Science.gov

Sample records for room air movement

  1. Basement utility room (room 24; air handling room), near the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Basement utility room (room 24; air handling room), near the west end of the combat operations center, looking southwest towards fan system one, air ducts, and walk-in filter rooms. The exterior equipment well is visible at the left - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  2. Movement of airborne contaminants in a hospital isolation room

    PubMed Central

    Eames, I.; Shoaib, D.; Klettner, C. A.; Taban, V.

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the characteristics of a force-ventilated isolation room, and the contributions to transport caused by the movement of people and doors opening/closing. The spread of fine droplets and particles can be understood, to leading order, by considering the movement of passive contaminants. A scaled (1:10) model of an isolation room (with water instead of air) was used to analyse the dilution of a passive contaminant (food dye), released either instantaneously or at a constant rate. The high level of turbulence, typical of isolation rooms, ensures that the dye concentration is uniform within the model room and mixing is perfect, and the measured mean concentration can be predicted theoretically. In a second series of experiments, the exchange generated by a door opening/closing is measured for different opening angles. A dipolar vortex is generated at the tip of the door which moves into the centre of the room, with a large coherent structure moving along the wall. The exchange volume is comparable to the swept volume of the door. Larger droplets and particles do not move passively. Their movement within a turbulent flow is studied by combining a Lagrangian model of particle movement with a kinematic simulation of a pseudo turbulent flow. The results show that while the mean fall velocity of particles is largely unchanged, turbulence significantly enhances horizontal and vertical dispersion. The horizontal spread as a function of the level of turbulence and droplet properties is estimated. The conclusions from both studies are brought together and discussed in the context of the airborne spread of contaminants within a general hospital room. PMID:19815576

  3. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  4. On Air Shutter for Cold Storage Room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuhara, Isamu; Tsuji, Katsuhiko

    Air curtains are frequently placed at doorway of cold storage room or freezing chamber. As an opening of jet flow in these air curtains is relatively narrow and speed of jet flow is fast, air entrained from surroundings increases in quantity. Therefore, we consider that jet flow with narrow opening can not effectively isolate inside air from the external atmosphere, but the one with relatively wide opening can decrease air entrained from surroundings. Then, when air curtain which has a wide opening (we call it air shutter) is installed at cold storage room, and isolating performances of air shutter are compared with the air curtain. First, as various conditions can be easily changed in numerical calculation, we compare a velocity and temperature field in cold storage room under these conditions when velocity of jet flow is changed by using numerical method. Second, we measure a temperature and velocity distribution in an actual cold storage room under three conditions (air shutter operates, air curtain operates and no operation). From these results, it was found that air shutter is more efficient than air curtain.

  5. ENERGY STAR Certified Room Air Conditioners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Room Air Conditioners that are effective as of October 26, 2015. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=roomac.pr_crit_room_ac

  6. Room 13: The Movement and International Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Room 13 is a global uprising of creative and entrepreneurial children who are responsible for a growing international network of student-organised art studios. Each Room 13 studio facilitates the work of young artists alongside a professional adult artist in residence, providing an exchange of ideas, skills and experience across the ages. The…

  7. Tobacco smoke removal with room air cleaners.

    PubMed

    Olander, L; Johansson, J; Johansson, R

    1988-12-01

    The ability of room air cleaners to remove gases and particles from air contaminated with tobacco smoke has been studied. Thirty-one air cleaners were tested. Various air-cleaning devices were used, ie, electrostatic precipitators, electret fiber filters, ionizers, activated carbon, impregnated alumina, ionizing lamps, and an electron generator. The airflow rates were in the range of 0-500 m3/h. The measurements covered particle sizes of 0.01-7.5 microns and the following gases: carbon monoxide, ammonia, formaldehyde, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrocarbons, and hydrogen cyanide. No formal standard procedure exists for testing room air cleaners; therefore the tests were made in the following way. Tobacco smoke was generated and mixed in a closed room. The room air cleaner was started, and the decay rates for the gases and particles were measured. The results were calculated as equivalent airflow rates, ie, the clean airflow rate causing the same decay rate for contaminant concentrations in a room. The equivalent airflow rates were 0-360 m3/h. The rate of ozone emission by electrostatic precipitators and ionizers was also measured. One general conclusion was that it is much more difficult to remove gases than particles.

  8. Air movement preferences observed in office buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward; Fard, Sahar Abbaszadeh; Huizenga, Charlie; Paliaga, Gwelen; Brager, Gail; Zagreus, Leah

    2007-05-01

    Office workers’ preferences for air movement have been extracted from a database of indoor environmental quality surveys performed in over 200 buildings. Dissatisfaction with the amount of air motion is very common, with too little air movement cited far more commonly than too much air movement. Workers were also surveyed in a detailed two-season study of a single naturally ventilated building. About one-half the building’s population wanted more air movement and only 4% wanted less. This same ratio applied when the air movement in workspaces was higher than 0.2 m/s, the de facto draft limit in the current ASHRAE and ISO thermal environment standards. Preference for “less air motion” exceeded that for “more” only at thermal sensations of -2 (cool) or colder. These results raise questions about the consequences of the ASHRAE and ISO standards’ restrictions on air movement, especially for neutral and warm conditions.

  9. Air movement preferences observed in office buildings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward; Fard, Sahar Abbaszadeh; Huizenga, Charlie; Paliaga, Gwelen; Brager, Gail; Zagreus, Leah

    2007-05-01

    Office workers' preferences for air movement have been extracted from a database of indoor environmental quality surveys performed in over 200 buildings. Dissatisfaction with the amount of air motion is very common, with too little air movement cited far more commonly than too much air movement. Workers were also surveyed in a detailed two-season study of a single naturally ventilated building. About one-half the building's population wanted more air movement and only 4% wanted less. This same ratio applied when the air movement in workspaces was higher than 0.2 m/s, the de facto draft limit in the current ASHRAE and ISO thermal environment standards. Preference for "less air motion" exceeded that for "more" only at thermal sensations of -2 (cool) or colder. These results raise questions about the consequences of the ASHRAE and ISO standards' restrictions on air movement, especially for neutral and warm conditions.

  10. Room air monitor for radioactive aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, D.K.; Tyree, W.H.

    1987-03-23

    A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-preamplifier combination. 2 figs.

  11. Room air monitor for radioactive aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, David K.; Tyree, William H.

    1989-04-11

    A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-pre The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP03533 between the Department of Energy and Rockwell International Corporation.

  12. 149. Interior of Room B3, Air Compressor Room, showing a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    149. Interior of Room B-3, Air Compressor Room, showing a ca. 1960s Worthington air compressor used to provide compressed air for powerhouse; air compressor powered by an electric motor; stairway (far left) leads to the generator room. Looking south. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  13. Field Test of Room-to-Room Uniformity of Ventilation Air Distribution in Two New Houses

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, Robert; Anderson, Ren; Barley, Dennis; Rudd, Armin; Townsend, Aaron; Hancock, Ed

    2006-12-01

    This report describes a field test to characterize the uniformity of room-to-room ventilation air distribution under various operating conditions by examining multi-zone tracer gas decay curves and calculating local age-of-air.

  14. 10 CFR 429.15 - Room air conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Room air conditioners. 429.15 Section 429.15 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.15 Room air conditioners. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to room air...

  15. Dispersal of exhaled air and personal exposure in displacement ventilated rooms.

    PubMed

    Bjørn, E; Nielsen, P V

    2002-09-01

    The influence of the human exhalation on flow fields, contaminant distributions, and personal exposure in displacement ventilated rooms is studied together with the effects of physical movement. Experiments are conducted in full-scale test rooms with life-sized breathing thermal manikins. Numerical simulations support the experiments. Air exhaled through the mouth can lock in a thermally stratified layer, if the vertical temperature gradient in breathing zone height is sufficiently large. With exhalation through the nose, exhaled air flows to the upper part of the room. The exhalation flow from both nose and mouth is able to penetrate the breathing zone of another person standing nearby. The stratification of exhaled air breaks down if there is physical movement in the room. As movement increases, the concentration distribution in the room will move towards a fully mixed situation. The protective effect of the boundary layer flow around the body of a moving person disappears at low speed, and is reduced for a seated person placed nearby due to horizontal air movements, which can also cause rebreathing of exhaled air for the seated person. The results indicate that the effect of the exhalation flow is no acute problem in most normal ventilation applications. However, exhalation and local effects caused by movement may be worth considering if one wishes to contain contaminants in certain areas, as in the case of tobacco smoking, in hospitals and clinics, or in certain industries.

  16. Tritium Room Air Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; B. J. Denny

    2008-09-01

    Monitoring the breathing air in tritium facility rooms for airborne tritium is a radiological safety requirement and a best practice for personnel safety. Besides audible alarms for room evacuation, these monitors often send signals for process shutdown, ventilation isolation, and cleanup system actuation to mitigate releases and prevent tritium spread to the environment. Therefore, these monitors are important not only to personnel safety but also to public safety and environmental protection. This paper presents an operating experience review of tritium monitor performance on demand during small (1 mCi to 1 Ci) operational releases, and intentional airborne inroom tritium release tests. The tritium tests provide monitor operation data to allow calculation of a statistical estimate for the reliability of monitors annunciating in actual tritium gas airborne release situations. The data show a failure to operate rate of 3.5E-06/monitor-hr with an upper bound of 4.7E-06, a failure to alarm on demand rate of 1.4E-02/demand with an upper bound of 4.4E-02, and a spurious alarm rate of 0.1 to 0.2/monitor-yr.

  17. 20. LOWER OIL ROOM DIABLO POWERHOUSE: LEROI AIR COMPRESSOR FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. LOWER OIL ROOM DIABLO POWERHOUSE: LEROI AIR COMPRESSOR FOR STATION SERVICE AND OIL AND AIR TANKS, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  18. 45. Communication equipment room, cable air dryer on left, motorola ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Communication equipment room, cable air dryer on left, motorola base station (vhf) at right, looking southwest - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  19. 46. Communication equipment room, shock isolator air compressor at right, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Communication equipment room, shock isolator air compressor at right, looking northeast - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  20. 7. INTERIOR, STEEL BLAST DOORS, INSTRUMENTATION ROOM. Edwards Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR, STEEL BLAST DOORS, INSTRUMENTATION ROOM. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-4, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of air contamination dispersal in a room

    SciTech Connect

    Yaghoubi, M.A.; Knappmiller, K.D.; Kirkpatrick, A.T.

    1995-08-01

    A numerical study of air movement and contaminant transport is made to predict airflow patterns, ventilation performance, and indoor air quality in a typical office space. Both conventional cooling and cold-air-jet cooling methods are investigated. The space heat load is from a hot wall that creates a plume. This plume either opposes or aids the flow of the jet, depending on its location. The transient variation of room occupied zone average concentration is exponential after a change of the source strength equivalent to a change in the number of people in the room. The ventilation efficiency as well as the contaminant removal effectiveness of cold-jet cooling are nearly the same as those of conventional cooling. Turnover time for cold-air-jet cooling is about 52.8% higher than for conventional cooling when the hot plume aids the jet and 42.9% higher when it opposes the jet. The highest ventilation efficiency is {eta}{sub v} = 1.28 when the room is cooled with conventional-temperature supply air, the plume opposes the jet, and the contaminant source is located near the air return and the plume. The worst condition, {eta}{sub v} = 0.8, occurs when the air close to the pollutant source is stagnant. This happens for the room with cold-temperature supply air, an opposing plume, and a contamination source on the opposite side of the room from the return and the plume.

  2. Environmental control: operating room air quality.

    PubMed

    Bartley, J M

    1993-01-01

    1. OR staff members should familiarize themselves with basic air handling system terminology to better manage their own environment (eg, HVAC, air changes, air balancing, HEPA filtration). A working relationship with building engineers is an important skill for the OR nurse. 2. Knowledge of the standards on which air quality in the OR is based should assist in the process of planning for improved design--as well as in monitoring existing air quality. 3. Current standards balance energy savings with air changes and high levels of filtration to achieve optimum outcomes. Recommendations from design and engineering authorities (even for implant surgery) are based on average air changes and HEPA filtration, not laminar air flow. 4. The daily, operational role of the OR staff in maintaining high air quality includes managing traffic, using low-lint barrier materials, monitoring air quality indicators, and investigating unusual variances with the engineering staff for appropriate follow-up (eg, filter changes).

  3. VIEW OF ROOM 112, FACING NORTHEAST Cape Canaveral Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ROOM 112, FACING NORTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  4. VIEW OF ROOM 136, FACING SOUTHWEST Cape Canaveral Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ROOM 136, FACING SOUTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  5. 41. Launch Control Equipment Room, interior. Thalheimer Whiteman Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Launch Control Equipment Room, interior. Thalheimer - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  6. Highbay Generator Room, looking northwest Beale Air Force Base, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Highbay Generator Room, looking northwest - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Power Plant, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  7. Suggested bacteriological standards for air in ultraclean operating rooms.

    PubMed

    Whyte, W; Lidwell, O M; Lowbury, E J; Blowers, R

    1983-06-01

    Bacteriological standards for the air in ultraclean operating rooms are needed since physical tests alone cannot guarantee satisfactory results. 10 m-3 is suggested as the highest acceptable value for an ultraclean system. Methods are described for determining this.

  8. 35. VIEW LOOKING EAST IN PUMP ROOM. AIR COMPRESSOR ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. VIEW LOOKING EAST IN PUMP ROOM. AIR COMPRESSOR ON LEFT, FUEL OIL PUMP BEHIND ON LEFT, FUEL OIL HEATERS AND PUMPS IN BACKGROUND WITH DRAIN SYSTEM - Georgetown Steam Plant, South Warsaw Street, King County Airport, Seattle, King County, WA

  9. South elevation of equipment building. Hood covers engine room air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South elevation of equipment building. Hood covers engine room air intake. Engine exhaust is above hood, and door opens to heater room. Cable duct to tower is at right. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

  10. 21. Interior view of citric acid air pollution control room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Interior view of citric acid air pollution control room (also known as scrubber room) in Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking southeast. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, tanks, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  11. Improving the safety of room air pneumoperitoneum for diagnostic laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Ikechebelu, J I; Okeke, C A F

    2008-06-01

    Laparoscopic examination is a useful investigation in the evaluation of infertile women. To perform this test, pneumoperitoneum is required to distend the abdomen, improve visibility and displace the intestines out of the pelvis. Several gases have been used to achieve this purpose including Nitrous Oxide (N2O), Carbondioxide (CO2), Helium, Xenon andAir. This was a prospective study in a private fertility centre in Nnewi, Nigeria aimed at reducing the morbidities inherent in the use Room Air pneumoperitoneum for diagnostic laparoscopy. This was sequel to an earlier study, which revealed that women who had Room Air pneumoperitoneum had a higher port wound infection rate, abdominal discomfort (feeling of retained gas in the abdomen) and shoulder pain with resultant delayed return to normal activity than women who had Co2 pneumoperitoneum. This study demonstrated that the use of soda lime to purify the Room Air and a low pressure suction pump to evacuate the air after the procedure significantly reduced the wound infection rate and virtually eliminated the abdominal discomfort and shoulder pain associated with Room Air pneumoperitoneum. This was followed by early return to normal activity. Therefore, use of Room Air for pneumoperitoneum is safe and affordable. It is recommended for low resource settings.

  12. 44. Communication equipment room, cable air dryer on left, motorola ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Communication equipment room, cable air dryer on left, motorola base station (vhf) in center, telephone repeater group at right, looking west - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  13. 23. Station Compressor Room 1 with Air Compressors and Accumulator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Station Compressor Room 1 with Air Compressors and Accumulator Tanks, view to the south. One of the two large station air compressor units used for depressing the draft tube water level is visible atop a concrete pedestal on the left side of photograph (the second identical compressor is located in an adjacent room). Two of the six station air accumulator tanks are visible in the background. The smaller station service air compressor is visible in right foreground of the photograph was installed in the early 1980s, and replaced the original station service air compressor. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  14. Assessment of performance of UV sterilizer for room air bacteria.

    PubMed

    Joshi, P V

    2002-02-01

    Paper presents a technique for performance of UV sterilizer for room air bacteria. Patterns of decay of room air bacteria concentration during sterilization and build-up there after as a function of time is studied. Decay process seems to follow exponential pattern. Half-lives during decay are estimated. For single sterilizer unit with a dose of 16 W the decay half-life is around 8.6 min. For the dose of 32 W (2 sterilizers), half-life is estimated to be 6.18 min. The removal rates of room air bacteria due to sterilizer are compared with the natural decay of aerosols at steady state. The importance of decay half-life in the assessment has been stated. The bacteria concentration buildup process after putting off the sterilizers seems to be sigmoidal in nature. The buildup half-life is estimated to be around 53 min for present experimental conditions.

  15. [Design, equipment, and management for air conditioning in operating room].

    PubMed

    Fuji, Kumiko; Mizuno, Ju

    2011-11-01

    In order to maintain air cleanliness in the operating room (OR) permanently, air exchange rate in the OR should be more than 15 times x hr(-1), the laminar air flow should be kept, and the numbers of the persons in the OR and the numbers of opening and closing OR door should be limited. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter is effective in collection and removal of airborne microbes, and is used in the biological clean room. We need to design, equip, and manage the OR environment according to Guideline for Design and Operation of Hospital HVAC Systems HEAS-02-2004 established by Healthcare Engineering Association of Japan and Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection (SSI) established by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the USA.

  16. 36. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 27, "CLEAN ROOM" AIR FILTERS LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 27, "CLEAN ROOM" AIR FILTERS LOOKING SOUTH. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  17. 10 CFR 429.15 - Room air conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Room air conditioners. 429.15 Section 429.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND... selected and tested to ensure that— (i) Any represented value of estimated annual operating cost, energy...

  18. Traffic in the operating room: a review of factors influencing air flow and surgical wound contamination.

    PubMed

    Pokrywka, Marian; Byers, Karin

    2013-06-01

    Surgical wound contamination leading to surgical site infection can result from disruption of the intended airflow in the operating room (OR). When personnel enter and exit the OR, or create unnecessary movement and traffic during the procedure, the intended airflow in the vicinity of the open wound becomes disrupted and does not adequately remove airborne contaminants from the sterile field. An increase in the bacterial counts of airborne microorganisms is noted during increased activity levels within the OR. Researchers have studied OR traffic and door openings as a determinant of air contamination. During a surgical procedure the door to the operating room may be open as long as 20 minutes out of each surgical hour during critical procedures involving implants. Interventions into limiting excessive movement and traffic in the OR may lead to reductions in surgical site infections in select populations.

  19. Control room envelope unfiltered air inleakage test protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Lagus, P.L.; Grot, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    In 1983, the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) recommended that the US NRC develop a control room HVAC performance testing protocol. To date no such protocol has been forthcoming. Beginning in mid-1994, an effort was funded by NRC under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant to develop several simplified test protocols based on the principles of tracer gas testing in order to measure the total unfiltered inleakage entering a CRE during emergency mode operation of the control room ventilation system. These would allow accurate assessment of unfiltered air inleakage as required in SRP 6.4. The continuing lack of a standard protocol is unfortunate since one of the significant parameters required to calculate operator dose is the amount of unfiltered air inleakage into the control room. Often it is assumed that, if the Control Room Envelope (CRE) is maintained at +1/8 in. w.g. differential pressure relative to the surroundings, no significant unfiltered inleakage can occur it is further assumed that inleakage due to door openings is the only source of unfiltered air. 23 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Control of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT Equipment Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Geoffrey C.; Storey, Bill; Patterson, Michael K.

    2009-09-30

    The goal of this demonstration was to show how sensors in IT equipment could be accessed and used to directly control computer room air conditioning. The data provided from the sensors is available on the IT network and the challenge for this project was to connect this information to the computer room air handler's control system. A control strategy was developed to enable separate control of the chilled water flow and the fans in the computer room air handlers. By using these existing sensors in the IT equipment, an additional control system is eliminated (or could be redundant) and optimal cooling can be provided saving significant energy. Using onboard server temperature sensors will yield significant energy reductions in data centers. Intel hosted the demonstration in its Santa Clara, CA data center. Intel collaborated with IBM, HP, Emerson, Wunderlich-Malec Engineers, FieldServer Technologies, and LBNL to install the necessary components and develop the new control scheme. LBNL also validated the results of the demonstration.

  1. Distribution and Room Air Mixing Risks to Retrofitted Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2014-12-01

    Energy efficiency upgrades reduce heating and cooling loads on a house. With enough load reduction and if the HVAC system warrants replacement, the HVAC system is often upgraded with a more efficient, lower capacity system that meets the loads of the upgraded house. For a single-story house with ceiling supply air diffusers, ducts are often removed and upgraded. For houses with ducts that are embedded in walls, the cost of demolition precludes the replacement of ducts. The challenge with the use of existing ducts is that the reduced airflow creates a decreased throw at the supply registers, and the supply air and room air do not mix well, leading to potential thermal comfort complaints. This project investigates this retrofit scenario. The issues and solutions discussed here are relevant to all climate zones, with emphasis on climates that require cooling.

  2. [Does ultraclean air in the operating room provide greater safety?].

    PubMed

    van Tiel, Frank H; Buiting, Anton G; Meessen, Nico E L; Voss, Andreas; Vos, Margreet C

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch quality control plan for climatisation of the operating room (OR), which was published in 2005, describes the management and maintenance of the air conditioning system. This management plan proposes a standard for air quality in class 1 ORs. This has been adopted by the Dutch Orthopaedic Society, but not by other surgical societies. The British study which underlies the proposed norm for air quality in class 1 ORs, a study on the infection preventive effect of ultraclean air, dates from 1982 and is inadequately controlled for prophylactic use of antibiotics. Antibiotic prophylaxis in itself already reduces the number of surgical site infections.-More recent studies fail to show an infection preventive effect of ultraclean air in the OR. The Dutch Working Party for Infection Prevention (WIP) ought to take the initiative, together with the medical Scientific Societies and the Society of Infection Prevention and Control in the health care setting (VHIG), to establish enforceable norms for microbiological air quality and to set criteria as to which types of operations are allowed to be performed in which class of OR.

  3. Locally controlled air movement preferred in warm isothermal environments

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, M.; Arens, E.; Bauman, F.; Miura, Katsuhiro; Dear, R. de

    1994-12-31

    Air movement is one of the six main variables determining human thermal comfort; air temperature, relative humidity, mean radiant temperature, metabolic rate, and clothing insulation are the others. Recently, HVAC design innovations, energy conservation concerns, and new laboratory data on fan cooling and drafts have brought substantial attention to the issue of acceptable levels of air movement in office environments. Thermal comfort standards for indoor occupancy include air movement limits that are constructed from often conflicting evidence and are frequently difficult to apply. A primary reason is that, while air movement can provide desirable cooling in ``warm`` conditions, it can also increase the risk of unacceptably cool drafts. The transition zone from desirable cooling to uncomfortable draft is a complicated function of physics, physiology, and human expectation. This work focuses on air movement for cooling in the expected temperature range, 25.5 C to 28.5 C of this transition zone. Fifty-four human subjects were given control of the air supply velocity from a desk fan (FAN), a floor-mounted diffuser (FMD), and a desk-mounted diffuser (DMD) at a single ambient air temperature. The subjects were asked to adjust the air movement as they pleased to make themselves comfortable. These tests encompassed the full temperature range of the ``transition zone,`` 25.5 C to 28.5 C. Physical measurements of the environment were made and subjective votes collected, including thermal sensation, thermal preference, work area preferences, personal control preferences, and health characteristics. A model that predicts the percentage of satisfied people (the PS model) as a function of air temperature and air movement in warm conditions is proposed.

  4. [Air conditioning units and warm air blankets in the operating room].

    PubMed

    Kerwat, Klaus; Piechowiak, Karolin; Wulf, Hinnerk

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays almost all operating rooms are equipped with air conditioning (AC units). Their main purpose is climatization, like ventilation, moisturizing, cooling and also the warming of the room in large buildings. In operating rooms they have an additional function in the prevention of infections, especially the avoidance of postoperative wound infections. This is achieved by special filtration systems and by the creation of specific air currents. Since hypothermia is known to be an unambiguous factor for the development of postoperative wound infections, patients are often actively warmed intraoperatively using warm air blankets (forced-air warming units). In such cases it is frequently discussed whether such warm air blankets affect the performance of AC units by changing the air currents or whether, in contrast, have exactly the opposite effect. However, it has been demonstrated in numerous studies that warm air blankets do not have any relevant effect on the functioning of AC units. Also there are no indications that their use increases the rate of postoperative wound infections. By preventing the patient from experiencing hypothermia, the rate of postoperative wound infections can even be decreased thereby. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Distribution and Room Air Mixing Risks to Retrofitted Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2014-12-01

    An energy efficiency upgrade reduces a home’s heating and cooling load. If the load reduction is great enough and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system warrants replacement, that system is often upgraded with a more efficient, lower capacity system that meets the load of the upgraded house. For a single-story house with floor supply air diffusers, the ducts often are removed and upgraded. For houses with ducts that are embedded in walls, the cost of demolition precludes the replacement of ducts. The challenge with the use of existing ducts is that the reduced airflow creates a decreased throw at the supply registers, and the supply air and room air do not mix well, leading to potential thermal comfort complaints. This project investigates this retrofit scenario. The issues and solutions discussed here are relevant to all climate zones, with emphasis on climates that require cooling. In this project, IBACOS performed load calculations for a two-story 1960s house and characterized duct sizes and layouts based on industry “rules of thumb” (Herk et al. 2014). The team performed duct-sizing calculations for unaltered ducts and post-retrofit airflows and examined airflow velocities and pressure changes with respect to various factors. The team then used a mocked-up duct and register setup to measure the characteristics of isothermal air—to reduce the effects of buoyancy from the observations—passing through the duct and leaving the register.

  6. The Open-Air School Movement in English Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruickshank, Marjorie

    1977-01-01

    Begun in the early 1900s, the open-air school movement marked a new chapter in preventive medicine. The schools took undernourished slum students and provided them with food and a hygienic environment. Within half a century the open-air schools had outlived their usefulness because of a social revolution. (Author/IRT)

  7. [Delivery room resuscitation with room air and oxygen in newborns. State of art, recommendations].

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Ryszard; Musialik-Swietlińska, Ewa; Swietliński, Janusz; Pawlik, Dorota; Bober, Klaudiusz

    2008-01-01

    The authors present and discuss the current data, concerning delivery room resuscitation with oxygen and room air in neonates. On the ground of the results obtained from literature and the Polish National Survey on Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care, 2007/2008 issue, the authors give the following proposals regarding optimal oxygen treatment: 1. there is a need for optimizing tissue oxygenation in order to prevent injury caused by radical oxygen species; 2. newborn resuscitation should be monitored by measuring the haemoglobin saturation - the values above 90%, found in resuscitated newborn within the first minutes of life may be dangerous and cause tissue injury; 3. starting the resuscitation with oxygen concentration lower than 40% and adjusting it according to the effects of the procedure - the less mature infant the lower oxygen concentration at the beginning of resuscitation; 4. heart rate >100/min and SatO2Hb between 70-80% within the first minutes of life should not be an indication for increasing oxygen concentration.

  8. 21 CFR 878.5070 - Air-handling apparatus for a surgical operating room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air-handling apparatus for a surgical operating room. 878.5070 Section 878.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND....5070 Air-handling apparatus for a surgical operating room. (a) Identification. Air-handling apparatus...

  9. 21 CFR 878.5070 - Air-handling apparatus for a surgical operating room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Air-handling apparatus for a surgical operating room. 878.5070 Section 878.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND....5070 Air-handling apparatus for a surgical operating room. (a) Identification. Air-handling apparatus...

  10. 76 FR 19913 - Compliance Testing Procedures: Correction Factor for Room Air Conditioners

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... that the cooling capacity of a room air conditioner may actually be higher rather than lower when... cooling capacity of the air supplied to the conditioned room is reduced, by altitude effects because air... this simulation, presented below in Table 1, show that the cooling capacity decreases as...

  11. A room-temperature refuelable lithium, iodine and air battery.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kim Seng; Grimsdale, Andrew C; Yazami, Rachid

    2017-07-26

    We demonstrate a new refuelable lithium cell using lithium solvated electron solution (Li-SES) as anolyte and iodine solutions as catholyte. This cell shows a high OCV (~3 V). Unlike conventional rechargeable Li batteries, this kind of cell can be re-fueled in several minutes by replacing the spent liquids. We also show for the first time, that Li-SES/I2 cells which operate at room temperature, can be prepared in a fully discharged state (~0 V OCV) for safe handling, transportation and storage. Li-SES and iodine are then electrochemically generated during charge as is confirmed by UV-VIS and a qualitative test. We have also conducted proof-of-concept tests for an "indirect lithium-air" cell in which iodine is reduced at the cathode and subsequently is catalytically re-oxidized by oxygen dissolved in the catholyte.

  12. Collection and analysis of NASA clean room air samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, L. S.; Keever, J.

    1985-01-01

    The environment of the HALOE assembly clean room at NASA Langley Research Center is analyzed to determine the background levels of airborne organic compounds. Sampling is accomplished by pumping the clean room air through absorbing cartridges. For volatile organics, cartridges are thermally desorbed and then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, compounds are identified by searching the EPA/NIH data base using an interactive operator INCOS computer search algorithm. For semivolatile organics, cartridges are solvent entracted and concentrated extracts are analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection, compound identification is made by matching gas chromatogram retention times with known standards. The detection limits for the semivolatile organics are; 0.89 ng cu m for dioctylphlhalate (DOP) and 1.6 ng cu m for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The detection limit for volatile organics ranges from 1 to 50 parts per trillion. Only trace quantities of organics are detected, the DOP levels do not exceed 2.5 ng cu m and the PCB levels do not exceed 454 ng cu m.

  13. [Microbiological cleanness of the air in hospitals--rooms with air-condition].

    PubMed

    Krogulski, Adam; Kanclerski, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to valuate effectiveness of the air condition system in hospitals. It was done by estimation of bacteria and fungi concentration in the air. The study were performed in ten hospital rooms which were protected by EU 13 or EU 9 filters. Possible the most important source of fungi was not treated air incoming from outside. Only in four of the rooms concentrations of the fungi in the air were satisfactory and not exceeded 20 cfu/m3 (cfu--colony forming unit). However in two of them the number of fungi rise 4-5 times after the windows were opened. Concentration of the fungi in operating theater number 2 (1-2 cfu/m3) allow to valuate efficiency of air conditioning systems. The lowest bacteria concentration was in Intensive Care Unit (73 cfu/m3) but the highest in instrumentalists rum (1427 cfu/m3. where according to high fungi concentration (116 cfu/m3) the air conditioning systems was switched of and the ventilation was by open windows.

  14. Effectiveness of in-room air filtration and dilution ventilation for tuberculosis infection control

    SciTech Connect

    Miller-Leiden, S.; Lobascio, C.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Macher, J.M.

    1996-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a public health problem that may pose substantial risks to health care workers and others. TB infection occurs by inhalation of airborne bacteria emitted by persons with active disease. We experimentally evaluated the effectiveness of in-room air filtration systems, specifically portable air filters (PAFs) and ceiling-mounted air filters (CMAFs), in conjunction with dilution ventilation, for controlling TB exposure in high-risk settings. For each experiment, a test aerosol was continuously generated and released into a full-sized room. With the in-room air filter and room ventilation system operating, time-averaged airborne particle concentrations were measured at several points. The effectiveness of in-room air filtration plus ventilation was determined by comparing particle concentrations with and without device operation. The four PAFs and three CMAFs we evaluated reduced room-average particle concentrations, typically by 30% to 90%, relative to a baseline scenario with two air-changes per hour of ventilation (outside air) only. Increasing the rate of air flow recirculating through the filter and/or air flow from the ventilation did not always increase effectiveness. Concentrations were generally higher near the emission source than elsewhere in the room. Both the air flow configuration of the filter and its placement within the room were important. 46 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  15. 4. INSTRUMENT ROOM,INTERIOR, MAIN SPACE. Looking northeast. Edwards Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INSTRUMENT ROOM,INTERIOR, MAIN SPACE. Looking northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Firing Control Building, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. Assessment of operating room airflow using air particle counts and direct observation of door openings.

    PubMed

    Teter, Jonathan; Guajardo, Isabella; Al-Rammah, Tamrah; Rosson, Gedge; Perl, Trish M; Manahan, Michele

    2017-05-01

    The role of the operating room (OR) environment has been thought to contribute to surgical site infection rates. The quality of OR air, disruption of airflow, and other factors may increase contamination risks. We measured air particulate counts (APCs) to determine if they increased in relation to traffic, door opening, and other common activities. During 1 week, we recorded APCs in 5-minute intervals and movement of health care workers. Trained observers recorded information about traffic, door openings, job title of the opener, and the reason for opening. At least 1 OR door was open during 47% of all readings. There were 13.4 door openings per hour during cases. Door opening rates ranged from 0.19-0.28 per minute. During this time, a total of 660 air measurements were obtained. The mean APCs were 9,238 particles (95% confidence interval [CI], 5,494- 12,982) at baseline and 14,292 particles (95% CI, 12,382-16,201) during surgery. Overall APCs increased 13% when either door was opened (P < .15). Larger particles that correlated to bacterial size were elevated significantly (P < .001) on door opening. We observed numerous instances of verbal communication and equipment movement. Improving efficiency of communication and equipment can aid in reduction of traffic. Further study is needed to examine links between microbiologic sampling, outcome data, and particulate matter to enable study of risk factors and effects of personnel movement. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Photocatalytic air purifiers for indoor air: European standard and pilot room experiments.

    PubMed

    Costarramone, N; Cantau, C; Desauziers, V; Pécheyran, C; Pigot, T; Lacombe, S

    2016-09-15

    At the European level (CEN/TC386), some efforts are currently devoted to new standards for comparing the efficiency of commercial photocatalytic material/devices in various application fields. Concerning prototype or commercial indoor photocatalytic air purifiers designed for volatile organic compounds (VOC) abatement, the methodology is based on a laboratory airtight chamber. The photocatalytic function is demonstrated by the mineralization of a mixture of five VOCs. Experimental data were obtained for four selected commercial devices and three commercial materials: drop of VOC concentration, but also identification of secondary species (with special attention to formaldehyde), mineralization rates, and Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR). With two efficient air purifiers, these laboratory experiments were compared to the results in two experimental rooms (35-40 m(3)) where air pollution was introduced through wooden floor and furniture. The systems' ageing was also studied. The safety of the commercial products was also assessed by the determination of nanoparticle release. Standardized tests are useful to rank photocatalytic air purifiers and passive materials and to discard inefficient ones. A good correlation between the standard experiments and the experimental room experiments was found, even if in the latter case, the concentration of lower weight VOCs drops less quickly than that of heavier VOCs.

  18. Eggcrate UV: a whole ceiling upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation system for air disinfection in occupied rooms.

    PubMed

    Linnes, J C; Rudnick, S N; Hunt, G M; McDevitt, J J; Nardell, E A

    2014-04-01

    A novel whole ceiling upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) system [eggcrate ultraviolet (UV)] has been developed that incorporates open-cell 'eggcrate'-suspended ceiling panels and bare UV lamps with a ceiling fan. Upper-room UVGI is more effective for air disinfection than mechanical ventilation at much lower installation and operating costs. Conventional upper-room UVGI fixtures employ multiple tightly spaced horizontal louvers to confine UV to the upper-room. These louvered fixtures protect occupants in the lower-room from UV-induced eye and skin irritation, but at a major cost to fixture efficiency. Using a lamp and ballast from a conventional upper-room UVGI fixture in the eggcrate UV system, the germicidal efficacy was markedly improved even though the UV radiation emitted by the lamp was unchanged. This fundamental change in the application of upper-room UVGI air disinfection should permit wider, more effective application of UVGI globally to reduce the spread of airborne infection.

  19. Impact of room fragrance products on indoor air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhde, Erik; Schulz, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    Everyday life can no longer be imagined without fragrances and scented products. For the consumer, countless products exists which are solely or partly intended to give off a certain scent in sufficient concentrations to odorize a complete room. Sprays, diffusers and evaporators, scented candles and automatic devices for the distribution of fragrance liquids are typical examples of such products. If the consumer uses such products, his consent to the release of certain chemicals in his home can be implied, however, he may not know what kind of fragrance substances and solvents will be present in which concentrations. In this study, we determined the volatile emissions of a number of fragrance products in detail. Measurements were carried out under controlled conditions in test chambers. The products were tested in a passive (unused) and an active state, wherever applicable. Following a defined test protocol, the release of volatile organic compounds, ultrafine particles and NOx was monitored for each product. The potential for forming secondary organic aerosols under the influence of ozone was studied, and for a selection of products the long-term emission behavior was assessed. A remarkable variety of fragrance substances was found and more than 100 relevant compounds were identified and quantified. While it is the intended function of such products to release fragrance substances, also considerable amounts of non-odorous solvents and by-products were found to be released from several air fresheners. Emissions rates exceeding 2 mg/(unit*h) were measured for the five most common solvents.

  20. A/C MECHANICAL ROOM, FACING NORTHWEST Cape Canaveral Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A/C MECHANICAL ROOM, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  1. Cost-benefit analysis of different air change rates in an operating room environment.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Thomas; Markel, Troy A; Jones, Howard; Greeley, Damon; Ostojic, John; Clarke, James H; Abkowitz, Mark; Wagner, Jennifer

    2017-09-08

    Hospitals face growing pressure to meet the dual but often competing goals of providing a safe environment while controlling operating costs. Evidence-based data are needed to provide insight for facility management practices to support these goals. The quality of the air in 3 operating rooms was measured at different ventilation rates. The energy cost to provide the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning to the rooms was estimated to provide a cost-benefit comparison of the effectiveness of different ventilation rates currently used in the health care industry. Simply increasing air change rates in the operating rooms tested did not necessarily provide an overall cleaner environment, but did substantially increase energy consumption and costs. Additionally, and unexpectedly, significant differences in microbial load and air velocity were detected between the sterile fields and back instrument tables. Increasing the ventilation rates in operating rooms in an effort to improve clinical outcomes and potentially reduce surgical site infections does not necessarily provide cleaner air, but does typically increase operating costs. Efficient distribution or management of the air can improve quality indicators and potentially reduce the number of air changes required. Measurable environmental quality indicators could be used in lieu of or in addition to air change rate requirements to optimize cost and quality for an operating room and other critical environments. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Passive Room-to-Room Air Transfer, Fresno, California (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-02-01

    Field testing was performed in a retrofit unoccupied test house in Fresno, California. Three air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems - a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms - were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each of the three systems was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling also was performed and refined based on comparison to field test results to determine the air flow rate into the bedrooms of over-door and bottom-of-door air transfer grilles.

  3. Martian cave air-movement via Helmholtz resonance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Kaj; Titus, Timothy N.; Okubo, Chris; Cushing, Glen

    2017-01-01

    Infrasonic resonance has previously been measured in terrestrial caves by other researchers, where Helmholtz resonance has been suggested as the plausible mechanism resulting in periodic wind reversals within cave entrances. We extend this reasoning to possible Martian caves, where we examine the characteristics of four atypical pit craters (APCs) on Tharsis, suggested as candidate cave entrance locations. The results show that, for several possible cave air movement periods, we are able to infer the approximate cave volumes. The utility of inferring cave volumes for planetary cave exploration is discussed.

  4. Effect of laminar air flow and clean-room dress on contamination rates of intravenous admixtures.

    PubMed

    Brier, K L; Latiolais, C J; Schneider, P J; Moore, T D; Buesching, W J; Wentworth, B C

    1981-08-01

    The effect of laminar air flow conditions and clean-room dress on the microbial contamination rates of intravenous admixtures was investigated. Intravenous admixtures were prepared by one investigator using aseptic technique under four environmental conditions: laminar air flow conditions with clean-room dress; laminar air flow without clean-room dress; clean table top with clean-room dress; and clean table top without clean-room dress. In each environmental condition, 350 admixtures were compounded. Negative-control samples (n = 150) were also tested, as were 10 positive-control samples. Samples were tested in each of two growth media and incubated at 35 degrees C for 14 days or until growth occurred. The incidence of contamination of admixtures compounded in laminar air flow conditions was significantly less than the contamination of those compounded on a clean table top (p less than 0.05) regardless of the operator's dress. The incidence of contamination of admixtures compounded while wearing clean-room dress was not significantly different from those prepared while not wearing clean-room dress regardless of the environment in which the admixture was prepared. The overall low level of contamination [0.79% (11/1400)] was inconclusive regarding the effect of dress on the incidence of contamination when admixtures were prepared under LAF conditions. It is concluded that, when one adheres to aseptic technique, the environment in which admixtures are compounded is the most important variable affecting the microbial contamination rate.

  5. Effects of ambient room temperature on cold air cooling during laser hair removal.

    PubMed

    Ram, Ramin; Rosenbach, Alan

    2007-09-01

    Forced air cooling is a well-established technique that protects the epidermis during laser heating of deeper structures, thereby allowing for increased laser fluences. The goal of this prospective study was to identify whether an elevation in ambient room temperature influences the efficacy of forced air cooling. Skin surface temperatures were measured on 24 sites (12 subjects) during cold air exposure in examination rooms with ambient temperatures of 72 degrees F (22.2 degrees C) and 82 degrees F (27.8 degrees C), respectively. Before cooling, mean skin surface temperature was 9 degrees F (5 degrees C) higher in the warmer room (P < 0.01). Immediately after exposure to forced air cooling (within 1 s), the skin surface temperature remained considerably higher (10.75 degrees F, or 5.8 degrees C, P < 0.01) in the warmer room. We conclude that forced air cooling in a room with an ambient temperature of 82 degrees F (27.8 degrees C) is not as effective as in a room that is at 72 degrees F (22.2 degrees C).

  6. The effect of an ion generator on indoor air quality in a residential room.

    PubMed

    Waring, M S; Siegel, J A

    2011-08-01

    Ion generators charge particles with a corona prior to their removal on collector plates or indoor surfaces and also emit ozone, which can react with terpenes to yield secondary organic aerosol, carbonyls, carboxylic acids, and free radicals. This study characterized the indoor air quality implications of operating an ion generator in a 27 m(3) residential room, with four different test room configurations. Two room configurations had carpet overlaying the original flooring of stained/sealed concrete, and for one configuration with and without carpet, a plug-in air freshener was used as a terpene source. Measurements included airborne sampling of particulate matter (0.015-20 μm), terpenes and C(1) -C(4) and C(6) -C(10) aldehydes, ozone concentrations, and air exchange rates. When the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning system was not operating (room air exchange rate = ∼0.5/h), the use of the ion generator in the presence of the air freshener led to a net increase in ultrafine particles (<0.1 μm). Also, increased concentrations of ozone were observed regardless of air freshener presence, as well as increases in formaldehyde and nonanal, albeit within measurement uncertainty in some cases. Thus, it may be prudent to limit ion generator use indoors until evidence of safety can be ascertained. Portable ion generators are intended to clean the air of particles, but they may emit ozone as a byproduct of their operation, which has the potential to degrade indoor air quality. This study showed that under certain conditions in a residential room, the use of a portable ion generator can increase concentrations of ozone and, to a lesser degree, potentially aldehydes. Also, if operated in the presence of a plug-in air freshener that emits terpenes, its use can increase concentrations of secondary organic aerosol in the ultrafine size range. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air... appendix F) until the compliance date of any amended energy conservation standards for room...

  8. Indoor air quality in restaurants with and without designated smoking rooms.

    PubMed

    Milz, Sheryl; Akbar-Khanzadeh, Farhang; Ames, April; Spino, Sara; Tex, Christopher; Lanza, Kathryn

    2007-04-01

    Indoor air quality in restaurants was studied in two cities in northwest Ohio after clean indoor air ordinances had been enacted. Carbon dioxide and ultrafine particles were measured in two restaurants in Toledo and two restaurants in Bowling Green. One restaurant in each city was smoke free, and one restaurant in each city contained a dedicated smoking room. A smoke free office space was also assessed as a reference site. Measurements were collected with datalogging instrumentation simultaneously in both the designated smoking room, if present, and in the nonsmoking section. For smoke free establishments, datalogging instrumentation was also used. Carbon dioxide levels were elevated in all four restaurants, with only 32% of the measurements meeting the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) criterion level of 1000 ppm. Ultrafine particles currently do not have any formal standard or guideline. Statistically significant differences were evident between all four restaurants and the reference site. The largest differences were found between the two designated smoking rooms and the reference site (p < 0.001), with the mean levels in the smoking rooms up to 43 times higher than in the reference site. The results from this study indicate inadequate fresh air supply in all four restaurants, particularly in the designated smoking rooms, and the possibility that the designated smoking rooms were not containing the environment tobacco smoke, based on the ultrafine particle concentrations measured in the nonsmoking areas of the smoking restaurants.

  9. Room air versus carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum: effects on oxidative state, apoptosis and histology of splanchnic organs.

    PubMed

    Ypsilantis, Petros; Lambropoulou, Maria; Tentes, Ioannis; Chryssidou, Maria; Georgantas, Themistoklis; Simopoulos, Constantinos

    2016-04-01

    Although CO2 is the insufflation gas of choice in laparoscopic procedures, room air is usually used in natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. The aim of the present study was to compare the safety of room air versus CO2 pneumoperitoneum in terms of their effect on the oxidative state, apoptosis and tissue injury of splanchnic organs. Eighteen Wistar rats were assigned to three groups (n = 6 per group) and were subjected to 8 mm Hg room air (group Pne-Air) or CO2 pneumoperitoneum (group Pne-CO2) or sham operation for 60 min. Forty-five minutes postdeflation, tissue samples were excised from the liver, stomach, ileum and kidneys for reduced glutathione-to-glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) ratio, caspase-8 and caspase-3 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) immunohistochemical assessment and histopathologic examination. GSH/GSSG ratio substantially declined in both pneumoperitoneum groups. No change was noted in HIF-1α expression. Mild upregulation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 was noted in both pneumoperitoneum groups being less pronounced in group Pne-Air. Histopathologic score was increased in all organs studied, but the stomach, in both pneumoperitoneum groups. Pneumoperitoneum established by either room air or CO2 induced substantial oxidative stress, mild apoptosis and mild tissue injury in splanchnic organs. While air pneumoperitoneum conferred a less pronounced apoptotic effect, the oxidative state and histopathologic profile of splanchnic organs did not differ between insufflation gases.

  10. Room Air Conditioners; Appliance Repair--Advanced: 9027.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This Quinmester course includes installations, electrical and mechanical servicing, reverse cycle air conditioning, malfunctions, troubleshooting and repair, discharge, pump down, and recharging the system. The course may be taught as a two or three Quinmester credit course. In each instance the course consists of six instructional blocks:…

  11. THE EFFECTS OF BUILDING FEATURES ON INDOOR AIR AND POLLUTANT MOVEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses full-scale residential building tests to determine the effects of building features on indoor air and pollutant movement. It was found that the activated heating and air-conditioning (HAC) system served as a conductor that enhanced the indoor air movement and ...

  12. THE EFFECTS OF BUILDING FEATURES ON INDOOR AIR AND POLLUTANT MOVEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses full-scale residential building tests to determine the effects of building features on indoor air and pollutant movement. It was found that the activated heating and air-conditioning (HAC) system served as a conductor that enhanced the indoor air movement and ...

  13. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Passive Room-to-Room Air Transfer, Fresno, California

    SciTech Connect

    D. Stecher and A. Poershke

    2014-02-01

    In this project, IBACOS, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, assessed a strategy for providing conditioned air to bedrooms when the bedroom doors are closed and measured potential thermal discomfort that occupants may experience when this strategy is used. Builders can use this information to discuss space conditioning options for low-load houses with their clients to determine acceptable comfort levels for occupants in these cost-optimized, energy-efficient houses.

  14. Test Protocol for Room-to-Room Distribution of Outside Air by Residential Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barley, C. D.; Anderson, R.; Hendron, B.; Hancock, E.

    2007-12-01

    This test and analysis protocol has been developed as a practical approach for measuring outside air distribution in homes. It has been used successfully in field tests and has led to significant insights on ventilation design issues. Performance advantages of more sophisticated ventilation systems over simpler, less-costly designs have been verified, and specific problems, such as airflow short-circuiting, have been identified.

  15. Simulation study on the impact of air distribution on formaldehyde pollutant distribution in room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jingtao; Wang, Jun; Cheng, Zhu

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, physical and mathematical model of a room was established based on the Airpak software. The velocity distribution, air age distribution, formaldehyde concentration distribution and Predicted Mean Vote(PMV), Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied(PPD) distribution in the ward of a hospital were simulated. In addition, the air volume was doubled, the change of indoor pollutant concentration distribution was simulated. And further, the change of air age was simulated. Through the simulation, it can help arrange the position of the air supply port, so it is very necessary to increase the comfort of the staff in the room. Finally, through the simulation of pollutant concentration distribution, it can be seen that when concentration of indoor pollutants was high, the supply air flow rate should be increased appropriately. Indoor pollutant will be discharged as soon as possible, which is very beneficial to human body health.

  16. Radiographic evaluation of positional atelectasis in sedated dogs breathing room air versus 100% oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Barletta, Michele; Almondia, Donna; Williams, Jamie; Crochik, Sonia; Hofmeister, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This study documents the degree of positional atelectasis in sedated dogs receiving 100% oxygen (O2) versus room air. Initial lateral recumbency was determined by an orthopedic study and initial treatment (O2 or room air) was randomized. Each dog was maintained in lateral recumbency for 15 min, at which time ventrodorsal (VD) and opposite lateral thoracic radiographs were obtained. Each dog was then maintained in the opposite lateral recumbency and received the other treatment for 15 min, followed by a VD and opposite lateral radiograph. Radiographs were scored for severity of pulmonary pattern and mediastinal shift by 3 radiologists. Dogs breathing O2 had significantly higher scores than dogs breathing room air. If radiographically detectable dependent atelectasis is present, repeat thoracic images following manual positive ventilation and/or position change to the opposite lateral recumbency should be made to rule out the effect of O2 positional atelectasis and avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:25320389

  17. Radiographic evaluation of positional atelectasis in sedated dogs breathing room air versus 100% oxygen.

    PubMed

    Barletta, Michele; Almondia, Donna; Williams, Jamie; Crochik, Sonia; Hofmeister, Erik

    2014-10-01

    This study documents the degree of positional atelectasis in sedated dogs receiving 100% oxygen (O(2)) versus room air. Initial lateral recumbency was determined by an orthopedic study and initial treatment (O(2) or room air) was randomized. Each dog was maintained in lateral recumbency for 15 min, at which time ventrodorsal (VD) and opposite lateral thoracic radiographs were obtained. Each dog was then maintained in the opposite lateral recumbency and received the other treatment for 15 min, followed by a VD and opposite lateral radiograph. Radiographs were scored for severity of pulmonary pattern and mediastinal shift by 3 radiologists. Dogs breathing O(2) had significantly higher scores than dogs breathing room air. If radiographically detectable dependent atelectasis is present, repeat thoracic images following manual positive ventilation and/or position change to the opposite lateral recumbency should be made to rule out the effect of O(2) positional atelectasis and avoid misdiagnosis.

  18. Objective volumetric comparison of room air versus carbon dioxide for colonic distention at screening CT colonography.

    PubMed

    Patrick, James L; Bakke, Joshua R; Bannas, Peter; Kim, David H; Lubner, Meghan G; Pickhardt, Perry J

    2015-02-01

    To objectively compare colonic distention at CT colonography (CTC) achieved with manual room air vs. automated low-pressure carbon dioxide (CO2) using a novel automated volumetric quality assessment tool. Volumetric analysis was retrospectively performed on CTC studies in 300 asymptomatic adults using an automated quality assessment tool (V3D Colon [beta version], Viatronix). Colonic distention was achieved with room air self-administered to tolerance via hand-held pump (mean number of pumps, 39 ± 32) in 150 individuals (mean age, 59 years; 98 men, 51 women) and via continuous low-pressure automated infusion of CO2 in 150 individuals (mean age, 57 years; 89 men, 61 women). CTC studies in supine and prone position were assessed to determine total colonic volume (luminal gas and fluid). The colonic length along the automated centerline was also recorded to enable calculation of length-adjusted colonic volumes. The mean total colonic volume (±SD) for individuals receiving room air and CO2 distention was 1809 ± 514 and 2223 ± 686 mL, respectively (p < 0.01). The prone position was better distended in 78.7% (118/150) of cases using room air; whereas, the supine was better in 66.0% (99/150) of CO2 cases (p < 0.01). Using a volume threshold of 2000 mL, 49 (32.7%) of room air cases and 92 (61.3%) of CO2 cases were above this cut-off. The mean length-adjusted colonic volume (mL/cm) for the room air and CO2 techniques was 9.9 ± 2.4 and 11.6 ± 2.6 mL/cm (p < 0.01). Using automated volumetry allowed quantitative analyses of colonic volumes and objectively confirmed that continuous low-pressure CO2 provides greater overall colonic distention than the manual room air technique at CTC. The supine position demonstrated better distention with CO2, whereas the prone position was better distended with the room air technique.

  19. 21 CFR 878.5070 - Air-handling apparatus for a surgical operating room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Air-handling apparatus for a surgical operating room. 878.5070 Section 878.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices §...

  20. 21 CFR 878.5070 - Air-handling apparatus for a surgical operating room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Air-handling apparatus for a surgical operating room. 878.5070 Section 878.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices §...

  1. 21 CFR 878.5070 - Air-handling apparatus for a surgical operating room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Air-handling apparatus for a surgical operating room. 878.5070 Section 878.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices §...

  2. Room temperature, air crystallized perovskite film for high performance solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dubey, Ashish; Kantack, Nicholas; Adhikari, Nirmal; Reza, Khan Mamun; Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Kumar, Mukesh; Khatiwada, Devendra; Darling, Seth; Qiao, Qiquan

    2016-05-31

    For the first time, room temperature heating free growth and crystallization of perovskite films in ambient air without the use of thermal annealing is reported. Highly efficient perovskite nanorod-based solar cells were made using ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbI3 nanorods/PC60BM/rhodamine/Ag. All the layers except PEDOT:PSS were processed at room temperature thereby eliminating the need for thermal treatment. Perovskite films were spin coated inside a N-2 filled glovebox and immediately were taken outside in air having 40% relative humidity (RH). Exposure to humid air was observed to promote the crystallization process in perovskite films even at room temperature. Perovskite films kept for 5 hours in ambient air showed nanorod-like morphology having high crystallinity, with devices exhibiting the highest PCE of 16.83%, which is much higher than the PCE of 11.94% for traditional thermally annealed perovskite film based devices. Finally, it was concluded that moisture plays an important role in room temperature crystallization of pure perovskite nanorods, showing improved optical and charge transport properties, which resulted in high performance solar cells.

  3. Room temperature, air crystallized perovskite film for high performance solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Dubey, Ashish; Kantack, Nicholas; Adhikari, Nirmal; ...

    2016-05-31

    For the first time, room temperature heating free growth and crystallization of perovskite films in ambient air without the use of thermal annealing is reported. Highly efficient perovskite nanorod-based solar cells were made using ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbI3 nanorods/PC60BM/rhodamine/Ag. All the layers except PEDOT:PSS were processed at room temperature thereby eliminating the need for thermal treatment. Perovskite films were spin coated inside a N-2 filled glovebox and immediately were taken outside in air having 40% relative humidity (RH). Exposure to humid air was observed to promote the crystallization process in perovskite films even at room temperature. Perovskite films kept for 5 hours inmore » ambient air showed nanorod-like morphology having high crystallinity, with devices exhibiting the highest PCE of 16.83%, which is much higher than the PCE of 11.94% for traditional thermally annealed perovskite film based devices. Finally, it was concluded that moisture plays an important role in room temperature crystallization of pure perovskite nanorods, showing improved optical and charge transport properties, which resulted in high performance solar cells.« less

  4. Room temperature, air crystallized perovskite film for high performance solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dubey, Ashish; Kantack, Nicholas; Adhikari, Nirmal; Reza, Khan Mamun; Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Kumar, Mukesh; Khatiwada, Devendra; Darling, Seth; Qiao, Qiquan

    2016-05-31

    For the first time, room temperature heating free growth and crystallization of perovskite films in ambient air without the use of thermal annealing is reported. Highly efficient perovskite nanorod-based solar cells were made using ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbI3 nanorods/PC60BM/rhodamine/Ag. All the layers except PEDOT:PSS were processed at room temperature thereby eliminating the need for thermal treatment. Perovskite films were spin coated inside a N-2 filled glovebox and immediately were taken outside in air having 40% relative humidity (RH). Exposure to humid air was observed to promote the crystallization process in perovskite films even at room temperature. Perovskite films kept for 5 hours in ambient air showed nanorod-like morphology having high crystallinity, with devices exhibiting the highest PCE of 16.83%, which is much higher than the PCE of 11.94% for traditional thermally annealed perovskite film based devices. Finally, it was concluded that moisture plays an important role in room temperature crystallization of pure perovskite nanorods, showing improved optical and charge transport properties, which resulted in high performance solar cells.

  5. 75 FR 7987 - Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and Room Air Conditioners: Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... phase electric current and which is an encased assembly designed as a unit for mounting in a window or.... Current Rulemaking Process i. Residential Clothes Dryers ii. Room Air Conditioners iii. Consent Decree III... defines ``electric clothes dryer'' under EPCA as ``a cabinet-like appliance designed to dry fabrics in...

  6. Effects of Outside Air Temperature on Movement of Phosphine Gas in Concrete Elevator Bins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies that measured the movement and concentration of phosphine gas in upright concrete bins over time indicated that fumigant movement was dictated by air currents, which in turn, were a function of the difference between the average grain temperature and the average outside air temperature durin...

  7. Low GWP Refrigerants Modelling Study for a Room Air Conditioner Having Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Bhandari, Mahabir S

    2016-01-01

    Microchannel heat exchangers (MHX) have found great successes in residential and commercial air conditioning applications, being compact heat exchangers, to reduce refrigerant charge and material cost. This investigation aims to extend the application of MHXs in split, room air conditioners (RAC), per fundamental heat exchanger and system modelling. For this paper, microchannel condenser and evaporator models were developed, using a segment-to-segment modelling approach. The microchannel heat exchanger models were integrated to a system design model. The system model is able to predict the performance indices, such as cooling capacity, efficiency, sensible heat ratio, etc. Using the calibrated system and heat exchanger models, we evaluated numerous low GWP (global warming potential) refrigerants. The predicted system performance indices, e.g. cooling efficiency, compressor discharge temperature, and required compressor displacement volume etc., are compared. Suitable replacements for R22 and R-410A for the room air conditioner application are recommended.

  8. Indoor air flow and pollutant removal in a room with desk-top ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Faulkner, D.; Fisk, W.J.; Sullivan, D.P.

    1993-04-01

    In a furnished experimental facility with three workstations separated by partitions, we studied indoor air flow patterns and tobacco smoke removal efficiency of a desk-top task ventilation system. The task ventilation system permits occupant control of the temperature, flow rate and direction of air supplied through two desk-mounted supply nozzles. In the configuration evaluated, air exited the ventilated space through a ceiling-mounted return grill. To study indoor air flow patterns, we measured the age of air at multiple indoor locations using the tracer gas step-up procedure. To study the intra-room transport of tobacco smoke particles and the efficiency of panicle removal by ventilation, a cigarette was smoked mechanically in one workstation and particle concentrations were measured at multiple indoor locations including the exhaust airstream. Test variables included the direction of air supply from the nozzles, supply nozzle area, supply flow rate and temperature, percent recirculation of chamber air, and internal heatloads. With nozzles pointed toward the occupants, 100% outside air supplied at the desk-top, and air supply rates of approximately 40 L/s per workstation, the age of air at the breathing level of ventilated workstations was approximately 30% less than the age of air that would occur throughout the test space with perfectly mixed indoor air. With smaller air supply rates and/or air supplied parallel to the edges of the desk, ages of air at breathing locations were not significantly lower than the age with perfect mixing. Indoor tobacco smoke particle concentrations at specific locations were generally within 12% of the average measured indoor concentration and concentrations of particles in the exhaust airstream were not significantly different from concentration of particles at breathing locations.

  9. Evaluation of the Army’s Plan for Tailoring Its Forces for Air Movement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1963-11-01

    essential part of the overall plan for tailoring Army forces for movement by air . The principal advantage of this concept allows the option of rapidly...Tailoring Its Forces For Air l^ovement# :p^ Inventoried * Retention Justified Library J tf Headquarters, U.S. Aray ^ I luitw.j of Cus...Tailoring its Forces for Air Movement (U)" TO: Assistant Chief of Staff for Force Development Department of the Army ATTN: DOT DO 3 Washington, D. C

  10. Benefits of Leapfrogging to Superefficiency and Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants in Room Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Nihar; Wei, Max; Letschert, Virginie; Phadke, Amol

    2015-10-01

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emitted from uses such as refrigerants and thermal insulating foam, are now the fastest growing greenhouse gases (GHGs), with global warming potentials (GWP) thousands of times higher than carbon dioxide (CO2). Because of the short lifetime of these molecules in the atmosphere, mitigating the amount of these short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) provides a faster path to climate change mitigation than control of CO2 alone. This has led to proposals from Africa, Europe, India, Island States, and North America to amend the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) to phase-down high-GWP HFCs. Simultaneously, energy efficiency market transformation programs such as standards, labeling and incentive programs are endeavoring to improve the energy efficiency for refrigeration and air conditioning equipment to provide life cycle cost, energy, GHG, and peak load savings. In this paper we provide an estimate of the magnitude of such GHG and peak electric load savings potential, for room air conditioning, if the refrigerant transition and energy efficiency improvement policies are implemented either separately or in parallel. We find that implementing HFC refrigerant transition and energy efficiency improvement policies in parallel for room air conditioning, roughly doubles the benefit of either policy implemented separately. We estimate that shifting the 2030 world stock of room air conditioners from the low efficiency technology using high-GWP refrigerants to higher efficiency technology and low-GWP refrigerants in parallel would save between 340-790 gigawatts (GW) of peak load globally, which is roughly equivalent to avoiding 680-1550 peak power plants of 500MW each. This would save 0.85 GT/year annually in China equivalent to over 8 Three Gorges dams and over 0.32 GT/year annually in India equivalent to roughly twice India’s 100GW solar mission target. While there is some uncertainty associated with

  11. A simple atmospheric pressure room-temperature air plasma needle device for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, X.; Xiong, Z.; Zhao, F.; Xian, Y.; Xiong, Q.; Gong, W.; Zou, C.; Jiang, Z.; Pan, Y.

    2009-11-01

    Rather than using noble gas, room air is used as the working gas for an atmospheric pressure room-temperature plasma. The plasma is driven by submicrosecond pulsed directed current voltages. Several current spikes appear periodically for each voltage pulse. The first current spike has a peak value of more than 1.5 A with a pulse width of about 10 ns. Emission spectra show that besides excited OH, O, N2(C-B), and N2+(B-X) emission, excited NO, N2(B-A), H, and even N emission are also observed in the plasma, which indicates that the plasma may be more reactive than that generated by other plasma jet devices. Utilizing the room-temperature plasma, preliminary inactivation experiments show that Enterococcus faecalis can be killed with a treatment time of only several seconds.

  12. Identification of factors that disrupt negative air pressurization of respiratory isolation rooms.

    PubMed

    Pavelchak, N; DePersis, R P; London, M; Stricof, R; Oxtoby, M; DiFerdinando, G; Marshall, E

    2000-03-01

    To investigate the airflow characteristics of respiratory isolation rooms (IRs) and to evaluate the use of visible smoke as a monitoring tool. Industrial hygienists from the New York State Department of Health evaluated 140 designated IRs in 38 facilities within New York State during 1992 to 1998. The rooms were located in the following settings: hospitals (59%), correctional facilities (40%), and nursing homes (1%). Each room was tested with visible smoke for directional airflow into the patient room (ie, negative air pressure relative to adjacent areas). Information was obtained on each facility's policies and procedures for maintaining and monitoring the operation of the IRs. Inappropriate outward airflow was observed in 38% of the IRs tested. Multiple factors were associated with outward airflow direction, including ventilation systems not balanced (54% of failed rooms), shared anterooms (14%), turbulent airflow patterns (11%), and automated control system inaccuracies (10%). Of the 140 tested rooms, 38 (27%) had either electrical or mechanical devices to monitor air pressurization continuously. The direction of airflow at the door to 50% (19/38) of these rooms was the opposite of that indicated by the continuous monitors at the time of our evaluations. The inability of continuous monitors to indicate the direction of airflow was associated with instrument limitations (74%) and malfunction of the devices (26%). In one facility, daily smoke testing by infection control staff was responsible for identifying the malfunction of a state-of-the-art computerized ventilation monitoring and control system in a room housing a patient infectious with drug-resistant tuberculosis. A substantial percentage of IRs did not meet the negative air pressure criterion. These failures were associated with a variety of characteristics in the design and operation of the IRs. Our findings indicate that a balanced ventilation system does not guarantee inward airflow direction. Devices

  13. Improvement of Dehumidification Performance on Room Air Conditioner Adopting Dehumidification Method Reheated by Refrigeration Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Funakoshi, Sunao; Yokoyama, Hidenori; Morimoto, Motoo; Saito, Kiyoshi

    The ways to increase dehumidification capacity during the dehumidification operation reheated by refrigeration cycle on room air conditioners using R 410A was investigated, keeping electric power consumption lower, noise level lower and outlet air temperature constant. The indoor heat exchanger is divided into a condensing part and an evaporating part by a dehumidification valve which is located between these two heat exchangers. The cooled and dehumidified indoor air is heated by the condensing part. The noise occurred from the two-phase refrigerant flow passing through this valve. So the compressor rotational speed was increased properly to increase dehumidification capacity. Moreover a new dehumidification valve was developed to reduce the refrigerant flow noise. This valve has two expansion processes and each expansion process has plural notch throttles. As the result, 1.5 times dehumidification capacity was gained, keeping lower electric power consumption, lower noise level and constant outlet air temperature.

  14. Demonstration of Intelligent Control and Fan Improvements in Computer Room Air Handlers

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, Henry; Greenberg, Steve; Vita, Corinne

    2012-11-30

    This report documents a demonstration of the energy-efficiency improvement provided by a new control system for computer room air handling devices. It also analyzes measured and reported air handling device fan power associated with changing the fan type. A 135,000 square foot commercial data center was used for the demonstration. All air handling units were upgraded with improved efficiency fans, and a control system that automatically adjusts the fan speed for the air handling units was added. Power measurements were collected for a baseline and for a period with the fan speed control system active. Changing the fan type resulted in a savings of 47 percent of energy used by the air handling equipment and associated chiller plant energy needed to cool the air handlers themselves. The addition of the fan speed control resulted in an additional 37 percent savings in the same two categories. The combined savings for the two improvements for the same categories was 66 percent compared to the data center fitted with the original fans without a control system. The energy use reduction provided by the complete air handling device improvement program for the whole data center site is estimated to be 2.9 million kilowatt hours per year—an overall data center site savings of 8.0 percent. The reduced electrical energy use at the site provides a 1.9 million pound yearly reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. This demonstration showed that fan upgrades and a control system addition provide cost-effective improvements for data centers, with a payback reported to be under two years without utility incentives. In addition to the control system providing energy savings, the data collection and visual analysis capabilities provided immediate and long-term benefits. It is recommended that data center operators consider investing in fan upgrades and/or adding fan speed control for computer room air handlers.

  15. Laparoscopy Using Room Air Insufflation in a Rural African Jungle Hospital: The Bongolo Hospital Experience, January 2006 to December 2013.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Zachary; Faniriko, Marco; Thelander, Keir; O'Connor, Jennifer; Thompson, David; Park, Adrian

    2017-06-01

    Carbon dioxide is the standard insufflation gas for laparoscopy. However, in many areas of the world, bottled carbon dioxide is not available. Laparoscopy offers advantages over open surgery and has been practiced using filtered room air insufflation since 2006 at Bongolo Hospital in Gabon, Africa. Our primary goal was to evaluate the safety of room air insufflation related to intraoperative and postoperative complications. Our secondary aim was to review the types of cases performed laparoscopically at our institution. This retrospective review evaluates laparoscopic cases performed at Bongolo Hospital between January 2006 and December 2013. Demographic and perioperative information for patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures was collected. Insufflation was achieved using a standard, oil-free air compressor using filtered air and a standard insufflation regulator. A total of 368 laparoscopic procedures were identified within the time period. The majority of cases were gynecologic (43%). There was a 2% (8/368) complication rate with one perioperative death. The 2 complications related to insufflation were episodes of hypotension responsive to standard corrective measures. No intracorporeal combustion events were observed in any cases in which the use of diathermy and room air insufflation were combined. The other complications and the death were unrelated to the use of insufflation with air. Insufflation complications with room air occurred in our study. However, the complications related to insufflation with room air in our study were no different than those described in the literature using carbon dioxide. As room air is less costly than carbon dioxide and readily available, confirming the safety of room air insufflation in prospective studies is warranted. Room air appears to be safe for establishing and maintaining pneumoperitoneum, making laparoscopic surgery more accessible to patients in low-resource settings.

  16. Insufflation using carbon dioxide versus room air during colonoscopy: comparison of patient comfort, recovery time, and nursing resources.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Isabelle; Hayes, Ann; Buffum, Martha D; Conners, Erin E

    2015-01-01

    The standard of practice for colonoscopy is room air insufflation. Recent research demonstrates safety and significant decrease in postcolonoscopy discomfort from distention when carbon dioxide (CO2) is used during insufflation. Reducing abdominal pain after colonoscopy may lead to increased acceptance of colonoscopy screening for colorectal cancer. This study aims to compare patient comfort intra- and postprocedure, length of recovery, and nursing time in patients undergoing colonoscopy using room air vs. CO2 insufflation. This study uses an experimental design with patients randomly assigned to either room air or CO2 during colonoscopy. Physician endoscopists, postprocedure nurses, and patients were blinded to assignment. Prior bowel surgery, inflammatory bowel disease, or inability to consent excluded participants. Outcome measures included discomfort assessment, nursing tasks, and recovery time.Of 191 participants, 177 were men and 14 were women; 94 received room air; 97 received CO2. Patients insufflated with room air reported higher levels of some measures of discomfort: (a) during colonoscopy (p = .02), (b) on admission to recovery (p = .001), and (c) on discharge from recovery (p = .001). Patients receiving room air required more nursing tasks in recovery (p = .001) and more total nursing time (p = .001).Compared with room air, CO2 insufflation increases patient comfort and decreases nursing tasks and time.

  17. Applied patent RFID systems for building reacting HEPA air ventilation system in hospital operation rooms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jesun; Pai, Jar-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2012-12-01

    RFID technology, an automatic identification and data capture technology to provide identification, tracing, security and so on, was widely applied to healthcare industry in these years. Employing HEPA ventilation system in hospital is a way to ensure healthful indoor air quality to protect patients and healthcare workers against hospital-acquired infections. However, the system consumes lots of electricity which cost a lot. This study aims to apply the RFID technology to offer a unique medical staff and patient identification, and reacting HEPA air ventilation system in order to reduce the cost, save energy and prevent the prevalence of hospital-acquired infection. The system, reacting HEPA air ventilation system, contains RFID tags (for medical staffs and patients), sensor, and reacting system which receives the information regarding the number of medical staff and the status of the surgery, and controls the air volume of the HEPA air ventilation system accordingly. A pilot program was carried out in a unit of operation rooms of a medical center with 1,500 beds located in central Taiwan from Jan to Aug 2010. The results found the air ventilation system was able to function much more efficiently with less energy consumed. Furthermore, the indoor air quality could still keep qualified and hospital-acquired infection or other occupational diseases could be prevented.

  18. Recording and analysis of head movements, interaural level and time differences in rooms and real-world listening scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Alan W.; Whitmer, William M.; Akeroyd, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    The science of how we use interaural differences to localise sounds has been studied for over a century and in many ways is well understood. But in many of these psychophysical experiments listeners are required to keep their head still, as head movements cause changes in interaural level and time differences (ILD and ITD respectively). But a fixed head is unrealistic. Here we report an analysis of the actual ILDs and ITDs that occur as people naturally move and relate them to gyroscope measurements of the actual motion. We used recordings of binaural signals in a number of rooms and listening scenarios (home, office, busy street etc). The listener’s head movements were also recorded in synchrony with the audio, using a micro-electromechanical gyroscope. We calculated the instantaneous ILD and ITDs and analysed them over time and frequency, comparing them with measurements of head movements. The results showed that instantaneous ITDs were widely distributed across time and frequency in some multi-source environments while ILDs were less widely distributed. The type of listening environment affected head motion. These findings suggest a complex interaction between interaural cues, egocentric head movement and the identification of sound sources in real-world listening situations. PMID:26879280

  19. Emissions of indoor air pollutants from six user scenarios in a model room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höllbacher, Eva; Ters, Thomas; Rieder-Gradinger, Cornelia; Srebotnik, Ewald

    2017-02-01

    In this study six common user scenarios putatively influencing indoor air quality were performed in a model room constructed according to the specifications of the European Reference Room given in the new horizontal prestandard prEN 16516 to gain further information about the influence of user activities on indoor air quality. These scenarios included the use of cleaning agent, an electric air freshener, an ethanol fireplace and cosmetics as well as cigarette smoking and peeling of oranges. Four common indoor air pollutants were monitored: volatile organic compounds (VOC), particulate matter (PM), carbonyl compounds and CO2. The development of all pollutants was determined during and after the test performance. For each measured pollutant, well-defined maximum values could be assigned to one or more of the individual user scenarios. The highest VOC concentration was measured during orange-peeling reaching a maximum value of 3547 μg m-3. Carbonyl compounds and PM were strongly elevated while cigarette smoking. Here, a maximum formaldehyde concentration of 76 μg m-3 and PM concentration of 378 μg m-3 were measured. CO2 was only slightly affected by most of the tests except the use of the ethanol fireplace where a maximum concentration of 1612 ppm was reached. Generally, the user scenarios resulted in a distinct increase of several indoor pollutants that usually decreased rapidly after the removal of the source.

  20. [Evaluation of work environment in the flax textile industry. V. Air microflora in the flax spinning and flax weaving rooms].

    PubMed

    Gościcki, J; Włodarczyk, L; Bielichowska, G

    1980-01-01

    Microbiological air pollution in spinning and weaving rooms was determined by aspiration impinger using an aeroscop (Chirana, Czechoslovakia). The air samples were taken on Petri dishes with Bacto-broth-agar (Difco) or Bacto-blood-agar (Difco). After incubation at 37 degrees C for 24 h the number of bacterial or mould colonies and bacterial cells per 1 m3 of the air was calculated. The number of bacterial cells in flax spinning rooms ranged from 10.5 X 10(3) to 12,5 X 10(4), while in flax weaving rooms--from 2,4 X 10(3) to 10(4) per 1 m3 of air. In the examined samples of the air the bacterial pollution was found to dominate (45,1--95%). Gram-positive sporing bacteria were most frequently recognized. In the air of weaving rooms some moulds: Mucor sp., Circinella sp., Hormodendrum sp., Vetricillum sp., Aspergillus sp. and Penicillum sp. were also found (16.8--54%). It was observed that the microbiological air pollution in spinning and weaving rooms of flax industry was greater than in cotton industry. A wet technology of flax spinning promotes microbiological pollution in the air of this kind of workposts. A high level of mould cells in the air at workposts enhances the risk of workers' exposure to mycotoxins.

  1. MULTI - TRACER CONTROL ROOM AIR INLEAKAGE PROTOCOL AND SIMULATED PRIMARY AND EXTENDED MULTI - ZONE RESULTS.

    SciTech Connect

    DIETZ,R.N.

    2002-01-01

    The perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology can be applied simultaneously to the wide range in zonal flowrates (from tens of cfms in some Control Rooms to almost 1,000,000 cfm in Turbine Buildings), to achieve the necessary uniform tagging for subsequent determination of the desired air inleakage and outleakage from all zones surrounding a plant's Control Room (CR). New types of PFT sources (Mega sources) were devised and tested to handle the unusually large flowrates in a number of HVAC zones in power stations. A review of the plans of a particular nuclear power plant and subsequent simulations of the tagging and sampling results confirm that the technology can provide the necessary concentration measurement data to allow the important ventilation pathways involving the Control Room and its air flow communications with all adjacent zones to be quantitatively determined with minimal uncertainty. Depending on need, a simple single or 3-zone scheme (involving the Control Room alone or along with the Aux. Bldg. and Turbine Bldg.) or a more complex test involving up to 7 zones simultaneously can be accommodated with the current revisions to the technology; to test all the possible flow pathways, several different combinations of up to 7 zones would need to be run. The potential exists that for an appropriate investment, in about 2 years, it would be possible to completely evaluate an entire power plant in a single extended multizone test with up to 12 to 13 separate HVAC zones. With multiple samplers in the Control Room near each of the contiguous zones, not only will the prevalent inleakage or outleakage zones be documented, but the particular location of the pathway's room of ingress can be identified. The suggested protocol is to perform a 3-zone test involving the Control Room, Aux. Bldg., and Turbine Bldg. to (1) verify CR total inleakage and (2) proportion that inleakage to distinguish that from the other 2 major buildings and any remaining untagged locations

  2. Passive inhalation of marijuana smoke: urinalysis and room air levels of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, E.J.; Johnson, R.E.; Darwin, W.D.; Yousefnejad, D.; Mell, L.D.; Paul, B.D.; Mitchell, J.

    1987-05-01

    In two separate studies, 5 drug-free male volunteers with a history of marijuana use were passively exposed to the sidestream smoke of 4 and 16 marijuana cigarettes (2.8% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) for 1 h each day for 6 consecutive days. A third study was similarly performed with 2 marijuana-naive subjects passively exposed to the smoke of 16 marijuana cigarettes. Passive smoke exposure was conducted in a small, unventilated room. Room air levels of THC and CO were monitored frequently. All urine specimens were collected and analyzed by EMIT d.a.u. assay, Abuscreen radioimmunoassay and GC/MS. The studies show that significant amounts of THC were absorbed by all subjects at the higher level of passive smoke exposure (eg., smoke from 16 marijuana cigarettes), resulting in urinary excretion of significant amounts of cannabinoid metabolites. However, it seems improbable that subjects would unknowingly tolerate the noxious smoke conditions produced by this exposure. At the lower level of passive marijuana-smoke exposure, specimens tested positive only infrequently or were negative. Room air levels of THC during passive smoke exposure appeared to be the most critical factor in determining whether a subject produced cannabinoid-positive urine specimens.

  3. Indoor Chemical Exposures: Humans' Non-respiratory Interactions with Room Air

    ScienceCinema

    Charles Weschler

    2016-07-12

    March 18, 2010 Berkeley Lab Environmental Energy Technology Division distinguished lecture: The marked difference in pollutant concentrations between an occupied and un-occupied room are only partially explained by human bio-effluents. Humans alter levels of ozone and related oxidants such as nitrate and hydroxyl radicals in the rooms they inhabit; in effect, they change the oxidative capacity of room air. Ozone-initiated reactions on exposed skin, hair and clothing generate products, including potentially irritating chemicals whose concentrations are much higher in the occupant's breathing zone than in the core of the room. Charles J. Weschler is a Professor at the School of Public Health, the Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine and the Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI) at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ)/Robert Wood Johnson Medical School & Rutgers University (New Jersey). He is also a Visiting Professor at the International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark (DTU, Lyngby, Denmark).

  4. Surface exciton polaritons supported by a J-aggregate-dye/air interface at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Takatori, Kentaro; Okamoto, Takayuki; Ishibashi, Koji; Micheletto, Ruggero

    2017-10-01

    Surface exciton polaritons (SEPs) are very important for the realization of novel sensors and next-generation optical devices. Here we propose for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a Kretschmann-Raether device that is able to induce SEPs propagating along the interface between a J-aggregate cyanine dye and air at room temperature. This configuration has the advantages of being straightforward to realize and easy to study because the Kretschmann-Raether approach is the most simple and fundamental from the theoretical point of view. Here a J-aggregate cyanine dye produces strong binding energy due to Frenkel excitons, and this enables the observation of SEPs easily at room temperature. One of the advantages of the use of the J-aggregate cyanine dye is the simple device preparation. This is because the J-aggregate cyanine dye can be easily deposited on any arbitrary substrates with a spincoating or dip-coating technique from its aqueous solution in ambient condition. We observed SEPs at room temperature, and the deepest resonant peak was obtained for a 94 nm thick 5,6-dichloro-2-[[5,6-dichloro-1-ethyl-3-(4-sulfobutyl)-benzimidazol-2-ylidene]-propenyl]-1-ethyl-3-(4-sulfobutyl)-benzimidazolium hydroxide film at 532 nm wavelength. Our results may pave the way for the realization of novel SEP biosensors in a simple and straightforward way at room temperature.

  5. Indoor Chemical Exposures: Humans' Non-respiratory Interactions with Room Air

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Weschler

    2010-03-29

    March 18, 2010 Berkeley Lab Environmental Energy Technology Division distinguished lecture: The marked difference in pollutant concentrations between an occupied and un-occupied room are only partially explained by human bio-effluents. Humans alter levels of ozone and related oxidants such as nitrate and hydroxyl radicals in the rooms they inhabit; in effect, they change the oxidative capacity of room air. Ozone-initiated reactions on exposed skin, hair and clothing generate products, including potentially irritating chemicals whose concentrations are much higher in the occupant's breathing zone than in the core of the room. Charles J. Weschler is a Professor at the School of Public Health, the Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine and the Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI) at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ)/Robert Wood Johnson Medical School & Rutgers University (New Jersey). He is also a Visiting Professor at the International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark (DTU, Lyngby, Denmark).

  6. A Comparison between Temperature-Controlled Laminar Airflow Device and a Room Air-Cleaner in Reducing Exposure to Particles While Asleep

    PubMed Central

    Spilak, Michal P.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Takai, Hisamitsu; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    People spend approximately one third of their life sleeping. Exposure to pollutants in the sleep environment often leads to a variety of adverse health effects, such as development and exacerbation of asthma. Avoiding exposure to these pollutants by providing a sufficient air quality in the sleep environment might be a feasible method to alleviate these health symptoms. We performed full-scale laboratory measurements using a thermal manikin positioned on an experimental bed. Three ventilation settings were tested: with no filtration system operated, use of portable air cleaner and use of a temperature-controlled laminar airflow (TLA) device. The first part of the experiment investigated the air-flow characteristics in the breathing zone. In the second part, particle removal efficiency was estimated. Measured in the breathing zone, the room air cleaner demonstrated high turbulence intensity, high velocity and turbulence diffusivity level, with a particle reduction rate of 52% compared to baseline after 30 minutes. The TLA device delivered a laminar airflow to the breathing zone with a reduction rate of 99.5%. During a periodical duvet lifting mimicking a subject’s movement in bed, the particle concentration was significantly lower with the TLA device compared to the room air cleaner. The TLA device provided a barrier which significantly reduced the introduction of airborne particles into the breathing zone. Further studies should be conducted for the understanding of the transport of resuspended particles between the duvet and the laying body. PMID:27898693

  7. Definition and means of maintaining the room continuous air monitors portion of the plutonium finishing plant (PFP) safety envelope

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, W.F.

    1999-05-20

    Room Continuous Air Monitors (CAMs) are used in areas where there is potential for dispersible radioactive material. These CAMs provide audible and visual alarms to warn personnel of an increase in airborne radioactivity.

  8. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room...

  10. EXTRAN: A computer code for estimating concentrations of toxic substances at control room air intakes

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1991-03-01

    This report presents the NRC staff with a tool for assessing the potential effects of accidental releases of radioactive materials and toxic substances on habitability of nuclear facility control rooms. The tool is a computer code that estimates concentrations at nuclear facility control room air intakes given information about the release and the environmental conditions. The name of the computer code is EXTRAN. EXTRAN combines procedures for estimating the amount of airborne material, a Gaussian puff dispersion model, and the most recent algorithms for estimating diffusion coefficients in building wakes. It is a modular computer code, written in FORTRAN-77, that runs on personal computers. It uses a math coprocessor, if present, but does not require one. Code output may be directed to a printer or disk files. 25 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Upper-room ultraviolet light and negative air ionization to prevent tuberculosis transmission.

    PubMed

    Escombe, A Roderick; Moore, David A J; Gilman, Robert H; Navincopa, Marcos; Ticona, Eduardo; Mitchell, Bailey; Noakes, Catherine; Martínez, Carlos; Sheen, Patricia; Ramirez, Rocio; Quino, Willi; Gonzalez, Armando; Friedland, Jon S; Evans, Carlton A

    2009-03-17

    Institutional tuberculosis (TB) transmission is an important public health problem highlighted by the HIV/AIDS pandemic and the emergence of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant TB. Effective TB infection control measures are urgently needed. We evaluated the efficacy of upper-room ultraviolet (UV) lights and negative air ionization for preventing airborne TB transmission using a guinea pig air-sampling model to measure the TB infectiousness of ward air. For 535 consecutive days, exhaust air from an HIV-TB ward in Lima, Perú, was passed through three guinea pig air-sampling enclosures each housing approximately 150 guinea pigs, using a 2-d cycle. On UV-off days, ward air passed in parallel through a control animal enclosure and a similar enclosure containing negative ionizers. On UV-on days, UV lights and mixing fans were turned on in the ward, and a third animal enclosure alone received ward air. TB infection in guinea pigs was defined by monthly tuberculin skin tests. All guinea pigs underwent autopsy to test for TB disease, defined by characteristic autopsy changes or by the culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from organs. 35% (106/304) of guinea pigs in the control group developed TB infection, and this was reduced to 14% (43/303) by ionizers, and to 9.5% (29/307) by UV lights (both p < 0.0001 compared with the control group). TB disease was confirmed in 8.6% (26/304) of control group animals, and this was reduced to 4.3% (13/303) by ionizers, and to 3.6% (11/307) by UV lights (both p < 0.03 compared with the control group). Time-to-event analysis demonstrated that TB infection was prevented by ionizers (log-rank 27; p < 0.0001) and by UV lights (log-rank 46; p < 0.0001). Time-to-event analysis also demonstrated that TB disease was prevented by ionizers (log-rank 3.7; p = 0.055) and by UV lights (log-rank 5.4; p = 0.02). An alternative analysis using an airborne infection model demonstrated that ionizers prevented 60% of TB infection and 51% of TB

  12. Upper-Room Ultraviolet Light and Negative Air Ionization to Prevent Tuberculosis Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Escombe, A. Roderick; Moore, David A. J; Gilman, Robert H; Navincopa, Marcos; Ticona, Eduardo; Mitchell, Bailey; Noakes, Catherine; Martínez, Carlos; Sheen, Patricia; Ramirez, Rocio; Quino, Willi; Gonzalez, Armando; Friedland, Jon S; Evans, Carlton A

    2009-01-01

    Background Institutional tuberculosis (TB) transmission is an important public health problem highlighted by the HIV/AIDS pandemic and the emergence of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant TB. Effective TB infection control measures are urgently needed. We evaluated the efficacy of upper-room ultraviolet (UV) lights and negative air ionization for preventing airborne TB transmission using a guinea pig air-sampling model to measure the TB infectiousness of ward air. Methods and Findings For 535 consecutive days, exhaust air from an HIV-TB ward in Lima, Perú, was passed through three guinea pig air-sampling enclosures each housing approximately 150 guinea pigs, using a 2-d cycle. On UV-off days, ward air passed in parallel through a control animal enclosure and a similar enclosure containing negative ionizers. On UV-on days, UV lights and mixing fans were turned on in the ward, and a third animal enclosure alone received ward air. TB infection in guinea pigs was defined by monthly tuberculin skin tests. All guinea pigs underwent autopsy to test for TB disease, defined by characteristic autopsy changes or by the culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from organs. 35% (106/304) of guinea pigs in the control group developed TB infection, and this was reduced to 14% (43/303) by ionizers, and to 9.5% (29/307) by UV lights (both p < 0.0001 compared with the control group). TB disease was confirmed in 8.6% (26/304) of control group animals, and this was reduced to 4.3% (13/303) by ionizers, and to 3.6% (11/307) by UV lights (both p < 0.03 compared with the control group). Time-to-event analysis demonstrated that TB infection was prevented by ionizers (log-rank 27; p < 0.0001) and by UV lights (log-rank 46; p < 0.0001). Time-to-event analysis also demonstrated that TB disease was prevented by ionizers (log-rank 3.7; p = 0.055) and by UV lights (log-rank 5.4; p = 0.02). An alternative analysis using an airborne infection model demonstrated that ionizers prevented 60% of

  13. Concentration of dimethylnitrosamine in the air of smoke-filled rooms

    SciTech Connect

    Stehlik, G.; Richter, O.; Altmann, H.

    1982-12-01

    In order to evaluate the contribution of volatile nitrosamines from tobacco smoke to indoor air pollution, N-nitroso-dimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitroso-diethylamine (NDEA) were measured in indoor air under artificial and natural conditions. In controlled experiments under extreme conditions, we found that tobacco smoke-related NDMA levels above 0.07 ng/liter were associated with a highly irritating atmosphere which was scarcely tolerable to those present. In smoke-filled rooms under natural conditions NDMA levels ranged from 0.02 to 0.05 ng/liter except a minimum value of less than 0.01 ng/liter in a restaurant and a maximum of 0.07 ng/liter in a dancing bar. These NDMA levels are thus below comparable values reported by others. The NDMA/NDEA ratios found in air samples taken from some rooms under conditions of everyday life are quite different from those found in sidestream smoke of cigarettes. Irritation was not reported under natural conditions. From the results it is concluded that NDMA levels, measured under real life conditions, are usually not caused by tobacco smoke alone. Evidence for other sources of volatile nitrosamines is discussed.

  14. Air speed and velocity measurements in a room with a sidewall jet.

    PubMed

    Hurnik, M; Blaszczok, M; Popiolek, Z

    2015-12-01

    In mixing ventilation systems, diffusers are often located on side walls and supply quasi-free air jets above the occupied zone. The data presented in this paper shows a new CFD 3D benchmark with two well-defined characteristic zones in the room, i.e., the quasi-free jet zone and the occupied zone. Measurement methods adequate for air velocity and speed measurement were applied: laser Doppler anemometry for the axial velocity component in the jet and low velocity thermal anemometry for the air speed in the occupied zone. Measurements were performed in a physical scale model (1:5) of the room. The kinematic similarity criterion was fulfilled by the equality of the Reynolds numbers in the model and in the prototype. To identify boundary conditions, additional measurements were carried out in the inlet region (as close as possible to the supply opening). The CFD results validation and reporting methods applicable for the benchmark data are proposed in Hurnik et al. (2015) [1].

  15. [Detection of mite allergens in the dust of filter-net and air of air-conditioned room].

    PubMed

    Lian, Yu-yin; Liu, Zhi-gang; Wang, Hong-yu; Chai, Cheng-yu; Liu, Xiao-yu

    2007-08-01

    To detect mite allergens in the dust of air conditioner filter-net and floating air in room. Samples were collected from rooms of asthma patient and normal families with or without air conditioner. Der p1, Der f1 and Der 2 were determined by two monoclonal antibody-based ELISA. In asthma patient families, the concentration of airborne Der p1, Der f1 and Der 2 was (0.23 +/- 0.13), (2.62 +/- 1.08), (0.93 +/- 0.41) ng/m3, and (0.56 +/- 0.25), (4.74 +/- 1.22), (2.33 +/- 0.64) ng/m3 respectively before and after the air conditioner switched on, all showing a significant difference (P < 0.05). In families without asthma patient, the concentration of Der p1, Der f1 and Der 2 was (0.33 +/- 0.11), (11.50 +/- 3.08) and (2.10 +/- 0.80) ng/m3, and (0.63 +/- 0.23), (19.80 +/- 4.30) and (3.60 +/- 1.00) ng/m3 respectively before and after the air conditioner switched on, also showing a significant difference (P < 0.05). From the filter-net dust of air conditioner in family with allergic asthma patient, the concentration of Der p1, Der f1 and Der 2 was (0.52 +/- 0.19), (3.34 +/- 0.63), (2.53 +/- 0.65) microg/g dust, while that of normal families was (1.30 +/- 0.35), (5.16 +/- 0.92), (3.47 +/- 1.13) microg/g dust respectively. The concentration of Der f1 and Der 2 at both asthma families and normal families was higher than 2 microg/g, an allergen concentration threshold. Mite allergens exist in the filter-net dust of air conditioner, which may be an important source of indoor allergens and a cause of the increasing prevalence of allergic asthma.

  16. The Mycobiota of Air Inside and Outside the Meju Fermentation Room and the Origin of Meju Fungi.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Sun-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2015-09-01

    The fungi on Meju are known to play an important role as degrader of macromolecule of soybeans. In order to elucidate the origin of fungi on traditional Meju, mycobiota of the air both inside and outside traditional Meju fermentation rooms was examined. From 11 samples of air collected from inside and outside of 7 Meju fermentation rooms, 37 genera and 90 species of fungi were identified. In outside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp. and Cladosporium cladosporioides were the dominant species, followed by Cladosporium tenuissimum, Eurotium sp., Phoma sp., Sistotrema brinkmannii, Alternaria sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Schizophyllum commune, and Penicillium glabrum. In inside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium chrysogenum, Asp. nidulans, Aspergillus sp., Cla. cladosporioides, Eurotium sp., Penicillium sp., Cla. tenuissimum, Asp. niger, Eur. herbariorum, Asp. sydowii, and Eur. repens were collected with high frequency. The concentrations of the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium were significantly higher in inside air than outside air. From this result and those of previous reports, the origin of fungi present on Meju was inferred. Of the dominant fungal species present on Meju, Lichtheimia ramosa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor racemosus, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis are thought to be originated from outside air, because these species are not or are rarely isolated from rice straw and soybean; however, they were detected outside air of fermentation room and are species commonly found in indoor environments. However, Asp. oryzae, Pen. polonicum, Eur. repens, Pen. solitum, and Eur. chevalieri, which are frequently found on Meju, are common in rice straw and could be transferred from rice straw to Meju. The fungi grow and produce abundant spores during Meju fermentation, and after the spores accumulate in the air of fermentation room, they could influence mycobiota of Meju fermentation in the following

  17. The Mycobiota of Air Inside and Outside the Meju Fermentation Room and the Origin of Meju Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Sun-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The fungi on Meju are known to play an important role as degrader of macromolecule of soybeans. In order to elucidate the origin of fungi on traditional Meju, mycobiota of the air both inside and outside traditional Meju fermentation rooms was examined. From 11 samples of air collected from inside and outside of 7 Meju fermentation rooms, 37 genera and 90 species of fungi were identified. In outside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp. and Cladosporium cladosporioides were the dominant species, followed by Cladosporium tenuissimum, Eurotium sp., Phoma sp., Sistotrema brinkmannii, Alternaria sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Schizophyllum commune, and Penicillium glabrum. In inside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium chrysogenum, Asp. nidulans, Aspergillus sp., Cla. cladosporioides, Eurotium sp., Penicillium sp., Cla. tenuissimum, Asp. niger, Eur. herbariorum, Asp. sydowii, and Eur. repens were collected with high frequency. The concentrations of the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium were significantly higher in inside air than outside air. From this result and those of previous reports, the origin of fungi present on Meju was inferred. Of the dominant fungal species present on Meju, Lichtheimia ramosa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor racemosus, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis are thought to be originated from outside air, because these species are not or are rarely isolated from rice straw and soybean; however, they were detected outside air of fermentation room and are species commonly found in indoor environments. However, Asp. oryzae, Pen. polonicum, Eur. repens, Pen. solitum, and Eur. chevalieri, which are frequently found on Meju, are common in rice straw and could be transferred from rice straw to Meju. The fungi grow and produce abundant spores during Meju fermentation, and after the spores accumulate in the air of fermentation room, they could influence mycobiota of Meju fermentation in the following

  18. Forced-air warming: a source of airborne contamination in the operating room?

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Mark; Gauthier, Robert; Leaper, David

    2009-10-10

    Forced-air-warming (FAW) is an effective and widely used means for maintaining surgical normothermia, but FAW also has the potential to generate and mobilize airborne contamination in the operating room.We measured the emission of viable and non-viable forms of airborne contamination from an arbitrary selection of FAW blowers (n=25) in the operating room. A laser particle counter measured particulate concentrations of the air near the intake filter and in the distal hose airstream. Filtration efficiency was calculated as the reduction in particulate concentration in the distal hose airstream relative to that of the intake. Microbial colonization of the FAW blower's internal hose surfaces was assessed by culturing the microorganisms recovered through swabbing (n=17) and rinsing (n=9) techniques.Particle counting revealed that 24% of FAW blowers were emitting significant levels of internally generated airborne contamination in the 0.5 to 5.0 µm size range, evidenced by a steep decrease in FAW blower filtration efficiency for particles 0.5 to 5.0 µm in size. The particle size-range-specific reduction in efficiency could not be explained by the filtration properties of the intake filter. Instead, the reduction was found to be caused by size-range-specific particle generation within the FAW blowers. Microorganisms were detected on the internal air path surfaces of 94% of FAW blowers.The design of FAW blowers was found to be questionable for preventing the build-up of internal contamination and the emission of airborne contamination into the operating room. Although we did not evaluate the link between FAW and surgical site infection rates, a significant percentage of FAW blowers with positive microbial cultures were emitting internally generated airborne contamination within the size range of free floating bacteria and fungi (<4 µm) that could, conceivably, settle onto the surgical site.

  19. Forced-air warming: a source of airborne contamination in the operating room?

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Mark; Gauthier, Robert; Leaper, David

    2009-01-01

    Forced-air-warming (FAW) is an effective and widely used means for maintaining surgical normothermia, but FAW also has the potential to generate and mobilize airborne contamination in the operating room. We measured the emission of viable and non-viable forms of airborne contamination from an arbitrary selection of FAW blowers (n=25) in the operating room. A laser particle counter measured particulate concentrations of the air near the intake filter and in the distal hose airstream. Filtration efficiency was calculated as the reduction in particulate concentration in the distal hose airstream relative to that of the intake. Microbial colonization of the FAW blower's internal hose surfaces was assessed by culturing the microorganisms recovered through swabbing (n=17) and rinsing (n=9) techniques. Particle counting revealed that 24% of FAW blowers were emitting significant levels of internally generated airborne contamination in the 0.5 to 5.0 µm size range, evidenced by a steep decrease in FAW blower filtration efficiency for particles 0.5 to 5.0 µm in size. The particle size-range-specific reduction in efficiency could not be explained by the filtration properties of the intake filter. Instead, the reduction was found to be caused by size-range-specific particle generation within the FAW blowers. Microorganisms were detected on the internal air path surfaces of 94% of FAW blowers. The design of FAW blowers was found to be questionable for preventing the build-up of internal contamination and the emission of airborne contamination into the operating room. Although we did not evaluate the link between FAW and surgical site infection rates, a significant percentage of FAW blowers with positive microbial cultures were emitting internally generated airborne contamination within the size range of free floating bacteria and fungi (<4 µm) that could, conceivably, settle onto the surgical site. PMID:21808690

  20. Bifunctional Transition Metal Hydroxysulfides: Room-Temperature Sulfurization and Their Applications in Zn-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao-Fan; Tang, Cheng; Wang, Bin; Li, Bo-Quan; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-07-17

    Bifunctional electrocatalysis for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) constitutes the bottleneck of various sustainable energy devices and systems like rechargeable metal-air batteries. Emerging catalyst materials are strongly requested toward superior electrocatalytic activities and practical applications. In this study, transition metal hydroxysulfides are presented as bifunctional OER/ORR electrocatalysts for Zn-air batteries. By simply immersing Co-based hydroxide precursor into solution with high-concentration S(2-) , transition metal hydroxides convert to hydroxysulfides with excellent morphology preservation at room temperature. The as-obtained Co-based metal hydroxysulfides are with high intrinsic reactivity and electrical conductivity. The electron structure of the active sites is adjusted by anion modulation. The potential for 10 mA cm(-2) OER current density is 1.588 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), and the ORR half-wave potential is 0.721 V versus RHE, with a potential gap of 0.867 V for bifunctional oxygen electrocatalysis. The Co3 FeS1.5 (OH)6 hydroxysulfides are employed in the air electrode for a rechargeable Zn-air battery with a small overpotential of 0.86 V at 20.0 mA cm(-2) , a high specific capacity of 898 mAh g(-1) , and a long cycling life, which is much better than Pt and Ir-based electrocatalyst in Zn-air batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Institutional Tuberculosis Transmission. Controlled Trial of Upper Room Ultraviolet Air Disinfection: A Basis for New Dosing Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Mphaphlele, Matsie; Dharmadhikari, Ashwin S; Jensen, Paul A; Rudnick, Stephen N; van Reenen, Tobias H; Pagano, Marcello A; Leuschner, Wilhelm; Sears, Tim A; Milonova, Sonya P; van der Walt, Martie; Stoltz, Anton C; Weyer, Karin; Nardell, Edward A

    2015-08-15

    Transmission is driving the global tuberculosis epidemic, especially in congregate settings. Worldwide, natural ventilation is the most common means of air disinfection, but it is inherently unreliable and of limited use in cold climates. Upper room germicidal ultraviolet (UV) air disinfection with air mixing has been shown to be highly effective, but improved evidence-based dosing guidelines are needed. To test the efficacy of upper room germicidal air disinfection with air mixing to reduce tuberculosis transmission under real hospital conditions, and to define the application parameters responsible as a basis for proposed new dosing guidelines. Over an exposure period of 7 months, 90 guinea pigs breathed only untreated exhaust ward air, and another 90 guinea pigs breathed only air from the same six-bed tuberculosis ward on alternate days when upper room germicidal air disinfection was turned on throughout the ward. The tuberculin skin test conversion rates (>6 mm) of the two chambers were compared. The hazard ratio for guinea pigs in the control chamber converting their skin test to positive was 4.9 (95% confidence interval, 2.8-8.6), with an efficacy of approximately 80%. Upper room germicidal UV air disinfection with air mixing was highly effective in reducing tuberculosis transmission under hospital conditions. These data support using either a total fixture output (rather than electrical or UV lamp wattage) of 15-20 mW/m(3) total room volume, or an average whole-room UV irradiance (fluence rate) of 5-7 μW/cm(2), calculated by a lighting computer-assisted design program modified for UV use.

  2. Institutional Tuberculosis Transmission. Controlled Trial of Upper Room Ultraviolet Air Disinfection: A Basis for New Dosing Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Mphaphlele, Matsie; Dharmadhikari, Ashwin S.; Jensen, Paul A.; Rudnick, Stephen N.; van Reenen, Tobias H.; Pagano, Marcello A.; Leuschner, Wilhelm; Sears, Tim A.; Milonova, Sonya P.; van der Walt, Martie; Stoltz, Anton C.; Weyer, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Transmission is driving the global tuberculosis epidemic, especially in congregate settings. Worldwide, natural ventilation is the most common means of air disinfection, but it is inherently unreliable and of limited use in cold climates. Upper room germicidal ultraviolet (UV) air disinfection with air mixing has been shown to be highly effective, but improved evidence-based dosing guidelines are needed. Objectives: To test the efficacy of upper room germicidal air disinfection with air mixing to reduce tuberculosis transmission under real hospital conditions, and to define the application parameters responsible as a basis for proposed new dosing guidelines. Methods: Over an exposure period of 7 months, 90 guinea pigs breathed only untreated exhaust ward air, and another 90 guinea pigs breathed only air from the same six-bed tuberculosis ward on alternate days when upper room germicidal air disinfection was turned on throughout the ward. Measurements and Main Results: The tuberculin skin test conversion rates (>6 mm) of the two chambers were compared. The hazard ratio for guinea pigs in the control chamber converting their skin test to positive was 4.9 (95% confidence interval, 2.8–8.6), with an efficacy of approximately 80%. Conclusions: Upper room germicidal UV air disinfection with air mixing was highly effective in reducing tuberculosis transmission under hospital conditions. These data support using either a total fixture output (rather than electrical or UV lamp wattage) of 15–20 mW/m3 total room volume, or an average whole-room UV irradiance (fluence rate) of 5–7 μW/cm2, calculated by a lighting computer-assisted design program modified for UV use. PMID:25928547

  3. Modelling the impact of room temperature on concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Lyng, Nadja Lynge; Clausen, Per Axel; Lundsgaard, Claus; Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    2016-02-01

    Buildings contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a health concern for the building occupants. Inhalation exposure is linked to indoor air concentrations of PCBs, which are known to be affected by indoor temperatures. In this study, a highly PCB contaminated room was heated to six temperature levels between 20 and 30 C, i.e. within the normal fluctuation of indoor temperatures, while the air exchange rate was constant. The steady-state air concentrations of seven PCBs were determined at each temperature level. A model based on Clausius-Clapeyron equation, ln(P) = -ΔH/RT + a(0), where changes in steady-state air concentrations in relation to temperature, was tested. The model was valid for PCB-28, PCB-52 and PCB-101; the four other congeners were sporadic or non-detected. For each congener, the model described a large proportion (R(2)>94%) of the variation in indoor air PCB levels. The results showed that one measured concentration of PCB at a known steady-state temperature can be used to predict the steady-state concentrations at other temperatures under circumstances where e.g. direct sunlight does not influence temperatures and the air exchange rate is constant. The model was also tested on field data from a PCB remediation case in an apartment in another contaminated building complex where PCB concentrations and temperature were measured simultaneously and regularly throughout one year. The model fitted relatively well with the regression of measured PCB air concentrations, ln(P) vs. 1/T, at varying temperature between 16.3 and 28.2 °C, even though the measurements were carried out under uncontrolled environmental condition.

  4. Long duration tests of room air filters in cigarette smokers' homes.

    PubMed

    Batterman, Stuart; Godwin, Christopher; Jia, Chunrong

    2005-09-15

    Information regarding the long-term performance of stand-alone room airfilters is limited. In this study, laboratory and field tests were carried out to determine the effectiveness and performance of room filters that are easily deployed in essentially any type of house. Tests were conducted in houses containing strong PM sources, specifically cigarette smokers. Using commercially available four-speed HEPA filter units, we tested flow rate, pressure drop, and power consumption as a function of fan speed and filter loading. Filters were then deployed in four single-family homes over a 2 month period. Between 15 and 40 cigarettes were smoked daily by several smokers in each home. Occupants were instructed to continuously operate the unit at one of the higher speeds. Periodically, we monitored filter usage, fan speed, particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, PM number concentrations, volatile organic compound (VOC) levels, and other parameters with the filter fan operating and with filters both installed and removed. The filters decreased PM concentrations by 30-70%, depending on size fraction and occupant activities, and significantly reduced the half-life of PM3-1.0. The half-life of 1-5 microm particles, CO2 concentrations, and VOC concentrations, including 2,5-dimethyl furan (a tracer for environmental tobacco smoke), did not change, indicating that occupancy and cigarette smoking intensity did not change overthe monitoring periods. Occupants generally kept the filters operating at a moderate speed. Filter air flow rates decreased 7-14% with extended operation, largely due to the loading of prefilters. Air exchange rates, deposition loss rates, and clean air delivery rates were estimated from the field data. Continuous operation at an intermediate fan speed would incur a total annualized cost of $236. While acceptance of the filters was very high, occupants might benefit from instructions and reminders to clean the prefilter and to keep the unit on. We

  5. Large Eddy Simulation of Air Escape through a Hospital Isolation Room Single Hinged Doorway—Validation by Using Tracer Gases and Simulated Smoke Videos

    PubMed Central

    Saarinen, Pekka E.; Kalliomäki, Petri; Tang, Julian W.; Koskela, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    The use of hospital isolation rooms has increased considerably in recent years due to the worldwide outbreaks of various emerging infectious diseases. However, the passage of staff through isolation room doors is suspected to be a cause of containment failure, especially in case of hinged doors. It is therefore important to minimize inadvertent contaminant airflow leakage across the doorway during such movements. To this end, it is essential to investigate the behavior of such airflows, especially the overall volume of air that can potentially leak across the doorway during door-opening and human passage. Experimental measurements using full-scale mock-ups are expensive and labour intensive. A useful alternative approach is the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling using a time-resolved Large Eddy Simulation (LES) method. In this study simulated air flow patterns are qualitatively compared with experimental ones, and the simulated total volume of air that escapes is compared with the experimentally measured volume. It is shown that the LES method is able to reproduce, at room scale, the complex transient airflows generated during door-opening/closing motions and the passage of a human figure through the doorway between two rooms. This was a basic test case that was performed in an isothermal environment without ventilation. However, the advantage of the CFD approach is that the addition of ventilation airflows and a temperature difference between the rooms is, in principle, a relatively simple task. A standard method to observe flow structures is dosing smoke into the flow. In this paper we introduce graphical methods to simulate smoke experiments by LES, making it very easy to compare the CFD simulation to the experiments. The results demonstrate that the transient CFD simulation is a promising tool to compare different isolation room scenarios without the need to construct full-scale experimental models. The CFD model is able to reproduce

  6. Large Eddy Simulation of Air Escape through a Hospital Isolation Room Single Hinged Doorway--Validation by Using Tracer Gases and Simulated Smoke Videos.

    PubMed

    Saarinen, Pekka E; Kalliomäki, Petri; Tang, Julian W; Koskela, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    The use of hospital isolation rooms has increased considerably in recent years due to the worldwide outbreaks of various emerging infectious diseases. However, the passage of staff through isolation room doors is suspected to be a cause of containment failure, especially in case of hinged doors. It is therefore important to minimize inadvertent contaminant airflow leakage across the doorway during such movements. To this end, it is essential to investigate the behavior of such airflows, especially the overall volume of air that can potentially leak across the doorway during door-opening and human passage. Experimental measurements using full-scale mock-ups are expensive and labour intensive. A useful alternative approach is the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling using a time-resolved Large Eddy Simulation (LES) method. In this study simulated air flow patterns are qualitatively compared with experimental ones, and the simulated total volume of air that escapes is compared with the experimentally measured volume. It is shown that the LES method is able to reproduce, at room scale, the complex transient airflows generated during door-opening/closing motions and the passage of a human figure through the doorway between two rooms. This was a basic test case that was performed in an isothermal environment without ventilation. However, the advantage of the CFD approach is that the addition of ventilation airflows and a temperature difference between the rooms is, in principle, a relatively simple task. A standard method to observe flow structures is dosing smoke into the flow. In this paper we introduce graphical methods to simulate smoke experiments by LES, making it very easy to compare the CFD simulation to the experiments. The results demonstrate that the transient CFD simulation is a promising tool to compare different isolation room scenarios without the need to construct full-scale experimental models. The CFD model is able to reproduce

  7. Nocturnal oxygen enrichment of room air at 3800 meter altitude improves sleep architecture.

    PubMed

    Barash, I A; Beatty, C; Powell, F L; Prisk, G K; West, J B

    2001-01-01

    Sleep is known to be impaired at high altitude, and this may be a factor contributing to reduced work efficiency, general malaise, and the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). Nocturnal room oxygen enrichment at 3800 m has been shown to reduce the time spent in periodic breathing and the number of apneas, to improve subjective quality of sleep, and to reduce the AMS score. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of oxygen enrichment to 24% at 3800 m (lowering the equivalent altitude to 2800 m) on sleep architecture. Full polysomnography and actigraphy were performed on 12 subjects who ascended in 1 day to 3800 m and slept in a specially constructed room that allowed oxygen enrichment or ambient air conditions in a randomized, crossover, double-blind study. The results showed that subjects spent a significantly greater percentage of time in deep sleep (stages III and IV combined, or slow wave sleep) with oxygen enrichment versus ambient air (17.2 +/- 10.0% and 13.9 +/- 6.7%, respectively; p < 0.05 in paired analysis). No differences between treatments were seen with subjective assessments of sleep quality or with subject's assessment of the extent to which they suffered from AMS. This study provides further objective evidence of improved sleep as a result of oxygen enrichment at 3800 m and suggests that alleviating hypoxia may improve sleep quality.

  8. Use of Recirculating Ventilation with Dust Filtration to Improve Wintertime Air Quality in a Swine Farrowing Room

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, T. Renée; Altmaier, Ralph; Jones, Samuel; Gassman, Rich; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a recirculating ventilation system with dust filtration was evaluated to determine its effectiveness to improve the air quality in a swine farrowing room of a concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO). Air was exhausted from the room (0.47 m3sec−1; 1000 cfm), treated with a filtration unit (Shaker-Dust Collector), and returned to the farrowing room to reduce dust concentrations while retaining heat necessary for livestock health. The air quality in the room was assessed over a winter, during which time limited fresh air is traditionally brought into the building. Over the study period, dust concentrations ranged from 0.005 to 0.31 mg m−3 (respirable) and 0.17 to 2.09 mg m−3 (inhalable). In-room dust concentrations were reduced (41% for respirable and 33% for inhalable) with the system in operation, while gas concentrations (ammonia [NH3], hydrogen sulfide [H2S], carbon monoxide [CO], carbon dioxide [CO2]) were unchanged. The position of the exhaust and return air systems provided reasonably uniform contaminant distributions, although the respirable dust concentrations nearest one of the exhaust ducts was statistically higher than other locations in the room, with differences averaging only 0.05 mg m−3. Throughout the study, CO2 concentrations consistently exceeded 1540 ppm (industry recommendations) and on eight of the 18 study days it exceeded 2500 ppm (50% of the ACGIH TLV), with significantly higher concentrations near a door to a temperature-controlled hallway that was typically often left open. Alternative heaters are recommended to reduce CO2 concentrations in the room. Contaminant concentrations were modeled using production and environmental factors, with NH3 related to the number of sow in the room and outdoor temperatures and CO2 related to the number of piglets and outdoor temperatures. The recirculating ventilation system provided dust reduction without increasing concentrations of hazardous gases. PMID:25950713

  9. Use of Recirculating Ventilation With Dust Filtration to Improve Wintertime Air Quality in a Swine Farrowing Room.

    PubMed

    Anthony, T Renée; Altmaier, Ralph; Jones, Samuel; Gassman, Rich; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    The performance of a recirculating ventilation system with dust filtration was evaluated to determine its effectiveness to improve the air quality in a swine farrowing room of a concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO). Air was exhausted from the room (0.47 m(3) sec(-1); 1000 cfm), treated with a filtration unit (Shaker-Dust Collector), and returned to the farrowing room to reduce dust concentrations while retaining heat necessary for livestock health. The air quality in the room was assessed over a winter, during which time limited fresh air is traditionally brought into the building. Over the study period, dust concentrations ranged from 0.005-0.31 mg m(-3) (respirable) and 0.17-2.09 mg m(-3) (inhalable). In-room dust concentrations were reduced (41% for respirable and 33% for inhalable) with the system in operation, while gas concentrations (ammonia [NH3], hydrogen sulfide [H2S], carbon monoxide [CO], carbon dioxide [CO2]) were unchanged. The position of the exhaust and return air systems provided reasonably uniform contaminant distributions, although the respirable dust concentrations nearest one of the exhaust ducts was statistically higher than other locations in the room, with differences averaging only 0.05 mg m(-3). Throughout the study, CO2 concentrations consistently exceeded 1540 ppm (industry recommendations) and on eight of the 18 study days it exceeded 2500 ppm (50% of the ACGIH TLV), with significantly higher concentrations near a door to a temperature-controlled hallway that was typically often left open. Alternative heaters are recommended to reduce CO2 concentrations in the room. Contaminant concentrations were modeled using production and environmental factors, with NH3 related to the number of sow in the room and outdoor temperatures and CO2 related to the number of piglets and outdoor temperatures. The recirculating ventilation system provided dust reduction without increasing concentrations of hazardous gases.

  10. Randomized controlled trial of discontinuation of nasal-CPAP in stable preterm infants breathing room air.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hady, H; Mohareb, S; Khashaba, M; Abu-Alkhair, M; Greisen, G

    1998-01-01

    This trial assessed the consequences of discontinuation of nasal-CPAP in stable preterm infants breathing room air. Eighty-eight infants with a mean gestational age of 29 (24-33) weeks and a mean birthweight of 1264 (665-2060)g, randomized to either discontinuation of CPAP or its continuation, were clinically observed and monitored for 6 h by cardiorespiratory monitor, pulse oximeter and transcutaneous blood gas monitor. The abdominal circumference and gastric air and aspirate volumes were measured prior to meals at trial entry and after 6 h. Discontinuation of CPAP led to a small but significant decrease in oxygenation at 1 and 6 h. During the trial, five infants in the experimental group required supplemental oxygen and one infant was put back on CPAP owing to excessive apnoeas. Discontinuation of CPAP did not influence the TcPCO2 or the number of apnoeas and bradycardias during the trial, but led to significantly increased respiratory rate, retractions, and flaring at 6 h. It also led to a significant decrease in the abdominal circumference and gastric air volume. Thirty-nine percent of infants were put back on CPAP some time after the trial, mainly because of recurrent apnoeas and bradycardias. Taking the infant off CPAP during the trial reduced subsequent use of CPAP.

  11. A study of the air movement in two aircraft-engine cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W

    1940-01-01

    Studies were made of the air movements in the NACA glass-cylinder apparatus using cylinder heads similar to those on the Wright R-1820-G engine and the Pratt & Whitney Wasp engine as modified by the Eclipse Aviation Corporation to use fuel-injection equipment. The air movements were made visible by mixing small feathers with the air; high-speed motion pictures were than taken of the feathers as they swirled about the inside the glass cylinder. The test engine speeds were 350, 500, and 1,000 r.p.m. Motion pictures were also taken of gasoline sprays injected into the cylinder during the intake stroke. The air flow produced by each cylinder head is described and some results of the velocity measurements of feathers are presented. The apparent time intervals required for vaporization of the gasoline sprays are also given.

  12. Performance Improvement of R 410A Room Air Conditioner by Vapor Injection Refrigeration Cycle Using Scroll Compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Daisaka, Hisashi; Yokoyama, Hidenori; Nonaka, Masayuki; Saito, Kiyoshi

    The vapor injection refrigeration cycle using the scroll compressor driven by inverter was investigated to improve the performance of room air conditioner with R 410A. One injection hole was bored on a fixed scroll plate, and through this hole the vapor refrigeration is injected into two compression rooms of a scroll compressor at different time. Then the pressure change of the compression room and the performance of vapor injection refrigeration cycle are calculated. And the performance of the room air conditioner using vapor injection refrigeration cycle was measured. As the result, the cooling/heating compressor input was decreased to 7.4/3.2 % at capacity 4.0/5.9 kW, and the heating capacity at outdoor temperature -15 °C was increased to 11.9 %.

  13. Thermal comfort, perceived air quality, and cognitive performance when personally controlled air movement is used by tropically acclimatized persons.

    PubMed

    Schiavon, S; Yang, B; Donner, Y; Chang, V W-C; Nazaroff, W W

    2017-05-01

    In a warm and humid climate, increasing the temperature set point offers considerable energy benefits with low first costs. Elevated air movement generated by a personally controlled fan can compensate for the negative effects caused by an increased temperature set point. Fifty-six tropically acclimatized persons in common Singaporean office attire (0.7 clo) were exposed for 90 minutes to each of five conditions: 23, 26, and 29°C and in the latter two cases with and without occupant-controlled air movement. Relative humidity was maintained at 60%. We tested thermal comfort, perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms, and cognitive performance. We found that thermal comfort, perceived air quality, and sick building syndrome symptoms are equal or better at 26°C and 29°C than at the common set point of 23°C if a personally controlled fan is available for use. The best cognitive performance (as indicated by task speed) was obtained at 26°C; at 29°C, the availability of an occupant-controlled fan partially mitigated the negative effect of the elevated temperature. The typical Singaporean indoor air temperature set point of 23°C yielded the lowest cognitive performance. An elevated set point in air-conditioned buildings augmented with personally controlled fans might yield benefits for reduced energy use and improved indoor environmental quality in tropical climates. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Adaptation of the tear film to work in air-conditioned rooms (office-eye syndrome).

    PubMed

    Sommer, H J; Johnen, J; Schöngen, P; Stolze, H H

    1994-11-01

    To detect mechanisms of tear-film adaptation to a dry climate, we investigated co-workers in our hospital with air-conditioned rooms. Three groups were formed according to the time of occupancy (6 months to 2 years, 2-4 years, and 4-6 years) and were compared with a control group. The number of patients with frequent dry-eye complaints increased up to 48%, reaching a steady state after 2-4 years. The breakup time was slightly reduced (decrease, 17.5%; P < 0.01) and also reached a steady state after 2-4 years. The tear-ferning test, however, showed a highly significant improvement (P < 0.01). A slight reduction in the Schirmer test was found. Our study indicates that improved tear quality is important for adaptation to long-standing increased evaporation of the tear film.

  15. Simulation of effects of direction and air flow speed on temperature distribution in the room covered by various roof materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sukanto, H. Budiana, E. P. Putra, B. H. H.

    2016-03-29

    The objective of this research is to get a comparison of the distribution of the room temperature by using three materials, namely plastic-rubber composite, clay, and asbestos. The simulation used Ansys Fluent to get the temperature distribution. There were two conditions in this simulations, first the air passing beside the room and second the air passing in front of the room. Each condition will be varied with the air speed of 1 m/s, 2 m/s, 3 m/s, 4 m/s, 5 m/s for each material used. There are three heat transfers in this simulation, namely radiation, convection, and conduction. Based on the ANSI/ ASHRAE Standard 55-2004, the results of the simulation showed that the best temperature distribution was the roof of plastic-rubber composites.

  16. Simulation of effects of direction and air flow speed on temperature distribution in the room covered by various roof materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukanto, H.; Budiana, E. P.; Putra, B. H. H.

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this research is to get a comparison of the distribution of the room temperature by using three materials, namely plastic-rubber composite, clay, and asbestos. The simulation used Ansys Fluent to get the temperature distribution. There were two conditions in this simulations, first the air passing beside the room and second the air passing in front of the room. Each condition will be varied with the air speed of 1 m/s, 2 m/s, 3 m/s, 4 m/s, 5 m/s for each material used. There are three heat transfers in this simulation, namely radiation, convection, and conduction. Based on the ANSI/ ASHRAE Standard 55-2004, the results of the simulation showed that the best temperature distribution was the roof of plastic-rubber composites.

  17. Air pollution and emergency room admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A 5-year study

    SciTech Connect

    Sunyer, J.; Saez, M.; Murillo, C.; Castellsague, J.; Martinez, F.; Anto, J.M. )

    1993-04-01

    An association between sulfur dioxide levels in urban air and the daily number of emergency room admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was previously reported in Barcelona, Spain, for the period 1985-1986. The present study assesses this association over a longer period of time, 1985-1989. This made it possible to carry out separate analyses for the winter and summer seasons and thus to control more adequately for weather and influenza epidemics. An increase of 25 micrograms/m3 in sulfur dioxide (24-hour average) produced adjusted changes of 6% and 9% in emergency room admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during winter and summer, respectively. For black smoke, a similar change was found during winter, although the change was smaller in summer. The association of each pollutant with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admissions remained significant after control for the other pollutant. The present findings support the conclusion that current levels of sulfur dioxide and black smoke may have an effect on the respiratory health of susceptible persons.

  18. Meta-analysis: the use of carbon dioxide insufflation vs. room air insufflation for gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, W L; Wu, Z H; Sun, Q; Wei, J F; Chen, X F; Zhou, D K; Zhou, L; Xie, H Y; Zheng, S S

    2012-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) insufflation has been proposed as an alternative to air insufflation to distend the lumen in gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. To perform a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which CO(2) insufflation was compared with room air insufflation in GI endoscopy. Electronic and manual searches were combined to search RCTs. After methodological quality assessment and data extraction, the efficacy and safety of CO(2) insufflation were systematically assessed. Twenty-one RCTs [13 on colonoscopy, four on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), two on double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE), one on oesophagogastroduodenoscopy, and one on flexible sigmoidoscopy] were identified. For colonoscopy, CO(2) insufflation resulted lower postprocedural pain intensity, and increased the proportion of patient without pain at 1 h (RR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.37-2.47) and 6 h (RR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.14-1.44) postprocedure. For ERCP, the pain-releasing effect of CO(2) insufflation was not obvious (SMD: -1.48, 95% CI: -3.56, 0.59). CO(2) insufflation revealed no consistent advantages in the RCTs of DBE, but was shown as safe as air insufflation in oesophagus/stomach endoscopic submucosal dissection in one study. pCO(2) level showed no significant variation during these procedures. Compared with air insufflation, CO(2) insufflation during colonoscopy causes lower postprocedural pain and bowel distension without significant pCO(2) variation. More RCTs are needed to assess its advantages in other GI endoscopic procedures. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Air pollution, aeroallergens and admissions to pediatric emergency room for respiratory reasons in Turin, northwestern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bono, Roberto; Romanazzi, Valeria; Bellisario, Valeria; Tassinari, Roberta; Trucco, Giulia; Urbino, Antonio; Cassardo, Claudio; Siniscalco, Consolata; Marchetti, Pierpaolo; Marcon, Alessandro

    2016-08-05

    Air pollution can cause respiratory symptoms or exacerbate pre-existing respiratory diseases, especially in children. This study looked at the short-term association of air pollution concentrations with Emergency Room (ER) admissions for respiratory reasons in pediatric age (0-18 years). Daily number of ER admissions in a children's Hospital, concentrations of urban-background PM2.5, NO2, O3 and total aeroallergens (Corylaceae, Cupressaceae, Gramineae, Urticaceae, Ambrosia, Betula) were collected in Turin, northwestern Italy, for the period 1/08/2008 to 31/12/2010 (883 days). The associations between exposures and ER admissions were estimated, at time lags between 0 and 5 days, using generalized linear Poisson regression models, adjusted for non-meteorological potential confounders. In the study period, 21,793 ER admissions were observed, mainly (81 %) for upper respiratory tract infections. Median air pollution concentrations were 22.0, 42.5, 34.1 μg/m(3) for urban-background PM2.5, NO2, and O3, respectively, and 2.9 grains/m(3) for aeroallergens. We found that ER admissions increased by 1.3 % (95 % CI: 0.3-2.2 %) five days after a 10 μg/m(3) increase in NO2, and by 0.7 % (95 % CI: 0.1-1.2 %) one day after a 10 grains/m(3) increase in aeroallergens, while they were not associated with PM2.5 concentrations. ER admissions were negatively associated with O3 and aeroallergen concentrations at some time lags, but these association shifted to the null when meteorological confounders were adjusted for in the models. Overall, these findings confirm adverse short-term health effects of air pollution on the risk of ER admission in children and encourage a careful management of the urban environment to health protection.

  20. Tuneable polaritonics at room temperature with strongly coupled Tamm plasmon polaritons in metal/air-gap microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, C.; Coulson, C.; Christmann, G.; Farrer, I.; Beere, H. E.; Ritchie, D. A.; Baumberg, J. J.

    2011-06-01

    We report strong coupling between Tamm plasmons and excitons in III-V quantum wells at room temperature in ultracompact sample designs. A high refractive index contrast air-gap mirror together with optical Tamm states at a metal/semiconductor interface tightly confines the intracavity field leading to substantial local field enhancements. Angular-resolved reflectivity spectra give clear evidence for anticrossing in the dispersion relation. Room temperature Rabi splittings of 10 meV are found in excellent agreement with simulations. Electrical control of the polariton modes is realized without need for doped mirror layers. Such air-gap microcavities open innovative possibilites for electrically tunable microcavities and polaritonic microelectromechanics.

  1. Benefits of Leapfrogging to Superefficiency and Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants in Room Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Nihar K.; Wei, Max; Letschert, Virginie; Phadke, Amol A.

    2015-10-01

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emitted from uses such as refrigerants and thermal insulating foam, are now the fastest growing greenhouse gases (GHGs), with global warming potentials (GWP) thousands of times higher than carbon dioxide (CO2). Because of the short lifetime of these molecules in the atmosphere,1 mitigating the amount of these short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) provides a faster path to climate change mitigation than control of CO2 alone. This has led to proposals from Africa, Europe, India, Island States, and North America to amend the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) to phase-down high-GWP HFCs. Simultaneously, energy efficiency market transformation programs such as standards, labeling and incentive programs are endeavoring to improve the energy efficiency for refrigeration and air conditioning equipment to provide life cycle cost, energy, GHG, and peak load savings. In this paper we provide an estimate of the magnitude of such GHG and peak electric load savings potential, for room air conditioning, if the refrigerant transition and energy efficiency improvement policies are implemented either separately or in parallel.

  2. Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lynda S.

    This document summarizes 20 articles and books which stress the importance of movement in the overall development of the human species. Each summary ranges in length from 100 to 200 words and often includes direct quotations. A wide range of movement activities suitable for people of all ages (from infants to adults) are discussed. Many summaries…

  3. Disinfection of indoor air microorganisms in stack room of university library using gaseous chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ching-Shan; Lu, Ming-Chun; Huang, Da-Ji

    2015-02-01

    As with all indoor public spaces in Taiwan, the stack rooms in public libraries should meet the air quality guidelines laid down by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration. Accordingly, utilizing a university library in Taiwan for experimental purposes, this study investigates the efficiency of gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as a disinfection agent when applied using three different treatment modes, namely a single-daily disinfection mode (SIM), a twice-daily disinfection mode (TWM), and a triple-daily disinfection mode (TRM). For each treatment mode, the ClO2 is applied using an ultrasonic aerosol device and is performed both under natural lighting conditions and under artificial lighting conditions. The indoor air quality is evaluated before and after each treatment session by measuring the bioaerosol levels of bacteria and fungi. The results show that for all three disinfection modes, the application of ClO2 reduces the indoor bacteria and fungi concentrations to levels lower than those specified by the Taiwan EPA (i.e., bacteria <1500 CFU/m(3), fungi <1000 CFU/m(3)), irrespective of the lighting conditions under which the disinfection process is performed. For each disinfection mode, a better disinfection efficiency is obtained under natural lighting conditions since ClO2 readily decomposes under strong luminance levels. Among the three treatment modes, the disinfection efficiencies of the TWM and TRM modes are very similar under natural lighting conditions and are significantly better than that of the SIM mode. Thus, overall, the results suggest that the TWM treatment protocol represents the most cost-effective and efficient method for meeting the indoor air quality requirements of the Taiwan EPA.

  4. Analysis of in-air movement in handwriting: A novel marker for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Drotár, Peter; Mekyska, Jiří; Rektorová, Irena; Masarová, Lucia; Smékal, Zdenek; Faundez-Zanuy, Marcos

    2014-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease affecting significant portion of elderly population. One of the most frequent hallmarks and usually also the first manifestation of PD is deterioration of handwriting characterized by micrographia and changes in kinematics of handwriting. There is no objective quantitative method of clinical diagnosis of PD. It is thought that PD can only be definitively diagnosed at postmortem, which further highlights the complexities of diagnosis. We exploit the fact that movement during handwriting of a text consists not only from the on-surface movements of the hand, but also from the in-air trajectories performed when the hand moves in the air from one stroke to the next. We used a digitizing tablet to assess both in-air and on-surface kinematic variables during handwriting of a sentence in 37 PD patients on medication and 38 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. By applying feature selection algorithms and support vector machine learning methods to separate PD patients from healthy controls, we demonstrated that assessing the in-air/on-surface hand movements led to accurate classifications in 84% and 78% of subjects, respectively. Combining both modalities improved the accuracy by another 1% over the evaluation of in-air features alone and provided medically relevant diagnosis with 85.61% prediction accuracy. Assessment of in-air movements during handwriting has a major impact on disease classification accuracy. This study confirms that handwriting can be used as a marker for PD and can be with advance used in decision support systems for differential diagnosis of PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Well-Mixed Computational Model for Estimating Room Air Levels of Selected Constituents from E-Vapor Product Use

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Ali A.; Pithawalla, Yezdi B.; Liu, Jianmin; Oldham, Michael J.; Wagner, Karl A.; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Sarkar, Mohamadi A.

    2016-01-01

    Concerns have been raised in the literature for the potential of secondhand exposure from e-vapor product (EVP) use. It would be difficult to experimentally determine the impact of various factors on secondhand exposure including, but not limited to, room characteristics (indoor space size, ventilation rate), device specifications (aerosol mass delivery, e-liquid composition), and use behavior (number of users and usage frequency). Therefore, a well-mixed computational model was developed to estimate the indoor levels of constituents from EVPs under a variety of conditions. The model is based on physical and thermodynamic interactions between aerosol, vapor, and air, similar to indoor air models referred to by the Environmental Protection Agency. The model results agree well with measured indoor air levels of nicotine from two sources: smoking machine-generated aerosol and aerosol exhaled from EVP use. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increasing air exchange rate reduces room air level of constituents, as more material is carried away. The effect of the amount of aerosol released into the space due to variability in exhalation was also evaluated. The model can estimate the room air level of constituents as a function of time, which may be used to assess the level of non-user exposure over time. PMID:27537903

  6. Techno-Economic Analysis of Indian Draft Standard Levels for RoomAir Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2007-03-01

    The Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) finalized its first set of efficiency standards and labels for room air conditioners in July of 2006. These regulations followed soon after the publication of levels for frost-free refrigerators in the same year. As in the case of refrigerators, the air conditioner program introduces Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) and comparative labels simultaneously, with levels for one to five stars. Also like the refrigerator program, BEE defined several successive program phases of increasing stringency. In support of BEE's refrigerator program, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) produced an analysis of national impacts of standards in collaboration with the Collaborative Labeling and Standards Program (CLASP). That analysis drew on LBNL's experience with standards programs in the United States, as well as many other countries. Subsequently, as part of the process for setting optimal levels for air conditioner regulations, CLASP commissioned LBNL to provide support to BEE in the form of a techno-economic evaluation of air conditioner efficiency technologies. This report describes the methodology and results of this techno-economic evaluation. The analysis consists of three components: (1) Cost effectiveness to consumers of efficiency technologies relative to current baseline. (2) Impacts on the current market from efficiency regulations. (3) National energy and financial impacts. The analysis relied on detailed and up-to-date technical data made available by BEE and industry representatives. Technical parameters were used in conjunction with knowledge about air conditioner use patterns in the residential and commercial sectors, and prevailing marginal electricity prices, in order to give an estimate of per-unit financial impacts. In addition, the overall impact of the program was evaluated by combining unit savings with market forecasts in order to yield national impacts. LBNL presented preliminary results

  7. High Pressure Air Jet in the Endoscopic Preparation Room: Risk of Noise Exposure on Occupational Health

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lung-Sheng; Wu, Cheng-Kun

    2015-01-01

    After high-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscopes, they are hung to dry in order to prevent residual water droplets impact on patient health. To allow for quick drying and clinical reuse, some endoscopic units use a high pressure air jet (HPAJ) to remove the water droplets on the endoscopes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the excessive noise exposure with the use of HPAJ in endoscopic preparation room and to investigate the risk to occupational health. Noise assessment was taken during 7 automatic endoscopic reprocessors (AERs) and combined with/without HPAJ use over an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA). Analytical procedures of the NIOSH and the ISO for noise-induced hearing loss were estimated to develop analytic models. The peak of the noise spectrum of combined HPAJ and 7 AERs was significantly higher than that of the 7 AERs alone (108.3 ± 1.36 versus 69.3 ± 3.93 dBA, P < 0.0001). The risk of hearing loss (HL > 2.5 dB) was 2.15% at 90 dBA, 11.6% at 95 dBA, and 51.3% at 100 dBA. The odds ratio was 49.1 (95% CI: 11.9 to 203.6). The noise generated by the HPAJ to work over TWA seriously affected the occupational health and safety of those working in an endoscopic preparation room. PMID:25710009

  8. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. F...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. F...

  10. The Design of Research Laboratories. Part I: A General Assessment. Part II: Air Conditioning and Conditioned Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legget, R. F.; Hutcheon, N. B.

    Design factors in the planning of research laboratories are described which include--(1) location, (2) future expansion, (3) internal flexibility, (4) provision of services, (5) laboratory furnishing, (6) internal traffic, (7) space requirements, and (8) building costs. A second part discusses air-conditioning and conditioned rooms--(1)…

  11. Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on movement: movable art, relocating families, human rights, and trains and cars. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books, additional resources and activities (PEN)

  12. Performance Optimization of Alternative Lower Global Warming Potential Refrigerants in Mini-Split Room Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S

    2017-01-01

    Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) recently conducted extensive laboratory, drop-in investigations for lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerants to replace R-22 and R-410A. ORNL studied propane, DR-3, ARM-20B, N-20B and R-444B as lower GWP refrigerant replacement for R-22 in a mini-split room air conditioner (RAC) originally designed for R-22; and, R-32, DR-55, ARM-71A, and L41-2, in a mini-split RAC designed for R-410A. We obtained laboratory testing results with very good energy balance and nominal measurement uncertainty. Drop-in studies are not enough to judge the overall performance of the alternative refrigerants since their thermodynamic and transport properties might favor different heat exchanger configurations, e.g. cross-flow, counter flow, etc. This study compares optimized performances of individual refrigerants using a physics-based system model tools. The DOE/ORNL Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM) was used to model the mini-split RACs by inputting detailed heat exchangers geometries, compressor displacement and efficiencies as well as other relevant system components. The RAC models were calibrated against the lab data for each individual refrigerant. The calibrated models were then used to conduct a design optimization for the cooling performance by varying the compressor displacement to match the required capacity, and changing the number of circuits, refrigerant flow direction, tube diameters, air flow rates in the condenser and evaporator at 100% and 50% cooling capacities. This paper compares the optimized performance results for all alternative refrigerants and highlights best candidates for R-22 and R-410A replacement.

  13. Estimating the malaria risk of African mosquito movement by air travel

    PubMed Central

    Tatem, Andrew J; Rogers, David J; Hay, Simon I

    2006-01-01

    Background The expansion of global travel has resulted in the importation of African Anopheles mosquitoes, giving rise to cases of local malaria transmission. Here, cases of 'airport malaria' are used to quantify, using a combination of global climate and air traffic volume, where and when are the greatest risks of a Plasmodium falciparum-carrying mosquito being importated by air. This prioritises areas at risk of further airport malaria and possible importation or reemergence of the disease. Methods Monthly data on climate at the World's major airports were combined with air traffic information and African malaria seasonality maps to identify, month-by-month, those existing and future air routes at greatest risk of African malaria-carrying mosquito importation and temporary establishment. Results The location and timing of recorded airport malaria cases proved predictable using a combination of climate and air traffic data. Extending the analysis beyond the current air network architecture enabled identification of the airports and months with greatest climatic similarity to P. falciparum endemic regions of Africa within their principal transmission seasons, and therefore at risk should new aviation routes become operational. Conclusion With the growth of long haul air travel from Africa, the identification of the seasonality and routes of mosquito importation is important in guiding effective aircraft disinsection and vector control. The recent and continued addition of air routes from Africa to more climatically similar regions than Europe will increase movement risks. The approach outlined here is capable of identifying when and where these risks are greatest. PMID:16842613

  14. [Short gynaecological general anaesthesia with pentazocin and etomidate combined with room air (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, P; Schockenhoff, B

    1980-09-01

    A new short general anaesthesia for minor gynaecological operations is presented, which is also suitable for out-patients. The patient receives 0.05 mg. Atropin and 10 mg. Diazapam i.m. 30 minutes prior to the operation. Pentazocin in a dosage of 0.75 mg/kg. body weight was injected intravenously. 1 minute later Etomidate in a dosage of 0.3 mg/kg. body weight was injected intravenously. 1/3 of the initial dose of Etomidate was given as necessary at an average of 5 minutes following the initial dose. Through-out the procedure the patients spontaneously breathe room air. As advantages of the method are listed the minimal disturbances of the heart and the circulatory system, the lack of respiratory depression, the lack of specific organ toxicity, the absence of measurable release of histamine, the unlimited frequent repetition possible, the lack of damage to the personnel by anaesthetic gases and the safety and simplicity of the anaesthesia.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions for refrigerant choices in room air conditioner units.

    PubMed

    Galka, Michael D; Lownsbury, James M; Blowers, Paul

    2012-12-04

    In this work, potential replacement refrigerants for window-mounted room air conditioners (RACs) in the U.S. have been evaluated using a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions analysis. CO(2)-equivalent emissions for several hydrofluoroethers (HFEs) and other potential replacements were compared to the most widely used refrigerants today. Included in this comparison are pure refrigerants that make up a number of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) mixtures, pure hydrocarbons, and historically used refrigerants such as propane and ammonia. GHG emissions from direct and indirect sources were considered in this thermodynamic analysis. Propylene, dimethyl ether, ammonia, R-152a, propane, and HFE-152a all performed effectively in a 1 ton window unit and produced slightly lower emissions than the currently used R-22 and R-134a. The results suggest that regulation of HFCs in this application would have some effect on reducing emissions since end-of-life emissions remain at 55% of total refrigerant charge despite EPA regulations that mandate 80% recovery. Even so, offsite emissions due to energy generation dominate over direct GHG emissions and all the refrigerants perform similarly in totals of indirect GHG emissions.

  16. The risk of bacteria in foam sclerotherapy: does the condition of the air in outpatient vs. operating rooms make a difference?

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Liu, Y-R; Sun, Y-D; Liu, C; Zhuo, S-Y; Li, K; Wei, F-C; Liu, S-H

    2014-12-01

    Foam sclerotherapy has been one of the most frequently applied therapeutic methods for the treatment of varicose veins and venous malformation. Few studies have investigated the sterile condition of the air used for foam creation. To evaluate the bacterial conditions in foam created from the air in outpatient and operating rooms used for sclerotherapy treatment, in order to provide the basis for clinical applications in foam sclerotherapy. In this study, we measured the amount of airborne microorganisms in the air in the operating room, and in the outpatient room, the polidocanol (POL) foam created using the air in the respective rooms, and the microorganisms present in the liquid POL. We used the settle plate method for air sampling. We used the Tessari method to generate foam. The experiment was repeated three times. Typical bacterial colonies were formed on nutrient agar plates in both the outpatient room and operating room air groups. No colonies were cultivated in the liquid POL. Although the use of sterile or nonsterile air in sclerotherapy produces significantly different results in the counts of colony-forming units, there was no difference in the foam created using sterile or nonsterile air (i.e. no colonies were cultivated on either foam). There is no increased risk of infection when using foam sclerotherapy in outpatient rooms compared with using foam created under sterile operating-room conditions. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. Characterization of arm-gun movement during air pistol aiming phase.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, B; Schena, F

    2005-12-01

    Air pistol shooting is a sport requiring extreme movement precision. The purpose of our study is to collect and analyze kinematic data of arm/gun complex during the pointing phase in order to characterize movement and between segment coordination by means of time and frequency domain analysis techniques. Thirteen air pistol athletes participated to the recording sessions held at the 10 m shooting range. Kinematic data of neck, shoulder, elbow, wrist and gun were collected during the aiming phase using an optoelectronic motion capture system. Displacement series were split up in slow drift and tremor components. Amplitude of the movement of each segment and strength of the relationship between adjacent segments were estimated in time domain respectively by means of standard deviation and coefficient of regression. Moreover, coherence and phase spectral functions were calculated to assess between-segment coupling at different frequencies. Significantly larger movements were seen for slow drift component with respect to tremor one for all segments especially for lateral movements. Higher between segment correlation were found for lateral direction and for slow drift component. The coherence calculated on vertical series of tremor component showed significant coupling at 1.5 Hz and 5-7 Hz with phase opposition between wrist and gun motion at 5-7 Hz. Slow drift motion appears to affect mainly lateral movements and all the segments were equally involved indicating a probable origin in postural body sway. Vertical displacements could be referred to shoulder and wrist motion with features typical of physiological tremor. Quantitative characterization of segments displacements during aiming phase may serve as a basis for scientific evaluation and training in competitive precision shooting.

  18. Urban air pollution and emergency room admissions for respiratory symptoms: a case-crossover study in Palermo, Italy.

    PubMed

    Tramuto, Fabio; Cusimano, Rosanna; Cerame, Giuseppe; Vultaggio, Marcello; Calamusa, Giuseppe; Maida, Carmelo M; Vitale, Francesco

    2011-04-13

    Air pollution from vehicular traffic has been associated with respiratory diseases. In Palermo, the largest metropolitan area in Sicily, urban air pollution is mainly addressed to traffic-related pollution because of lack of industrial settlements, and the presence of a temperate climate that contribute to the limited use of domestic heating plants. This study aimed to investigate the association between traffic-related air pollution and emergency room admissions for acute respiratory symptoms. From January 2004 through December 2007, air pollutant concentrations and emergency room visits were collected for a case-crossover study conducted in Palermo, Sicily. Risk estimates of short-term exposures to particulate matter and gaseous ambient pollutants including carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide were calculated by using a conditional logistic regression analysis. Emergency departments provided data on 48,519 visits for respiratory symptoms. Adjusted case-crossover analyses revealed stronger effects in the warm season for the most part of the pollutants considered, with a positive association for PM10 (odds ratio = 1.039, 95% confidence interval: 1.020 - 1.059), SO2 (OR = 1.068, 95% CI: 1.014 - 1.126), nitrogen dioxide (NO2: OR = 1.043, 95% CI: 1.021 - 1.065), and CO (OR = 1.128, 95% CI: 1.074 - 1.184), especially among females (according to an increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM10, NO2, SO2, and 1 mg/m3 in CO exposure). A positive association was observed either in warm or in cold season only for PM10. Our findings suggest that, in our setting, exposure to ambient levels of air pollution is an important determinant of emergency room (ER) visits for acute respiratory symptoms, particularly during the warm season. ER admittance may be considered a good proxy to evaluate the adverse effects of air pollution on respiratory health.

  19. Urban air pollution and emergency room admissions for respiratory symptoms: a case-crossover study in Palermo, Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Air pollution from vehicular traffic has been associated with respiratory diseases. In Palermo, the largest metropolitan area in Sicily, urban air pollution is mainly addressed to traffic-related pollution because of lack of industrial settlements, and the presence of a temperate climate that contribute to the limited use of domestic heating plants. This study aimed to investigate the association between traffic-related air pollution and emergency room admissions for acute respiratory symptoms. Methods From January 2004 through December 2007, air pollutant concentrations and emergency room visits were collected for a case-crossover study conducted in Palermo, Sicily. Risk estimates of short-term exposures to particulate matter and gaseous ambient pollutants including carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide were calculated by using a conditional logistic regression analysis. Results Emergency departments provided data on 48,519 visits for respiratory symptoms. Adjusted case-crossover analyses revealed stronger effects in the warm season for the most part of the pollutants considered, with a positive association for PM10 (odds ratio = 1.039, 95% confidence interval: 1.020 - 1.059), SO2 (OR = 1.068, 95% CI: 1.014 - 1.126), nitrogen dioxide (NO2: OR = 1.043, 95% CI: 1.021 - 1.065), and CO (OR = 1.128, 95% CI: 1.074 - 1.184), especially among females (according to an increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM10, NO2, SO2, and 1 mg/m3 in CO exposure). A positive association was observed either in warm or in cold season only for PM10. Conclusions Our findings suggest that, in our setting, exposure to ambient levels of air pollution is an important determinant of emergency room (ER) visits for acute respiratory symptoms, particularly during the warm season. ER admittance may be considered a good proxy to evaluate the adverse effects of air pollution on respiratory health. PMID:21489245

  20. Effects of the air pressure on the wave-packet dynamics of gaseous iodine molecules at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Rongwei; He, Ping; Chen, Deying; Xia, Yuanqin; Yu, Xin; Wang, Jialing; Jiang, Yugang

    2013-02-01

    Based on ultrafast laser pulses, time-resolved resonance enhancement coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (RE-CARS) is applied to investigate wave-packet dynamics in gaseous iodine. The effects of air pressure on the wave-packet dynamics of iodine molecules are studied at pressures ranging from 1.5 Torr to 750 Torr. The RE-CARS signals are recorded in a gas cell filled with a mixture of about 0.3 Torr iodine in air buffer gas at room temperature. The revivals and fractional revival structures in the wave-packet signal are found to gradually disappear with rising air pressure up to 750 Torr, and the decay behaviors of the excited B-state and ground X-state become faster with increasing air pressure, which is due to the collision effects of the molecules and the growing complexity of the spectra at high pressures.

  1. Simulations of the impacts of building height layout on air quality in natural-ventilated rooms around street canyons.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Zhong, Ke; Chen, Yonghang; Kang, Yanming

    2017-08-30

    Numerical simulations were conducted to investigate the effects of building height ratio (i.e., HR, the height ratio of the upstream building to the downstream building) on the air quality in buildings beside street canyons, and both regular and staggered canyons were considered for the simulations. The results show that the building height ratio affects not only the ventilation fluxes of the rooms in the downstream building but also the pollutant concentrations around the building. The parameter, outdoor effective source intensity of a room, is then proposed to calculate the amount of vehicular pollutants that enters into building rooms. Smaller value of this parameter indicates less pollutant enters the room. The numerical results reveal that HRs from 2/7 to 7/2 are the favorable height ratios for the regular canyons, as they obtain smaller values than the other cases. While HR values of 5/7, 7/7, and 7/5 are appropriate for staggered canyons. In addition, in terms of improving indoor air quality by natural ventilation, the staggered canyons with favorable HR are better than those of the regular canyons.

  2. Increasing the efficiency of the resonance method for breaking an ice cover with simultaneous movement of two air cushion vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozin, V. M.; Zemlyak, V. L.; Rogozhnikova, E. G.

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes a study on the possibility of increasing the efficiency of the resonance method for breaking an ice cover due to the flexural-gravitational wave interference arising during simultaneous movement of several air cushion vehicles.

  3. Room-Temperature, Hydrochloride-Assisted, One-Step Deposition for Highly Efficient and Air-Stable Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jinlong; Mu, Cheng; Li, Qi; Li, Weizhen; Ma, Ding; Xu, Dongsheng

    2016-10-01

    Uniform perovskite films are achieved by HCl-assisted one-step spin-coating at room temperature. By this method, a highest power conversion efficiency of 17.9% is obtained for perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The devices retain ≈95% of their original efficiency after storage in air for two months. The highest efficiency obtained for large-area PSCs (0.86 cm(2) ) is 15.7%.

  4. Effect of air-pressure on room temperature hydrogen sensing characteristics of nanocrystalline doped tin oxide MEMS-based sensor.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Satyajit; Ludwig, Lawrence; Cho, Hyoung J; Duarte, Julian; Seal, Sudipta

    2005-11-01

    Nanocrystalline indium oxide (In2O3)-doped tin oxide (SnO2) thin film sensor has been sol-gel dip-coated on a microelectrochemical system (MEMS) device using a sol-gel dip-coating technique. Hydrogen (H2) at ppm-level has been successfully detected at room temperature using the present MEMS-based sensor. The room temperature H2 sensing characteristics (sensitivity, response and recovery time, and recovery rate) of the present MEMS-based sensor has been investigated as a function of air-pressure (50-600 Torr) with and without the ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure. It has been demonstrated that, the concentration of the surface-adsorbed oxygen-ions (which is related to the sensor-resistance in air), the ppm-level H2, and the oxygen (O2) partial pressure are the three major factors, which determine the variation in the room temperature H2 sensing characteristics of the present MEMS-based sensor as a function of air-pressure.

  5. "Quien Sabe Mas Lucha Mejor": Adult Educators' Care of the Self Practices within Social Movements in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Jennifer Lee

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at popular adult educators' care of the self practices within social movements in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It answers the following questions: How is popular adult education practiced amongst educators in social movements? What can studying popular adult educators' care of the self practices offer the field of adult education?…

  6. "Quien Sabe Mas Lucha Mejor": Adult Educators' Care of the Self Practices within Social Movements in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Jennifer Lee

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at popular adult educators' care of the self practices within social movements in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It answers the following questions: How is popular adult education practiced amongst educators in social movements? What can studying popular adult educators' care of the self practices offer the field of adult education?…

  7. An Assessment of Indoor Air Quality before, during and after Unrestricted Use of E-Cigarettes in a Small Room.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Grant; Colard, Stéphane; Cahours, Xavier; Pritchard, John D

    2015-05-06

    Airborne chemicals in the indoor environment arise from a wide variety of sources such as burning fuels and cooking, construction materials and furniture, environmental tobacco smoke as well as outdoor sources. To understand the contribution of exhaled e-cigarette aerosol to the pre-existing chemicals in the ambient air, an indoor air quality study was conducted to measure volatile organic compounds (including nicotine and low molecular weight carbonyls), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific nitrosamines and trace metal levels in the air before, during and after e-cigarette use in a typical small office meeting room. Measurements were compared with human Health Criteria Values, such as indoor air quality guidelines or workplace exposure limits where established, to provide a context for potential bystander exposures. In this study, the data suggest that any additional chemicals present in indoor air from the exhaled e-cigarette aerosol, are unlikely to present an air quality issue to bystanders at the levels measured when compared to the regulatory standards that are used for workplaces or general indoor air quality.

  8. An Assessment of Indoor Air Quality before, during and after Unrestricted Use of E-Cigarettes in a Small Room

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Grant; Colard, Stéphane; Cahours, Xavier; Pritchard, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne chemicals in the indoor environment arise from a wide variety of sources such as burning fuels and cooking, construction materials and furniture, environmental tobacco smoke as well as outdoor sources. To understand the contribution of exhaled e-cigarette aerosol to the pre-existing chemicals in the ambient air, an indoor air quality study was conducted to measure volatile organic compounds (including nicotine and low molecular weight carbonyls), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific nitrosamines and trace metal levels in the air before, during and after e-cigarette use in a typical small office meeting room. Measurements were compared with human Health Criteria Values, such as indoor air quality guidelines or workplace exposure limits where established, to provide a context for potential bystander exposures. In this study, the data suggest that any additional chemicals present in indoor air from the exhaled e-cigarette aerosol, are unlikely to present an air quality issue to bystanders at the levels measured when compared to the regulatory standards that are used for workplaces or general indoor air quality. PMID:25955526

  9. [Air kerma transmission factors of Scattered X-rays in the maze of a Linac room for lead shield].

    PubMed

    Kato, Hideki

    2005-01-20

    Spectra of scattered X-rays in the maze of a Linac (X-ray energies of 4, 6, and 10 MV) room were estimated by means of the Monte Carlo simulation, and air kerma transmission factors of the X-rays scattered through a lead shield were evaluated based on those spectra. Spectra of scattered X-rays showed a maximum in the energy area below 200 keV. The higher the accelerated electron energy, also, the smaller the scattering angle that tended to spread to the higher energy area of the distribution of spectra. The air kerma transmission factor of 120 degrees scattered X-rays of 4 MV X-rays obtained in this study was larger than the transmission factors of 124 degrees scattered photons of (60)Co gamma rays through a lead shield given in ICRP. The air kerma transmission factors of 120 degrees scattered X-rays of 6 MV X-rays were smaller than the transmission factors of 90 degrees scattered photons of (60)Co gamma rays. The air kerma transmission factors of 120 degrees scattered X-rays of 10 MV X-rays was slightly larger than transmission factors of 90 degrees scattered photons of (60)Co gamma rays. Therefore, in the case of a 4 MV X-ray Linac room, the calculation method given in the "Manual of Practical Shield Calculation of Radiation Facilities (2000)" causes underestimation of leakage doses.

  10. [Association between ambient air pollution and hospital emergency room visits for respiratory diseases: a case-crossover study].

    PubMed

    Su, Chang; Guo, Yu-Ming; Franck, Ulrich; Pan, Xiao-Chuan

    2010-08-01

    Using case-crossover design to explore the association between ambient air pollution and the hospital emergency room visits for respiratory diseases (International Classification of Diseases, tenth vision ICD-10: J00-J99) in Beijing, China. Data regarding the daily hospital emergency room visits of the respiratory diseases (ICD-10: J00-J99) were obtained in 2004.01.01 - 2005.12.31, from the Peking University Third Hospital and data on relevant air pollution and meteorological factors from the local municipal environmental monitoring center and meteorology bureau of Beijing, respectively. Time-stratified case-crossover technique was used to evaluate their relationships. Results from the bi-directional control sampling approach were compared with unidirectional approach. Using a unidirectional control sampling approach, the results obtained from a conditional logistic regression model (multi-pollutant model) after adjusting for meteorological variables, showed that the ORs of the hospital emergency room visits for the respiratory diseases associated with each 10 µg/m(3) increment of PM(10), SO(2), NO(2) were 1.010 (95%CI: 1.005 - 1.014), 1.010 (95%CI: 1.001 - 1.018), 0.996 (95%CI: 0.983 - 1.009) respectively. In the bi-directional control sampling approach, the ORs were 1.002 (95%CI: 0.998 - 1.005), 1.011 (95%CI: 1.003 - 1.018), 1.012 (95%CI: 1.001 - 1.022). Results from this study provided evidence that higher levels of ambient air pollutants increased the risk of hospital emergency room visits for respiratory diseases.

  11. Writing in the Air: Contributions of Finger Movement to Cognitive Processing

    PubMed Central

    Itaguchi, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Chiharu; Fukuzawa, Kazuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the interactions between motor action and cognitive processing with particular reference to kanji-culture individuals. Kanji-culture individuals often move their finger as if they are writing when they are solving cognitive tasks, for example, when they try to recall the spelling of English words. This behavior is called kusho, meaning air-writing in Japanese. However, its functional role is still unknown. To reveal the role of kusho behavior in cognitive processing, we conducted a series of experiments, employing two different cognitive tasks, a construction task and a stroke count task. To distinguish the effects of the kinetic aspects of kusho behavior, we set three hand conditions in the tasks; participants were instructed to use either kusho, unrelated finger movements or do nothing during the response time. To isolate possible visual effects, two visual conditions in which participants saw their hand and the other in which they did not, were introduced. We used the number of correct responses and response time as measures of the task performance. The results showed that kusho behavior has different functional roles in the two types of cognitive tasks. In the construction task, the visual feedback from finger movement facilitated identifying a character, whereas the kinetic feedback or motor commands for the behavior did not help to solve the task. In the stroke count task, by contrast, the kinetic aspects of the finger movements influenced counting performance depending on the type of the finger movement. Regardless of the visual condition, kusho behavior improved task performance and unrelated finger movements degraded it. These results indicated that motor behavior contributes to cognitive processes. We discussed possible mechanisms of the modality dependent contribution. These findings might lead to better understanding of the complex interaction between action and cognition in daily life. PMID:26061273

  12. Writing in the Air: Contributions of Finger Movement to Cognitive Processing.

    PubMed

    Itaguchi, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Chiharu; Fukuzawa, Kazuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the interactions between motor action and cognitive processing with particular reference to kanji-culture individuals. Kanji-culture individuals often move their finger as if they are writing when they are solving cognitive tasks, for example, when they try to recall the spelling of English words. This behavior is called kusho, meaning air-writing in Japanese. However, its functional role is still unknown. To reveal the role of kusho behavior in cognitive processing, we conducted a series of experiments, employing two different cognitive tasks, a construction task and a stroke count task. To distinguish the effects of the kinetic aspects of kusho behavior, we set three hand conditions in the tasks; participants were instructed to use either kusho, unrelated finger movements or do nothing during the response time. To isolate possible visual effects, two visual conditions in which participants saw their hand and the other in which they did not, were introduced. We used the number of correct responses and response time as measures of the task performance. The results showed that kusho behavior has different functional roles in the two types of cognitive tasks. In the construction task, the visual feedback from finger movement facilitated identifying a character, whereas the kinetic feedback or motor commands for the behavior did not help to solve the task. In the stroke count task, by contrast, the kinetic aspects of the finger movements influenced counting performance depending on the type of the finger movement. Regardless of the visual condition, kusho behavior improved task performance and unrelated finger movements degraded it. These results indicated that motor behavior contributes to cognitive processes. We discussed possible mechanisms of the modality dependent contribution. These findings might lead to better understanding of the complex interaction between action and cognition in daily life.

  13. Comparison of three distinct clean air suits to decrease the bacterial load in the operating room: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Kasina, Piotr; Tammelin, Ann; Blomfeldt, Anne-Marie; Ljungqvist, Bengt; Reinmüller, Berit; Ottosson, Carin

    2016-01-01

    Lowering air-borne bacteria counts in the operating room is essential in prevention of surgical site infections in orthopaedic joint replacement surgery. This is mainly achieved by decreasing bacteria counts through dilution, with appropriate ventilation and by limiting the bacteria carrying skin particles, predominantly shed by the personnel. The aim of this study was to investigate if a single use polypropylene clothing system or a reusable polyester clothing system could offer similar air quality in the operating room as a mobile laminar airflow device-assisted reusable cotton/polyester clothing system. Prospective observational study design, comparing the performance of three Clean Air Suits by measuring Colony Forming Units (CFU)/m(3) of air during elective hip and knee arthroplasties, performed at a large university-affiliated hospital. The amount of CFU/m(3) of air was measured during 37 operations of which 13 were performed with staff dressed in scrub suits made of a reusable mixed material (69 % cotton, 30 % polyester, 1 % carbon fibre) accompanied by two mobile laminar airflow units. During 24 procedures no mobile laminar airflow units were used, 13 with staff using a reusable olefin fabric clothing (woven polypropylene) and 11 with staff dressed in single-use suits (non-woven spunbonded polypropylene). Air from the operating field was sampled through a filter, by a Sartorius MD8, and bacterial colonies were counted after incubation. There were 6-8 measurements from each procedure, in total 244 measurements. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney U-test. The single-use polypropylene suit reduced the amount of CFU/m(3) to a significantly lower level than both other clothing systems. Single-use polypropylene clothing systems can replace mobile laminar airflow unit-assisted reusable mixed material-clothing systems. Measurements in standardized laboratory settings can only serve as guidelines as environments in real operation settings present a

  14. Elevated air movement enhances stomatal sensitivity to abscisic acid in leaves developed at high relative air humidity.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Dália R A; Torre, Sissel; Kraniotis, Dimitrios; Almeida, Domingos P F; Heuvelink, Ep; Carvalho, Susana M P

    2015-01-01

    High relative air humidity (RH ≥ 85%) during growth leads to stomata malfunctioning, resulting in water stress when plants are transferred to conditions of high evaporative demand. In this study, we hypothesized that an elevated air movement (MOV) 24 h per day, during the whole period of leaf development would increase abscisic acid concentration ([ABA]) enhancing stomatal functioning. Pot rose 'Toril' was grown at moderate (61%) or high (92%) RH combined with a continuous low (0.08 m s(-1)) or high (0.92 m s(-1)) MOV. High MOV reduced stomatal pore length and aperture in plants developed at high RH. Moreover, stomatal function improved when high MOV-treated plants were subjected to leaflet desiccation and ABA feeding. Endogenous concentration of ABA and its metabolites in the leaves was reduced by 35% in high RH, but contrary to our hypothesis this concentration was not significantly affected by high MOV. Interestingly, in detached leaflets grown at high RH, high MOV increased stomatal sensitivity to ABA since the amount of exogenous ABA required to decrease the transpiration rate was significantly reduced. This is the first study to show that high MOV increases stomatal functionality in leaves developed at high RH by reducing the stomatal pore length and aperture and enhancing stomatal sensitivity to ABA rather than increasing leaf [ABA].

  15. Elevated air movement enhances stomatal sensitivity to abscisic acid in leaves developed at high relative air humidity

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Dália R. A.; Torre, Sissel; Kraniotis, Dimitrios; Almeida, Domingos P. F.; Heuvelink, Ep; Carvalho, Susana M. P.

    2015-01-01

    High relative air humidity (RH ≥ 85%) during growth leads to stomata malfunctioning, resulting in water stress when plants are transferred to conditions of high evaporative demand. In this study, we hypothesized that an elevated air movement (MOV) 24 h per day, during the whole period of leaf development would increase abscisic acid concentration ([ABA]) enhancing stomatal functioning. Pot rose ‘Toril’ was grown at moderate (61%) or high (92%) RH combined with a continuous low (0.08 m s-1) or high (0.92 m s-1) MOV. High MOV reduced stomatal pore length and aperture in plants developed at high RH. Moreover, stomatal function improved when high MOV-treated plants were subjected to leaflet desiccation and ABA feeding. Endogenous concentration of ABA and its metabolites in the leaves was reduced by 35% in high RH, but contrary to our hypothesis this concentration was not significantly affected by high MOV. Interestingly, in detached leaflets grown at high RH, high MOV increased stomatal sensitivity to ABA since the amount of exogenous ABA required to decrease the transpiration rate was significantly reduced. This is the first study to show that high MOV increases stomatal functionality in leaves developed at high RH by reducing the stomatal pore length and aperture and enhancing stomatal sensitivity to ABA rather than increasing leaf [ABA]. PMID:26074943

  16. Effects of Air Pollution on Hospital Emergency Room Visits for Respiratory Diseases: Urban-Suburban Differences in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Xining; Fan, Jiayin; Xiao, Wenxin; Wang, Yan

    2016-03-19

    A study on the relationships between ambient air pollutants (PM2.5, SO₂ and NO₂) and hospital emergency room visits (ERVs) for respiratory diseases from 2013 to 2014 was performed in both urban and suburban areas of Jinan, a heavily air-polluted city in Eastern China. This research was analyzed using generalized additive models (GAM) with Poisson regression, which controls for long-time trends, the "day of the week" effect and meteorological parameters. An increase of 10 μg/m³ in PM2.5, SO₂ and NO₂ corresponded to a 1.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7%, 2.1%), 1.2% (95% CI: 0.5%, 1.9%), and 2.5% (95%: 0.8%, 4.2%) growth in ERVs for the urban population, respectively, and a 1.5% (95%: 0.4%, 2.6%), 0.8% (95%: -0.7%, 2.3%), and 3.1% (95%: 0.5%, 5.7%) rise in ERVs for the suburban population, respectively. It was found that females were more susceptible than males to air pollution in the urban area when the analysis was stratified by gender, and the reverse result was seen in the suburban area. Our results suggest that the increase in ERVs for respiratory illnesses is linked to the levels of air pollutants in Jinan, and there may be some urban-suburban discrepancies in health outcomes from air pollutant exposure.

  17. Initial proof-of-principle for near room temperature Xe and Kr separation from air with MOFs

    SciTech Connect

    Thallapally, Praveen K.; Strachan, Denis M.

    2012-06-06

    Materials were developed and tested in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Separations and Waste Forms Campaign. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal of Xenon and krypton from gaseous products of nuclear fuel reprocessing unit operations. During FY 2012, Three Metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated in greater detail for the removal and storage of Xe and Kr from air at room temperature. Our breakthrough measurements on Nickel based MOF could capture and separate parts per million levels of Xe from Air (40 ppm Kr, 78% N2, 21% O2, 0.9% Ar, 0.03% CO2). Similarly, the selectivity can be changed from Xe > Kr to Xe < Kr simply by changing the temperature in another MOF. Also for the first time we estimated the cost of the metal organic frameworks in bulk.

  18. Carbon dioxide versus room air insufflation during balloon-assisted enteroscopy: A systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shiani, Ashok; Lipka, Seth; Lai, Andrew; Rodriguez, Andrea C.; Andrade, Christian M.; Kumar, Ambuj; Brady, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims Carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation has been suggested to be an ideal alternative to room air insufflation to reduce trapped air within the bowel lumen after balloon assisted enteroscopy (BAE). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the safety and efficacy of utilizing CO2 insufflation as compared to room air during BAE. Patients and methods The primary outcome is mean change in visual analog scale (VAS; 10 cm) at 1, 3, and 6 hours to assess pain. Secondary outcomes include insertion depth (anterograde or retrograde), adverse events, total enteroscopy rate, diagnostic yield, mean anesthetic dosage, and PaCO2 at procedure completion. We searched MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from inception until May 2015. Multiple independent extractions were performed, the process was executed as per the standards of the Cochrane collaboration. Results Four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in the meta-analysis. VAS at 6 hours favored CO2 over room air (MD 0.13; 95 % CI 0.01, 0.25; p = 0.03). Anterograde insertion depth (cm) was improved in the CO2 group (MD, 58.2; 95 % CI 17.17, 99.23; p = 0.005), with an improvement in total enteroscopy rate in the CO2 group (RR 1.91; 95 % CI 1.20, 3.06; p = 0.007). Mean dose of propofol (mg) favored CO2 compared to air (MD, – 70.53; 95 % CI – 115.07, – 25.98; P = 0.002). There were no differences in adverse events in either group. Conclusions Despite the ability of CO2 to improve insertion depth and decrease amount of anesthesia required, further randomized control trials are needed to determine the agent of choice for insufflation in balloon assisted enteroscopy. PMID:28191497

  19. SU-D-BRE-03: Dosimetric Impact of In-Air Spot Size Variations for Commissioning a Room-Matched Beam Model for Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y; Giebeler, A; Mascia, A; Piskulich, F; Perles, L; Lepage, R; Dong, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate dosimetric consequence of spot size variations and validate beam-matching criteria for commissioning a pencil beam model for multiple treatment rooms. Methods: A planning study was first conducted by simulating spot size variations to systematically evaluate dosimetric impact of spot size variations in selected cases, which was used to establish the in-air spot size tolerance for beam matching specifications. A beam model in treatment planning system was created using in-air spot profiles acquired in one treatment room. These spot profiles were also acquired from another treatment room for assessing the actual spot size variations between the two treatment rooms. We created twenty five test plans with targets of different sizes at different depths, and performed dose measurement along the entrance, proximal and distal target regions. The absolute doses at those locations were measured using ionization chambers at both treatment rooms, and were compared against the calculated doses by the beam model. Fifteen additional patient plans were also measured and included in our validation. Results: The beam model is relatively insensitive to spot size variations. With an average of less than 15% measured in-air spot size variations between two treatment rooms, the average dose difference was −0.15% with a standard deviation of 0.40% for 55 measurement points within target region; but the differences increased to 1.4%±1.1% in the entrance regions, which are more affected by in-air spot size variations. Overall, our single-room based beam model in the treatment planning system agreed with measurements in both rooms < 0.5% within the target region. For fifteen patient cases, the agreement was within 1%. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that dosimetrically equivalent machines can be established when in-air spot size variations are within 15% between the two treatment rooms.

  20. Measurement of radon/thoron and its daughter nuclides in room air.

    PubMed

    Suppian, R; Vegandraj, S; Kandaiya, S

    1992-07-01

    Pumping air through a soft tissue which acts as a membrane is a relatively easy and quick method to collect and measure radon/thoron and its daughter nuclides in air. Analysis of the activity of the radionuclides can be calculated using an alpha counter which has been calibrated. In this method the activity of radon/thoron cannot be separated from the activity of radionuclides already present in the aerosol or dust particles.

  1. An analysis of trichloroethylene movement in groundwater at castle Air Force Base, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Avon, L.; Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    A trichloroethylene (TCE) plume has been identified in the groundwater under a U.S. Air Force Base in the Central Valley of California. An areal, two-dimensional numerical solute transport model indicates that the movement of TCE due to advection, dispersion, and linear sorption is simulated over a 25-year historic period. The model is used in several ways: (1) to estimate the extent of the plume; (2) to confirm the likely sources of contamination as suggested by a soil organic vapor survey of the site; and (3) to make predictions about future movement of the plume. Despite the noisy and incomplete data set, the model reproduces the general trends in contamination at a number of observation wells. The analysis indicates that soil organic vapor monitoring is an effective tool for identifying contaminant source locations. Leaky sewer pipes and underground tanks are the indicated pathways for TCE to have entered the groundwater system. The chemical mass balance indicates that a total of about 100 gallons of TCE - a relatively small amount of organic solvent - has created the observed groundwater plume. ?? 1989.

  2. Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Emergency Room Visits for Respiratory Diseases in Spring Dust Storm Season in Lanzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yuxia; Xiao, Bingshuang; Liu, Chang; Zhao, Yuxin; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Air pollution has become a major global public health problem. A number of studies have confirmed the association between air pollutants and emergency room (ER) visits for respiratory diseases in developed countries and some Asian countries, but little evidence has been seen in Western China. This study aims to concentrate on this region. Methods: A time-series analysis was used to examine the specific effects of major air pollutants (PM10, SO2 and NO2) on ER visits for respiratory diseases from 2007 to 2011 in the severely polluted city of Lanzhou. We examined the effects of air pollutants for stratified groups by age and gender, accounting for the modifying effect of dust storms in spring to test the possible interaction. Results: Significant associations were found between outdoor air pollution concentrations and respiratory diseases, as expressed by daily ER visits in Lanzhou in the spring dust season. The association between air pollution and ER visits appeared to be more evident on dust days than non-dust days. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs per 10 µg/m3 increase in 3-day PM10 (L3), 5-day SO2 (L5), and the average of current and previous 2-day NO2 (L01) were 1.140 (1.071–1.214), 1.080 (0.967–1.205), and 1.298 (1.158–1.454), respectively, on dust days. More significant associations between PM10, SO2 and NO2 and ER visits were found on dust days for elderly females, elderly males and adult males, respectively. Conclusions: This study strengthens the evidence of dust-exacerbated ER visits for respiratory diseases in Lanzhou. PMID:27338430

  3. Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Emergency Room Visits for Respiratory Diseases in Spring Dust Storm Season in Lanzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuxia; Xiao, Bingshuang; Liu, Chang; Zhao, Yuxin; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-06-21

    Air pollution has become a major global public health problem. A number of studies have confirmed the association between air pollutants and emergency room (ER) visits for respiratory diseases in developed countries and some Asian countries, but little evidence has been seen in Western China. This study aims to concentrate on this region. A time-series analysis was used to examine the specific effects of major air pollutants (PM10, SO₂ and NO₂) on ER visits for respiratory diseases from 2007 to 2011 in the severely polluted city of Lanzhou. We examined the effects of air pollutants for stratified groups by age and gender, accounting for the modifying effect of dust storms in spring to test the possible interaction. Significant associations were found between outdoor air pollution concentrations and respiratory diseases, as expressed by daily ER visits in Lanzhou in the spring dust season. The association between air pollution and ER visits appeared to be more evident on dust days than non-dust days. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs per 10 µg/m³ increase in 3-day PM10 (L3), 5-day SO₂ (L5), and the average of current and previous 2-day NO₂ (L01) were 1.140 (1.071-1.214), 1.080 (0.967-1.205), and 1.298 (1.158-1.454), respectively, on dust days. More significant associations between PM10, SO₂ and NO₂ and ER visits were found on dust days for elderly females, elderly males and adult males, respectively. This study strengthens the evidence of dust-exacerbated ER visits for respiratory diseases in Lanzhou.

  4. Technology Solutions Case Study: Overcoming Comfort Issues Due to Reduced Flow Room Air Mixing

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    Energy efficiency upgrades reduce heating and cooling loads on a house. With enough load reduction and if the HVAC system warrants replacement, the HVAC system is often upgraded with a more efficient, lower capacity system that meets the loads of the upgraded house. In this project, IBACOS studied when HVAC equipment is downsized and ducts are unaltered to determine conditions that could cause a supply air delivery problem and to evaluate the feasibility of modifying the duct systems using minimally invasive strategies to improve air distribution.

  5. Metal-air cell comprising an electrolyte with a room temperature ionic liquid and hygroscopic additive

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Cody A.; Krishnan, Ramkumar; Tang, Toni; Wolfe, Derek

    2014-08-19

    An electrochemical cell comprising an electrolyte comprising water and a hydrophobic ionic liquid comprising positive ions and negative ions. The electrochemical cell also includes an air electrode configured to absorb and reduce oxygen. A hydrophilic or hygroscopic additive modulates the hydrophobicity of the ionic liquid to maintain a concentration of the water in the electrolyte is between 0.001 mol % and 25 mol %.

  6. Effects of Air Pollution on Hospital Emergency Room Visits for Respiratory Diseases: Urban-Suburban Differences in Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Xining; Fan, Jiayin; Xiao, Wenxin; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    A study on the relationships between ambient air pollutants (PM2.5, SO2 and NO2) and hospital emergency room visits (ERVs) for respiratory diseases from 2013 to 2014 was performed in both urban and suburban areas of Jinan, a heavily air-polluted city in Eastern China. This research was analyzed using generalized additive models (GAM) with Poisson regression, which controls for long-time trends, the “day of the week” effect and meteorological parameters. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 corresponded to a 1.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7%, 2.1%), 1.2% (95% CI: 0.5%, 1.9%), and 2.5% (95%: 0.8%, 4.2%) growth in ERVs for the urban population, respectively, and a 1.5% (95%: 0.4%, 2.6%), 0.8% (95%: −0.7%, 2.3%), and 3.1% (95%: 0.5%, 5.7%) rise in ERVs for the suburban population, respectively. It was found that females were more susceptible than males to air pollution in the urban area when the analysis was stratified by gender, and the reverse result was seen in the suburban area. Our results suggest that the increase in ERVs for respiratory illnesses is linked to the levels of air pollutants in Jinan, and there may be some urban-suburban discrepancies in health outcomes from air pollutant exposure. PMID:27007384

  7. Versatile actuators with linear-bending movements in air using a series of polypyrrole and solid polymer electrolyte trilayers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olazabal, V.; Sansinena, J.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Actuators that produce linear elongation-contraction or bending are required for various applications. This reported study involved the construction of a versatile electromechanical actuator that is capable to work in air and can be controlled to bend and/or induce linear movement.

  8. Early retinal blood vessel growth in normal and growth restricted rat pups raised in oxygen and room air.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, C A; Wade, J; Gillespie, T; Aspinall, P; McIntosh, N; Fleck, B W

    2011-11-01

    Premature infants are born with incompletely vascularised retinas and are at a risk of developing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Rate of prenatal and postnatal body growth is important in the pathogenesis of ROP. The aim of this study was to develop a physiology-based rat model in order to study the effect of growth restriction and oxygen on early retinal vascular development. Rat mothers were fed either a normal (18% casein) or low (9% casein) protein diet (to cause pup growth restriction) from the last week of gestation. After birth, mother and pups were placed in either room air or a specialised oxygen chamber that delivered a rapidly fluctuating hyperoxic oxygen profile. The oxygen profile was based on that from a premature infant who developed severe ROP. On day 14, retinas were dissected, flat-mounted and stained using biotinylated lectin. Images were captured by confocal microscopy. The avascular areas of the retinas were measured and compared. Growth restricted rat pups had significantly larger retinal avascular areas than 'normally grown' rat pups (Mann-Whitney U test, p<0.001). Growth restricted rat pups raised in fluctuating oxygen had significantly larger retinal avascular areas than growth restricted rat pups raised in room air (Mann-Whitney U test, p=0.001). The authors have developed a novel model for ROP that involves inducing both intrauterine and postnatal growth restriction and also exposes neonatal rat pups to fluctuating oxygen. This physiology-based model can be used to study the effects of growth, nutrition and oxygen on early retinal vascular development.

  9. A New Limb Movement Detector Enabling People with Multiple Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation through Limb Swing with a Gyration Air Mouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using limb swing with a gyration air mouse and a newly developed limb movement detection program (LMDP, i.e., a new software program that turns a gyration air mouse into a precise limb movement detector). The study was performed…

  10. A New Limb Movement Detector Enabling People with Multiple Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation through Limb Swing with a Gyration Air Mouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using limb swing with a gyration air mouse and a newly developed limb movement detection program (LMDP, i.e., a new software program that turns a gyration air mouse into a precise limb movement detector). The study was performed…

  11. Traffic flow in the operating room: an explorative and descriptive study on air quality during orthopedic trauma implant surgery.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Annette Erichsen; Bergh, Ingrid; Karlsson, Jón; Eriksson, Bengt I; Nilsson, Kerstin

    2012-10-01

    Understanding the protective potential of operating room (OR) ventilation under different conditions is crucial to optimizing the surgical environment. This study investigated the air quality, expressed as colony-forming units (CFU)/m(3), during orthopedic trauma surgery in a displacement-ventilated OR; explored how traffic flow and the number of persons present in the OR affects the air contamination rate in the vicinity of surgical wounds; and identified reasons for door openings in the OR. Data collection, consisting of active air sampling and observations, was performed during 30 orthopedic procedures. In 52 of the 91 air samples collected (57%), the CFU/m(3) values exceeded the recommended level of <10 CFU/m(3). In addition, the data showed a strongly positive correlation between the total CFU/m(3) per operation and total traffic flow per operation (r = 0.74; P = .001; n = 24), after controlling for duration of surgery. A weaker, yet still positive correlation between CFU/m(3) and the number of persons present in the OR (r = 0.22; P = .04; n = 82) was also found. Traffic flow, number of persons present, and duration of surgery explained 68% of the variance in total CFU/m(3) (P = .001). Traffic flow has a strong negative impact on the OR environment. The results of this study support interventions aimed at preventing surgical site infections by reducing traffic flow in the OR. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Air quality monitoring of the post-operative recovery room and locations surrounding operating theaters in a medical center in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chin-Sheng; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    To prevent surgical site infection (SSI), the airborne microbial concentration in operating theaters must be reduced. The air quality in operating theaters and nearby areas is also important to healthcare workers. Therefore, this study assessed air quality in the post-operative recovery room, locations surrounding the operating theater area, and operating theaters in a medical center. Temperature, relative humidity (RH), and carbon dioxide (CO2), suspended particulate matter (PM), and bacterial concentrations were monitored weekly over one year. Measurement results reveal clear differences in air quality in different operating theater areas. The post-operative recovery room had significantly higher CO2 and bacterial concentrations than other locations. Bacillus spp., Micrococcus spp., and Staphylococcus spp. bacteria often existed in the operating theater area. Furthermore, Acinetobacter spp. was the main pathogen in the post-operative recovery room (18%) and traumatic surgery room (8%). The mixed effect models reveal a strong correlation between number of people in a space and high CO2 concentration after adjusting for sampling locations. In conclusion, air quality in the post-operative recovery room and operating theaters warrants attention, and merits long-term surveillance to protect both surgical patients and healthcare workers.

  13. Air Quality Monitoring of the Post-Operative Recovery Room and Locations Surrounding Operating Theaters in a Medical Center in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chin-Sheng; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    To prevent surgical site infection (SSI), the airborne microbial concentration in operating theaters must be reduced. The air quality in operating theaters and nearby areas is also important to healthcare workers. Therefore, this study assessed air quality in the post-operative recovery room, locations surrounding the operating theater area, and operating theaters in a medical center. Temperature, relative humidity (RH), and carbon dioxide (CO2), suspended particulate matter (PM), and bacterial concentrations were monitored weekly over one year. Measurement results reveal clear differences in air quality in different operating theater areas. The post-operative recovery room had significantly higher CO2 and bacterial concentrations than other locations. Bacillus spp., Micrococcus spp., and Staphylococcus spp. bacteria often existed in the operating theater area. Furthermore, Acinetobacter spp. was the main pathogen in the post-operative recovery room (18%) and traumatic surgery room (8%). The mixed effect models reveal a strong correlation between number of people in a space and high CO2 concentration after adjusting for sampling locations. In conclusion, air quality in the post-operative recovery room and operating theaters warrants attention, and merits long-term surveillance to protect both surgical patients and healthcare workers. PMID:23573296

  14. Inactivation of a 25.5 µm Enterococcus faecalis biofilm by a room-temperature, battery-operated, handheld air plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, X.; Lu, X.; Liu, J.; Liu, D.; Yang, Y.; Ostrikov, K.; Chu, Paul K.; Pan, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Effective biofilm inactivation using a handheld, mobile plasma jet powered by a 12 V dc battery and operated in open air without any external gas supply is reported. This cold, room-temperature plasma is produced in self-repetitive nanosecond discharges with current pulses of ˜100 ns duration, current peak amplitude of ˜6 mA and repetition rate of ˜20 kHz. It is shown that the reactive plasma species penetrate to the bottom layer of a 25.5 µm-thick Enterococcus faecalis biofilm and produce a strong bactericidal effect. This is the thickest reported biofilm inactivated using room-temperature air plasmas.

  15. Comparison of two single-use scrub suits in terms of effect on air-borne bacteria in the operating room.

    PubMed

    Tammelin, A; Blomfeldt, A-M

    2017-03-01

    A low level of air-borne bacteria in the operating room air can be achieved if all staff wear clothes made of low-permeability material (i.e. clean air suits). This study investigated if there was a difference in protective efficacy between two single-use scrubs made of polypropylene by testing them during routinely performed orthopaedic surgical procedures. No significant difference in the colony-forming unit count/m(3) air was found between the two scrubs, so the choice can be based on which scrub type is more comfortable for staff.

  16. Forced-air warming blowers: An evaluation of filtration adequacy and airborne contamination emissions in the operating room.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Mark; Gauthier, Robert L; Belani, Kumar; Litchy, Mark; Leaper, David

    2011-05-01

    operating room. Substandard intake filtration allowed airborne contaminants (both viable and nonviable) to penetrate the intake filter and reversibly attach to the internal surfaces within the FAW blowers. The reintroduction of these contaminants into the FAW blower air stream was detected and could contribute to the risk of cross-infection. Given the deficiencies identified with the 200708C intake filter, the introduction of a new filter (model 200708D) with substantially lower retention efficiency is of concern. Copyright © 2011 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Six percent oxygen enrichment of room air at simulated 5,000 m altitude improves neuropsychological function.

    PubMed

    Gerard, A B; McElroy, M K; Taylor, M J; Grant, I; Powell, F L; Holverda, S; Sentse, N; West, J B

    2000-01-01

    Cognitive and motor function are known to deteriorate with the hypoxia accompanying high altitude, posing a substantial challenge to the efficient operation of high altitude industrial and scientific projects. To evaluate the effectiveness of enriching room air oxygen by 6% at 5,000 m altitude in ameliorating such deficits, 24 unacclimatized subjects (16 males, 8 females; mean age 37.8, range 20 to 47) underwent neuropsychological testing in a specially designed facility at 3,800 m that can simulate an ambient 5,000 m atmosphere and 6% enrichment at 5,000 m. Each subject was tested in both conditions in a randomized, double-blinded fashion. The 2-h test battery of 16 tasks assessed various aspects of motor and cognitive performance. Compared with simulated breathing air at 5,000 m, oxygen enrichment resulted in higher arterial oxygen saturations (93.0 vs. 81.6%), quicker reaction times, improved hand-eye coordination, and more positive sense of well-being (on 6 of 16 scales), each significant at the p < 0.05 level. Other aspects of neuropsychological function were not significantly improved by 6% additional oxygen.

  18. Dual gas-diffusion membrane- and mediatorless dihydrogen/air-breathing biofuel cell operating at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Hong-qi; So, Keisei; Kitazumi, Yuki; Shirai, Osamu; Nishikawa, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Kano, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    A membraneless direct electron transfer (DET)-type dihydrogen (H2)/air-breathing biofuel cell without any mediator was constructed wherein bilirubin oxidase from Myrothecium verrucaria (BOD) and membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F (MBH) were used as biocatalysts for the cathode and the anode, respectively, and Ketjen black-modified water proof carbon paper (KB/WPCC) was used as an electrode material. The KB/WPCC surface was modified with 2-aminobenzoic acid and p-phenylenediamine, respectively, to face the positively charged electron-accepting site of BOD and the negatively charged electron-donating site of MBH to the electrode surface. A gas-diffusion system was employed for the electrodes to realize high-speed substrate supply. As result, great improvement in the current density of O2 reduction with BOD and H2 reduction with MBH were realized at negatively and postively charged surfaces, respectively. Gas diffusion system also suppressed the oxidative inactivation of MBH at high electrode potentials. Finally, based on the improved bioanode and biocathode, a dual gas-diffusion membrane- and mediatorless H2/air-breathing biofuel cell was constructed. The maximum power density reached 6.1 mW cm-2 (at 0.72 V), and the open circuit voltage was 1.12 V using 1 atm of H2 gas as a fuel at room temperature and under passive and quiescent conditions.

  19. The association between fine particulate air pollution and hospital emergency room visits for cardiovascular diseases in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuming; Jia, Yuping; Pan, Xiaochuan; Liu, Liqun; Wichmann, H-Erich

    2009-08-15

    Because epidemiological studies have yielded different results, the association between exposure to fine particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5)) and acute events of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is unknown. Additionally, no research has been conducted to explore the association between PM(2.5) and hospital emergency room (ER) visits of cardiovascular diseases in Beijing, China. To explore the association between PM(2.5) and the hospital ER visits in Beijing, China for CVD {(International Classification of Diseases, 10th vision (ICD-10): I00-I99)}. We collected data for daily hospital ER visits for CVD from the Peking University Third Hospital, daily ambient PM(2.5) data from a fixed monitor site at Peking University, and data on the daily level of gaseous air pollutants {sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2))} from the Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center between June 1, 2004 and December 31, 2006. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to evaluate associations between CVD health outcomes and ambient air pollutants. 8377 hospital ER visits of CVD were collected in our study. After adjusting the temperature and the relative humidity, the associations for 10 microg/m(3) increases in levels of PM(2.5), SO(2), or NO(2) and hospital ER visits for cardiovascular diseases were statistically significant with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.005{95% confidence interval (CI): 1.001-1.009}, 1.014(95% CI: 1.004-1.024), and 1.016(95% CI: 1.003-1.029), respectively. These findings suggest that elevated levels of ambient air pollutants are associated with the increase in hospital ER visits for CVD in Beijing, China.

  20. Hydrogen peroxide vapour for decontaminating air-conditioning ducts and rooms of an emergency complex in northern India: time to move on.

    PubMed

    Taneja, N; Biswal, M; Kumar, A; Edwin, A; Sunita, T; Emmanuel, R; Gupta, A K; Sharma, M

    2011-07-01

    Overcrowding and patient overload in emergency services areas often mean that inadequate attention is paid to thorough cleaning, disinfection of rooms and air-conditioning ducts, which would require closing the area concerned. Over a period of time, this leads to accumulation of lint, fibre, dust and fungal growth. This study assessed the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide fog to decontaminate the air-conditioning ducts as well as for room disinfection without having to close down the area. The Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research emergency complex, Chandigarh, is distributed over three floors housing nine air-handling units (AHUs) and seven wards. The work was carried out over a period of seven days and involved cleaning of air-conditioning ducts and wards, cleaning and disinfection of fittings and furniture, vacuuming and fogging of AHU, ducts and room air. Fogging was done with 20% Ecoshield fog, a complex formulation of stabilised hydrogen peroxide 11% w/v with 0.015% w/v silver nitrate. Pre- and post-fogging samples were taken for microbiological culture, and air samples were also collected. Hydrogen peroxide fogging was highly effective for disinfection of room air, furniture and other articles. It decontaminated the air-conditioning ducts effectively, was rapid and cheaper than formalin, and no adverse effects were noted. There was minimum disturbance to the patients and the treated areas were ready to be populated again after 5-6h. Hydrogen peroxide has the advantage of being safer, less irritating, and has shorter cycle times compared with formalin fumigation which is more commonly practised in India. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 8. VIEW OF ROOM 101 (ASSEMBLY ROOM) FROM NORTHEAST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF ROOM 101 (ASSEMBLY ROOM) FROM NORTHEAST CORNER SHOWING FLEXIBLE AIR-CONDITIONING DUCT - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Vehicle Support Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. 12. "TAPE ROOM" LOCATED AT SOUTHEAST CORNER OF MAIN ROOM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. "TAPE ROOM" LOCATED AT SOUTHEAST CORNER OF MAIN ROOM. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Instrumentation & Control Building, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. Cooling the Planet: Opportunities for Deployment of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Nihar; Waide, Paul; Phadke, Amol

    2013-04-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy, of Air Conditioner (AC) efficiency in support of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative.1 The International Energy Studies group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in collaboration with Navigant Consulting Inc. performed the analysis. SEAD aims to transform the global market by increasing the penetration of highly efficient equipment and appliances. SEAD partners work together in voluntary activities to: (1) “raise the efficiency ceiling” by pulling superefficient appliances and equipment into the market through cooperation on measures like incentives, procurement, awards, and research and development (R&D) investments; (2) “raise the efficiency floor” by working together to bolster national or regional policies like minimum efficiency standards; and (3) “strengthen the efficiency foundations” of programs by coordinating technical work to support these activities.2 The objective of this analysis is to provide the background technical information necessary to improve the efficiency of ACs and to provide a foundation for the activities of SEAD participating countries. We find that even the best currently available technology offers large efficiency improvement opportunities (35% to 50% reduction in energy consumption from the market average) in most SEAD countries. The cost effective efficiency improvements range from 20% to 30% reduction in energy consumption based on a consumer perspective.

  4. Room air conditioning by means of overnight cooling of the concrete ceiling

    SciTech Connect

    Meierhans, R.A.

    1996-11-01

    Active control of the storage mass of an office building in Horgen, Switzerland, by means of a water-carrying pipe system installed in the core of the concrete ceilings has already proven successful over a period of three summers. Comfort measurements in practice and under load-simulated operating conditions have confirmed the suitability of the system for small and medium loads. During the day, only the supply air volume of the mechanical ventilation system is cooled to a temperature of 19 C (66.2 F); the heat stored in the concrete mass is discharged overnight. However, the proportion of cooling water generated in the free-cooling mode remained below expectations. This is attributable to the clearly lower inner thermal loads and the facade insulation, which is no longer up-to-date. Since the building already dispenses a part of its heat via the facade on cooler summer nights, the utilization efficiency of the free concrete core-cooling system diminishes somewhat in importance. The experience gained, however, is recommendation enough for the employment of the embedded pipework system, not only for the cooling but also for the heating of well-insulated buildings with small and medium cooling loads.

  5. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Pierrot, Andre

    2010-06-07

    of all countries energy strategies. As we all know, a very large amount of total energy consumption is due to energy consuming products and equipment, which account for about 50% of China's total energy consumption. However, the current average energy utilization efficiency of this sector is only about 60%, 10 percent lower than the international advanced level. Therefore, China's energy consuming products and equipment sector holds great energy-saving potential. On the other hand, the energy supplied to these products is mainly from fossil fuel combustion, a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Therefore, improving the energy efficiency and augmenting the market share of market-dominant energy consuming products is of significant importance to achieving China's energy saving and emission reduction target and is an effective means to deal with energy and environmental constraints and climate change issues. Main energy consuming products generally include widely-used home appliances, industrial equipment, office equipment, transportation vehicles, etc. China is one of the major manufacturers and exporters of energy end-using products such as air-conditioners, refrigerators, televisions, etc. Their overall energy efficiency is comparatively low and the products are poorly designed, leading to great energy-saving potential. For example, electricity consumption of air conditioners accounts for about 20% of China's total electricity consumption and 40% of the summer electricity peak load in large and medium cities. However, less than 5% of units sold in the domestic market in 2009 reached the standard's highly efficient level of grade 2 above. The electricity consumption of electric motors and their related drive systems accounts for about 60% of China's total electricity consumption; however, less than 2% of the domestic market share consists of energy-efficient electric motor products. Promoting the energy efficiency and market shares of main energy

  6. Large Animal Model of Pumpless Arteriovenous Extracorporeal CO₂ Removal Using Room Air via Subclavian Vessels.

    PubMed

    Witer, Lucas J; Howard, Ryan A; Trahanas, John M; Bryner, Benjamin S; Alghanem, Fares; Hoffman, Hayley R; Cornell, Marie S; Bartlett, Robert H; Rojas-Peña, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    End-stage lung disease (ESLD) causes progressive hypercapnia and dyspnea and impacts quality of life. Many extracorporeal support (ECS) configurations for CO2 removal resolve symptoms but limit ambulation. An ovine model of pumpless ECS using subclavian vessels was developed to allow for ambulatory support. Vascular grafts were anastomosed to the left subclavian vessels in four healthy sheep. A low-resistance membrane oxygenator was attached in an arteriovenous (AV) configuration. Device function was evaluated in each animal while awake and spontaneously breathing and while mechanically ventilated with hypercapnia induced. Sweep gas (FiO2 = 0.21) to the device was increased from 0 to 15 L/min, and arterial and postdevice blood gases, as well as postdevice air, were sampled. Hemodynamics remained stable with average AV shunt flows of 1.34 ± 0.14 L/min. In awake animals, CO2 removal was 3.4 ± 1.0 ml/kg/min at maximum sweep gas flow. Respiratory rate decreased from 60 ± 25 at baseline to 30 ± 11 breaths per minute. In animals with induced hypercapnia, PaCO2 increased to 73.9 ± 15.1. At maximum sweep gas flow, CO2 removal was 3.4 ± 0.4 ml/kg/min and PaCO2 decreased to 49.1 ± 6.7 mm Hg. Subclavian AV access is effective in lowering PaCO2 and respiratory rate and is potentially an effective ambulatory destination therapy for ESLD patients.

  7. A randomized controlled study comparing room air with carbon dioxide for abdominal pain, distention, and recovery time in patients undergoing colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Ju; Lee, Jennifer; Puryear, Magaly; Wong, Roy K H; Lake, Jason M; Maydonovitch, Corrine L; Belle, Lavern; Moawad, Fouad J

    2014-01-01

    Colonoscopy remains the gold standard for colorectal cancer screening. Many barriers to the procedure exist including the possibility of abdominal discomfort that may occur with insufflation. Carbon dioxide (CO2), which is rapidly absorbed in the blood stream, is an alternate method used to distend the lumen during colonoscopy. The goal of this study was to compare patient discomfort, abdominal girth, and recovery time in 2 groups of patients randomized to CO2 versus room air insufflation during colonoscopy. Using a Wong-Baker score, we found statistical difference in postprocedural discomfort levels (CO2 Group: 1.15 ± 2.0 vs. room air: 0.41 ± 0.31, p = .015) and a significantly greater increase in abdominal girth over CO2 immediately postprocedure (room air: 1.06 ± 1.29 inches vs. CO2: 0.56 ± 0.73 inches, p = .054) girth immediately postprocedure; however, recovery time was similar between the 2 study arms (CO2: 9.1 ± 16.2 minutes vs. room air: 10.2 ± 18.6 minutes, p = .713). Further studies are needed to determine whether CO2 is cost-effective and improves patient satisfaction with colonoscopy.

  8. Effects of lighting and air movement on temperatures in reproductive organs of plants in a closed plant growth facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Y.; Hirai, H.

    Temperature increases in plant reproductive organs such as anthers and stigmas could cause fertility impediments and thus produce sterile seeds under artificial lighting conditions without adequately controlled environments in closed plant growth facilities. There is a possibility such a situation could occur in Bioregenerative Life Support Systems under microgravity conditions in space because there will be little natural convective or thermal mixing. This study was conducted to determine the temperature of the plant reproductive organs as affected by illumination and air movement under normal gravitational forces on the earth and to make an estimation of the temperature increase in reproductive organs in closed plant growth facilities under microgravity in space. Thermal images of reproductive organs of rice and strawberry were captured using infrared thermography at air temperatures of 10 11 °C. Compared to the air temperature, temperatures of petals, stigmas and anthers of strawberry increased by 24, 22 and 14 °C, respectively, after 5 min of lighting at an irradiance of 160 W m-2 from incandescent lamps. Temperatures of reproductive organs and leaves of strawberry were significantly higher than those of rice. The temperatures of petals, stigmas, anthers and leaves of strawberry decreased by 13, 12, 13 and 14 °C, respectively, when the air velocity was increased from 0.1 to 1.0 ms-1. These results show that air movement is necessary to reduce the temperatures of plant reproductive organs in plant growth facilities.

  9. Controllable Growth of Perovskite Films by Room-Temperature Air Exposure for Efficient Planar Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Dyck, Ondrej; Poplawsky, Jonathan; Keum, Jong; Das, Sanjib; Puretzky, Alexander; Aytug, Tolga; Joshi, Pooran C; Rouleau, Christopher M; Duscher, Gerd; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2015-12-01

    A two-step solution processing approach has been established to grow void-free perovskite films for low-cost high-performance planar heterojunction photovoltaic devices. A high-temperature thermal annealing treatment was applied to drive the diffusion of CH3NH3I precursor molecules into a compact PbI2 layer to form perovskite films. However, thermal annealing for extended periods led to degraded device performance owing to the defects generated by decomposition of perovskite into PbI2. A controllable layer-by-layer spin-coating method was used to grow "bilayer" CH3NH3I/PbI2 films, and then drive the interdiffusion between PbI2 and CH3NH3I layers by a simple air exposure at room temperature for making well-oriented, highly crystalline perovskite films without thermal annealing. This high degree of crystallinity resulted in a carrier diffusion length of ca. 800 nm and a high device efficiency of 15.6%, which is comparable to values reported for thermally annealed perovskite films.

  10. Cost-Benefit of Improving the Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners (Inverter and Fixed Speed) in India

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Nihar; Abhyankar, Nikit; Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Diddi, Saurabh; Ahuja, Deepanshu; Mukherjee, P. K.; Walia, Archana

    2016-06-30

    Improving efficiency of air conditioners (ACs) typically involves improving the efficiency of various components such as compressors, heat exchangers, expansion valves, refrigerant and fans. We estimate the incremental cost of improving the efficiency of room ACs based on the cost of improving the efficiency of its key components. Further, we estimate the retail price increase required to cover the cost of efficiency improvement, compare it with electricity bill savings, and calculate the payback period for consumers to recover the additional price of a more efficient AC. We assess several efficiency levels, two of which are summarized below in the report. The finding that significant efficiency improvement is cost effective from a consumer perspective is robust over a wide range of assumptions. If we assume a 50% higher incremental price compared to our baseline estimate, the payback period for the efficiency level of 3.5 ISEER is 1.1 years. Given the findings of this study, establishing more stringent minimum efficiency performance criteria (one star level) should be evaluated rigorously considering significant benefits to consumers, energy security and environment.

  11. Controllable Growth of Perovskite Films by Room-Temperature Air Exposure for Efficient Planar Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Bin; Dyck, Ondrej; Poplawsky, Jonathan; Keum, Jong; Das, Sanjib; Puretzky, Alexander; Aytug, Tolga; Joshi, Pooran C.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Duscher, Gerd; Geohegan, David B.; Xiao, Kai

    2015-12-01

    A two-step-solution-processing approach has been established to grow void-free perovskite films for low-cost and high-performance planar heterojunction photovoltaic devices. We generally applied a high-temperature thermal annealing treatment in order to drive the diffusion of CH3NH3I precursor molecules into the compact PbI2 layer to form perovskite films. But, thermal annealing for extended periods would lead to degraded device performance due to the defects generated by decomposition of perovskite into PbI2. In this work, we explored a controllable layer-by-layer spin-coating method to grow bilayer CH3NH3I/PbI2 films, and then drive the interdiffusion between PbI2 and CH3NH3I layers by a simple room-temperature-air-exposure for making well-oriented, highly-crystalline perovskite films without thermal annealing. This high degree of crystallinity resulted in a carrier diffusion length of ~ 800 nm and high device efficiency of 15.6%, which is comparable to the reported values from thermally-annealed perovskite films based counterparts. Finally, the simplicity and high device performance of this processing approach is highly promising for direct integration into industrial-scale device manufacture.

  12. Controllable Growth of Perovskite Films by Room-Temperature Air Exposure for Efficient Planar Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Bin; Dyck, Ondrej; Poplawsky, Jonathan; ...

    2015-12-01

    A two-step-solution-processing approach has been established to grow void-free perovskite films for low-cost and high-performance planar heterojunction photovoltaic devices. We generally applied a high-temperature thermal annealing treatment in order to drive the diffusion of CH3NH3I precursor molecules into the compact PbI2 layer to form perovskite films. But, thermal annealing for extended periods would lead to degraded device performance due to the defects generated by decomposition of perovskite into PbI2. In this work, we explored a controllable layer-by-layer spin-coating method to grow bilayer CH3NH3I/PbI2 films, and then drive the interdiffusion between PbI2 and CH3NH3I layers by a simple room-temperature-air-exposure for makingmore » well-oriented, highly-crystalline perovskite films without thermal annealing. This high degree of crystallinity resulted in a carrier diffusion length of ~ 800 nm and high device efficiency of 15.6%, which is comparable to the reported values from thermally-annealed perovskite films based counterparts. Finally, the simplicity and high device performance of this processing approach is highly promising for direct integration into industrial-scale device manufacture.« less

  13. Cost-Benefit of Improving the Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners (Inverter and Fixed Speed) in India

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar; Abhyankar, Nikit; Park, Won Young; Diddi, Saurabh; Ahuja, Deepanshu; Mukherjee, P. K.; Walia, Archana

    2016-06-01

    Improving efficiency of air conditioners (ACs) typically involves improving the efficiency of various components such as compressors, heat exchangers, expansion valves, refrigerant,and fans. We estimate the incremental cost of improving the efficiency of room ACs based on the cost of improving the efficiency of its key components. Further, we estimate the retail price increase required to cover the cost of efficiency improvement, compare it with electricity bill savings, and calculate the payback period for consumers to recover the additional price of a more efficient AC. The finding that significant efficiency improvement is cost effective from a consumer perspective is robust over a wide range of assumptions. If we assume a 50% higher incremental price compared to our baseline estimate, the payback period for the efficiency level of 3.5 ISEER is 1.1 years. Given the findings of this study, establishing more stringent minimum efficiency performance criteria (one-star level) should be evaluated rigorously considering significant benefits to consumers, energy security, and environment

  14. An evaluation of interventions for reducing the risk of PRRSV introduction to filtered farms via retrograde air movement through idle fans.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Carmen; Otake, Satoshi; Davies, Peter; Dee, Scott

    2012-06-15

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically significant pathogen of pigs that can be transported via the airborne route out to 9.1 km. To reduce this risk, large swine facilities have started to implement systems to filter contaminated incoming air. A proposed means of air filtration failure is the retrograde movement of air (back-drafting) from the external environment into the animal air space through non-filtered points such as idle wall fans; however, this risk has not been validated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to prove that PRRSV introduction via retrograde air movement through idle fans is a true risk; (2) to determine the minimum retrograde air velocity necessary to introduce PRRSV to an animal airspace from an external source; and (3) to evaluate the efficacy of different interventions designed to reduce this risk. A retrograde air movement model was used to test a range of velocities and interventions, including a standard plastic shutter, a plastic shutter plus a canvas cover, a nylon air chute, an aluminum shutter plus an air chute and a double shutter system. Results indicated that retrograde air movement is a real risk for PRRSV introduction to a filtered air space; however, it required a velocity of 0.76 m/s. In addition, while all the interventions designed to reduce this risk were superior when compared to a standard plastic shutter, significant differences were detected between treatments.

  15. Modeling and forecasting daily movement of ambient air mean PM₂.₅ concentration based on the elliptic orbit model with weekly quasi-periodic extension: a case study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zong-chang

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the issue of air pollution has continuously been a global public health concern. Modeling and forecasting daily movement of ambient air mean PM2.5 concentration is an increasingly important task as it is intimately associated with human health that the air pollution has unignorable negative effects in reducing air quality, damaging environment, even causing serious harm to health. It is demonstrated that daily movement of mean PM₂.₅ concentration approximately exhibits weekly cyclical variations as daily particle pollution in the air is largely influenced by human daily activities. Then, based on weekly quasi-periodic extension for daily movement of mean PM₂.₅ concentration, the called elliptic orbit model is proposed to describe its movement. By mapping daily movement of mean PM₂.₅ concentration as one time series into the polar coordinates, each 7-day movement is depicted as one elliptic orbit. Experimental result and analysis indicate workability and effectiveness of the proposed method. Here we show that with the weekly quasi-periodic extension, daily movements of mean PM₂.₅ concentration at the given monitoring stations in Xiangtan of China are well described by the elliptic orbit model, which provides a vivid description for modeling and prediction daily movement of mean PM₂.₅ concentration in a concise and intuitive way.

  16. Effect of ultraclean air in operating rooms on deep sepsis in the joint after total hip or knee replacement: a randomised study.

    PubMed

    Lidwell, O M; Lowbury, E J; Whyte, W; Blowers, R; Stanley, S J; Lowe, D

    1982-07-03

    In a multicentre study of sepsis after total hip or knee replacement the operations performed by each surgeon were allocated at random between control and ultraclean-air operating rooms. Records were obtained from over 8000 such operations. In the patients whose prostheses were inserted in an operating room ventilated by an ultraclean-air system the incidence of joint sepsis confirmed at reoperation within the next one to four years was about half that of patients who had had the operation in a conventionally ventilated room at the same hospital. When whole-body exhaust-ventilated suits had been worn by the operating team in a theatre ventilated by an ultraclean-air system the incidence of sepsis was about a quarter of that found after operations performed with conventional ventilation. When all groups in the trial were considered together the analysis showed deep sepsis after 63 out of 4133 operations in the control group (1.5%) and after 23 out of 3922 operations in the ultraclean-air groups (0.6%) (ratio 2.6, 95% confidence limits 1.6-4.2; p less than 0.001). The design of the study did not include a strictly controlled test of the effect of prophylactic antibiotics, but their use was associated with a lower incidence of sepsis than in patients who had received no antibiotic prophylaxis at their operations (0.6% (34/5831) v 2.3% (52/2221); ratio 4.0).

  17. Effect of ultraclean air in operating rooms on deep sepsis in the joint after total hip or knee replacement: a randomised study.

    PubMed Central

    Lidwell, O M; Lowbury, E J; Whyte, W; Blowers, R; Stanley, S J; Lowe, D

    1982-01-01

    In a multicentre study of sepsis after total hip or knee replacement the operations performed by each surgeon were allocated at random between control and ultraclean-air operating rooms. Records were obtained from over 8000 such operations. In the patients whose prostheses were inserted in an operating room ventilated by an ultraclean-air system the incidence of joint sepsis confirmed at reoperation within the next one to four years was about half that of patients who had had the operation in a conventionally ventilated room at the same hospital. When whole-body exhaust-ventilated suits had been worn by the operating team in a theatre ventilated by an ultraclean-air system the incidence of sepsis was about a quarter of that found after operations performed with conventional ventilation. When all groups in the trial were considered together the analysis showed deep sepsis after 63 out of 4133 operations in the control group (1.5%) and after 23 out of 3922 operations in the ultraclean-air groups (0.6%) (ratio 2.6, 95% confidence limits 1.6-4.2; p less than 0.001). The design of the study did not include a strictly controlled test of the effect of prophylactic antibiotics, but their use was associated with a lower incidence of sepsis than in patients who had received no antibiotic prophylaxis at their operations (0.6% (34/5831) v 2.3% (52/2221); ratio 4.0). PMID:6805791

  18. Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Hospital Emergency Room Visits for Respiratory Disease in Urban Areas in Beijing, China, in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo; Wang, Chao; Huang, Fangfang; Gao, Qi; Wu, Lijuan; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Jin; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    Background Heavy fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution occurs frequently in China. However, epidemiological research on the association between short-term exposure to PM2.5 pollution and respiratory disease morbidity is still limited. This study aimed to explore the association between PM2.5 pollution and hospital emergency room visits (ERV) for total and cause-specific respiratory diseases in urban areas in Beijing. Methods Daily counts of respiratory ERV from Jan 1 to Dec 31, 2013, were obtained from ten general hospitals located in urban areas in Beijing. Concurrently, data on PM2.5 were collected from the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau, including 17 ambient air quality monitoring stations. A generalized-additive model was used to explore the respiratory effects of PM2.5, after controlling for confounding variables. Subgroup analyses were also conducted by age and gender. Results A total of 92,464 respiratory emergency visits were recorded during the study period. The mean daily PM2.5 concentration was 102.1±73.6 μg/m3. Every 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration at lag0 was associated with an increase in ERV, as follows: 0.23% for total respiratory disease (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11%-0.34%), 0.19% for upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (95%CI: 0.04%-0.35%), 0.34% for lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) (95%CI: 0.14%-0.53%) and 1.46% for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) (95%CI: 0.13%-2.79%). The strongest association was identified between AECOPD and PM2.5 concentration at lag0-3 (3.15%, 95%CI: 1.39%-4.91%). The estimated effects were robust after adjusting for SO2, O3, CO and NO2. Females and people 60 years of age and older demonstrated a higher risk of respiratory disease after PM2.5 exposure. Conclusion PM2.5 was significantly associated with respiratory ERV, particularly for URTI, LRTI and AECOPD in Beijing. The susceptibility to PM2.5 pollution varied by gender and age. PMID

  19. Historical and projected emissions of HCFC-22 and HFC-410A from China's room air conditioning sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ziyuan; Fang, Xuekun; Li, Li; Bie, Pengju; Li, Zhifang; Hu, Jianxin; Zhang, Boya; Zhang, Jianbo

    2016-05-01

    Recent decades witnessed the increase in production and uses of HCFC-22 (chlorodifluoromethane, CHClF2) and its alternative, HFC-410A (a blend of difluoromethane and pentafluoroethane), in China in response to the booming of room air conditioners (RACs) for both domestic use and exports. HCFC-22 is an ozone-depleting substance under the Montreal Protocol, while both HCFC-22 and HFC-410A are greenhouse gases (GHGs). This study provides a most comprehensive consumption and emission inventory of refrigerants emissions (HCFC-22 and HFC-410A) from RAC sector during 1995-2014, for the first time. Our estimates show that HCFC-22 emissions increased from 0.7 Gg/yr in 1995 to 48.2 Gg/yr in 2014. The accumulative emissions contributed to global total HCFCs emissions by 4.4% (3.3%-6.1%) CFC-11-equivalent (CFC-11-eq) and 5.4% (4.1%-7.5%) CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq) during 1995-2012. If left uncontrolled, accumulative emissions of HFC-410A will be12.4 (7.1-20.2) CO2-eq Pg during 2015-2050, which can offset the global climate benefits achieved by the Montreal Protocol. The HFC-410A emissions from China's RAC sector are estimated to be of importance to both global HFCs emissions and China's GHG emissions. Further, we probed the emission mitigation performances of the current 2014 North American Proposal scenario and a modified more ambitious scenario. The emissions of two mitigation scenarios are only 28% and 22% of the emissions without mitigation actions, respectively. This study is the first effort to map the transition of eliminated substance HCFC-22 and its alternative HFC-410A in RAC sector. Therefore, alternative chemicals should be scrutinized with cautions before they are promoted and applied.

  20. Impact of room air resuscitation on early growth response gene-1 in a neonatal piglet model of cerebral hypoxic ischemia.

    PubMed

    Tyree, Melissa M; Dalgard, Clifton; O'Neill, J Timothy

    2006-03-01

    Early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1) is up-regulated by hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in adult animals, functioning as a master switch in inflammation and thrombogenesis. We hypothesized that resuscitation from HI with 100% O2 would result in greater Egr-1 expression, ROS, and cell death (CD) in the brains of newborn piglets than 21% O2. Two control groups breathed 21% O2 for 1 h followed by 21% or 100% O2 for 1 h. Two HI groups underwent carotid artery occlusion and breathed 8-12% O2 for 1 h followed by occlusion release and 21% or 100% O2 for 1 h. Brain Egr-1 mRNA and protein were analyzed via quantitative PCR and Western blot. CD and ROS were measured by fluorescence microscopy. Egr-1 mRNA expression increased throughout the brain in response to HI with regional heterogeneity, but protein levels did not. Resuscitation with 100% oxygen did not cause any additional Egr-1 mRNA, Egr-1 protein, CD, or ROS production as compared with 21% oxygen. There was no difference in physiologic recovery after HI with room air compared with 100% O2 resuscitation. However, 100% O2 administration was associated with increased CD in the brainstem independent of HI. Therefore, 100% O2 may have been toxic to some brainstem cells and potentially have significance in long-term neurologic sequelae seen after neonatal HI/resuscitation. Egr-1 protein levels may be tightly regulated in an attempt to diminish neurotoxicity or to enhance plasticity at this stage of development.

  1. Tension-Tension Fatigue Behavior of Unidirectional C/Sic Ceramic-Matrix Composite at Room Temperature and 800 °C in Air Atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Li, Longbiao

    2015-01-01

    The tension-tension fatigue behavior of unidirectional C/SiC ceramic-matrix composite at room temperature and 800 °C under air has been investigated. The fatigue hysteresis modulus and fatigue hysteresis loss energy corresponding to different number of applied cycles have been analyzed. The fatigue hysteresis loops models for different interface slip cases have been derived based on the fatigue damage mechanism of fiber slipping relative to matrix in the interface debonded region upon unloading and subsequent reloading. The fiber/matrix interface shear stress has been estimated for different numbers of applied cycles. By combining the interface shear stress degradation model and fibers strength degradation model with fibers failure model, the tension-tension fatigue life S-N curves of unidirectional C/SiC composite at room temperature and 800 °C under air have been predicted.

  2. Audibility of dispersion error in room acoustic finite-difference time-domain simulation in the presence of absorption of air.

    PubMed

    Saarelma, Jukka; Savioja, Lauri

    2016-12-01

    The finite-difference time-domain method has gained increasing interest for room acoustic prediction use. A well-known limitation of the method is a frequency and direction dependent dispersion error. In this study, the audibility of dispersion error in the presence of air absorption is measured. The results indicate that the dispersion error in the worst-case direction of the studied scheme gets masked by the air absorption at a phase velocity error percentage of 0.28% at the frequency of 20 kHz.

  3. Operator's Manual, Boiler Room Operations and Maintenance. Supplement A, Air Pollution Training Institute Self-Instructional Course SI-466.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air Pollution Training Inst.

    This Operator's Manual is a supplement to a self-instructional course prepared for the United States Environmental Protection Agency. This publication is the Boiler Room Handbook for operating and maintaining the boiler and the boiler room. As the student completes this handbook, he is putting together a manual for running his own boiler. The…

  4. A Physical Experiment to determine the Impact of Atmospheric Condensation of Water Vapor on Surface Air Movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunyard, P. P.; Nechev, P.

    2013-12-01

    A physical experiment, in which atmospheric air is enclosed in two interconnecting 4.8-metre high insulated PVC columns, consistently gives results showing that the condensation of water vapor, precipitated by means of refrigeration coils, gives rise to detectable air movements, with air speeds of up to 0.1 m/s. Once the compressor, sited well away from the two columns, is shut down, heavy drops of precipitated water are obtained which funnel into a flask for collection and measurement. The results in kg.m-2 (mm) from the 20 m3 volume of enclosed air accord well (>90%) with the physical calculations based on water vapor as an ideal gas. Air flow, resulting from the highly localized condensation, is measured through the movement of light-weight gauzes and an anemometer. It has a circulation time of some two minutes, such that both columns show cooling and a significant reduction in specific humidity from 0.01 to 0.005 (kg water vapor to kg dry air, r) with a drop in relative humidity of up to 40 per cent. Air flow is minimal during the control, non-refrigeration period of the experiment but becomes substantial within a minute of the compressor being switched on. The negative partial pressure change peaks at as much as 0.4 Pa/s during the first 30 minutes but reduces to approx. 0.08 Pa/s during the latter part of the 110 minute- long experiment. Airflow displays an inverse relationship to the partial pressure change, initially rising rapidly and then reducing before returning to zero once refrigeration has been switched off. Inverse correlations of up to 0.8 or higher between the partial pressure reduction and the airflow are obtained routinely. Semi-aquatic vegetation from the nearby marshland enhances precipitation, suggesting that evapotranspiration adds significantly to humidity. Without vegetation the condensation rate is 0.06 to 0.07 millimol.m-3.s-1 on average compared with 0.11 when vegetation is present. Cooling, by some 2°C, combined with a reduction in

  5. A Physical Experiment to determine the Impact of Atmospheric Condensation of Water Vapour on Surface Air Movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunyard, Peter

    2014-05-01

    A physical experiment, in which atmospheric air is enclosed in two interconnecting 4.8-metre high insulated PVC columns, consistently gives results showing that the condensation of water vapor, precipitated by means of refrigeration coils, gives rise to detectable air movements, with air speeds of up to 0.1 m/s. Once the compressor, sited well away from the two columns, is shut down, heavy drops of precipitated water are obtained which funnel into a flask for collection and measurement. The results in kg.m-2 (mm) from the 20 m3 volume of enclosed air accord well (>90%) with the physical calculations based on water vapour as an ideal gas. Air flow, resulting from the highly localized condensation, is measured through the movement of light-weight gauzes and an anemometer. It has a circulation time of some two minutes, such that both columns show cooling and a significant reduction in specific humidity from 0.01 to 0.005 (kg water vapour to kg dry air, r) with a drop in relative humidity of up to 40 per cent. Air flow is minimal during the control, non-refrigeration period of the experiment but becomes substantial within a minute of the compressor being switched on. The negative partial pressure change peaks at as much as 0.4 Pa/s during the first 30 minutes but reduces to approx.0.08 Pa/s during the latter part of the 110 minute-long experiment. Airflow displays an inverse relationship to the partial pressure change, initially rising rapidly and then reducing before returning to zero once refrigeration has been switched off. Inverse correlations of up to 0.8 or higher between the partial pressure reduction and the airflow are obtained routinely. Semi-aquatic vegetation from the nearby marshland enhances precipitation, suggesting that evapotranspiration adds significantly to humidity. Without vegetation the condensation rate is 0.06 to 0.07 millimol.m-3.s-1 on average compared with 0.11 when vegetation is present. Cooling, by some 2°C, combined with a reduction in

  6. Commander's conference room (room 202), closet and hallway to bathroom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Commander's conference room (room 202), closet and hallway to bathroom and bedroom, leading to conference room 211. Viewing windows look down on the display area. View to north - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  7. Avoiding 100 New Power Plants by Increasing Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners in India: Opportunities and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar

    2014-06-19

    Electricity demand for room ACs is growing very rapidly in emerging economies such as India. We estimate the electricity demand from room ACs in 2030 in India considering factors such as weather and income growth using market data on penetration of ACs in different income classes and climatic regions. We discuss the status of the current standards, labels, and incentive programs to improve the efficiency of room ACs in these markets and assess the potential for further large improvements in efficiency and find that efficiency can be improved by over 40percent cost effectively. The total potential energy savings from Room AC efficiency improvement in India using the best available technology will reach over 118 TWh in 2030; potential peak demand saving is found to be 60 GW by 2030. This is equivalent to avoiding 120 new coal fired power plants of 500 MW each. We discuss policy options to complement, expand and improve the ongoing programs to capture this large potential.

  8. Avoiding 100 new power plants by increasing efficiency of room air conditioners in India: opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar

    2013-10-15

    Electricity demand for room ACs is growing very rapidly in emerging economies such as India. We estimate the electricity demand from room ACs in 2030 in India considering factors such as weather and income growth using market data on penetration of ACs in different income classes and climatic regions. We discuss the status of the current standards, labels, and incentive programs to improve the efficiency of room ACs in these markets and assess the potential for further large improvements in efficiency and find that efficiency can be improved by over 40% cost effectively. The total potential energy savings from Room AC efficiency improvement in India using the best available technology will reach over 118 TWh in 2030; potential peak demand saving is found to be 60 GW by 2030. This is equivalent to avoiding 120 new coal fired power plants of 500 MW each. We discuss policy options to complement, expand and improve the ongoing programs to capture this large potential.

  9. MACHINE ROOM FROM DOORWAY TO COMMUNICATIONS ROOM, VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MACHINE ROOM FROM DOORWAY TO COMMUNICATIONS ROOM, VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, World War II Command Center, Midway Street east of Lexington Avenue, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  10. DETAIL VIEW OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT ROOM, FIRING ROOM NO. 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT ROOM, FIRING ROOM NO. 4, FACING WEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Launch Control Center, LCC Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  11. DETAIL VIEW OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT ROOM, FIRING ROOM NO. 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT ROOM, FIRING ROOM NO. 3, FACING EAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Launch Control Center, LCC Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  12. DETAIL VIEW OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT ROOM, FIRING ROOM NO. 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT ROOM, FIRING ROOM NO. 3, FACING SOUTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Launch Control Center, LCC Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  13. DETAIL VIEW OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT ROOM, FIRING ROOM NO. 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT ROOM, FIRING ROOM NO. 3, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Launch Control Center, LCC Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  14. Interior of Room 163, looking northwest in Generator Room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of Room 163, looking northwest in Generator Room - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Bangor Air National Guard Base Operations Building, At the end of Maine Road, Bangor, Penobscot County, ME

  15. Interior of Room 127, looking southsoutheast in Display Controller's Room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of Room 127, looking south-southeast in Display Controller's Room - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Bangor Air National Guard Base Operations Building, At the end of Maine Road, Bangor, Penobscot County, ME

  16. Interior of Room 126, looking southsoutheast in Tactical Operations Room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of Room 126, looking south-southeast in Tactical Operations Room - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Bangor Air National Guard Base Operations Building, At the end of Maine Road, Bangor, Penobscot County, ME

  17. 44. Launch Control Equipment Room, taken from rear of room. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Launch Control Equipment Room, taken from rear of room. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  18. 42. Launch Control Equipment Room, rear of room. Lyon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Launch Control Equipment Room, rear of room. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  19. 8. CONTROL AND EQUIPMENT ROOM INTERIOR. MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. CONTROL AND EQUIPMENT ROOM INTERIOR. MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM AT RIGHT AND ENTRANCE AT LEFT. Looking east. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing Control Blockhouse, South of Sled Track at east end, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. Console Room, looking southwesterly into Highbay Generator Room Beale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Console Room, looking southwesterly into Highbay Generator Room - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Power Plant, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  1. Looking west in the basement utility room, room 24, overview ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking west in the basement utility room, room 24, overview of air handling system, large walk-in filter, large ducts, pipes, and gauges - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  2. Towards participatory air pollution exposure assessment in a goods movement community

    Treesearch

    Michelle C. Kondo; Chris Mizes; John Lee; Jacqueline McGady-Saier; Lisa O' Malley; Ariel Diliberto; Igor. Burstyn

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution from diesel truck traffic travelling to and from port facilities is a major environmental health concern in areas of Philadelphia such as the Port Richmond neighborhood. Ambient monitoring has limited capability to assess neighborhood- or personal-level exposures to this pollution. We sought to conduct a pilot study using a community-based participatory...

  3. Biomechanics of highly precise movements: the aiming process in air rifle shooting.

    PubMed

    Zatsiorsky, V M; Aktov, A V

    1990-01-01

    The position of the aiming line of the rifle in relation to the target center and fluctuations of the rifle were recorded with the specially designed optoelectronic device and 'Selspot' system respectively. It was found that while aiming, qualified shooters apply a 'fixation' strategy. With an increase in skill level, a decrease in general fluctuations at the rifle as well as random aiming error have been found. The decrease of aiming point fluctuation is partially achieved by compensating rifle movements relative to various degrees of freedom.

  4. Movement of fine particles on an air bubble surface studied using high-speed video microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh V; Evans, Geoffrey M

    2004-05-01

    A CCD high-speed video microscopy system operating at 1000 frames per second was used to obtain direct quantitative measurements of the trajectories of fine glass spheres on the surface of air bubbles. The glass spheres were rendered hydrophobic by a methylation process. Rupture of the intervening water film between a hydrophobic particle and an air bubble with the consequent formation of a three-phase contact was observed. The bubble-particle sliding attachment interaction is not satisfactorily described by the available theories. Surface forces had little effect on the particle sliding with a water film, which ruptured probably due to the submicrometer-sized gas bubbles existing at the hydrophobic particle-water interface.

  5. Towards participatory air pollution exposure assessment in a goods movement community.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Michelle C; Mizes, Chris; Lee, John; McGady-Saier, Jacqueline; O'Malley, Lisa; Diliberto, Ariel; Burstyn, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution from diesel truck traffic travelling to and from port facilities is a major environmental health concern in areas of Philadelphia such as the Port Richmond neighborhood. Ambient monitoring has limited capability to assess neighborhood- or personal-level exposures to this pollution. We sought to conduct a pilot study using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to assess community environmental health concerns, and measure residents' exposure to airborne traffic-related pollutants (fine particles [PM2.5]). The research team established relationships with neighborhood schools and organizations, conducted 24 semistructured interviews, 2 community meetings, and 1 Photovoice exercise. Nine community researchers wore personal monitors that collected PM2.5 in the personal breathing zone for 1 to 3 days over a 6-day period in December 2011. Air pollution and safety hazards from truck traffic, environmental hazards posed by nearby industry, related community health problems, and environmental assets were four major themes emerging from interviews and discussions. Personal monitoring revealed that smoking and smoke exposure had the most pronounced effect on PM2.5 concentrations, and that personal PM2.5 exposure levels were not related to ambient PM2.5 concentrations reported from stationary monitoring stations in Philadelphia. Participation in personal air pollution monitoring and Photovoice exercises helped to increase awareness of pervasive mobile- and point-source diesel emissions throughout the neighborhood and develop priorities for action. Monitoring indicated the negative effects of cigarette smoke exposure, and disconnect between ambient- and personal-level PM2.5 concentrations that emphasized the need for more personal- and local-level monitoring. In addition, participatory methods are appropriate to involve lay persons in personal air pollution monitoring.

  6. Air dispersed essential oils combined with standard sanitization procedures for environmental microbiota control in nosocomial hospitalization rooms.

    PubMed

    Gelmini, Fabrizio; Belotti, Luciano; Vecchi, Sara; Testa, Cristian; Beretta, Giangiacomo

    2016-04-01

    Environmental bacterial contaminant microorganisms are an ongoing problem in hospitals. Essential oil vapours (EO) may help reducing this type of contamination. Aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of nebulized selected essential oils (EO) in reducing the microbial contamination in residential health care house rooms. The study was carried out in a two-story 112-bed tertiary care structure (approximately 1060 m(2)). Contamination in rooms and corridors was monitored for a total of n=5 months, including a starting baseline sampling and one end-study point, and without combined treatment (standard sanitization alone). Contact slides were collected for microbiological analysis. Reductions in both bacterial and fungal contamination were observed between rooms cleaned using standard sanitization alone or in combination with essential oils nebulization (average 90% decrease for total count, P<0.01; 90% for yeasts and molds, P<0.05). Decreases of antibiotic (70%), mucolytic (100%), bronchodilators (100%), and steroidal (67%) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (33%) prescriptions were observed, with no adverse effects on patients. The selected EO composition is effective in reducing both the environmental microbial contamination and pharmaceutical drugs consumption in a nosocomial health care house. This study demonstrates that aerial EO diffusion combined with standard sanitization procedures, has great potential to reduce the microbial contamination in critical hospital environments such as hospitalization rooms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-term room-temperature hydrazine/air fuel cells based on low-cost nanotextured Cu-Ni catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filanovsky, Boris; Granot, Eran; Presman, Igor; Kuras, Iliya; Patolsky, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We present here a long-term room-temperature (RT) direct-liquid hydrazine/air fuel cell device. This hydrazine/air fuel cell is based on low-cost easily-prepared nanotextured Cu-Ni anodes as the hydrazine (Hz) catalyst, combined with a commercial anion-exchange membrane film and a commercial air cathode. In addition, our hydrazine/air fuel cell consists on an improved novel design that results in remarkably high mechanical and chemical stabilities for long periods of operation. This hydrazine/air fuel cell can operates continuously for about ∼2000 h (limited mainly by cathode and membrane deterioration) with continuous fuel supply, and supplies about 0.58 V at 1 A (14.3 mA cm-2, with a discharge efficiency of about 70% (drift is less than 0.01% h-1), and appears to be suitable for mass production. The use of optimally-combined multi-metal electrodes suggests the possibility to create novel catalysts of improved electrochemical efficiency and stability. Our fuel cell devices can find broad applications in different civilian and military field mobile and stationary uses, for instance, in future fuel-cell operated vehicles and stationary back-up power electrical stations.

  8. A Comparative Study of Sound Speed in Air at Room Temperature between a Pressure Sensor and a Sound Sensor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amrani, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the comparison of sound speed measurements in air using two types of sensor that are widely employed in physics and engineering education, namely a pressure sensor and a sound sensor. A computer-based laboratory with pressure and sound sensors was used to carry out measurements of air through a 60 ml syringe. The fast Fourier…

  9. A Comparative Study of Sound Speed in Air at Room Temperature between a Pressure Sensor and a Sound Sensor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amrani, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the comparison of sound speed measurements in air using two types of sensor that are widely employed in physics and engineering education, namely a pressure sensor and a sound sensor. A computer-based laboratory with pressure and sound sensors was used to carry out measurements of air through a 60 ml syringe. The fast Fourier…

  10. Concentration and movement of neonicotinoids as particulate matter downwind during agricultural practices using air samplers in southwestern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Forero, Luis Gabriel; Limay-Rios, Victor; Xue, Yingen; Schaafsma, Arthur

    2017-08-25

    Atmospheric emissions of neonicotinoid seed treatment insecticides as particulate matter in field crops occur mainly for two reasons: 1) due to abraded dust of treated seed generated during planting using vacuum planters, and 2) as a result of disturbances (tillage or wind events) in the surface of parental soils which release wind erodible soil-bound residues. In the present study, concentration and movement of neonicotinoids as particulate matter were quantified under real conditions using passive and active air samplers. Average neonicotinoid concentrations in Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) using passive samplers were 0.48 ng/cm(2), trace, trace (LOD 0.80 and 0.04 ng/cm(2) for clothianidin and thiamethoxam, respectively), and using active samplers 16.22, 1.91 and 0.61 ng/m(3) during planting, tillage and wind events, respectively. There was a difference between events on total neonicotinoid concentration collected in particulate matter using either passive or active sampling. Distance of sampling from the source field during planting of treated seed had an effect on total neonicotinoid air concentration. However, during tillage distance did not present an effect on measured concentrations. Using hypothetical scenarios, values of contact exposure for a honey bee were estimated to be in the range from 1.1% to 36.4% of the reference contact LD50 value of clothianidin of 44 ng/bee. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. National Registry of EMT (Emergency Medical Technicians) Certification of Air Force Emergency Room Technicians - It can be Done.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    from their duty sections? In an interview, TSgt Jack Loyd, NCOIC of Nursing Education at USAF Regional Hospital Maxwell, provided some answers to this...program. The author suggests a senior Non Commissioned Officer (NCO) with extensive emergency room experience or the NCO of Nursing Education . A nurse...Corps, Office of the Surgeon General. Telecon, 21 October 1986. 8. Loyd, Jack, TSgt, USAF. Non Commissioned Officer in Charge, Nursing Education , USAF

  12. Effects of air annealing on CdS quantum dots thin film grown at room temperature by CBD technique intended for photosensor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikh, Shaheed U.; Desale, Dipalee J.; Siddiqui, Farha Y.; Ghosh, Arindam; Birajadar, Ravikiran B.; Ghule, Anil V.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: The effect of different intensities (40, 60 100 and 200 W) of light on CdS quantum dots thin film annealed at 350 °C indicating enhancement in (a) photo-current and (b) photosensitivity. Highlights: ► The preparation of CdS nanodot thin film at room temperature by M-CBD technique. ► Study of air annealing on prepared CdS nanodots thin film. ► The optimized annealing temperature for CdS nanodot thin film is 350 °C. ► Modified CdS thin films can be used in photosensor application. -- Abstract: CdS quantum dots thin-films have been deposited onto the glass substrate at room temperature using modified chemical bath deposition technique. The prepared thin films were further annealed in air atmosphere at 150, 250 and 350 °C for 1 h and subsequently characterized by scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, electrical resistivity and I–V system. The modifications observed in morphology and opto-electrical properties of the thin films are presented.

  13. Comparison of the effects of room air and N2O + O2 used for ProSeal LMA cuff inflation on cuff pressure and oropharyngeal structure.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Murat; Kati, Ismail; Tomak, Yakup; Yuca, Koksal

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different inflating gases used for ProSeal LMA (PLMA) cuff inflation on cuff pressure, oropharyngeal structure, and the incidence of sore throat. Eighty patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists; ASA I-II) were randomly divided into two groups. PLMA cuff inflation was achieved with appropriate volumes of 50% N2O + 50% O2 in group I and room air in group II, respectively. When the PLMA was removed, oropharyngeal examination was carried out immediately, using a rigid optical telescope. Patients were asked about sore throat symptoms postoperatively. Cuff pressures were significantly lower in group I, except at the initial pressure measurement. Cuff pressure was positively correlated with the length of the operation in group II, and negatively correlated in group I. PLMA cuff inflation with room air led to increased cuff pressure during the operation, possibly due to the diffusion of N2O into the cuff. We consider that a PLMA cuff inflated with an N2O-O2 mixture is convenient, especially in operations in which N2O has been used.

  14. 9 CFR 590.550 - Washing and sanitizing room or area facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... facilities. 590.550 Section 590.550 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... facilities. (a) This room or area shall be well lighted, and of sufficient size to permit operators to... area well segregated from the breaking areas and be well ventilated with air movement directed...

  15. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  16. Radon as a tracer of daily, seasonal and spatial air movements in the Underground Tourist Route "Coal Mine" (SW Poland).

    PubMed

    Tchorz-Trzeciakiewicz, Dagmara Eulalia; Parkitny, Tomasz

    2015-11-01

    The surveys of radon concentrations in the Underground Tourist Route "Coal Mine" were carried out using passive and active measurement techniques. Passive methods with application of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors LR115 were used at 4 points in years 2004-2007 and at 21 points in year 2011. These detectors were exchanged at the beginning of every season in order to get information about seasonal and spatial changes of radon concentrations. The average radon concentration noted in this facility was 799 Bq m(-3) and is consistent with radon concentrations noted in Polish coal mines. Seasonal variations, observed in this underground tourist route, were as follows: the highest radon concentrations were noted during summers, the lowest during winters, during springs and autumns intermediate but higher in spring than in autumn. The main external factor that affected seasonal changes of radon concentrations was the seasonal variation of outside temperature. No correlation between seasonal variations of radon concentrations and seasonal average atmospheric pressures was found. Spatial variations of radon concentrations corresponded with air movements inside the Underground Tourist Route "Coal Mine". The most vivid air movements were noted along the main tunnel in adit and at the place located near no blinded (in the upper part) shaft. Daily variations of radon concentrations were recorded in May 2012 using RadStar RS-230 as the active measurement technique. Typical daily variations of radon concentrations followed the pattern that the highest radon concentrations were recorded from 8-9 a.m. to 7-8 p.m. and the lowest during nights. The main factor responsible for hourly variations of radon concentrations was the daily variation of outside temperatures. No correlations were found between radon concentration and other meteorological parameters such as atmospheric pressure, wind velocity or precipitation. Additionally, the influence of human factor on radon

  17. 10. CONTROL ROOM INTERIOR. Looking into southwest corner. CONTROL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. CONTROL ROOM INTERIOR. Looking into southwest corner. CONTROL ROOM INTERIOR, SHOWING ESCAPE HATCH. Looking north along east wall. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Instrumentation & Control Building, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. Air Pollution, Aeroallergens, and Emergency Room Visits for Acute Respiratory Diseases and Gastroenteric Disorders among Young Children in Six Italian Cities

    PubMed Central

    Orazzo, Flavia; Nespoli, Luigi; Ito, Kazuhiko; Tassinari, Davide; Giardina, Daniela; Funis, Maurizio; Cecchi, Alessandra; Trapani, Chiara; Forgeschi, Gisella; Vignini, Massimo; Nosetti, Luana; Pigna, Sabrina; Zanobetti, Antonella

    2009-01-01

    Background Past studies reported evidence of associations between air pollution and respiratory symptoms and morbidity for children. Few studies examined associations between air pollution and emergency room (ER) visits for wheezing, and even fewer for gastroenteric illness. We conducted a multicity analysis of the relationship between air pollution and ER visits for wheezing and gastroenteric disorder in children 0–2 years of age. Methods We obtained ER visit records for wheezing and gastroenteric disorder from six Italian cities. A city-specific case–crossover analysis was applied to estimate effects of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, and carbon monoxide, adjusting for immediate and delayed effects of temperature. Lagged effects of air pollutants up to 6 prior days were examined. The city-specific results were combined using a random-effect meta-analysis. Results CO and SO2 were most strongly associated with wheezing, with a 2.7% increase [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.5–4.9] for a 1.04-μg/m3 increase in 7-day average CO and a 3.4% (95% CI, 1.5–5.3) increase for an 8.0-μg/m3 increase in SO2. Positive associations were also found for PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μg and NO2. We found a significant association between the 3-day moving average CO and gastroenteric disorders [3.8% increase (95% CI, 1.0–6.8)]. When data were stratified by season, the associations were stronger in summer for wheezing and in winter for gastroenteric disorders. Conclusion Air pollution is associated with triggering of wheezing and gastroenteric disorders in children 0–2 years of age; more work is needed to understand the mechanisms to help prevent wheezing in children. PMID:20049132

  19. Air pollution, aeroallergens, and emergency room visits for acute respiratory diseases and gastroenteric disorders among young children in six Italian cities.

    PubMed

    Orazzo, Flavia; Nespoli, Luigi; Ito, Kazuhiko; Tassinari, Davide; Giardina, Daniela; Funis, Maurizio; Cecchi, Alessandra; Trapani, Chiara; Forgeschi, Gisella; Vignini, Massimo; Nosetti, Luana; Pigna, Sabrina; Zanobetti, Antonella

    2009-11-01

    Past studies reported evidence of associations between air pollution and respiratory symptoms and morbidity for children. Few studies examined associations between air pollution and emergency room (ER) visits for wheezing, and even fewer for gastroenteric illness. We conducted a multicity analysis of the relationship between air pollution and ER visits for wheezing and gastroenteric disorder in children 0-2 years of age. We obtained ER visit records for wheezing and gastroenteric disorder from six Italian cities. A city-specific case-crossover analysis was applied to estimate effects of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, and carbon monoxide, adjusting for immediate and delayed effects of temperature. Lagged effects of air pollutants up to 6 prior days were examined. The city-specific results were combined using a random-effect meta-analysis. CO and SO(2) were most strongly associated with wheezing, with a 2.7% increase [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.5-4.9] for a 1.04-microg/m(3) increase in 7-day average CO and a 3.4% (95% CI, 1.5-5.3) increase for an 8.0-microg/m(3) increase in SO(2). Positive associations were also found for PM with aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microg and NO(2). We found a significant association between the 3-day moving average CO and gastroenteric disorders [3.8% increase (95% CI, 1.0-6.8)]. When data were stratified by season, the associations were stronger in summer for wheezing and in winter for gastroenteric disorders. Air pollution is associated with triggering of wheezing and gastroenteric disorders in children 0-2 years of age; more work is needed to understand the mechanisms to help prevent wheezing in children.

  20. Association between Air Pollutants and Asthma Emergency Room Visits and Hospital Admissions in Time Series Studies: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xue-yan; Ding, Hong; Jiang, Li-na; Chen, Shao-wei; Zheng, Jin-ping; Qiu, Min; Zhou, Ying-xue; Chen, Qing; Guan, Wei-jie

    2015-01-01

    Background Air pollution constitutes a significant stimulus of asthma exacerbations; however, the impacts of exposure to major air pollutants on asthma-related hospital admissions and emergency room visits (ERVs) have not been fully determined. Objective We sought to quantify the associations between short-term exposure to air pollutants [ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter ≤10μm (PM10) and PM2.5] and the asthma-related emergency room visits (ERV) and hospitalizations. Methods Systematic computerized searches without language limitation were performed. Pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were estimated using the random-effect models. Sensitivity analyses and subgroup analyses were also performed. Results After screening of 246 studies, 87 were included in our analyses. Air pollutants were associated with significantly increased risks of asthma ERVs and hospitalizations [O3: RR(95%CI), 1.009 (1.006, 1.011); I2 = 87.8%, population-attributable fraction (PAF) (95%CI): 0.8 (0.6, 1.1); CO: RR(95%CI), 1.045 (1.029, 1.061); I2 = 85.7%, PAF (95%CI): 4.3 (2.8, 5.7); NO2: RR(95%CI), 1.018 (1.014, 1.022); I2 = 87.6%, PAF (95%CI): 1.8 (1.4, 2.2); SO2: RR(95%CI), 1.011 (1.007, 1.015); I2 = 77.1%, PAF (95%CI): 1.1 (0.7, 1.5); PM10: RR(95%CI), 1.010 (1.008, 1.013); I2 = 69.1%, PAF (95%CI): 1.1 (0.8, 1.3); PM2.5: RR(95%CI), 1.023 (1.015, 1.031); I2 = 82.8%, PAF (95%CI): 2.3 (1.5, 3.1)]. Sensitivity analyses yielded compatible findings as compared with the overall analyses without publication bias. Stronger associations were found in hospitalized males, children and elderly patients in warm seasons with lag of 2 days or greater. Conclusion Short-term exposures to air pollutants account for increased risks of asthma-related ERVs and hospitalizations that constitute a considerable healthcare utilization and socioeconomic burden. PMID:26382947

  1. Safety by design: effects of operating room floor marking on the position of surgical devices to promote clean air flow compliance and minimise infection risks.

    PubMed

    de Korne, Dirk F; van Wijngaarden, Jeroen D H; van Rooij, Jeroen; Wauben, Linda S G L; Hiddema, U Frans; Klazinga, Niek S

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the use of floor marking on the positioning of surgical devices within the clean air flow in an operating room (OR) to minimise infection risk. Laminar flow clean air systems are important in preventing infection in ORs but, for optimal results, surgical devices must be correctly positioned. The authors evaluated floor marking in four ORs at an eye hospital using time series analysis. Through observations during 829 surgeries over a 20-month period, the positions of surgical devices were determined. Eight semistructured interviews with surgical staff were conducted to assess user experiences and team dynamics. Before marking, the instrument table was positioned completely within the laminar flow in only 6.1% of the cases. This increased to 36.1% and finally 53.8%. Mayo stands were increasingly positioned within the laminar flow: from 74.2% to 84.7%. The surgical lamp decreasingly obstructed flow: from 41.8% to 28.7%. At T3 (20 months), however, in 48.6% of the applicable cases the lamp was positioned in the flow again. Discussions and site visits between airside operators and surgical staff resulted in increasing awareness of specific risk areas in the OR. OR floor markings facilitated and stimulated safety awareness and resulted in significantly increased compliance with the positioning of surgical devices in the clean air flow. Safety and quality approaches in hospital care, therefore, should include a human factors approach that focuses on system design in addition to teaching clinical and non-technical skills.

  2. [The investigation of control mechanisms of stepping rhythm in human in the air-stepping conditions during passive and voluntary leg movements].

    PubMed

    Solopova, I A; Selionon, V A; Grishin, A A

    2010-01-01

    influences from moving leg in the most degree then on central commands. It seems that afferent inputs from pressure receptors of foot in the condition of "air-stepping" actively interact with central program of stepping and, irrespective of type of the performing movements (voluntary or passive), form the final pattern activity.

  3. From lithium to sodium: cell chemistry of room temperature sodium-air and sodium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Adelhelm, Philipp; Hartmann, Pascal; Bender, Conrad L; Busche, Martin; Eufinger, Christine; Janek, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Research devoted to room temperature lithium-sulfur (Li/S8) and lithium-oxygen (Li/O2) batteries has significantly increased over the past ten years. The race to develop such cell systems is mainly motivated by the very high theoretical energy density and the abundance of sulfur and oxygen. The cell chemistry, however, is complex, and progress toward practical device development remains hampered by some fundamental key issues, which are currently being tackled by numerous approaches. Quite surprisingly, not much is known about the analogous sodium-based battery systems, although the already commercialized, high-temperature Na/S8 and Na/NiCl2 batteries suggest that a rechargeable battery based on sodium is feasible on a large scale. Moreover, the natural abundance of sodium is an attractive benefit for the development of batteries based on low cost components. This review provides a summary of the state-of-the-art knowledge on lithium-sulfur and lithium-oxygen batteries and a direct comparison with the analogous sodium systems. The general properties, major benefits and challenges, recent strategies for performance improvements and general guidelines for further development are summarized and critically discussed. In general, the substitution of lithium for sodium has a strong impact on the overall properties of the cell reaction and differences in ion transport, phase stability, electrode potential, energy density, etc. can be thus expected. Whether these differences will benefit a more reversible cell chemistry is still an open question, but some of the first reports on room temperature Na/S8 and Na/O2 cells already show some exciting differences as compared to the established Li/S8 and Li/O2 systems.

  4. From lithium to sodium: cell chemistry of room temperature sodium–air and sodium–sulfur batteries

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Pascal; Bender, Conrad L; Busche, Martin; Eufinger, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Summary Research devoted to room temperature lithium–sulfur (Li/S8) and lithium–oxygen (Li/O2) batteries has significantly increased over the past ten years. The race to develop such cell systems is mainly motivated by the very high theoretical energy density and the abundance of sulfur and oxygen. The cell chemistry, however, is complex, and progress toward practical device development remains hampered by some fundamental key issues, which are currently being tackled by numerous approaches. Quite surprisingly, not much is known about the analogous sodium-based battery systems, although the already commercialized, high-temperature Na/S8 and Na/NiCl2 batteries suggest that a rechargeable battery based on sodium is feasible on a large scale. Moreover, the natural abundance of sodium is an attractive benefit for the development of batteries based on low cost components. This review provides a summary of the state-of-the-art knowledge on lithium–sulfur and lithium–oxygen batteries and a direct comparison with the analogous sodium systems. The general properties, major benefits and challenges, recent strategies for performance improvements and general guidelines for further development are summarized and critically discussed. In general, the substitution of lithium for sodium has a strong impact on the overall properties of the cell reaction and differences in ion transport, phase stability, electrode potential, energy density, etc. can be thus expected. Whether these differences will benefit a more reversible cell chemistry is still an open question, but some of the first reports on room temperature Na/S8 and Na/O2 cells already show some exciting differences as compared to the established Li/S8 and Li/O2 systems. PMID:25977873

  5. Very low-noise large-area calorimeter based on bimetallic micromechanical transduction: toward sub-nanowatt resolution in air at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amemiya, Kuniaki; Fukuda, Daiji; Zama, Tatsuya

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrated a very low-noise, large-area calorimeter based on a micromechanical heat-flow sensor. The input heat flow is transduced to the bimetallic deformation of the sensor, which is observed using a high-resolution fiber optic interferometer. The characteristics of 5-mm-square Si-Al bimetallic micromechanical sensors fabricated using silicon-on-insulator micromachining processes were investigated. We experimentally achieved a heat-detection noise of 12 nW, which is comparable to the best performance of thermopiles. The developed sensor is free of Johnson noise, which constrains the signal-to-noise ratio. In principle, this technique can provide a sub-nanowatt resolution even in air at room temperature.

  6. Increased cardiac output, not pulmonary artery systolic pressure, increases intrapulmonary shunt in healthy humans breathing room air and 40% O2

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Jonathan E; Duke, Joseph W; Hawn, Jerold A; Halliwill, John R; Lovering, Andrew T

    2014-01-01

    Blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (IPAVAs) has been demonstrated to increase in healthy humans during a variety of conditions; however, whether or not this blood flow represents a source of venous admixture (/) that impairs pulmonary gas exchange efficiency (i.e. increases the alveolar-to-arterial difference (A–aDO2)) remains controversial and unknown. We hypothesized that blood flow through IPAVAs does provide a source of /. To test this, blood flow through IPAVAs was increased in healthy humans at rest breathing room air and 40% O2: (1) during intravenous adrenaline (epinephrine) infusion at 320 ng kg−1 min−1 (320 ADR), and (2) with vagal blockade (2 mg atropine), before and during intravenous adrenaline infusion at 80 ng kg−1 min−1 (ATR + 80 ADR). When breathing room air the A–aDO2 increased by 6 ± 2 mmHg during 320 ADR and by 5 ± 2 mmHg during ATR + 80 ADR, and the change in calculated / was +2% in both conditions. When breathing 40% O2, which minimizes contributions from diffusion limitation and alveolar ventilation-to-perfusion inequality, the A–aDO2 increased by 12 ± 7 mmHg during 320 ADR, and by 9 ± 6 mmHg during ATR + 80 ADR, and the change in calculated / was +2% in both conditions. During 320 ADR cardiac output () and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) were significantly increased; however, during ATR + 80 ADR only was significantly increased, yet blood flow through IPAVAs as detected with saline contrast echocardiography was not different between conditions. Accordingly, we suggest that blood flow through IPAVAs provides a source of intrapulmonary shunt, and is mediated primarily by increases in rather than PASP. PMID:25085889

  7. Full-scale testing of leakage of blast waves inside a partially vented room exposed to external air blast loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codina, R.; Ambrosini, D.

    2017-06-01

    For the last few decades, the effects of blast loading on structures have been studied by many researchers around the world. Explosions can be caused by events such as industrial accidents, military conflicts or terrorist attacks. Urban centers have been prone to various threats including car bombs, suicide attacks, and improvised explosive devices. Partially vented constructions subjected to external blast loading represent an important topic in protective engineering. The assessment of blast survivability inside structures and the development of design provisions with respect to internal elements require the study of the propagation and leakage of blast waves inside buildings. In this paper, full-scale tests are performed to study the effects of the leakage of blast waves inside a partially vented room that is subjected to different external blast loadings. The results obtained may be useful for proving the validity of different methods of calculation, both empirical and numerical. Moreover, the experimental results are compared with those computed using the empirical curves of the US Defense report/manual UFC 3-340. Finally, results of the dynamic response of the front masonry wall are presented in terms of accelerations and an iso-damage diagram.

  8. Exploratory data analysis for robot perception of room environments by means of an in-air sonar scanner.

    PubMed

    Giannoccaro, Nicola Ivan; Spedicato, Luigi

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, the authors have developed a new method for reconstructing the boundary walls of a room environment by using a mechatronic device consisting of four ultrasonic sensors rotated by a servo modular actuator. This scanning system allows to measure the times of flight in each motor position so as to explore the surrounding space detecting reflections from the boundary walls and from other static obstacles. In addition to undesired reflections, due to non-target obstacles interposed between the sensors and the target surfaces, several spurious times are observed at the corners because of multiple reflections. The Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm is used for partitioning the obtained dataset in five clusters and some considerations on the output signal energy permit to select the two subsets concerned with multipath echoes. Each remaining cluster is associated to a set of three-dimensional points by considering the directivity of the wide beam propagated. In order to discard the observations that are numerically distant from the confidence data, the three sets are filtered by means of an ellipsoid defined by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The best-fit planes are obtained by testing the eigenvalues and relating eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of each filtered set. Several tests are shown and discussed for appreciating the effectiveness of the described approach and they are aimed at making a robot aware of its environment.

  9. Short-term effects of fine particulate air pollution on cardiovascular hospital emergency room visits: a time-series study in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Chang; Breitner, Susanne; Schneider, Alexandra; Liu, Liqun; Franck, Ulrich; Peters, Annette; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2016-05-01

    The link between particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular morbidity has been investigated in numerous studies. Less evidence exists, however, about how age, gender and season may modify this relationship. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between ambient PM2.5 (PM ≤ 2.5 µm) and daily hospital emergency room visits (ERV) for cardiovascular diseases in Beijing, China. Moreover, potential effect modification by age, gender, season, air mass origin and the specific period with 2008 Beijing Olympic were investigated. Finally, the temporal lag structure of PM2.5 has also been explored. Daily counts of cardiovascular ERV were obtained from the Peking University Third Hospital from January 2007 to December 2008. Concurrently, data on PM2.5, PM10 (PM ≤ 10 µm), nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide concentrations were obtained from monitoring networks and a fixed monitoring station. Poisson regression models adjusting for confounders were used to estimate immediate, delayed and cumulative air pollution effects. The temporal lag structure was also estimated using polynomial distributed lag (PDL) models. We calculated the relative risk (RR) for overall cardiovascular disease ERV as well as for specific causes of disease; and also investigated the potential modifying effect of age, gender, season, air mass origin and the period with 2008 Beijing Olympics. We observed adverse effects of PM2.5 on cardiovascular ERV--an IQR increase (68 μg/m(3)) in PM2.5 was associated with an overall RR of 1.022 (95% CI 0.990-1.057) obtained from PDL model. Strongest effects of PM2.5 on cardiovascular ERV were found for a lag of 7 days; the respective estimate was 1.012 (95% CI 1.002-1.022). The effects were more pronounced in females and in spring. Arrhythmia and cerebrovascular diseases showed a stronger association with PM2.5. We also found stronger PM-effects for stagnant and southern air masses and the period of Olympics modified the air pollution effects. We

  10. Experimental Study on Ultrafine Particle Removal Performance of Portable Air Cleaners with Different Filters in an Office Room

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Huan; Shen, Henggen; Shui, Tiantian; Li, Qing; Zhou, Liuke

    2016-01-01

    Size- and time-dependent aerodynamic behaviors of indoor particles, including PM1.0, were evaluated in a school office in order to test the performance of air-cleaning devices using different filters. In-situ real-time measurements were taken using an optical particle counter. The filtration characteristics of filter media, including single-pass efficiency, volume and effectiveness, were evaluated and analyzed. The electret filter (EE) medium shows better initial removal efficiency than the high efficiency (HE) medium in the 0.3–3.5 μm particle size range, while under the same face velocity, the filtration resistance of the HE medium is several times higher than that of the EE medium. During service life testing, the efficiency of the EE medium decreased to 60% with a total purifying air flow of 25 × 104 m3/m2. The resistance curve rose slightly before the efficiency reached the bottom, and then increased almost exponentially. The single-pass efficiency of portable air cleaner (PAC) with the pre-filter (PR) or the active carbon granule filter (CF) was relatively poor. While PAC with the pre-filter and the high efficiency filter (PR&HE) showed maximum single-pass efficiency for PM1.0 (88.6%), PAC with the HE was the most effective at removing PM1.0. The enhancement of PR with HE and electret filters augmented the single-pass efficiency, but lessened the airflow rate and effectiveness. Combined with PR, the decay constant of large-sized particles could be greater than for PACs without PR. Without regard to the lifetime, the electret filters performed better with respect to resource saving and purification improvement. A most penetrating particle size range (MPPS: 0.4–0.65 μm) exists in both HE and electret filters; the MPPS tends to become larger after HE and electret filters are combined with PR. These results serve to provide a better understanding of the indoor particle removal performance of PACs when combined with different kinds of filters in school

  11. Experimental Study on Ultrafine Particle Removal Performance of Portable Air Cleaners with Different Filters in an Office Room.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huan; Shen, Henggen; Shui, Tiantian; Li, Qing; Zhou, Liuke

    2016-01-05

    Size- and time-dependent aerodynamic behaviors of indoor particles, including PM1.0, were evaluated in a school office in order to test the performance of air-cleaning devices using different filters. In-situ real-time measurements were taken using an optical particle counter. The filtration characteristics of filter media, including single-pass efficiency, volume and effectiveness, were evaluated and analyzed. The electret filter (EE) medium shows better initial removal efficiency than the high efficiency (HE) medium in the 0.3-3.5 μm particle size range, while under the same face velocity, the filtration resistance of the HE medium is several times higher than that of the EE medium. During service life testing, the efficiency of the EE medium decreased to 60% with a total purifying air flow of 25 × 10⁴ m³/m². The resistance curve rose slightly before the efficiency reached the bottom, and then increased almost exponentially. The single-pass efficiency of portable air cleaner (PAC) with the pre-filter (PR) or the active carbon granule filter (CF) was relatively poor. While PAC with the pre-filter and the high efficiency filter (PR&HE) showed maximum single-pass efficiency for PM1.0 (88.6%), PAC with the HE was the most effective at removing PM1.0. The enhancement of PR with HE and electret filters augmented the single-pass efficiency, but lessened the airflow rate and effectiveness. Combined with PR, the decay constant of large-sized particles could be greater than for PACs without PR. Without regard to the lifetime, the electret filters performed better with respect to resource saving and purification improvement. A most penetrating particle size range (MPPS: 0.4-0.65 μm) exists in both HE and electret filters; the MPPS tends to become larger after HE and electret filters are combined with PR. These results serve to provide a better understanding of the indoor particle removal performance of PACs when combined with different kinds of filters in school

  12. Enhanced effect of water vapor on complete oxidation of formaldehyde in air with ozone over MnOx catalysts at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhao, De-Zhi; Shi, Chuan; Li, Xiao-Song; Zhu, Ai-Min; Jang, Ben W-L

    2012-11-15

    At room temperature, the enhanced effect of water vapor on ozone catalytic oxidation (OZCO) of formaldehyde to CO2 over MnOx catalysts and the reaction stability was reported. In a dry air stream, only below 20% of formaldehyde could be oxidized into CO2 by O3. In humid air streams (RH≥55%), ∼100% of formaldehyde were oxidized into CO2 by O3 and the reaction stability was significantly enhanced. Meanwhile, in situ Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectra of OZCO of HCHO demonstrate that the amount of both monodentate and bidentate carbonate species on MnOx, in the dry stream, increased gradually with time on stream (TOS). However, in the humid stream, almost no accumulation of carbonate species on the catalysts was observed. To clarify the enhanced mechanism, formaldehyde surface reactions and CO2 adsorption/desorption on the fresh, O3 and O3+H2O treated MnOx catalysts were examined comparatively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Room airflow studies using sonic anemometry.

    PubMed

    Wasiolek, P T; Whicker, J J; Gong, H; Rodgers, J C

    1999-06-01

    To ensure prompt response by real-time air monitors to an accidental release of toxic aerosols in a workplace, safety professionals should understand airflow patterns. This understanding can be achieved with validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer simulations, or with experimental techniques, such as measurements with smoke, neutrally buoyant markers, trace gases, or trace aerosol particles. As a supplementary technique to quantify airflows, the use of a state-of-the art, three-dimensional sonic anemometer was explored. This instrument allows for the precise measurements of the air-velocity vector components in the range of a few centimeters per second, which is common in many indoor work environments. Measurements of air velocities and directions at selected locations were made for the purpose of providing data for characterizing fundamental aspects of indoor air movement in two ventilated rooms and for comparison to CFD model predictions. One room was a mockup of a plutonium workroom, and the other was an actual functioning plutonium workroom. In the mockup room, air-velocity vector components were measured at 19 locations at three heights (60, 120 and 180 cm) with average velocities varying from 1.4 cm s-1 to 9.7 cm s-1. There were complex flow patterns observed with turbulence intensities from 39% up to 108%. In the plutonium workroom, measurements were made at the breathing-zone height, recording average velocities ranging from 9.9 cm s-1 to 35.5 cm s-1 with turbulence intensities from 33% to 108%.

  14. Damage Evolution and Life Prediction of Cross-Ply C/SiC Ceramic-Matrix Composite under Cyclic Fatigue Loading at Room Temperature and 800 °C in Air

    PubMed Central

    Li, Longbiao

    2015-01-01

    The damage evolution and life prediction of cross-ply C/SiC ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) under cyclic-fatigue loading at room temperature and 800 °C in air have been investigated using damage parameters derived from fatigue hysteresis loops, i.e., fatigue hysteresis modulus and fatigue hysteresis loss energy. The experimental fatigue hysteresis modulus and fatigue hysteresis loss energy degrade with increasing applied cycles attributed to transverse cracks in the 90° plies, matrix cracks and fiber/matrix interface debonding in the 0° plies, interface wear at room temperature, and interface and carbon fibers oxidation at 800 °C in air. The relationships between fatigue hysteresis loops, fatigue hysteresis modulus and fatigue hysteresis loss energy have been established. Comparing experimental fatigue hysteresis loss energy with theoretical computational values, the fiber/matrix interface shear stress corresponding to different cycle numbers has been estimated. It was found that the degradation rate at 800 °C in air is much faster than that at room temperature due to serious oxidation in the pyrolytic carbon (PyC) interphase and carbon fibers. Combining the fiber fracture model with the interface shear stress degradation model and the fibers strength degradation model, the fraction of broken fibers versus the cycle number can be determined for different fatigue peak stresses. The fatigue life S-N curves of cross-ply C/SiC composite at room temperature and 800 °C in air have been predicted. PMID:28793728

  15. Damage Evolution and Life Prediction of Cross-Ply C/SiC Ceramic-Matrix Composite under Cyclic Fatigue Loading at Room Temperature and 800 °C in Air.

    PubMed

    Li, Longbiao

    2015-12-09

    The damage evolution and life prediction of cross-ply C/SiC ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) under cyclic-fatigue loading at room temperature and 800 °C in air have been investigated using damage parameters derived from fatigue hysteresis loops, i.e., fatigue hysteresis modulus and fatigue hysteresis loss energy. The experimental fatigue hysteresis modulus and fatigue hysteresis loss energy degrade with increasing applied cycles attributed to transverse cracks in the 90° plies, matrix cracks and fiber/matrix interface debonding in the 0° plies, interface wear at room temperature, and interface and carbon fibers oxidation at 800 °C in air. The relationships between fatigue hysteresis loops, fatigue hysteresis modulus and fatigue hysteresis loss energy have been established. Comparing experimental fatigue hysteresis loss energy with theoretical computational values, the fiber/matrix interface shear stress corresponding to different cycle numbers has been estimated. It was found that the degradation rate at 800 °C in air is much faster than that at room temperature due to serious oxidation in the pyrolytic carbon (PyC) interphase and carbon fibers. Combining the fiber fracture model with the interface shear stress degradation model and the fibers strength degradation model, the fraction of broken fibers versus the cycle number can be determined for different fatigue peak stresses. The fatigue life S-N curves of cross-ply C/SiC composite at room temperature and 800 °C in air have been predicted.

  16. Room Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuttruff, Heinrich; Mommertz, Eckard

    The traditional task of room acoustics is to create or formulate conditions which ensure the best possible propagation of sound in a room from a sound source to a listener. Thus, objects of room acoustics are in particular assembly halls of all kinds, such as auditoria and lecture halls, conference rooms, theaters, concert halls or churches. Already at this point, it has to be pointed out that these conditions essentially depend on the question if speech or music should be transmitted; in the first case, the criterion for transmission quality is good speech intelligibility, in the other case, however, the success of room-acoustical efforts depends on other factors that cannot be quantified that easily, not least it also depends on the hearing habits of the listeners. In any case, absolutely "good acoustics" of a room do not exist.

  17. Technology Equipment Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Examines telecommunications equipment room design features that allow for growth and can accommodate numerous equipment replacements and upgrades with minimal service disruption and with minimal cost. Considerations involving the central hub, power and lighting needs, air conditioning, and fire protection are discussed. (GR)

  18. Technology Equipment Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Examines telecommunications equipment room design features that allow for growth and can accommodate numerous equipment replacements and upgrades with minimal service disruption and with minimal cost. Considerations involving the central hub, power and lighting needs, air conditioning, and fire protection are discussed. (GR)

  19. Water nanodroplets make a greater contribution to facial skin moisture levels in air-conditioned rooms during winter than in summer.

    PubMed

    Ohno, H; Nishimura, N; Yamada, K; Shimizu, Y; Nishimura, R; Iwase, S; Sugenoya, J; Sato, M

    2015-05-01

    By performing experiments in air-conditioned chamber, we previously demonstrated that the presence of water nanodroplets (mist) improved facial skin moisture levels without reducing water loss from the facial skin surface or inducing excessive humidity. Some previous studies have demonstrated that the epidermis is a less effective barrier to water in winter because the corneocytes that comprise facial skin become smaller in winter as skin turnover increases in cold environments. We hypothesized that it would be easier for mist to penetrate into the facial stratum corneum (SC) in winter than in summer. In the present study, we investigated the ability of mist to improve facial skin moisture levels in winter and summer. We examined transepidermal water loss (TEWL) as an index of barrier function and skin conductance as an index of SC hydration at the forehead, lateral canthus, and cheeks in eight healthy Japanese females (mean ± SD: 45.5 ± 3.2 years) in the presence or absence of mist in February-March and July. In the absence of mist, skin conductance at the forehead and lateral canthus was significantly higher in summer than in winter, but these seasonal differences were diminished in the presence of mist. In the presence of mist, skin conductance was increased in winter and decreased in summer at the lateral canthus; however, these changes were not significant. Thus, our findings suggest that mist penetrates into the SC and improves skin moisture levels in winter. We demonstrated that it is easier for mist to penetrate into the SC at the lateral canthus during winter than in summer. Thus, mist is expected to improve facial moisture levels in winter by penetrating into and remaining in the SC. Hence, mist could be used to help prevent facial skin from becoming dry in air-conditioned rooms during winter. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Short-term effects of fine particulate air pollution on emergency room visits for cardiac arrhythmias: a case-crossover study in Taipei.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hui-Fen; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Weng, Hsu-Huei; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between fine particles (PM₂.₅) levels and number of emergency room (ER) visits for cardiac arrhythmias in Taipei, Taiwan. ER visits for cardiac arrhythmias and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period 2006-2010. The relative risk (RR) of ER visits was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. For the single-pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), increased numbers of ER cardiac arrhythmia visits were significantly associated with PM₂.₅ on both warm days (>23°C) and cool days (< 23°C), with an interquartile range rise associated with a 10% (95% CI = -15%) and 4% (95% CI = 0-8%) elevation in number of ER visits for cardiac arrhythmias, respectively. In the two-pollutant models, PM₂.₅ levels remained significant after inclusion of sulfur dioxide (SO₂) or ozone (O₃) on both warm and cool days. This study provides evidence that higher levels of PM₂.₅ increase the risk of number of ER visits for cardiac arrhythmias.

  1. Degradation of cationic red GTL by catalytic wet air oxidation over Mo-Zn-Al-O catalyst under room temperature and atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yin; Li, Xiaoyi; Cheng, Xiang; Sun, Dezhi; Wang, Xueye

    2012-03-06

    To overcome the drawback of catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) with high temperature and high pressure, the catalytic activity of Mo-Zn-Al-O catalyst for degradation of cationic red GTL under room temperature and atmospheric pressure was investigated. Mo-Zn-Al-O catalyst was prepared by coprecipitation and impregnation. XRD, TG-DTG, and XPS were used to characterize the resulting sample. Central composition design using response surface methodology was employed to optimize correlation of factors on the decolorization of cationic red GTL. The results show that the optimal conditions of pH value, initial concentration of dye and catalyst dosage were found to be 4.0, 85 mg/L and 2.72 g/L, respectively, for maximum decolorization of 80.1% and TOC removal of 50.9%. Furthermore, the reaction on the Mo-Zn-Al-O catalyst and degradation mechanism of cationic red GTL was studied by Electron spin resonance (ESR) and GC-MS technique. The possible reaction mechanism was that the Mo-Zn-Al-O catalyst can efficiently react with adsorbed oxygen/H(2)O to produce ·OH and (1)O(2) and finally induce the degradation of cationic red GTL. GC-MS analysis of the degradation products indicates that cationic red GTL was initiated by the cleavage of -N ═ N- and the intermediates were further oxidized by ·OH or (1)O(2).

  2. Removal of organic dye by air and macroporous ZnO/MoO3/SiO2 hybrid under room conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Mengjia; Wang, Shengtian; Wang, Xiaohong; Zhao, Lingling; Hao, Tianhong

    2011-07-01

    A new macroporous ZnO/MoO3/SiO2 hybrid was synthesized by a method involving sol-gel technology and biomimetic synthesis. It was characterized by Elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical degradation of 0.3 g/L Safranin T (ST) by air oxidation over macroporous ZnO/MoO3/SiO2 hybrid was studied. It was found that the decolorization efficiency and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of ST reached above 95.3% and 93.2%, respectively, within 25 min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. And the organic pollutant was mineralized to simple inorganic species such as HCO3-, Cl- and NO3-, while the total organic carbon (TOC) decreased 95.4%. The structure and morphology of the catalyst were still stable after six cycling runs and the leaching test showed negligible leaching effect.

  3. 35. VIEW OF TELEMETRY ROOM (ROOM 106) FROM ITS NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. VIEW OF TELEMETRY ROOM (ROOM 106) FROM ITS NORTHWEST CORNER SHOWING TM-ISE-3 TELEMETRY CHECKOUT SYSTEM AND HONEYWELL TAPE RECORDER - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. 16. Bus Room (also known as Switch Gear Room), view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Bus Room (also known as Switch Gear Room), view to the southeast. An air circuit breaker compressor (visible in photograph number 2) was once attached to the main bus relay visible in the background of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  5. UAVs and Patient Movement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    determining factor and is often the deciding element between life and death. An examination of the evolution of patient movement to make the case...AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY UAVs and PATIENT MOVEMENT by Brian R Blanchard, Major, USAF Doctor...depth look at the evolution of patient movement and the utilization of advanced technologies from to ultimately decrease the time to care. Future

  6. Air cushioned landing craft (LCAC) based ship to shore movement simulation: A decision aid for the amphibious commander. A (SMMAT) application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearns, Edward P., III

    1994-09-01

    Amphibious forces are the enabling force of choice to globally project rapid and sustainable combat power in the littoral. Whether delivering supplies and equipment for military operations or for humanitarian or disaster relief, the air cushioned landing craft (LCAC) is the primary surface ship-to-shore movement craft. The time needed to transfer the forces ashore may be critical to operational success and is an important planning consideration. Many factors complicate accurate prediction of this time. Even so, various commanders must use the best available information, given mission priorities and resource and capability limitations, to make numerous tradeoff decisions in planning and executing the movement of forces. A simulation toolbox, the simulated mobility modeling and analysis toolbox (SMMAT), is introduced, and a robust LCAC ship-to-shore simulation model is developed as an extension to SMMAT. This model provides the commander a prediction and tradeoff analysis tool for planning and executing the projection of power ashore.

  7. Accelerating Improvements in the Energy Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners (RACs) in India: Potential, Cost-Benefit, and Policies (Interim Assessment)

    SciTech Connect

    Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar; Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol

    2016-06-01

    Falling AC prices, increasing incomes, increasing urbanization, and high cooling requirements due to hot climate are all driving increasing uptake of Room Air Conditioners (RACs) in the Indian market. Air conditioning already comprises 40-60% of summer peak load in large metropolitan Indian cities such as Delhi and is likely to contribute 150 GW to the peak demand in 2030. Standards and labeling policies have contributed to improving the efficiency of RACs in India by about 2.5% in the last 10 years (2.5% per year) while inflation adjusted RAC prices have continued to decline. In this paper, we assess the technical feasibility, cost-benefit, and required policy enhancements by further accelerating the efficiency improvement of RACs in India. We find that there are examples of significantly more accelerated improvements such as those in Japan and Korea where AC efficiency improved by more than 7% per year resulting in almost a doubling of energy efficiency in 7 to 10 years while inflation adjusted AC prices continued to decline. We find that the most efficient RAC sold on the Indian market is almost twice as efficient as the typical AC sold on the market and hence see no technology constraints in a similar acceleration of improvement of efficiency. If starting 2018, AC efficiency improves at a rate of 6% instead of 3%, 40-60 GW of peak load (equivalent to connected load of 5-6 billion LED bulbs), and over 75 TWh/yr (equivalent to 60 million consumers consuming 100 kWh/month) will be saved by 2030; total peak load reduction would be as high as 50 GW. The net present value (NPV) of the consumer benefit between 2018-2030 will range from Rs 18,000 Cr in the most conservative case (in which prices don’t continue to decline and increase based estimates of today’s cost of efficiency improvement) to 140,000 Cr in a more realistic case (in which prices are not affected by accelerated efficiency improvement as shown by historical experience). This benefit is achievable by

  8. Quantitative EEG patterns during nose versus mouth inhalation of filtered room air in young adults with and without self-reported chemical odor intolerances.

    PubMed

    Bell, I R; Kline, J P; Schwartz, G E; Peterson, J M

    1998-01-01

    Individuals who report illness (e.g. nausea, headache) from common chemical odors tend to report CNS symptoms suggestive of olfactory-limbic system involvement. This study compared the resting quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG) patterns of young adult college students reporting subjectively elevated chemical odor intolerance ratings (HICI) with those of controls reporting little or no odor intolerance (LOCI). Each group was subdivided into those with higher (HIDEP) vs. lower (LODEP) ratings of concomitant depression. Nineteen channels of EEG were recorded during a single session over four separate rest periods, respectively, following baseline, cognitive, chemical exposure and olfactory identification tests. Each recording involved two 30-s, eyes-closed, filtered room air breathing conditions: (1) nose inhalation followed by mouth exhalation and (2) mouth inhalation followed by mouth exhalation. HICI showed significantly less beta 1 (beta 1) over the temporal-central region during nose than during mouth inhalation. Over some temporal and central leads, task, DEP and CI interacted to influence beta 1 as well. For theta (theta), CI differences emerged during nose inhalation after the cognitive task at Cz, after chemical exposures at C3, Cz and C4 and after the olfactory ID task at C4. CI differences emerged during mouth breathing after the olfactory ID task at Cz, C4 and T4. The T5-T6 coronal array showed significant CI differences after chemical exposures during nose breathing and during mouth breathing after the cognitive and olfactory ID tasks. The theta findings in the HICI may be related to reports of disturbed attention in CI.

  9. Controller's office (room 102), looking northeast into the display area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Controller's office (room 102), looking northeast into the display area - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  10. Effect of Room Ventilation Rates in Rodent Rooms with Direct-Exhaust IVC Systems.

    PubMed

    Geertsema, Roger S; Lindsell, Claire E

    2015-09-01

    When IVC are directly exhausted from a rodent housing room, the air quality of the room can become independent of the intracage air quality and may reduce the need for high room ventilation rates. This study assessed the effect of decreasing the ventilation rate in rodent rooms using direct-exhaust IVC systems. The study was conducted over 16 wk and compared conditions in 8 rodent rooms that had ventilation rates of 5 to 6 air changes per hour (ACH) with those in rooms at 10 to 12 ACH. At the low ventilation rate, rooms had higher CO₂ concentrations, higher dew point temperature, and lower particulate levels and spent a greater percentage of time above the temperature set point than did rooms at the high rate. The levels of allergens and endotoxins in room air were the same regardless of the ventilation rate. Differences seen in parameters within cages at the 2 ventilation rates were operationally irrelevant. We detected no total volatile organic compounds in the room that were attributable to ammonia, regardless of the ventilation rate. Clearing the air of ethanol after a spill took longer at the low compared with high rate. However, ethanol clearance was faster at the low rate when the demand-control system was activated than at the high ventilation rate alone. Air quality in the room and in the cages were acceptable with room ventilation rates of 5 to 6 ACH in rodent rooms that use direct-exhaust IVC systems.

  11. Effect of Room Ventilation Rates in Rodent Rooms with Direct-Exhaust IVC Systems

    PubMed Central

    Geertsema, Roger S; Lindsell, Claire E

    2015-01-01

    When IVC are directly exhausted from a rodent housing room, the air quality of the room can become independent of the intracage air quality and may reduce the need for high room ventilation rates. This study assessed the effect of decreasing the ventilation rate in rodent rooms using direct-exhaust IVC systems. The study was conducted over 16 wk and compared conditions in 8 rodent rooms that had ventilation rates of 5 to 6 air changes per hour (ACH) with those in rooms at 10 to 12 ACH. At the low ventilation rate, rooms had higher CO2 concentrations, higher dew point temperature, and lower particulate levels and spent a greater percentage of time above the temperature set point than did rooms at the high rate. The levels of allergens and endotoxins in room air were the same regardless of the ventilation rate. Differences seen in parameters within cages at the 2 ventilation rates were operationally irrelevant. We detected no total volatile organic compounds in the room that were attributable to ammonia, regardless of the ventilation rate. Clearing the air of ethanol after a spill took longer at the low compared with high rate. However, ethanol clearance was faster at the low rate when the demand-control system was activated than at the high ventilation rate alone. Air quality in the room and in the cages were acceptable with room ventilation rates of 5 to 6 ACH in rodent rooms that use direct-exhaust IVC systems. PMID:26424250

  12. Telco maintenance (room 228) looking south into the telephone equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Telco maintenance (room 228) looking south into the telephone equipment room (room 227). Note workbench in left corner, lighting fixtures, and air handling ducts - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  13. Memory's Room.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Liberal Arts Studiolo from the Ducal Palace at Guibbio, Italy. Discusses how the room's design and decoration mirrors its educational uses. Notes that the object of education was to provide the young person with a kind of mental library of materials that could be drawn upon quickly. (RS)

  14. Memory's Room.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Liberal Arts Studiolo from the Ducal Palace at Guibbio, Italy. Discusses how the room's design and decoration mirrors its educational uses. Notes that the object of education was to provide the young person with a kind of mental library of materials that could be drawn upon quickly. (RS)

  15. Hygiene and room climate in the operating room.

    PubMed

    Scherrer

    2003-11-01

    The ventilation system is not the most important source to cause surgical site infections via the air. More important is the skin of both staff and patients. The literature did not reveal any reduction of the risk of surgical site infections resulting from the employment of ultra-clean air-systems during surgical procedures, the one exception being high risk operations such as orthopaedic implant surgery. Both ultra-clean air and antimicrobial prophylaxis can reduce the incidence of surgical site infections. If HEPA filters are used, they are only necessary directly in the operating rooms. Other rooms such as the washroom, the anaesthesia preparation room or corridors which are connected to the OR do not have to be treated with HEPA filters. If a laminar air-flow system is installed, there are some factors which have to be considered. The number of operating lamps and the heads of the operating team affect the function of the air ceiling as they form thermic and air-flow resistance and create turbulences. Also, forced air-warming systems, which are used to maintain normal body temperatures for patients during surgery, disturb the ultra-clean field through the air emitted from the blankets used. Moreover, any medical equipment which is cooled by integrated cooling blowers can influence an ultra-clean air system. Existing ventilation systems are not able to create good room conditions for all persons inside the OR. Therefore new ways have to be found to create a room climate taking into account the level of activity.

  16. Gazing into Thin Air: The Dual-Task Costs of Movement Planning and Execution during Adaptive Gait

    PubMed Central

    Ellmers, Toby J.; Cocks, Adam J.; Doumas, Michail; Williams, A. Mark; Young, William R.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effect of increased cognitive load on visual search behavior and measures of gait performance during locomotion. Also, we investigated how personality traits, specifically the propensity to consciously control or monitor movements (trait movement ‘reinvestment’), impacted the ability to maintain effective gaze under conditions of cognitive load. Healthy young adults traversed a novel adaptive walking path while performing a secondary serial subtraction task. Performance was assessed using correct responses to the cognitive task, gaze behavior, stepping accuracy, and time to complete the walking task. When walking while simultaneously carrying out the secondary serial subtraction task, participants visually fixated on task-irrelevant areas ‘outside’ the walking path more often and for longer durations of time, and fixated on task-relevant areas ‘inside’ the walkway for shorter durations. These changes were most pronounced in high-trait-reinvesters. We speculate that reinvestment-related processes placed an additional cognitive demand upon working memory. These increased task-irrelevant ‘outside’ fixations were accompanied by slower completion rates on the walking task and greater gross stepping errors. Findings suggest that attention is important for the maintenance of effective gaze behaviors, supporting previous claims that the maladaptive changes in visual search observed in high-risk older adults may be a consequence of inefficiencies in attentional processing. Identifying the underlying attentional processes that disrupt effective gaze behaviour during locomotion is an essential step in the development of rehabilitation, with this information allowing for the emergence of interventions that reduce the risk of falling. PMID:27824937

  17. Biophysical Evaluation of the Wet Globe Temperature Index (Botsball) at High Air Movements and Constant Dew Point Temperature,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    is the WBGT obtained by Gagge and Nishi (4) from their multiple correlation analysis with Ta, Pa Our Botsball measurement at high wind and air...WBGT equation of Gagge and Nishi (r20=.915). However, the calculated WBGT (for indoor weighting) was highly correlated with WBGT’s from the YSI (r2...0.99), R-S (r 2 =0.99) meters and the Gagge and Nishi equation (r2 =0.97). Table 4 is a prediction of the Botsball and WBGT for outdoor use based on

  18. Vegetative Clostridium difficile survives in room air on moist surfaces and in gastric contents with reduced acidity: a potential mechanism to explain the association between proton pump inhibitors and C. difficile-associated diarrhea?

    PubMed

    Jump, Robin L P; Pultz, Michael J; Donskey, Curtis J

    2007-08-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been identified as a risk factor for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD), though the mechanism is unclear because gastric acid does not kill C. difficile spores. We hypothesized that the vegetative form of C. difficile, which is killed by acid, could contribute to disease pathogenesis if it survives in room air and in gastric contents with elevated pH. We compared the numbers of C. difficile spores and vegetative cells in stools of patients prior to and during the treatment of CDAD. We assessed the survival of vegetative cells on moist or dry surfaces in room air versus anaerobic conditions and in human gastric contents, in pH-adjusted gastric contents, and in gastric contents from individuals receiving PPI therapy. Stool samples obtained from patients prior to the initiation of antibiotic treatment for C. difficile contained approximately 10-fold more vegetative cells than spores. On dry surfaces, vegetative C. difficile cells died rapidly, whereas they remained viable for up to 6 h on moist surfaces in room air. Vegetative C. difficile cells had only marginal survival in gastric contents at low pH; adjustment to a pH of >5 resulted in survival similar to that in the phosphate-buffered saline control. The survival of vegetative C. difficile in gastric contents obtained from patients receiving PPIs was also increased at a pH of >5. The ability of the vegetative form of C. difficile to survive on moist surfaces and in gastric contents with an elevated pH suggests a potential mechanism by which PPI therapy could increase the risk of acquiring C. difficile.

  19. Determination of subnanogram per cubic meter concentrations of metals in the air of a trace metal clean room by impaction graphite furnace atomic absorption and laser excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liang, Z W; Wei, G T; Irwin, R L; Walton, A P; Michel, R G; Sneddon, J

    1990-07-15

    Air, drawn by vacuum through a jet, was impacted against the inside surface of an atomic absorption graphite electrothermal atomizer (ETA). The amounts of the particles thus collected were determined at the ng m-3 level by graphite furnace atomic absorption or at the pg m-3 level by laser excited atomic fluorescence. The overall reproducibility of two sets of measurements, made 7 months apart, was 23%, with no significant difference between the two sets of data, based on Student's "t" test at the 95% confidence level. Short-term reproducibility varied from 13% to 34% depending upon the air concentration of the metal. The method shows promise for monitoring long-term effectiveness of the filtering systems in trace metal clean rooms. It was not possible to test for accuracy, due to the low concentrations involved, but accuracy was expected to be within a factor of 2 or 3 of the actual value, based on theoretical aspects of impaction.

  20. 1. TERMINAL ROOM, INTERIOR, SHOP LEVEL, SHOWING FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TERMINAL ROOM, INTERIOR, SHOP LEVEL, SHOWING FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM PIPES AND VALVES AT LEFT. Looking southeast from entrance to terminal room. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. Interior of display area (room 101), looking south towards TV ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of display area (room 101), looking south towards TV control panel room (room 139) at far left corner. The stairway leads to the commander's quarters and the senior battle viewing bridge at top right. Control and communication consoles at the right - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  2. West wall, display area (room 101), view 1 of 4: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wall, display area (room 101), view 1 of 4: southwest corner, showing stairs to commander's quarters and viewing bridge, windows to controller's room (room 102), south end of control consoles, and holes in pedestal floor for computer equipment cables (tape drive I/O?) - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  3. Sex pheromones of Callosobruchus subinnotatus and C. maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): congeneric responses and role of air movement.

    PubMed

    Mbata, G N; Shu, S; Ramaswamy, S B

    2000-04-01

    Females of Callosobruchus spp. are known to produce sex pheromones that attract males. These sex pheromones cannot be adopted for use in pest management without first investigating the responses of the males in the windless conditions of storage environments. Consequently, behavioural bioassays of Callosobruchus subinnotatus Pic males were conducted in an olfactometer in the absence of air-flow. Under these conditions males were found to be able to follow odour trails to the source. However, the latency period was longer in diffusional bioassays than for insects in a Y-tube olfactometer that provided directional wind cues. The highest percentage of males reached the pheromone source when components of the pheromones, (E)-3-methyl-2-heptenoic acid (E32A) and (Z)-3-methyl-2-heptenoic acid (Z32A), were formulated in a 50:50 or 25:75 ratio. Males of C. maculatus (Fabricius) responded to sex pheromone of C. subinnotatus, but males of C. subinnotatus did not respond to that of C. maculatus. The two sex pheromone components of C. subinnotatus are also constituents of C. maculatus sex pheromone. These two components may be potentially useful in monitoring the populations of both species in stored beans. It is postulated that (Z)-3-methyl-3-heptenoic acid (Z33A), the major component of the sex pheromone of C. maculatus, must have acted as an antagonist inhibiting response of C. subinnotatus to the sex pheromone of C. maculatus.

  4. Parallel-plate wet denuder coupled ion chromatograph for near-real-time detection of trace acidic gases in clean room air.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Masaki; Tsunoda, Hiromichi; Tanaka, Hideji; Shiramizu, Yoshimi

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the performance of our automated acidic (CH(3)COOH, HCOOH, HCl, HNO(2), SO(2), and HNO(3)) gases monitor utilizing a parallel-plate wet denuder (PPWD). The PPWD quantitatively collects gaseous contaminants at a high sample flow rate (∼8 dm(3) min(-1)) compared to the conventional methods used in a clean room. Rapid response to any variability in the sample concentration enables near-real-time monitoring. In the developed monitor, the analyte collected with the PPWD is pumped into one of two preconcentration columns for 15 min, and determined by means of ion chromatography. While one preconcentration column is used for chromatographic separation, the other is used for loading the sample solution. The system allows continuous monitoring of the common acidic gases in an advanced semiconductor manufacturing clean room. 2011 © The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry

  5. 7 CFR 58.413 - Cutting and packaging rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cutting and packaging rooms. 58.413 Section 58.413....413 Cutting and packaging rooms. When small packages of cheese are cut and wrapped, separate rooms... outward to minimize the entrance of unfiltered air into the cutting and packaging room. The...

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A KSC employee uses a clean-air shower before entering a clean room. Streams of pressurized air directed at the occupant from nozzles in the chamber's ceiling and walls are designed to dislodge particulate matter from hair, clothing and shoes. The adhesive mat on the floor captures soil from shoe soles, as well as particles that fall on its surface. Particulate matter has the potential to contaminate the space flight hardware being stored or processed in the clean room. The shower is part of KSC's Foreign Object Debris (FOD) control program, an important safety initiative.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-29

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A KSC employee uses a clean-air shower before entering a clean room. Streams of pressurized air directed at the occupant from nozzles in the chamber's ceiling and walls are designed to dislodge particulate matter from hair, clothing and shoes. The adhesive mat on the floor captures soil from shoe soles, as well as particles that fall on its surface. Particulate matter has the potential to contaminate the space flight hardware being stored or processed in the clean room. The shower is part of KSC's Foreign Object Debris (FOD) control program, an important safety initiative.

  7. Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  8. Bowel Movement

    MedlinePlus

    A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. Your stool passes out of ... what you eat and drink. Sometimes a bowel movement isn't normal. Diarrhea happens when stool passes ...

  9. Weather elements, chemical air pollutants and airborne pollen influencing asthma emergency room visits in Szeged, Hungary: performance of two objective weather classifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makra, László; Puskás, János; Matyasovszky, István; Csépe, Zoltán; Lelovics, Enikő; Bálint, Beatrix; Tusnády, Gábor

    2015-09-01

    Weather classification approaches may be useful tools in modelling the occurrence of respiratory diseases. The aim of the study is to compare the performance of an objectively defined weather classification and the Spatial Synoptic Classification (SSC) in classifying emergency department (ED) visits for acute asthma depending from weather, air pollutants, and airborne pollen variables for Szeged, Hungary, for the 9-year period 1999-2007. The research is performed for three different pollen-related periods of the year and the annual data set. According to age and gender, nine patient categories, eight meteorological variables, seven chemical air pollutants, and two pollen categories were used. In general, partly dry and cold air and partly warm and humid air aggravate substantially the symptoms of asthmatics. Our major findings are consistent with this establishment. Namely, for the objectively defined weather types favourable conditions for asthma ER visits occur when an anticyclonic ridge weather situation happens with near extreme temperature and humidity parameters. Accordingly, the SSC weather types facilitate aggravating asthmatic conditions if warm or cool weather occur with high humidity in both cases. Favourable conditions for asthma attacks are confirmed in the extreme seasons when atmospheric stability contributes to enrichment of air pollutants. The total efficiency of the two classification approaches is similar in spite of the fact that the methodology for derivation of the individual types within the two classification approaches is completely different.

  10. Weather elements, chemical air pollutants and airborne pollen influencing asthma emergency room visits in Szeged, Hungary: performance of two objective weather classifications.

    PubMed

    Makra, László; Puskás, János; Matyasovszky, István; Csépe, Zoltán; Lelovics, Enikő; Bálint, Beatrix; Tusnády, Gábor

    2015-09-01

    Weather classification approaches may be useful tools in modelling the occurrence of respiratory diseases. The aim of the study is to compare the performance of an objectively defined weather classification and the Spatial Synoptic Classification (SSC) in classifying emergency department (ED) visits for acute asthma depending from weather, air pollutants, and airborne pollen variables for Szeged, Hungary, for the 9-year period 1999-2007. The research is performed for three different pollen-related periods of the year and the annual data set. According to age and gender, nine patient categories, eight meteorological variables, seven chemical air pollutants, and two pollen categories were used. In general, partly dry and cold air and partly warm and humid air aggravate substantially the symptoms of asthmatics. Our major findings are consistent with this establishment. Namely, for the objectively defined weather types favourable conditions for asthma ER visits occur when an anticyclonic ridge weather situation happens with near extreme temperature and humidity parameters. Accordingly, the SSC weather types facilitate aggravating asthmatic conditions if warm or cool weather occur with high humidity in both cases. Favourable conditions for asthma attacks are confirmed in the extreme seasons when atmospheric stability contributes to enrichment of air pollutants. The total efficiency of the two classification approaches is similar in spite of the fact that the methodology for derivation of the individual types within the two classification approaches is completely different.

  11. 33. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING MECHANICAL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - MECHANICAL ROOM 105, VIEW OF CHILLER ROOM MOTOR CONTROL CENTER. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  12. 12. Interior view of workout room in rehabilitation and testing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Interior view of workout room in rehabilitation and testing facilities; showing break/dressing rooms beyond; near southeast corner of occupied portion; view to southwest. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Mess & Administration Building, 2279 Risner Drive, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  13. 14. Interior view of vestibule separating rehabilitation space, testing room, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior view of vestibule separating rehabilitation space, testing room, and corridor to workout room looking into corridor; near center of occupied portion; view to southeast. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Mess & Administration Building, 2279 Risner Drive, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  14. 4. VIEW OF SHIPPING AND RECEIVING ROOM (109) FROM NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF SHIPPING AND RECEIVING ROOM (109) FROM NORTHEAST CORNER SHOWING INTERIOR DOORS TO ASSEMBLY ROOM (101) IN SOUTH WALL - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Vehicle Support Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. Consequences of postural changes and removal of vestibular inputs on the movement of air in and out of the lungs of conscious felines.

    PubMed

    Arshian, M; Holtje, R J; Cotter, L A; Rice, C D; Cass, S P; Yates, B J

    2007-07-01

    A variety of experimental approaches in human subjects and animal models established that the vestibular system contributes to regulation of respiration. In cats, the surgical elimination of labyrinthine signals produced changes in the spontaneous activity and posturally related responses of a number of respiratory muscles. However, these effects were complex and sometimes varied between muscle compartments, such that the physiological role of vestibulo-respiratory responses is unclear. The present study determined the functional significance of vestibulo-respiratory influences by examining the consequences of a bilateral labyrinthectomy on breathing rate and the pressure, volume, and flow rate of air exchanged during inspiration and expiration as body orientation with respect to gravity was altered. Data were collected from conscious adult cats acclimated to breathing through a facemask connected to a pneuomotach during 60 degrees head-up pitch and ear-down roll body rotations. Removal of vestibular inputs resulted in a 15% reduction in breathing rate, a 13% decrease in minute ventilation, a 16% decrease in maximal inspiratory airflow rate, and a 14% decrease in the maximal expiratory airflow rate measured when the animals were in the prone position. However, the lesions did not appreciably affect phasic changes in airflow parameters related to alterations in posture. These results suggest that the role of the vestibular system in the control of breathing is to modify baseline respiratory parameters in proportion to the general intensity of ongoing movements, and not to rapidly alter ventilation in accordance with body position.

  16. Nuclear power station main control room habitability

    SciTech Connect

    Paschal, W.B.; Knous, W.S. )

    1989-01-01

    The main control room at a nuclear power station must remain habitable during a variety of plant conditions and postulated events. The control room habitability requirement and the function of the heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and air treatment system are to control environmental factors, such as temperature, pressure, humidity, radiation, and toxic gas. Habitability requirements provide for the safety of personnel and enable operation of equipment required to function in the main control room. Habitability as an issue has been gaining prominence with the Advisor Committee of Reactor Safeguards and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission since the incident at Three Mile Island. Their concern is the ability of the presently installed habitability systems to control the main control room environment after an accident. This paper discusses main control room HVAC systems; the concern, requirements, and results of NRC surveys and notices; and an approach to control room habitability reviews.

  17. Automated Air Traffic Control Operations with Weather and Time-Constraints: A First Look at (Simulated) Far-Term Control Room Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas; Homola, Jeffrey R.; Martin, Lynne H.; Mercer, Joey S.; Cabrall, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss results from a recent high fidelity simulation of air traffic control operations with automated separation assurance in the presence of weather and time-constraints. We report findings from a human-in-the-loop study conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) at the NASA Ames Research Center. During four afternoons in early 2010, fifteen active and recently retired air traffic controllers and supervisors controlled high levels of traffic in a highly automated environment during three-hour long scenarios, For each scenario, twelve air traffic controllers operated eight sector positions in two air traffic control areas and were supervised by three front line managers, Controllers worked one-hour shifts, were relieved by other controllers, took a 3D-minute break, and worked another one-hour shift. On average, twice today's traffic density was simulated with more than 2200 aircraft per traffic scenario. The scenarios were designed to create peaks and valleys in traffic density, growing and decaying convective weather areas, and expose controllers to heavy and light metering conditions. This design enabled an initial look at a broad spectrum of workload, challenge, boredom, and fatigue in an otherwise uncharted territory of future operations. In this paper we report human/system integration aspects, safety and efficiency results as well as airspace throughput, workload, and operational acceptability. We conclude that, with further refinements. air traffic control operations with ground-based automated separation assurance can be an effective and acceptable means to routinely provide very high traffic throughput in the en route airspace.

  18. Respiratory viral infections and effects of meteorological parameters and air pollution in adults with respiratory symptoms admitted to the emergency room

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Denise R; Viana, Vinícius P; Müller, Alice M; Livi, Fernando P; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso R

    2014-01-01

    Background Respiratory viral infections (RVIs) are the most common causes of respiratory infections. The prevalence of respiratory viruses in adults is underestimated. Meteorological variations and air pollution are likely to play a role in these infections. Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the number of emergency visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) and to evaluate the association between ILI/SARI, RVI prevalence, and meteorological factors/air pollution, in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, from November 2008 to October 2010. Methods Eleven thousand nine hundred and fifty-three hospitalizations (adults and children) for respiratory symptoms were correlated with meteorological parameters and air pollutants. In a subset of adults, nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected and analyzed through IFI test. The data were analyzed using time-series analysis. Results Influenza-like illness and SARI were diagnosed in 3698 (30·9%) and 2063 (17·7%) patients, respectively. Thirty-seven (9·0%) samples were positive by IFI and 93 of 410 (22·7%) were IFI and/or PCR positive. In a multivariate logistic regression model, IFI positivity was statistically associated with absolute humidity, use of air conditioning, and presence of mold in home. Sunshine duration was significantly associated with the frequency of ILI cases. For SARI cases, the variables mean temperature, sunshine duration, relative humidity, and mean concentration of pollutants were singnificant. Conclusions At least 22% of infections in adult patients admitted to ER with respiratory complaints were caused by RVI. The correlations among meteorological variables, air pollution, ILI/SARI cases, and respiratory viruses demonstrated the relevance of climate factors as significant underlying contributors to the prevalence of RVI. PMID:24034701

  19. Stereotypical movements.

    PubMed

    Delafield-Butt, J T

    2010-01-01

    A 'stereotypical movement' denotes a movement reproduced in a standardised form. The term is used in two fields, in movement science and in medical assessments of pathology. The former recognises the occurrence of regular patterns of movement across individuals expressed at regular points in development, such as the pre-reach in early infancy. The latter specifies a pathological form of repetitive movement by one individual symptomatic of, for example, autism. This entry explores the interindividual use of the term in movement science and touches on ongoing work to better classify and quantify stereotypical movements for better psychophysiological understanding of action development, and possible sensitive measures of them.

  20. Au(I) Iminophosphorane Complexes as Efficient Catalysts for the Cycloisomerization of Alkynyl Amides under Air, at Room Temperature, and in Aqueous or Eutectic-Mixture Solutions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, María J; Vidal, Cristian; Schumacher, Sören; Borge, Javier; García-Álvarez, Joaquín

    2017-03-08

    New iminophosphorane-phosphine Au(I) complexes [AuCl(κ(1) -P-Ph2 PCH2 P{=NP(=S)(OR)2 }Ph2 )] (3 a,b) and [Au2 Cl2 (μ(2) -P,S-Ph2 PCH2 P{=NP(=S)(OR)2 }Ph2 )] (4 a,b) proved to be general, very efficient, and recyclable (up to four consecutive runs) catalysts for the cycloisomerization of alkynyl amides in water or choline chloride-based eutectic mixtures as green solvents. Remarkably, this cycloisomerization reaction took place under mild conditions (low catalyst loading, at room temperature, and in the absence of cocatalysts or protecting atmosphere) to give the corresponding alkylidene lactams by employing an efficient and sustainable methodology.

  1. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the Installation Restoration Program, Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida, is considering remedialaction alternatives to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites that may discharge to the surface. This requires a quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system and how the system will respond to any future stresses. The geologic units of interest in the study area consist of sediments of Holocene to Miocene age that extend from land surface to the base of the Hawthorn Group. The hydrogeology within the study area was determined from gamma-ray and geologists? logs. Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system was simulated with a seven-layer, finite-difference model that extended vertically from the water table to the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Results from the calibrated model were based on a long-term recharge rate of 6 inches per year, which fell in the range of 4 to 10 inches per year, estimated using stream hydrograph separation methods. More than 80 percent of ground-water flow circulates within the surficial-sand aquifer, which indicates that most contaminant movement also can be expected to move through the surficial-sand aquifer alone. The surficial-sand aquifer is the uppermost unit of the surficial aquifer system. Particle-tracking results showed that the distances of most flow paths were 1,500 feet or less from a given site to its discharge point. For an assumed effective porosity of 20 percent, typical traveltimes are 40 years or less. At all of the sites investigated, particles released 10 feet below the water table had shorter traveltimes than those released 40 feet below the water table. Traveltimes from contaminated sites to their point of discharge ranged from 2 to 300 years. The contributing areas of the domestic supply wells are not very extensive. The shortest traveltimes for particles to reach the domestic supply wells from their respective

  2. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  3. INTERIOR OF COLD STORAGE ROOM, SHOWING MOVABLE HANGING RACKS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF COLD STORAGE ROOM, SHOWING MOVABLE HANGING RACKS. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Aircraft Storehouse, Between Midway & Card Streets at Enterprise Avenue intersection, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  4. Near-road air pollution impacts of goods movement in communities adjacent to the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Kathleen H.; Fruin, Scott A.; Winer, Arthur M.

    A mobile platform was outfitted with real-time instruments to spatially characterize pollution concentrations in communities adjacent to the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach, communities heavily impacted by emissions related to dieselized goods movement, with the highest localized air pollution impacts due to heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT). Measurements were conducted in the winter and summer of 2007 on fixed routes driven both morning and afternoon. Diesel-related pollutant concentrations such as black carbon, nitric oxide, ultrafine particles, and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were frequently elevated two to five times within 150 m downwind of freeways (compared to more than 150 m) and up to two times within 150 m downwind of arterial roads with significant amounts of diesel traffic. While wind direction was the dominant factor associated with downwind impacts, steady and consistent wind direction was not required to produce; high impacts were observed when a given area was downwind of a major roadway for any significant fraction of time. This suggests elevated pollution impacts downwind of freeways and of busy arterials are continuously occurring on one side of the road or the other, depending on wind direction. The diesel truck traffic in the area studied was high, with more than 2000 trucks per peak hour on the freeway and two- to six-hundred trucks per hour on the arterial roads studied. These results suggest that similarly-frequent impacts occur throughout urban areas in rough proportion to diesel truck traffic fractions. Thus, persons living or working near and downwind of busy roadways can have several-fold higher exposures to diesel vehicle-related pollution than would be predicted by ambient measurements in non-impacted locations.

  5. Stochastic modeling of short-term exposure close to an air pollution source in a naturally ventilated room: an autocorrelated random walk method.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kai-Chung; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Jiang, Ruo-Ting; Klepeis, Neil E; Ott, Wayne R; Kitanidis, Peter K; Hildemann, Lynn M

    2014-01-01

    For an actively emitting source such as cooking or smoking, indoor measurements have shown a strong "proximity effect" within 1 m. The significant increase in both the magnitude and variation of concentration near a source is attributable to transient high peaks that occur sporadically-and these "microplumes" cause great uncertainty in estimating personal exposure. Recent field studies in naturally ventilated rooms show that close-proximity concentrations are approximately lognormally distributed. We use the autocorrelated random walk method to represent the time-varying directionality of indoor emissions, thereby predicting the time series and frequency distributions of concentrations close to an actively emitting point source. The predicted 5-min concentrations show good agreement with measurements from a point source of CO in a naturally ventilated house-the measured and predicted frequency distributions at 0.5- and 1-m distances are similar and approximately lognormal over a concentration range spanning three orders of magnitude. By including the transient peak concentrations, this random airflow modeling method offers a way to more accurately assess acute exposure levels for cases where well-defined airflow patterns in an indoor space are not available.

  6. Evaluation of Nanoparticles Emitted from Printers in a Clean Chamber, a Copy Center and Office Rooms: Health Risks of Indoor Air Quality.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaofei; Chen, Rui; Huo, Lingling; Zhao, Lin; Bai, Ru; Long, Dingxin; Pui, David Y H; Rang, Weiqing; Chen, Chunying

    2015-12-01

    Indoor air quality has great impact on the human health. An increasing number of studies have shown that printers could release particulate matters and pose adverse effects on indoor air quality. In this study, a thorough investigation was designed to assess the aerosol printer particle total number concentration (TNC) and size distribution in normal office environment, one copy center, and a clean chamber. Particle analyzers, SMPS, OPS, and CPC3007 were used to monitor the total printing process. In normal office environment, 37 laser printers out of all surveyed 55 printers were classified as high particle emitters. Comparing to laser printers, 5 inkjet printers showed no particle emission. Particle emission level in a copy center increased slightly with TNC elevating to about 2 times of the aerosol background. Simulating test in a clean chamber indicated that printer-emitted particles were dominated by particles in nanoscale (diameter of particle, D(p) < 100 nm). These particles in a sealed clean chamber attenuated so slowly that it still held at high level with the concentration of 1.5 x 10(4) particles/cm3 after printing for 2.5 hours. Our present results demonstrate that printers indeed release particulates which keeping at a high concentration level in the indoor environment. Special care should be taken to this kind of widely applied machines and effective controls of particle emission at printing processes are necessary.

  7. Movement - uncontrollable

    MedlinePlus

    ... peripheral nervous system References Jankovic J, Lang AE. Movement disorders: diagnosis and assessment. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, ... Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 21. Lang AE. Other movement disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  8. Movement - uncoordinated

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss of coordination; Coordination impairment; Ataxia; Clumsiness; Uncoordinated movement ... Smooth graceful movement requires a balance between different muscle groups. A part of the brain called the cerebellum manages this balance.

  9. OFFICE AND INSTRUMENT ROOM SOUTH OF THE WEST TANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OFFICE AND INSTRUMENT ROOM SOUTH OF THE WEST TANK - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Liquid Oxygen & Nitrogen Storage Tank Farm, Intersection of Altair & Jupiter Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. Basement, room 23, looking southwest into two adjacent offices with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Basement, room 23, looking southwest into two adjacent offices with soundproof walls and pedestal flooring - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  11. Telephone equipment room, showing channel terminal bank with vacuum tubes. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Telephone equipment room, showing channel terminal bank with vacuum tubes. View to east - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  12. 2. CONTROL ROOM INTERIOR, CONSOLE AND MONITORS. Looking west. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONTROL ROOM INTERIOR, CONSOLE AND MONITORS. Looking west. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Control Center, Test Area 1-115, near Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. 7. Interior, communications plotter room, view to south showing secondary ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior, communications plotter room, view to south showing secondary entrance. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Rushmore Air Force Station, Security Central Control Building, Quesada Drive, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  14. Interior view to the southwest of Computer Room 157 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view to the southwest of Computer Room 157 - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Mountain Home Air Force Operations Building, On Desert Street at 9th Avenue Mountain Home Air Force Base, Mountain Home, Elmore County, ID

  15. Noise control considerations for patient rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenny, Benjamin

    2005-09-01

    The patient room envelope is a path between outside noise sources and the patient receiver. Within the patient room there are several sources including televisions, clinical monitor alarms, medical pumps, etc. Noise control in patient rooms relies on a combination of the sound transmission loss of the patient room envelope and the level of background sound at the patient's head. Guidelines published by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), American Institute of Architects (AIA), and the U.S. Department of Defense for background noise and sound transmission loss in patient rooms will be discussed. Appropriate levels, spectra, and temporal characteristics of background sound at the patient head location may be helpful in raising the threshold of annoying sounds. Various means of personal hearing protection for patients will be discussed. Sound-pressure levels in patient rooms reported in previous literature will also be discussed.

  16. Locker Room Talk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Examines the trends in college and university sports and recreation center locker rooms as envisioned by a specialist. Features of the modern locker room and the different levels of locker room design are explained. Final comments discuss whether college and university facility managers are inclined to move to high-end locker rooms. (GR)

  17. 122. SOUTH SIDE OF TRANSFORMER ROOM (112), LSB (BLDG. 770), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. SOUTH SIDE OF TRANSFORMER ROOM (112), LSB (BLDG. 770), WITH MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ROOM (110) AND LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (106) VISIBLE THROUGH OPEN DOORS. POWER PANEL 2A AT LEFT EDGE OF PHOTO. FIRE SUPPRESSION DELUGE PANEL ON RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. 133. SOUTH SIDE OF TRANSFORMER ROOM (212), LSB (BLDG. 751), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    133. SOUTH SIDE OF TRANSFORMER ROOM (212), LSB (BLDG. 751), WITH MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ROOM (210) AND LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (206) VISIBLE THROUGH OPEN DOORS. POWER PANEL A, FACING WEST, AT LEFT EDGE OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  19. 112. VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ROOM (110), LSB (BLDG. 770). VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ROOM (111) AND PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL VISIBLE AT SOUTH END OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ROOM (110). PAYLOAD CABLE DISTRIBUTION BOX ON LEFT OF PHOTO, FACING WEST. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  20. 113. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ROOM (110), LSB (BLDG. 770). QUALITY ASSURANCE ROOM (106A) ON RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTO; CABLE TRAYS OVERHEAD AT TOP; STAIRS TO LSB (BLDG. 770) ADDITION (ROOMS 117 THROUGH 120) IN CENTER OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. Comparison of EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) test house data with predictions of an indoor-air-quality model

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, L.E.; Jackson, M.D.; Tichenor, B.A.

    1988-07-01

    An easy-to-use indoor-air-quality (IAQ) model is described. It is multi-compartmented and based on a well-mixed mixing model. Sources and sinks are allowed in each compartment. A menu-driven fill-in-the-form user interface controls program flow and is used to obtain data from the user. On-screen graphical output is provided. The model estimates the effects of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), air cleaning, room-to-room air movement, and natural ventilation on pollutant concentrations. Experiments conducted in the EPA test house using moth crystal cakes for model verification are described. The agreement between small chamber emission factors, model predictions, and test house data is very good. Predicted weight loss of the moth crystal cakes was within 5% of the measured weight loss. Predicted room concentrations of p-dichlorobenzene are within 20% of the measured values. Future directions for model development and experimental studies are discussed.

  2. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory is lowered onto a transporter to be taken back to NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory is lowered onto a transporter to be taken back to NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

  3. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory is ready to be lowered to the ground and taken back to NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory is ready to be lowered to the ground and taken back to NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

  4. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory is moved toward the outside of the launch tower. It will be lowered and taken back to NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory is moved toward the outside of the launch tower. It will be lowered and taken back to NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

  5. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory is lowered to the ground and taken back to NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory is lowered to the ground and taken back to NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory is moved into NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory is moved into NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

  7. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory is on a transporter to be taken back to NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory is on a transporter to be taken back to NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

  8. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory is being dismantled from atop the Delta II rocket. It will be taken back to NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory is being dismantled from atop the Delta II rocket. It will be taken back to NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

  9. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers on Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, start dismantling the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory from atop the Delta II rocket. It will be taken back to NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers on Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, start dismantling the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory from atop the Delta II rocket. It will be taken back to NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

  10. 2. TERMINAL ROOM, SHOP LEVEL INTERIOR, SHOWING MEZZANINE LEVEL CABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. TERMINAL ROOM, SHOP LEVEL INTERIOR, SHOWING MEZZANINE LEVEL CABLE RACK AT UPPER RIGHT. Looking north. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. 4. NORTH END OF TERMINAL ROOM, SHOP LEVEL SHOWING SPIRAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTH END OF TERMINAL ROOM, SHOP LEVEL SHOWING SPIRAL STAIR TO CABLE RACK. Looking north. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. West wall, display area (room 101), view 2 of 4: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wall, display area (room 101), view 2 of 4: south part, showing commander's quarters and viewing bridge on second floor, controller's room, console, and projection booth on main floor - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  13. 5. INSTRUMENT ROOM INTERIOR, SHOWING BACKS OF CONSOLE LOCKERS. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INSTRUMENT ROOM INTERIOR, SHOWING BACKS OF CONSOLE LOCKERS. Looking northeast to firing control room passageway. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Firing Control Building, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. West wall, display area (room 101), view 4 of 4: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wall, display area (room 101), view 4 of 4: northwest corner, with D.M. logistics office below (room 137), and D.O./D.D.O. offices above. Lower stairs lead to entry shown in view 13 - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  15. 32 CFR 806.11 - FOIA reading rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false FOIA reading rooms. 806.11 Section 806.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.11 FOIA reading rooms. Each FOIA office will arrange for a...

  16. 32 CFR 806.11 - FOIA reading rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false FOIA reading rooms. 806.11 Section 806.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.11 FOIA reading rooms. Each FOIA office will arrange for a...

  17. 32 CFR 806.11 - FOIA reading rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false FOIA reading rooms. 806.11 Section 806.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.11 FOIA reading rooms. Each FOIA office will arrange for a...

  18. 32 CFR 806.11 - FOIA reading rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false FOIA reading rooms. 806.11 Section 806.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.11 FOIA reading rooms. Each FOIA office will arrange for a...

  19. 32 CFR 806.11 - FOIA reading rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false FOIA reading rooms. 806.11 Section 806.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.11 FOIA reading rooms. Each FOIA office will arrange for a...

  20. Movement - uncontrolled or slow

    MedlinePlus

    Dystonia; Involuntary slow and twisting movements; Choreoathetosis; Leg and arm movements - uncontrollable; Arm and leg movements - uncontrollable; Slow involuntary movements of large muscle groups; Athetoid movements

  1. Psychostimulants and movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Asser, Andres; Taba, Pille

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants are a diverse group of substances with their main psychomotor effects resembling those of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, or cathinone. Due to their potential as drugs of abuse, recreational use of most of these substances is illegal since 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In recent years, new psychoactive substances have emerged mainly as synthetic cathinones with new molecules frequently complementing the list. Psychostimulant related movement disorders are a known entity often seen in emergency rooms around the world. These admissions are becoming more frequent as are fatalities associated with drug abuse. Still the legal constraints of the novel synthetic molecules are bypassed. At the same time, chronic and permanent movement disorders are much less frequently encountered. These disorders frequently manifest as a combination of movement disorders. The more common symptoms include agitation, tremor, hyperkinetic and stereotypical movements, cognitive impairment, and also hyperthermia and cardiovascular dysfunction. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the clinical manifestations have been researched for decades. The common denominator is the monoaminergic signaling. Dopamine has received the most attention but further research has demonstrated involvement of other pathways. Common mechanisms linking psychostimulant use and several movement disorders exist.

  2. Psychostimulants and Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Asser, Andres; Taba, Pille

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants are a diverse group of substances with their main psychomotor effects resembling those of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, or cathinone. Due to their potential as drugs of abuse, recreational use of most of these substances is illegal since 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In recent years, new psychoactive substances have emerged mainly as synthetic cathinones with new molecules frequently complementing the list. Psychostimulant related movement disorders are a known entity often seen in emergency rooms around the world. These admissions are becoming more frequent as are fatalities associated with drug abuse. Still the legal constraints of the novel synthetic molecules are bypassed. At the same time, chronic and permanent movement disorders are much less frequently encountered. These disorders frequently manifest as a combination of movement disorders. The more common symptoms include agitation, tremor, hyperkinetic and stereotypical movements, cognitive impairment, and also hyperthermia and cardiovascular dysfunction. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the clinical manifestations have been researched for decades. The common denominator is the monoaminergic signaling. Dopamine has received the most attention but further research has demonstrated involvement of other pathways. Common mechanisms linking psychostimulant use and several movement disorders exist. PMID:25941511

  3. 3. FIRST FLOOR, FRONT ROOM (WHERE MARTIN LUTHER KING MADE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FIRST FLOOR, FRONT ROOM (WHERE MARTIN LUTHER KING MADE PLANS FOR HIS MOVEMENT) - Penn School Historic District, Arnett House, SC Route 37, 1 mile South of Frogmore, St. Helena Island, Frogmore, Beaufort County, SC

  4. [Stereotypic movements].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alvarez, E

    2003-02-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive patterns of movement with certain peculiar features that make them especially interesting. Their physiopathology and their relationship with the neurobehavioural disorders they are frequently associated with are unknown. In this paper our aim is to offer a simple analysis of their dominant characteristics, their differentiation from other processes and a hypothesis of the properties of stereotypic movements, which could all set the foundations for research work into their physiopathology.

  5. Improving operating room safety

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Despite the introduction of the Universal Protocol, patient safety in surgery remains a daily challenge in the operating room. This present study describes one community health system's efforts to improve operating room safety through human factors training and ultimately the development of a surgical checklist. Using a combination of formal training, local studies documenting operating room safety issues and peer to peer mentoring we were able to substantially change the culture of our operating room. Our efforts have prepared us for successfully implementing a standardized checklist to improve operating room safety throughout our entire system. Based on these findings we recommend a multimodal approach to improving operating room safety. PMID:19930577

  6. PM10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Chiang Mai (Thailand): Seasonal variations, source identification, health risk assessment and their relationship to air-mass movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiriya, Wan; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Chantara, Somporn

    2013-04-01

    found that vehicle emission and biomass burning were the main sources of PM10 and PAHs in this area. The high ratio value of benzo(a)anthracene/chrysene (BaA/CHR) in the dry season of 2010 indicated possible photochemical processes and long distance emissions. Findings on source identification of PM10 and PAHs were found to be relevant to the direction and speed of air mass movement run by backward trajectory.

  7. Trends in operating room devices.

    PubMed

    Laufman, H

    1976-01-01

    Although trends in the use of operating room devices have generally followed advances in technology, the trends are not always influenced as much by surgical need as they are by industrial expediency and commercial promotion. Nonetheless, a broad view of trends in OR devices definitely points to efforts at greater compatibility between devices made by different manufacturers. To mention a few examples, operating tables are being made more compatible with OR X-ray equipment; surgical lighting is being designed for greater compatibility with air-handling systems and video equipment; power consoles have reduced the clutter of tubes, hoses, and wires in complicated operations, and have become more functional in keeping with the trend away from electrical power and toward nitrogen power for driving surgical tools; cabinetry is being designed to employ clean-air principles; and surgical apparel and barrier materials are undergoing close scrutiny for their effectiveness against moist bacterial strike-through in lengthy wet operations. Operating room devices form an important segment of the devices classified by the FDA, and are expected to benefit by the application of standards in performance and safety. This trend will affect not only the devices themselves, but all other facets of operating room design and engineering.

  8. Chloroplast movement.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masamitsu; Kagawa, Takatoshi; Sato, Yoshikatsu

    2003-01-01

    The study of chloroplast movement made a quantum leap at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Research based on reverse-genetic approaches using targeted mutants has brought new concepts to this field. One of the most exciting findings has been the discovery of photoreceptors for both accumulation and avoidance responses in Arabidopsis and in the fern Adiantum. Evidence for the adaptive advantage of chloroplast avoidance movements in plant survival has also been found. Additional discoveries include mechano-stress-induced chloroplast movement in ferns and mosses, and microtubule-mediated chloroplast movement in the moss Physcomitrella. The possible ecological significance of chloroplast movement is discussed in the final part of this review.

  9. Locker Room Design Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Examines how today's college and university athletic locker rooms have become sophisticated recruiting tools that rival many professional facilities. Locker room design and location and their level of furniture, finishes, and equipment are discussed as is the trend for more environmentally friendly locker rooms. (GR)

  10. Locker Room Design Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Examines how today's college and university athletic locker rooms have become sophisticated recruiting tools that rival many professional facilities. Locker room design and location and their level of furniture, finishes, and equipment are discussed as is the trend for more environmentally friendly locker rooms. (GR)

  11. Buoyancy driven acceleration in a hospital operating room indoor environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeill, James; Hertzberg, Jean; Zhai, John

    2011-11-01

    In hospital operating rooms, centrally located non-isothermal ceiling jets provide sterile air for protecting the surgical site from infectious particles in the room air as well as room cooling. Modern operating rooms are requiring larger temperature differences to accommodate increasing cooling loads for heat gains from medical equipment. This trend may lead to significant changes in the room air distribution patterns that may sacrifice the sterile air field across the surgical table. Quantitative flow visualization experiments using laser sheet illumination and RANS modeling of the indoor environment were conducted to demonstrate the impact of the indoor environment thermal conditions on the room air distribution. The angle of the jet shear layer was studied as function of the area of the vena contracta of the jet, which is in turn dependent upon the Archimedes number of the jet. Increases in the buoyancy forces cause greater air velocities in the vicinity of the surgical site increasing the likelihood of deposition of contaminants in the flow field. The outcome of this study shows the Archimedes number should be used as the design parameter for hospital operating room air distribution in order to maintain a proper supply air jet for covering the sterile region. This work is supported by ASHRAE.

  12. The virtual gamma camera room.

    PubMed

    Penrose, J M; Trowbridge, E A; Tindale, W B

    1996-05-01

    The installation of a gamma camera is time-consuming and costly and, once installed, the camera position is unlikely to be altered during its working life. Poor choice of camera position therefore has long-term consequences. Additional equipment such as collimators and carts, the operator's workstation and wall-mounted display monitors must also be situated to maximize access and ease of use. The layout of a gamma camera room can be optimized prior to installation by creating a virtual environment. Super-Scape VRT software running on an upgraded 486 PC microprocessor was used to create a 'virtual camera room'. The simulation included an operator's viewpoint and a controlled tour of the room. Equipment could be repositioned as required, allowing potential problems to be identified at the design stage. Access for bed-ridden patients, operator ergonomics, operator and patient visibility were addressed. The display can also be used for patient education. Creation of a virtual environment is a valuable tool which allows different camera systems to be compared interactively in terms of dimensions, extent of movement and use of a defined space. Such a system also has applications in radiopharmacy design and simulation.

  13. Pipes to the earth subsurface: The role of atmospheric conditions in driving air movement along a borehole connecting land surface and an underground cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisbrod, Noam; Levintal, Elad; Lensky, Nadav G.; Mushkin, Amit; Dragila, Maria I.

    2017-04-01

    Understanding air dynamics in underground cavities (e.g., caves, underground storage structures, quarries, tunnels, etc.) and different types of boreholes is of great significance for the exploration of gas transport at the earth-atmosphere interface. Here, we investigated the role of atmospheric conditions on air transport inside a borehole. Two different geometries were explored in the field: a 27-m deep shaft connected to an underground large cavity and the same shaft after being disconnected from the underground cavity. The observation setup included a standard meteorological station located above the borehole and temperature and relative humidity sensors along the borehole. Absolute humidity, calculated from the measured temperature and relative humidity, was validated as a robust marker for assessing air transport inside the two shaft geometries examined. In both cases, air inflow and outflow at depths of 12 and 27 m was found to be related to changes in barometric pressure regardless of temperature instability (thermal-induced convection) or wind velocity (wind-induced convection). In contrast, these convective fluxes were found to be significant parameters driving air flow in the upper few meters. A newly developed conceptual model is presented to examine the induced airflow in both shaft geometries with the goal of improving our understanding of gas transport and its dependence on barometric pressure changes.

  14. Large Eddy Simulation of Motion-Induced Contaminant Transports in Room Compartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jung-Il; Edwards, Jack

    2011-11-01

    Large eddy simulation (LES) of contaminant transports due to complex human and door motions is conducted for characterizing the effect of the motion-induced wakes on the contaminant transports in room compartments where a contaminated and clean room are connected by a vestibule. We utilize a LES technique with an immersed-boundary method for moving objects (Choi et al., JCP 2007; Choi and Edwards, Indoor Air 2008) and extend the technique to include Eulerian descriptions of gas-phase contaminant transport as well as thermal energy transfer. We demonstrate details of contaminant transport due to human- and door-motion induced wake development during a short-duration event involving the movement of a person (or persons) from a contaminated room, through a vestibule, into a clean room. Parametric studies that capture the effects of human walking pattern, door operation, over-pressure level, and vestibule size are systematically conducted. The results of parameteric studies will be shown in the final presentation. Supported by DARPA/SPO program (HR0011-05-C-0157) and WCU program (R31-10049) of NRF.

  15. 13. CELLAR, UNDER MAIN MEETING ROOM, LOOKING NORTH. The 1909 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. CELLAR, UNDER MAIN MEETING ROOM, LOOKING NORTH. The 1909 hot air furnace with brick wall enclosure of possibly earlier origin. A hot air system of two furnaces was installed with ventilating ducts in the east end in 1852. There was a hot air system in the west end without ventilating ducts. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. The Upstairs Room - Room for Controversy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Mary F.

    1973-01-01

    Doubtless everyone is tired of the subject of censorship; but I do have to give vent to my feelings when they are as intense as they are over the selection of a book as full of profanity as a Newbery honor book ( The Upstairs Room''). (Author/SM)

  17. Altitude Wind Tunnel Control Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1945-05-21

    Researchers at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory monitor a ramjet's performance in the Altitude Wind Tunnel from the control room. The soundproof control room was just a few feet from the tunnel’s 20-foot-diameter test section. In the control room, the operators could control all aspects of the tunnel’s operation, including the air density, temperature, and speed. They also operated the engine or test article in the test section by controlling the angle-of-attack, speed, power, and other parameters. The men in this photograph are monitoring the engine’s thrust and lift. A NACA-designed 20-inch-diameter ramjet was installed in the tunnel in May 1945. Thrust figures from these runs were compared with drag data from tests of scale models in small supersonic tunnels to verify the ramjet’s feasibility. The tunnel was used to analyze the ramjet’s overall performance up to altitudes of 47,000 feet and speeds to Mach 1.84. The researchers found that an increase in altitude caused a reduction in the engine’s horsepower and identified optimal flameholder configurations.

  18. Strengthening Weight Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Rachel M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines ways of giving an existing weight-training room new life without spending a lot of time and money. Tips include adding rubber floor coverings; using indirect lighting; adding windows, art work, or mirrors to open up the room; using more aesthetically pleasing ceiling tiles; upgrading ventilation; repadding or painting the equipment; and…

  19. Computer Room Water Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Bennett J.

    1990-01-01

    Addresses the protection of computer rooms from water. Sources of water and potentially vulnerable areas in computer rooms are described. Water detection is then discussed, and several detection systems are detailed. Prices and manufacturers' telephone numbers for some of the systems are included. Water cleanup is also briefly considered. (MES)

  20. Strengthening Weight Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Rachel M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines ways of giving an existing weight-training room new life without spending a lot of time and money. Tips include adding rubber floor coverings; using indirect lighting; adding windows, art work, or mirrors to open up the room; using more aesthetically pleasing ceiling tiles; upgrading ventilation; repadding or painting the equipment; and…

  1. Unlocking the Locker Room.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Clair, Dean

    1996-01-01

    Discusses locker-room design standards and common challenges when complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act. Accessibility and safety considerations for shower, toilet, and locker areas are addressed, as are entrance vestibules, drying and grooming areas, and private dressing rooms. (GR)

  2. Clean room wiping liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1991-12-01

    A water-based liquid containing isopropyl alcohol, ammonium hydroxide, and surfactants was developed to replace 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane for the dampening of clean room wiping cloths used to wipe clean benches, clean room equipment, and latex finger cots and gloves.

  3. Chloroplast movement.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masamitsu

    2013-09-01

    Chloroplast movement is important for plant survival under high light and for efficient photosynthesis under low light. This review introduces recent knowledge on chloroplast movement and shows how to analyze the responses and the moving mechanisms, potentially inspiring research in this field. Avoidance from the strong light is mediated by blue light receptor phototropin 2 (phot2) plausibly localized on the chloroplast envelop and accumulation at the week light-irradiated area is mediated by phot1 and phot2 localized on the plasma membrane. Chloroplasts move by chloroplast actin (cp-actin) filaments that must be polymerized by Chloroplast Unusual Positioning1 (CHUP1) at the front side of moving chloroplast. To understand the signal transduction pathways and the mechanism of chloroplast movement, that is, from light capture to motive force-generating mechanism, various methods should be employed based on the various aspects. Observation of chloroplast distribution pattern under different light condition by fixed cell sectioning is somewhat an old-fashioned technique but the most basic and important way. However, most importantly, precise chloroplast behavior during and just after the induction of chloroplast movement by partial cell irradiation using an irradiator with either low light or strong light microbeam should be recorded by time lapse photographs under infrared light and analyzed. Recently various factors involved in chloroplast movement, such as cp-actin filaments and CHUP1, could be traced in Arabidopsis transgenic lines with fluorescent protein tags under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and/or a total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM). These methods are listed and their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Door Opening Affects Operating Room Pressure During Joint Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Mears, Simon C; Blanding, Renee; Belkoff, Stephen M

    2015-11-01

    Many resources are expended to ensure a sterile operating room environment. Efforts are made to prevent exposure of patients to personnel and to achieve positive room pressure to keep out airborne contaminants. Foot traffic into and out of the operating room during surgery can undermine these efforts. The authors investigated the number and duration of operating room door openings during hip and knee arthroplasty procedures and the effect of the door openings on room pressure. They tested the hypothesis that door openings defeat positive pressure, permitting air flow into the room. Room pressure and door status were monitored electronically during 191 hip and knee arthroplasty procedures. Operating room staff were unaware that data were being collected. The authors evaluated the data with regression analysis to determine whether the number and duration of door openings had an effect on room pressure. Significance was set at P<.05. Doors were open, on average, 9.5 minutes per case. In 77 of 191 cases, positive pressure was defeated, allowing air flow to reverse into the operating room. Total time with the door open significantly affected the minimum pressure recorded in the room (P<.02), but did not significantly affect average room pressure (P=.7). This finding suggested that the loss of positive pressure was a transient event from which the room recovered. The number and duration of door openings showed a significant association with length of surgery. Door openings threaten positive pressure, potentially jeopardizing operating room sterility. The causes of excessive operating room traffic must be evaluated to identify ways to reduce this traffic and the associated risks.

  5. 10. Interior view of control room in Components Test Laboratory ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior view of control room in Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking east. The control room is located in the center of the building and abuts the Test Cell 8, 9, and 10 and equipment room wings. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  6. 13. EQUIPMENT USED IN CLEAN ROOM (102), INCLUDING ROYCO PARTICLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. EQUIPMENT USED IN CLEAN ROOM (102), INCLUDING ROYCO PARTICLE COUNTER (LEFT) AND STEREOSCOPE FOR MANUAL PARTICLE COUNTING (RIGHT) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Vehicle Support Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. 125. TRANSFORMER SUBSTATIONS ON NORTH SIDE OF TRANSFORMER ROOM (112), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. TRANSFORMER SUBSTATIONS ON NORTH SIDE OF TRANSFORMER ROOM (112), FACING SOUTH - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  8. 6. Interior of quarters (executive officer's quarters), living room, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior of quarters (executive officer's quarters), living room, looking west - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  9. 9. Interior of Building 1001 (administration building), Room 204, vault, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior of Building 1001 (administration building), Room 204, vault, looking east - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  10. FEATURE B, TYPE 1 PILLBOX, INTERIOR VIEW OF SEAWARD ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE B, TYPE 1 PILLBOX, INTERIOR VIEW OF SEAWARD ROOM FROM DOORWAY, VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Shore Pillbox Complex-Type 1 Pillbox, Along shoreline, seaward of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  11. INTERIOR FROM NORTH ENTRY VESTIBULE INTO MAIN EQUIPMENT ROOM, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR FROM NORTH ENTRY VESTIBULE INTO MAIN EQUIPMENT ROOM, VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Telephone Exchange, Coral Sea Road north of Bismarck Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  12. INTERIOR OF NORTH ENTRY VESTIBULE, SHOWING TRANSFORMER ROOM BEHIND WIRE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF NORTH ENTRY VESTIBULE, SHOWING TRANSFORMER ROOM BEHIND WIRE MESH, VIEW FACING EAST-SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Telephone Exchange, Coral Sea Road north of Bismarck Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  13. 133. NITROGEN SUPPLY PANEL ON SOUTH WALL OF CONTROL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    133. NITROGEN SUPPLY PANEL ON SOUTH WALL OF CONTROL ROOM (114), LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. INTERIOR OF BRIEFING ROOM A. view TO NORTHWEST Plattsburgh ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF BRIEFING ROOM A. view TO NORTHWEST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  15. INTERIOR OF TARGET INTELLIGENCE ROOM. view TO WEST. Plattsburgh ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF TARGET INTELLIGENCE ROOM. view TO WEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  16. DETAIL OF DOORWAY INTO COMBAT INTELLIGENCE ROOM. view TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF DOORWAY INTO COMBAT INTELLIGENCE ROOM. view TO WEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  17. DETAIL OF DOORWAY INTO ROOM 102. view TO SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF DOORWAY INTO ROOM 102. view TO SOUTH. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  18. 11. Credit BG. Interior of control and observation room at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Credit BG. Interior of control and observation room at Control and Recording Center, showing detail of switchboard and closed circuit television monitors. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Control & Recording Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR, OUTSIDE PROJECTION ROOM ABOVE ENTRY PORCH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR, OUTSIDE PROJECTION ROOM ABOVE ENTRY PORCH, VIEW FACING WEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Theater, Yorktown Avenue between Wasp & Saipan Streets, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  20. VIEW OF THE CONTROL ROOM FOR THE ALTITUDE CHAMBERS, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE CONTROL ROOM FOR THE ALTITUDE CHAMBERS, FACING SOUTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  1. VIEW OF PUMP ROOM FOR ALTITUDE CHAMBERS, FACING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PUMP ROOM FOR ALTITUDE CHAMBERS, FACING SOUTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  2. 106. INTERIOR OF CABLE TRAY TUNNEL, FROM LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. INTERIOR OF CABLE TRAY TUNNEL, FROM LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (106), LSB (BLDG. 770), TOWARDS CABLE TRAY SHED - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  3. VIEW OF FLIGHT CREW SYSTEMS, FLIGHT KITS FACILITY, ROOM NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF FLIGHT CREW SYSTEMS, FLIGHT KITS FACILITY, ROOM NO. 1N12, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  4. VIEW OF FLIGHT CREW SYSTEMS, FLIGHT KITS FACILITY, ROOM NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF FLIGHT CREW SYSTEMS, FLIGHT KITS FACILITY, ROOM NO. 1N12, FACING SOUTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  5. 5. Interior of Quarters R (commanding officer's quarters), living room, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Interior of Quarters R (commanding officer's quarters), living room, looking northwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters R, Essex Street, .43 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  6. 10. Credit BG. Interior of control and observation room at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Credit BG. Interior of control and observation room at Control and Recording Center Building 4221/E-22. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Control & Recording Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  7. 47. Diesel generator room, diesel motor generator, diesel fuel day ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Diesel generator room, diesel motor generator, diesel fuel day tank at right rear, looking northwest - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  8. 7. OFFICERS' CLUB INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, HALLWAY AND GATHERING ROOMS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. OFFICERS' CLUB INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, HALLWAY AND GATHERING ROOMS, SOUTHWEST VIEW. - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Brick Officers' Quarters, Officers' Club, Area A, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  9. 11. INTERIOR OF THE LIVING ROOM OF BUILDING 600, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR OF THE LIVING ROOM OF BUILDING 600, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Military Family Housing, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  10. 32. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING MECHANICAL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - MECHANICAL ROOM 105, VIEW OF OPERATIONAL SCHEMATIC OF COOLING SYSTEM LOOPS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  11. 72. SECOND FLOOR, HEATER ROOM ENTRANCE (UPPER RIGHT) AND STEEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. SECOND FLOOR, HEATER ROOM ENTRANCE (UPPER RIGHT) AND STEEL, CONCRETE, BRICK, AND SPRING AIR CONDITIONER BASE, BAY 31-32/4 SOUTH, TO WEST - Ford Motor Company Edgewater Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 309 River Road, Edgewater, Bergen County, NJ

  12. DETAIL VIEW OF TESTING EQUIPMENT, REMOTE MANIPULATOR SYSTEM LAB, ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF TESTING EQUIPMENT, REMOTE MANIPULATOR SYSTEM LAB, ROOM NO. 1N4, FACING SOUTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  13. 143. MOBILE HIGH PRESSURE NITROGEN CART STORED IN CONTROL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    143. MOBILE HIGH PRESSURE NITROGEN CART STORED IN CONTROL ROOM (214), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. 137. VALVES ON SOUTH WALL OF LIQUID NITROGEN CONTROL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    137. VALVES ON SOUTH WALL OF LIQUID NITROGEN CONTROL ROOM (115), LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. DETAIL VIEW OF COUNTDOWN CLOCK, FIRING ROOM NO. 3, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF COUNTDOWN CLOCK, FIRING ROOM NO. 3, FACING SOUTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Launch Control Center, LCC Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  16. 13. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. EQUIPMENT ROOM SERVING CELLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. EQUIPMENT ROOM SERVING CELLS 2 AND 4. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  17. 11. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. CONTROL ROOM FOR CELLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. CONTROL ROOM FOR CELLS 2 AND 4. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  18. VIEW OF EASTERN PARTITION OF FRONT BAY ROOM, FACING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EASTERN PARTITION OF FRONT BAY ROOM, FACING SOUTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  19. VIEW OF EASTERN PARTITION OF FRONT BAY ROOM, FACING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EASTERN PARTITION OF FRONT BAY ROOM, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  20. DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL PANEL, ROOM 112, FACING EAST Cape ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL PANEL, ROOM 112, FACING EAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  1. EXTERIOR OF LOCKER ROOM PROJECTION, FACING SOUTHEAST Cape Canaveral ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR OF LOCKER ROOM PROJECTION, FACING SOUTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  2. VIEW OF WESTERN PARTITION OF FRONT BAY ROOM, FACING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WESTERN PARTITION OF FRONT BAY ROOM, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  3. VIEW OF WESTERN PARTITION OF FRONT BAY ROOM, FACING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WESTERN PARTITION OF FRONT BAY ROOM, FACING SOUTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  4. VIEW OF GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT SHOP, ROOM 104, FACING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT SHOP, ROOM 104, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  5. 40. Launch Control Equipment Room, taken from entrance. Lyon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Launch Control Equipment Room, taken from entrance. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  6. 43. Launch Control Equipment Room, generator and maintenance mannequin. Lyon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Launch Control Equipment Room, generator and maintenance mannequin. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  7. 23. Tunnel junction, view from the lower elevator room. Lyon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Tunnel junction, view from the lower elevator room. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  8. 17. Topside facility, interior of facility manager's room, view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Topside facility, interior of facility manager's room, view towards south. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  9. 16. Topside facility, briefing room, former crew lounge. Thalheimer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Topside facility, briefing room, former crew lounge. Thalheimer - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  10. 18. Topside facility, interior of facility manager's room, view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Topside facility, interior of facility manager's room, view towards west. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  11. 21. Interior of elevator, view from upper elevator room. Lyon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Interior of elevator, view from upper elevator room. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  12. 39. Launch Control Equipment Room, seen from tunnel junction. Lyon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Launch Control Equipment Room, seen from tunnel junction. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  13. 3. INTERIOR VIEW OF MAINTENANCE ROOM OF THE CIVIL ENGINEERING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR VIEW OF MAINTENANCE ROOM OF THE CIVIL ENGINEERING SHOP, BUILDING 103, LOOKING WEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Civil Engineering Maintenance Shop, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  14. 6. Interior view of mechanical room; showing machinery; on recessed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior view of mechanical room; showing machinery; on recessed floor level of west wing, near main entrance, view to southwest. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Administration Office, 2704 George Drive, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  15. 9. Interior view of mechanical room; showing equipment; southeast corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view of mechanical room; showing equipment; southeast corner of unoccupied portion; view to east. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Mess & Administration Building, 2279 Risner Drive, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  16. 15. Interior view of unoccupied controlled computer room looking at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior view of unoccupied controlled computer room looking at exit door and office; northwest corner of unoccupied portion; view to south. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Mess & Administration Building, 2279 Risner Drive, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  17. DETAIL VIEW OF COMPUTER PANELS, ROOM 8A Cape Canaveral ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF COMPUTER PANELS, ROOM 8A - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  18. DETAIL OF CANTILEVERED MEZZANINE OBSERVATION ROOM ON SOUTH WEST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF CANTILEVERED MEZZANINE OBSERVATION ROOM ON SOUTH- WEST CORNER OF BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Base Engineer Pavement & Grounds Facility, Off Colorado Street, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  19. Interior detail of women's toilet room showing original sink and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of women's toilet room showing original sink and tile wainscot, facing southwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Dispensary, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. Interior view of servant's room showing ornamental iron security grille, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of servant's room showing ornamental iron security grille, facing south. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. 5. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. CENTRAL ROOM ON MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. CENTRAL ROOM ON MAIN FLOOR. LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  2. 134. THRUST SECTION HEATER IN SOUTHEAST CORNER OF CONTROL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    134. THRUST SECTION HEATER IN SOUTHEAST CORNER OF CONTROL ROOM (114), LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  3. 5. VIEW OF SHIPPING AND RECEIVING ROOM (109) FROM SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF SHIPPING AND RECEIVING ROOM (109) FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER SHOWING EXTERIOR DOORS IN NORTH WALLS - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Vehicle Support Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. 140. HYDRAULIC PUMPING UNIT IN CENTER OF CONTROL ROOM (214), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    140. HYDRAULIC PUMPING UNIT IN CENTER OF CONTROL ROOM (214), LSB (BLDG. 751), FACING SOUTH - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. DETAIL VIEW OF ELECTRONICS TEST AREA, FLIGHT KITS FACILITY, ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF ELECTRONICS TEST AREA, FLIGHT KITS FACILITY, ROOM NO. 1N12, FACING WEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  6. 2. AXIAL VIEW OF THE MAIN EQUIPMENT ROOM IN BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AXIAL VIEW OF THE MAIN EQUIPMENT ROOM IN BUILDING 408, LOOKING WEST-SOUTHWEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Operations Building & Annex, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  7. 5. INTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE MAIN ROOM IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE MAIN ROOM IN THE ADMINISTRATION BUILDING 202, LOOKING WEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Administration Building, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  8. DETAIL VIEW OF VIDEO MONITORS, FIRING ROOM NO. 2, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF VIDEO MONITORS, FIRING ROOM NO. 2, FACING SOUTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Launch Control Center, LCC Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  9. DETAIL VIEW OF VIDEO MONITORS, FIRING ROOM NO. 3, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF VIDEO MONITORS, FIRING ROOM NO. 3, FACING SOUTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Launch Control Center, LCC Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  10. 9. Photocopy of engineering drawing. COMPLEX 17 READY ROOM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of engineering drawing. COMPLEX 17 READY ROOM AND SHOP BUILDING-FLOOR AND ELEVATIONS, 1964. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 36001, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  11. 10. Photocopy of engineering drawing. COMPLEX 17 READY ROOM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of engineering drawing. COMPLEX 17 READY ROOM AND SHOP BUILDING-ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS, 1964 - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 36001, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  12. DETAIL VIEW OF HYDRAULICS CONTROL PANEL IN ROOM 16B ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF HYDRAULICS CONTROL PANEL IN ROOM 16B - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  13. 14. VIEW OF WEST WALL OF CLEAN ROOM (102) SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF WEST WALL OF CLEAN ROOM (102) SHOWING VIEWING WINDOWS IN WEST FALSE PARTION WALL, WEST WALL OF CLEAN ROOM (102), AND ROLLS OF PLASTIC WRAP FOR COVERING CLEANED FAIRING ASSEMBLY - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Vehicle Support Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. 138. VIEW OF ACID TRUCK ROOM (213), FROM FUEL APRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    138. VIEW OF ACID TRUCK ROOM (213), FROM FUEL APRON ON WEST SIDE OF LSB (BLDG. 751), WITH FREIGHT DOOR OPEN. BRICK FLOOR DATES FROM AGENA PERIOD WHEN ACID WAS STORED IN THE ROOM. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. 129. VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF ACID TRUCK ROOM (113), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF ACID TRUCK ROOM (113), LSB (BLDG. 770). BAY DOOR OPENS TO FUEL APRON ON WEST SIDE. BRICK FLOOR DATES FROM AGENA PERIOD WHEN ACID WAS STORED IN THE ROOM. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. FEATURE B, TYPE 1 PILLBOX, INTERIOR VIEW FROM SEAWARD ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE B, TYPE 1 PILLBOX, INTERIOR VIEW FROM SEAWARD ROOM LOOKING THROUGH ENTRY HALL TO REAR ROOM BEYOND, SHOWING DRILLED-OUT OPENING, VIEW FACING NORTH -NORTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Shore Pillbox Complex-Type 1 Pillbox, Along shoreline, seaward of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  17. 34. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING ROOM 105 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - ROOM 105 - CHILLER ROOM, SHOWING SINGLE COMPRESSOR, LIQUID CHILLERS AND "CHILLED WATER RETURN", COOLING TOWER 'TOWER WATER RETURN" AND 'TOWER WATER SUPPLY" LINES. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  18. 123. UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (209), LSB (BLDG. 751). PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (209), LSB (BLDG. 751). PUMP ON LEFT; HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL FOR UMBILICAL MAST AND TRENCH DOORS IN CENTER OF ROOM, FACING WEST. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  19. 86. VIEW OF AUTOPILOT ROOM LOOKING WEST FROM CENTER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    86. VIEW OF AUTOPILOT ROOM LOOKING WEST FROM CENTER OF ROOM. IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER FOR SLC-3W AUTOPILOT FUNCTIONS IN SOUTHWEST CORNER (LEFT). - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  20. 132. WEST SIDE OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ROOM (210), LSB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    132. WEST SIDE OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ROOM (210), LSB (BLDG. 751), QUALITY CONTROL BOARD ON LEFT. SOUTH SIDE OF TRANSFORMER ROOM (212) ON RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH, THROUGH OPEN DOORS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door at right. Projection area at center is equipped with automatic security drapes. Projection room uses a 45 degree mirror to reflect the image onto the frosted glass screen. Door on far left leads to display area senior battle staff viewing bridge, and the commander's quarters - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  2. Operating Room Fire Safety

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Stuart R.; Yajnik, Amit; Ashford, Jeffrey; Springer, Randy; Harvey, Sherry

    2011-01-01

    Operating room fires are a rare but preventable danger in modern healthcare operating rooms. Optimal outcomes depend on all operating room personnel being familiar with their roles in fire prevention and fire management. Despite the recommendations of major safety institutes, this familiarity is not the current practice in many healthcare facilities. Members of the anesthesiology and the surgery departments are commonly not actively involved in fire safety programs, fire drills, and fire simulations that could lead to potential delays in prevention and management of intraoperative fires. PMID:21603334

  3. [Single-patient rooms].

    PubMed

    Jensen, Elisabeth Brøgger

    2009-05-18

    The Danish government has allocated funding to achieve the goal of replacing 50% of all existing hospital buildings by new facilities. Facing such a building boom, the debate for and against single-patient rooms is in progress. A review of the literature shows that single-patient rooms have a direct impact on patient safety. Patient Safety Leadership Walkrounds and failure modes and effects analysis can be used for identifying risks before designing single rooms in future hospitals. The acuity adaptability model needs to be revised.

  4. Transformer room fire tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fustich, C. D.

    1980-03-01

    A series of transformer room fire tests are reported to demonstate the shock hazard present when automatic sprinklers operate over energized electrical equipment. Fire protection was provided by standard 0.5 inch pendent automatic sprinklers temperature rated at 135 F and installed to give approximately 150 sq ft per head coverage. A 480 v dry transformer was used in the room to provide a three phase, four wire distribution system. It is shown that the induced currents in the test room during the various tests are relatively small and pose no appreciable personnel shock hazard.

  5. Central room (delivery room on plan) between the east and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central room (delivery room on plan) between the east and west reading rooms, showing built-in card catalog drawers. View to south. - Sacramento Junior College, Library, 3835 Freeport Boulevard, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  6. Men's toilet (room 207, representing rooms 306, 406, and 506; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Men's toilet (room 207, representing rooms 306, 406, and 506; also women's toilets, rooms 102, 104, 204, 204A, 303, 403, and 503), looking north. - California State Office Building No. 1, 915 Capitol Mall, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  7. Interior. Balance room for chemistry laboratory. Storage room for glassware ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior. Balance room for chemistry laboratory. Storage room for glassware and reference room with frequently used chemistry and chemical engineering texts. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 2, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  8. QUARTERS B, DINING ROOM. LIVING ROOM ON LEFT AND KITCHEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    QUARTERS B, DINING ROOM. LIVING ROOM ON LEFT AND KITCHEN TO RIGHT SHOWING DOORS TO LIVING ROOM. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch Branch, Warrant Officers & Civilian Quarters, B Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Interior. Balance room for chemistry laboratory. Storage room for glassware ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior. Balance room for chemistry laboratory. Storage room for glassware and reference room with frequently used chemistry and chemical engineering texts. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 2, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  10. Carpenter in White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Inside Hangar S at the White Room Facility at Cape Canaveral, Florida, Mercury astronaut M. Scott Carpenter examines the honeycomb protective material on the main pressure bulkhead (heat shield) of his Mercury capsule nicknamed 'Aurora 7.'

  11. Sorption of organic gases in residential rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Brett C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Ming, Katherine Y.; Sextro, Richard G.; Wood, Emily E.; Brown, Nancy J.

    Experiments were conducted to characterize organic gas sorption in residential rooms studied "as-is" with furnishings and material surfaces unaltered and in a furnished chamber designed to simulate a residential room. Results are presented for 10 rooms (five bedrooms, two bathrooms, a home office, and two multi-function spaces) and the chamber. Exposed materials were characterized and areas quantified. A mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was rapidly volatilized within each room as it was closed and sealed for a 5-h Adsorb phase; this was followed by 30-min Flush and 2-h closed-room Desorb phases. Included were alkane, aromatic, and oxygenated VOCs representing a range of ambient and indoor air pollutants. Three organophosphorus compounds served as surrogates for Sarin-like nerve agents. Measured gas-phase concentrations were fit to three variations of a mathematical model that considers sorption occurring at a surface sink and potentially a second, embedded sink. The 3-parameter sink-diffusion model provided acceptable fits for most compounds and the 4-parameter two-sink model provided acceptable fits for the others. Initial adsorption rates and sorptive partitioning increased with decreasing vapor pressure for the alkanes, aromatics and oxygenated VOCs. Best-fit sorption parameters obtained from experimental data from the chamber produced best-fit sorption parameters similar to those obtained from the residential rooms.

  12. Seasonal changes in ground-water quality and ground-water levels and directions of ground-water movement in southern Elmore County, southwestern Idaho, including Mountain Home Air Force Base, 1990-1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.W.; Parliman, D.J.; Jones, Michael L.

    1992-01-01

    The study area is located in southern Elmore County, southwestern Idaho, and includes the Mountain Home Air Force Base located approximately 10 mi southwest of the city of Mountain Home. Chemical analyzes have been made periodically since the late 1940's on water samples from supply wells on the Air Force Base. These analyses indicate increases in specific conductance and in concentrations of nitrogen compounds, chloride, and sulfate. The purposes of this report, which was prepared in cooperation with the Department of the Air Force, are to describe the seasonal changes in water quality and water levels and to depict the directions of ground-water movement in the regional aquifer system and perched-water zones. Although data presented in this report are from both the regional ground-water system and perched-water zones, the focus is on the regional system. A previous study by the U.S. Geological Survey (Parliman and Young, 1990) describes the areal changes in water quality and water levels during the fall of 1989. During March, July, and October 1990, 141 wells were inventoried and depth to water was measured. Continuous water-level recorders were installed on 5 of the wells and monthly measurements of depth to water were made in 17 of the wells during March 1990 through February 1991. Water samples from 33 wells and 1 spring were collected during the spring and fall of 1990 for chemical analyses. Samples also were collected monthly from 11 of those wells during April to September 1990 (table 1). Selected well-construction and water-use data and measurements of depth to water for 141 wells are given in table 2 (separated sheets in envelope). Directions of ground-water movement and selected hydrographs showing seasonal fluctuations of water levels in the regional ground-water system and perched-water zones are shown on sheet 2. Changes in water levels in the regional ground-water system during March to October 1990 are shown on sheet 2.

  13. Simplified models for heat transfer in rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graca, Guilherme C. C. Carrilho Da

    Buildings protect their occupants from the outside environment. As a semi-enclosed environment, buildings tend to contain the internally generated heat and air pollutants, as well as the solar and conductive heat gains that can occur in the facade. In the warmer months of the year this generally leads to overheating, creating a need for a cooling system. Ventilation air replaces contaminated air in the building and is often used as the dominant medium for heat transfer between indoor and outdoor environments. The goal of the research presented in this thesis is to develop a better understanding of the important parameters in the performance of ventilation systems and to develop simplified convective heat transfer models. The general approach used in this study seeks to capture the dominant physical processes for these problems with first order accuracy, and develop simple models that show the correct system behavior trends. Dimensional analysis, in conjunction with simple momentum and energy conservation, scaled model experiments and numerical simulations, is used to improve airflow and heat transfer rate predictions in both single and multi room ventilation systems. This study includes the three commonly used room ventilation modes: mixing, displacement and cross-ventilation. A new modeling approach to convective heat transfer between the building and the outside is presented: the concept of equivalent room heat transfer coefficient. The new model quantifies the reduction in heat transfer between ventilation air and internal room surfaces caused by limited thermal capacity and temperature variation of the air for the three modes studied. Particular emphasis is placed on cross-ventilation, and on the development of a simple model to characterize the airflow patterns that occur in this case. The implementation of the models in a building thermal simulation software tool is presented as well as comparisons between model predictions, experimental results and complex

  14. Inactivation of poxviruses by upper-room UVC light in a simulated hospital room environment.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, James J; Milton, Donald K; Rudnick, Stephen N; First, Melvin W

    2008-09-10

    In the event of a smallpox outbreak due to bioterrorism, delays in vaccination programs may lead to significant secondary transmission. In the early phases of such an outbreak, transmission of smallpox will take place especially in locations where infected persons may congregate, such as hospital emergency rooms. Air disinfection using upper-room 254 nm (UVC) light can lower the airborne concentrations of infective viruses in the lower part of the room, and thereby control the spread of airborne infections among room occupants without exposing occupants to a significant amount of UVC. Using vaccinia virus aerosols as a surrogate for smallpox we report on the effectiveness of air disinfection, via upper-room UVC light, under simulated real world conditions including the effects of convection, mechanical mixing, temperature and relative humidity. In decay experiments, upper-room UVC fixtures used with mixing by a conventional ceiling fan produced decreases in airborne virus concentrations that would require additional ventilation of more than 87 air changes per hour. Under steady state conditions the effective air changes per hour associated with upper-room UVC ranged from 18 to 1000. The surprisingly high end of the observed range resulted from the extreme susceptibility of vaccinia virus to UVC at low relative humidity and use of 4 UVC fixtures in a small room with efficient air mixing. Increasing the number of UVC fixtures or mechanical ventilation rates resulted in greater fractional reduction in virus aerosol and UVC effectiveness was higher in winter compared to summer for each scenario tested. These data demonstrate that upper-room UVC has the potential to greatly reduce exposure to susceptible viral aerosols. The greater survival at baseline and greater UVC susceptibility of vaccinia under winter conditions suggest that while risk from an aerosol attack with smallpox would be greatest in winter, protective measures using UVC may also be most efficient at this

  15. Air Cleaning Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  16. Ports Primer: 7.2 Air Emissions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Near-port communities are often disproportionately impacted by air emissions due to port operations, goods movement operations and other industries that may be co-located with ports. Air emissions at ports also impact regional air quality.

  17. Wash room, bunkhouse, first floor interior. This room is a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Wash room, bunkhouse, first floor interior. This room is a screened porch with the original sinks extant. Light and ventilation was borrowed from the wash room into the toilets and bathing rooms. - Sespe Ranch, Bunkhouse, 2896 Telegraph Road, Fillmore, Ventura County, CA

  18. Staff corridor (room 206, representing rooms 301, 305, 401, 405, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Staff corridor (room 206, representing rooms 301, 305, 401, 405, 501, and 505), looking south towards the staff corridor vestibule (room 206A, representing rooms 305A, 405A, and 505A). - California State Office Building No. 1, 915 Capitol Mall, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  19. (Air flow patterns within buildings)

    SciTech Connect

    Harrje, D.T.

    1990-10-15

    As Annex 20 enters the final year, deliverables in the form of reports, guidelines, and data formats are nearing completion. The Reporting Guidelines for the Measurement of Air Flows and Related Factors in Buildings will be published by the AIVC next month and was presented to the research community at the 11th AIVC Conference. Measurement guidelines and state-of-the-art equipment descriptions are part of a comprehensive manual, Measurement Techniques Related to Air Flow Patterns Within Buildings -- An Application Guide, in the final stages of preparation in Part 2 of Annex 20, together with reports on how to estimate the effects of flow through large openings, as well as contaminant movements in buildings. The Measurement Manual will include the latest information from the AIVC. The next AIVC Conference, in Ottawa, September 1991, will feature more than 12 presentations of Annex 20 results, including the information from Part 1 which has focused on the detailed air flow patterns in a variety of single-room configurations. Both complex modelling (including CFD) and detailed measurements have been completed, and it is now desirable that added tests be made in the next months by the University of Illinois, BERL, representing the US in Part 1 for the first time.

  20. 83. DETAIL OF HONEYWELL AIRCONDITIONING CONTROLS IN SLC3E CONTROL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. DETAIL OF HONEYWELL AIR-CONDITIONING CONTROLS IN SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. Pneumatic vacuum tube message center, basement room 23, looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pneumatic vacuum tube message center, basement room 23, looking southeast toward doorway and corridor. Note soundproof walls, pedestal flooring, and cable tray suspended from the ceiling - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  2. West wall, display area (room 101), view 3 of 4: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wall, display area (room 101), view 3 of 4: north part, showing senior battle staff viewing bridge), projection booths, control consoles, and pneumatic tube message port - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  3. Interior, equipment room, weather support area (from July, 1968 drawing) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, equipment room, weather support area (from July, 1968 drawing) at north end of display area, looking west. Window looks south towards the main console - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  4. 6. UNDERGROUND FIRING CONTROL ROOM, INTERIOR. Looking southeast to escape ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. UNDERGROUND FIRING CONTROL ROOM, INTERIOR. Looking southeast to escape tunnel. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Firing Control Building, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  5. Wiring repair area, southwest corner of room 227, looking east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Wiring repair area, southwest corner of room 227, looking east. Repair area includes soldering equipment and wire dispensing reels hanging from the ceiling - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  6. 104. MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM (201) IN LSB (BLDG. 751). VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM (201) IN LSB (BLDG. 751). VIEW OF MAIN SUPPLY FAN AND AIR WASH ON RIGHT; CHILLED WATER TANK ON LEFT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. 19. View of northwest corner of pump room on first ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View of northwest corner of pump room on first floor, showing air compressor motors and compressed air tanks utilized in operation of freight elevator doors. - U.S. Navy Fleet Supply Base, Storehouse No. 1, 830 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  8. 109. EAST WALL OF MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM (201), LSB (BLDG. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. EAST WALL OF MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM (201), LSB (BLDG. 751): TEMPERATURE, FLOW RATE, AND HUMIDITY MONITORING CONTROLS FOR SYSTEM 1 AND SYSTEM 2 AIR HANDLING - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. 92. EAST WALL OF MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM (101), LSB (BLDG. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    92. EAST WALL OF MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM (101), LSB (BLDG. 770). TEMPERATURE, FLOW RATE, AND HUMIDITY MONITORING CONTROLS FOR SYSTEM 1 AND SYSTEM 2 AIR HANDLING. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. The patient movement as an emancipation movement

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To suggest that the patient movement is an emancipation movement. Background  The patient movement is young and fragmented; and it can seem confusing because it lacks an explicit ideology with intellectual and theoretical underpinnings. Methods  Drawing mainly on the experiences and the published writings of patient activists, the author identified eight aspects of the patient movement that could be compared with aspects of recognized emancipation movements: the radicalization of activists; the creation of new knowledge; the identification of guiding principles; the sense of direction; the unmasking of new issues; schisms within the movement and allies outside it; and the gradual social acceptance of some of the ideas (here standards of health care) that activists work to promote. Results  Similarities between certain aspects of the patient movement and of the recognized emancipation movements were close. Conclusion  The patient movement can be regarded as an emancipation movement, albeit an immature one. PMID:18494955

  11. Feasibility Assessment of Performing Surgery in a Deployable Medical System Operating Room

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    instance, frequent hand washing has been shown to significantly lessen the incidence of nosocomial infections . In addition, improved operating room...Room Nurse : A registered nurse who works in an operating room. Responsible for the clinical and technical knowledge of both scrub and circulating...risk management. 26 Criteria included the following: noise exposure, nosocomial infections , environmental controls, air exchanges, and electrical

  12. Computer Room Fire Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Bennett J.

    1990-01-01

    Notes that economic and service factors may dictate that special fire protection measures be given to computer rooms. The discussion covers emergency planning, various types of fire detection and suppression systems, and future options, with particular attention to halon and possible halon replacements. A list of suggested readings is provided.…

  13. Romper Room: An Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcus, F. Earle

    Video-tape recordings of the Romper Room program carried by TV station WEMT, Bangor, Maine were examined in an attempt to classify and describe various program elements. Tapes were monitored to obtain descriptions of program activities and to focus on some of the commercial announcements. For the total week studied, more than one-third (36%) of…

  14. Visiting Room 501

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curwen, Margaret Sauceda

    2009-01-01

    Students in Room 501 were exploring and negotiating their lives as transnational citizens. In a globalized world of instantaneous information and communication, Latino students are shaping, morphing, and evolving into a new generation. This study highlights one group of students who were aspiring toward middle class, which is not the typical…

  15. Locker-Room Talk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Jason; Noyes, Brad

    1999-01-01

    Explains how proper athletic facility locker-room design can save time and money. Design factors that address who will be using the facility are discussed as are user requirements, such as preparation areas, total storage area per user, grooming area, and security areas. Final comments address maintenance and operations issues. (GR)

  16. Rooms with a View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hourihan, Peter; Berry, Millard, III

    2006-01-01

    When well-designed and integrated into a campus living or learning space, an atrium can function as the heart and spirit of a building, connecting interior rooms and public spaces with the outside environment. However, schools and universities should seek technological and HVAC solutions that maximize energy efficiency. This article discusses how…

  17. Rooms with a View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hourihan, Peter; Berry, Millard, III

    2006-01-01

    When well-designed and integrated into a campus living or learning space, an atrium can function as the heart and spirit of a building, connecting interior rooms and public spaces with the outside environment. However, schools and universities should seek technological and HVAC solutions that maximize energy efficiency. This article discusses how…

  18. The design of an embedded system for controlling humidity and temperature room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwi Teguh, R.; Didik Eko, S.; Laksono, Pringgo D.; Jamaluddin, Anif

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the system is to design an embedded system for maintenance confortable room. The confortable room was design by controlling temperature (on range 18 - 34 °C) and humidity (on range 40% - 70%.) of room condition. Temperature and humidity of room were maintained using four variable such as lamp for warm, water pump for distributing water vapour, a fan for air circullation and an exhaust-fan for air cleaner. The system was constucted both hardware (humidity sensor, microcontroller, pump, lamp, fan) and software (arduino IDE). The result shows that the system was perfectly performed to control room condition.

  19. Four Simple Ways to Add Movement in Daily Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, John

    2011-01-01

    Adding movement to classroom activities not only engages students, but also may improve the classroom climate and reduce disruptions. In this article, the author discusses four simple activities to add movement in daily lessons. These activities are: (1) Vocabulary/Notes around the Room; (2) Cooperative Learning: Posting Task Assignments; (3)…

  20. Four Simple Ways to Add Movement in Daily Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, John

    2011-01-01

    Adding movement to classroom activities not only engages students, but also may improve the classroom climate and reduce disruptions. In this article, the author discusses four simple activities to add movement in daily lessons. These activities are: (1) Vocabulary/Notes around the Room; (2) Cooperative Learning: Posting Task Assignments; (3)…