records from the state of Rondônia, western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, Thiago F; Venzal, José M; Terassini, Flávio A; Costa, Francisco B; Marcili, Arlei; Camargo, Luis M A; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2014-01-01

    From 2005 to 2012, ticks were collected from different hosts at different localities of the state of Rondônia. The following 16 ixodid tick species were identified: Ixodes fuscipes, Amblyomma auricularium, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma geayi, Amblyomma humerale, Amblyomma latepunctatum, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma naponense, Amblyomma nodosum, Amblyomma oblongoguttatum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma romitii, Amblyomma rotundatum, Amblyomma scalpturatum, and Amblyomma varium. From these, A. auricularium, A. dubitatum, and A. geayi are reported for the first time in the state of Rondônia. We provide the following tick-host associations that have not been reported anywhere: A. longirostre on Pteroglossus bitorquatus, A. rotundatum on Hydrodynastes gigas, and A. latepunctatum and A. scalpturatum on Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. An adult male specimen of A. rotundatum is reported on Boa constrictor, comprising only the fourth male specimen to be recorded for this obligate parthenogenetic tick species. We also report the presence of the argasid species Ornithodoros kohlsi for the first time in Brazil, based on larval specimens collected on bats Molossops (Neoplatymops) mattogrossensis in Monte Negro, Rondônia. The present study increases the Brazilian tick fauna to 65 species, from which 34 species (52 %) are now registered to Rondônia. Such high diversity of ticks in a relatively small state, associated with increasing environmental alteration due to deforestation and human occupation, makes Rondônia a potential source of tick-borne diseases.

  10. A new species of monadal coral snake of the genus Micrurus (Serpentes, Elapidae) from western Amazon.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Darlan Tavares; Da Silva, Nelson Jorge Jr; Pires, Matheus Godoy; Zaher, Hussam; Prudente, Ana Lúcia Da Costa

    2015-06-24

    We described a new species of monadal coral snake of the genus Micrurus from the region of Tabatinga and Leticia, along the boundaries of Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. The new species can be distinguished from the other congeners by the combination of the following characters: absence of a pale nuchal collar; black cephalic-cap extending from rostral to firstdorsal scale and enclosing white tipped prefrontal scales; upper half of first to four supralabials and postoculars black; tricolor body coloration, with 27-31 black rings bordered by narrower white rings and 27-31 red rings; tail coloration similar to body, with alternating black rings bordered by irregular narrow white rings, red rings of the same width as the black rings; ventral scales 205-225; subcaudal scales 39-47.

  11. Genetic diversity of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax parasites from the western Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Lizcano, Omaira Vera; Resende, Sarah Stela; Chehuan, Yonne F; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Brito, Cristiana F A; Zalis, Mariano G

    2014-11-01

    The molecular basis of Plasmodium vivax chloroquine (CQ) resistance is still unknown. Elucidating the molecular background of parasites that are sensitive or resistant to CQ will help to identify and monitor the spread of resistance. By genotyping a panel of molecular markers, we demonstrate a similar genetic variability between in vitro CQ-resistant and sensitive phenotypes of P. vivax parasites. However, our studies identified two loci (MS8 and MSP1-B10) that could be used to discriminate between both CQ-susceptible phenotypes among P. vivax isolates in vitro. These preliminary data suggest that microsatellites may be used to identify and to monitor the spread of P. vivax-resistance around the world. PMID:25411001

  12. Retinal diseases in a reference center from a Western Amazon capital city

    PubMed Central

    Malerbi, Fernando Korn; Matsudo, Nilson Hideo; Carneiro, Adriano Biondi Monteiro; Lottenberg, Claudio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To describe retinal diseases found in patients who were waiting for treatment at a tertiary care hospital in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. Methods Patients underwent slit lamp biomicroscopy, dilated fundus exam and ocular ultrasound. Patients were classified according to phakic status and retinal disease of the most severely affected eye. Results A total of 138 patients were examined. The mean age was 51.3 years. Diabetes was present in 35.3% and hypertension in 45.4% of these patients. Cataract was found in 23.2% of patients, in at least one eye. Retinal examination was possible in 129 patients. The main retinal diseases identified were rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (n=23; 17.8%) and diabetic retinopathy (n=32; 24.8%). Out of 40 patients evaluated due to diabetes, 13 (32.5%) had absent or mild forms of diabetic retinopathy and did not need further treatment, only observation. Conclusion Diabetic retinopathy was the main retinal disease in this population. It is an avoidable cause of blindness and can be remotely evaluated, in its initial stages, by telemedicine strategies. In remote Brazilian areas, telemedicine may be an important tool for retinal diseases diagnosis and follow-up. PMID:26761550

  13. Remote tropical and sub-tropical responses to Amazon deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badger, Andrew M.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.

    2016-05-01

    Replacing natural vegetation with realistic tropical crops over the Amazon region in a global Earth system model impacts vertical transport of heat and moisture, modifying the interaction between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free atmosphere. Vertical velocity is decreased over a majority of the Amazon region, shifting the ascending branch and modifying the seasonality of the Hadley circulation over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific oceans. Using a simple model that relates circulation changes to heating anomalies and generalizing the upper-atmosphere temperature response to deforestation, agreement is found between the response in the fully-coupled model and the simple solution. These changes to the large-scale dynamics significantly impact precipitation in several remote regions, namely sub-Saharan Africa, Mexico, the southwestern United States and extratropical South America, suggesting non-local climate repercussions for large-scale land use changes in the tropics are possible.

  14. Methane emissions to the troposphere from the Amazon floodplain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devol, Allen H.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Clark, Wayne A.; King, Stagg L.; Martinelli, Luiz A.

    1988-01-01

    The magnitudes of CH4 emissions to the troposphere from the Amazon River floodplain and the mechanism of these emissions were investigated using the data of 94 individual flux measurements made along a 1700-km stretch of the river during July/August 1985. The overall average rate of CH4 emission from wetlands was found to be 390 mg CH4/sq m per day, with the highest emissions (590 mg CH4/sq m per day) attributed to the water surfaces covered by aquatic macrophytes. Ebullition was the dominant mechanism of emission, accounting for 85 percent of the total. Surface-water CH4 concentrations were highly supersaturated, averaging 6.4 micromolar. The annual emission of CH4 from the Amazon Basin to the troposphere, estimated from the area and the known emission rate, is about 10 CH4 Tg/yr, indicating the importance of the area in the global atmospheric CH4 cycle.

  15. [Globalization and environmentalism: polyphonic ethnicities in the Amazon].

    PubMed

    Garnelo, Luiza; Sampaio, Sully

    2005-01-01

    The article examines the issue of globalization, along with its contradictions and the ways in which it guides and shapes specific situations within the Amazon's present-day reality, while simultaneously engendering the uniformization of economic production and the valorization of cultural differences. The discussion explores the nuances of implementing a massified, standardized productive base that paradoxically fosters the valorization of cultural differences and favors alliances between, on the one hand, ethno-political leaders from indigenous Amazon groups and, on the other, environmentalists and other transworld actors who wield strong decision-making power. The article analyzes the indigenous movement's network of alliances and highlights the polyphony of the different political agents that come to clash with each other within this post-modern geopolitical setting. PMID:17500133

  16. [Globalization and environmentalism: polyphonic ethnicities in the Amazon].

    PubMed

    Garnelo, Luiza; Sampaio, Sully

    2005-01-01

    The article examines the issue of globalization, along with its contradictions and the ways in which it guides and shapes specific situations within the Amazon's present-day reality, while simultaneously engendering the uniformization of economic production and the valorization of cultural differences. The discussion explores the nuances of implementing a massified, standardized productive base that paradoxically fosters the valorization of cultural differences and favors alliances between, on the one hand, ethno-political leaders from indigenous Amazon groups and, on the other, environmentalists and other transworld actors who wield strong decision-making power. The article analyzes the indigenous movement's network of alliances and highlights the polyphony of the different political agents that come to clash with each other within this post-modern geopolitical setting.

  17. Rare models: Roger Casement, the Amazon, and the ethnographic picturesque.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    In 1910 Roger Casement was sent by the British government to investigate the alleged humanitarian abuses of the Peruvian Amazon Company in the Putumayo, a disputed border zone in North West Amazonia. Casement brought more than verbal and written testimony back to London. On 26 June, some six months after he returned from the Amazon, Casement collected two Amerindian boys - Omarino and Ricudo - from Southampton docks. This paper will reconstruct the brief period that these young men spent in Britain in the summer of 1911 and assess, in particular, to what extent they were treated as 'exhibits' by Casement, who not only introduced them to leading members of the British establishment but also arranged for them to be painted and photographed following contemporary ethnographic conventions.

  18. Cosmogenic nuclide-derived sediment budget of the Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, Dr.; von Blanckenburg, Dr.; Guyot, Dr.; Maurice, Dr.; Kubik, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Sediment gauging suggests that the annual sediment mass discharged into the main Amazon basin from the Andes and the cratonic shields is not in steady state with the mass discharged to the Atlantic Ocean. Here we use sediment production rates from cosmogenic 10Be in sediment to compare these with transport rates from river load gauging. About 1 million km2 or 95% of the total Andean area draining to the Amazon provide sediment to the central Amazon river with an averaged 10Be nuclide concentration of 5.0 +- 0.5x1e4 at/g(Qz). Average nuclide concentrations for Brazilian shield headwaters amount to 15.3 +- 1.2x1e4 at/g(Qz), and to 38.6 +- 2.4x1e4 at/g(Qz) for the Guyana shield headwaters, respectively. For the Andes, nuclide concentrations translate to an integrated Andean denudation rate of 0.35 ± 0.05 mm/yr. Sediment from the headwaters of the Brazilian and Guyana shields translate into very low denudation rates (0.02 and 0.01 mm/yr, respectively), as is expected for tectonically stable tropical highlands. These headwater 10Be nuclide concentrations and derived denudation rates can now be compared with those derived from central Amazon stream sediment including the main Amazon, which was sampled over ~1000 km from Manaus to Óbidos. Cosmogenic nuclide concentration analyses of several grain sizes (from 125 up to 800 µm) show large variations; we found that coarse-grained material records the nuclide signal of the cratonic shield areas, whereas the Andean signal is best represented by the fine sand fraction, which is preserved virtually unaltered over 1000s of km of sediment transport. In all central Amazon trunk stream samples and tributaries, the fine grain size fraction (125-250 µm) contains 10Be at 6.5 +- 1.2x1e4 at/g(Qz), which is similar to that of the Andean source areas. The integrated denudation rate from this fraction is 0.23 +- 0.04 mm/yr for the entire Amazon basin at Óbidos, which compares well with the mean Andean denudation rate of 0.35 +- 0.05 mm

  19. Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere over the Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wofsy, Steven C.; Kaplan, Warren A.; Harriss, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    As a part of the NASA's Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2A mission, the cycle of atmospheric CO2 over the Amazon Basin was examined using measured vertical profiles of CO2 concentrations in the canopy and aloft, and direct measurements of CO2 emissions from soils. The results provide a detailed picture of daily exchanges of air between the tropical forest (0-30) and the atmospheric boundary layer (30-2000 m). A comparison of atmospheric CO2 distributions over forests, wetlands, and rivers shows that the lower atmosphere over forests functions separately from that over rivers or wetlands during the night and to some extent during the day; the basic diurnal cycle of CO2 over wetlands is much weaker than over forests, and the cycle is almost absent over rivers. This result is consistent with expectations based on the biogeochemistry of organic carbon in these systems.

  20. Role of Brazilian Amazon protected areas in climate change mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Moutinho, Paulo; Nepstad, Daniel; Anderson, Anthony; Rodrigues, Hermann; Garcia, Ricardo; Dietzsch, Laura; Merry, Frank; Bowman, Maria; Hissa, Letícia; Silvestrini, Rafaella; Maretti, Cláudio

    2010-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) now shelter 54% of the remaining forests of the Brazilian Amazon and contain 56% of its forest carbon. However, the role of these PAs in reducing carbon fluxes to the atmosphere from deforestation and their associated costs are still uncertain. To fill this gap, we analyzed the effect of each of 595 Brazilian Amazon PAs on deforestation using a metric that accounts for differences in probability of deforestation in areas of pairwise comparison. We found that the three major categories of PA (indigenous land, strictly protected, and sustainable use) showed an inhibitory effect, on average, between 1997 and 2008. Of 206 PAs created after the year 1999, 115 showed increased effectiveness after their designation as protected. The recent expansion of PAs in the Brazilian Amazon was responsible for 37% of the region's total reduction in deforestation between 2004 and 2006 without provoking leakage. All PAs, if fully implemented, have the potential to avoid 8.0 ± 2.8 Pg of carbon emissions by 2050. Effectively implementing PAs in zones under high current or future anthropogenic threat offers high payoffs for reducing carbon emissions, and as a result should receive special attention in planning investments for regional conservation. Nevertheless, this strategy demands prompt and predictable resource streams. The Amazon PA network represents a cost of US$147 ± 53 billion (net present value) for Brazil in terms of forgone profits and investments needed for their consolidation. These costs could be partially compensated by an international climate accord that includes economic incentives for tropical countries that reduce their carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. PMID:20505122

  1. Reserves Protect against Deforestation Fires in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Adeney, J. Marion; Christensen, Norman L.; Pimm, Stuart L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. Methodology/Principal Findings Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. Conclusions/Significance Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon. PMID:19352423

  2. Mouths of the Amazon River, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Huge sediment loads from the interior of the country flow through the Mouths of the Amazon River, Brazil (0.5S, 50.0W). The river current carries hundreds of tons of sediment through the multiple outlets of the great river over 100 miles from shore before it is carried northward by oceanic currents. The characteristic 'fair weather cumulus' pattern of low clouds over the land but not over water may be observed in this scene.

  3. Public policies and communication affecting forest cover in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami Savaget, E.; Batistella, M.; Aguiar, A. P. D.

    2014-12-01

    The research program Amazalert was based on information delivered by the IPCC through its 2007 report, which indicates forest degradation processes in the Amazonian region as a consequence of anthropogenic actions. Such processes affecting the structural and functional characteristics of ecosystems would harm environmental services that guarantee, for example, the regulation of climate and the provision of fresh water. A survey was organized, through a multidisciplinary perspective, on the main policies and programs that can affect forest cover in the Amazon. These rules and norms seek to regulate societal actions by defining a developmental model for the region. Although deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon have decreased significantly since 2004, some locations maintain high levels of deforestation. In 2013, for example, the municipalities of Monte Alegre, Óbidos, Alenquer, Oriximiná, Curuá and Almeirin, in the northern region of the state of Para, showed the highest rates of deforestation in the Amazon. Managers and stakeholders within these areas are being interviewed to provide insights on how policies are interpreted and applied locally. There is an understanding delay between discourses normalized by federal governmental institutions and claims of local societies. The possible lack of clarity in official discourses added to the absence of a local communicative dynamics cause the phenomenon of incomplete information. Conflicts often occur in local institutional arenas resulting in violence and complex social and historical dissonances, enhanced by other public policies idealized in different temporal and spatial conditions.

  4. Cyclic sediment deposition within Amazon deep-sea fan

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, P.L.; Flood, R.D.

    1988-08-01

    The Upper and middle Amazon Fan has grown in a cyclic fashion. An individual deposition cycle consists of (1) a widespread basal, acoustically transparent seismic unit (interpreted as debris-flow deposits) that fills and levels preexisting topographic lows, and (2) a levee complex built of overlapping channel-levee systems. Two and possibly three cycles have been identified within the Amazon Fan. The levee complex beneath one debris flow originated from a different submarine canyon than did the levee complex above the debris flow, suggesting that these levee complexes formed during different sea level lowstands. Calculations based on present sediment discharge of the Amazon River suggest that an entire levee complex can form within the time span of a single glacial stage, such as the Wisconsin; however, the levee complex probably could not have formed during the relatively short time interval when sea level rose rapidly at the end of a glacial stage. The basal seismic units (debris-flow deposits) may have been deposited at any time during sea level fluctuations. Although seismic evidence suggests that this cyclic sedimentation pattern may be related to glacio-eustatic sea level variations, cyclic fan growth may be attributed to other processes as well. For example, a bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) observed within the upper fan appears to be a gas hydrate. Migration of the hydrate phase boundary during sea level fluctuations and diapiric activity may be mechanisms for initiating widespread debris flows. 10 figs.

  5. Ballast water: a threat to the Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Newton Narciso; Botter, Rui Carlos; Folena, Rafael Dompieri; Pereira, José Pinheiro Fragoso Neto; da Cunha, Alan Cavalcanti

    2014-07-15

    Ballast water exchange (BWE) is the most efficient measure to control the invasion of exotic species from ships. This procedure is being used for merchant ships in national and international voyages. The ballast water (BW) salinity is the main parameter to evaluate the efficacy of the mid-ocean ballast water exchange. The vessels must report to the Port State Control (PSC), via ballast water report (BWR), where and how the mid-ocean BWE was performed. This measure allows the PSC to analyze this information before the ship arrives at the port, and to decide whether or not it should berth. Ship BW reporting forms were collected from the Captaincy of Santana and some ships were visited near the Port of Santana, located in Macapá (Amazon River), to evaluate the BW quality onboard. We evaluated data submitted in these BWR forms and concluded that the BWE efficacy might be compromised, because data contained in these BWR indicate that some ships did not change their BW. We found mistakes in filling the BWR forms and lack of information. Moreover, these ships had discharged BW with high level of salinity, Escherichia coli and total coliforms into the Amazon River. We concluded that the authorities of the Amazon Region need to develop more efficient proceedings to evaluate the ballast water reporting forms and BW quality, as there is potential risk of future invasion of exotic species in Brazilian ports.

  6. Ballast water: a threat to the Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Newton Narciso; Botter, Rui Carlos; Folena, Rafael Dompieri; Pereira, José Pinheiro Fragoso Neto; da Cunha, Alan Cavalcanti

    2014-07-15

    Ballast water exchange (BWE) is the most efficient measure to control the invasion of exotic species from ships. This procedure is being used for merchant ships in national and international voyages. The ballast water (BW) salinity is the main parameter to evaluate the efficacy of the mid-ocean ballast water exchange. The vessels must report to the Port State Control (PSC), via ballast water report (BWR), where and how the mid-ocean BWE was performed. This measure allows the PSC to analyze this information before the ship arrives at the port, and to decide whether or not it should berth. Ship BW reporting forms were collected from the Captaincy of Santana and some ships were visited near the Port of Santana, located in Macapá (Amazon River), to evaluate the BW quality onboard. We evaluated data submitted in these BWR forms and concluded that the BWE efficacy might be compromised, because data contained in these BWR indicate that some ships did not change their BW. We found mistakes in filling the BWR forms and lack of information. Moreover, these ships had discharged BW with high level of salinity, Escherichia coli and total coliforms into the Amazon River. We concluded that the authorities of the Amazon Region need to develop more efficient proceedings to evaluate the ballast water reporting forms and BW quality, as there is potential risk of future invasion of exotic species in Brazilian ports. PMID:24928458

  7. Carbon monoxide over the Amazon basin during the wet season

    SciTech Connect

    Harriss, R.C. ); Sachse, G.W.; Hill, G.F.; Gregory, G.L. ); Wade, L.O. )

    1990-09-20

    Measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) were made over the Amazon Basin of Brazil during the 1987 wet season as part of the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2B). The distribution of CO over the altitude range sampled (0.15-4.5 km) was influenced by surface emissions from biological sources, long-range transport of pollutants from northern hemisphere sources, and by transport processes associated with local convective mixing. Surface sources are indicated by a qualitative interpretation of the typical pattern of decreasing concentrations with increasing altitude and increasing concentrations of CO at 0.15-km altitude during a transect from the Atlantic coast to the central basin. Atmospheric convective activity produced irregular patterns of variability at time scales of less than 1 hour over a localized area. The disruption of mixed layer growth and decay processes has a particularly important influence on CO concentrations in the daytime lower troposphere. Intrusions of northern hemisphere air into the central Amazon resulted in increased CO concentrations in the lower and midtroposphere. The correlation of CO with O{sub 3} was positive under conditions interpreted as being influenced by northern hemisphere air, and negative during all other meteorological conditions experienced in ABLE 2B.

  8. The structure and energetics of Amazon squall lines

    SciTech Connect

    Massie, H.L. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The role of the Amazon Basin as a global center of action for deep convection is quantified in the context of the planet's heat balance. Mesoscale heat and moisture budgets are presented for three synoptic-scale coastal originating systems (COS) over the Amazon Basin during the 1987 wet season. The budgets are obtained from volumetric analysis of mesoscale rawinsonde data from the April-May 1987 Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE-2B). Classification of cloud and rainfall components is based on data from Portable Automated Mesonet (PAM) towers, GOES images, and radar. Satellite measurements of the total active cloud area, coupled with the mesoscale budge calculations, are used to determine the system-wide vertical transport of heat as a function of the COS life cycle. Maximum heat transport occurs in the COS mature stage when the system has its maximum spatial extent. The instantaneous heat transport for the 300-100 mb layer in a mature COS equals nearly 20% of the theoretical heat export requirements for the equatorial trough zone. A little more than half of the system-wide transport occurs in the dynamically active anvil cloud.

  9. New products made with lignocellulosic nanofibers from Brazilian amazon forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufalino, L.; Mendes, L. M.; Tonoli, G. H. D.; Rodrigues, A.; Fonseca, A.; Cunha, P. I.; Marconcini, J. M.

    2014-08-01

    The biodiversity of the Amazon forest is undoubtedly rich; hence there is considerable variety of plant fibers regarding their morphological, chemical and structural properties. The legal exploration of the Brazilian Amazon is based on sustainable management techniques, but the generation of a relevant amount of plant wastes still cant be avoided. The correct destination of such materials is a challenge that Brazilian companies have to face. In this context, the National Council of Science and Technology (CNPq) promoted the creation of investigation nets on sustainability of Brazilian agribusiness. The Brazilian Net on Lignocellulosic Composites and Nanocomposites was then created, with partnership between several national and international research institutions. Until the moment, the results showed that Amazon plant fibers that are discarded as residues have great potential to nanofiber production. Nanopapers with considerable high mechanical and physical strength, proper opacity and great crystalline index were produced by using a clean and simple mechanical method. Those materials are candidates to several uses such as packaging, substrates transparent conductive films, gas barrier films, solar cells and e-papers.

  10. Seasonal cycle and interannual variability in the Amazon hydrologic cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ning

    1999-04-01

    An analysis of the Amazon basin hydrologic cycle has been carried out using the NASA/Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-1) atmospheric reanalysis, observed rainfall of Xie and Arkin [1996], and historical Amazon River discharge. Over a seasonal cycle the precipitation is found to vary by 5 mm d-1, and the runoff is found to vary by 2 mm d-1, while the evaporation largely remains constant. On interannual timescales the hydrologic variability both in the atmosphere and at the land surface is found to be closely related to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The correlation between the Southern Oscillation Index and Xie and Arkin precipitation is 0.8 for the period 1985-1993 and 0.56 for the period 1979-1996. The precipitation lags behind the Southern Oscillation Index by 3-4 months while the Amazon River discharge lags behind the precipitation by another 3 months. The lagged relationship suggests interesting dynamic mechanisms. The reanalysis moisture convergence and observed discharge are used to diagnose basin average soil water storage. The year to year variation in the annual mean soil water storage is ˜200 mm, comparable to the change within a climatological seasonal cycle. In one case, the basin soil water storage increases by 462 mm from September 1987 to March 1989, suggesting the remarkable ability of the tropical rain forest environment to store and take up water.

  11. Contrasting Strategies of Tree Function in a Seasonal Amazon Rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. Y.; Oliveira, R.; Agee, E.; Brum, M., Jr.; Saleska, S. R.; Fatichi, S.; Ewing, G.

    2015-12-01

    The increased frequency and severity of drought conditions in the Amazon Basin region have emphasized the question of rainforest vulnerability and resilience to heat and drought-induced stresses. However, what emerges from much research is that the impacts of droughts, essential controlling factors of the rainforest function, and variability of tree-scale strategies are yet to be fully understood. We present here a preliminary analysis of hydraulic relations of a seasonal Amazon rainforest using a set of ecohydrologic data collected through the GoAmazon project over dry and wet seasons. Expressions of different hydraulic strategies are identified that convey different implications for tree resilience during short- (diurnal) and longer-term (seasonal) stress periods. These hydraulic strategies appear to be inter-related with the tree growth and non-structural carbohydrate dynamics, contributing to the understanding of trait coordination at the whole-plant scale. Integration of individual responses is conducted over a range of wood density and exposure conditions. The results of this research thus shed light on the implication of variations in the rainforest function for future stresses, vital for predictive models of ecosystem dynamics of next generation.

  12. Artisanal fisheries of the Xingu River basin in Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Isaac, V J; Almeida, M C; Cruz, R E A; Nunes, L G

    2015-08-01

    The present study characterises the commercial fisheries of the basin of the Xingu River, a major tributary of the Amazon River, between the towns of Gurupá (at the mouth of the Amazon) and São Félix do Xingu. Between April, 2012, and March, 2014, a total of 23,939 fishing trips were recorded, yielding a total production of 1,484 tons of fish, harvested by almost three thousand fishers. The analysis of the catches emphasizes the small-scale and artisanal nature of the region's fisheries, with emphasis on the contribution of the motorised canoes powered by "long-tail" outboard motors. Larger motorboats operate only at the mouth of the Xingu and on the Amazon. Peacock bass (Cichla spp.), croakers (Plagioscion spp.), pacu (a group containing numerous serrasalmid species), aracu (various anostomids), and curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans) together contributed more than 60% of the total catch. Mean catch per unit effort was 18 kg/fisher-1.day-1, which varied among fishing methods (type of vessel and fishing equipment used), river sections, and time of the year. In most cases, yields varied little between years (2012 and 2013). The technical database provided by this study constitutes an important resource for the regulation of the region's fisheries, as well as for the evaluation of future changes resulting from the construction of the Belo Monte dam on the Xingu River.

  13. Artisanal fisheries of the Xingu River basin in Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Isaac, V J; Almeida, M C; Cruz, R E A; Nunes, L G

    2015-08-01

    The present study characterises the commercial fisheries of the basin of the Xingu River, a major tributary of the Amazon River, between the towns of Gurupá (at the mouth of the Amazon) and São Félix do Xingu. Between April, 2012, and March, 2014, a total of 23,939 fishing trips were recorded, yielding a total production of 1,484 tons of fish, harvested by almost three thousand fishers. The analysis of the catches emphasizes the small-scale and artisanal nature of the region's fisheries, with emphasis on the contribution of the motorised canoes powered by "long-tail" outboard motors. Larger motorboats operate only at the mouth of the Xingu and on the Amazon. Peacock bass (Cichla spp.), croakers (Plagioscion spp.), pacu (a group containing numerous serrasalmid species), aracu (various anostomids), and curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans) together contributed more than 60% of the total catch. Mean catch per unit effort was 18 kg/fisher-1.day-1, which varied among fishing methods (type of vessel and fishing equipment used), river sections, and time of the year. In most cases, yields varied little between years (2012 and 2013). The technical database provided by this study constitutes an important resource for the regulation of the region's fisheries, as well as for the evaluation of future changes resulting from the construction of the Belo Monte dam on the Xingu River. PMID:26691085

  14. Phylogeography of Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Siluriformes - Pimelodidae) in the Amazon Basin offers preliminary evidence for the first case of "homing" for an Amazonian migratory catfish.

    PubMed

    Batista, J S; Alves-Gomes, J A

    2006-12-01

    The large pimelodid, Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, is one of the two most important catfish species for the fisheries in the Amazon. It is captured by commercial and artisanal fishing fleets in at least five Amazonian countries, at fishing grounds more than 5000 km apart. Current evidence suggests a complex life cycle that includes the longest reproductive migration known for a freshwater fish species. Experimental fisheries have pointed to a decrease in yield in the Western Amazon. However, reliable information about the capture and status of this fishery resource is still nonexistent, and no study has ever addressed its genetic diversity. We sequenced the entire D-loop of 45 individuals of B. rousseauxii, fifteen from each of three different fishing locations along the main channel of the Solimões-Amazonas System covering a distance of around 2200 km. Results of phylogenetic analyses, molecular diversity estimations, analysis of molecular variance, and nested clade analysis, together show that there is no genetic segregation associated with location in the main channel, as one would expect for a migratory species. However, the significant decrease found in genetic diversity towards the western part of the Amazon could be explained by a non-random choice of tributary to spawn. It is possible that the genetic diversity of the migrating schools decreases towards the west because portions of the species' genetic diversity are being "captured" by the different effluents, as the fish migrates to spawn in the headwaters. Like the salmon in North America, B. rousseauxii may be returning to their home tributary to spawn.

  15. Could the STARS detect deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, M. P.; Trabaquini, K.; Rudorff, B. F.; Oliveira, J. C.

    2013-05-01

    The Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) has been monitoring the Brazilian Legal Amazon deforestation through the PRODES project since 1988, providing yearly deforestation maps based on about 60 m spatial resolution. Additionally, INPE's Real Time Deforestation Detection System (DETER) has monthly indicating, based on high temporal resolution satellite data, where and when the forest is being felled. However, those monitoring processes are mainly based on visual interpretation, which is accurate but a hard and time consuming task. The Spectral-Temporal Analysis by Response Surface (STARS), which synthesizes the full information content of a multitemporal-multispectral remote sensing image dataset to represent the spectral variation over time of features on the Earth's surface, comes as an alternative for applications in land cover change detection, such as deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Thus, since deforestation process presents particular spectral changes over time, spectral-temporal response surfaces could be fitted to describe its change patterns, allowing to detect deforested areas. In this context, this work aims to apply the STARS to detect deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, using Landsat-5 multitemporal-multispectral images. Four georeferenced images covering about 3.400 square kilometres within the Mato Grosso State, Brazil (13°17'S; 55°50'W to 14°20'S; 55°10'W) were used: one Multispectral Scanner (MSS) image from 1980 (bands 4, 5, 6 and 7 - 60 m spatial resolution); and three Thematic Mapper (TM) images from 1990, 2000 and 2010 (bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 - 30 m spatial resolution). The MSS image was resampled to 30 m to match the TM spatial resolution. All images were then used as input for STARS resulting in a Multi-Coefficient Image (MCI) with 10 synthetic bands formed by the 10 fitted coefficients of a Polynomial Trend Surface (PTS) model with degree equal to three. The MCI was used as input for a decision tree (DT

  16. New observations of sinuous channels on the Amazon Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flood, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    High-sinuosity submarine fan channels on the Amazon Fan were first observed using long-range (GLORIA) side-scan sonar in 1982 and mapped in greater detail using multibeam sonar in 1984. These data have provided important insights into the nature and evolution of submarine channel systems. Subsequent studies on the Amazon Fan have focused on avulsion patterns, sedimentation patterns, fan growth and the climate record contained in fan sediments, and there has been relatively little additional work on the details of sinuous channel morphology. Channels on the Amazon Fan have been imaged by multibeam sonar on several occasions since 1984 during focused studies, regional mapping and ship transit. These multibeam data are being compiled and studied to better characterize these iconic channels. One observation of particular interest is that, on the Amazon Fan, channel-wall slumps appear to be more common than previously thought. Drilling of a cut-off meander during ODP Leg 155 on the Amazon Fan showed the presence of slumped material deeper in the channel suggesting that failure of the channel wall was in part responsible for the abandonment and filling of that meander loop. The failure also apparently created a sandy debris flow with clasts of fine-grained levee material transported in a sandy matrix. This sandy debris flow may have been able to flow along the channel and deposit at the seaward end where similar sediments can be found. Disturbed zones now visible on the inner walls of channels at several other places along the channels suggest that these kinds of inner-wall slumps may play important roles in channel evolution and fan growth. Channel-blocking slumps can isolate channel loops which can then fill with sandy sediments, and avulsions are likely if this kind of slump fills the channel. The failure of channel walls can also lead to new channel segments that tend to straighten the channel. Dramatic changes to the shape of the channel can likely lead to large and

  17. Size Resolved measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity and mixing state during Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalman, R. M.; Artaxo, P.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Barbosa, H. M.; Day, D. A.; de Sá, S. S.; Hu, W.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kuang, C.; Palm, B. B.; Krüger, M. L.; Manzi, A. O.; Martin, S. T.; Poeschl, U.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Senum, G.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Springston, S. R.; Alexander, M. L.; Watson, T. B.; Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements of size-resolved cloud condensation nucleai (CCN) spectra were performed at the T3 site of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) field project located near Manacapuru, Brazil during 2014. The T3 site is a receptor site for both polluted urban down-wind (Manaus, BR a city of several million 70 km up wind) and background (Amazon rainforest) air-masses and can provide a contrast between clean and polluted conditions. Particle hygroscopicity (kappa) and mixing state were calculated from the particle activation spectrum measured by size selecting aerosols and exposing them to a wide range of supersaturation in the CCN counter (Droplet Measurement Technologies Continuous-Flow Streamwise Thermal Gradient CCN Chamber). The supersaturation was varied between 0.07 and 1.1% by changing a combination of both total flow rate and temperature gradient in the CCN counter. Measured spectra were examined for air masses with different level of influence from Manaus plume. Particle hygroscopicity generally peaked near noon local time which was broadly consistent with the trend in aerosol sulfate. The average kappa values during the first intensive operation period were 0.14±0.05, 0.14±0.04 and 0.16±0.06 for 75, 112 and 171 nm particles respectively. Evaluation of particle hygroscopicity and dispersion (mixing state) will be presented with respect to size and level of pollution.

  18. Use of Precipitation - Runoff Models to Generate Hydrologic Scenarios in a High-altitude Andean Basin of the Ecuadorian Amazon Region. Case study of the Quijos River Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galarraga, R.; McClain, M.; Ortega, F.; Estacio, A.; Febres, A.

    2007-05-01

    Little is known of the hydrology and meteorology of the expansive Andean Amazon region in South America, which extends for approximately 600.000 Km2 and represents around the 10% of the total Amazon region. Climatic processes that occur in the Andean part of the Amazon influence the middle and lower parts of the Amazon Region. Consequently, there is a need to understand the hydro-climatic characteristics in the high lands of the Andean Amazon. Understanding hydrologic processes in the Andean Amazon is challenged by the lack of hydro meteorological data at all levels. Especially challenging is the absence of data at the appropriate scale for adequate calibration and verification of mathematical models, mainly for understanding precipitation - runoff of high altitude watersheds located on the western most part of the Amazon. The study area is located on the upper part of the Napo River named the Quijos river basin after the junction of the Oyacachi River with a surface area of about 2.500,00 Km2. It is composed mainly of high altitude lands named Paramo, Andean grass lands, primary cloudy forest known for their high water retention and regulatory capacity. The models used in the Quijos river basin in the upper part of the Amazon region of Ecuador are precipitation-runoff models widely used around the world. The Simulator for Water Resources in Rural Basins - Water Quality (SWRRBWQ ) (Arnold et. al. 1990, Williams et. al. 1985), works on a daily time steps basis with daily values of meteorological data both observed in the field or generated by the model, and by sub diving the main basin into a suitable number of sub basins with a meteorological station in it The second model used is the Hydrologic Modeling System from the Hydrologic Engineering Center which is a precipitation - runoff model run at a daily basis as well. Input data sets are basic climate data as precipitation, evapotranspiration, temperature, relative humidity basin wide at daily basis; land cover

  19. Haline hurricane wake in the Amazon/Orinoco plume: AQUARIUS/SACD and SMOS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodsky, Semyon A.; Reul, Nicolas; Lagerloef, Gary; Reverdin, Gilles; Carton, James A.; Chapron, Bertrand; Quilfen, Yves; Kudryavtsev, Vladimir N.; Kao, Hsun-Ying

    2012-10-01

    At its seasonal peak the Amazon/Orinoco plume covers a region of 106 km2 in the western tropical Atlantic with more than 1 m of extra freshwater, creating a near-surface barrier layer (BL) that inhibits mixing and warms the sea surface temperature (SST) to >29°C. Here new sea surface salinity (SSS) observations from the Aquarius/SACD and SMOS satellites help elucidate the ocean response to hurricane Katia, which crossed the plume in early fall, 2011. Its passage left a 1.5 psu high haline wake covering >105 km2 (in its impact on density, the equivalent of a 3.5°C cooling) due to mixing of the shallow BL. Destruction of this BL apparently decreased SST cooling in the plume, and thus preserved higher SST and evaporation than outside. Combined with SST, the new satellite SSS data provide a new and better tool to monitor the plume extent and quantify tropical cyclone upper ocean responses with important implications for forecasting.

  20. Functional and biological diversity of foliar spectra in tree canopies throughout the Andes to Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Martin, Roberta E; Carranza-Jiménez, Loreli; Sinca, Felipe; Tupayachi, Raul; Anderson, Christopher B; Martinez, Paola

    2014-10-01

    Spectral properties of foliage express fundamental chemical interactions of canopies with solar radiation. However, the degree to which leaf spectra track chemical traits across environmental gradients in tropical forests is unknown. We analyzed leaf reflectance and transmittance spectra in 2567 tropical canopy trees comprising 1449 species in 17 forests along a 3400-m elevation and soil fertility gradient from the Amazonian lowlands to the Andean treeline. We developed quantitative links between 21 leaf traits and 400-2500-nm spectra, and developed classifications of tree taxa based on spectral traits. Our results reveal enormous inter-specific variation in spectral and chemical traits among canopy trees of the western Amazon. Chemical traits mediating primary production were tightly linked to elevational changes in foliar spectral signatures. By contrast, defense compounds and rock-derived nutrients tracked foliar spectral variation with changing soil fertility in the lowlands. Despite the effects of abiotic filtering on mean foliar spectral properties of tree communities, the spectra were dominated by phylogeny within any given community, and spectroscopy accurately classified 85-93% of Amazonian tree species. Our findings quantify how tropical tree canopies interact with sunlight, and indicate how to measure the functional and biological diversity of forests with spectroscopy. PMID:24942328

  1. Paleoproterozoic felsic volcanism of the Tapajós Mineral Province, Southern Amazon Craton, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roverato, M.; Giordano, D.; Echeverri-Misas, C. M.; Juliani, C.

    2016-01-01

    Amazonian rocks record one amongst the most complete and best-preserved Paleoproterozoic magmatic episodes on Earth. The present contribution documents the extremely well preserved paleoproterozoic architecture of a series of felsic rocks found in the Tapajós Mineral Province (TMP), located in the western part of Pará State, southern Amazon Craton, north of Brazil. These rocks are the first to be investigated to comprehend, based on their textural evidences, their emplacement mechanisms. Textural characterization allowed to identify three main facies with, as following reported, 1) chaotic ("Breccia") group, 2) eutaxitic ("Eutax") group and 3) parataxitic ("Paratax") group vitrophyric textures. Given the superb preservation of our samples, the investigated rocks are grouped, according to their grade of welding, into a wide variety of lithofacies from very low-grade to high-grade and rheomorphic ignimbrites. In the "Paratax group" strong similarities with banding in lava flows are observed. Based on the presented data we discuss the effusive or explosive origin of the observed flow mechanisms.

  2. Detecting climate change concurrent with deforestation in the Amazon Basin: Which way has it gone

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P.S.; Yu, Z.P. ); Hastenrath, S. )

    1994-04-01

    To detect climate change in the Amazon Basin, as possibly induced by deforestation, time series of monthly mean outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), an index of tropical convection, and monthly rainfall totals at Belem and Manaus for the past 15 years are analyzed. A systematic bias in the original OLR series was removed prior to the analysis. Linear regression analysis and nonlinear Mann-Kendall rank statistic are employed to detect trends. Over almost all of the basin, the OLR trend values are negative, indicating an increase of convection with time. The largest negative and statistically significant values are found in the western equatorial portion of Amazonia, where rainfall is most abundant. Consistent with this, the rainfall series at Belem and Manaus also feature upward trends. Small positive and statistically insignificant, OLR trend values are confined to the southern fringe of the basin, where deforestation has been most drastic. Thus, there is little indication for a rainfall increase associated with deforestation, but rather a strong signal of enhanced convection in the portion of Amazonia contributing most strongly to the total precipitation over the basin. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  3. The JERS Amazon Multi-Season Mapping Study (JAMMS): Observation Strategies and Data Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, B.; Freeman, A.; Siqueira, P.

    2000-01-01

    The JERS-1 Amazon Multi-season Mapping Study (JAMMS), part of the Global Rain Forest Mapping (GRFM) project led by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), had an ambitious agenda to completely map the Amazon River floodpain (and surrounding areas) twice at high resolution.

  4. Atmospheric correction analysis on LANDSAT data over the Amazon region. [Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Dias, L. A. V.; Dossantos, J. R.; Formaggio, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    The Amazon Region natural resources were studied in two ways and compared. A LANDSAT scene and its attributes were selected, and a maximum likelihood classification was made. The scene was atmospherically corrected, taking into account Amazonic peculiarities revealed by (ground truth) of the same area, and the subsequent classification. Comparison shows that the classification improves with the atmospherically corrected images.

  5. A comparison of traditional healers' medicinal plant knowledge in the Bolivian Andes and Amazon.

    PubMed

    Vandebroek, Ina; Van Damme, Patrick; Van Puyvelde, Luc; Arrazola, Susana; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2004-08-01

    Medicinal plant knowledge of two groups of traditional healers was thoroughly studied during a 2-year ethnobotanical survey in the Bolivian Andes (Quechua farmers from Apillapampa) and Amazon rainforest (Yuracaré-Trinitario slash-and-burn cultivators from Isiboro-Sécure National Park), respectively. Both areas represent ecologically and culturally diverse zones, differing in floristic diversity, physical accessibility to health care and degree of modernization, the latter evidenced by presence or intensity in use of modern services such as electricity, water distribution, and materials for house construction. It is generally believed that indigenous people have an impressive knowledge of useful plant species and that this knowledge reflects the plant wealth of their living environment. However, the present study shows that healers' knowledge of collected medicinal plants (expressed as percentage of plants known by name and use by the majority of healers) is higher in the Andean area characterised by a long history of anthropogenic activity, than in the biodiversity-rich rainforest (protected since 1965). Therefore, medicinal plant knowledge does not seem to depend on the level of plant diversity, degree of modernization or absence of Western health care infrastructure. Indeed, although Andean healers live in a floristically poorer environment, have adopted more modern services and have easier access to primary health care facilities, they are more knowledgeable about medicinal plants than rainforest healers who live isolated in an environment with considerable floristic/ecological variation and lack of Western health care. It is hypothesised that social factors underlying traditional medical practices (background of extensive family in traditional medicine) play an important role in transmission--and hence survival of knowledge on medicinal plants. PMID:15177839

  6. Tropical North Atlantic ocean-atmosphere interactions synchronize forest carbon losses from hurricanes and Amazon fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Randerson, James T.; Morton, Douglas C.

    2015-08-01

    We describe a climate mode synchronizing forest carbon losses from North and South America by analyzing time series of tropical North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), landfall hurricanes and tropical storms, and Amazon fires during 1995-2013. Years with anomalously high tropical North Atlantic SSTs during March-June were often followed by a more active hurricane season and a larger number of satellite-detected fires in the southern Amazon during June-November. The relationship between North Atlantic tropical cyclones and southern Amazon fires (r = 0.61, p < 0.003) was stronger than links between SSTs and either cyclones or fires alone, suggesting that fires and tropical cyclones were directly coupled to the same underlying atmospheric dynamics governing tropical moisture redistribution. These relationships help explain why seasonal outlook forecasts for hurricanes and Amazon fires both failed in 2013 and may enable the design of improved early warning systems for drought and fire in Amazon forests.

  7. Two case studies of sulfate scavenging processes in the Amazon region (Rondônia).

    PubMed

    Silva, M P R; Gonçalves, F L T; Freitas, S R

    2009-02-01

    The scavenging processes of chemical species have been previously studied with numerical modeling, in order to understand the gas and particulate matter intra-reservoir transferences. In this study, the atmospheric (RAMS) and scavenging (B.V.2) models were used, in order to simulate sulfate concentrations in rainwater using scavenging processes as well as the local atmospheric conditions obtained within the LBA Project in the State of Rondonia, during a dry-to-wet transition season. Two case studies were conducted. The RAMS atmospheric simulation of these events presented satisfactory results, showing the detailed microphysical processes of clouds in the Amazonian region. On the other hand, with cloud entrainments, observed values have been overestimated. Modeled sulfate rainwater concentration, using exponential decay and cloud heights of 16 km and no entrainments, presented the best results, reaching 97% of the observed value. The results, using shape parameter 5, are the best, improving the overall result.

  8. A forensic entomology case from the Amazon rain forest of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pujol-Luz, José R; Marques, Helder; Ururahy-Rodrigues, Alexandre; Rafael, José Albertino; Santana, Fernando H A; Arantes, Luciano C; Constantino, Reginaldo

    2006-09-01

    The first case of application of forensic entomology in the Brazilian Amazonia is described. The corpses of 26 men were found in the rainforest in Rondonia State, Brazil. Fly larvae collected on the bodies during autopsy were identified as Paralucilia fulvinota (Diptera, Calliphoridae). No data or specimens were collected at the crime scene. At the laboratory, the larvae developed into pupae in 58 h and into adults in 110.5 h. The total development time for P. fulvinota was measured in field experiments inside the forest. The age of the larvae when collected from the bodies was estimated as the difference between the time required for them to become adults and the total development time for this species. The estimated age of the maggots and the minimum postmortem interval was 5.7 days.

  9. Aerosol optical properties in pristine and biomass burning areas in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, P.; Rizzo, L.; Lucca, S.; Paixao, M.; Sena, E. T.; Cirino, G.; Arana, A.

    2011-12-01

    Aerosol physical and chemical properties were measured in two sites in Amazonia. The clean site is at Central Amazonia, close to Manaus. A second sampling site is located in Porto Velho, Rondonia, an area strongly affected by biomass burning emissions. Long term measurements, from February 2008 are being carried out in these two sites. In the pristine central Amazonia, measurements were taken at the Cuieiras forest site, tower TT34, 55 Km North of Manaus under dry conditions (RH<40%). A MAAP 5012 absorption photometer in series with a nephelometer (TSI 3563) was used to measure aerosol absorption and scattering, respectively. Aerosol size distributions were measure using a TSI SMPS system. Aerosol composition, and several trace gases that helps to characterize aerosol sources were also measured. In Rondonia, a sampling station was installed close to the city of Porto Velho. Similar instrumentation as in Manaus was used in Rondonia. In the pristine Amazonian atmosphere, aerosol scattering coefficients ranged between 1 and 200 Mm-1 at 450 nm, while absorption ranged between 1 and 20 Mm-1 at 637 nm. A strong seasonal behavior was observed, with greater aerosol loadings during the dry season (Jul-Nov) as compared to the wet season (Dec-Jun). During the wet season in Manaus, aerosol scattering (450 nm) and absorption (637 nm) coefficients averaged, respectively, 14±22 and 0.9±0.8 Mm-1. Both optical coefficients were greatly increased during the dry season, averaging 58±35 Mm-1 and 4.1±3.8 Mm-1, correspondingly. Angstrom exponents for scattering were lower during the wet season (1.6±0.4) in comparison to the dry season (1.9±0.2), which is consistent with the shift from biomass burning aerosols. Single scattering albedo, calculated at 637 nm, did not show a significant seasonal variation, averaging 0.86 ± 0.06 and 0.86 ± 0.04, respectively for wet and dry season. In Rondonia, even in the wet season it was possible to observe a strong impact from anthropogenic

  10. Patterns of Transcript Abundance of Eukaryotic Biogeochemically-Relevant Genes in the Amazon River Plume.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Brian L; Allen, Andrew E; Carpenter, Edward J; Coles, Victoria J; Crump, Byron C; Doherty, Mary; Foster, Rachel A; Goes, Joaquim I; Gomes, Helga R; Hood, Raleigh R; McCrow, John P; Montoya, Joseph P; Moustafa, Ahmed; Satinsky, Brandon M; Sharma, Shalabh; Smith, Christa B; Yager, Patricia L; Paul, John H

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon River has the largest discharge of all rivers on Earth, and its complex plume system fuels a wide array of biogeochemical processes, across a large area of the western tropical North Atlantic. The plume thus stimulates microbial processes affecting carbon sequestration and nutrient cycles at a global scale. Chromosomal gene expression patterns of the 2.0 to 156 μm size-fraction eukaryotic microbial community were investigated in the Amazon River Plume, generating a robust dataset (more than 100 million mRNA sequences) that depicts the metabolic capabilities and interactions among the eukaryotic microbes. Combining classical oceanographic field measurements with metatranscriptomics yielded characterization of the hydrographic conditions simultaneous with a quantification of transcriptional activity and identity of the community. We highlight the patterns of eukaryotic gene expression for 31 biogeochemically significant gene targets hypothesized to be valuable within forecasting models. An advantage to this targeted approach is that the database of reference sequences used to identify the target genes was selectively constructed and highly curated optimizing taxonomic coverage, throughput, and the accuracy of annotations. A coastal diatom bloom highly expressed nitrate transporters and carbonic anhydrase presumably to support high growth rates and enhance uptake of low levels of dissolved nitrate and CO2. Diatom-diazotroph association (DDA: diatoms with nitrogen fixing symbionts) blooms were common when surface salinity was mesohaline and dissolved nitrate concentrations were below detection, and hence did not show evidence of nitrate utilization, suggesting they relied on ammonium transporters to aquire recently fixed nitrogen. These DDA blooms in the outer plume had rapid turnover of the photosystem D1 protein presumably caused by photodegradation under increased light penetration in clearer waters, and increased expression of silicon transporters as

  11. Patterns of Transcript Abundance of Eukaryotic Biogeochemically-Relevant Genes in the Amazon River Plume.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Brian L; Allen, Andrew E; Carpenter, Edward J; Coles, Victoria J; Crump, Byron C; Doherty, Mary; Foster, Rachel A; Goes, Joaquim I; Gomes, Helga R; Hood, Raleigh R; McCrow, John P; Montoya, Joseph P; Moustafa, Ahmed; Satinsky, Brandon M; Sharma, Shalabh; Smith, Christa B; Yager, Patricia L; Paul, John H

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon River has the largest discharge of all rivers on Earth, and its complex plume system fuels a wide array of biogeochemical processes, across a large area of the western tropical North Atlantic. The plume thus stimulates microbial processes affecting carbon sequestration and nutrient cycles at a global scale. Chromosomal gene expression patterns of the 2.0 to 156 μm size-fraction eukaryotic microbial community were investigated in the Amazon River Plume, generating a robust dataset (more than 100 million mRNA sequences) that depicts the metabolic capabilities and interactions among the eukaryotic microbes. Combining classical oceanographic field measurements with metatranscriptomics yielded characterization of the hydrographic conditions simultaneous with a quantification of transcriptional activity and identity of the community. We highlight the patterns of eukaryotic gene expression for 31 biogeochemically significant gene targets hypothesized to be valuable within forecasting models. An advantage to this targeted approach is that the database of reference sequences used to identify the target genes was selectively constructed and highly curated optimizing taxonomic coverage, throughput, and the accuracy of annotations. A coastal diatom bloom highly expressed nitrate transporters and carbonic anhydrase presumably to support high growth rates and enhance uptake of low levels of dissolved nitrate and CO2. Diatom-diazotroph association (DDA: diatoms with nitrogen fixing symbionts) blooms were common when surface salinity was mesohaline and dissolved nitrate concentrations were below detection, and hence did not show evidence of nitrate utilization, suggesting they relied on ammonium transporters to aquire recently fixed nitrogen. These DDA blooms in the outer plume had rapid turnover of the photosystem D1 protein presumably caused by photodegradation under increased light penetration in clearer waters, and increased expression of silicon transporters as

  12. Patterns of Transcript Abundance of Eukaryotic Biogeochemically-Relevant Genes in the Amazon River Plume

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Andrew E.; Carpenter, Edward J.; Coles, Victoria J.; Crump, Byron C.; Doherty, Mary; Foster, Rachel A.; Goes, Joaquim I.; Gomes, Helga R.; Hood, Raleigh R.; McCrow, John P.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Moustafa, Ahmed; Satinsky, Brandon M.; Sharma, Shalabh; Smith, Christa B.; Yager, Patricia L.; Paul, John H.

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon River has the largest discharge of all rivers on Earth, and its complex plume system fuels a wide array of biogeochemical processes, across a large area of the western tropical North Atlantic. The plume thus stimulates microbial processes affecting carbon sequestration and nutrient cycles at a global scale. Chromosomal gene expression patterns of the 2.0 to 156 μm size-fraction eukaryotic microbial community were investigated in the Amazon River Plume, generating a robust dataset (more than 100 million mRNA sequences) that depicts the metabolic capabilities and interactions among the eukaryotic microbes. Combining classical oceanographic field measurements with metatranscriptomics yielded characterization of the hydrographic conditions simultaneous with a quantification of transcriptional activity and identity of the community. We highlight the patterns of eukaryotic gene expression for 31 biogeochemically significant gene targets hypothesized to be valuable within forecasting models. An advantage to this targeted approach is that the database of reference sequences used to identify the target genes was selectively constructed and highly curated optimizing taxonomic coverage, throughput, and the accuracy of annotations. A coastal diatom bloom highly expressed nitrate transporters and carbonic anhydrase presumably to support high growth rates and enhance uptake of low levels of dissolved nitrate and CO2. Diatom-diazotroph association (DDA: diatoms with nitrogen fixing symbionts) blooms were common when surface salinity was mesohaline and dissolved nitrate concentrations were below detection, and hence did not show evidence of nitrate utilization, suggesting they relied on ammonium transporters to aquire recently fixed nitrogen. These DDA blooms in the outer plume had rapid turnover of the photosystem D1 protein presumably caused by photodegradation under increased light penetration in clearer waters, and increased expression of silicon transporters as

  13. Aquatic Biodiversity in the Amazon: Habitat Specialization and Geographic Isolation Promote Species Richness

    PubMed Central

    Albert, James S.; Carvalho, Tiago P.; Petry, Paulo; Holder, Meghan A.; Maxime, Emmanuel L.; Espino, Jessica; Corahua, Isabel; Quispe, Roberto; Rengifo, Blanca; Ortega, Hernan; Reis, Roberto E.

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary The immense rainforest ecosystems of tropical America represent some of the greatest concentrations of biodiversity on the planet. Prominent among these are evolutionary radiations of freshwater fishes, including electric eels, piranhas, stingrays, and a myriad of small-bodied and colorful tetras, cichlids, and armored catfishes. In all, the many thousands of these forms account for nearly 10% of all the vertebrate species on Earth. This article explores the complimentary roles that ecological and geographic filters play in limiting dispersal in aquatic species, and how these factors contribute to the accumulation of species richness over broad geographic and evolutionary time scales. Abstract The Neotropical freshwater ichthyofauna has among the highest species richness and density of any vertebrate fauna on Earth, with more than 5,600 species compressed into less than 12% of the world's land surface area, and less than 0.002% of the world's total liquid water supply. How have so many species come to co-exist in such a small amount of total habitat space? Here we report results of an aquatic faunal survey of the Fitzcarrald region in southeastern Peru, an area of low-elevation upland (200–500 m above sea level) rainforest in the Western Amazon, that straddles the headwaters of four large Amazonian tributaries; the Juruá (Yurúa), Ucayali, Purús, and Madre de Dios rivers. All measures of fish species diversity in this region are high; there is high alpha diversity with many species coexisting in the same locality, high beta diversity with high turnover between habitats, and high gamma diversity with high turnover between adjacent tributary basins. Current data show little species endemism, and no known examples of sympatric sister species, within the Fitzcarrald region, suggesting a lack of localized or recent adaptive divergences. These results support the hypothesis that the fish species of the Fitzcarrald region are relatively ancient

  14. Volcanic Ashes Intercalated with Cultural Vestiges at Archaeological Sites from the Piedmont to the Amazon, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde, Viviana; Mothes, Patricia; Andrade, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Huapula and Pablo VI sites (in the western Amazon region of Ecuador), the reworked ashes are predominantly of Sangay volcano (in permanent eruptive activity since 1628). Finally, the work shared between archaeologists and volcanologists allowed us to discover more deposits of volcanic ashes at archaeological sites. These layers sometimes have more than 30 cm thickness in distal regions, such as the thick ash layer left by Pululahua's 2400 yBP eruption, a fact which helps us to comprehend the impact of volcanoes on past cultures.

  15. Nutrient dynamics in Amazon shelf waters: results from AMASSEDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demaster, David J.; Pope, Robert H.

    1996-03-01

    Four hydrographic cruises were conducted on the Amazon shelf as part of the AMASSEDS field program. During each cruise, approximately 55 stations were occupied and nutrients, as well as other hydrographic parameters, were measured. The results of this time series sampling program indicate that the nutrient concentrations in the riverine end-member (silicate = 144 μmol kg -1, phosphate = 0.7 μmol kg -1, nitrate = 16 μmol kg -1, ammonium = 0.4 μmol kg -1, and urea = 0.9 μmol kg -1) remain relatively constant, despite a two-fold seasonal variation in river water discharge rate. Of the major nutrients (nitrate, phosphate, ammonium and silicate), nitrate shows the greatest seasonal change in riverine end-member concentration with a high value (23 μmol kg -1) during the March cruise (rising river discharge) and a low value (12 μmol kg -1) during the November cruise (falling river discharge). Nitrate is the dominant nutrient form of inorganic nitrogen throughout most of the river/ocean mixing zone, however, in the outershelf area, where nitrate has been depleted by biological production, this nutrient occurs at concentrations comparable to the other nitrogen species (ammonium, nitrite and urea), which are at levels < 1 μmol kg -1. Nearshore, high turbidity inhibits phytoplankton production because of light limitation, whereas on the outershelf, nitrate appears to be limiting growth more than silicate or phosphate. Nutrient uptake was observed during all four cruises, however, nearly all of this production must be regenerated in shelf bottom waters, because very little of the biogenic materials are buried in the seabed (silicate burial <4% of flux to algal blooms; ˜10% burial of biologically available inorganic nitrogen reaching the river/ocean mixing zone; and <3% burial of phosphate flux to shelf environment). Clearly the Amazon shelf is not an efficient nutrient trap. Initial estimates of primary production on the Amazon shelf suggest that algal blooms are

  16. Inundation and Gas Fluxes from Amazon Lakes and Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melack, J. M.; MacIntyre, S.; Forsberg, B. R.; Amaral, J. H.; Barbosa, P.

    2015-12-01

    Inundation areas and wetland habitats for the lowland Amazon basin derived remote sensing with synthetic aperture radar are combined with measurements of greenhouse gas evasion derived from field measurements and new formulations of atmosphere-water. On-going field studies in representative aquatic habitats on the central Amazon floodplain are combining monthly measurements of carbon dioxide and methane concentrations and fluxes to the atmosphere with deployment of meteorological sensors and high-resolution thermistors and optical dissolved oxygen sensors. A real-time cavity ringdown spectrometer is being used to determine the gas concentrations; vertical profiles were obtained by using an equilibrator to extract gases from water, and floating chambers are used to assess fluxes. Gas fluxes varied as a function of season, habitat and water depth. Greatest carbon dioxide fluxes occurred during high and falling water levels. During low water, periods with high chlorophyll, indicative of phytoplankton, the flux of carbon dioxide switched from being emitted from the lake to being taken-up by the lake some of the time. The highest pCO2 concentration (5500 μatm) was about three times higher than the median (1700 μatm). Higher CO2 fluxes were observed in open water than in areas with flooded or floating vegetation. In contrast, methane fluxes were higher in vegetated regions. We measured turbulence as rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy based on microstructure profiling. Comparison of these measurements with those calculated from meteorological and time series measurements validated new equations for turbulent kinetic energy dissipation (TKE) rates during moderate winds and cooling and illustrated that the highest dissipation rates occurred under heating. Measured gas exchange coefficients (k600) were similar to those based on the TKE dissipation rates and are well described using the surface renewal model. These k values are several times higher than

  17. Climatic impact of Amazon deforestation - a mechanistic model study

    SciTech Connect

    Ning Zeng; Dickinson, R.E.; Xubin Zeng

    1996-04-01

    Recent general circulation model (GCM) experiments suggest a drastic change in the regional climate, especially the hydrological cycle, after hypothesized Amazon basinwide deforestation. To facilitate the theoretical understanding os such a change, we develop an intermediate-level model for tropical climatology, including atmosphere-land-ocean interaction. The model consists of linearized steady-state primitive equations with simplified thermodynamics. A simple hydrological cycle is also included. Special attention has been paid to land-surface processes. It generally better simulates tropical climatology and the ENSO anomaly than do many of the previous simple models. The climatic impact of Amazon deforestation is studied in the context of this model. Model results show a much weakened Atlantic Walker-Hadley circulation as a result of the existence of a strong positive feedback loop in the atmospheric circulation system and the hydrological cycle. The regional climate is highly sensitive to albedo change and sensitive to evapotranspiration change. The pure dynamical effect of surface roughness length on convergence is small, but the surface flow anomaly displays intriguing features. Analysis of the thermodynamic equation reveals that the balance between convective heating, adiabatic cooling, and radiation largely determines the deforestation response. Studies of the consequences of hypothetical continuous deforestation suggest that the replacement of forest by desert may be able to sustain a dry climate. Scaling analysis motivated by our modeling efforts also helps to interpret the common results of many GCM simulations. When a simple mixed-layer ocean model is coupled with the atmospheric model, the results suggest a 1{degrees}C decrease in SST gradient across the equatorial Atlantic Ocean in response to Amazon deforestation. The magnitude depends on the coupling strength. 66 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Consistency of vegetation index seasonality across the Amazon rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Moura, Yhasmin Mendes; Wagner, Fabien; Hilker, Thomas; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Chave, Jérôme; Mõttus, Matti; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Shimabukuro, Yosio

    2016-10-01

    Vegetation indices (VIs) calculated from remotely sensed reflectance are widely used tools for characterizing the extent and status of vegetated areas. Recently, however, their capability to monitor the Amazon forest phenology has been intensely scrutinized. In this study, we analyze the consistency of VIs seasonal patterns obtained from two MODIS products: the Collection 5 BRDF product (MCD43) and the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction algorithm (MAIAC). The spatio-temporal patterns of the VIs were also compared with field measured leaf litterfall, gross ecosystem productivity and active microwave data. Our results show that significant seasonal patterns are observed in all VIs after the removal of view-illumination effects and cloud contamination. However, we demonstrate inconsistencies in the characteristics of seasonal patterns between different VIs and MODIS products. We demonstrate that differences in the original reflectance band values form a major source of discrepancy between MODIS VI products. The MAIAC atmospheric correction algorithm significantly reduces noise signals in the red and blue bands. Another important source of discrepancy is caused by differences in the availability of clear-sky data, as the MAIAC product allows increased availability of valid pixels in the equatorial Amazon. Finally, differences in VIs seasonal patterns were also caused by MODIS collection 5 calibration degradation. The correlation of remote sensing and field data also varied spatially, leading to different temporal offsets between VIs, active microwave and field measured data. We conclude that recent improvements in the MAIAC product have led to changes in the characteristics of spatio-temporal patterns of VIs seasonality across the Amazon forest, when compared to the MCD43 product. Nevertheless, despite improved quality and reduced uncertainties in the MAIAC product, a robust biophysical interpretation of VIs seasonality is still missing.

  19. Recent variations in Amazon carbon balance driven by climate anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding tropical rainforest response to heat and drought is critical for quantifying the effects of climate change on tropical ecosystems, including global climate-carbon feedbacks. Of particular importance for the global carbon budget is net ecosystem exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere (NEE), a metric that represents the total integrated signal of carbon fluxes into and out of ecosystems. Sub-annual and sub-basin NEE estimates have previously been derived from process-based biosphere models, despite often disagreeing with plot-scale observations. Our analysis of airborne CO2 and CO measurements reveals monthly, sub-Basin scale (~106 km2) NEE variations in a framework that is largely independent of bottom-up estimates. As such, our approach provides new insights about tropical forest response to climate. We find acute sensitivity of NEE to daily and monthly climate extremes. In particular, increased central-Amazon NEE was associated with wet-season heat and dry-season drought in 2010. We analyze satellite proxies for photosynthesis and find that suppression of photosynthesis may have contributed to increased carbon loss in the 2010 drought, consistent with recent analysis of plot-scale measurements. In the eastern Amazon, pulses of increased NEE (i.e. net respiration) persisted through 2011, suggesting legacy effects of the drought that occurred in 2010. Regional differences in post-drought recovery in 2011 and 2012 appear related to long-term water availability. These results provide novel evidence of the vulnerability of Amazon carbon stocks to short-term temperature and moisture extremes.

  20. The Green Ocean Over the Amazon: Implications for Cloud Electrification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, E.; Blakeslee, R.; Boccippio, D.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A convective regime with distinct maritime characteristics (weak updraft, low CCN, prevalent coalescence and rainout, weak mixed phase reflectivity, low glaciation temperature, and little if any lightning) is documented over the Amazon basin of the South American continent, and dubbed the "green ocean". Radar, lightning, thermodynamic and AVHRR satellite observations are examined to shed light on the roles of updraft and aerosol in providing departures from the green ocean regime toward continental behavior. Extreme case studies are identified in which the updraft control is dominant and in which the aerosol control is dominant. The tentative conclusion gives importance to both updrafts and aerosol in shaping the electrification of tropical convection.

  1. Cloacolith in a blue-fronted amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    PubMed

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N

    2010-06-01

    A 4-year-old blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) was admitted for vocalization secondary to constipation. Saline infusion cloacoscopy revealed the presence of a 2-cm-diameter cloacolith within the coprodeum that was obstructing the rectal opening. The cloacolith was fragmented with a pair of biopsy forceps and the pieces removed. The cloacolith was subsequently analyzed and was composed of 100% uric acid salts. The bird improved completely and was able to defecate normally after the procedure. Cloacoliths are relative uncommon cloacal conditions, and this case documents cloacoscopic findings, rectal obstruction, and confirmation of its uric acid composition by urolith analysis.

  2. Roads Investments, Spatial Intensification and Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Walker, Robert; Aldrich, Steven; Caldas, Marcellus; Reis, Eustaquio; Perz, Stephen; Bohrer, Claudio; Arima, Eugenio; Laurance, William; Kibry, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the impact of road investments on deforestation is part of a complete evaluation of the expansion of infrastructure for development. We find evidence of spatial spillovers from roads in the Brazilian Amazon: deforestation rises in the census tracts that lack roads but are in the same county as and within 100 km of a tract with a new paved or unpaved road. At greater distances from the new roads the evidence is mixed, including negative coefficients of inconsistent significance between 100 and 300 km, and if anything, higher neighbor deforestation at distances over 300 km.

  3. PALEOCLIMATE: The Amazon Reveals Its Secrets--Partly.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, J L

    2000-12-22

    The role of the tropics in global climate change during glacial cycles is hotly debated in paleoclimate cycles today. Records from South America have not provided a clear picture of tropical climate change. In his Perspective, Betancourt highlights the study by Maslin and Burns, who have deduced the outflow of the Amazon over the past 14,000 years. This may serve as a proxy that integrates hydrology over the entire South American tropics, although the record must be interpreted cautiously because factors other than rainfall may contribute to the variability in outflow. PMID:17774599

  4. First documented outbreak of dengue in the Peruvian Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Phillips, I; Need, J; Escamilla, J; Colán, E; Sánchez, S; Rodríguez, M; Vásquez, L; Seminario, J; Betz, T; da Rosa, A T

    1992-01-01

    This article describes a classical dengue outbreak caused by dengue serotypes 1 and 4 that occurred from March to July 1990 in the city of Iquitos and surrounding areas of Loreto Department in the Peruvian Amazon. Epidemiologic data indicate that more than 150,000 persons may have been affected in Iquitos alone. Another dengue outbreak occurred in Tarapoto, a city in the neighboring department of San Martín. Laboratory data indicate that the same dengue serotypes were involved in both outbreaks. No cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever/shock syndrome appear to have occurred. Prior to this outbreak, no indigenous dengue cases had been documented in Peru.

  5. Seasonal variations in methane emission from Amazon River and tributaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawakuchi, H. O.; Krusche, A. V.; Ballester, M. V.; Sawakuchi, A. O.; Richey, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Inland waters are known as important sources of methane to atmosphere. Methane is produced in anaerobic environments usually found in lake and floodplain bottom sediments, which is the main reason why most of the information regarding methane fluxes come from this environments. However, while floodplains dry during low water season, reducing methanogenesis, rivers keep the capacity to emit methane throughout the year. Here we present results of CH4 flux measurements from 4 large tropical rivers within the Amazon basin obtained with floating chambers in 10 sampling sites during low water (between September and November of 2011) and high water seasons (May, 2012). Sampling sites were located in three main tributaries of Amazon Rivers, Madeira, Xingu and Tapajós, and in the Amazon River mainstem. In the Madeira River high water fluxes ranged from 2.85 to 30.99 mmol m-2 yr-1 while during low water from 77.47 to 183.31 mmol m-2 yr-1. Fluxes for the Amazon and Tapajós were, respectively, 110.99 and 80.01 mmol m-2 yr-1 for the high water season and 169.71 and 193.18 mmol m-2 yr-1 for low water. In the Xingu River two sites had higher fluxes during low water, 314.90 and 571.49 mmol m-2 yr-1 (91.93 and 51.11 mmol m-2 yr-1 in the high water respectively). The two other sites had an opposite pattern with 296.56 and 60.80 mmol m-2 yr-1 in the low water and 846.95 and 360.93 mmol m-2 yr-1 during high water; one site showed equal fluxes for both seasons. Most of the fluxes were higher during low water, with the exception of the three sites at the Xingu River, where fluxes during high water were higher or equal than in low water. These results show a different pattern than described before for these riverine systems, in which higher methane fluxes during high water were expected due to inputs from surrounding anoxic floodplain environments. Instead, our data shows that methane in rivers can be produced within river channels. Lower fluxes during high water could be related to

  6. Gas-charged sediments in the Amazon submarine delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Alberto G.; Nittrouer, Charles A.; de Alencar Costa, Elen

    1996-03-01

    Seismic profiling with 3.5-kHz and GeoPulse in the Amazon submarine delta indicates that gas-charged sediments cover an area greater than 31,000 km2. Gas appears on seismic profiles as gas-brightening reflectors near the river mouth, where mud and sand are well stratified. In fine sediments of the distal portion of the system, gas turbidity zones predominate. Biogenic gas is generated during degradation of terrestrial and marine organic matter by bacteria. The depth of gas in sediment below the seabed depends in part on anaerobic methane oxidation and the base of the sulfate reduction zone and on stratigraphic traps.

  7. Observations about chemical composition of aerosols in the Brazilian Amazon region - Case study: Biomass burning in the subequatorial Amazon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioda, A.; Monteiro, I. L.; Almeida, A. C.; Hacon, S. S.; Dallacort, R.; Ignotti, E.; Godoy, J. M.; Loureiro, A. L.; Morais, F.; Artaxo, P.

    2012-04-01

    The study was carried out in two cities in the Brazilian Amazon region, Tangará da Serra (14 ° 37'10 "S, 57 ° 29'09" W, 427 m asl), located in a transition area between the Amazon biome and the Cerrado and has the characteristics of urban area in Amazon region; and Alta Floresta (9 ° 52 '32 "S, 56 ° 5' 10" W, 283 m asl) situated in the extreme north of the state of Mato Grosso (MT), both in the subequatorial Amazon region. Tangara da Serra has the largest production of sugar cane in the subequatorial Amazon region. They are located 800 km from each other. These two regions are inserted in a region with typical cycles of drought and rain that alter air pollution levels, and lies in the dispersion path of the pollution plume resulting from burnings in the Brazilian Amazon and pollution emanating from neighboring countries. Both cities have wet tropical climate with two well defined seasons: rainy summer (November to May) and dry winter (June to October). During the dry winter, biomass burnings are frequent in these regions. In 2008, the Department of the Environment has banned fires in the period from July 15 to September 15 throughout the State. In this study chemical characterization was performed for approximately 100 aerosol samples collected in each site during 2008. Fine and coarse aerosol samples collected in SFUs were analyzed by ion chromatography for determination of cations (Na+, K+, NH3+, Ca2+ and Mg2+), anions (SO42-, Cl- and NO3-) and organic acids (acetate and formiate) and also measures of black carbon (BC) (Aethalometer). The results showed that for both sites the average concentrations were quite similar for PM2.5 (16 µg/m3), PM10 (11 and 13 µg/m3) and black carbon (1.4 µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 1.6 µg/m3 for PM10). Sulfate was the predominant species in fine (45%) and coarse (26%) particles in both sites. The sulfate concentrations ranged from 0.01-1.92 µg/m3 in PM2.5 and 0.01-1.66 µg/m3 in PM10 in Tangará da Serra and 0.01-2.93 µg/m3 in PM2

  8. The impact of rise of the Andes and Amazon landscape evolution on diversification of lowland terra-firme forest birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleixo, A.; Wilkinson, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    upland terra-firme forest develop. The youngest landsurfaces thus appear to lie furthest from the mountains. In this scenario major drainages were also reoriented in wholesale fashion from a northward (Caribbean) outlet to a generally eastward, Atlantic Ocean outlet. More importantly, other major river courses in western-central Amazonia will have been established at progressively younger dates with distance eastward. The bird DNA data appears to confirm the role of Amazonian rivers as primary diversification barriers, and thus probably as promoters of bird speciation. We show for the first time that a general spatio-temporal pattern of diversification for terra-firme lineages in the Amazon is associated with rivers of apparently different ages ("younging-eastward"), and furthermore parallels a specific scenario of regional drainage evolution.

  9. Trypanosoma cruzi I and IV Stocks from Brazilian Amazon Are Divergent in Terms of Biological and Medical Properties in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Margioto Teston, Ana Paula; Gruendling, Ana Paula; dos Reis, Daniele; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia; Marques de Araújo, Silvana; Bahia, Maria Terezinha; Costa Magalhães, Laylah Kelre; de Oliveira Guerra, Jorge Augusto; Silveira, Henrique; de Ornelas Toledo, Max Jean; Vale Barbosa, Maria das Graças

    2013-01-01

    Background In the Brazilian Amazon, clinical and epidemiological frameworks of Chagas disease are very dissimilar in relation to the endemic classical areas of transmission, possibly due to genetic and biological characteristics of the circulating Trypanosoma cruzi stocks. Twenty six T. cruzi stocks from Western Amazon Region attributed to the TcI and TcIV DTUs were comparatively studied in Swiss mice to test the hypothesis that T. cruzi clonal structure has a major impact on its biological and medical properties. Methodology/Principal Findings Seventeen parameters were assayed in mice infected with 14 T. cruzi strains belonging to DTU TcI and 11 strains typed as TcIV. In comparison with TcI, TcIV stocks promoted a significantly shorter pre-patent period (p<0.001), a longer patent period (p<0.001), higher values of mean daily parasitemia (p = 0.009) and maximum of parasitemia (p = 0.015), earlier days of maximum parasitemia (p<0.001) and mortality (p = 0.018), higher mortality rates in the acute phase (p = 0.047), higher infectivity rates (p = 0.002), higher positivity in the fresh blood examination (p<0.001), higher positivity in the ELISA at the early chronic phase (p = 0.022), and a higher positivity in the ELISA at the late chronic phase (p = 0.003). On the other hand TcI showed higher values of mortality rates in the early chronic phase (p = 0.014), higher frequency of mice with inflammatory process in any organ (p = 0.005), higher frequency of mice with tissue parasitism in any organ (p = 0.027) and a higher susceptibility to benznidazole (p = 0.002) than TcIV. Survival analysis showing the time elapsed from the day of inoculation to the beginning of the patent period was significantly shorter for TcIV strains and the death episodes triggered following the infection with TcI occurred significantly later in relation to TcIV. The notable exceptions come from positivity in the hemocultures and PCR, for which the

  10. Scale up the influence of aerosols on deep convection derived from GoAmazon/CHUVA measurement to Amazon basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Fu, R.

    2015-12-01

    Although the effects of aerosol on clouds and precipitation have been shown extensively, whether we can detect them on climate and continental scale, especially on convective life cycle, and how can we isolate such effect from the influences of meteorological conditions, are still unclear. To address these challenges, we are analyzing both GoAmazon/CHUVA data and a large suite of instantaneously collocated geostationary and polar orbit satellite datasets over Amazon. The results show consistent increases of rainrate, number of convective cores, and radius of the mesoscale convective systems associated with the aerosols for relatively low and moderate vertical wind shears for various lower tropospheric relative humidity conditions. Our results also suggest that, while the vertical wind shear and lower tropospheric relative humidity dominate the variations of convective system radius and number of convective cores, especially during the growing and mature stage of the convective systems, aerosols dominate the reduction of small hydrometeors, the increase of large hydrometeors, and reduction of convective anvils, especially during the mature and decaying phase of the convective systems. These results derived from a large suite of independent measurements support the hypothesis that aerosols can reduce small hydrometeors and increase hydrometeors, and invigorate convective systems, as shown by their dominant effect during the mature and decay phase of the convection. The meteorological conditions dominate the size and number of convective cores of the convective systems, especially during the growing phase of the convection. We analyze the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility (AMF) GoAmazon and Brazil led CHUVA field campaign data to evaluate these results from satellite data. Multiple regression analysis of the GoAmazon data generally suggest that aerosols have a comparable influence on cloud ice to those of the lower tropospheric relative humidity

  11. Hyperspectral remote detection of niche partitioning among canopy trees driven by blowdown gap disturbances in the Central Amazon.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Robertson, Amanda L; Carneiro, Vilany M C; Lima, Adriano J N; Smith, Marie-Louise; Plourde, Lucie C; Higuchi, Niro

    2009-05-01

    Advanced recruitment and neutral processes play important roles in determining tree species composition in tropical forest canopy gaps, with few gaps experiencing clear secondary successional processes. However, most studies are limited to the relatively limited spatial scales provided by forest inventory plots, and investigations over the entire range of gap size are needed to better understand how ecological processes vary with tree mortality events. This study employed a landscape approach to test the hypothesis that tree species composition and forest structural attributes differ between large blowdown gaps and relatively undisturbed primary forest. Spectral mixture analysis on hyperspectral satellite imagery was employed to direct field sampling to widely distributed sites, and blowdown plots were compared with undisturbed primary forest plots. Tree species composition and forest structural attributes differed markedly between gap and non-gap sites, providing evidence of niche partitioning in response to disturbance across the region. Large gaps were dominated by classic Neotropical pioneer genera such as Cecropia and Vismia, and average tree size was significantly smaller. Mean wood density of trees recovering in large gaps (0.55 g cm(-3)) was significantly lower than in primary forest plots (0.71 g cm(-3)), a difference similar to that found when comparing less dynamic (i.e., tree recruitment, growth, and mortality) Central Amazon forests with more dynamic Western Amazon forests. Based on results, we hypothesize that the importance of neutral processes weaken, and niche processes strengthen, in determining community assembly along a gradient in gap size and tree mortality intensity. Over evolutionary time scales, pervasive dispersal among colonizers could result in the loss of tree diversity in the pioneer guild through competitive exclusion. Results also underscore the importance of considering disturbance processes across the landscape when addressing

  12. Human Leptospirosis Caused by a New, Antigenically Unique Leptospira Associated with a Rattus Species Reservoir in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Cespedes, Manuel; Diaz, M. Monica; Galloway, Renee L.; Saito, Mayuko; Steigerwalt, Arnold G.; Patra, Kailash P.; Ore, Carlos Vidal; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Gilman, Robert H.; Levett, Paul N.; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2008-01-01

    As part of a prospective study of leptospirosis and biodiversity of Leptospira in the Peruvian Amazon, a new Leptospira species was isolated from humans with acute febrile illness. Field trapping identified this leptospire in peridomestic rats (Rattus norvegicus, six isolates; R. rattus, two isolates) obtained in urban, peri-urban, and rural areas of the Iquitos region. Novelty of this species was proven by serological typing, 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and DNA-DNA hybridization analysis. We have named this species “Leptospira licerasiae” serovar Varillal, and have determined that it is phylogenetically related to, but genetically distinct from, other intermediate Leptospira such as L. fainei and L. inadai. The type strain is serovar Varillal strain VAR 010T, which has been deposited into internationally accessible culture collections. By microscopic agglutination test, “Leptospira licerasiae” serovar Varillal was antigenically distinct from all known serogroups of Leptospira except for low level cross-reaction with rabbit anti–L. fainei serovar Hurstbridge at a titer of 1∶100. LipL32, although not detectable by PCR, was detectable in “Leptospira licerasiae” serovar Varillal by both Southern blot hybridization and Western immunoblot, although on immunoblot, the predicted protein was significantly smaller (27 kDa) than that of L. interrogans and L. kirschneri (32 kDa). Isolation was rare from humans (2/45 Leptospira isolates from 881 febrile patients sampled), but high titers of MAT antibodies against “Leptospira licerasiae” serovar Varillal were common (30%) among patients fulfilling serological criteria for acute leptospirosis in the Iquitos region, and uncommon (7%) elsewhere in Peru. This new leptospiral species reflects Amazonian biodiversity and has evolved to become an important cause of leptospirosis in the Peruvian Amazon. PMID:18382606

  13. Fires increase Amazon forest productivity through increases in diffuse radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rap, A.; Spracklen, D. V.; Mercado, L.; Reddington, C. L.; Haywood, J. M.; Ellis, R. J.; Phillips, O. L.; Artaxo, P.; Bonal, D.; Restrepo Coupe, N.; Butt, N.

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol scatters solar radiation increasing the fraction of diffuse radiation and the efficiency of photosynthesis. We quantify the impacts of biomass burning aerosol (BBA) on diffuse radiation and plant photosynthesis across Amazonia during 1998-2007. Evaluation against observed aerosol optical depth allows us to provide lower and upper BBA emissions estimates. BBA increases Amazon basin annual mean diffuse radiation by 3.4-6.8% and net primary production (NPP) by 1.4-2.8%, with quoted ranges driven by uncertainty in BBA emissions. The enhancement of Amazon basin NPP by 78-156 Tg C a-1 is equivalent to 33-65% of the annual regional carbon emissions from biomass burning. This NPP increase occurs during the dry season and acts to counteract some of the observed effect of drought on tropical production. We estimate that 30-60 Tg C a-1 of this NPP enhancement is within woody tissue, accounting for 8-16% of the observed carbon sink across mature Amazonian forests.

  14. Vegetation dynamics and rainfall sensitivity of the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Hilker, Thomas; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Tucker, Compton J.; Hall, Forrest G.; Myneni, Ranga B.; Wang, Yujie; Bi, Jian; Mendes de Moura, Yhasmin; Sellers, Piers J.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the vegetation canopy of the Amazon rainforest is highly sensitive to changes in precipitation patterns and that reduction in rainfall since 2000 has diminished vegetation greenness across large parts of Amazonia. Large-scale directional declines in vegetation greenness may indicate decreases in carbon uptake and substantial changes in the energy balance of the Amazon. We use improved estimates of surface reflectance from satellite data to show a close link between reductions in annual precipitation, El Niño southern oscillation events, and photosynthetic activity across tropical and subtropical Amazonia. We report that, since the year 2000, precipitation has declined across 69% of the tropical evergreen forest (5.4 million km2) and across 80% of the subtropical grasslands (3.3 million km2). These reductions, which coincided with a decline in terrestrial water storage, account for about 55% of a satellite-observed widespread decline in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). During El Niño events, NDVI was reduced about 16.6% across an area of up to 1.6 million km2 compared with average conditions. Several global circulation models suggest that a rise in equatorial sea surface temperature and related displacement of the intertropical convergence zone could lead to considerable drying of tropical forests in the 21st century. Our results provide evidence that persistent drying could degrade Amazonian forest canopies, which would have cascading effects on global carbon and climate dynamics. PMID:25349419

  15. Vegetation dynamics and rainfall sensitivity of the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Hilker, Thomas; Lyapustin, Alexei I; Tucker, Compton J; Hall, Forrest G; Myneni, Ranga B; Wang, Yujie; Bi, Jian; Mendes de Moura, Yhasmin; Sellers, Piers J

    2014-11-11

    We show that the vegetation canopy of the Amazon rainforest is highly sensitive to changes in precipitation patterns and that reduction in rainfall since 2000 has diminished vegetation greenness across large parts of Amazonia. Large-scale directional declines in vegetation greenness may indicate decreases in carbon uptake and substantial changes in the energy balance of the Amazon. We use improved estimates of surface reflectance from satellite data to show a close link between reductions in annual precipitation, El Niño southern oscillation events, and photosynthetic activity across tropical and subtropical Amazonia. We report that, since the year 2000, precipitation has declined across 69% of the tropical evergreen forest (5.4 million km(2)) and across 80% of the subtropical grasslands (3.3 million km(2)). These reductions, which coincided with a decline in terrestrial water storage, account for about 55% of a satellite-observed widespread decline in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). During El Niño events, NDVI was reduced about 16.6% across an area of up to 1.6 million km(2) compared with average conditions. Several global circulation models suggest that a rise in equatorial sea surface temperature and related displacement of the intertropical convergence zone could lead to considerable drying of tropical forests in the 21st century. Our results provide evidence that persistent drying could degrade Amazonian forest canopies, which would have cascading effects on global carbon and climate dynamics. PMID:25349419

  16. Sensitivity of Regional Climate to Deforestation in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Bras, Rafael L.

    1994-01-01

    The deforestation results in several adverse effect on the natural environment. The focus of this paper is on the effects of deforestation on land-surface processes and regional climate of the Amazon basin. In general, the effect of deforestation on climate are likely to depend on the scale of the defrosted area. In this study, we are interested in the effects due to deforestation of areas with a scale of about 250 km. Hence, a meso-scale climate model is used in performing numerical experiments on the sensitivity of regional climate to deforestation of areas with that size. It is found that deforestation results in less net surface radiation, less evaporation, less rainfall, and warmer surface temperature. The magnitude of the of the change in temperature is of the order 0.5 C, the magnitudes of the changes in the other variables are of the order of IO%. In order to verify some of he results of the numerical experiments, the model simulations of net surface radiation are compared to recent observations of net radiation over cleared and undisturbed forest in the Amazon. The results of the model and the observations agree in the following conclusion: the difference in net surface radiation between cleared and undisturbed forest is, almost, equally partioned between net solar radiation and net long-wave radiation. This finding contributes to our understanding of the basic physics in the deforestation problem.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of nebulized terbinafine in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    PubMed

    Emery, Lee C; Cox, Sherry K; Souza, Marcy J

    2012-09-01

    Aspergillosis is one of the most difficult diseases to treat successfully in avian species. Terbinafine hydrochloride offers numerous potential benefits over traditionally used antifungals for treatment of this disease. Adding nebulized antifungals to treatment strategies is thought to improve clinical outcomes in lung diseases. To determine plasma concentrations of terbinafine after nebulization, 6 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were randomly divided into 2 groups of 3. Each bird was nebulized for 15 minutes with 1 of 2 terbinafine solutions, one made with a crushed tablet and the second with raw drug powder. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at multiple time points up to 720 minutes after completing nebulization. Plasma and nebulization solutions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The terbinafine concentration of the solution made with a crushed tablet (0.87 +/- 0.05 mg/mL) was significantly lower than was that made with raw powder (1.02 +/- 0.09 mg/mL). Plasma concentrations of terbinafine did not differ significantly between birds in the 2 groups. Plasma terbinafine concentrations in birds were maintained above in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations for approximately 1 hour in birds nebulized with the crushed tablet solution and 4 hours in birds nebulized with the raw powder solution. Higher concentrations of solution, longer nebulization periods, or more frequent administration are likely needed to reach therapeutic plasma concentrations of terbinafine for clinically relevant periods in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

  18. Macroeconomic policies for sustainable development of the Amazon Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Teel, S.

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the application of the concepts of sustainability and sustainable development in the context of managing natural resources in the Amazon Basin. In order for these two concepts to be implemented efficiently and effectively three specific macroeconomic policies can be used which insure that economic growth will continue but not at the expense of ecological integrity. This paper starts with an economic treatment of the concepts of sustainability and sustainable development. The use of two separate resources are discussed here, they compromise one which can be harvested and one which insures that the harvested resource will continue to flourish after it has been harvested. Next, the paper shows which three macroeconomic policies can be used to allow the Amazon Basin to remain at its present level. They are regulation, government expenditures and financial incentives. This paper defines exactly what is meant by each policy, then shows ways that each policy can be implemented. After showing how each policy can be implemented the paper shows why it should be used and whether or not the usage of the policy will be effective in overcoming the destruction of the rain forest. The paper also shows problems associated with the policies themselves and problems with the implementation of the policies.

  19. Web quality control for lectures: Supercourse and Amazon.com.

    PubMed

    Linkov, Faina; LaPorte, Ronald; Lovalekar, Mita; Dodani, Sunita

    2005-12-01

    Peer review has been at the corner stone of quality control of the biomedical journals in the past 300 years. With the emergency of the Internet, new models of quality control and peer review are emerging. However, such models are poorly investigated. We would argue that the popular system of quality control used in Amazon.com offers a way to ensure continuous quality improvement in the area of research communications on the Internet. Such system is providing an interesting alternative to the traditional peer review approaches used in the biomedical journals and challenges the traditional paradigms of scientific publishing. This idea is being explored in the context of Supercourse, a library of 2,350 prevention lectures, shared for free by faculty members from over 150 countries. Supercourse is successfully utilizing quality control approaches that are similar to Amazon.com model. Clearly, the existing approaches and emerging alternatives for quality control in scientific communications needs to be assessed scientifically. Rapid explosion of internet technologies could be leveraged to produce better, more cost effective systems for quality control in the biomedical publications and across all sciences. PMID:16342339

  20. The chemical control of soluble phosphorus in the Amazon estuary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, L. E.; Wofsy, S. C.; Sager, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    The role of sediments in controlling concentrations of soluble phosphorous in the Amazon estuary is examined. The efflux of phosphorous through the estuary is calculated using data collected on field excursions in December 1982 and May 1983, and laboratory mixing experiments. It is observed that soluble phosphorus was released from bottom sediments at a rate of 0.2 micro-M/day, when in seawater and deionizd water mixtures. The relation between release rates and salinity and sediment concentrations is studied. A one-dimensional dispersion model was developed to estimate phosphate inputs to the estuary. The model predicted total fluxes of soluble inorganic phosphorous of 15 x 10 to the 6th mole/day for December 1982 and 27 x 10 to the 6th mole/day for May 1983; the predictions correlate with field observations. It is noted that phosphorous removal is between 0 and 4 ppt at a rate of 0.044 + or - 0.01 micron-M/ppt per day and the annual mean input of phophorous from Amazon to outer-estuary is 23 x 10 to the 6th moles/day.

  1. Interpretation of seismic stratigraphy on the Amazon continental shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.R. Jr.; Nittrouer, C.A.; Demaster, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The stratigraphy of the Amazon subaqueous delta has been examined using high-resolution reflection profiles. 15 piston cores from the Amazon Shelf were used to interpret the significance of the reflectors evident in the seismic profiles. Acoustic reflectors correlate with changes in grain size within cores, and generally represent coarser layers within the muddy deposits of the delta. Measurement of compressional-wave seismic velocity and saturated bulk density demonstrate that the correlation results from changes in acoustic impedance, caused by the grain-size variations. The reflectors reveal two predominant types of seismic stratigraphy: depositional and erosional. The depositional stratigraphy contains reflectors formed by relatively subtle change in grain size. Gently dipping topset and steeply dipping foreset demonstrate upward and seaward progradation of the subaqueous delta. This stratigraphy is truncated by erosional reflectors, which are significantly coarser layers. The erosional reflectors divide the depositional stratigraphy into distinct sets. The prevalence of erosional reflectors is greatest in the topset region near the river mouth, suggesting that sediment in this region, which is rapidly accumulating on 100-year time scales, has been eroded over longer time scales within the Holocene.

  2. Microspatial gene expression patterns in the Amazon River Plume.

    PubMed

    Satinsky, Brandon M; Crump, Byron C; Smith, Christa B; Sharma, Shalabh; Zielinski, Brian L; Doherty, Mary; Meng, Jun; Sun, Shulei; Medeiros, Patricia M; Paul, John H; Coles, Victoria J; Yager, Patricia L; Moran, Mary Ann

    2014-07-29

    We investigated expression of genes mediating elemental cycling at the microspatial scale in the ocean's largest river plume using, to our knowledge, the first fully quantitative inventory of genes and transcripts. The bacterial and archaeal communities associated with a phytoplankton bloom in Amazon River Plume waters at the outer continental shelf in June 2010 harbored ∼ 1.0 × 10(13) genes and 4.7 × 10(11) transcripts per liter that mapped to several thousand microbial genomes. Genomes from free-living cells were more abundant than those from particle-associated cells, and they generated more transcripts per liter for carbon fixation, heterotrophy, nitrogen and phosphorus uptake, and iron acquisition, although they had lower expression ratios (transcripts ⋅ gene(-1)) overall. Genomes from particle-associated cells contributed more transcripts for sulfur cycling, aromatic compound degradation, and the synthesis of biologically essential vitamins, with an overall twofold up-regulation of expression compared with free-living cells. Quantitatively, gene regulation differences were more important than genome abundance differences in explaining why microenvironment transcriptomes differed. Taxa contributing genomes to both free-living and particle-associated communities had up to 65% of their expressed genes regulated differently between the two, quantifying the extent of transcriptional plasticity in marine microbes in situ. In response to patchiness in carbon, nutrients, and light at the micrometer scale, Amazon Plume microbes regulated the expression of genes relevant to biogeochemical processes at the ecosystem scale.

  3. Web quality control for lectures: Supercourse and Amazon.com.

    PubMed

    Linkov, Faina; LaPorte, Ronald; Lovalekar, Mita; Dodani, Sunita

    2005-12-01

    Peer review has been at the corner stone of quality control of the biomedical journals in the past 300 years. With the emergency of the Internet, new models of quality control and peer review are emerging. However, such models are poorly investigated. We would argue that the popular system of quality control used in Amazon.com offers a way to ensure continuous quality improvement in the area of research communications on the Internet. Such system is providing an interesting alternative to the traditional peer review approaches used in the biomedical journals and challenges the traditional paradigms of scientific publishing. This idea is being explored in the context of Supercourse, a library of 2,350 prevention lectures, shared for free by faculty members from over 150 countries. Supercourse is successfully utilizing quality control approaches that are similar to Amazon.com model. Clearly, the existing approaches and emerging alternatives for quality control in scientific communications needs to be assessed scientifically. Rapid explosion of internet technologies could be leveraged to produce better, more cost effective systems for quality control in the biomedical publications and across all sciences.

  4. Cloudiness over the Amazon rainforest: Meteorology and thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collow, Allison B. Marquardt; Miller, Mark A.; Trabachino, Lynne C.

    2016-07-01

    Comprehensive meteorological observations collected during GOAmazon2014/15 using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility no. 1 and assimilated observations from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 are used to document the seasonal cycle of cloudiness, thermodynamics, and precipitation above the Amazon rainforest. The reversal of synoptic-scale vertical motions modulates the transition between the wet and dry seasons. Ascending moist air during the wet season originates near the surface of the Atlantic Ocean and is advected into the Amazon rainforest, where it experiences convergence and, ultimately, precipitates. The dry season is characterized by weaker winds and synoptic-scale subsidence with little or no moisture convergence accompanying moisture advection. This combination results in the drying of the midtroposphere during June through October as indicated by a decrease in liquid water path, integrated water, and the vertical profile of water vapor mixing ratio. The vertical profile of cloud fraction exhibits a relatively consistent decline in cloud fraction from the lifting condensation level (LCL) to the freezing level where a minimum is observed, unlike many other tropical regions. Coefficients of determination between the LCL and cloud fractional coverage suggest a relatively robust relationship between the LCL and cloudiness beneath 5 km during the dry season (R2 = 0.42) but a weak relationship during the wet season (0.12).

  5. Daytime turbulent exchange between the Amazon forest and the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzjarrald, David R.; Moore, Kathleen E.; Cabral, Osvaldo M. R.; Scolar, Jose; Manzi, Antonio

    1990-01-01

    Detailed observations of turbulence just above and below the crown of the Amazon rain forest during the wet season are presented. The forest canopy is shown to remove high frequency turbulent fluctuations while passing lower frequencies. Filter characteristics of turbulent transfer into the Amazon rain forest canopy are quantified. Simple empirical relations that relate observed turbulent heat fluxes to horizontal wind variance are presented. Changes in the amount of turbulent coupling between the forest and the boundary layer associated with deep convective clouds are presented both as statistical averages and as a series of case studies. These convective processes during the rainy season are shown to alter the diurnal course of turbulent fluxes. In wake of giant coastal systems, no significant heat or moisture fluxes occur for up to a day after the event. Radar data is used to demonstrate that even small raining clouds are capable of evacuating the canopy of substances normally trapped by persistent static stability near the forest floor. Recovery from these events can take more than an hour, even during mid-day. In spite of the ubiquitous presence of clouds and frequent rain during this season, the average horizontal wind speed spectrum is well described by dry CBL similarity hypotheses originally found to apply in flat terrain.

  6. Daytime turbulent exchange between the Amazon forest and the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzjarrald, David R.; Moore, Kathleen E.; Cabral, Osvaldo M. R.; Scolar, Jose; Manzi, Antonio O.; Deabreusa, Leonardo D.

    1989-01-01

    Detailed observations of turbulence just above and below the crown of the Amazon rain forest during the wet season are presented. The forest canopy is shown to remove high frequency turbulent fluctuations while passing lower frequencies. Filter characteristics of turbulent transfer into the Amazon rain forest canopy are quantified. Simple empirical relations that relate observed turbulent heat fluxes to horizontal wind variance are presented. Changes in the amount of turbulent coupling between the forest and the boundary layer associated with deep convective clouds are presented both as statistical averages and as a series of case studies. These convective processes during the rainy season are shown to alter the diurnal course of turbulent fluxes. In wake of giant coastal systems, no significant heat or moisture fluxes occur for up to a day after the event. Radar data is used to demonstrate that even small raining clouds are capable of evacuating the canopy of substances normally trapped by persistent static stability near the forest floor. Recovery from these events can take more than an hour, even during mid-day. In spite of the ubiquitous presence of clouds and frequent rain during this season, the average horizontal wind speed spectrum is well described by dry CBL similarity hypotheses originally found to apply in flat terrain.

  7. Vegetation Dynamics and Rainfall Sensitivity of the Amazon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilker, Thomas; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Tucker, Compton J.; Hall, Forrest G.; Myneni, Ranga B.; Wang, Yujie; Bi, Jian; Mendes de Moura, Yhasmin; Sellers, Piers J.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the vegetation canopy of the Amazon rainforest is highly sensitive to changes in precipitation patterns and that reduction in rainfall since 2000 has diminished vegetation greenness across large parts of Amazonia. Large-scale directional declines in vegetation greenness may indicate decreases in carbon uptake and substantial changes in the energy balance of the Amazon. We use improved estimates of surface reflectance from satellite data to show a close link between reductions in annual precipitation, El Nino southern oscillation events, and photosynthetic activity across tropical and subtropical Amazonia. We report that, since the year 2000, precipitation has declined across 69% of the tropical evergreen forest (5.4 million sq km) and across 80% of the subtropical grasslands (3.3 million sq km). These reductions, which coincided with a decline in terrestrial water storage, account for about 55% of a satellite-observed widespread decline in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). During El Nino events, NDVI was reduced about 16.6% across an area of up to 1.6 million sq km compared with average conditions. Several global circulation models suggest that a rise in equatorial sea surface temperature and related displacement of the intertropical convergence zone could lead to considerable drying of tropical forests in the 21st century. Our results provide evidence that persistent drying could degrade Amazonian forest canopies, which would have cascading effects on global carbon and climate dynamics.

  8. Windthrows increase soil carbon stocks in a Central Amazon forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, L. T.; Magnabosco Marra, D.; Trumbore, S.; Camargo, P. B.; Chambers, J. Q.; Negrón-Juárez, R. I.; Lima, A. J. N.; Ribeiro, G. H. P. M.; dos Santos, J.; Higuchi, N.

    2015-12-01

    Windthrows change forest structure and species composition in Central Amazon forests. However, the effects of widespread tree mortality associated with wind-disturbances on soil properties have not yet been described. In this study, we investigated short-term effects (seven years after disturbance) of a windthrow event on soil carbon stocks and concentrations in a Central Amazon terra firme forest. The soil carbon stock (averaged over a 0-30 cm depth profile) in disturbed plots (61.4 ± 4.18 Mg ha-1, mean ± standard error) was marginally higher (p = 0.009) than that from undisturbed plots (47.7 ± 6.95 Mg ha-1). The soil organic carbon concentration in disturbed plots (2.0 ± 0.08 %) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than that from undisturbed plots (1.36 ± 0.12 %). Moreover, soil carbon stocks were positively correlated with soil clay content (r = 0.575 and p = 0.019) and with tree mortality intensity (r = 0.493 and p = 0.045). Our results indicate that large inputs of plant litter associated with large windthrow events cause a short-term increase in soil carbon content, and the degree of increase is related to soil clay content and tree mortality intensity. Higher nutrient availability in soils from large canopy gaps created by wind disturbance may increase vegetation resilience and favor forest recovery.

  9. Iron cycling in the Amazon River Basin: the isotopic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poitrasson, Franck; Vieira, Lucieth; Mulholland, Daniel; Seyler, Patrick; Sondag, Francis; Allard, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    With the global climate change and increasing anthropic pressure on nature, it is important to find new indicators of the response of complex systems like the Amazon River Basin. In particular, new tracers like iron isotopes may tell us much on processes such as the chemical exchanges between rivers, soils and the biosphere. Pioneering studies revealed that for some river waters, large δ57Fe fractionations are observed between the suspended and dissolved load (Bergquist and Boyle, 2006), and isotopic variations were also recognized on the suspended matter along the hydrological cycle (Ingri et al., 2006). On land, soil studies from various locations have shown that δ57Fe signatures depend mostly on the weathering regime (Fantle and DePaolo, 2004; Emmanuel et al., 2005; Wiederhold et al., 2007; Poitrasson et al., 2008). It thus seems that Fe isotopes could become an interesting new tracer of the exchanges between soils, rivers and the biosphere. We therefore conducted Fe isotope surveys through multidisciplinary field missions on rivers from the Amazon Basin. It was confirmed that acidic, organic-rich black waters show strong Fe isotope fractionation between particulate and dissolved loads. Furthermore, this isotopic fractionation varies along the hydrological cycle, like previously uncovered in boreal waters suspended matter. In contrast, unfiltered waters show very little variation with time. It was also found that Fe isotopes remain a conservative tracer even in the case of massive iron loss during the mixing of chemically contrasted waters such as the Negro and Solimões tributaries of the Amazon River. Given that >95% of the Fe from the Amazon River is carried as detrital materials, our results lead to the conclusion that the Fe isotope signature delivered to the Atlantic Ocean is undistinguishable from the continental crust value, in contrast to previous inferences. The results indicate that Fe isotopes in rivers represent a promising indicator of the

  10. Microwave remote sensing of Saharan ergs and Amazon vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephen, Haroon

    This dissertation focuses on relating spaceborne microwave data to the geophysical characteristics of the Sahara desert and the Amazon vegetation. Radar and radiometric responses of the Saharan ergs are related to geophysical properties of sand formations and near surface winds. The spatial and temporal variability of the Amazon vegetation is studied using multi-frequency and multi-polarization data. The Sahara desert includes large expanses of sand dunes called ergs that are constantly reshaped by prevailing winds. Radar backscatter (sigma°) measurements observed at various incidence (theta) and azimuth (φ) angles from the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT), the ERS scatterometer (ESCAT), the SeaWinds scatterometer aboard QuikScat (QSCAT), and the Precipitation Radar (TRMM-PR) aboard the Tropical Rain Monitoring Mission (TRMM) are used to model the sigma° response from sand dunes. Backscatter theta and φ variation depends upon the slopes and orientations of the dune slopes. Sand dunes are modeled as a composite of tilted rough facets, which are characterized by a probability distribution of tilt. The small ripples are modeled as cosinusoidal surface waves that contribute to the return signal at Bragg angles. The sigma° response is high at look angles equal to the mean tilts of the rough facets and is lower elsewhere. The modeled sigma° response is similar to NSCAT and ESCAT observations. sigma° also varies spatially and reflects the spatial inhomogeneity of the sand surface. A model incorporating the sigma° φ-modulation and spatial inhomogeneity is proposed. The maxima of the φ-modulation at theta = 33° reflect the orientation of the slip-sides on the sand surface. These slip-side orientations are consistent with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts wind directions spatially and temporally. Radiometric emissions from the ergs have strong dependence on the surface geometry. The radiometric temperature (Tb) of ergs is modeled as the weighted sum

  11. Hydrological Controls on Macrophyte Productivity in the Amazon Floodplain Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, T. S.; Novo, E. M.; Melack, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    The Amazon River floodplain is an important source of atmospheric CO2 and CH4, but the relative contribution of allochthonous and autochthonous sources to floodplain emissions is still uncertain. Macrophytes comprise an important carbon source, growing during both low and high water conditions, and averaging 5,000 g.m-2.yr-1 in dry weight. The controls exerted by the annual flooding on macrophyte productivity result from two opposing mechanisms: the "horizontal expansion" of plant stands during low water levels and the stem elongation ("vertical growth") promoted by rising water levels. As studies suggest more frequent and intense droughts for the Amazon, determining how these mechanisms interact to control macrophyte net primary productivity (NPP) can lead to a better understanding of the effects of extreme hydrological conditions on autochthonous carbon fixation in the Amazon floodplain. Our study combines remote sensing estimates of macrophyte cover, in situ measurements of macrophyte biomass, historical water level records, and statistical modeling and simulation to answer 1) how plant horizontal expansion and vertical growth respond to inter-annual flooding variability, 2) how these responses modulate annual NPP, and 3) how climatic changes will affect the contribution of macrophytes to the carbon budget of the Amazon floodplain. Biomass data was collected along a stretch of the Lower Amazon Floodplain, at monthly intervals in 2004, and a time series of Radarsat-1 and EOS-MODIS images was acquired for the same area for the 2003-2005 period. Daily river stage data was acquired from the Brazilian National Water Agency (ANA) for the Óbidos station, covering the 1970 - 2011 period. Macrophyte cover was estimated for each available image in the series, using a multitemporal object-based image analysis algorithm. Empirical regression models were used to model the relationship between flood levels and both plant biomass and cover area, and combined into a semi

  12. What Is Western Civilization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birken, Lawrence

    1992-01-01

    Discusses opposing tendencies in the interpretation of Western Civilization. Describes the expanded definition that includes Byzantine and Islamic cultures as heirs of the Greco-Roman cultures. Suggests that a limited definition of Western culture will facilitate a problems approach, emphasize diversity among cultures, and integrate the classical…

  13. Surveillance, health promotion and control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region--Medical attention in the Brazilian Amazon Region: a proposal.

    PubMed

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela C V

    2015-11-01

    We refer to Oswaldo Cruz's reports dating from 1913 about the necessities of a healthcare system for the Brazilian Amazon Region and about the journey of Carlos Chagas to 27 locations in this region and the measures that would need to be adopted. We discuss the risks of endemicity of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region. We recommend that epidemiological surveillance of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region and Pan-Amazon region should be implemented through continuous monitoring of the human population that lives in the area, their housing, the environment and the presence of triatomines. The monitoring should be performed with periodic seroepidemiological surveys, semi-annual visits to homes by health agents and the training of malaria microscopists and healthcare technicians to identify Trypanosoma cruzi from patients' samples and T. cruzi infection rates among the triatomines caught. We recommend health promotion and control of Chagas disease through public health policies, especially through sanitary education regarding the risk factors for Chagas disease. Finally, we propose a healthcare system through base hospitals, intermediate-level units in the areas of the Brazilian Amazon Region and air transportation, considering the distances to be covered for medical care.

  14. Surveillance, health promotion and control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region - Medical attention in the Brazilian Amazon Region: a proposal

    PubMed Central

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela CV

    2015-01-01

    We refer to Oswaldo Cruz's reports dating from 1913 about the necessities of a healthcare system for the Brazilian Amazon Region and about the journey of Carlos Chagas to 27 locations in this region and the measures that would need to be adopted. We discuss the risks of endemicity of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region. We recommend that epidemiological surveillance of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region and Pan-Amazon region should be implemented through continuous monitoring of the human population that lives in the area, their housing, the environment and the presence of triatomines. The monitoring should be performed with periodic seroepidemiological surveys, semi-annual visits to homes by health agents and the training of malaria microscopists and healthcare technicians to identify Trypanosoma cruzi from patients' samples and T. cruzi infection rates among the triatomines caught. We recommend health promotion and control of Chagas disease through public health policies, especially through sanitary education regarding the risk factors for Chagas disease. Finally, we propose a healthcare system through base hospitals, intermediate-level units in the areas of the Brazilian Amazon Region and air transportation, considering the distances to be covered for medical care. PMID:26560976

  15. Timing of mafic magmatism in the Tapajós Province (Brazil) and implications for the evolution of the Amazon Craton: evidence from baddeleyite and zircon U Pb SHRIMP geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, João Orestes Schneider; Hartmann, Léo Afraneo; McNaughton, Neal Jesse; Fletcher, Ian Robert

    2002-09-01

    The precise timing and possible sources of the mafic rocks in the Amazon craton are critical for reconstruction of the Atlantica supercontinent and correlation of mafic magmatism worldwide. New SHRIMP U-Pb baddeleyite and zircon ages and the reinterpretation of 207 existing dates indicate one orogenic (Ingarana) and four postorogenic (Crepori, Cachoeira Seca, Piranhas, and Periquito) basaltic events in the Tapajós Province, south central Amazon craton. Orogenic gabbro dikes that host gold mineralization are 1893 Ma and interpreted as associated with the Ingarana gabbro intrusions of the bimodal calk-alkalic Parauari intrusive suite. The age of 1893 Ma can be used as a guide to discriminate older and mineralized orogenic dikes from younger and nonmineralized Crepori- and Cachoeira Seca-related mafic dikes. The baddeleyite U-Pb age of the postorogenic Crepori dolerite (gabbro-dolerite sills and dikes) is 1780±9 Ma, ˜150 my older than the ages provided by K-Ar. This value correlates well with the Avanavero tholeiitic intrusions in the Roraima group, in the northern part of the craton in Guyana, Venezuela, and Roraima in Brazil. Early Statherian tholeiitic magmatism was widespread not only in the Amazon craton, but also in the La Plata craton of southern South America, where it is known as the giant Piedra Alta swarm of Uruguay and the post-Trans-Amazonian dikes of Tandil in Argentina. The Cachoeira Seca troctolite represents laccoliths, Feixes, and São Domingos, whose baddeleyite U-Pb age is 1186±12 Ma, 120-150 my older than the known K-Ar ages. This age is comparable to other Stenian gabbroic rocks with alkalic affinity in the craton, such as the Seringa Formation in NE Amazonas and the basaltic flows of the Nova Floresta formation in Rondônia. Dolerite from the giant Piranhas dike swarm in the western Tapajós Province has a Middle Cambrian age (507±4 Ma, baddeleyite) and inherited zircons in the 2238-1229 Ma range. The Piranhas dikes fill extensional NNE and

  16. Deforestation alters phytotelm habitat availability and mosquito production in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Yanoviak, Stephen P; Paredes, J E Ramírez; Lounibos, L Philip; Weaver, Scott C

    2006-10-01

    We quantified the effects of deforestation, and subsequent cultivation and forest regeneration, on the abundance and composition of mosquito larval habitats, specifically phytotelmata (plant-held waters), in the western Amazon basin. Recently deforested sites were characterized by increased phytotelm density (1.6 phytotelmata/m2) and greater relative abundance of fallen-plant-part phytotelmata (76%) compared to intact forests (0.9 phytotelmata/m2 and 25% fallen plant parts). As a result, the total volume of colonizable phytotelm water was significantly larger in new clearings. Subsequent cultivation of cleared land with mixed crops including pineapple and plantain had similar consequences: phytotelm density (2.2 units/m2) was significantly larger in plantations than in forests due to greater relative abundance of water-filled plant axils (71% vs. 39% in forest). Such axils are the preferred larval habitats for Wyeomyia spp. mosquitoes, which showed a similarly significant increase in production in plantations (0.25 larvae/m2) vs. forests (0.04 larvae/m2). Likewise, Limatus spp. mosquitoes were an order of magnitude more abundant in altered landscapes (especially in recently deforested and cultivated areas) than in mature forest, due to increased abundance of fallen-plant-part phytotelmata, in which they are typically the most common colonists. Because they are potential vectors of pathogens in a region of high endemic and emergent virus activity, increases in local abundance of Limatus spp. and Wyeomyia spp. due to large-scale deforestation and agriculture may influence rates of disease transmission.

  17. A dermoid of the eye in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    PubMed

    Leber, A.C.; Bürge, T.

    1999-01-01

    A corneo-conjunctival dermoid is reported in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva). After laminar keratectomy, histology showed the epidermis with feather follicles and dermal connective tissue with lymph follicles and sebaceous glands.

  18. Telemedicine in extreme conditions: supporting the Martin Strel Amazon Swim Expedition.

    PubMed

    Latifi, Rifat; Stanonik, Mateja de Leonni; Merrell, Ronald C; Weinstein, Ronald S

    2009-01-01

    Slovenian Martin Strel, the Guinness world record holder in ultra marathon swimming, recently set a new world record by swimming the entire Amazon River. Over a 66-day period beginning in Atalaya, Peru, he swam to the Atlantic Ocean at Belém, Brazil. This record-breaking swim was part of the Amazon Swim Expedition. This entire mission was supported by a comprehensive medical team, the Amazon Virtual Medical Team (AVMT), which provided medical support using telemedicine. The AVMT, a multinational volunteer group of specialists, physicians, and telemedicine experts, provided medical support 24/7 in some of the most remote, dangerous, basin. The AVMT was directed basin. The AVMT was directed by Dr. Rifat Latifi and expedition team physician, Dr. Mateja de Leonni Stanonik, who was aboard the boat during the entire expedition. The expedition provided a unique opportunity to promote telemedicine and e-health in over 17 communities in the Amazon basin.

  19. Scorpion envenoming caused by Tityus cf. silvestris evolving with severe muscle spasms in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; de Oliveira, Sâmella Silva; Pivoto, Guilherme; Alves, Eliane Campos; de Almeida Gonçalves Sachett, Jacqueline; Alexandre, Cleber Nunes; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Barbosa Guerra, Maria das Graças Vale; da Silva, Iran Mendonça; Tavares, Antonio Magela; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães

    2016-09-01

    Scorpion stings are a public health problem in the Brazilian Amazon. However, detailed clinical characterization with the proper animal identification is scarce. Here we report a confirmed case of envenoming by Tityus cf. silvestris in the Brazilian Amazon. The case evolved with generalized muscle spasms and was treated with antivenom and supportive therapy, requiring intensive care unit admission. The patient evolved favourably and was discharged after 9 days of hospitalization. PMID:27368713

  20. Violence the Western way.

    PubMed

    Roth, B E

    1997-10-01

    Despite the quiet revolution in response to changing conceptualizations of gender in psychoanalysis, the Western has remained the domain of aggressive phallic masculinity. The iconic imagery of the Western, when combined with its narrative trajectory, is used to tell stories of violent encounters between men. The acceptance of the genre, and its duplication by other cultures and film makers, indicates that the Westerns' imagery and moral solutions tap into some basic deep structures of anxiety and pleasure in violence between men. As long as societies require subtle sublimations of aggressive and violent drives, it is likely that men will seek imaginary regressive experiences to discharge frustrations.

  1. Avian pox in blue-fronted Amazon parrots.

    PubMed

    McDonald, S E; Lowenstine, L J; Ardans, A A

    1981-12-01

    During a 1-month period at a quarantine station, an epornitic of avian pox occurred in blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva). Clinical signs included conjunctivitis, blepharitis, and varying degrees of anorexia and respiratory distress. Lesions included periocular ulcerations and scabs and necrotic plaques in the oral cavity. Histologically, the lesions consisted of epithelial hyperplasia, secondary inflammatory changes, and eosinophilic inclusions which, by electron microscopy, were shown to contain poxvirus. When chicken embryos were inoculated with material from eyelid scabs and pharyngeal plaques, lesions of avian pox developed on the chorioallantoic membrane. The death rate of infected birds was high because of secondary bacterial and fungal infections, but uncomplicated cases were usually self-limiting. Periocular lesions also developed in 2 other species of psittacine birds housed in the same facility.

  2. Conservation Efforts and Malaria in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Micah B.; Olson, Sarah H.; Vittor, Amy Y.; Barcellos, Christovam; Patz, Jonathan A.; Pan, William

    2014-01-01

    We respond to Valle and Clark,1 who assert that “conservation efforts may increase malaria burden in the Brazilian Amazon,” because the relationship between forest cover and malaria incidence was stronger than the effect of the deforestation rate.1 We contend that their conclusion is flawed because of limitations in their methodology that we discuss in detail. Most important are the exclusion of one-half the original data without a discussion of selection bias, the lack of model adjustment for either population growth or migration, and the crude classifications of land cover and protected areas that lead to aggregation bias.1 Of greater significance, we stress the need for caution in the interpretation of data that could have profound effects on regional land use decisions. PMID:24277787

  3. Brazilian Amazon Roads and Parks: Temporal & Spatial Deforestation Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaff, A.; Robalino, J.

    2011-12-01

    Heterogeneous Forest Impacts of Transport Infrastructure: spatial frontier dynamics & impacts of Brazilian Amazon road changes Prior research on road impacts has almost completely ignored heterogeneity of impacts and as a result both empirically understated potential impact and missed policy potential. We note von Thunen's model suggests not only heterogeneity with distance from market but also specifically road impacts rising then falling with distance ('non-monoThunicity') Endogenous development and partial adjustment dynamics support this for the short run. Causal effects result from studying Brazilian Amazon deforestation (1976-87, 2000-04) using matching for short-run responses to lagged new roads changes (1968-75, 1985-00). We show the critical role of prior development, proxied by 1968 and 1985 road distances, for which exact matching addresses development trends and transforms impact estimates. Splitting the sample on this measure finds confirmation of the nonmonotonic predictions: new road impacts are relatively low if a prior road was close, such that prior transport access and endogenous development dynamics compete with the new road for influence, but also if a prior road was far, since first-decade adjustment in pristine areas is limited; yet in between these bounds, investments immediately raise deforestation significantly. This pattern helps to explain lower estimates within research on a single average impact. It suggests potential for REDD if a country chooses to shift its spatial transport networks. Protected Areas & Brazilian Amazon Deforestation: modeling and testing the impacts of varied PA strategies We model and then estimate the impacts of multiple types of protected areas upon 2000 - 2004 deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Our modeling starts with federal versus state objectives and predicts differences in both choice and implementation of each PA strategy that we examine. Our empirical examination brings not only breakdowns sufficient

  4. Smoke invigoration versus inhibition of clouds over the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Koren, Ilan; Martins, J Vanderlei; Remer, Lorraine A; Afargan, Hila

    2008-08-15

    The effect of anthropogenic aerosols on clouds is one of the most important and least understood aspects of human-induced climate change. Small changes in the amount of cloud coverage can produce a climate forcing equivalent in magnitude and opposite in sign to that caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gases, and changes in cloud height can shift the effect of clouds from cooling to warming. Focusing on the Amazon, we show a smooth transition between two opposing effects of aerosols on clouds: the microphysical and the radiative. We show how a feedback between the optical properties of aerosols and the cloud fraction can modify the aerosol forcing, changing the total radiative energy and redistributing it over the atmospheric column.

  5. Simulation of SWOT measurements over the Amazon delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lion, C.; Lyard, F.; Calmant, S.; Crétaux, J.; Le Bars, Y.; Fjortoft, R.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of our study is to evaluate SWOT’s skills with the high mode of resolution (pixel: 4m x 10 to 70m) to highlight estuaries dynamic or to complete a lack of in situ data used by the hydrodynamic models . To reach this goal we have two simulators: one end-to-end developed by S. Biancamaria at Legos and another one developed by the help of industrials Altamira Information and Cap Gemini which describes the physic phenomenon. Both of them need a full description of the instantaneous water states described by a DEM and model’s output. We present first results on the Amazon’s delta due to his peculiar tided-sensitivity. To perform our simulation we have used the hydrodynamic finite element model T-UGOm, the Ore-Hybam data base and data collected during a campaign realised in 2010 over the Amazon river.

  6. Conservation efforts and malaria in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Micah B; Olson, Sarah H; Vittor, Amy Y; Barcellos, Christovam; Patz, Jonathan A; Pan, William

    2014-04-01

    We respond to Valle and Clark, who assert that "conservation efforts may increase malaria burden in the Brazilian Amazon," because the relationship between forest cover and malaria incidence was stronger than the effect of the deforestation rate. We contend that their conclusion is flawed because of limitations in their methodology that we discuss in detail. Most important are the exclusion of one-half the original data without a discussion of selection bias, the lack of model adjustment for either population growth or migration, and the crude classifications of land cover and protected areas that lead to aggregation bias. Of greater significance, we stress the need for caution in the interpretation of data that could have profound effects on regional land use decisions.

  7. An artificial landscape-scale fishery in the Bolivian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Erickson, C L

    2000-11-01

    Historical ecologists working in the Neotropics argue that the present natural environment is an historical product of human intentionality and ingenuity, a creation that is imposed, built, managed and maintained by the collective multigenerational knowledge and experience of Native Americans. In the past 12,000 years, indigenous peoples transformed the environment, creating what we now recognize as the rich ecological mosaic of the Neotropics. The prehispanic savanna peoples of the Bolivian Amazon built an anthropogenic landscape through the construction of raised fields, large settlement mounds, and earthen causeways. I have studied a complex artificial network of hydraulic earthworks covering 525 km2 in the Baures region of Bolivia. Here I identify a particular form of earthwork, the zigzag structure, as a fish weir, on the basis of form, orientation, location, association with other hydraulic works and ethnographic analogy. The native peoples used this technology to harvest sufficient animal protein to sustain large and dense populations in a savanna environment.

  8. Smoke Invigoration Versus Inhibition of Clouds over the Amazon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koren, Ilan; Martins, J. Vanderlei; Lorraine, A. Remer; Afargan, Hila

    2008-01-01

    The effect of anthropogenic aerosols on clouds is one of the most important and least understood aspects of human-induced climate change. Small changes in the amount of cloud coverage can produce a climate forcing equivalent in magnitude and opposite in sign to that caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gases, and changes in cloud height can shift the effect of clouds from cooling to warming. Focusing on the Amazon, we show a smooth transition between two opposing effects of aerosols on clouds: the microphysical and the radiative. We show how a feedback between the optical properties of aerosols and the cloud fraction can modify the aerosol forcing, changing the total radiative energy and redistributing it over the atmospheric column.

  9. Fatal toxoplasmosis in a vinaceous Amazon parrot (Amazona vinacea).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Francisco Carlos; Donatti, Rogerio Venâncio; Marques, Marcus Vinícius Romero; Ecco, Roselene; Preis, Ingred Sales; Shivaprasad, H L; Vilela, Daniel Ambrózio da Rocha; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a vinaceous Amazon parrot based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The bird was prostrate on the bottom of the cage and died. Necropsy revealed edema and congestion of the lungs, cloudy air sacs, and mild hepatomegaly. Histopathology revealed severe pulmonary congestion and edema and interstitial mononuclear cell inflammation associated with many cysts containing bradyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii scattered throughout. The heart had mild multifocal lymphocytic myocarditis and free tachyzoites in the muscle fibers, and the kidneys had mild interstitial nephritis and a few cysts containing bradyzoites of T. gondii. Immunohistochemistry was negative for Sarcocystis falcatula and Neospora caninum and confirmed the protozoa as T. gondii. This is the first description of T. gondii in an endangered species ofa Brazilian psittacine.

  10. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  11. Atmospheric surface and boundary layers of the Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garstang, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Three phases of work were performed: design of and preparation for the Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2-A); execution of the ABLE 2-A field program; and analysis of the ABLE 2-A data. Three areas of experiment design were dealt with: surface based meteorological measurements; aircraft missions; and project meteorological support. The primary goal was to obtain a good description of the structure of the atmosphere immediately above the rain forest canopy (top of canopy to a few thousand meters), to describe this region during the growing daytime phase of the boundary layer; and to examine the nighttime stratified state. A secondary objective was to examine the role that deep convective storms play in the vertical transport of heat, water vapor, and other trace gases. While significant progress was made, much of the analysis remains to be done.

  12. Projections of future meteorological drought and wet periods in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Philip B; Brando, Paulo; Asner, Gregory P; Field, Christopher B

    2015-10-27

    Future intensification of Amazon drought resulting from climate change may cause increased fire activity, tree mortality, and emissions of carbon to the atmosphere across large areas of Amazonia. To provide a basis for addressing these issues, we examine properties of recent and future meteorological droughts in the Amazon in 35 climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). We find that the CMIP5 climate models, as a group, simulate important properties of historical meteorological droughts in the Amazon. In addition, this group of models reproduces observed relationships between Amazon precipitation and regional sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans. Assuming the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario for future drivers of climate change, the models project increases in the frequency and geographic extent of meteorological drought in the eastern Amazon, and the opposite in the West. For the region as a whole, the CMIP5 models suggest that the area affected by mild and severe meteorological drought will nearly double and triple, respectively, by 2100. Extremes of wetness are also projected to increase after 2040. Specifically, the frequency of periods of unusual wetness and the area affected by unusual wetness are projected to increase after 2040 in the Amazon as a whole, including in locations where annual mean precipitation is projected to decrease. Our analyses suggest that continued emissions of greenhouse gases will increase the likelihood of extreme events that have been shown to alter and degrade Amazonian forests.

  13. Uranium geochemistry on the Amazon shelf: Evidence for uranium release from bottom sediments

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, B.A.; DeMaster, D.J.; Nittrouer, C.A. )

    1987-10-01

    In Amazon-shelf waters, as salinity increases to 36.5 x 10{sup {minus}3}, dissolved uranium activities increase to a maximum of 4.60 dpm 1{sup {minus}1}. This value is much higher than the open-ocean value (2.50 dpm 1{sup {minus}1}), indicating a source of dissolved uranium to shelf waters in addition to that supplied from open-ocean and riverine waters. Uranium activities are much lower for surface sediments in the Amazon-shelf sea bed (mean: 0.69 {plus minus} .09 dpm g{sup {minus}1}) than for suspended sediments in the Amazon river (1.82 dpm g{sup {minus}1}). Data suggest that the loss of particulate uranium from riverine sediments is probably the result of uranium desorption from the ferric-oxyhydroxide coatings on sediment particles, and/or uranium release by mobilization of the ferric oxyhydroxides. The total flux of dissolved {sup 238}U from the Amazon shelf (about 1.2 x 10{sup 15} dpm yr{sup {minus}1}) constitutes about 15% of uranium input to the world ocean, commensurate to the Amazon River's contribution to world river-water discharge. Measurement of only the riverine flux of dissolved {sup 238}U underestimates, by a factor of about 5, the flux of dissolved {sup 238}U from the Amazon shelf to the open ocean.

  14. Modelling the interplay between global and regional drivers on Amazon deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla-Nora, E. L.; Aguiar, A. P. D.; Montenegro Lapola, D.; Woltjer, G.

    2014-12-01

    Since mid-2000s, several measures have been taken to curb Amazon deforestation in Brazil, which dropped 84% up to 2012. However, this process raise concerns owed of the unintended effects of such interventions, like land use displacements. Here we explore an innovative modeling approach for the Amazon in order to simulate how the global demand for agricultural commodities and different regional land use policies could affect future deforestation trends inside and outside the Amazon, paying special attention to leakage effects over the Cerrado. A global economic model was taken to integrate supply and demand factors at both global and regional scales, coupled with a spatially explicitly land use model. Leakage effects are simulated in two different ways, regarding land demand and land allocation, based on the relative land rents of different land use types and spatial regression. Six contrasting multi-scale scenarios are explored focusing on deforestation rates and spatial pattern analysis. Our results unveil that Amazon conservation might not be the end of deforestation in Brazil once it can lead to 70% increase over the Cerrado cleared area up to 2050. Biofuels targets compliance can further press land cover changes over these regions revealing that productivity gains will be decisive for both Amazon and Cerrado conservation. In summary, closing the agricultural frontier in the Amazon cannot ensure biodiversity conservation or carbon savings in absence of complementary measures committed with land use efficiency, controlled land use expansion and new economic alternatives.

  15. Projections of future meteorological drought and wet periods in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Philip B.; Brando, Paulo; Asner, Gregory P.; Field, Christopher B.

    2015-01-01

    Future intensification of Amazon drought resulting from climate change may cause increased fire activity, tree mortality, and emissions of carbon to the atmosphere across large areas of Amazonia. To provide a basis for addressing these issues, we examine properties of recent and future meteorological droughts in the Amazon in 35 climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). We find that the CMIP5 climate models, as a group, simulate important properties of historical meteorological droughts in the Amazon. In addition, this group of models reproduces observed relationships between Amazon precipitation and regional sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans. Assuming the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario for future drivers of climate change, the models project increases in the frequency and geographic extent of meteorological drought in the eastern Amazon, and the opposite in the West. For the region as a whole, the CMIP5 models suggest that the area affected by mild and severe meteorological drought will nearly double and triple, respectively, by 2100. Extremes of wetness are also projected to increase after 2040. Specifically, the frequency of periods of unusual wetness and the area affected by unusual wetness are projected to increase after 2040 in the Amazon as a whole, including in locations where annual mean precipitation is projected to decrease. Our analyses suggest that continued emissions of greenhouse gases will increase the likelihood of extreme events that have been shown to alter and degrade Amazonian forests. PMID:26460046

  16. Exploring the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto and Understanding the Origin of the Modern Amazon Basin with Imaging Radar:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Campbell, K.; Cracraft, J.; Carnaval, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Amazon basin is a biodiversity biome and plays a significant role into shaping the earth's climate, ocean and atmospheric gases. Understanding the history of the formation of the basin is essential to our understanding of the region's biodiversity loss and response to climate change. Ancient River channels in lowland Amazonia exhibit right angle branching structures as well as intricately intertwined channels. Past research has attributed these characteristic as a result of subsurface faults but makes it difficult to validate this augment due to dense vegetation and sedimentation. We seek to employ remote sensing techniques for examining geomorphological features and the relationship to evolutionary processes that shaped biodiversity in the modern Amazon River Basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery gathered from the NASA/JPL airborne imaging radar over the Planalto, in the Madre de Dios region of Southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and geologic processes through deep time. In the late Neogene, the Amazonian lowlands comprised either a series of independent basins or a single sedimentary basin. The Amazonian Planalto is variously described as either erosional surface or a surface of deposition. We employ UAVSAR data collection to assess (1) the utility of these radar data for use in identifying associated geomorphologic features, and (2) UAVSAR's utility in aiding interpretation of ALOS PALSAR and STRM datasets to support a basin-wide characterization. We derive maps of river networks using a canny based edge detection method applied on the UAVSAR backscatter images. We develop an algorithm, which separates the river networks into various catchments based on connected component and then calculates angles at each branch point. We then assess distribution of right angle branching structure throughout the entire region. The results of the analysis will have a major impact on

  17. Anthropogenic Effects on the Mixing State of Aerosols over Manaus during the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraund, M. W.; Pham, D.; Harder, T.; O'Brien, R.; Wang, B.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.; Moffet, R.

    2015-12-01

    The role that anthropogenic aerosols play in cloud formation is uncertain and contributes largely to the uncertainty in predicting future climate. One region of particular importance is the Amazon rainforest, which accounts for over half of the world's rainforest. During GoAmazon2014/15 IOP2, aerosol samples were collected at multiple sites in and around the rapidly growing industrial city of Manaus in the Amazon basin. Manaus is of scientific interest due to the pristine nature of the surrounding rainforest and the high levels of pollution coming from the city in the form of SO2, NOx, and soot. Some sites, such as the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science center (TES, also designated ZF2) located to the north of Manaus, represent air masses which have not interacted with emissions from the city. The comparison of pristine atmosphere with heavy pollution allows both for the determination of a natural baseline level of pollutants, as well as the study of pollutant's impact on the conversion of biogenic volatile organic compounds to secondary organic aerosols. Towards this goal, samples from ZF2 and other unpolluted sites will be compared to samples from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) climate research facility in Manacapuru (T3), which is southwest (downwind) of Manaus. Spatially resolved spectra were recorded at the sub-particle level using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen K-absorption edges. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) was also performed on to characterize higher Z elements. These two techniques together will allow for the mass fraction of atmospherically relevant elements to be determined on a per-particle basis. We will apply established procedures to determine the mixing state index for samples collected at ZF2 and T3 using elemental mass fractions. Preliminary results will be presented which focus on investigating the difference between mixing

  18. Amazon Land Wars in the South of Para

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Cynthia S.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Aldrich, Stephen P.; Caldas, Marcellus M.

    2007-01-01

    The South of Para, located in the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, has become notorious for violent land struggle. Although land conflict has a long history in Brazil, and today impacts many parts of the country, violence is most severe and persistent here. The purpose of this article is to examine why. Specifically, we consider how a particular Amazonian place, the so-called South of Para has come to be known as Brazil's most dangerous badland. We begin by considering the predominant literature, which attributes land conflict to the frontier expansion process with intensified struggle emerging in the face of rising property values and demand for private property associated with capitalist development. From this discussion, we distill a concept of the frontier, based on notions of property rights evolution and locational rents. We then empirically test the persistence of place-based violence in the region, and assess the frontier movement through an analysis of transportation costs. The findings from the analyses indicate that the prevalent theorization of frontier violence in Amazonia does little to explain its persistent and pervasive nature in the South of Para. To fill this gap in understanding, we develop an explanation based the geographic conception of place, and we use contentious politics theory heuristically to elucidate the ways in which general processes interact with place specific history to engender a landscape of violence. In so doing, we focus on environmental, cognitive, and relational mechanisms (and implicated structures), and attempt to deploy them in an explanatory framework that allows direct observation of the accumulating layers of the region's tragic history. We end by placing our discussion within a political ecological context, and consider the implications of the Amazon Land War for the environment.

  19. Declining fertility on the frontier: the Ecuadorian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Pan, William K. Y.; Bilsborrow, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines farm and household characteristics associated with a rapid fertility decline in a forest frontier of the Ecuadorian Amazon. The Amazon basin and other rainforests in the tropics are among the last frontiers in the ongoing global fertility transition. The pace of this transition along agricultural frontiers will likely have major implications for future forest transitions, rural development, and ultimately urbanization in frontier areas. The study here is based upon data from a probability sample of 172 women who lived on the same farm in 1990 and 1999. These data are from perhaps the first region-wide longitudinal survey of fertility in an agricultural frontier. Descriptive analyses indicate that fertility has plummeted in the region, which is surprising since it had remained high and unchanging among migrant colonists up to 1990. Thus only half of the women in our sample reported having a birth during the 1990-1999 time period, and most women report in 1999 that they do not want to have any more children. Analyses, controlling for women's age, corroborate hypotheses about land-fertility relations. For example, women from households with a legal land title had fewer than half as many children as those from households without a title. Large cattle (pasture) holdings and hiring laborers to work on the farm (which may replace household labor) are both related to socio-economic status that is traditionally associated with lower fertility. Similarly, distance to the nearest community center is positively related to fertility. Factors negatively related to fertility include increasing temporary out-migration of adult men or women from the household, asset accumulation, and access to electricity. PMID:19657468

  20. Predictive Modelling of Contagious Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Isabel M. D.; Purves, Drew; Souza, Carlos; Ewers, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1) it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2) the overall deforestation rate emerges “bottom up”, as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3) deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated–pre- and post-PPCDAM (“Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia”)–the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy), annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is

  1. Predictive modelling of contagious deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Purves, Drew; Souza, Carlos; Ewers, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1) it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2) the overall deforestation rate emerges "bottom up", as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3) deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated-pre- and post-PPCDAM ("Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia")-the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy), annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is currently

  2. Simulating hydrologic and hydraulic processes throughout the Amazon River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beighley, R.E.; Eggert, K.G.; Dunne, T.; He, Y.; Gummadi, V.; Verdin, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Presented here is a model framework based on a land surface topography that can be represented with various degrees of resolution and capable of providing representative channel/floodplain hydraulic characteristics on a daily to hourly scale. The framework integrates two models: (1) a water balance model (WBM) for the vertical fluxes and stores of water in and through the canopy and soil layers based on the conservation of mass and energy, and (2) a routing model for the horizontal routing of surface and subsurface runoff and channel and floodplain waters based on kinematic and diffusion wave methodologies. The WBM is driven by satellite-derived precipitation (TRMM_3B42) and air temperature (MOD08_M3). The model's use of an irregular computational grid is intended to facilitate parallel processing for applications to continental and global scales. Results are presented for the Amazon Basin over the period Jan 2001 through Dec 2005. The model is shown to capture annual runoff totals, annual peaks, seasonal patterns, and daily fluctuations over a range of spatial scales (>1, 000 to <4D7M km2). For the period of study, results suggest basin-wide total water storage changes in the Amazon vary by approximately +/-5 to 10 cm, and the fractional components accounting for these changes are: root zone soil moisture (20%), subsurface water being routed laterally to channels (40%) and channel/floodplain discharge (40%). Annual variability in monthly water storage changes by +/-2.5 cm is likely due to 0D5 to 1 month variability in the arrival of significant rainfall periods throughout the basin. Copyright ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Observations of sediment transport on the Amazon subaqueous delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sternberg, R.W.; Cacchione, D.A.; Paulson, B.; Kineke, G.C.; Drake, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    A 19-day time series of fluid, flow, and suspended-sediment characteristics in the benthic boundary layer is analyzed to identify major sedimentary processes active over the prodelta region of the Amazon subaqueous delta. Measurements were made by the benthic tripod GEOPROBE placed on the seabed in 65 m depth near the base of the deltaic foreset beds from 11 February to 3 March 1990, during the time of rising water and maximum sediment discharge of the Amazon River; and the observations included: hourly measurements of velocity and suspended-sediment concentration at four levels above the seabed; waves and tides; and seabed elevation. Results of the first 14-day period of the time series record indicate that sediment resuspension occurred as a result of tidal currents (91% of the time) and surface gravity waves (46% of the time). Observations of suspended sediment indicated that particle flux in this region is 0.4-2% of the flux measured on the adjacent topset deposits and is directed to the north and landward relative to the Brazilian coast (268??T). Fortnightly variability is strong, with particle fluxes during spring tides five times greater than during neap tides. On the 15th day of the data record, a rapid sedimentation event was documented in which 44 cm of sediment was deposited at the study site over a 14-h period. Evaluation of various mechanisms of mass sediment movement suggests that this event represents downslope migration of fluid muds from the upper foreset beds that were set in motion by boundary shear stresses generated by waves and currents. This transport mechanism appears to occur episodically and may represent a major source of sediment to the lower foreset-bottomset region of the subaqueous delta.

  4. Towards quantifying uncertainty in predictions of Amazon 'dieback'.

    PubMed

    Huntingford, Chris; Fisher, Rosie A; Mercado, Lina; Booth, Ben B B; Sitch, Stephen; Harris, Phil P; Cox, Peter M; Jones, Chris D; Betts, Richard A; Malhi, Yadvinder; Harris, Glen R; Collins, Mat; Moorcroft, Paul

    2008-05-27

    Simulations with the Hadley Centre general circulation model (HadCM3), including carbon cycle model and forced by a 'business-as-usual' emissions scenario, predict a rapid loss of Amazonian rainforest from the middle of this century onwards. The robustness of this projection to both uncertainty in physical climate drivers and the formulation of the land surface scheme is investigated. We analyse how the modelled vegetation cover in Amazonia responds to (i) uncertainty in the parameters specified in the atmosphere component of HadCM3 and their associated influence on predicted surface climate. We then enhance the land surface description and (ii) implement a multilayer canopy light interception model and compare with the simple 'big-leaf' approach used in the original simulations. Finally, (iii) we investigate the effect of changing the method of simulating vegetation dynamics from an area-based model (TRIFFID) to a more complex size- and age-structured approximation of an individual-based model (ecosystem demography). We find that the loss of Amazonian rainforest is robust across the climate uncertainty explored by perturbed physics simulations covering a wide range of global climate sensitivity. The introduction of the refined light interception model leads to an increase in simulated gross plant carbon uptake for the present day, but, with altered respiration, the net effect is a decrease in net primary productivity. However, this does not significantly affect the carbon loss from vegetation and soil as a consequence of future simulated depletion in soil moisture; the Amazon forest is still lost. The introduction of the more sophisticated dynamic vegetation model reduces but does not halt the rate of forest dieback. The potential for human-induced climate change to trigger the loss of Amazon rainforest appears robust within the context of the uncertainties explored in this paper. Some further uncertainties should be explored, particularly with respect to the

  5. Amazon River carbon dioxide outgassing fuelled by wetlands.

    PubMed

    Abril, Gwenaël; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Artigas, L Felipe; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Benedetti, Marc F; Vidal, Luciana; Meziane, Tarik; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Bernardes, Marcelo C; Savoye, Nicolas; Deborde, Jonathan; Souza, Edivaldo Lima; Albéric, Patrick; Landim de Souza, Marcelo F; Roland, Fabio

    2014-01-16

    River systems connect the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the ocean in the global carbon cycle. A recent estimate suggests that up to 3 petagrams of carbon per year could be emitted as carbon dioxide (CO2) from global inland waters, offsetting the carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. It is generally assumed that inland waters emit carbon that has been previously fixed upstream by land plant photosynthesis, then transferred to soils, and subsequently transported downstream in run-off. But at the scale of entire drainage basins, the lateral carbon fluxes carried by small rivers upstream do not account for all of the CO2 emitted from inundated areas downstream. Three-quarters of the world's flooded land consists of temporary wetlands, but the contribution of these productive ecosystems to the inland water carbon budget has been largely overlooked. Here we show that wetlands pump large amounts of atmospheric CO2 into river waters in the floodplains of the central Amazon. Flooded forests and floating vegetation export large amounts of carbon to river waters and the dissolved CO2 can be transported dozens to hundreds of kilometres downstream before being emitted. We estimate that Amazonian wetlands export half of their gross primary production to river waters as dissolved CO2 and organic carbon, compared with only a few per cent of gross primary production exported in upland (not flooded) ecosystems. Moreover, we suggest that wetland carbon export is potentially large enough to account for at least the 0.21 petagrams of carbon emitted per year as CO2 from the central Amazon River and its floodplains. Global carbon budgets should explicitly address temporary or vegetated flooded areas, because these ecosystems combine high aerial primary production with large, fast carbon export, potentially supporting a substantial fraction of CO2 evasion from inland waters. PMID:24336199

  6. Chemodiversity of dissolved organic matter in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsior, Michael; Valle, Juliana; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Hertkorn, Norbert; Bastviken, David; Luek, Jenna; Harir, Mourad; Bastos, Wanderley; Enrich-Prast, Alex

    2016-07-01

    Regions in the Amazon Basin have been associated with specific biogeochemical processes, but a detailed chemical classification of the abundant and ubiquitous dissolved organic matter (DOM), beyond specific indicator compounds and bulk measurements, has not yet been established. We sampled water from different locations in the Negro, Madeira/Jamari and Tapajós River areas to characterize the molecular DOM composition and distribution. Ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) combined with excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) revealed a large proportion of ubiquitous DOM but also unique area-specific molecular signatures. Unique to the DOM of the Rio Negro area was the large abundance of high molecular weight, diverse hydrogen-deficient and highly oxidized molecular ions deviating from known lignin or tannin compositions, indicating substantial oxidative processing of these ultimately plant-derived polyphenols indicative of these black waters. In contrast, unique signatures in the Madeira/Jamari area were defined by presumably labile sulfur- and nitrogen-containing molecules in this white water river system. Waters from the Tapajós main stem did not show any substantial unique molecular signatures relative to those present in the Rio Madeira and Rio Negro, which implied a lower organic molecular complexity in this clear water tributary, even after mixing with the main stem of the Amazon River. Beside ubiquitous DOM at average H / C and O / C elemental ratios, a distinct and significant unique DOM pool prevailed in the black, white and clear water areas that were also highly correlated with EEM-PARAFAC components and define the frameworks for primary production and other aspects of aquatic life.

  7. Amazon River carbon dioxide outgassing fuelled by wetlands.

    PubMed

    Abril, Gwenaël; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Artigas, L Felipe; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Benedetti, Marc F; Vidal, Luciana; Meziane, Tarik; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Bernardes, Marcelo C; Savoye, Nicolas; Deborde, Jonathan; Souza, Edivaldo Lima; Albéric, Patrick; Landim de Souza, Marcelo F; Roland, Fabio

    2014-01-16

    River systems connect the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the ocean in the global carbon cycle. A recent estimate suggests that up to 3 petagrams of carbon per year could be emitted as carbon dioxide (CO2) from global inland waters, offsetting the carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. It is generally assumed that inland waters emit carbon that has been previously fixed upstream by land plant photosynthesis, then transferred to soils, and subsequently transported downstream in run-off. But at the scale of entire drainage basins, the lateral carbon fluxes carried by small rivers upstream do not account for all of the CO2 emitted from inundated areas downstream. Three-quarters of the world's flooded land consists of temporary wetlands, but the contribution of these productive ecosystems to the inland water carbon budget has been largely overlooked. Here we show that wetlands pump large amounts of atmospheric CO2 into river waters in the floodplains of the central Amazon. Flooded forests and floating vegetation export large amounts of carbon to river waters and the dissolved CO2 can be transported dozens to hundreds of kilometres downstream before being emitted. We estimate that Amazonian wetlands export half of their gross primary production to river waters as dissolved CO2 and organic carbon, compared with only a few per cent of gross primary production exported in upland (not flooded) ecosystems. Moreover, we suggest that wetland carbon export is potentially large enough to account for at least the 0.21 petagrams of carbon emitted per year as CO2 from the central Amazon River and its floodplains. Global carbon budgets should explicitly address temporary or vegetated flooded areas, because these ecosystems combine high aerial primary production with large, fast carbon export, potentially supporting a substantial fraction of CO2 evasion from inland waters.

  8. Windthrows increase soil carbon stocks in a central Amazon forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Leandro T.; Magnabosco Marra, Daniel; Trumbore, Susan; de Camargo, Plínio B.; Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I.; Lima, Adriano J. N.; Ribeiro, Gabriel H. P. M.; dos Santos, Joaquim; Higuchi, Niro

    2016-03-01

    Windthrows change forest structure and species composition in central Amazon forests. However, the effects of widespread tree mortality associated with wind disturbances on soil properties have not yet been described in this vast region. We investigated short-term effects (7 years after disturbance) of widespread tree mortality caused by a squall line event from mid-January of 2005 on soil carbon stocks and concentrations in a central Amazon terra firme forest. The soil carbon stock (averaged over a 0-30 cm depth profile) in disturbed plots (61.4 ± 8.2 Mg ha-1, mean ±95 % confidence interval) was marginally higher (p = 0.09) than that from undisturbed plots (47.7 ± 13.6 Mg ha-1). The soil organic carbon concentration in disturbed plots (2.0 ± 0.17 %) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than that from undisturbed plots (1.36 ± 0.24 %). Moreover, soil carbon stocks were positively correlated with soil clay content (r2 = 0.332, r = 0.575 and p = 0.019) and with tree mortality intensity (r2 = 0.257, r = 0.506 and p = 0.045). Our results indicate that large inputs of plant litter associated with large windthrow events cause a short-term increase in soil carbon content, and the degree of increase is related to soil clay content and tree mortality intensity. The higher carbon content and potentially higher nutrient availability in soils from areas recovering from windthrows may favor forest regrowth and increase vegetation resilience.

  9. Paula Fox's "Western Wind."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsaro, Julie

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes the novel, "Western Wind," by Paula Fox, lists 12 discussion questions, describes six activities, and contains an annotated bibliography of seven other novels related to birth, death, and families. (DGM)

  10. Trading forests for yields in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Holly

    2012-03-01

    Our knowledge of how agriculture expands, and the types of land it replaces, is remarkably limited across the tropics. Most remote-sensing studies focus on the net gains and losses in forests and agricultural land rather than the land-use transition pathways (Gibbs et al 2010). Only a handful of studies identify land sources for new croplands or plantations, and then only for farming systems aggregated together (e.g., Koh and Wilcove 2008, Morton et al 2006, Gibbs et al 2010). Gutiérrez-Vélez et al (2011), however, have taken a leap forward by tracking the different expansion pathways for smallholder and industrial oil palm plantations. Using a combination of Landsat, MODIS and field surveys, they investigate whether higher yields in new agricultural lands spare forests in the Peruvian Amazon and in a smaller focus area in the Ucayali region. Across the Peruvian Amazon, they show that between 2000 and 2010, new high-yield oil palm plantations replaced forests 72% of the time and accounted for 1.3% of total deforestation, with most expansion occurring after 2006. Gutiérrez-Vélez et al went further in the Ucayali region and compared land sources for new high-yield and low-yield plantations. Expansion of higher-yield agricultural lands should logically reduce the total area needed for production, thus potentially sparing forests. In the Ucayali focus area, expansion of high-yield oil palm did convert less total land area but more forest was cleared than with low-yield expansion. Smaller-scale plantations tended to expand into already cleared areas while industrial-scale plantations traded their greater yields for forests, leading to higher land-clearing carbon emissions per production unit (Gibbs et al 2008). Gutiérrez-Vélez et al show that higher yields may require less land for production but more forest may be lost in the process, and they emphasize the need for stronger incentives for land sparing. The potential land-saving nature of these high

  11. Low Health System Performance, Indigenous Status and Antivenom Underdosage Correlate with Spider Envenoming Severity in the Remote Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, Vanderson Souza; Gomes, André Alexandre; Silva, Iran Mendonça; Sachett, Jacqueline; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos Lima; Oliveira, Sâmella; Sabidò, Meritxell; Chalkidis, Hipócrates; Barbosa Guerra, Maria Graças Vale; Salinas, Jorge Luis; Wen, Fan Hui; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Background A better knowledge of the burden and risk factors associated with severity due to spider bites would lead to improved management with a reduction of sequelae usually seen for this neglected health problem, and would ensure proper use of antivenoms in remote localities in the Brazilian Amazon. The aim of this study was to analyze the profile of spider bites reported in the state of Amazonas in the Western Brazilian Amazon, and to investigate potential risk factors associated with severity of envenomation. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a case-control study in order to identify factors associated with spider bite severity in the Western Brazilian Amazon from 2007 to 2014. Patients evolving to any severity criteria were considered cases and those with non-severe bites were included in the control group. All variables were retrieved from the official Brazilian reporting systems. Socioeconomical and environmental components were also included in a multivariable analysis in order to identify ecological determinants of incidence and severity. A total of 1,181 spider bites were recorded, resulting in an incidence of 4 cases per 100,000 person/year. Most of the spider bites occurred in males (65.8%). Bites mostly occurred in rural areas (59.5%). The most affected age group was between 16 and 45 years old (50.9%). A proportion of 39.7% of the bites were related to work activities. Antivenom was prescribed to 39% of the patients. Envenomings recorded from urban areas [Odds ratio (OR) = 0.40 (95%CI = 0.30–0.71; p<0.001)] and living in a municipality with a mean health system performance index (MHSPI >median [OR = 0.64 (95%CI = 0.39–0.75; p<0.001)] were independently associated with decreased risk of severity. Work related accidents [OR = 2.09 (95%CI = 1.49–2.94; p<0.001)], Indigenous status [OR = 2.15 (95%CI = 1.19–3.86; p = 0.011)] and living in a municipality located >300 km away from the state capital Manaus [OR = 1.90 (95%CI = 1.28–2.40; p<0

  12. The Impact of Rise of the Andes and Amazon Landscape Evolution on Diversification of Lowland terra-firme Forest Birds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aleixo, Alexandre; Wilkinson, M. Justin

    2011-01-01

    Since the 19th Century, the unmatched biological diversity of Amazonia has stimulated a diverse set of hypotheses accounting for patterns of species diversity and distribution in mega-diverse tropical environments. Unfortunately, the evidence supporting particular hypotheses to date is at best described as ambiguous, and no generalizations have emerged yet, mostly due to the lack of comprehensive comparative phylogeographic studies with thorough trans-Amazonian sampling of lineages. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of diversification estimated from mitochondrial gene trees for 31 lineages of birds associated with upland terra-firme forest, the dominant habitat in modern lowland Amazonia. The results confirm the pervasive role of Amazonian rivers as primary barriers separating sister lineages of birds, and a protracted spatio-temporal pattern of diversification, with a gradual reduction of earlier (1st and 2nd) and older (> 2 mya) splits associated with each lineage in an eastward direction. (The easternmost tributaries of the Amazon, the Xingu and Tocantins Rivers, are not associated with any splits older than > 2 mya). For the suboscine passerines, maximum-likelihood estimates of rates of diversification point to an overall constant rate over the past 5 my (up to a significant downturn at 300,000 y ago). This "younging-eastward" pattern may have an abiotic explanation related to landscape evolution. Triggered by a new pulse of Andean uplift, it has been proposed that modern Amazon basin landscapes may have evolved successively eastward, away from the mountain chain, starting approximately 10 mya. This process was likely based on the deposition of vast fluvial sediment masses, known as megafans, that may have extended progressively and in series eastward from Andean sources. This process plausibly explains the progressive extinction of original Pebas wetland of western-central Amazonia by the present fluvial landsurfaces of a more terra-firme type

  13. River discharge and flood inundation over the Amazon based on IPCC AR5 scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiva, Rodrigo; Sorribas, Mino; Jones, Charles; Carvalho, Leila; Melack, John; Bravo, Juan Martin; Beighley, Edward

    2015-04-01

    Climate change and related effects over the hydrologic regime of the Amazon River basin could have major impacts over human and ecological communities, including issues with transportation, flood vulnerability, fisheries and hydropower generation. We examined future changes in discharge and floodplain inundation within the Amazon River basin. We used the hydrological model MGB-IPH (Modelo de Grandes Bacias - Instituto de Pesquisas Hidráulicas) coupled with a 1D river hydrodynamic model simulating water storage over the floodplains. The model was forced using satellite based precipitation from the TRMM 3B42 dataset, and it had a good performance when validated against discharge and stage measurements as well as remotely sensed data, including radar altimetry-based water levels, gravity anomaly-based terrestrial water storage and flood inundation extent. Future scenarios of precipitation and other relevant climatic variables for the 2070 to 2100 time period were taken from five coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) from IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). The climate models were chosen based on their ability to represent the main aspects of recent (1970 to 2000) Amazon climate. A quantile-quantile bias removal procedure was applied to climate model precipitation to mitigate unreliable predictions. The hydrologic model was then forced using past observed climate data altered by delta change factors based on the past and future climate models aiming to estimate projected discharge and floodplain inundation in climate change scenario at several control points in the basin. The climate projections present large uncertainty, especially the precipitation rate, and predictions using different climate models do not agree on the sign of changes on total Amazon flood extent or discharge along the main stem of the Amazon River. However, analyses of results at different regions indicate an increase

  14. Implications of Scientific Collaboration Networks on Studies of Aquatic Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Salinero, María Celeste; Michalski, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of wildlife extracted from the Amazon has increased in the past decades as a consequence of an increase in human population density and income growth. To evaluate the spatial distribution of studies on subsistence and/or commercial hunting conducted in the Brazilian Amazon, we selected eight mid-sized and large-bodied aquatic vertebrate species with a history of human exploitation in the region. We used a combination of searches in the gray and scientific literature from the past 24 years to provide an updated distributional map of studies on the target species. We calculated the distances between the study sites and the locations of the research institutes/universities that the first and last authors of the same study were affiliated to. For the period of 1990 to 2014, we found 105 studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of aquatic vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon in 271 locations that involved 43 institutions (37 Brazilian and 6 international). The spatial distribution of the studies across the Brazilian Amazon varied, but over 80% took place in the northeast and central Amazon, encompassing three States of the Legal Brazilian Amazon (Amazonas, 51.42%; Pará, 19.05%; and Amapá, 16.19%). Over half of the research study sites (52.91%) were within 500 km of the research institute/university of the first or last authors. Some research institutes/universities did not have any inter-institutional collaborations, while others collaborated with eight or more institutes. Some research institutes/universities conducted many studies, had an extensive collaboration network, and contributed greatly to the network of studies on Amazonian aquatic vertebrates. Our research contributes to the knowledge of studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of the most exploited aquatic vertebrates of the Brazilian Amazon, illustrates the impact that collaboration networks have on research, and highlights potential areas for improvement and the

  15. Implications of Scientific Collaboration Networks on Studies of Aquatic Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Salinero, María Celeste; Michalski, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of wildlife extracted from the Amazon has increased in the past decades as a consequence of an increase in human population density and income growth. To evaluate the spatial distribution of studies on subsistence and/or commercial hunting conducted in the Brazilian Amazon, we selected eight mid-sized and large-bodied aquatic vertebrate species with a history of human exploitation in the region. We used a combination of searches in the gray and scientific literature from the past 24 years to provide an updated distributional map of studies on the target species. We calculated the distances between the study sites and the locations of the research institutes/universities that the first and last authors of the same study were affiliated to. For the period of 1990 to 2014, we found 105 studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of aquatic vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon in 271 locations that involved 43 institutions (37 Brazilian and 6 international). The spatial distribution of the studies across the Brazilian Amazon varied, but over 80% took place in the northeast and central Amazon, encompassing three States of the Legal Brazilian Amazon (Amazonas, 51.42%; Pará, 19.05%; and Amapá, 16.19%). Over half of the research study sites (52.91%) were within 500 km of the research institute/university of the first or last authors. Some research institutes/universities did not have any inter-institutional collaborations, while others collaborated with eight or more institutes. Some research institutes/universities conducted many studies, had an extensive collaboration network, and contributed greatly to the network of studies on Amazonian aquatic vertebrates. Our research contributes to the knowledge of studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of the most exploited aquatic vertebrates of the Brazilian Amazon, illustrates the impact that collaboration networks have on research, and highlights potential areas for improvement and the

  16. Implications of Scientific Collaboration Networks on Studies of Aquatic Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Salinero, María Celeste; Michalski, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of wildlife extracted from the Amazon has increased in the past decades as a consequence of an increase in human population density and income growth. To evaluate the spatial distribution of studies on subsistence and/or commercial hunting conducted in the Brazilian Amazon, we selected eight mid-sized and large-bodied aquatic vertebrate species with a history of human exploitation in the region. We used a combination of searches in the gray and scientific literature from the past 24 years to provide an updated distributional map of studies on the target species. We calculated the distances between the study sites and the locations of the research institutes/universities that the first and last authors of the same study were affiliated to. For the period of 1990 to 2014, we found 105 studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of aquatic vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon in 271 locations that involved 43 institutions (37 Brazilian and 6 international). The spatial distribution of the studies across the Brazilian Amazon varied, but over 80% took place in the northeast and central Amazon, encompassing three States of the Legal Brazilian Amazon (Amazonas, 51.42%; Pará, 19.05%; and Amapá, 16.19%). Over half of the research study sites (52.91%) were within 500 km of the research institute/university of the first or last authors. Some research institutes/universities did not have any inter-institutional collaborations, while others collaborated with eight or more institutes. Some research institutes/universities conducted many studies, had an extensive collaboration network, and contributed greatly to the network of studies on Amazonian aquatic vertebrates. Our research contributes to the knowledge of studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of the most exploited aquatic vertebrates of the Brazilian Amazon, illustrates the impact that collaboration networks have on research, and highlights potential areas for improvement and the

  17. Sediment supply as a driver of river evolution in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Joshua; Constantine, José Antonio; Dunne, Thomas; Legleiter, Carl; Lazarus, Eli D.

    2015-04-01

    The Amazon represents the only large river basin in the world where there is a sufficient range of sediment supplies and a lack of engineering controls to assess how sediment supply drives the evolution of meandering rivers. Despite recent analytical advances (Asahi et al., 2013; Pittaluga and Seminara, 2011), modern theory does not yet identify or explain the effects of externally imposed sediment supplies, a fundamental river characteristic, on meandering river evolution. These sediment supplies would be radically reduced by the construction of large dams proposed for the Amazon Basin (Finer and Jenkins, 2012). Here, we demonstrate that the sediment loads imposed by their respective drainage basins determine planform changes in lowland rivers across the Amazon. Our analysis, based on Landsat image sequences, indicates that rivers with high sediment loads draining the Andes and associated foreland basin experience annual migration rates that are on average four times faster than rivers with lower sediment loads draining the Central Amazon Trough and shields. Incidents of meander cutoff also occur more frequently along the rivers of the Andes and foreland basin, where the number of oxbows in the floodplains is more than twice that observed in the floodplains of the Central Amazon Trough and shields. Our results, which cannot be explained by differences in channel slope or hydrology, highlight the importance of sediment supply in modulating the ability of meandering alluvial rivers to reshape the floodplain environment through river migration. Asahi, K., Shimizu, Y., Nelson, J., Parker, G., 2013. Numerical simulation of river meandering with self-evolving banks. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 118(4), 2013JF002752. Finer, M., Jenkins, C.N., 2012. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity. PLOS One, 7(4), e35126. Pittaluga, M.B., Seminara, G., 2011. Nonlinearity and unsteadiness in river

  18. Late Quaternary Vegetation and Climate Change in the Amazon Basin Based on a 50,000 Year Pollen Record from the Amazon Fan, ODP Site 932

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberle, Simon G.; Maslin, Mark A.

    1999-01-01

    Hemipelagic sediments from the Amazon deep-sea fan, ODP Site 932 (5° 12.7‧N, 47° 1.8‧W), and continental shelf provide a 50,000-yr-long pollen record of Amazon Basin vegetation. The age model for Hole 932A is constrained by eight magnetic remanence intensity features, one paleomagnetic excursion, and three AMS14C dates.Alchornea,Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, and Moraceae/Urticaceae are dominant taxa in the pollen record between 40,200 and 19,800 cal yr B.P. Andean taxa, such asPodocarpusandHedyosmum,increase in abundance between 19,800 and 11,000 cal yr B.P. and prior to 40,200 cal yr B.P. The Holocene pollen assemblage, derived from Amazon River and continental shelf sediments, is dominated by secondary growth taxa, such asCecropia.Climatic factors influencing the development of glacial and interglacial tropical vegetation are considered by comparing marine with terrestrial records of vegetation change. This comparison shows that the Amazon Basin forests were not extensively replaced by savanna vegetation during the glacial period, contradicting the refugia hypothesis.

  19. Sources, Properties, Aging, and Anthropogenic Influences on OA and SOA over the Southeast US and the Amazon duing SOAS, DC3, SEAC4RS, and GoAmazon

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SE US and the Amazon have large sources of biogenic VOCs, varying anthropogenic pollution impacts, and often poor organic aerosol (OA) model performance. Recent results on the sources, properties, aging, and impact of anthropogenic pollution on OA and secondary OA (SOA) over ...

  20. Rings dominate western Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal L., Francisco V.; Vidal L., Victor M. V.; Molero, José María Pérez

    Surface and deep circulation of the central and western Gulf of Mexico is controlled by interactions of rings of water pinched from the gulf's Loop Current. The discovery was made by Mexican oceanographers who are preparing a full-color, 8-volume oceanographic atlas of the gulf.Anticyclonic warm-core rings pinch off the Loop Current at a rate of about one to two per year, the scientists of the Grupo de Estudios Oceanográficos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas (GEO-IIE) found. The rings migrate west until they collide with the continental shelf break of the western gulf, almost always between 22° and 23°N latitude. On their westward travel they transfer angular momentum and vorticity to the surrounding water, generating cyclonic circulations and vortex pairs that completely dominate the entire surface and deep circulation of the central and western gulf.

  1. Mixed layer impact of Hurricane Katia passing over the Amazon/Orinoco plume as viewed in remotely sensed salinity observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, J.; Grodsky, S. A.; Nicolas, R.; Lagerloef, G. S.; Reverdin, G. P.; Chapron, B.; Yves, Q.; Kudryavtsev, V. N.; Kao, H.

    2012-12-01

    Hurricane strength increases dramatically with increasing sea surface temperature (SST) and decreases in response to entrainment of cooler sub-mixed layer water into the ocean mixed layer. At its seasonal peak the Amazon/Orinoco plume covers a region of one million square kilometers in the western tropical Atlantic with more than 1m of extra freshwater, creating a near-surface barrier layer that inhibits this mixing and warms to temperatures >29C. Here new remotely sensed sea surface salinity (SSS) observations help elucidate the ocean response to hurricane Katia, which crossed the plume in early fall, 2011. Its passage left a 1.5psu high salinity wake (in its impact on density, the equivalent of a 3.5C cooling) due to mixing of the shallow barrier layer, reminiscent of features previously observed at fixed locations in the Indian Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. Destruction of this barrier layer decreased SST cooling in the plume that would otherwise have occurred, thus preserving elevated SST and evaporation.

  2. Before the flood: Miocene otoliths from eastern Amazon Pirabas Formation reveal a Caribbean-type fish fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Orangel; Schwarzhans, Werner; Moraes-Santos, Heloísa; Nepomuceno, Aguinaldo

    2014-12-01

    The Pirabas Formation of Early Miocene age represents the final stage of the central western Atlantic carbonate platform in northeastern South America, predating the emplacement of the Amazon delta system. The otolith-based fossil fish fauna is represented by 38 species typical of a shallow marine environment. A total of 18 species are described new to science from the families Congridae, Batrachoididae, Bythitidae, Sciaenidae and Paralichthyidae. The fish fauna was associated with high benthic and planktic primary productivity including seagrass meadows, calcareous algae and suspension-feeders. The break of todays shallow marine bioprovince at the Amazonas delta mouth is not evident from the fish fauna of the Pirabas Fm., which shows good correlation with the Gatunian/proto-Caribbean bioprovince known from an only slightly younger time window in Trinidad and Venezuela. Differences observed to those Early Miocene faunal associations are interpreted to be mainly due to stratigraphic and geographic and not environmental differences. We postulate that the emergence of the Amazonas river mouth close to its present day location has terminated the carbonate cycle of the Pirabas Fm. and pushed back northwards a certain proportion of the fish fauna here described.

  3. Western Aeronautical Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of the Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR). NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). Maps show the general location of the WATR area that is used for aeronautical testing and evaluation. The products, services and facilities of WATR are discussed,

  4. Composition and formation of organic aerosol particles in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöhlker, C.; Wiedemann, K.; Sinha, B.; Shiraiwa, M.; Gunthe, S. S.; Artaxo, P.; Gilles, M. K.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Moffet, R. C.; Smith, M.; Weigand, M.; Martin, S. T.; Pöschl, U.; Andreae, M. O.

    2012-04-01

    We applied scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (STXM-NEXAFS) analysis to investigate the morphology and chemical composition of aerosol samples from a pristine tropical environment, the Amazon Basin. The samples were collected in the Amazonian rainforest during the rainy season and can be regarded as a natural background aerosol. The samples were found to be dominated by secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles in the fine and primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) in the coarse mode. Lab-generated SOA-samples from isoprene and terpene oxidation as well as pure organic compounds from spray-drying of aqueous solution were measured as reference samples. The aim of this study was to investigate the microphysical and chemical properties of a tropical background aerosol in the submicron size range and its internal mixing state. The lab-generated SOA and pure organic compounds occurred as spherical and mostly homogenous droplet-like particles, whereas the Amazonian SOA particles comprised a mixture of homogeneous droplets and droplets having internal structures due to atmospheric aging. In spite of the similar morphological appearance, the Amazon samples showed considerable differences in elemental and functional group composition. According to their NEXAFS spectra, three chemically distinct types of organic material were found and could be assigned to the following three categories: (1) particles with a pronounced carboxylic acid (COOH) peak similar to those of laboratory-generated SOA particles from terpene oxidation; (2) particles with a strong hydroxy (COH) signal similar to pure carbohydrate particles; and (3) particles with spectra resembling a mixture of the first two classes. In addition to the dominant organic component, the NEXAFS spectra revealed clearly resolved potassium (K) signals for all analyzed particles. During the rainy season and in the absence of anthropogenic influence, active biota is

  5. Investigating Landsat-derived forest evapotranspiration in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khand, K. B.; Numata, I.; Kjaersgaard, J.; Cochrane, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Nearly half of annual rainfall in the Amazon rainforest region is returned to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration (ET). However, this land-atmosphere water vapor feedback in Amazonia has been continuously disturbed by anthropogenic influence and climate change such as severe drought events. While forest ET dynamics in the Amazon have been studied from both point estimates (or in-situ measurements) and regional land-surface models as well as coarse-spatial satellite data, finer spatial data is required to address the spatial variability of forest ET associated with both forest disturbances and extreme climate events. We use Landsat-based METRIC (Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration) model to generate high-resolution (30 m) ET products and investigate its potential to characterize local and regional ET behavior by comparison to ET calculated from flux tower data. METRIC estimates actual ET as residual of the surface energy balance and is applied to capture the spatial variability of forest ET. The flux tower data were collected at two sites with different forest types: Para with wet equatorial forest and Rondônia with seasonally dry tropical forest. Our study was conducted on the dry season of the years 2003 and 2005 for Para, and 2000 through 2002 for Rondônia as a function of data availability of both cloud-free Landsat images and meteorological data for METRIC processing. Daily gridded actual ET estimates from METRIC during the dry season were obtained using a cubic spline interpolation of ETrF (fraction of reference ET) values between the satellite image dates and multiplying by daily reference ET. Across the all study years, differences between the daily ET estimates for the selected image dates from METRIC and the flux towers were less than 1.2 mm/day, while on monthly basis, these averaged daily ET differences were much lower (< 0.5 mm). At Para, the correlation (R2) between the daily ET rates from METRIC and the

  6. What is a population? Spouse import in the northwest Amazon.

    PubMed

    Chernela, J M

    1994-03-01

    In northwest Amazon societies, diverse groups marry across linguistic and geographic barriers: kinship and kin proximity occur according to cultural rules, and kinship, language, and residence may not be equated with genetic relatedness, as previously postulated. The assumption of genetic relatedness and random mating within a prescribed geographic zone or linguistic unit does not always hold true. Models should be based on cultural determinants of population dynamics that are more sensitive to detailed mate choice and gene flow patterns. The example is given of the Wanano, who belong to the Eastern Tukanoan Language group in the Central Northwest Amazon basin of the Uaupes River; 500-600 lived in Brazil, 180 Colombia, and 800 in the Vaupes Territory of Colombia. Settlements were 3-24 km from the river and had a population of 17-160 people. Men pursued fishing and women engaged in manioc cultivation. There was minimal exploitation of resources. The Wanano are unilineal kin groups with cross cousin marriages. They share a common cultural heritage with 15-20 other kin groups, and are linked through intermarriage. 14,000 Indians of diverse languages are thus united in marriage and kinship. Neighboring Arawakan and Cariban speaking groups reside to the north and west. About 13 distinct languages are part of the Eastern Tukanoan language. The basic principles of descent, marriage, and residence were supplied, and the consequences for village composition explicated. Focus was placed on 3 Wanano villages (Yapima; Mo, a large village with in-marrying from the village of Buhpoara; and Buhpoara) and spouse importation. Social organization was on the basis of sib (patrilineal descent group), language group (common identity, language, ancestry, and group name), and phratry, or nonresidential association of language groups. Ties were strong among more intimate or a"in-groups." Marriage rules applied to preferences for patrilineal cross cousins and sister exchange. The villages

  7. AmazonFACE: Assessing the Effects of Increasing Atmospheric CO2 on the Resilience of the Amazon Forest through Integrative Model-Experiment Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapola, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The existence, magnitude and duration of a supposed "CO2 fertilization" effect in tropical forests remains largely undetermined, despite being suggested for nearly 20 years as a key knowledge gap for understanding the future resilience of Amazonian forests and its impact on the global carbon cycle. Reducing this uncertainty is critical for assessing the future of the Amazon region as well as its vulnerability to climate change. The AmazonFACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment) research program is an integrated model-experiment initiative of unprecedented scope in an old-growth Amazon forest near Manaus, Brazil - the first of its kind in tropical forest. The experimental treatment will simulate an atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] of the future in order to address the question: "How will rising atmospheric CO2 affect the resilience of the Amazon forest, the biodiversity it harbors, and the ecosystem services it provides, in light of projected climatic changes?" AmazonFACE is divided into three phases: (I) pre-experimental ecological characterization of the research site; (II) pilot experiment comprised of two 30-m diameter plots, with one treatment plot maintained at elevated [CO2] (ambient +200 ppmv), and the other control plot at ambient [CO2]; and (III) a fully-replicated long-term experiment comprised of four pairs of control/treatment FACE plots maintained for 10 years. A team of scientists from Brazil, USA, Australia and Europe will employ state-of-the-art methods to study the forest inside these plots in terms of carbon metabolism and cycling, water use, nutrient cycling, forest community composition, and interactions with environmental stressors. All project phases also encompass ecosystem-modeling activities in a way such that models provide hypothesis to be verified in the experiment, which in turn will feed models to ultimately produce more accurate projections of the environment. Resulting datasets and analyses will be a valuable resource for a broad community

  8. The AmazonFACE research program: assessing the effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 on the ecology and resilience of the Amazon forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapola, David; Quesada, Carlos; Norby, Richard; Araújo, Alessandro; Domingues, Tomas; Hartley, Iain; Kruijt, Bart; Lewin, Keith; Meir, Patrick; Ometto, Jean; Rammig, Anja

    2016-04-01

    The existence, magnitude and duration of a supposed "CO2 fertilization" effect in tropical forests remains largely undetermined, despite being suggested for nearly 20 years as a key knowledge gap for understanding the future resilience of Amazonian forests and its impact on the global carbon cycle. Reducing this uncertainty is critical for assessing the future of the Amazon region as well as its vulnerability to climate change. The AmazonFACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment) research program is an integrated model-experiment initiative of unprecedented scope in an old-growth Amazon forest near Manaus, Brazil - the first of its kind in tropical forest. The experimental treatment will simulate an atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] of the future in order to address the question: "How will rising atmospheric CO2 affect the resilience of the Amazon forest, the biodiversity it harbors, and the ecosystem services it provides, in light of projected climatic changes?" AmazonFACE is divided into three phases: (I) pre-experimental ecological characterization of the research site; (II) pilot experiment comprised of two 30-m diameter plots, with one treatment plot maintained at elevated [CO2] (ambient +200 ppmv), and the other control plot at ambient [CO2]; and (III) a fully-replicated long-term experiment comprised of four pairs of control/treatment FACE plots maintained for 10 years. A team of scientists from Brazil, USA, Australia and Europe will employ state-of-the-art methods to study the forest inside these plots in terms of carbon metabolism and cycling, water use, nutrient cycling, forest community composition, and interactions with environmental stressors. All project phases also encompass ecosystem-modeling activities in a way such that models provide hypothesis to be verified in the experiment, which in turn will feed models to ultimately produce more accurate projections of the environment. Resulting datasets and analyses will be a valuable resource for a broad community

  9. Revisiting the hierarchy of urban areas in the Brazilian Amazon: a multilevel approach

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sandra; Brondízio, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The Legal Brazilian Amazon, while the largest rainforest in the world, is also a region where most residents are urban. Despite close linkages between rural and urban processes in the region, rural areas have been the predominant focus of Amazon-based population-environment scholarship. Offering a focus on urban areas within the Brazilian Amazon, this paper examines the emergence of urban hierarchies within the region. Using a combination of nationally representative data and community based surveys, applied to a multivariate cluster methodology (Grade of Membership), we observe the emergence of sub-regional urban networks characterized by economic and political inter-dependency, population movement, and provision of services. These networks link rural areas, small towns, and medium and large cities. We also identify the emergence of medium-size cities as important nodes at a sub-regional level. In all, the work provides insight on the proposed model of ‘disarticulated urbanization’ within the Amazon by calling attention to the increasing role of regional and sub-regional urban networks in shaping the future expansion of land use and population distribution in the Amazon. We conclude with a discussion of implications for increasing intra-regional connectivity and fragmentation of conservation areas and ecosystems in the region. PMID:23129877

  10. The expansion of the economic frontier and the diffusion of violence in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Souza, Patrícia Feitosa; Xavier, Diego Ricardo; Rican, Stephane; de Matos, Vanderlei Pascoal; Barcellos, Christovam

    2015-05-27

    Over the last few decades, the occupation of the Amazon and the expansion of large-scale economic activities have exerted a significant negative impact on the Amazonian environment and on the health of the Amazon's inhabitants. These processes have altered the context of the manifestation of health problems in time and space and changed the characteristics of the spatial diffusion of health problems in the region. This study analyzed the relationships between the various economic processes of territorial occupation in the Amazon and the spatial diffusion of homicidal violence through the configuration of networks of production, as well as the movements of population and merchandise. Statistical data on violence, deforestation, the production of agricultural items, and socio-economic variables, georeferenced and available for the 771 municipalities of the Legal Amazon were used in this study. The results suggest that the diffusion of violence closely follows the economic expansion front, which is related to deforestation and livestock production but has little relation to grain production, demonstrating steps and typologies of recent occupation in the Amazon that promote violence. These spatial patterns reveal environmental and socio-economic macro-determinants that materialize in geographic space through the construction of highways and the formation of city networks.

  11. Monitoring the spreading of the Amazon freshwater plume by MODIS, SMOS, Aquarius, and TOPAZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korosov, Anton; Counillon, François; Johannessen, Johnny A.

    2015-01-01

    synergistic tool for studying the Amazon River plume dynamics based on a novel algorithm for deriving sea surface salinity (SSS) from MODIS reflectance data together with SSS data from the SMOS and Aquarius satellites and the TOPAZ data assimilation system is proposed. The new algorithm is based on a neural network to relate spectral remote sensing reflectance measured by MODIS with SSS measured by SMOS in the Amazon River plume. The algorithm is validated against independent in situ data and is found to be valid in the range of SSS from 29 to 35 psu, for the period of highest rates of Amazon River discharge with RMSE = 0.79 psu and r2 = 0.84. Monthly SSS fields were reconstructed from the MODIS data for late summers from 2002 to 2012 at a 10 km resolution and compared to surface currents and SSS derived from the TOPAZ reanalysis system. The two data sets reveal striking agreement, suggesting that the TOPAZ system could be used for a detailed study of the Amazon River plume dynamics. Both the position and speed of the North Brazilian Current as well as the spreading of the Amazon River plume are monitored. In particular, a recurrent mechanism was observed for the spreading of the rivers plumes, notably that the fresh water is usually advected toward the Caribbean Sea by the North Brazilian Current but get diverted into the tropical Atlantic when North Brazilian Current Rings are shed.

  12. Modeling River Hydrologic Regime and Spawning of Migratory Catfishes in Southeastern Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canas, C. M.; Waylen, P. R.

    2008-05-01

    Seasonal hydrologic conditions and catfish larvae production were evaluated in the Madre de Dios River in order to determine whether environmental conditions influence the reproductive activity of a group of large, commercially important catfishes, in the Southeastern Peruvian Amazon. A simple stochastic model of floods is presented to describe the influence of the natural high flow regime on observed patterns of catfish larvae release and drifting. Daily river stage records at Puerto Maldonado are related to weekly larval catches to determine the association between flood and spawning events. On the basis of hydroclimatologic characteristics of Andean- Amazon regions, available long-term historical rainfall records are employed to approximate the likely inter- annual variability of floods within this Amazon headwater basin. Major larval drift appeared associated with stages of over the 5 m, or "Biologic Hydrologic Significant Events" (BSE), which act as triggers, or a reasonable surrogates, for spawning responses of these species. The timing of BSEs, estimated from the historical rainfall records, appear to be uniformly distributed during the rain season and their inter-arrival times exponential. These observations provided the basis of the stochastic model describing the likelihood of volumes of larvae releases from the headwater region to lowland Amazon. The ecologically significant role of the hydroclimatology of this region in the complete life cycle of this important Amazon fish resource is illustrated.

  13. Deforestation, fire susceptibility, and potential tree responses to fire in the eastern Amazon

    SciTech Connect

    Uhl, C. Agropecuria do Tropico Umnido, Para ); Kauffman, J.B. )

    1990-04-01

    In the state of Para, Brazil, in the eastern Amazon, the authors studied the potential for sustained fire events within four dominant vegetation cover types (undisturbed rain forest, selectively logged forest, second-growth forest, and open pasture), by measuring fuel availability, microclimate, and rates of fuel moisture loss. They also estimated the potential tree mortality that might result from a wide-scale Amazon forest fire by measuring the thermal properties of bark for all trees in a 5-ha stand of mature forest, followed by measurements of heat flux through bark during simulated fires. In pastures the average midday temperature was almost 10{degree}C greater and the average midday relative humidity was 30% lower than in primary forest. The most five-prone ecosystem was the open pasture followed by selectively logged forest, second growth forest, and undisturbed rain forest in which sustained combustion was not possible even after prolonged rainless periods. Even though the autogenic factors in primary forest of the eastern Amazon create a microclimate that virtually eliminates the probability of fire, they are currently a common event in disturbed areas of Amazonia. As many as 8 {times} 10{sup 6} ha burned in the Amazon Basin of Brazil in 1987 alone. In terms of current land-use patterns, altered microclimates, and fuel mass, there are also striking similarities between the eastern Amazon and East Kalimantan, Indonesia (the site of recent rain forest wildfires that burned 3.5 {times} 10{sup 6} ha).

  14. Risks of endemicity, morbidity and perspectives regarding the control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region.

    PubMed

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela Cv

    2012-03-01

    Chagas disease, in the Amazon Region as elsewhere, can be considered an enzootic disease of wild animals or an anthropozoonosis, an accidental disease of humans that is acquired when humans penetrate a wild ecosystem or when wild triatomines invade human dwellings attracted by light or searching for human blood. The risk of endemic Chagas disease in the Amazon Region is associated with the following phenomena: (i) extensive deforestation associated with the displacement of wild mammals, which are the normal sources of blood for triatomines, (ii) adaptation of wild triatomines to human dwellings due to the need for a new source of blood for feeding and (iii) uncontrolled migration of human populations and domestic animals that are already infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from areas endemic for Chagas disease to the Amazon Region. Several outbreaks of severe acute cases of Chagas disease, as well as chronic cases, have been described in the Amazon Region. Control measures targeted to avoiding endemic Chagas disease in the Amazon Region should be the following: improving health education in communities, training public health officials and communities for vector and Chagas disease surveillance and training local physicians to recognise and treat acute and chronic cases of Chagas diseases as soon as possible.

  15. The expansion of the economic frontier and the diffusion of violence in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Souza, Patrícia Feitosa; Xavier, Diego Ricardo; Rican, Stephane; de Matos, Vanderlei Pascoal; Barcellos, Christovam

    2015-06-01

    Over the last few decades, the occupation of the Amazon and the expansion of large-scale economic activities have exerted a significant negative impact on the Amazonian environment and on the health of the Amazon's inhabitants. These processes have altered the context of the manifestation of health problems in time and space and changed the characteristics of the spatial diffusion of health problems in the region. This study analyzed the relationships between the various economic processes of territorial occupation in the Amazon and the spatial diffusion of homicidal violence through the configuration of networks of production, as well as the movements of population and merchandise. Statistical data on violence, deforestation, the production of agricultural items, and socio-economic variables, georeferenced and available for the 771 municipalities of the Legal Amazon were used in this study. The results suggest that the diffusion of violence closely follows the economic expansion front, which is related to deforestation and livestock production but has little relation to grain production, demonstrating steps and typologies of recent occupation in the Amazon that promote violence. These spatial patterns reveal environmental and socio-economic macro-determinants that materialize in geographic space through the construction of highways and the formation of city networks. PMID:26024359

  16. Surveying the area of deforestation of the Amazon by LANDSAT satellite imagery. [Mato grosso, Goias and Para, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Tardin, A. T.; Dossantos, A. P.; Lee, D. C. L.; Soaresmaia, F. C.; Mendonca, F. J.; Assuncao, G. V.; Rodrigues, J. E.; Demouraabdon, M.; Novaes, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    LANDSAT imagery was used to determine the amount of deforestation in a study area comprising 55 million hectares of the Amazon region. Results show that more than 4 million hectares were deforested. Maps and pictures of the deforested area in relation to the total area of the Amazon are included.

  17. A Slippery Slope: Children's Perceptions of Their Role in Environmental Preservation in the Peruvian Amazon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galeano, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Despite international attention and attempts to preserve the environmental diversity of the Amazon, it is an accepted fact that those who inhabit the forest must be the ones who preserve it. This article presents an analysis of how children in small rural riverine communities along the Amazon understand the importance of environmental preservation…

  18. Characterization of the N2O isotopic composition (15N, 18O and N2O isotopomers) emitted from incubated Amazon forest soils. Implications for the global N2O isotope budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, T.; García, D.; Trumbore, S.; Tyler, S.; de Camargo, P.; Moreira, M.; Piccolo, M.; Park, S.; Boering, K.; Cerri, C.

    2003-04-01

    Tropical rain forest soils are the largest natural source of N2O to the atmosphere. Uncertainty in the signature of this source limits the utility of isotopes in constraining the global N2O budget. Differentiating the relative contribution of nitrification and denitrification to the emitted N2O using stable isotopes has been difficult due to the lack of enrichment factors values for each process measured in situ. We have devised a method for measuring enrichment factors using soil incubation experiments. We selected three Amazon rain forest soils: (1) Clay and (2) Sandy from Santarem, Pará State, and (3) Sandy from Nova Vida Farm, Rondonia State, Brazil. The enrichment factor values for nitrification and denitrification are: -97.8±4.2 and -9.9±3.8 per mil for clay Santarem soil, -86.8±4.3 and -45.2±4.5 per mil for sandy Santarem soil and-112.6±3.8 and -10.4±3.5 per mil for Nova Vida Farm soils, respectively. Our results show that enrichment factors for both processes differ with soil texture and location. The enrichment factors for nitrification are significantly smaller than the range reported in the literature (-66 to -42 per mil). Also, the enrichment factors for the Santarem soils (clay and sandy) differ significantly implying that soil texture (which will affect the soil air filled pore space at a given water content) is influencing the bacteria isotopic discrimination. However, the enrichment factors for the Santarem clay sand Nova Vida sandy soils do not differ by much. This suggests that the enrichment factors not only can be affected by texture but also by the microbial fauna present in these soils. We also determined the measurement of the N2O positional dependence. N2O is a linear molecule with two nitrogen atoms. The 15N isotope can be located in either the central nitrogen (alpha position) or in the terminal nitrogen (beta position). The isotopomer site preference (15N alpha - 15N beta) can be used to differentiate processes of production and

  19. Rethinking the "Western Tradition"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslin, Penny; Horsthemke, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the "Western tradition" has increasingly come under attack in anti-colonialist and postmodernist discourses. It is not difficult to sympathise with the concerns that underlie advocacy of historically marginalised traditions, and the West undoubtedly has a lot to answer for. Nonetheless, while arguing a qualified yes to…

  20. Typhoon Odessa, Western Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This near vertical and detailed view of the eye of Typhoon Odessa was photographed somewhere in the Western Pacific, exact location unknown. The presence of a tight gyre and well formed eye, bordered by a cloud berm in the center, are all indicators of a very powerful and devastating typhoon with very high internal cyclonic wind speeds.

  1. The western blot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western blotting is a technique that involves the separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis, their blotting or transfer to a membrane, and selective immunodetection of an immobilized antigen. This is an important and routine method for protein analysis that depends on the specificity of antibod...

  2. Public health impacts of ecosystem change in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Bauch, Simone C; Birkenbach, Anna M; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K; Sills, Erin O

    2015-06-16

    The claim that nature delivers health benefits rests on a thin empirical evidence base. Even less evidence exists on how specific conservation policies affect multiple health outcomes. We address these gaps in knowledge by combining municipal-level panel data on diseases, public health services, climatic factors, demographics, conservation policies, and other drivers of land-use change in the Brazilian Amazon. To fully exploit this dataset, we estimate random-effects and quantile regression models of disease incidence. We find that malaria, acute respiratory infection (ARI), and diarrhea incidence are significantly and negatively correlated with the area under strict environmental protection. Results vary by disease for other types of protected areas (PAs), roads, and mining. The relationships between diseases and land-use change drivers also vary by quantile of the disease distribution. Conservation scenarios based on estimated regression results suggest that malaria, ARI, and diarrhea incidence would be reduced by expanding strict PAs, and malaria could be further reduced by restricting roads and mining. Although these relationships are complex, we conclude that interventions to preserve natural capital can deliver cobenefits by also increasing human (health) capital.

  3. Collecting response times using Amazon Mechanical Turk and Adobe Flash.

    PubMed

    Simcox, Travis; Fiez, Julie A

    2014-03-01

    Crowdsourcing systems like Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) allow data to be collected from a large sample of people in a short amount of time. This use has garnered considerable interest from behavioral scientists. So far, most experiments conducted on AMT have focused on survey-type instruments because of difficulties inherent in running many experimental paradigms over the Internet. This study investigated the viability of presenting stimuli and collecting response times using Adobe Flash to run ActionScript 3 code in conjunction with AMT. First, the timing properties of Adobe Flash were investigated using a phototransistor and two desktop computers running under several conditions mimicking those that may be present in research using AMT. This experiment revealed some strengths and weaknesses of the timing capabilities of this method. Next, a flanker task and a lexical decision task implemented in Adobe Flash were administered to participants recruited with AMT. The expected effects in these tasks were replicated. Power analyses were conducted to describe the number of participants needed to replicate these effects. A questionnaire was used to investigate previously undescribed computer use habits of 100 participants on AMT. We conclude that a Flash program in conjunction with AMT can be successfully used for running many experimental paradigms that rely on response times, although experimenters must understand the limitations of the method.

  4. Protein requirements for Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) growth.

    PubMed

    Carciofi, A C; Sanfilippo, L F; de-Oliveira, L D; do Amaral, P P; Prada, F

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the protein requirements for hand-rearing Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva). Forty hatchlings were fed semi-purified diets containing one of four (as-fed basis) protein levels: 13%, 18%, 23% and 28%. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with the initial weight of the nestling as the blocking factor and 10 parrots per protein level. Regression analysis was used to determine relationships between protein level and biometric measurements. The data indicated that 13% crude protein supported nestling growth with 18% being the minimum tested level required for maximum development. The optimal protein concentration for maximum weight gain was 24.4% (p = 0.08; r(2) = 0.25), tail length 23.7% (p = 0.09; r(2) = 0.19), wing length 23.0% (p = 0.07; r(2) = 0.17), tarsus length 21.3% (p = 0.06; r(2) = 0.10) and tarsus width 21.4% (p = 0.07; r(2) = 0.09). Tarsus measurements were larger in males (p < 0.05), indicating that sex must be considered when studying developing psittacines. These results were obtained using a highly digestible protein and a diet with moderate metabolizable energy levels.

  5. Amazon basin soils: management for continuous crop production.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, P A; Bandy, D E; Villachica, J H; Nicholaides, J J

    1982-05-21

    Technology has been developed which permits continuous production of annual crops in some of the acid, infertile soils of the Amazon Basin. Studies in Yurimaguas, Peru, show that three grain crops can be produced annually with appropriate fertilizer inputs. Twenty-one crops have been harvested during the past 8(1/2) years in the same field, with an average annual production of 7.8 tons of grain per hectare. Soil properties are improving with continuous cultivation. The technology has been validated by local farmers, who normally practice shifting cultivation. Economic interpretations indicate large increases in annual family farm income and a high return on the investment of chemical inputs. Other promising land use alternatives include low-input crop production systems, paddy rice production in fertile alluvial soils, and pastures or agroforestry in rolling areas. Stable, continuous food crop production is an attractive alternative to shifting cultivation in humid tropical regions experiencing severe demographic pressures. For each hectare of land managed in a highly productive manner, there may be less need for clearing additional tropical forests to meet food demands. PMID:17819134

  6. Isolation of fungi from bats of the Amazon basin.

    PubMed Central

    Mok, W Y; Luizão, R C; Barreto da Silva, M do S

    1982-01-01

    A total of 2,886 bats captured in the Amazon Basin of Brazil were processed for the isolation of fungi. From the livers, spleens, and lungs of 155 bats (5.4%), 186 fungal isolates of the genera Candida (123 isolates), Trichosporon (26 isolates), Torulopsis (25 isolates), Kluyveromyces (11 isolates), and Geotrichum (1 isolate) were recovered. Seven known pathogenic species were present: Candida parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, C. albicans, C. stellatoidea, C. pseudotropicalis, Trichosporon beigelii, and Torulopsis glabrata. Twenty-three culture-positive bats showed identical fungal colonization in multiple organs or mixed colonization in a single organ. The fungal isolation rates for individual bat species varied from 1 fungus per 87 bats to 3 fungi per 13 bats, and the mycoflora diversity for members of an individual fungus-bearing bat species varied from 16 fungi per 40 bats to 7 fungi per 6 bats. Of the 38 fungal species isolated, 36 had not been previously described as in vivo bat isolates. Of the 27 culture-positive bat species, 21 had not been previously described as mammalian hosts for medically or nonmedically important fungi. PMID:6890326

  7. Lead exposure in indigenous communities of the Amazon basin, Peru.

    PubMed

    Anticona, Cynthia; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Lundh, Thomas; Alegre, Yuri; Sebastian, Miguel San

    2011-12-01

    Since 2006, three studies have reported elevated levels of lead (Pb) among the indigenous population of the Corrientes river, in the Amazon basin of Peru. Due to the large evidence of environmental pollution related to oil exploitation in the area, this activity has been suggested as the source of exposure. This study aimed to evaluate Pb levels in the population and environment of two communities exposed and one community non-exposed to the oil exploitation activity. Blood lead levels (BLL) were determined by the instrument Leadcare. A comparison with the graphite furnace atomic absorption technique was performed in order to validate the Leadcare results. Environmental samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Among 361 capillary samples, the mean BLL was 9.4 μg/dl. Mean BLL of the communities exposed (n=171, x¯=9.5 μg/dl) and non-exposed (n=190, x¯=9.2 μg/dl) to the oil activity were not significantly different. Pb levels in environmental samples were below the maximum permissible levels. The sources of exposure could not be identified. Elevated levels of Pb in the oil-non-exposed community pointed out at other sources not yet clarified.

  8. Naming and Shaming for Conservation: Evidence from the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, Elías; Zhou, Sophie Lian; Börner, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon has dropped substantially after a peak of over 27 thousand square kilometers in 2004. Starting in 2008, the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment has regularly published blacklists of critical districts with high annual forest loss. Farms in blacklisted districts face additional administrative hurdles to obtain authorization for clearing forests. In this paper we add to the existing literature on evaluating the Brazilian anti-deforestation policies by specifically quantifying the impact of blacklisting on deforestation. We first use spatial matching techniques using a set of covariates that includes official blacklisting criteria to identify control districts. We then explore the effect of blacklisting on change in deforestation in double difference regressions with panel data covering the period from 2002 to 2012. Multiple robustness checks are conducted including an analysis of potential causal mechanisms behind the success of the blacklist. We find that the blacklist has considerably reduced deforestation in the affected districts even after controlling for the potential mechanism effects of field-based enforcement, environmental registration campaigns, and rural credit.

  9. Biomass Change of the Landless Peasants' Settlements in Lower Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Ishimaru, K.

    2014-12-01

    Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes have been reported to occur over large areas in Legal Amazon due to the introduction of large-scale mechanized agriculture, extensive cattle ranching and uncontrolled slash-and-burn cultivation since the 1980s. Around the same time, movements which poor peoples or landless peasants settle into abandoned land have been very active in Brazil. In many cases, these people lack agricultural experiences to yield sufficient production for livelihoods. Thus, it leads to abandon the land and repeat forest clearance. In recent year, education by NGOs to these people encourage spreading of agroforestry which is a land use management system in which trees are grown around or among crops or pasture land. In this study, we specifically aimed at clarifying changes in LULC and these biomass using ground observation data, remotely-sensed LANDSAT data and GIS techniques. We focus on four different settlements: old-established settlement (around 30 years), established settlement (around 20 years), productive settlement (7 year) and unproductive settlement (7 years). These four settelements were located at Santa Barbará province, about 40 km northeast from the center of Belém, the Pará state capital, in the northern part of Brazil. We clarify that the biomass change varied according to whether the settlement are productive or not.

  10. Public health impacts of ecosystem change in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Bauch, Simone C; Birkenbach, Anna M; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K; Sills, Erin O

    2015-06-16

    The claim that nature delivers health benefits rests on a thin empirical evidence base. Even less evidence exists on how specific conservation policies affect multiple health outcomes. We address these gaps in knowledge by combining municipal-level panel data on diseases, public health services, climatic factors, demographics, conservation policies, and other drivers of land-use change in the Brazilian Amazon. To fully exploit this dataset, we estimate random-effects and quantile regression models of disease incidence. We find that malaria, acute respiratory infection (ARI), and diarrhea incidence are significantly and negatively correlated with the area under strict environmental protection. Results vary by disease for other types of protected areas (PAs), roads, and mining. The relationships between diseases and land-use change drivers also vary by quantile of the disease distribution. Conservation scenarios based on estimated regression results suggest that malaria, ARI, and diarrhea incidence would be reduced by expanding strict PAs, and malaria could be further reduced by restricting roads and mining. Although these relationships are complex, we conclude that interventions to preserve natural capital can deliver cobenefits by also increasing human (health) capital. PMID:26082548

  11. Retrobulbar adenocarcinoma in an Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis).

    PubMed

    Watson, Victoria E; Murdock, Jessica H; Cazzini, Paola; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Divers, Stephen J; Sakamoto, Kaori

    2013-03-01

    Retrobulbar neoplasms are not common in mammals and are even more infrequently seen in nonmammalian species. The current report describes a retrobulbar mass creating exophthalmia and neurologic signs in a red-lored Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis). A 27-year-old female parrot presented for a 3-day history of anorexia and a 2-week history of periocular soft tissue swelling and exophthalmia of the right eye. Physical examination revealed 9% dehydration and right eye exophthalmia with inability to retropulse the globe. A fine-needle aspirate was performed, and cytologic evaluation revealed necrotic debris with scattered clusters of epithelial cells, moderate numbers of macrophages, and few heterophils. Given the possibility of neoplasia and paucity of treatment options, the owners elected euthanasia and submitted the body for necropsy. A large, fluctuant, friable, red, retrobulbar mass with multiple areas of hemorrhage, on cut surface, was noted at necropsy. Histologically, the mass was composed of neoplastic, cuboidal to columnar epithelial cells, forming rosette-like glandular structures, admixed with abundant necrotic debris. The neoplastic cells were strongly positive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) by immunohistochemistry. Based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry, the mass was diagnosed as an adenocarcinoma.

  12. Simulations of the Amazon basin circulation with a regional model

    SciTech Connect

    Horel, J.D.; Pechmann, J.B.; Hahmann, A.N.; Geisler, J.E. )

    1994-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the atmospheric circulation over tropical South America are performed with a regional model developed at the Pennsylvania State University and the National Center for Atmospheric Research and commonly referred to as the MM4. The authors focus on a 5-day period beginning at 1200 UTC 27 February 1990. The observed circulation is evaluated in terms of initialized analysis of standard meterological variables from the National Meteorological Center, outgoing longwave radiation from polar orbiting satellites, and surface observations. The NMC analysis are also used to specify the initial conditions, as well as provide the lateral boundary conditions, for the 5-day simulations. The impacts on the simulated circulation of major changes to the standard MM4 are assessed. When an improved treatment of radiative processes is included, excessive rainfall develops over then Andes Mountains and over the Amazon Basin. The excessive rainfall is concentrated in gridpoint' storms that are not climated when the surface physical parameterizations are improved. Modifications to the treatment of the vertical transport of moisture are required to diminish the excessive rainfall. Even with these and other changes included in the model, the simulated basin-averaged rainfall continues to exhibit unrealistic features. The improved, thought still imperfect, model simulations are used to diagnose the temporal and spatial evolution of the circulation with an emphasis on equatorial-subtropical interactions.

  13. Public health impacts of ecosystem change in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Bauch, Simone C.; Birkenbach, Anna M.; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K.; Sills, Erin O.

    2015-01-01

    The claim that nature delivers health benefits rests on a thin empirical evidence base. Even less evidence exists on how specific conservation policies affect multiple health outcomes. We address these gaps in knowledge by combining municipal-level panel data on diseases, public health services, climatic factors, demographics, conservation policies, and other drivers of land-use change in the Brazilian Amazon. To fully exploit this dataset, we estimate random-effects and quantile regression models of disease incidence. We find that malaria, acute respiratory infection (ARI), and diarrhea incidence are significantly and negatively correlated with the area under strict environmental protection. Results vary by disease for other types of protected areas (PAs), roads, and mining. The relationships between diseases and land-use change drivers also vary by quantile of the disease distribution. Conservation scenarios based on estimated regression results suggest that malaria, ARI, and diarrhea incidence would be reduced by expanding strict PAs, and malaria could be further reduced by restricting roads and mining. Although these relationships are complex, we conclude that interventions to preserve natural capital can deliver cobenefits by also increasing human (health) capital. PMID:26082548

  14. Photochemistry of biogenic emissions over the Amazon forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Daniel J.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    1988-01-01

    The boundary layer chemistry over the Amazon forest during the dry season is simulated with a photochemical model. Results are in good agreement with measurements of isoprene, NO, ozone, and organic acids. Photochemical reactions of biogenic isoprene and NOx can supply most of the ozone observed in the boundary layer. Production of ozone is very sensitive to the availability of NOx, but is insensitive to the isoprene source strength. High concentrations of total odd nitrogen (NOy) are predicted for the planetary boundary layer, about 1 ppb in the mixed layer and 0.75 ppb in the convective cloud layer. Most of the odd nitrogen is present as PAN-type species, which are removed by dry deposition to the forest. The observed daytime variations of isoprene are explained by a strong dependence of the isoprene emission flux on sun angle. Nighttime losses of isoprene exceed rates of reaction with NO3 and O3 and appear to reflect dry-deposition processes. The 24-hour averaged isoprene emission flux is calculated to be 38 mg/sq m per day. Photooxidation of isoprene could account for a large fraction of the CO enrichment observed in the boundary layer under unpolluted conditions and could constitute an important atmospheric source of formic acid, methacrylic acid, and pyruvic acid.

  15. Naming and Shaming for Conservation: Evidence from the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Cisneros, Elías; Zhou, Sophie Lian; Börner, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon has dropped substantially after a peak of over 27 thousand square kilometers in 2004. Starting in 2008, the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment has regularly published blacklists of critical districts with high annual forest loss. Farms in blacklisted districts face additional administrative hurdles to obtain authorization for clearing forests. In this paper we add to the existing literature on evaluating the Brazilian anti-deforestation policies by specifically quantifying the impact of blacklisting on deforestation. We first use spatial matching techniques using a set of covariates that includes official blacklisting criteria to identify control districts. We then explore the effect of blacklisting on change in deforestation in double difference regressions with panel data covering the period from 2002 to 2012. Multiple robustness checks are conducted including an analysis of potential causal mechanisms behind the success of the blacklist. We find that the blacklist has considerably reduced deforestation in the affected districts even after controlling for the potential mechanism effects of field-based enforcement, environmental registration campaigns, and rural credit. PMID:26398096

  16. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of the Amazon River dolphin Inia geoffrensis.

    PubMed

    Bonifácio, Heidi L; da Silva, Vera M F; Martin, Anthony R; Feldberg, Eliana

    2012-09-01

    Classical and molecular cytogenetic (18S rDNA, telomeric sequence, and LINE-1 retrotransposon probes) studies were carried out to contribute to an understanding of the organization of repeated DNA elements in the Amazon River dolphin (boto, Inia geoffrensis). Twenty-seven specimens were examined, each presenting 2n = 44 chromosomes, the karyotype formula 12m + 14sm + 6st + 10t + XX/XY, and fundamental number (FN) = 74. C-positive heterochromatin was observed in terminal and interstitial positions, with the occurrence of polymorphism. Interstitial telomeric sequences were not observed. The nucleolar organizer region (NOR) was located at a single site on a smallest autosomal pair. LINE-1 was preferentially distributed in the euchromatin regions, with the greatest accumulation on the X chromosome. Although the karyotype structure in cetaceans is considered to be conserved, the boto karyotype demonstrated significant variations in its formula, heterochromatin distribution, and the location of the NOR compared to other cetacean species. These results contribute to knowledge of the chromosome organization in boto and to a better understanding of karyoevolution in cetaceans.

  17. Fertilizing the Amazon and equatorial Atlantic with West African dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, Charlie S.; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A.; Chappell, Adrian

    2010-07-01

    Atmospheric mineral dust plays a vital role in Earth's climate and biogeochemical cycles. The Bodélé Depression in Chad has been identified as the single biggest source of atmospheric mineral dust on Earth. Dust eroded from the Bodélé is blown across the Atlantic Ocean towards South America. The mineral dust contains micronutrients such as Fe and P that have the potential to act as a fertilizer, increasing primary productivity in the Amazon rain forest as well as the equatorial Atlantic Ocean, and thus leading to N2 fixation and CO2 drawdown. We present the results of chemical analysis of 28 dust samples collected from the source area, which indicate that up to 6.5 Tg of Fe and 0.12 Tg of P are exported from the Bodélé Depression every year. This suggests that the Bodélé may be a more significant micronutrient supplier than previously proposed.

  18. Unofficial Road Building in the Amazon: Socioeconomic and Biophysical Explanations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Arima, Eugenio; Walker, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Roads have manifold social and environmental impacts, including regional development, social conflicts and habitat fragmentation. 'Road ecology' has emerged as an approach to evaluate the various ecological and hydrological impacts of roads. This article aims to complement road ecology by examining the socio-spatial processes of road building itself. Focusing on the Brazilian Amazon, a heavily-studied context due to forest fragmentation by roads, the authors consider non-state social actors who build 'unofficial roads' for the purpose of gaining access to natural resources to support livelihoods and community development. They examine four case studies of roads with distinct histories in order to explain the socio-spatial processes behind road building in terms of profit maximization, land tenure claims, co-operative and conflictive political ecologies, and constraints as well as opportunities afforded by the biophysical environment. The study cases illustrate the need for a multi-pronged theoretical approach to understanding road building, and call for more attention to the role of non-state actors in unofficial road construction.

  19. Nitrogen mass balance in the Brazilian Amazon: an update.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, L A; Pinto, A S; Nardoto, G B; Ometto, J P H B; Filoso, S; Coletta, L D; Ravagnani, E C

    2012-08-01

    The main purpose of this study is to perform a nitrogen budget survey for the entire Brazilian Amazon region. The main inputs of nitrogen to the region are biological nitrogen fixation occurring in tropical forests (7.7 Tg.yr(-1)), and biological nitrogen fixation in agricultural lands mainly due to the cultivation of a large area with soybean, which is an important nitrogen-fixing crop (1.68 Tg.yr(-1)). The input due to the use of N fertilizers (0.48 Tg.yr(-1)) is still incipient compared to the other two inputs mentioned above. The major output flux is the riverine flux, equal to 2.80 Tg.yr(-1) and export related to foodstuff, mainly the transport of soybean and beef to other parts of the country. The continuous population growth and high rate of urbanization may pose new threats to the nitrogen cycle of the region through the burning of fossil fuel and dumping of raw domestic sewage in rivers and streams of the region.

  20. Micrometeorological Conditions at the ATTO - Site in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsokankunku, Anywhere; Sörgel, Matthias; Acevedo, Otávio C.; Araùjo, Alessandro; Berger, Martina; de Abreu Sá, Leonardo D.; de Oliveira Sá, Marta; Dias, Nelson L.; Dlugi, Ralph; Manzi, Antonio O.; Oliveira, Pablo E. S.; Zelger, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The ATTO site is located in a pristine rainforest environment in the Amazon basin about 150 km north east of Manaus. The site is currently equipped with two walk-up towers (325 m and 80 m) and an 80 m high mast. The canopy height is about 35 m. A detailed description of the site and the ongoing measurements is given in the overview paper by Andreae et al. (2015). The 325 m tower was completed in 2015 and will be equipped in 2016. The 80 m walk-up tower is operational since 2012 with a full set of micrometeorological measurements (e.g. wind and temperature profile, radiation, and a few levels for flux measurements). Measurements of vertical profiles of wind velocity components, temperature, humidity, and energy fluxes, together with 3d sonic anemometer measurements at 150 m on the ATTO tower, are analysed to determine characteristics of momentum, heat and water vapour exchange. In addition, the day time influences of secondary circulation on energy fluxes is described, together with the interaction of these circulations with cloud development. The diurnal cycle of stability and the onset and development of convection is shown to be strongly dependent on the onset of cloud formation. Implications on trace gas transport are discussed.

  1. Comparison between measurements of black carbon, charcoal and associated nutrients in western Amazonan soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, A. R.; McMichael, C.; Hanlon, C.; Bush, M. B.

    2011-12-01

    To construct fire and climate history and human occupation records from soils and lake sediment profiles, climatologists and anthropologists have traditionally measured charcoal abundances by microscopic image analysis. In contrast, geochemists have developed methods of black carbon (BC) quantification using chemical extraction. We compared charcoal (>0.5 mm particle size) versus BC (measured via the CTO-340 method of Kuhlbusch, 1995) in multiple soil profiles from four western Amazon regions with evidence of pre-Columbian occupation. A secondary goal of this project was to understand the relative influence of climate and humans in the fire and ecological history of the Amazon. BC concentration in soils of the Amazon varied widely from an average of 0.5 mg g 1 in cores around Lake Gentry (southeastern Peru) to 5.5 mg g 1 around Lake Ayauchi (southeastern Ecuador), corresponding to the evidence of greater land use around the latter. Surprising, BC concentrations in habitation horizon soils at Quistococha, near Iquitos, Peru were similar to Lake Gentry, averaging about 0.6 mg g 1. However, BC as a percent of soil organic carbon (SOC) was much more uniform with an average of 12.0, 13.3, 14.6, and 13.0% in Quistococha, Gentry, Ayauchi, and Los Amigos (central-eastern Peru) soils, respectively, suggesting that the same processes that concentrate SOC also concentrate BC. BC may act to protect SOC via sorption or produce SOC via microbial community enhancement. These findings also show that BC is not regionally enriched as it might be were climate to be a predominant factor in BC production, and seem to track land use more closely. Charcoal and BC concentrations were linearly correlated in only about half the soil profiles and neither BC nor charcoal were consistently correlated with chemical anthropogenic indicators such as P or Ca within soil profiles or specific regions. However, there was a statistical covariance between each of these parameters suggesting that each

  2. Changes in the Carbon Cycle of Amazon Ecosystems During the 2010 Drought

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Christophera; Klooster, Steven; Hiatt, Cyrus; Genovese, Vanessa; Castilla-Rubino, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing was combined with the NASA-CASA carbon cycle simulation model to evaluate the impact of the 2010 drought (July through September) throughout tropical South America. Results indicated that net primary production (NPP) in Amazon forest areas declined by an average of 7% in 2010 compared to 2008. This represented a loss of vegetation CO2 uptake and potential Amazon rainforest growth of nearly 0.5 Pg C in 2010. The largest overall decline in ecosystem carbon gains by land cover type was predicted for closed broadleaf forest areas of the Amazon River basin, including a large fraction of regularly flooded forest areas. Model results support the hypothesis that soil and dead wood carbon decomposition fluxes of CO2 to the atmosphere were elevated during the drought period of 2010 in periodically flooded forest areas, compared to forests outside the main river floodplains.

  3. A social-ecological database to advance research on infrastructure development impacts in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Tucker Lima, Joanna M; Valle, Denis; Moretto, Evandro Mateus; Pulice, Sergio Mantovani Paiva; Zuca, Nadia Lucia; Roquetti, Daniel Rondinelli; Beduschi, Liviam Elizabeth Cordeiro; Praia, Amanda Salles; Okamoto, Claudia Parucce Franco; da Silva Carvalhaes, Vinicius Leite; Branco, Evandro Albiach; Barbezani, Bruna; Labandera, Emily; Timpe, Kelsie; Kaplan, David

    2016-01-01

    Recognized as one of the world's most vital natural and cultural resources, the Amazon faces a wide variety of threats from natural resource and infrastructure development. Within this context, rigorous scientific study of the region's complex social-ecological system is critical to inform and direct decision-making toward more sustainable environmental and social outcomes. Given the Amazon's tightly linked social and ecological components and the scope of potential development impacts, effective study of this system requires an easily accessible resource that provides a broad and reliable data baseline. This paper brings together multiple datasets from diverse disciplines (including human health, socio-economics, environment, hydrology, and energy) to provide investigators with a variety of baseline data to explore the multiple long-term effects of infrastructure development in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:27575915

  4. A social-ecological database to advance research on infrastructure development impacts in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Tucker Lima, Joanna M; Valle, Denis; Moretto, Evandro Mateus; Pulice, Sergio Mantovani Paiva; Zuca, Nadia Lucia; Roquetti, Daniel Rondinelli; Beduschi, Liviam Elizabeth Cordeiro; Praia, Amanda Salles; Okamoto, Claudia Parucce Franco; da Silva Carvalhaes, Vinicius Leite; Branco, Evandro Albiach; Barbezani, Bruna; Labandera, Emily; Timpe, Kelsie; Kaplan, David

    2016-08-30

    Recognized as one of the world's most vital natural and cultural resources, the Amazon faces a wide variety of threats from natural resource and infrastructure development. Within this context, rigorous scientific study of the region's complex social-ecological system is critical to inform and direct decision-making toward more sustainable environmental and social outcomes. Given the Amazon's tightly linked social and ecological components and the scope of potential development impacts, effective study of this system requires an easily accessible resource that provides a broad and reliable data baseline. This paper brings together multiple datasets from diverse disciplines (including human health, socio-economics, environment, hydrology, and energy) to provide investigators with a variety of baseline data to explore the multiple long-term effects of infrastructure development in the Brazilian Amazon.

  5. Mycotoxins and cyanogenic glycosides in staple foods of three indigenous people of the Colombian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Gonzalo J; Krska, Rudolf; Sulyok, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the incidence and levels of mycotoxins in the main staple foods of three indigenous people of the Colombian Amazon. A total of 20 corn, 24 rice and 59 cassava samples were analysed by a multi-analyte liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method covering the major classes of mycotoxins. In addition, cassava samples were also analysed for cyanogenic glycosides. The indigenous Amazon communities tested are exposed to potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins (particularly aflatoxins), as well as other mycotoxins, mainly through the intake of locally grown corn. Citrinin content in this corn was unusually high and has not been reported elsewhere. Two cassava samples contained high levels of cyanogenic glycosides. It is strongly recommended not to grow corn in the Amazon but instead purchase it from vendors capable of guaranteeing mycotoxin levels below the maximum allowable concentration in Colombia.

  6. Validation and analysis of MOPITT CO observations of the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeter, M. N.; Martínez-Alonso, S.; Gatti, L. V.; Gloor, M.; Miller, J. B.; Domingues, L. G.; Correia, C. S. C.

    2016-08-01

    We analyze satellite retrievals of carbon monoxide from the MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) instrument over the Amazon Basin, focusing on the MOPITT Version 6 "multispectral" retrieval product (exploiting both thermal-infrared and near-infrared channels). Validation results based on in situ vertical profiles measured between 2010 and 2013 are presented for four sites in the Amazon Basin. Results indicate a significant negative bias in retrieved lower-tropospheric CO concentrations. The possible influence of smoke aerosol as a source of retrieval bias is investigated using collocated Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements at two sites but does not appear to be significant. Finally, we exploit the MOPITT record to analyze both the mean annual cycle and the interannual variability of CO over the Amazon Basin since 2002.

  7. Spectral tuning of Amazon parrot feather coloration by psittacofulvin pigments and spongy structures.

    PubMed

    Tinbergen, Jan; Wilts, Bodo D; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2013-12-01

    The feathers of Amazon parrots are brightly coloured. They contain a unique class of pigments, the psittacofulvins, deposited in both barbs and barbules, causing yellow or red coloured feathers. In specific feather areas, spongy nanostructured barb cells exist, reflecting either in the blue or blue-green wavelength range. The blue-green spongy structures are partly enveloped by a blue-absorbing, yellow-colouring pigment acting as a spectral filter, thus yielding a green coloured barb. Applying reflection and transmission spectroscopy, we characterized the Amazons' pigments and spongy structures, and investigated how they contribute to the feather coloration. The reflectance spectra of Amazon feathers are presumably tuned to the sensitivity spectra of the visual photoreceptors.

  8. Annual Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Amazon Basin between 2000 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Peng; Huang, Chengquan; Saatchi, Sassan S; Hansen, Matthew C; Townshend, John R

    2015-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is considered one of the most cost-effective strategies for mitigating climate change. However, historical deforestation and emission rates-critical inputs for setting reference emission levels for REDD+-are poorly understood. Here we use multi-source, time-series satellite data to quantify carbon emissions from deforestation in the Amazon basin on a year-to-year basis between 2000 and 2010. We first derive annual deforestation indicators by using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Continuous Fields (MODIS VCF) product. MODIS indicators are calibrated by using a large sample of Landsat data to generate accurate deforestation rates, which are subsequently combined with a spatially explicit biomass dataset to calculate committed annual carbon emissions. Across the study area, the average deforestation and associated carbon emissions were estimated to be 1.59 ± 0.25 M ha•yr(-1) and 0.18 ± 0.07 Pg C•yr(-1) respectively, with substantially different trends and inter-annual variability in different regions. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon increased between 2001 and 2004 and declined substantially afterwards, whereas deforestation in the Bolivian Amazon, the Colombian Amazon, and the Peruvian Amazon increased over the study period. The average carbon density of lost forests after 2005 was 130 Mg C•ha(-1), ~11% lower than the average carbon density of remaining forests in year 2010 (144 Mg C•ha(-1)). Moreover, the average carbon density of cleared forests increased at a rate of 7 Mg C•ha(-1)•yr(-1) from 2005 to 2010, suggesting that deforestation has been progressively encroaching into high-biomass lands in the Amazon basin. Spatially explicit, annual deforestation and emission estimates like the ones derived in this study are useful for setting baselines for REDD+ and other emission mitigation programs, and for evaluating the performance of such efforts.

  9. Annual Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Amazon Basin between 2000 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Peng; Huang, Chengquan; Saatchi, Sassan S; Hansen, Matthew C; Townshend, John R

    2015-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is considered one of the most cost-effective strategies for mitigating climate change. However, historical deforestation and emission rates-critical inputs for setting reference emission levels for REDD+-are poorly understood. Here we use multi-source, time-series satellite data to quantify carbon emissions from deforestation in the Amazon basin on a year-to-year basis between 2000 and 2010. We first derive annual deforestation indicators by using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Continuous Fields (MODIS VCF) product. MODIS indicators are calibrated by using a large sample of Landsat data to generate accurate deforestation rates, which are subsequently combined with a spatially explicit biomass dataset to calculate committed annual carbon emissions. Across the study area, the average deforestation and associated carbon emissions were estimated to be 1.59 ± 0.25 M ha•yr(-1) and 0.18 ± 0.07 Pg C•yr(-1) respectively, with substantially different trends and inter-annual variability in different regions. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon increased between 2001 and 2004 and declined substantially afterwards, whereas deforestation in the Bolivian Amazon, the Colombian Amazon, and the Peruvian Amazon increased over the study period. The average carbon density of lost forests after 2005 was 130 Mg C•ha(-1), ~11% lower than the average carbon density of remaining forests in year 2010 (144 Mg C•ha(-1)). Moreover, the average carbon density of cleared forests increased at a rate of 7 Mg C•ha(-1)•yr(-1) from 2005 to 2010, suggesting that deforestation has been progressively encroaching into high-biomass lands in the Amazon basin. Spatially explicit, annual deforestation and emission estimates like the ones derived in this study are useful for setting baselines for REDD+ and other emission mitigation programs, and for evaluating the performance of such efforts. PMID

  10. The spatial extent of change in tropical forest ecosystem services in the Amazon delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araujo Barbosa, C. C.; Atkinson, P.; Dearing, J.

    2014-12-01

    Deltas hold major economic potential due their strategic location, close to seas and inland waterways, thereby supporting intense economic activity. The increasing pace of human development activities in coastal deltas over the past five decades has also strained environmental resources and produced extensive economic and sociocultural impacts. The Amazon delta is located in the Amazon Basin, North Brazil, the largest river basin on Earth and also one of the least understood. A considerable segment of the population living in the Amazon delta is directly dependent on the local extraction of natural resources for their livelihood. Areas sparsely inhabited may be exploited with few negative consequences for the environment. However, increasing pressure on ecosystem services is amplified by large fluxes of immigrants from other parts of the country, especially from the semi-arid zone in Northeast Brazil to the lowland forests of the Amazon delta. Here we present partial results from a bigger research project. Therefore, the focus will be on presenting an overview of the current state, and the extent of changes on forest related ecosystem services in the Amazon delta over the last three decades. We aggregated a multitude of datasets, from a variety of sources, for example, from satellite imagery such as the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), the Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and climate datasets at meteorological station level from the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) and social and economic statistics data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and from the Brazilian Institute of Applied Economic Research (IPEA). Through analysis of socioeconomic and satellite earth observation data we were able to produce and present spatially-explicit information with the current state and transition in forest cover and its impacts to forest

  11. Annual Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Amazon Basin between 2000 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiao-Peng; Huang, Chengquan; Saatchi, Sassan S.; Hansen, Matthew C.; Townshend, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is considered one of the most cost-effective strategies for mitigating climate change. However, historical deforestation and emission rates―critical inputs for setting reference emission levels for REDD+―are poorly understood. Here we use multi-source, time-series satellite data to quantify carbon emissions from deforestation in the Amazon basin on a year-to-year basis between 2000 and 2010. We first derive annual deforestation indicators by using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Continuous Fields (MODIS VCF) product. MODIS indicators are calibrated by using a large sample of Landsat data to generate accurate deforestation rates, which are subsequently combined with a spatially explicit biomass dataset to calculate committed annual carbon emissions. Across the study area, the average deforestation and associated carbon emissions were estimated to be 1.59 ± 0.25 M ha•yr−1 and 0.18 ± 0.07 Pg C•yr−1 respectively, with substantially different trends and inter-annual variability in different regions. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon increased between 2001 and 2004 and declined substantially afterwards, whereas deforestation in the Bolivian Amazon, the Colombian Amazon, and the Peruvian Amazon increased over the study period. The average carbon density of lost forests after 2005 was 130 Mg C•ha−1, ~11% lower than the average carbon density of remaining forests in year 2010 (144 Mg C•ha−1). Moreover, the average carbon density of cleared forests increased at a rate of 7 Mg C•ha−1•yr−1 from 2005 to 2010, suggesting that deforestation has been progressively encroaching into high-biomass lands in the Amazon basin. Spatially explicit, annual deforestation and emission estimates like the ones derived in this study are useful for setting baselines for REDD+ and other emission mitigation programs, and for evaluating the performance of such efforts

  12. Hallux amputation after a freshwater stingray injury in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Oliveira, Sâmella Silva de; Sachett, Jacqueline de Almeida Gonçalves; Silva, Iran Mendonça da; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater stingray injuries are a common problem in the Brazilian Amazon, affecting mostly riverine and indigenous populations. These injuries cause severe local and regional pain, swelling and erythema, as well as complications, such as local necrosis and bacterial infection. Herein, we report a case of bacterial infection and hallux necrosis, after a freshwater stingray injury in the Brazilian Amazon, which eventually required amputation. Different antimicrobial regimens were administered at different stages of the disease; however, avoiding amputation through effective treatment was not achieved. PMID:27384843

  13. Amazon capims (floating grassmats) - A source of C-13 enriched methane to the troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chanton, Jeffrey; Crill, Patrick; Bartlett, Karen; Martens, Christopher

    1989-01-01

    The C-13 isotopic composition of methane emitted to the troposphere from Amazon capims (floating grassmats) ranged from -36.9 to -48.0, per mil averaging -44.4 + or - 4.2 per mil. All pools of methane associated with the grassmats were enriched; methane withdrawn from plant stems ranged from -39 to -49 per mil while bubbles stirred from the root mat averaged -41.4 per mil. As the CH4 flux from these habitats makes up some 40 percent of the total flux from the Amazon floodplain, methane emissions from the region as a whole must be enriched in.

  14. Description of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Roberto; Lopez, Victor; Cardenas, Roldan; Requena, Edwin

    2015-07-01

    A new species of sand fly, which we describe as Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., was collected in the northern Peruvian Amazon Basin. In this region of Peru, cutaneous leishmaniasis is transmitted primarily by anthropophilic sand flies; however, zoophilic sand flies of the subgenus Trichophoromyia may also be incriminated in disease transmission. Detection of Leishmania spp. in Lutzomyia auraensis Mangabeira captured in the southern Peruvian Amazon indicates the potential of this and other zoophilic sand flies for human disease transmission, particularly in areas undergoing urban development. Herein, we describe Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., and report new records of sand flies in Peru.

  15. Description of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Peruvian Amazon Basin

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Roberto; Lopez, Victor; Cardenas, Roldan; Requena, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    A new species of sand fly, which we describe as Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., was collected in the northern Peruvian Amazon Basin. In this region of Peru, cutaneous leishmaniasis is transmitted primarily by anthropophilic sand flies; however, zoophilic sand flies of the subgenus Trichophoromyia may also be incriminated in disease transmission. Detection of Leishmania spp. in Lutzomyia auraensis Mangabeira captured in the southern Peruvian Amazon indicates the potential of this and other zoophilic sand flies for human disease transmission, particularly in areas undergoing urban development. Herein, we describe Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., and report new records of sand flies in Peru. PMID:26335468

  16. Vocalizations of Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis): Characterization, effect of physical environment and differences between populations.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Thiago Orion Simões; Andriolo, Artur; Reis, Sarah S; dos Santos, Manuel E

    2016-03-01

    The vocal repertoire of the Amazon river dolphin and its geographic variations are still poorly known, especially in relation to ecological variables. Here the acoustic characteristics of low frequency pulsed vocalizations, with single or multiple pulses, recorded in two protected areas of the Amazon were described and differences in acoustic emissions related to water properties were analyzed. Both frequency and time parameters differ relative to abiotic condition of water turbidity. Changes in the animals' acoustic behavior might be due to differences in sound propagation between rich-sediment water and clear water. Geographic variation was found in frequency and time parameters, requiring further investigation. PMID:27036265

  17. Western Kentucky thrives

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2005-10-01

    Independents and big boys struggle to keep up with increasing demand and a lack of experienced workers in the Illinois Basin. This is the second of a two part series reviewing the coal mining industry in the Illinois Basin which also includes Indiana and Western Kentucky. It includes a classification/correction to Part 1 of the article published in the September 2005 issue (see Coal Abstracts Entry data/number Dec 2005 00204). 4 photos.

  18. Spatial-temporal dynamics and sources of total Hg in a hydroelectric reservoir in the Western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pestana, I A; Bastos, W R; Almeida, M G; de Carvalho, D P; Rezende, C E; Souza, C M M

    2016-05-01

    Damming rivers to construct hydroelectric reservoirs results in a series of impacts on the biogeochemical Hg cycle. For example, modifying the hydrodynamics of a natural watercourse can result in the suspension and transport of Hg deposits in the water column, which represents an exposure risk for biota. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influences of seasonality on the dispersion of total Hg in the Hydroelectric Power Plant (HPP)-Samuel Reservoir (Porto Velho/Brazil). Sampling campaigns were performed during the three following hydrological periods characteristic of the region: low (Oct/2011), ebbing (May/2012), and high (Feb/2013) water. Sediment profiles, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and aquatic macrophytes (Eicchornia crassipes and Oryza spp.) were collected, and their Hg concentrations and isotopic and elemental C and N signatures were determined. The drainage basin significantly influenced the SPM compositions during all the periods, with a small autochthonous influence from the reservoir during the low water. The highest SPM Hg concentrations inside the reservoir were observed during the high water period, suggesting that the hydrodynamics of this environment favor the suspension of fine SPM, which has a higher Hg adsorption capacity. The Hg concentrations in the sediment profiles were ten times lower than those in the SPM, indicating that large particles with low Hg concentrations were deposited to form the bottom sediment. Hg concentrations were higher in aquatic macrophyte roots than in their leaves and appeared to contribute to the formation of SPM during the low water period. In this environment, Hg transport mainly occurs in SPM from the Jamari River drainage basin, which is the primary source of Hg in this environment. PMID:26846239

  19. Spatial-temporal dynamics and sources of total Hg in a hydroelectric reservoir in the Western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pestana, I A; Bastos, W R; Almeida, M G; de Carvalho, D P; Rezende, C E; Souza, C M M

    2016-05-01

    Damming rivers to construct hydroelectric reservoirs results in a series of impacts on the biogeochemical Hg cycle. For example, modifying the hydrodynamics of a natural watercourse can result in the suspension and transport of Hg deposits in the water column, which represents an exposure risk for biota. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influences of seasonality on the dispersion of total Hg in the Hydroelectric Power Plant (HPP)-Samuel Reservoir (Porto Velho/Brazil). Sampling campaigns were performed during the three following hydrological periods characteristic of the region: low (Oct/2011), ebbing (May/2012), and high (Feb/2013) water. Sediment profiles, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and aquatic macrophytes (Eicchornia crassipes and Oryza spp.) were collected, and their Hg concentrations and isotopic and elemental C and N signatures were determined. The drainage basin significantly influenced the SPM compositions during all the periods, with a small autochthonous influence from the reservoir during the low water. The highest SPM Hg concentrations inside the reservoir were observed during the high water period, suggesting that the hydrodynamics of this environment favor the suspension of fine SPM, which has a higher Hg adsorption capacity. The Hg concentrations in the sediment profiles were ten times lower than those in the SPM, indicating that large particles with low Hg concentrations were deposited to form the bottom sediment. Hg concentrations were higher in aquatic macrophyte roots than in their leaves and appeared to contribute to the formation of SPM during the low water period. In this environment, Hg transport mainly occurs in SPM from the Jamari River drainage basin, which is the primary source of Hg in this environment.

  20. Genetic uniqueness of the Waorani tribe from the Ecuadorian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, S; Alfonso-Sánchez, M A; Valverde, L; Sánchez, D; Zarrabeitia, M T; Odriozola, A; Martínez-Jarreta, B; de Pancorbo, M M

    2012-01-01

    South America and especially the Amazon basin is known to be home to some of the most isolated human groups in the world. Here, we report on a study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the Waorani from Ecuador, probably the most warlike human population known to date. Seeking to look in more depth at the characterization of the genetic diversity of this Native American tribe, molecular markers from the X and Y chromosomes were also analyzed. Only three different mtDNA haplotypes were detected among the Waorani sample. One of them, assigned to Native American haplogroup A2, accounted for more than 94% of the total diversity of the maternal gene pool. Our results for sex chromosome molecular markers failed to find close genetic kinship between individuals, further emphasizing the low genetic diversity of the mtDNA. Bearing in mind the results obtained for both the analysis of the mtDNA control region and complete mitochondrial genomes, we suggest the existence of a ‘Waorani-specific' mtDNA lineage. According to current knowledge on the phylogeny of haplogroup A2, we propose that this lineage could be designated as subhaplogroup A2s. Its wide predominance among the Waorani people might have been conditioned by severe genetic drift episodes resulting from founding events, long-term isolation and a traditionally small population size most likely associated with the striking ethnography of this Amazonian community. In all, the Waorani constitute a fine example of how genetic imprint may mirror ethnopsychology and sociocultural features in human populations. PMID:22234246

  1. Structure and dynamics of phytoplankton in an Amazon lake, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ise de Goreth; Moura, Ariadne do Nascimento; Dantas, Enio Wocyli; Bittencourt-Oliveira, Maria do Carmo

    2010-12-01

    Natural lake systems represent important reservoirs for residential water supply, fish production, recreational activities and enjoyment of their natural beauty. Nevertheless, human impacts may affect their health status resulting in degradation and loss of biodiversity. The aim of the present study was to obtain data on the health status of a natural lake located in an indigenous reservation in the Brazilian Amazon, using the phytoplankton community changes along the rainy (June) and dry (November) seasons of 2006. We collected water (temperature, pH, Secchi depth and conductivity) and phytoplankton samples from the subsurface, middle of the water column, and approximately 30 cm above the bottom, over 24-hour sampling periods, from a central station in the lake. Samples taken from biotic and abiotic variables were correlated using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Results showed that the lake exhibited high temperatures in both seasons, and showed thermal stratification only during the rainy season. Dissolved oxygen exhibited a clinograde pattern in the rainy season and high oxygen in the hypolimnion in the dry season. In the rainy season, the water near the bottom was acidic, turbid and had a greater concentration of phosphorus. Dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, nitrite, total phosphorus and total dissolved phosphorus exhibited diel variations in the rainy season, whereas water temperature, dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen and total dissolved phosphorus exhibited significant differences between hours of the day in the dry season. The phytoplankton was represented by 39 taxa, and Chlorophyta showed the greatest species richness, totaling 25 taxa. Among Chlorophyta, desmids were the most diverse, accounting 52%. Bacillariophyta (nine species) was the second most diverse group. Cyanophyta was represented by three species, including Merismopedia tenuissima, the most abundant taxon. Despite the occurrence of taxa that indicate organic pollution, their biomass

  2. Applications of TOPS Anomaly Detection Framework to Amazon Drought Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votava, P.; Nemani, R. R.; Ganguly, S.; Michaelis, A.; Hashimoto, H.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) is a flexible modeling software system that integrates ecosystem models with frequent satellite and surface weather observations to produce ecosystem nowcasts (assessments of current conditions) and forecasts useful in natural resources management, public health and disaster management. We have been extending the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) to include capability for automated anomaly detection and analysis of both on-line (streaming) and off-line data. While there are large numbers of anomaly detection algorithms for multivariate datasets, we are extending this capability beyond the anomaly detection itself and towards an automated analysis that would discover the possible causes of the anomalies. In order to best capture the knowledge about data hierarchies, Earth science models and implied dependencies between anomalies and occurrences of observable events such as urbanization, deforestation, or fires, we have developed an ontology to serve as a knowledge base. The knowledge is captured using OWL ontology language, where connections are defined in a schema that is later extended by including specific instances of datasets and models. We have integrated this knowledge base with a framework for deploying an ensemble of anomaly detection algorithms on large volumes of Earth science datasets and applied it to specific scientific applications that support research conducted by our group. In one early application, we were able to process large number of MODIS, TRMM, CERES data along with ground-based weather and river flow observations to detect the evolution of 2010 drought in the Amazon, identify the affected area, and publish the results in three weeks. A similar analysis of the 2005 drought using the same data sets took nearly 2 years, highlighting the potential contribution of our anomaly framework in accelerating scientific discoveries.

  3. Lithium isotopes fractionation in Amazon river-borne material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellinger, M.; Gaillardet, J.; Louvat, P.; Bouchez, J.; France-Lanord, C.

    2012-12-01

    Silicate weathering is a key geological process controlling the long-term climatic cycle through the consumption of atmospheric CO2. The determination of paleo-weathering conditions is therefore critical to understand past climatic variations. For this purpose, there is evidence from numerous recent studies that Li isotopes in river-dissolved load could be a potentially good silicate weathering proxy because (i) Li is derived predominately from silicates rocks (ii) Li is mobile during chemical weathering and (iii) the water/rocks interactions induce the fractionation of Li isotopes with the preferential enrichment of 7Li in the dissolved phase. However, the respective influence of factors and weathering regime on the Li isotopes fractionation during chemical weathering is still poorly understood. In this study we investigate the Li isotopic fractionation in river-borne material of the largest river system on Earth, the Amazon River. This river system offers the possibility to study Li isotopes fractionation by chemical weathering at a continental scale, in a relatively unpolluted area with equatorial conditions and, to compare weathering and transport limited regimes of erosion. First results show that about 5 to 15% of the total lithium is transported in the dissolved phase. The dissolved Li isotopes composition (δ7Li) ranges from +6.4‰ to +30.8‰ and is much heavier than corresponding sand and suspended sediments samples (-3.6‰ to +4‰). Rio Negro have the lowest δ7Li values (+6.4‰) while Mamore River in the Madeira basin have the heaviest δ7Li composition (+30.8‰). Mass budget calculation between dissolved and particulate phases provides insights about the respective influence of parameters controlling the extent of Li isotopes fractionation during chemical weathering.

  4. Antioxidant activity and potential photoprotective from amazon native flora extracts.

    PubMed

    Martins, Francislene J; Caneschi, César A; Vieira, José L F; Barbosa, Wagner; Raposo, Nádia R B

    2016-08-01

    Plant species are sources of active compounds that can fight and/or prevent damage caused by reactive oxygen species, which enables the development of natural products that can help to prevent premature aging caused by exposure to solar radiation. This study assessed the antioxidant and photoprotective activities of six dried extracts of plants from the Brazilian Amazon biome. Plant extracts were prepared in 70% (v/v) ethanol by dynamic maceration for 72h in the dark, and then filtered, concentrated and lyophilized. The extracts were subjected to a phytochemical screening. The antioxidant activity was measured using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and the photoprotection assay was performed using the diffuse transmittance technique. The data obtained from the antioxidant activity assay was evaluated by Student's t-test for independent samples, with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences v.14.0 for Windows software. The flavonoids represent a special metabolites class present in all analyzed extracts. The antioxidant activity (μgmL(-1)) decreased in the following order: Aniba canelilla (1.80±0.16), Brosimum acutifolium (2.84±0.38), Dalbergia monetaria (5.46±0.17) or Caesalpinia pyramidalis (6.45±1.18), Arrabidaea chica (15.35±0.86), and Aspidosperma nitidum (99.14±2.3). Only D. monetaria showed a considerable sun protection factor allowing for labeling (6.0±0.3). The D. monetaria extract was considered the most promising sample because it had optimal antioxidant and photoprotective activities against solar radiation, considering the limit established by regulatory agencies. These extracts with antioxidant potential can be used in photoprotective formulations, providing synergistic photoprotective effect or elevating the adeed value of the product. Additionally, these formulations are attractive to a population who searchs for products made with natural ingredients. PMID:27208744

  5. hydrochemistry of the Andeans and sub-andeans Amazon basins - Weathering and CO2 consumption rates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moquet, Jean-Sébastien; Crave, Alain; Viers, Jérome; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Lagane, Christelle; Sven Lavado Casimiro, Waldo; Pombosa, Rodrigo; Noriega, Luis; Chavary, Eduardo

    2010-05-01

    Measuring mountain weathering rates, estimating their role on C cycle and identifying the parameters which control them are key to better constrain the knowledge of the continental-ocean-atmosphere interactions over geological timescale. The Andes, in contrast to the Himalaya, have received poor attention in terms of chemical weathering. Several authors have worked on the Amazon river basin, but it is difficult to assess the role of the Andes (10% of the surface area of the Amazon river basin) by only sampling the Amazon at mouth or sampling its largest tributaries. As shown by earlier works, the Upper-Amazon basins are the main matter source of the Amazon basin. The studied area participates at more than 70% of the Amazon weathering rates while it contributes to the total discharge on 30% for 27% of the total area. The studied area is comprised between latitude 0°47'N and 20°28'S and between longitude 79°36'W and 58°45'W and can be divided in three major hydrosystems (the Napo river at North, the Maranon-Ucayali rivers on the central part and the upper Madeira at south) which can be separated on Andes and sub-Andes parts. This work presents the results of the HYBAM research program (present-day hydro-geodynamics of the Amazon Basin) on the upper Amazon basin. The concentration of major elements was analyzed on a monthly basis, sampling at 26 gauging stations which include the Andean basins of the Amazon River and a part of the downstream catchment domain. The objectives of this work are i) calculate the major elements fluxes and their spatial distribution, ii) estimate the present-day rate of rock weathering, as well as the flux of atmospheric/soil CO2 consumption from total rock and silicate weathering, and iii) constrain the major environmental factor which controls the dissolved matter production using unique high temporal and spatial resolution data sampling. The main difficulty of studying large river geochemistry is to separate the main sources of the

  6. Crop damage of Eriotheca gracilipes (Bombacaceae) by the Blue-Fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva, Psittacidae), in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Ragusa-Netto, J

    2014-11-01

    Seed predation has major effects on the reproductive success of individuals, spatial patterns of populations, genetic variability, interspecific interactions and ultimately in the diversity of tree communities. At a Brazilian savanna, I evaluated the proportional crop loss of Eriotheca gracilipes due the Blue-Fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) during a fruiting period. Also, I analyzed the relationship between proportional crop loss to Amazons and both fruit crop size and the distance from the nearest damaged conspecific. Trees produced from 1 to 109 fruits, so that Amazons foraged more often on trees bearing larger fruit crop size, while seldom visited less productive trees. Moreover, the relationship between fruit crop sizes and the number of depredated fruits was significant. However, when only damaged trees were assessed, I found a negative and significant relation between fruit crop size and proportional crop loss to Blue-Fronted Amazons. Taking into account this as a measure more directly related to the probability of seed survival, a negative density dependent effect emerged. Also, Amazons similarly damaged the fruit crops of either close or distant neighboring damaged trees. Hence, in spite of Blue-Fronted Amazons searched for E. gracilipes bearing large fruit crops, they were swamped due to the presence of more fruits than they could eat. Moderate seed predation by Blue-Fronted Amazons either at trees with large fruit crops or in areas where fruiting trees were aggregated implies in an enhanced probability of E. gracilipes seed survival and consequent regeneration success.

  7. Crop damage of Eriotheca gracilipes (Bombacaceae) by the Blue-Fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva, Psittacidae), in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Ragusa-Netto, J

    2014-11-01

    Seed predation has major effects on the reproductive success of individuals, spatial patterns of populations, genetic variability, interspecific interactions and ultimately in the diversity of tree communities. At a Brazilian savanna, I evaluated the proportional crop loss of Eriotheca gracilipes due the Blue-Fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) during a fruiting period. Also, I analyzed the relationship between proportional crop loss to Amazons and both fruit crop size and the distance from the nearest damaged conspecific. Trees produced from 1 to 109 fruits, so that Amazons foraged more often on trees bearing larger fruit crop size, while seldom visited less productive trees. Moreover, the relationship between fruit crop sizes and the number of depredated fruits was significant. However, when only damaged trees were assessed, I found a negative and significant relation between fruit crop size and proportional crop loss to Blue-Fronted Amazons. Taking into account this as a measure more directly related to the probability of seed survival, a negative density dependent effect emerged. Also, Amazons similarly damaged the fruit crops of either close or distant neighboring damaged trees. Hence, in spite of Blue-Fronted Amazons searched for E. gracilipes bearing large fruit crops, they were swamped due to the presence of more fruits than they could eat. Moderate seed predation by Blue-Fronted Amazons either at trees with large fruit crops or in areas where fruiting trees were aggregated implies in an enhanced probability of E. gracilipes seed survival and consequent regeneration success. PMID:25627593

  8. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) in the remote Amazon Basin: overview of first results from ecosystem ecology, meteorology, trace gas, and aerosol measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Acevedo, O. C.; Araùjo, A.; Artaxo, P.; Barbosa, C. G. G.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Brito, J.; Carbone, S.; Chi, X.; Cintra, B. B. L.; da Silva, N. F.; Dias, N. L.; Dias-Júnior, C. Q.; Ditas, F.; Ditz, R.; Godoi, A. F. L.; Godoi, R. H. M.; Heimann, M.; Hoffmann, T.; Kesselmeier, J.; Könemann, T.; Krüger, M. L.; Lavric, J. V.; Manzi, A. O.; Moran-Zuloaga, D.; Nölscher, A. C.; Santos Nogueira, D.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Pöhlker, C.; Pöschl, U.; Rizzo, L. V.; Ro, C.-U.; Ruckteschler, N.; Sá, L. D. A.; Sá, M. D. O.; Sales, C. B.; Santos, R. M. N. D.; Saturno, J.; Schöngart, J.; Sörgel, M.; de Souza, C. M.; de Souza, R. A. F.; Su, H.; Targhetta, N.; Tóta, J.; Trebs, I.; Trumbore, S.; van Eijck, A.; Walter, D.; Wang, Z.; Weber, B.; Williams, J.; Winderlich, J.; Wittmann, F.; Wolff, S.; Yáñez-Serrano, A. M.

    2015-04-01

    The Amazon Basin plays key roles in the carbon and water cycles, climate change, atmospheric chemistry, and biodiversity. It already has been changed significantly by human activities, and more pervasive change is expected to occur in the next decades. It is therefore essential to establish long-term measurement sites that provide a baseline record of present-day climatic, biogeochemical, and atmospheric conditions and that will be operated over coming decades to monitor change in the Amazon region as human perturbations increase in the future. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) has been set up in a pristine rain forest region in the central Amazon Basin, about 150 km northeast of the city of Manaus. An ecological survey including a biodiversity assessment has been conducted in the forest region surrounding the site. Two 80 m towers have been operated at the site since 2012, and a 325 m tower is nearing completion in mid-2015. Measurements of micrometeorological and atmospheric chemical variables were initiated in 2012, and their range has continued to broaden over the last few years. The meteorological and micrometeorological measurements include temperature and wind profiles, precipitation, water and energy fluxes, turbulence components, soil temperature profiles and soil heat fluxes, radiation fluxes, and visibility. A tree has been instrumented to measure stem profiles of temperature, light intensity, and water content in cryptogamic covers. The trace gas measurements comprise continuous monitoring of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, and ozone at 5 to 8 different heights, complemented by a variety of additional species measured during intensive campaigns (e.g., VOC, NO, NO2, and OH reactivity). Aerosol optical, microphysical, and chemical measurements are made above the canopy as well as in the canopy space. They include light scattering and absorption, aerosol fluorescence, number and volume size distributions, chemical composition, cloud

  9. Seasonal and interannual variability of sea-air CO2 fluxes in the tropical Atlantic affected by the Amazon River plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibánhez, J. Severino P.; Diverrès, Denis; Araujo, Moacyr; Lefèvre, Nathalie

    2015-10-01

    CO2 fugacities obtained from a merchant ship sailing from France to French Guyana were used to explore the seasonal and interannual variability of the sea-air CO2 exchange in the western tropical North Atlantic (TNA; 5-14°N, 41-52°W). Two distinct oceanic water masses were identified in the area associated to the main surface currents, i.e., the North Brazil Current (NBC) and the North Equatorial Current (NEC). The NBC was characterized by permanent CO2 oversaturation throughout the studied period, contrasting with the seasonal pattern identified in the NEC. The NBC retroflection was the main contributor to the North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC), thus spreading into the central TNA, the Amazon River plume, and the CO2-rich waters probably originated from the equatorial upwelling. Strong CO2 undersaturation was associated to the Amazon River plume. Total inorganic carbon drawdown due to biological activity was estimated to be 154 µmol kg-1 within the river plume. As a consequence, the studied area acted as a net sink of atmospheric CO2 (from -72.2 ± 10.2 mmol m-2 month-1 in February to 14.3 ± 4.5 mmol m-2 month-1 in May). This contrasted with the net CO2 efflux estimated by the main global sea-air CO2 flux climatologies. Interannual sea surface temperature changes in the TNA caused by large-scale climatic events could determine the direction and intensity of the sea-air CO2 fluxes in the NEC. Positive temperature anomalies observed in the TNA led to an almost permanent CO2 outgassing in the NEC in 2010.

  10. Clinical aspects of envenomation caused by Tityus obscurus (Gervais, 1843) in two distinct regions of Pará state, Brazilian Amazon basin: a prospective case series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Scorpion envenomations are a major public health problem in Brazil, whose most dangerous cases are attributable to the genus Tityus. This study was designed to compare the clinical and demographic features of envenomations by Tityus obscurus in two areas of the state of Pará located in the Amazon basin. Were compared demographic findings, local and systemic signs and symptoms of human envenomations caused by T. obscurus that occurred in western and eastern areas of the state. Results Forty-eight patients with confirmed envenomation by T. obscurus were evaluated from January 2008 to July 2011. Most of them came from the eastern region, where male and female patients were present in similar numbers, while males predominated in the west. Median age groups were also similar in both areas. Most scorpion stings took place during the day and occurred significantly more frequently on the upper limbs. The time between the sting and admission to the health center was less than three hours in both areas. Most eastern patients had local manifestations while in the west, systemic manifestations predominated. Local symptoms were similar in both areas, but systemic signs and symptoms were more common in the west. Symptoms frequently observed at the sting site were local and radiating pain, paresthesia, edema, erythema, sweating, piloerection and burning. The systemic manifestations were significantly higher in patients from the west. Futhermore, neurological symptoms such as general paresthesia, ataxia, dysarthria, myoclonus, dysmetria, and electric shock-like sensations throughout the body were reported only by patients from the west. Conclusion The present study shows that two regions of Para state differ in the clinical manifestations and severity of confirmed envenomation by T. obscurus which suggests a toxicity variation resulting from the diversity of T. obscurus venom in different areas of the Brazilian Amazon basin, and that T. serrulatus antivenom can be

  11. Multispecies Fisheries in the Lower Amazon River and Its Relationship with the Regional and Global Climate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Buss de Souza, Ronald; Freire, Juan; Isaac, Victoria Judith

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the spatial-temporal variability in catch of the main fishery resources of the Amazon River and floodplain lakes of the Lower Amazon, as well as relating the Catch per Unit of Effort with anomalies of some of the Amazon River, atmosphere and Atlantic Ocean system variables, determining the influence of the environment on the Amazonian fishery resources. Finfish landings data from the towns and villages of the Lower Amazon for the fisheries of three sites (Óbidos, Santarém and Monte Alegre), were obtained for the period between January 1993 and December 2004. Analysis of variance, detrended correspondence analysis, redundancy analysis and multiple regression techniques were used for the statistical analysis of the distinct time series. Fisheries production in the Lower Amazon presents differences between the Amazon River and the floodplain lakes. Production in the Amazon River is approximately half of the one of the floodplain lakes. This variability occurs both along the Lower Amazon River region (longitudinal gradient) and laterally (latitudinal gradient) for every fishing ground studied here. The distinct environmental variables alone or in association act differently on the fishery stocks and the success of catches in each fishery group studied here. Important variables are the flooding events; the soil the sea surface temperatures; the humidity; the wind and the occurence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation events. Fishery productivity presents a large difference in quantity and distribution patterns between the river and floodplain lakes. This variability occurs in the region of the Lower Amazon as well as laterally for each fishery group studied, being dependent on the ecological characteristics and life strategies of each fish group considered here. PMID:27314951

  12. A GCM investigation of impact of aerosols on the precipitation in Amazon during the dry to wet transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yu; Liou, K. N.; Jiang, J. H.; Fu, R.; Lu, Sarah; Xue, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The climatic effects of aerosols on the precipitation over the Amazon during the dry to wet transition period have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/AGCM, and the aerosol climatology data. We found increased instability during the dry season and delayed wet season onset with aerosols included in the model simulation, leading to the delay of the maximum precipitation over the Amazon by about half a month. In particular, our GCM simulations show that surface solar flux is reduced in the Amazon due to the absorption and scattering of the solar radiation by aerosols, leading to decreased surface temperature. Reduced surface solar flux is balanced by decreases in both surface sensible heat and latent heat fluxes. During the wet season, the subtropical system over the Amazon has a shallower convection. With the inclusion of aerosols in the simulation, precipitation in the rainy season over the Amazon decreases in the major rainfall band, which partially corrects the overestimate of the simulated precipitation in that region. The reduced surface temperature by aerosols is also coupled with a warming in the middle troposphere, leading to increased atmosphere stability and moisture divergence over the Amazon. However, during the dry season when the convective system is stronger over the Amazon, rainfall increases in that region due to the warming of the air over the upper troposphere produced by biomass burning aerosols, which produces an anomalous upward motion and a convergence of moisture flux over the Amazon and draws the moisture and precipitation further inland. Therefore, aerosol effects on precipitation depend on the large-scale atmospheric stability, resulting in their different roles over the Amazon during the dry and wet seasons.

  13. Multispecies Fisheries in the Lower Amazon River and Its Relationship with the Regional and Global Climate Variability.

    PubMed

    Pinaya, Walter Hugo Diaz; Lobon-Cervia, Francisco Javier; Pita, Pablo; Buss de Souza, Ronald; Freire, Juan; Isaac, Victoria Judith

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the spatial-temporal variability in catch of the main fishery resources of the Amazon River and floodplain lakes of the Lower Amazon, as well as relating the Catch per Unit of Effort with anomalies of some of the Amazon River, atmosphere and Atlantic Ocean system variables, determining the influence of the environment on the Amazonian fishery resources. Finfish landings data from the towns and villages of the Lower Amazon for the fisheries of three sites (Óbidos, Santarém and Monte Alegre), were obtained for the period between January 1993 and December 2004. Analysis of variance, detrended correspondence analysis, redundancy analysis and multiple regression techniques were used for the statistical analysis of the distinct time series. Fisheries production in the Lower Amazon presents differences between the Amazon River and the floodplain lakes. Production in the Amazon River is approximately half of the one of the floodplain lakes. This variability occurs both along the Lower Amazon River region (longitudinal gradient) and laterally (latitudinal gradient) for every fishing ground studied here. The distinct environmental variables alone or in association act differently on the fishery stocks and the success of catches in each fishery group studied here. Important variables are the flooding events; the soil the sea surface temperatures; the humidity; the wind and the occurence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation events. Fishery productivity presents a large difference in quantity and distribution patterns between the river and floodplain lakes. This variability occurs in the region of the Lower Amazon as well as laterally for each fishery group studied, being dependent on the ecological characteristics and life strategies of each fish group considered here. PMID:27314951

  14. Multispecies Fisheries in the Lower Amazon River and Its Relationship with the Regional and Global Climate Variability.

    PubMed

    Pinaya, Walter Hugo Diaz; Lobon-Cervia, Francisco Javier; Pita, Pablo; Buss de Souza, Ronald; Freire, Juan; Isaac, Victoria Judith

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the spatial-temporal variability in catch of the main fishery resources of the Amazon River and floodplain lakes of the Lower Amazon, as well as relating the Catch per Unit of Effort with anomalies of some of the Amazon River, atmosphere and Atlantic Ocean system variables, determining the influence of the environment on the Amazonian fishery resources. Finfish landings data from the towns and villages of the Lower Amazon for the fisheries of three sites (Óbidos, Santarém and Monte Alegre), were obtained for the period between January 1993 and December 2004. Analysis of variance, detrended correspondence analysis, redundancy analysis and multiple regression techniques were used for the statistical analysis of the distinct time series. Fisheries production in the Lower Amazon presents differences between the Amazon River and the floodplain lakes. Production in the Amazon River is approximately half of the one of the floodplain lakes. This variability occurs both along the Lower Amazon River region (longitudinal gradient) and laterally (latitudinal gradient) for every fishing ground studied here. The distinct environmental variables alone or in association act differently on the fishery stocks and the success of catches in each fishery group studied here. Important variables are the flooding events; the soil the sea surface temperatures; the humidity; the wind and the occurence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation events. Fishery productivity presents a large difference in quantity and distribution patterns between the river and floodplain lakes. This variability occurs in the region of the Lower Amazon as well as laterally for each fishery group studied, being dependent on the ecological characteristics and life strategies of each fish group considered here.

  15. Western Gas Sands Subprogram

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    The Western Gas Sands Subprogram (WGSS) is a multidisciplinary research effort within the US Department of Energy program on Unconventional Gas Recovery. The subprogram, managed by DOE's Morgantown Energy Technology Center, is directed towards the development of tight (very low permeability) lenticular gas sands in the western United States. The purpose of the subprogram is to demonstrate the feasibility of economically producing natural gas from low-permeability reservoirs. The subprogram has two broad goals: (1) to reduce the uncertainty of the reservoir production potential and (2) to improve the extraction technology. With input from the gas industry, universities, and geologic and engineering consulting firms, the WGSS was broadened to include more fundamental research and development. Consequently, for the last five years it has focused on improving diagnostic instrumentation, geophysical and engineering interpretation, and stimulation techniques. Integrated geologic studies of the three priority basins containing tight sands and selected by DOE as research targets have also been pursued as part of this new effort. To date, the following tentative conclusions have evolved: Permeability of the tight gas sands can be as much as three to four orders of magnitude lower than conventional gas deposits. Nineteen western geologic basins and trends containing significant amounts of tight gas have been identified. Gas resources in the priority geologic basins are Piceance Basin, 49 tcf., Uinta Basin, 20 tcf., and Greater Green River Basin, 136 tcf. The presence of natural micro-fractures within the production zone of a reservoir and the effective propped length of hydraulically-induced fractures are the critical parameters for successful development of tight sand resources. 8 figures.

  16. Local and remote climatic impacts due to land use degradation in the Amazon "Arc of Deforestation"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Pereira, Gabriel; da Rocha, Rosmeri Porfírio

    2016-08-01

    Many numerical studies, among them, global and regional models, have been used to simulate climatic impact due to Amazon deforestation. Most of them did not consider deforestation as usually observed and the induced dynamic changes. The present study explores the physical impacts due to Amazon deforestation by considering local and remote changes in the circulation and thermodynamics. For this, numerical experiments were conducted with RegCM3 using a relatively fine horizontal grid spacing (50 km), more realistic deforested areas (similar to the highway-network-shaped), and an updated land use map. The studied period was 2001-2006 October-March. As in most previous studies focusing on Amazon deforestation, the RegCM3-simulated air temperature increases over degraded areas, ranging from 1.0 to 2.5 °C, and precipitation decreases of around 10 %. This result is mainly related to depletion in evapotranspiration rates provided by lesser soil water extraction by the degraded vegetation. The weakening of upward motion in the mid-upper troposphere is an associated mechanism that explains the precipitation decrease after Amazon deforestation. A new result is the simulated precipitation increase, about 10 %, over the eastern South America and the adjacent South Atlantic Ocean. In these areas, the precipitation increase during October-March is associated with intensification of upper-level high pressure (the Bolivian high) coupled with negative geopotential height anomalies southeastward of the center of the high.

  17. Amazon forests maintain consistent canopy structure and greenness during the dry season.

    PubMed

    Morton, Douglas C; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Carabajal, Claudia C; Rosette, Jacqueline; Palace, Michael; Cook, Bruce D; Vermote, Eric F; Harding, David J; North, Peter R J

    2014-02-13

    The seasonality of sunlight and rainfall regulates net primary production in tropical forests. Previous studies have suggested that light is more limiting than water for tropical forest productivity, consistent with greening of Amazon forests during the dry season in satellite data. We evaluated four potential mechanisms for the seasonal green-up phenomenon, including increases in leaf area or leaf reflectance, using a sophisticated radiative transfer model and independent satellite observations from lidar and optical sensors. Here we show that the apparent green up of Amazon forests in optical remote sensing data resulted from seasonal changes in near-infrared reflectance, an artefact of variations in sun-sensor geometry. Correcting this bidirectional reflectance effect eliminated seasonal changes in surface reflectance, consistent with independent lidar observations and model simulations with unchanging canopy properties. The stability of Amazon forest structure and reflectance over seasonal timescales challenges the paradigm of light-limited net primary production in Amazon forests and enhanced forest growth during drought conditions. Correcting optical remote sensing data for artefacts of sun-sensor geometry is essential to isolate the response of global vegetation to seasonal and interannual climate variability. PMID:24499816

  18. Simulated Changes in Northwest U.S. Climate in Response to Amazon Deforestation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerical models have long predicted that the deforestation of the Amazon would lead to large regional changes in precipitation and temperature, but the extratropical effects of deforestation have been a matter of controversy. This paper investigates the simulated impacts of defo...

  19. Impact of Amazon deforestation on climate simulations using the NCAR CCM2/BATS model

    SciTech Connect

    Hahmann, A.N.; Dickinson, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    Model validation and results are briefly presented for a simulation of deforestation of the Amazon rainforest. This initial study is made using assumptions regarding deforestation similar to those in earlier studies with several versions of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM) couples to the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS). The model used is a revised version of the NCAR CCM Version 2 coupled to BATS Version 1e. This paper discusses the portion of validation dealing with the distribution of precipitation; the simulation displays very good agreement with observed rainfall rates for the austral summer. Preliminary results from an 8-year simulation of deforestation are similar to that of previous studies. Annual precipitation and evaporation are reduced, while surface air temperatures show a slight increase. A substantial bimodal pattern appears in the results, with the Amazon decrease of precipitation and temperature increase accompanied by changes in the opposite sign to the southeast of the Amazon. Similar patterns have occurred in other studies, but not always in exactly the same locations. Evidently, how much of the region of rainfall increase occurs in the deforested area over the Amazon strongly affects the inferred statistics. It is likely that this pattern depends on the model control climatology and possibly other features. 16 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Quantifying the threat of extinction from Muller's ratchet in the diploid Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa) is a small unisexual fish that has been suspected of being threatened by extinction from the stochastic accumulation of slightly deleterious mutations that is caused by Muller's ratchet in non-recombining populations. However, no detailed quantification of the extent of this threat is available. Results Here we quantify genomic decay in this fish by using a simple model of Muller's ratchet with the most realistic parameter combinations available employing the evolution@home global computing system. We also describe simple extensions of the standard model of Muller's ratchet that allow us to deal with selfing diploids, triploids and mitotic recombination. We show that Muller's ratchet creates a threat of extinction for the Amazon molly for many biologically realistic parameter combinations. In most cases, extinction is expected to occur within a time frame that is less than previous estimates of the age of the species, leading to a genomic decay paradox. Conclusion How then does the Amazon molly survive? Several biological processes could individually or in combination solve this genomic decay paradox, including paternal leakage of undamaged DNA from sexual sister species, compensatory mutations and many others. More research is needed to quantify the contribution of these potential solutions towards the survival of the Amazon molly and other (ancient) asexual species. PMID:18366680

  1. Amazon Forests Maintain Consistent Canopy Structure and Greenness During the Dry Season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Rosette, Jacqueline; Palace, Michael; Cook, Bruce D.; Vermote, Eric F.; Harding, David J.; North, Peter R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The seasonality of sunlight and rainfall regulates net primary production in tropical forests. Previous studies have suggested that light is more limiting than water for tropical forest productivity, consistent with greening of Amazon forests during the dry season in satellite data.We evaluated four potential mechanisms for the seasonal green-up phenomenon, including increases in leaf area or leaf reflectance, using a sophisticated radiative transfer model and independent satellite observations from lidar and optical sensors. Here we show that the apparent green up of Amazon forests in optical remote sensing data resulted from seasonal changes in near-infrared reflectance, an artefact of variations in sun-sensor geometry. Correcting this bidirectional reflectance effect eliminated seasonal changes in surface reflectance, consistent with independent lidar observations and model simulations with unchanging canopy properties. The stability of Amazon forest structure and reflectance over seasonal timescales challenges the paradigm of light-limited net primary production in Amazon forests and enhanced forest growth during drought conditions. Correcting optical remote sensing data for artefacts of sun-sensor geometry is essential to isolate the response of global vegetation to seasonal and interannual climate variability.

  2. Satellite Observation of El Nino Effects on Amazon Forest Phenology and Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Townsend, Alan R.; Braswell, Bobby H.

    2000-01-01

    Climate variability may affect the functioning of Amazon moist tropical forests, and recent modeling analyses suggest that the carbon dynamics of the region vary interannually in response to precipitation and temperature anomalies. However, due to persistent orbital and atmospheric artifacts in the satellite record, remote sensing observations have not provided quantitative evidence that climate variation affects Amazon forest phenology or productivity, We developed a method to minimize and quantify non-biological artifacts in NOAA AVHRR satellite data, providing a record of estimated forest phenological variation from 1982-1993. The seasonal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) amplitude (a proxy for phenology) increased throughout much of the basin during El Nino periods when rainfall was anomalously low. Wetter La Nina episodes brought consistently smaller NDVI amplitudes. Using radiative transfer and terrestrial biogeochemical models driven by these satellite data, we estimate that canopy-energy absorption and net primary production of Amazon forests varied interannually by as much as 21% and 18%, respectively. These results provide large-scale observational evidence for interannual sensitivity to El Nino of plant phenology and carbon flux in Amazon forests.

  3. The Expansion of the Economic Frontier and the Diffusion of Violence in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Patrícia Feitosa; Xavier, Diego Ricardo; Rican, Stephane; de Matos, Vanderlei Pascoal; Barcellos, Christovam

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few decades, the occupation of the Amazon and the expansion of large-scale economic activities have exerted a significant negative impact on the Amazonian environment and on the health of the Amazon’s inhabitants. These processes have altered the context of the manifestation of health problems in time and space and changed the characteristics of the spatial diffusion of health problems in the region. This study analyzed the relationships between the various economic processes of territorial occupation in the Amazon and the spatial diffusion of homicidal violence through the configuration of networks of production, as well as the movements of population and merchandise. Statistical data on violence, deforestation, the production of agricultural items, and socio-economic variables, georeferenced and available for the 771 municipalities of the Legal Amazon were used in this study. The results suggest that the diffusion of violence closely follows the economic expansion front, which is related to deforestation and livestock production but has little relation to grain production, demonstrating steps and typologies of recent occupation in the Amazon that promote violence. These spatial patterns reveal environmental and socio-economic macro-determinants that materialize in geographic space through the construction of highways and the formation of city networks. PMID:26024359

  4. Ecosystem Diversity and Heterogeneity Determine the Resilience of the Amazon to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorcroft, P. R.; Levine, N. M.; Longo, M.; Powell, T.; Zhang, K.

    2015-12-01

    Amazon Forests, which play a vital role in global water, energy and carbon cycling, are predicted to experience both longer and more intensive dry seasons by the end of the 21st century. However, the climate sensitivity of this ecosystem remains uncertain: several studies have predicted large-scale die-back of the Amazon, while several more recent studies predict that the biome will remain largely intact. In this study we use an individual-based terrestrial ecosystem model to explore the sensitivity and ecological resilience of these forests to changes in climate. Our results show that water stress operating at the scale of individual plants, combined with spatial variation in soil texture, strongly influence the ecosystem's resilience to changes in dry season length. Further analysis shows that two key traits influencing the climatic sensitivity of individuals within the plant canopy are their phenology and hydraulic architecture. In contrast to existing predictions of either stability or catastrophic biomass loss, our analyses indicate that, as a result of these effects of ecosystem diversity and heterogeneity, the Amazon forest's response to a drying regional climate is likely to be an immediate, graded, heterogeneous transition from high biomass moist forests to transitional dry forests and woody savannah ecosystems. While fire, logging and other anthropogenic disturbances may exacerbate the impacts of climate-induced changes, our analysis indicates considerable spatial variation in the vulnerability of Amazon forests to human induced climate change.

  5. Concentration of Access to Information and Communication Technologies in the Municipalities of the Brazilian Legal Amazon.

    PubMed

    de Brito, Silvana Rossy; da Silva, Aleksandra do Socorro; Cruz, Adejard Gaia; Monteiro, Maurílio de Abreu; Vijaykumar, Nandamudi Lankalapalli; da Silva, Marcelino Silva; Costa, João Crisóstomo Weyl Albuquerque; Francês, Carlos Renato Lisboa

    2016-01-01

    This study fills demand for data on access and use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the Brazilian legal Amazon, a region of localities with identical economic, political, and social problems. We use the 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census to compile data on urban and rural households (i) with computers and Internet access, (ii) with mobile phones, and (iii) with fixed phones. To compare the concentration of access to ICT in the municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon with other regions of Brazil, we use a concentration index to quantify the concentration of households in the following classes: with computers and Internet access, with mobile phones, with fixed phones, and no access. These data are analyzed along with municipal indicators on income, education, electricity, and population size. The results show that for urban households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access and for fixed phones is lower than in other regions of the country; meanwhile, that for no access and mobile phones is higher than in any other region. For rural households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access, mobile phones, and fixed phones is lower than in any other region of the country; meanwhile, that for no access is higher than in any other region. In addition, the study shows that education and income are determinants of inequality in accessing ICT in Brazilian municipalities and that the existence of electricity in rural households is directly associated with the ownership of ICT resources.

  6. Intestinal helminths in wild Peruvian red uakari monkeys (Cacajao calvus ucayalii) in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Conga, David F; Bowler, Mark; Tantalean, Manuel; Montes, Daniel; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Mayor, Pedro

    2014-04-01

    Parasites are important in the management of the health of primate populations. We examined 36 fecal samples from Peruvian red uakari monkeys (Cacajao calvus ucayalii) collected from wild animals in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon. Samples were positive for helminth infection. Nematodes egg: Strongyloididae, Trypanoxyuris sp., Spirurid, and a cestode egg were identified.

  7. Amazon forests maintain consistent canopy structure and greenness during the dry season.

    PubMed

    Morton, Douglas C; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Carabajal, Claudia C; Rosette, Jacqueline; Palace, Michael; Cook, Bruce D; Vermote, Eric F; Harding, David J; North, Peter R J

    2014-02-13

    The seasonality of sunlight and rainfall regulates net primary production in tropical forests. Previous studies have suggested that light is more limiting than water for tropical forest productivity, consistent with greening of Amazon forests during the dry season in satellite data. We evaluated four potential mechanisms for the seasonal green-up phenomenon, including increases in leaf area or leaf reflectance, using a sophisticated radiative transfer model and independent satellite observations from lidar and optical sensors. Here we show that the apparent green up of Amazon forests in optical remote sensing data resulted from seasonal changes in near-infrared reflectance, an artefact of variations in sun-sensor geometry. Correcting this bidirectional reflectance effect eliminated seasonal changes in surface reflectance, consistent with independent lidar observations and model simulations with unchanging canopy properties. The stability of Amazon forest structure and reflectance over seasonal timescales challenges the paradigm of light-limited net primary production in Amazon forests and enhanced forest growth during drought conditions. Correcting optical remote sensing data for artefacts of sun-sensor geometry is essential to isolate the response of global vegetation to seasonal and interannual climate variability.

  8. Integrating Language Documentation, Language Preservation, and Linguistic Research: Working with the Kokamas from the Amazon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallejos, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the role of speech community members on a series of interconnected projects to document, study and maintain Kokama, a deeply endangered language from the Peruvian Amazon. The remaining fluent speakers of the language are mostly older than 60 years of age, are spread out across various small villages, and speak the language in…

  9. Off-Farm Work among Rural Households: A Case Study in the Brazilian Amazon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanWey, Leah; Vithayathil, Trina

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes off-farm work among subsistence-level farmers in the Santarem region of the Brazilian Amazon. We build on the literature on rural livelihoods in the Global South by exploring how the opportunity to work off the farm is embedded in social relationships. We additionally differentiate our analysis by type of off-farm work, and…

  10. Bilingual Education and Language Use among the Shipibo of the Peruvian Amazon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tacelosky, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Investigates how language choice for education contributes to changes in the way a society views and uses language in the context of the Peruvian Amazon. Oral surveys were administered to Shipibo people in 13 communities along the Ucayali River of eastern Peru where a transition type bilingual education program was introduced several decades ago.…

  11. A social and ecological assessment of tropical land uses at multiple scales: the Sustainable Amazon Network

    EPA Science Inventory

    Science has a critical role to play in guiding more sustainable development trajectories. Here we present the Sustainable Amazon Network (Rede Amazônia Sustentável, RAS): a multi-disciplinary research initiative involving more than 30 partner organisations working to assess both ...

  12. The 2009 exceptional Amazon flood and interannual terrestrial water storage change observed by GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. L.; Wilson, C. R.; Tapley, B. D.

    2010-12-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite gravity mission provides a new capability for measuring extreme climate events, such as floods and droughts associated with large-scale terrestrial water storage (TWS) change. GRACE gravity measurements show significant TWS increases in the lower Amazon basin in the first half of 2009, clearly associated with the exceptional flood season in that region. The extended record of GRACE monthly gravity solutions reveals the temporal and spatial evolution of both nonseasonal and interannual TWS change in the Amazon basin over the 7 year mission period from April 2002 to August 2009. GRACE observes a very dry season in 2002-2003 and an extremely wet season in 2009. In March 2009 (approximately the peak of the recent Amazon flood), total TWS surplus in the entire Amazon basin is ˜624 ± 32 Gt, roughly equal to U.S. water consumption for a year. GRACE measurements are consistent with precipitation data. Interannual TWS changes in the Amazon basin are closely connected to ENSO events in the tropical Pacific. The 2002-2003 dry season is clearly tied to the 2002-2003 El Niño and the 2009 flood to the recent La Niña event. The most significant contribution of this study in the area of water resources is to confront the hydrological community with the latest results of the GRACE satellite mission and further demonstrates the unique strength of GRACE and follow-up satellite gravity observations for measuring large-scale extreme climate events.

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Manacapuru, Brazil for the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON) Field Campaign

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Amazon rain forest in Brazil is the largest broadleaf forest in the world, covering 7 million square kilometers of the Amazon Basin in South America. It represents over half of the planet’s remaining rain forests, and comprises the most biodiverse tract of tropical rain forest on the planet. Due to the sheer size of the Amazon rain forest, the area has a strong impact on the climate in the Southern Hemisphere. To understand the intricacies of the natural state of the Amazon rain forest, the Green Ocean Amazon, or GOAMAZON, field campaign is a two-year scientific collaboration among U.S. and Brazilian research organizations. They are conducting a variety of different experiments with dozens of measurement tools, using both ground and aerial instrumentation, including the ARM Aerial Facility's G-1 aircraft. For more information on the holistic view of the campaign, see the Department of Energy’s GOAMAZON website. As a critical component of GOAMAZON, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) will obtain measurements near Manacapuru, south of Manaus, Brazil, from January to December 2014. The city of Manaus, with a population of 3 million, uses high-sulfur oil as their primary source of electricity. The AMF site is situated to measure the atmospheric extremes of a pristine atmosphere and the nearby cities’ pollution plume, as it regularly intersects with the site. Along with other instrument systems located at the Manacapuru site, this deployment will enable scientists to study how aerosol and cloud life cycles are influenced by pollutant outflow from a tropical megacity.

  14. Regional atmospheric CO2 inversion reveals seasonal and geographic differences in Amazon net biome exchange.

    PubMed

    Alden, Caroline B; Miller, John B; Gatti, Luciana V; Gloor, Manuel M; Guan, Kaiyu; Michalak, Anna M; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T; Touma, Danielle; Andrews, Arlyn; Basso, Luana S; Correia, Caio S C; Domingues, Lucas G; Joiner, Joanna; Krol, Maarten C; Lyapustin, Alexei I; Peters, Wouter; Shiga, Yoichi P; Thoning, Kirk; van der Velde, Ivar R; van Leeuwen, Thijs T; Yadav, Vineet; Diffenbaugh, Noah S

    2016-10-01

    Understanding tropical rainforest carbon exchange and its response to heat and drought is critical for quantifying the effects of climate change on tropical ecosystems, including global climate-carbon feedbacks. Of particular importance for the global carbon budget is net biome exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere (NBE), which represents nonfire carbon fluxes into and out of biomass and soils. Subannual and sub-Basin Amazon NBE estimates have relied heavily on process-based biosphere models, despite lack of model agreement with plot-scale observations. We present a new analysis of airborne measurements that reveals monthly, regional-scale (~1-8 × 10(6)  km(2) ) NBE variations. We develop a regional atmospheric CO2 inversion that provides the first analysis of geographic and temporal variability in Amazon biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange and that is minimally influenced by biosphere model-based first guesses of seasonal and annual mean fluxes. We find little evidence for a clear seasonal cycle in Amazon NBE but do find NBE sensitivity to aberrations from long-term mean climate. In particular, we observe increased NBE (more carbon emitted to the atmosphere) associated with heat and drought in 2010, and correlations between wet season NBE and precipitation (negative correlation) and temperature (positive correlation). In the eastern Amazon, pulses of increased NBE persisted through 2011, suggesting legacy effects of 2010 heat and drought. We also identify regional differences in postdrought NBE that appear related to long-term water availability. We examine satellite proxies and find evidence for higher gross primary productivity (GPP) during a pulse of increased carbon uptake in 2011, and lower GPP during a period of increased NBE in the 2010 dry season drought, but links between GPP and NBE changes are not conclusive. These results provide novel evidence of NBE sensitivity to short-term temperature and moisture extremes in the Amazon, where monthly and sub

  15. Monitoring the spreading of the Amazon freshwater plume by MODIS, SMOS, Aquarius and TOPAZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korosov, Anton; Counillon, Francois; Johannessen, Johnny A.

    2015-04-01

    A synergistic tool for studying the Amazon River Plume dynamics based on a novel algorithm for deriving sea surface salinity (SSS) from MODIS reflectance data together with SSS data from the SMOS and Aquarius satellites and the TOPAZ data assimilation system is proposed. The new algorithm is based on a neural network to relate spectral remote sensing reflectance measured by MODIS with SSS measured by SMOS in the Amazon river plume. The algorithm is validated against independent in-situ data and is found to be valid in the range of SSS from 29 to 35 psu, for the period of highest rates of Amazon River discharge with RMSE=0.79 psu and R2=0.84. Monthly SSS fields were reconstructed from the MODIS data for late summers from 2002 to 2012 at a 10 km resolution and compared to surface currents and SSS derived from the TOPAZ reanalysis system. The two datasets reveal striking agreement, suggesting that the TOPAZ system could be used for a detailed study of the Amazon River plume dynamics. Both the position and speed of the North Brazilian Current as well as the spreading of the Amazon River plume are monitored. In particular a recurrent mechanism was observed for the spreading of the rivers plumes, notably that the fresh water is usually advected towards the Caribbean Sea by the North Brazilian Current but get diverted into the tropical Atlantic when North Brazilian Current rings are shed. Innovative method for satellite data temporal morphing based on remotely sensed surface ocean currents allow to derive SSS at unprecedented spatial (1km) and temporal (1 day) resolution.

  16. Sediment dynamics within the intertidal floodplain of the lower Amazon River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, A. T.; Nittrouer, C. A.; Ogston, A. S.; Nowacki, D. J.; Asp, N. E.; Souza Filho, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    Tidal influence extends ~800 kilometers upstream of the Amazon River mouth, producing semidiurnal oscillations in water elevation and slowing or reversing the flow of the world's largest river. This tidally influenced reach, known as the tidal river, is flanked by an expansive intertidal floodplain, and includes confluences with two large tributaries, the Xingu and Tapajós. The relative magnitude of the seasonal and tidal signals changes along the length of the tidal river, yielding diverse floodplain environments that span a range of seasonal and tidal influence. Near the upstream limit of tides, natural levees isolate the river from the floodplain during low to moderate flows, while in the lower tidal river, natural levees are absent and river-floodplain exchange is dominated by the tides rather than seasonal variation in river stage. This difference between fluvial and tidal systems strongly affects the nature of sediment exchange between the channel and floodplain, including frequency, duration, and depth of inundation. Here we present data on the impact of this fluvial-tidal continuum on sedimentary processes in the floodplain and resultant depositional signatures. Changes in levee prominence, grain size, and sediment accumulation combine to produce the distinct morphologies of floodplain lakes, intertidal backswamps, and intertidal flats. In addition to sediment accumulation on the periodically exposed floodplain, Amazon River sediment accumulates within the drowned tributary confluences of the Xingu and Tapajós Rivers. Here seasonal and tidal changes in water temperature, discharge, and suspended-sediment concentration drive barotropic and baroclinic flows that transport Amazon River sediment into tributary basins. These findings help to constrain the fate of sediment within the ungauged Amazon tidal river, and will help in understanding the response of the lower Amazon River to changes in accommodation space associated with rising sea level, and changes

  17. The ambiguity of drought events, a bottleneck for Amazon forest drought response modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deurwaerder, Hannes; Verbeeck, Hans; Baker, Timothy; Christoffersen, Bradley; Ciais, Philippe; Galbraith, David; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Kruijt, Bart; Langerwisch, Fanny; Meir, Patrick; Rammig, Anja; Thonicke, Kirsten; Von Randow, Celso; Zhang, Ke

    2016-04-01

    Considering the important role of the Amazon forest in the global water and carbon cycle, the prognosis of altered hydrological patterns resulting from climate change provides strong incentive for apprehending the direct implications of drought on the vegetation of this ecosystem. Dynamic global vegetation models have the potential of providing a useful tool to study drought impacts on various spatial and temporal scales. This however assumes the models being able to properly represent drought impact mechanisms. But how well do the models succeed in meeting this assumption? Within this study meteorological driver data and model output data of 4 different DGVMs, i.e. ORCHIDEE, JULES, INLAND and LPGmL, are studied. Using the palmer drought severity index (PDSI) and the mean cumulative water deficit (MWD), temporal and spatial representation of drought events are studied in the driver data and are referenced to historical extreme drought events in the Amazon. Subsequently, within the resulting temporal and spatial frame, we studied the drought impact on the above ground biomass (AGB) and gross primary production (GPP) fluxes. Flux tower data, field inventory data and the JUNG data-driven GPP product for the Amazon region are used for validation. Our findings not only suggest that the current state of the studied DGVMs is inadequate in representing Amazon droughts in general, but also highlights strong inter-model differences in drought responses. Using scatterplot-studies and input-output correlations, we provide insight in the origin of these encountered inter-model differences. In addition, we present directives of model development and improvement in scope of Amazon forest drought response modelling.

  18. Measurement of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon using satellite remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Skole, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding of the role of the biota in the global carbon cycle is limited by an absence of accurate measurements of deforestation rates in the tropics. This study measures the rate and extent of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, the largest extant tropical forest biome in the world. The study uses remote sensing measurements of deforestation rates, the area of secondary vegetation, and tabular data to document deforestation. The analysis concludes: (1) AVHRR will greatly overestimate deforestation and be highly variable; the use of a brightness temperature threshold is highly sensitive and unreliable. The upward bias of AVHRR is a function of the density of deforestation. (2) Accurate measurement of deforestation requires Landsat TM data, and can be accomplished using low cost visual interpretation of photographic products at 1:250,000 scales. (3) Secondary growth in the Brazilian Amazon represents a large fraction of the total deforested area, and the abandonment of agricultural land is an important land cover transition. Abandonment rates were 70--83% of clearing rates from primary forests. At any one point in time, approximately 30% of the deforested area is in some stage of abandonment, and quite likely nearly all deforested land becomes abandoned after approximately 5 years. (4) Previous estimates of the total area deforested in the Amazon, as well as deforestation rates, have been too high by as much as 4-fold. A complete assessment of the entire Legal Amazon using over 200 Landsat images measures 251 [times] 10[sup 3] km[sup 2] deforestation as of 1988, or approximately 6% of the closed forests of the region. The average annual rate of deforestation between 1978 and 1988 was 18 [times] 10[sup 3] km[sup 2] yr[sup [minus]1]. These findings suggest the estimates of carbon emissions from the Amazon for the late 1980s have been too high, since the area of regrowth is large and rates of deforestation are lower than previously believed.

  19. Insight on the Peruvian Amazon River: A Planform Metric Characterization of its Morphodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, A. M. P.; Ortals, C.; Frias, C. E.; Abad, J. D.; Vizcarra, J.

    2014-12-01

    Starting in Peru, the Amazon River flows through Colombia and Brazil; additionally, tributaries from Bolivia, Venezuela, and Ecuador contribute to the massive river and its unique geomorphic features. Accordingly, the Amazon Basin has become an important aspect of South America; it is an area of extraordinary biodiversity, rich resources, and unique cultures. However, due to the sheer magnitude and exceptionality of the Amazon River, research regarding the morphodynamic processes that shape and define the river has been difficult. Consequently, current research has not completely understood the planform dynamics of some portions of this river that present a main channel and secondary channels known as "anabranching structures". The purpose of this research was to gain an understanding of the geomorphology of the upper Amazon, the Peruvian section, by obtaining migration rates and planform metrics, including channel count, length, width, and sinuosity, as well as island count, area, and shape. With this data, the morphodynamics of the Peruvian Amazon, especially the relationship between the main channel and its secondary channels in each "anabranching structure" along the river, could be analyzed according to correlations found between various metrics. This analysis was carried out for 5-year time spans over a period of 25 years. Preliminary results showed that the average migration rate versus channel bend radius envelope peak is lower for the secondary channels than for the main channel. However, the maximum migration rate was not always found in the main channel; for several structures, the most dynamic channels were the secondary ones. This implies a certain periodicity to the river's migratory patterns that could be related to the valley boundaries, the local channel sinuosity or geological formations in the study area.

  20. The Pools, Fluxes and Residence Time of Water Across the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, G. R.; Fisher, J. B.; McDonnell, J.; Malhi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    What can ecology tell us about the hydrology of the Amazon? And what can hydrology tell us about the ecology? From a hydrological perspective, plant water storage and use contributes to determining the rate and time scales at which water is recycled from soil to the atmosphere. From an ecological perspective, plant water storage and use contributes to determining the rate and time scales at which water plants can support function. Conceptualized as residence time, the relationship between plant water storage and use can provide fundamental insights into ecohydrology. We explore the spatial variation in the aboveground storage, use, and residence time of water across the Amazon. To do so, we pair estimates of aboveground woody biomass from 413 1-ha old growth forest census plots situated across the Amazon Basin with high resolution estimates of intra- and inter- annual evapotranspiration derived from remote sensing. Aboveground water storage capacity (17.4 ± 6.3 mm) and evapotranspiration (3.7 ± 0.4 mm day-1) result in a residence time of 4.7 ± 1.5 days, equivalent to the use of ca. 24% of stored water day-1. The results indicate that residence time varies due to a predictable relationship between evapotranspiration and biomass at local, regional and landscape scales. The ecohydrology of the Amazon plays a critical role in water and carbon cycling on a global scale. We discuss how our results can help inform our understanding of both the hydrology and ecology of the Amazon Basin in the context of anthropogenic change.

  1. Trapping of sediment along the Amazon tidal river in diverse floodplain environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, A. T.; Nittrouer, C. A.; Ogston, A. S.; Nowacki, D. J.; Souza Filho, P. W.; Silveira, O.; Asp, N. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Amazon tidal river, the freshwater reach that is influenced by tides, extends roughly 800 kilometers upstream of the river mouth. Previous studies suggest that up to one third of the sediment measured at the upstream limit of tides does not reach the ocean, and is likely trapped along the tidal river. Here we present data from a variety of depositional environments along this reach, including intertidal vegetated floodplains, floodplain lakes, and drowned tributary confluences. Sediment delivery to each of these environments is temporally variable as a result of changing tides and river stage, and spatially variable along the continuum from the purely fluvial upstream condition to the strongly tidal downstream environment. Short-term instrument records and direct observations are paired with sedimentological and radiochemical techniques to identify mechanisms of sediment exchange between river and floodplain and associated patterns of sediment accumulation. Sediments in vegetated intertidal floodplains exhibit tidal laminations and incised channel networks similar to muddy marine intertidal areas. Floodplain lakes experience dramatic seasonal changes in size, and during high flows of the river skim water and sediment from the Amazon River by providing a shortcut relative to the meandering mainstem. Amazon sediment is fluxed into the drowned tributary confluences (rías) of the Xingu and Tapajos Rivers by density-driven underflows. In the Tapajos Ría, sediment from the Amazon River has built a 25-km long birdfoot delta, suggesting these tributaries may be net sinks of sediment, rather than sources. These findings help define the importance of each tidal environment in trapping Amazon sediment before it reaches the marine environment.

  2. Determinants of partial bird migration in the Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Alex E; Levey, Douglas J; Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Mamani, Ana María

    2010-09-01

    1. Little is known about mechanisms that drive migration of birds at tropical latitudes. Because most migratory bird species in South America have populations that are present year-round, partial migration (in which only some individuals of a given population migrate at the end of the breeding season) is likely to be common, providing an opportunity to assess proximate mechanisms of migration. 2. Two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses explaining intraspecific variation in migratory behaviour were tested in a Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus population in the southern Amazon Basin, where a dramatic dry season decrease in the abundance of insect food for kingbirds may promote migration of some individuals. 3. The Dominance hypothesis predicts sub-dominant individuals migrate at the end of the breeding season and dominant individuals do not, whereas the Body Size hypothesis predicts smaller individuals migrate and larger individuals do not. 4. Based on 4 years of data on individually-marked birds, strong support was found for occurrence of partial migration in the study population. 5. In the best model, the largest males (which are typically older and dominant to younger individuals) had the highest probability of migrating. Younger females (which are the smallest individuals in the population) were also more likely to migrate than other kingbirds, except the largest males. Thus, an individual's probability of migrating was associated with a more complex interaction of size, age and sex than predicted by current hypotheses. 6. These results suggest that determinants of migratory behaviour differ between North temperate and tropical latitudes. Most tests of partial migration theory have been conducted on granivores (e.g. emberizids) or omnivores (e.g. turdids and icterids) at North temperate latitudes, where seasonality is primarily defined by temperature cycles. In tropical South America, however, the most common long-distance migrants are primarily

  3. Population Genetics of Plasmodium vivax in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Ratto, Christopher; Gamboa, Dionicia; Soto-Calle, Veronica E.; Van den Eede, Peter; Torres, Eliana; Sánchez-Martínez, Luis; Contreras-Mancilla, Juan; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Rodriguez Ferrucci, Hugo; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Erhart, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Background Characterizing the parasite dynamics and population structure provides useful information to understand the dynamic of transmission and to better target control interventions. Despite considerable efforts for its control, vivax malaria remains a major health problem in Peru. In this study, we have explored the population genetics of Plasmodium vivax isolates from Iquitos, the main city in the Peruvian Amazon, and 25 neighbouring peri-urban as well as rural villages along the Iquitos-Nauta Road. Methodology/ Results From April to December 2008, 292 P. vivax isolates were collected and successfully genotyped using 14 neutral microsatellites. Analysis of the molecular data revealed a similar proportion of monoclonal and polyclonal infections in urban areas, while in rural areas monoclonal infections were predominant (p = 0.002). Multiplicity of infection was higher in urban (MOI = 1.5–2) compared to rural areas (MOI = 1) (p = 0.003). The level of genetic diversity was similar in all areas (He = 0.66–0.76, p = 0.32) though genetic differentiation between areas was substantial (PHIPT = 0.17, p<0.0001). Principal coordinate analysis showed a marked differentiation between parasites from urban and rural areas. Linkage disequilibrium was detected in all the areas (IAs = 0.08–0.49, for all p<0.0001). Gene flow among the areas was stablished through Bayesian analysis of migration models. Recent bottleneck events were detected in 4 areas and a recent parasite expansion in one of the isolated areas. In total, 87 unique haplotypes grouped in 2 or 3 genetic clusters described a sub-structured parasite population. Conclusion/Significance Our study shows a sub-structured parasite population with clonal propagation, with most of its components recently affected by bottleneck events. Iquitos city is the main source of parasite spreading for all the peripheral study areas. The routes of transmission and gene flow and the reduction of the parasite population described

  4. Determinants of partial bird migration in the Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Alex E; Levey, Douglas J; Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Mamani, Ana María

    2010-09-01

    1. Little is known about mechanisms that drive migration of birds at tropical latitudes. Because most migratory bird species in South America have populations that are present year-round, partial migration (in which only some individuals of a given population migrate at the end of the breeding season) is likely to be common, providing an opportunity to assess proximate mechanisms of migration. 2. Two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses explaining intraspecific variation in migratory behaviour were tested in a Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus population in the southern Amazon Basin, where a dramatic dry season decrease in the abundance of insect food for kingbirds may promote migration of some individuals. 3. The Dominance hypothesis predicts sub-dominant individuals migrate at the end of the breeding season and dominant individuals do not, whereas the Body Size hypothesis predicts smaller individuals migrate and larger individuals do not. 4. Based on 4 years of data on individually-marked birds, strong support was found for occurrence of partial migration in the study population. 5. In the best model, the largest males (which are typically older and dominant to younger individuals) had the highest probability of migrating. Younger females (which are the smallest individuals in the population) were also more likely to migrate than other kingbirds, except the largest males. Thus, an individual's probability of migrating was associated with a more complex interaction of size, age and sex than predicted by current hypotheses. 6. These results suggest that determinants of migratory behaviour differ between North temperate and tropical latitudes. Most tests of partial migration theory have been conducted on granivores (e.g. emberizids) or omnivores (e.g. turdids and icterids) at North temperate latitudes, where seasonality is primarily defined by temperature cycles. In tropical South America, however, the most common long-distance migrants are primarily

  5. Spectral dependence of aerosol light absorption over the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, L. V.; Correia, A. L.; Artaxo, P.; Procópio, A. S.; Andreae, M. O.

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we examine the spectral dependence of aerosol absorption at different sites and seasons in the Amazon Basin. The analysis is based on measurements performed during three intensive field experiments at a pasture site (Fazenda Nossa Senhora, Rondônia) and at a primary forest site (Cuieiras Reserve, Amazonas), from 1999 to 2004. Aerosol absorption spectra were measured using two Aethalometers: a 7-wavelength Aethalometer (AE30) that covers the visible (VIS) to near-infrared (NIR) spectral range, and a 2-wavelength Aethalometer (AE20) that measures absorption in the UV and in the NIR. As a consequence of biomass burning emissions, about 10 times greater absorption values were observed in the dry season in comparison to the wet season. Power law expressions were fitted to the measurements in order to derive the absorption Ångström exponent, defined as the negative slope of absorption versus wavelength in a log-log plot. At the pasture site, about 70 % of the absorption Ångström exponents fell between 1.5 and 2.5 during the dry season, indicating that biomass burning aerosols have a stronger spectral dependence than soot carbon particles. Ångström exponents decreased from the dry to the wet season, in agreement with the shift from biomass burning aerosols, predominant in the fine mode, to biogenic and dust aerosols, predominant in the coarse mode. The lowest absorption Ångström exponents (90 % of data below 1.5) were observed at the forest site during the dry season. Also, results indicate that low absorption coefficients were associated with low Ångström exponents. This finding suggests that biogenic aerosols from Amazonia have a weaker spectral dependence for absorption than biomass burning aerosols, contradicting our expectations of biogenic particles behaving as brown carbon. In a first order assessment, results indicate a small (<1 %) effect of variations in absorption Ångström exponents on 24-h aerosol forcings, at least in the spectral

  6. Spectral dependence of aerosol light absorption over the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, L. V.; Correia, A. L.; Artaxo, P.; Procópio, A. S.; Andreae, M. O.

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we examine the spectral dependence of aerosol absorption at different sites and seasons in the Amazon Basin. The analysis is based on measurements performed during three intensive field experiments at a pasture site (Fazenda Nossa Senhora, Rondônia) and at a primary forest site (Cuieiras Reserve, Amazonas), from 1999 to 2004. Aerosol absorption spectra were measured using two Aethalometers: a 7-wavelength Aethalometer (AE30) that covers the visible (VIS) to near-infrared (NIR) spectral range, and a 2-wavelength Aethalometer (AE20) that measures absorption in the UV and in the visible. As a consequence of biomass burning emissions, about 10 times greater absorption values were observed in the dry season in comparison to the wet season. Power law expressions were fitted to the measurements in order to derive the Ångström exponent for absorption, defined as the negative slope of absorption vs. wavelength in a log-log plot. At the pasture site, about 70% of the Ångström exponents fell between 1.5 and 2.5 during the dry season, indicating that biomass burning aerosols have a stronger spectral dependence than soot carbon particles. Ångström exponents decreased from the dry to the wet season, in agreement with the shift from biomass burning aerosols, predominant in the fine mode, to biogenic and dust aerosols, predominant in the coarse mode. The lowest Ångström exponents (90% of data below 1.5) were observed at the forest site during the dry season. Also, results indicate that low absorption coefficients were associated with Ångström exponents below 1.0. This finding suggests that biogenic aerosols from Amazonia may have a weak spectral dependence for absorption, contradicting our expectations of biogenic particles behaving as brown carbon. Nevertheless, additional measurements should be taken in the future, to provide a complete picture of biogenic aerosol absorption spectral characteristics from different seasons and geographic locations. The

  7. Comment by J.P. Figueiredo, & Hoorn, C. on 'Late Miocene sedimentary environments in south-western Amazonia (Solimões Formation; Brazil)' by Martin Gross, Werner E. Piller, Maria Ines Ramos, Jackson Douglas da Silva Paz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Jorge Jesus Picanço

    2012-04-01

    In their paper Gross et al., 2011 present an excellent description of a series of outcrops from the Eirunepe region in western Amazonia (Brazil). The authors interpret these sediments as relics of a Late Miocene anastomosing fluvial system and conclude that the paleogeography of the entire western Amazon region must have been characterized by this environmental setting. They also imply that therefore a long-lived lake system - or megawetland - never existed. We contend this assumption for some reasons, amongst them, the most important are: (1) this is an inconsistent overgeneralized conclusion; (2) The authors make references to previous scientific works we published which we consider incorrect, and therefore can mislead their readers.

  8. [Pilot study of echocardiographic studies using color- and pulsed-wave spectral Doppler methods in blue-crowned amazons (Amazona ventralis) and blue-fronted amazons (Amazona a. aestiva)].

    PubMed

    Pees, M; Straub, J; Schumacher, J; Gompf, R; Krautwald-Junghanns, M E

    2005-02-01

    Colour-flow and pulsed-wave spectral Doppler echocardiography was performed on 6 healthy, adult Hispaniolan amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and 6 blue-fronted amazon parrots (Amazona a. aestiva) to establish normal reference values. Birds were anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen and placed in dorsal recumbency. An electrocardiogram was recorded continuously and birds were imaged with a micro-phased-array scanner with a frequency of 7.0 MHz. After assessment of cardiac function in 2-D-echocardiography, blood flow across the left and the right atrioventricular valve and across the aortic valve was determined using color-flow and pulsed-wave spectral Doppler echocardiography. Diastolic inflow (mean value +/- standard deviation) into the left ventricle was 0.17 +/- 0.02 m/s (Hispaniolan amazons) and 0.18 +/- 0.03 m/s (Blue fronted amazons). Diastolic inflow into the right ventricle was 0.22 +/- 0.05 m/s (Hispaniolan amazons) and 0.22 +/- 0.04 m/s (Blue fronted amazons). Velocity across the aortic valve was 0.84 +/- 0.07 m/s (Hispaniolan amazons) and 0.83 +/- 0.08 m/s (Blue fronted amazons). Systolic pulmonary flow could not be detected in any of the birds in this study. No significant differences were evident between the two species examined. Results of this study indicate that Doppler echocardiography is a promising technique to determine blood flow in the avian heart. Further studies in other avian species are needed to establish reference values for assessment of cardiac function in diseased birds.

  9. Miocene oceanographic changes of the western equatorial Atlantic (Ceara Rise) based on calcareous dinoflagellate cysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, S.; Zonneveld, K. A. F.; Willems, H.

    2010-09-01

    The middle- and upper Miocene represent a time-interval of major changes in palaeoceanography that favoured the cooling of the climate and culminated in the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG). The basis for the development of the modern deepwater circulation pattern, e.g. thermohaline circulation, was hereby established. Tectonic events played a key role in the progressing Miocene oceanography, such as the narrowing of the Panama gateway (e.g. Duque-Caro 1990) and the possible linked changes in North Atlantic Deep Water formation (Lear et al. 2003). However, the complex interaction between the closing of the Panama Gateway, the development of NADW, and thus the oceanographic progression towards our present day circulation is far from being fully understood. We want to improve the understanding of these processes by establishing a detailed palaeoceanographic reconstruction of the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean on the basis of calcareous dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) associations. Within this study, we investigated sediment samples from ODP Site 926A by defining the calcareous dinocyst assemblage. Site 926A is located at the southwestern flank of the Ceara Rise, an area of highest sensitivity to global deep water circulation changes. At about 12 Ma, when NADW production increased (e.g. Wright et al. 1992), we see a distinct increase in the absolute abundances of the calcareous dinocysts. This might be related to enhanced productivity or to better carbonate preservation. At 11.3 Ma, Leonella granifera, a species known to be strongly related to terrestrial input occurs. This could be a signal for the initiation of the Amazon River as a transcontinental river with the development of the Amazon fan (11.8 - 11.3 Ma; Figueiredo et al. 2009) in relation to Andean tectonism. References: Duque-Caro, H. (1990): Neogene stratigraphy, paleoceanography and palebiology in Northwest South America and the evolution of the Panama Seaway. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology

  10. Large barchanoid dunes in the Amazon River and the rock record: Implications for interpreting large river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Renato Paes de; Galeazzi, Cristiano Padalino; Freitas, Bernardo Tavares; Janikian, Liliane; Ianniruberto, Marco; Marconato, André

    2016-11-01

    The interpretation of large river deposits from the rock record is hampered by the scarcity of direct observations of active large river systems. That is particularly true for deep-channel environments, where tens of meters deep flows dominate. These conditions are extremely different from what is found in smaller systems, from which current facies models were derived. MBES and shallow seismic surveys in a selected area of the Upper Amazonas River in Northern Brazil revealed the presence of large compound barchanoid dunes along the channel thalweg. The dunes are characterized by V-shaped, concave-downstream crest lines and convex-up longitudinal profiles, hundreds of meters wide, up to 300 m in wavelength and several meters high. Based on the morphology of compound dunes, expected preserved sedimentary structures are broad, large-scale, low-angle, concave up and downstream cross-strata, passing laterally and downstream to inclined cosets. Examples of such structures from large river deposits in the rock record are described in the Silurian Serra Grande Group and the Cretaceous São Sebastião and Marizal formations in Northeastern Brazil, as well as in Triassic Hawkesburry Sandstone in Southeastern Australia and the Plio-Pleistocene Içá Formation in the western Amazon. All these sedimentary structures are found near channel base surfaces and are somewhat coarser than the overlying fluvial deposits, favoring the interpretation of thalweg depositional settings. The recognition of large barchanoid dunes as bedforms restricted to river thalwegs and probably to large river systems brings the possibility of establishing new criteria for the interpretation of fluvial system scale in the rock record. Sedimentary structures compatible with the morphological characteristics of these bedforms seem to be relatively common in large river deposits, given their initial recognition in five different fluvial successions in Brazil and Australia, potentially enabling substantial

  11. Lightning in Western Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garreaud, René D.; Gabriela Nicora, M.; Bürgesser, Rodrigo E.; Ávila, Eldo E.

    2014-04-01

    On the basis of 8 years (2005-2012) of stroke data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network we describe the spatial distribution and temporal variability of lightning activity over Western Patagonia. This region extends from ~40°S to 55°S along the west coast of South America, is limited to the east by the austral Andes, and features a hyper-humid, maritime climate. Stroke density exhibits a sharp maximum along the coast of southern Chile. Although precipitation there is largely produced by cold nimbostratus, days with more than one stroke occur up to a third of the time somewhere along the coastal strip. Disperse strokes are also observed off southern Chile. In contrast, strokes are virtually nonexistent over the austral Andes—where precipitation is maximum—and farther east over the dry lowlands of Argentina. Atmospheric reanalysis and satellite imagery are used to characterize the synoptic environment of lightning-producing storms, exemplified by a case study