Science.gov

Sample records for room crew performance

  1. FRAMEWORK AND APPLICATION FOR MODELING CONTROL ROOM CREW PERFORMANCE AT NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L Boring; David I Gertman; Tuan Q Tran; Brian F Gore

    2008-09-01

    This paper summarizes an emerging project regarding the utilization of high-fidelity MIDAS simulations for visualizing and modeling control room crew performance at nuclear power plants. The key envisioned uses for MIDAS-based control room simulations are: (i) the estimation of human error associated with advanced control room equipment and configurations, (ii) the investigative determination of contributory cognitive factors for risk significant scenarios involving control room operating crews, and (iii) the certification of reduced staffing levels in advanced control rooms. It is proposed that MIDAS serves as a key component for the effective modeling of cognition, elements of situation awareness, and risk associated with human performance in next generation control rooms.

  2. Advanced control rooms and crew performance issues: Implications for human reliability

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.M.; Hall, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Recent trends in advanced control room (ACR) design are considered with respect to their impact on human performance. It is concluded that potentially negative influences exist, however, a variety of factors make it difficult to model, analyze, and quantify these effects for human reliability analyses (HRAs).

  3. Advanced control rooms and crew performance issues: Implications for human reliability

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Hall, R.E.

    1991-12-31

    Recent trends in advanced control room (ACR) design are considered with respect to their impact on human performance. It is concluded that potentially negative influences exist, however, a variety of factors make it difficult to model, analyze, and quantify these effects for human reliability analyses (HRAs).

  4. 51-L Challenger Crew in White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Crew members of mission STS-51L stand in the White Room at Pad 39B following the end of the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT). From left to right they are: Teacher in Space Participant, Sharon 'Christa' McAuliffe, Payload Specialist, Gregory Jarvis, Mission Specialist, Judy Resnik, Commander Dick Scobee Mission Specialist, Ronald McNair, Pilot, Michael Smith and Mission Specialist, Ellison Onizuka

  5. Press room of the Crew reception Area, Lunar Receivng Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Room 190 of the Support and Administrative Facilities, Crew Reception Area (CRA), Lunar Receiving Laboratory, Bldg 37, Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, Texas. The room is a debriefing room which facilitates indirect contact with the astronauts and CRA medical staff during quarantine periods. Also called the press room.

  6. 16. Topside facility, briefing room, former crew lounge. Thalheimer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Topside facility, briefing room, former crew lounge. Thalheimer - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  7. Coordinated crew performance in commercial aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    A specific methodology is proposed for an improved system of coding and analyzing crew member interaction. The complexity and lack of precision of many crew and task variables suggest the usefulness of fuzzy linguistic techniques for modeling and computer simulation of the crew performance process. Other research methodologies and concepts that have promise for increasing the effectiveness of research on crew performance are identified.

  8. Interim results of the study of control room crew staffing for advanced passive reactor plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hallbert, B.P.; Sebok, A.; Haugset, K.

    1996-03-01

    Differences in the ways in which vendors expect the operations staff to interact with advanced passive plants by vendors have led to a need for reconsideration of the minimum shift staffing requirements of licensed Reactor Operators and Senior Reactor Operators contained in current federal regulations (i.e., 10 CFR 50.54(m)). A research project is being carried out to evaluate the impact(s) of advanced passive plant design and staffing of control room crews on operator and team performance. The purpose of the project is to contribute to the understanding of potential safety issues and provide data to support the development of design review guidance. Two factors are being evaluated across a range of plant operating conditions: control room crew staffing; and characteristics of the operating facility itself, whether it employs conventional or advanced, passive features. This paper presents the results of the first phase of the study conducted at the Loviisa nuclear power station earlier this year. Loviisa served as the conventional plant in this study. Data collection from four crews were collected from a series of design basis scenarios, each crew serving in either a normal or minimum staffing configuration. Results of data analyses show that crews participating in the minimum shift staffing configuration experienced significantly higher workload, had lower situation awareness, demonstrated significantly less effective team performance, and performed more poorly as a crew than the crews participating in the normal shift staffing configuration. The baseline data on crew configurations from the conventional plant setting will be compared with similar data to be collected from the advanced plant setting, and a report prepared providing the results of the entire study.

  9. Group interaction and flight crew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, H. Clayton; Helmreich, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    The application of human-factors analysis to the performance of aircraft-operation tasks by the crew as a group is discussed in an introductory review and illustrated with anecdotal material. Topics addressed include the function of a group in the operational environment, the classification of group performance factors (input, process, and output parameters), input variables and the flight crew process, and the effect of process variables on performance. Consideration is given to aviation safety issues, techniques for altering group norms, ways of increasing crew effort and coordination, and the optimization of group composition.

  10. Pilot Susan L. Still chats with white room closeout crew member

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-83 Pilot Susan L. Still chats with white room closeout crew member Rene Arriens as she prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Columbia at Launch Pad 39A with assistance from closeout crew worker Bob Saulnier (behind Still).

  11. Crew Health and Performance on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegemoeller, Charlie

    1998-01-01

    The issues surrounding the health and performance on Mars of a human crew are discussed in this presentation. The work of Human Space Life Sciences Program Office (HSLSPO) in the preparation of a crew for a Martian mission is reviewed. This includes a review of issues relating to human health and performance (HHP) in space and microgravity. The Mars design reference mission requires the most rigorous life sciences critical path of any manned mission in the forseeable future. This mission will require a 30 months round trip, with 4 different transistions to different gravities, and two episodes of high gravity load, during the Mars and Earth Aerobraking exercises. A graph is presented which shows the number of subjects with human space flight experience greater than 30 days. A chart presents the physical challenges to HHP in terms of gravity and acceleration and the length of times the crew will be exposed to the various gravity loads. Another chart presents the radiation challenges to the HHP for the duration of the trip. The human element is the most complex element of the mission design. Some challenges (i.e., human engineering and life support) must be overcome, and some issues such as bone loss, and radiation exposure must be addressed prior to making a decision for a manned Martian mission.

  12. Control room crew operations research project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, G.W.; Mosleh, A.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents an assessment of the current state of the art in human reliability analysis (HRA) and highlights the principal shortcomings of current approaches. Issues that should be addressed in an improved HRA approach as well as the constraints imposed by current methodologies used to perform Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSAs) are identified. A generalized conceptual model for estimating the probabilities of the human failure events that are included in a PSA logic model is presented. The model is expressed as a sum over error modes and error causes. The report emphasizes the importance of understanding the causality of error and suggests one approach to the representation of error causes. An example approach to the qualitative screening of errors of commission is presented. The second part of the report describes an alternative approach to modeling accident scenarios that explicitly considers the dynamic interactions of the various elements and provides the needed environment for implementation of advanced human reliability models. This approach has been incorporated into the Accident Dynamic Simulator (ADS), a computer tool that removes the main roadblock to implementation of this methodology by handling the computational complexities of an integrated model of a large system, its physical processes, and the human behavior of the control room operators. ADS runs on a personal computer and is designed to facilitate the PSA of nuclear power plants. The application of the code to a SGTR initiating event at a Westinghouse PWR is presented.

  13. Crew behavior and performance in space analog environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives and the current status of the Crew Factors research program conducted at NASA-Ames Research Center are reviewed. The principal objectives of the program are to determine the effects of a broad class of input variables on crew performance and to provide guidance with respect to the design and management of crews assigned to future space missions. A wide range of research environments are utilized, including controlled experimental settings, high fidelity full mission simulator facilities, and fully operational field environments. Key group processes are identified, and preliminary data are presented on the effect of crew size, type, and structure on team performance.

  14. Airport ramp safety and crew performance issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Roy; Drew, Charles; Patten, Marcia; Matchette, Robert

    1995-01-01

    This study examined 182 ramp operations incident reports from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database, to determine which factors influence ramp operation incidents. It was found that incidents occurred more often during aircraft arrival operations than during departure operations; incidents occurred most often at the gate stop area, less so at the gate entry/exit areas, and least on the ramp fringe areas; and reporters cited fewer incidents when more ground crew were present. The authors offer suggestions for both airline management and flight crews to reduce the rate of ramp incidents.

  15. STS-96 crew members in the white room are prepared for entry into Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    STS-96 Mission Specialist Ellen Ochoa chats with white room closeout crew members while being checked out for entry into the orbiter Discovery. At left are Mechanical Technicians Al Schmidt and Chris meinert; at right is Quality Assurance Specialist James Davis and Closeout Chief Travis Thompson. The white room is an environmental chamber at the end of the orbiter access arm that provides entry to the orbiter crew compartment. STS-96 is a 10- day logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, carrying about 4,000 pounds of supplies, to be stored aboard the station for use by future crews, including laptop computers, cameras, tools, spare parts, and clothing. The mission also includes such payloads as a Russian crane, the Strela; a U.S.-built crane; the Spacehab Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), a logistics items carrier; and STARSHINE, a student- involved experiment. It will include a space walk to attach the cranes to the outside of the ISS for use in future construction. Space Shuttle Discovery is due to launch today at 6:49 a.m. EDT. Landing is expected at the SLF on June 6 about 1:58 a.m. EDT.

  16. STS-55 SL-D2 crew reviews preflight CEIT procedures in KSC conference room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) crewmembers, seated at a conference table, discuss Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT) procedures in a briefing room at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). From left are Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross, German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, Pilot Terence T. Henricks, Commander Steven R. Nagel, MS3 Bernard J. Harris, Jr, German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, and MS2 Charles J. Precourt. Seated in the foreground are KSC technicians and payload integration officers. Walter and Schlegel are representatives from DLR. View provided by KSC with alternate KSC number KSC-93PC-212.

  17. The Effects of Alarm Display, Processing, and Availability on Crew Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-11-01

    memoranda; bulletins and information notices; inspection and investigative reports; licensee event reports; and Commission papers and their...Halden, Norway: OECD Halden Reactor Project. Moore, R., Popovic, J., and Pauksens, J. (1993). Alarm annunciation in CANDU 3 control room design. In...A-A NUREG/CR-6691 BNL-NUREG-52600 The Effects of Alarm Display, Processing, and Availability on Crew Performance I Brookhaven National

  18. Theory underlying CRM training: Psychological issues in flight crew performance and crew coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    What psychological theory and research can reveal about training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is summarized. A framework is provided for the critical analysis of current approaches to CRM training. Background factors and definitions critical to evaluating CRM are reviewed, followed by a discussion of issues directly related to CRM training effectiveness. Some of the things not known about the optimization of crew performance and the research needed to make these efforts as effective as possible are described.

  19. Airbag Landing Impact Performance Optimization for the Orion Crew Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; McKinney, John; Corliss, James M.

    2008-01-01

    This report will discuss the use of advanced simulation techniques to optimize the performance of the proposed Orion Crew Module airbag landing system design. The Boeing Company and the National Aeronautic and Space Administration s Langley Research Center collaborated in the analysis of the proposed airbag landing system for the next generation space shuttle replacement, the Orion spacecraft. Using LS-DYNA to simulate the Crew Module landing impacts, two main objectives were established and achieved: the investigation of potential methods of optimizing the airbag performance in order to reduce rebound on the anti-bottoming bags, lower overall landing loads, and increase overall Crew Module stability; and the determination of the Crew Module stability and load boundaries using the optimized airbag design, based on the potential Crew Module landing pitch angles and ground slopes in both the center of gravity forward and aft configurations. This paper describes the optimization and stability and load boundary studies and presents a summary of the results obtained and key lessons learned from this analysis.

  20. Crew resource management improved perception of patient safety in the operating room.

    PubMed

    Gore, Dennis C; Powell, Jennifer M; Baer, Jennifer G; Sexton, Karen H; Richardson, C Joan; Marshall, David R; Chinkes, David L; Townsend, Courtney M

    2010-01-01

    To improve safety in the operating theater, a company of aviation pilots was employed to guide implementation of preprocedural briefings. A 5-point Likert scale survey that assessed the attitudes of operating room personnel toward patient safety was distributed before and 6 months following implementation of the briefings. Using Mann-Whitney analysis, the survey showed a significant (P < .05) improvement in 2 questions (of 13) involving reporting error and 2 questions (of 11) involving patient safety climate. When analyzed by occupation, there were no significant changes for faculty physicians; for resident physicians, there was a significant improvement in 1 question (of 13) regarding error reporting. For nurses, there were significant improvements in 3 questions (of 4) involving teamwork, 1 question (of 13) involving reporting error, and 3 questions (of 11) regarding patient safety climate. These results suggest that aviation-based crew resource management initiatives lead to an improved perception of patient safety, which was largely demonstrated by nursing personnel.

  1. STS-85 crew poses in the white room at LC 39A during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The STS-85 flight crew poses in the white room at Launch Pad 39A during a break in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities for that mission. They are (from left): Payload Commander N. Jan Davis; Payload Specialist Bjarni V. Tryggvason; Commander Curtis L. Brown, Jr.; Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson; Pilot Kent V. Rominger; and Mission Specialist Robert L. Curbeam, Jr. The primary payload aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery is the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-2 (CRISTA-SPAS-2). Other payloads on the 11-day mission include the Manipulator Flight Demonstration (MFD), and Technology Applications and Science-1 (TAS-1) and International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker-2 (IEH- 2) experiments.

  2. What ASRS incident data tell about flight crew performance during aircraft malfunctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumwalt, Robert L.; Watson, Alan W.

    1995-01-01

    This research examined 230 reports in NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System's (ASRS) database to develop a better understanding of factors that can affect flight crew performance when crew are faced with inflight aircraft malfunctions. Each report was placed into one of two categories, based on severity of the malfunction. Report analysis was then conducted to extract information regarding crew procedural issues, crew communications and situational awareness. A comparison of these crew factors across malfunction type was then performed. This comparison revealed a significant difference in ways that crews dealt with serious malfunctions compared to less serious malfunctions. The authors offer recommendations toward improving crew performance when faced with inflight aircraft malfunctions.

  3. Crew performance and communication: Performing a terrain navigation task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battiste, Vernol; Delzell, Susanne

    1993-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the map and route cues pilots use while navigating under controlled, but realistic, nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flight conditions. US Army helicopter flight crews were presented a map and route overlay and asked to perform normal mission planning. They then viewed a video-recording of the out-the-window scene during low-level flights, without the route overlay, and were asked periodically to locate their current position on the map. The pilots and navigators were asked to communicate normally during the planning and flight phases. During each flight the navigator's response time, accuracy, and subjective workload were assessed. Post-flight NASA-TLX workload ratings were collected. No main effect of map orientation (north-up vs. track-up) was found for errors or response times on any of the tasks evaluated. Navigators in the north-up group rated their workload lower than those in the track-up group.

  4. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Nominal Design and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald; williams, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Mission (ARCM) nominal design and performance costs associated with an Orion based crewed rendezvous mission to a captured asteroid in an Earth-Moon DRO. The ARM study includes two fundamental mission phases: 1) The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) and 2) the ARCM. The ARRM includes a solar electric propulsion based robotic asteroid return vehicle (ARV) sent to rendezvous with a selected near Earth asteroid, capture it, and return it to a DRO in the Earth-Moon vicinity. The DRO is selected over other possible asteroid parking orbits due to its achievability (by both the robotic and crewed vehicles) and by its stability (e.g., no orbit maintenance is required). After the return of the asteroid to the Earth-Moon vicinity, the ARCM is executed and carries a crew of two astronauts to a DRO to rendezvous with the awaiting ARV with the asteroid. The outbound and inbound transfers employ lunar gravity assist (LGA) flybys to reduce the Orion propellant requirement for the overall nominal mission, which provides a nominal mission with some reserve propellant for possible abort situations. The nominal mission described in this report provides a better understanding of the mission considerations as well as the feasibility of such a crewed mission, particularly with regard to spacecraft currently undergoing development, such as the Orion vehicle and the Space Launch System (SLS).

  5. A Description of the ARI Crew Performance Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    o.19 REFERENCE ............ ............................... 21 APPENDIX A. Task Library for M109A1 Howitzer Sections ......... 23 B. Software for...the software necessary for a computer-based model which permits the simulation of crews differing in size and the assignment of tasks. Ultimately, the...task be handled by type rather than by simply applying an "average" performance decrement to all tasks. The software for this portion of the model has

  6. Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort Controller Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Raney, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper covers the simulation and evaluation of a controller design for the Crew Module (CM) Launch Abort System (LAS), to measure its ability to meet the abort performance requirements. The controller used in this study is a hybrid design, including features developed by the Government and the Contractor. Testing is done using two separate 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) computer simulation implementations of the LAS/CM throughout the ascent trajectory: 1) executing a series of abort simulations along a nominal trajectory for the nominal LAS/CM system; and 2) using a series of Monte Carlo runs with perturbed initial flight conditions and perturbed system parameters. The performance of the controller is evaluated against a set of criteria, which is based upon the current functional requirements of the LAS. Preliminary analysis indicates that the performance of the present controller meets (with the exception of a few cases) the evaluation criteria mentioned above.

  7. Room for Improvement: Performance Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Gisela

    1989-01-01

    Describes a performance management approach to library personnel management that stresses communication, clarification of goals, and reinforcement of new practices and behaviors. Each phase of the evaluation process (preparation, rating, administrative review, appraisal interview, and follow-up) and special evaluations to be used in cases of…

  8. STS-87 crew in LC-39B white room during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The crew of the STS-87 mission, scheduled for launch Nov. 19 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia from pad 39B at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), participates in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) at KSC. Standing, from left, Mission Specialist Winston Scott; Backup Payload Specialist Yaroslav Pustovyi, Ph.D., of the National Space Agency of Ukraine (NSAU); Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of NSAU; Pilot Steven Lindsey; Commander Kevin Kregel; Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan; and Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D. The TCDT is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight providing the crew of each mission opportunities to participate in simulated countdown activities. The TCDT ends with a mock launch countdown culminating in a simulated main engine cut-off. The crew also spends time undergoing emergency egress training exercises at the pad and has an opportunity to view and inspect the payloads in the orbiter's payload bay.

  9. Review of Methods Related to Assessing Human Performance in Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Katya L Le Blanc; Ronald L Boring; David I Gertman

    2001-11-01

    With the increased use of digital systems in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) control rooms comes a need to thoroughly understand the human performance issues associated with digital systems. A common way to evaluate human performance is to test operators and crews in NPP control room simulators. However, it is often challenging to characterize human performance in meaningful ways when measuring performance in NPP control room simulations. A review of the literature in NPP simulator studies reveals a variety of ways to measure human performance in NPP control room simulations including direct observation, automated computer logging, recordings from physiological equipment, self-report techniques, protocol analysis and structured debriefs, and application of model-based evaluation. These methods and the particular measures used are summarized and evaluated.

  10. Data link air traffic control and flight deck environments: Experiment in flight crew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozito, Sandy; Mcgann, Alison; Corker, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an experiment undertaken in a full mission simulation environment to investigate the performance impact of, and human/system response to, data-linked Air Traffic Control (ATC) and automated flight deck operations. Subjects were twenty pilots (ten crews) from a major United States air carrier. Crews flew the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator (ACFS), a generic 'glass cockpit' simulator at NASA Ames. The method of data link used was similar to the data link implementation plans for a next-generation aircraft, and included the capability to review ATC messages and directly enter ATC clearance information into the aircraft systems. Each crew flew experimental scenarios, in which data reflecting communication timing, errors and clarifications, and procedures were collected. Results for errors and clarifications revealed an interaction between communication modality (voice v. data link) and communication type (air/ground v. intracrew). Results also revealed that voice crews initiated ATC contact significantly more than data link crews. It was also found that data link crews performed significantly more extraneous activities during the communication task than voice crews. Descriptive data from the use of the review menu indicate the pilot-not-flying accessing the review menu most often, and also suggest diffulty in accessing the target message within the review menu structure. The overall impact of communication modality upon air/ground communication and crew procedures is discussed.

  11. Predicting Radiation Induced Performance Decrements of AH-1 Helicopter Crews. Volume 1. Predicted Versus Actual Performance of AH-1 Crews Induced with Symptons Simulating Radiation Sickness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    principal method under study was the Performance Decrement Questionnaire, developed as part of DNA’s Intermediate Dose Program. A secondary aspect of...3) Develop MicroSAINT models of AH-1 crew performance based on simulation data and PDQ estimates, and (4) Evaluate the relationship between Walter...48 5.2 Approach ...................................................................................................... 49 5.3 Model Development

  12. Individual differences in airline captains' personalities, communication strategies, and crew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith

    1991-01-01

    Aircrew effectiveness in coping with emergencies has been linked to captain's personality profile. The present study analyzed cockpit communication during simulated flight to examine the relation between captains' discourse strategies, personality profiles, and crew performance. Positive Instrumental/Expressive captains and Instrumental-Negative captains used very similar communication strategies and their crews made few errors. Their talk was distinguished by high levels of planning and strategizing, gathering information, predicting/alerting, and explaining, especially during the emergency flight phase. Negative-Expressive captains talked less overall, and engaged in little problem solving talk, even during emergencies. Their crews made many errors. Findings support the theory that high crew performance results when captains use language to build shared mental models for problem situations.

  13. Investigation of crew performance in a multi-vehicle supervisory control task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A.; Plamondon, B. D.; Jagacinski, R. J.; Kirlik, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    Crew information processing and decision making in a supervisory control task which is loosely based on the mission of future generation helicopters is measured and represented. Subjects control the motion and activities of their own vehicle and direct the activities of four additional craft. The task involves searching an uncertain environment for cargo and enemies, returning cargo to home base and destroying enemies while attempting to avoid destruction of the scout and the supervised vehicles. A series of experiments with two-person crews and one-person crews were performed. Resulting crew performance was modeled with the objective of describing and understanding the information processing strategies utilized. Of particular interest are problem simplification strategies under time stress and high work load, simplification and compensation in the one-person cases, crew coordination in the two-person cases, and the relationship between strategy and errors in all cases. The results should provide some insight into the effective use of aids, particularly aids based on artificial intelligence, for similar tasks. The simulation is described which is used for the study and some preliminary results from the first two-person crew study are discussed.

  14. A Gold Standards Approach to Training Instructors to Evaluate Crew Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, David P.; Dismukes, R. Key

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Qualification Program requires that airlines evaluate crew performance in Line Oriented Simulation. For this evaluation to be meaningful, instructors must observe relevant crew behaviors and evaluate those behaviors consistently and accurately against standards established by the airline. The airline industry has largely settled on an approach in which instructors evaluate crew performance on a series of event sets, using standardized grade sheets on which behaviors specific to event set are listed. Typically, new instructors are given a class in which they learn to use the grade sheets and practice evaluating crew performance observed on videotapes. These classes emphasize reliability, providing detailed instruction and practice in scoring so that all instructors within a given class will give similar scores to similar performance. This approach has value but also has important limitations; (1) ratings within one class of new instructors may differ from those of other classes; (2) ratings may not be driven primarily by the specific behaviors on which the company wanted the crews to be scored; and (3) ratings may not be calibrated to company standards for level of performance skill required. In this paper we provide a method to extend the existing method of training instructors to address these three limitations. We call this method the "gold standards" approach because it uses ratings from the company's most experienced instructors as the basis for training rater accuracy. This approach ties the training to the specific behaviors on which the experienced instructors based their ratings.

  15. Flight Crew Training: Multi-Crew Pilot License Training versus Traditional Training and Its Relationship with Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushing, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, the International Civil Aviation Organization promulgated requirements for a Multi-Crew Pilot License for First Officers, in which the candidate attends approximately two years of ground school and trains as part of a two-person crew in a simulator of a Boeing 737 or an Airbus 320 airliner. In the traditional method, a candidate qualifies…

  16. International Space Station (ISS) Crew Quarters On-Orbit Performance and Sustaining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlesinger, Thilini P.; Rodriquez, Branelle R.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Crew Quarters (CQ) is a permanent personal space for crew members to sleep, perform personal recreation and communication, as well as provide on-orbit stowage of personal belongings. The CQs provide visual, light, and acoustic isolation for the crew member. Over a 2-year period, four CQs were launched to the ISS and currently reside in Node 2. Since their deployment, all CQs have been occupied and continue to be utilized. This paper will review failures that have occurred after 4 years on-orbit, and the investigations that have resulted in successful on-orbit operations. This paper documents the on-orbit performance and sustaining activities that have been performed to maintain the integrity and utilization of the CQs.

  17. Crew Selection and Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1996-01-01

    This research addressed a number of issues relevant to the performance of teams in demanding environments. Initial work, conducted in the aviation analog environment, focused on developing new measures of performance related attitudes and behaviors. The attitude measures were used to assess acceptance of concepts related to effective teamwork and personal capabilities under stress. The behavioral measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of flight crews operating in commercial aviation. Assessment of team issues in aviation led further to the evaluation and development of training to enhance team performance. Much of the work addressed evaluation of the effectiveness of such training, which has become known as Crew Resource Management (CRM). A second line of investigation was into personality characteristics that predict performance in challenging environments such as aviation and space. A third line of investigation of team performance grew out of the study of flight crews in different organizations. This led to the development of a theoretical model of crew performance that included not only individual attributes such as personality and ability, but also organizational and national culture. A final line of investigation involved beginning to assess whether the methodologies and measures developed for the aviation analog could be applied to another domain -- the performance of medical teams working in the operating room.

  18. The Effects of a 48-Hour Period of Sustained Field Activity on Tank Crew Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, L. L.; Bishop, H. P.

    This report describes the effects of 48 hours of sustained operations on the performance of tank crews in communication, driving, surveillance, gunnery, and maintenance tasks. It is a continuation of research to determine the endurance of troops using combat equipment with 48-hour capability. Proficienty tests were constructed for each type of…

  19. A Full Mission Simulator Study of Aircrew Performances: the Measurement of Crew Coordination and Decisionmaking Factors and Their Relationships to Flight Task Performances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, M. R.; Randle, R. J.; Tanner, T. A.; Frankel, R. M.; Goguen, J. A.; Linde, C.

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen three man crews flew a full mission scenario in an airline flight simulator. A high level of verbal interaction during instances of critical decision making was located. Each crew flew the scenario only once, without prior knowledge of the scenario problem. Following a simulator run and in accord with formal instructions, each of the three crew members independently viewed and commented on a videotape of their performance. Two check pilot observers rated pilot performance across all crews and, following each run, also commented on the video tape of the crew's performance. A linguistic analysis of voice transcript is made to provide assessment of crew coordination and decision making qualities. Measures of crew coordination and decision making factors are correlated with flight task performance measures.

  20. Personality factors in flight operations. Volume 1: Leader characteristics and crew performance in a full-mission air transport simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Foushee, H. Clayton; Dickinson, Cortlandt L.; Bowles, Stephen V.

    1990-01-01

    Crew effectiveness is a joint product of the piloting skills, attitudes, and personality characteristics of team members. As obvious as this point might seem, both traditional approaches to optimizing crew performance and more recent training development highlighting crew coordination have emphasized only the skill and attitudinal dimensions. This volume is the first in a series of papers on this simulation. A subsequent volume will focus on patterns of communication within crews. The results of a full-mission simulation research study assessing the impact of individual personality on crew performance is reported. Using a selection algorithm described in previous research, captains were classified as fitting one of three profiles along a battery of personality assessment scales. The performances of 23 crews led by captains fitting each profile were contrasted over a one-and-one-half-day simulated trip. Crews led by captains fitting a positive Instrumental-Expressive profile (high achievement motivation and interpersonal skill) were consistently effective and made fewer errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Expressive profile (below average achievement motivation, negative expressive style, such as complaining) were consistently less effective and made more errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Instrumental profile (high levels of competitiveness, verbal aggressiveness, and impatience and irritability) were less effective on the first day but equal to the best on the second day. These results underscore the importance of stable personality variables as predictors of team coordination and performance.

  1. Design of a Threat-Based Gunnery Performance Test: Issues and Procedures for Crew and Platoon Tank Gunnery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    the primary threat. The driver performs random evasive maneuvers while moving to the nearest covered concealed position. The gunner engages the enemy...The crew effectively avoids 1 2 3 4 5 NO anti-tank fires by evasive maneuver and/or the use of smoke. B-9 Crew CONTACT REPORTS Contact reports are...accurately reports threat by evasive maneuvers . data. ___-rew accurately reports location CONTACT REPORTS. (within 200 meters). Crew immediately reports

  2. The Effect of Predicted Vehicle Displacement on Ground Crew Task Performance and Hardware Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atencio, Laura Ashley; Reynolds, David W.

    2011-01-01

    NASA continues to explore new launch vehicle concepts that will carry astronauts to low- Earth orbit to replace the soon-to-be retired Space Transportation System (STS) shuttle. A tall vertically stacked launch vehicle (> or =300 ft) is exposed to the natural environment while positioned on the launch pad. Varying directional winds and vortex shedding cause the vehicle to sway in an oscillating motion. Ground crews working high on the tower and inside the vehicle during launch preparations will be subjected to this motion while conducting critical closeout tasks such as mating fluid and electrical connectors and carrying heavy objects. NASA has not experienced performing these tasks in such environments since the Saturn V, which was serviced from a movable (but rigid) service structure; commercial launchers are likewise attended by a service structure that moves away from the vehicle for launch. There is concern that vehicle displacement may hinder ground crew operations, impact the ground system designs, and ultimately affect launch availability. The vehicle sway assessment objective is to replicate predicted frequencies and displacements of these tall vehicles, examine typical ground crew tasks, and provide insight into potential vehicle design considerations and ground crew performance guidelines. This paper outlines the methodology, configurations, and motion testing performed while conducting the vehicle displacement assessment that will be used as a Technical Memorandum for future vertically stacked vehicle designs.

  3. Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to an Inadequate Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Grace L.; Cooper, Maya; Bermudez-Aguirre, Daniela; Sirmons, Takiyah

    2016-01-01

    NASA is preparing for long duration manned missions beyond low-Earth orbit that will be challenged in several ways, including long-term exposure to the space environment, impacts to crew physiological and psychological health, limited resources, and no resupply. The food system is one of the most significant daily factors that can be altered to improve human health, and performance during space exploration. Therefore, the paramount importance of determining the methods, technologies, and requirements to provide a safe, nutritious, and acceptable food system that promotes crew health and performance cannot be underestimated. The processed and prepackaged food system is the main source of nutrition to the crew, therefore significant losses in nutrition, either through degradation of nutrients during processing and storage or inadequate food intake due to low acceptability, variety, or usability, may significantly compromise the crew's health and performance. Shelf life studies indicate that key nutrients and quality factors in many space foods degrade to concerning levels within three years, suggesting that food system will not meet the nutrition and acceptability requirements of a long duration mission beyond low-Earth orbit. Likewise, mass and volume evaluations indicate that the current food system is a significant resource burden. Alternative provisioning strategies, such as inclusion of bioregenerative foods, are challenged with resource requirements, and food safety and scarcity concerns. Ensuring provisioning of an adequate food system relies not only upon determining technologies, and requirements for nutrition, quality, and safety, but upon establishing a food system that will support nutritional adequacy, even with individual crew preference and self-selection. In short, the space food system is challenged to maintain safety, nutrition, and acceptability for all phases of an exploration mission within resource constraints. This document presents the

  4. Advanced crew procedures development techniques: Procedures and performance program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Mangiaracina, A. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Procedures and Performance Program (PPP) for operation in conjunction with the Shuttle Procedures Simulator (SPS) is described. The PPP user interface, the SPS/PPP interface, and the PPP applications software are discussed.

  5. Leader personality and crew effectiveness: Factors influencing performance in full-mission air transport simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R.; Foushee, H. Clayton

    1989-01-01

    A full mission simulation research study was completed to assess the potential for selection along dimensions of personality. Using a selection algorithm described by Chidester (1987), captains were classified as fitting one of three profiles using a battery of personality assessment scales, and the performances of 23 crews led by captains fitting each profile were contrasted over a one and one-half day simulated trip. Crews led by captains fitting a Positive Instrumental Expressive profile (high achievement motivation and interpersonal skill) were consistently effective and made fewer errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Communion profile (below average achievement motivation, negative expressive style, such as complaining) were consistently less effective and made more errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Instrumental profile (high levels of Competitiveness, Verbal Aggressiveness, and Impatience and Irritability) were less effective on the first day but equal to the best on the second day. These results underscore the importance of stable personality variables as predictors of team coordination and performance.

  6. Crew performance monitoring: Putting some feeling into it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattyn, N.; Migeotte, P.-F.; Morais, J.; Soetens, E.; Cluydts, R.; Kolinsky, R.

    2009-08-01

    Two hypotheses have been invoked so far to explain performance decrements in space: the microgravity hypothesis and the multiple stressors hypothesis. Furthermore, previous investigations of cognitive performance did not specifically target executive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of operational stress on cognitive control, towards both neutral and emotionally loaded material, using both psychometric and physiological indicators (autonomic nervous system activity computed through cardio-respiratory recordings). We applied the same design in a study on student pilots (N=12) in baseline conditions and right before a major evaluation flight and on astronauts (N=3) before, during and after a short-duration spaceflight. To address the problem of scarcity of subjects, we applied analytical methods derived from neuropsychology: comparing each astronaut treated as a single subject to a group of carefully matched controls (N=13). Results from both student pilots and astronauts showed that operational stress resulted in failing cognitive control, especially on emotionally loaded material that was relevant to the subjects' current concern. This impaired cognitive control was associated with a decreased physiological reactivity during mental tasks. Furthermore, for astronauts, this performance decrement appeared on the last data-collection before launch and lasted for the two in-flight measurements. These results thus allow us to conclude that: (i) performance testing including an emotional dimension seems more sensitive to operational stress, (ii) decreased heart rate reactivity was associated with impaired cognitive control and (iii) microgravity is not the sole causal factor of potential performance decrements in space, which are more likely due to the combination of multiple stressors.

  7. A simulation study of crew performance in operating an advanced transport aircraft in an automated terminal area environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    A simulation study assessing crew performance operating an advanced transport aircraft in an automated terminal area environment is described. The linking together of the Langley Advanced Transport Operating Systems Aft Flight Deck Simulator with the Terminal Area Air Traffic Model Simulation was required. The realism of an air traffic control (ATC) environment with audio controller instructions for the flight crews and the capability of inserting a live aircraft into the terminal area model to interact with computer generated aircraft was provided. Crew performance using the advanced displays and two separate control systems (automatic and manual) in flying area navigation routes in the automated ATC environment was assessed. Although the crews did not perform as well using the manual control system, their performances were within acceptable operational limits with little increase in workload. The crews favored using the manual control system and felt they were more alert and aware of their environment when using it.

  8. The Effects of Tank Crew Turbulence on Tank Gunnery Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    the tank commander and gunnur being familiar with their duties. Groups I and 4 also performed about equally well, indicating chat non-armor combac... depress the main gun. b. Manually traverse the turret. c. Prepare the Gunner’s Telescope for operation with the HEP reticle. d. Prepare the Gurner’s...from the Gunner’s Telescope when given the command. 12. Given a first round miss the gunner will sense the round, announce his sensing and apply BOT

  9. Preliminary Performance Analyses of the Constellation Program ARES 1 Crew Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Mark; Hanson, John; Shmitt, Terri; Dukemand, Greg; Hays, Jim; Hill, Ashley; Garcia, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    By the time NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) report had been released to the public in December 2005, engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center had already initiated the first of a series of detailed design analysis cycles (DACs) for the Constellation Program Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), which has been given the name Ares I. As a major component of the Constellation Architecture, the CLV's initial role will be to deliver crew and cargo aboard the newly conceived Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to a staging orbit for eventual rendezvous with the International Space Station (ISS). However, the long-term goal and design focus of the CLV will be to provide launch services for a crewed CEV in support of lunar exploration missions. Key to the success of the CLV design effort and an integral part of each DAC is a detailed performance analysis tailored to assess nominal and dispersed performance of the vehicle, to determine performance sensitivities, and to generate design-driving dispersed trajectories. Results of these analyses provide valuable design information to the program for the current design as well as provide feedback to engineers on how to adjust the current design in order to maintain program goals. This paper presents a condensed subset of the CLV performance analyses performed during the CLV DAC-1 cycle. Deterministic studies include development of the CLV DAC-1 reference trajectories, identification of vehicle stage impact footprints, an assessment of launch window impacts to payload performance, and the computation of select CLV payload partials. Dispersion studies include definition of input uncertainties, Monte Carlo analysis of trajectory performance parameters based on input dispersions, assessment of CLV flight performance reserve (FPR), assessment of orbital insertion accuracy, and an assessment of bending load indicators due to dispersions in vehicle angle of attack and side slip angle. A short discussion of the various

  10. Auditory virtual environment with dynamic room characteristics for music performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Daniel Dhaham

    A room-adaptive system was designed to simulate an electro-acoustic space that changes room characteristics in real-time according to the content of sound. In this specific case, the focus of the sound components is on the different styles and genres of music. This system is composed of real-time music recognition algorithms that analyze the different elements of music, determine the desired room characteristics, and output the acoustical parameters via multi-channel room simulation mechanisms. The system modifies the acoustic properties of a space and enables it to "improvise" its acoustical parameters based on the sounds of the music performances.

  11. Crew Alertness Management on the Flight Deck: Cognitive and Vigilance Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinges, David F.

    1998-01-01

    This project had three broad goals: (1) to identify environmental and organismic risks to performance of long-haul cockpit crews; (2) to assess how cognitive and psychomotor vigilance performance, and subjective measures of alertness, were affected by work-rest schedules typical of long-haul cockpit crews; and (3) to determine the alertness-promoting effectiveness of behavioral and technological countermeasures to fatigue on the flight deck. During the course of the research, a number of studies were completed in cooperation with the NASA Ames Fatigue Countermeasures Program. The publications emerging from this project are listed in a bibliography in the appendix. Progress toward these goals will be summarized below according to the period in which it was accomplished.

  12. Validating Human Performance Models of the Future Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Douglas T.; Walters, Brett; Fairey, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) will provide transportation for crew and cargo to and from destinations in support of the Constellation Architecture Design Reference Missions. Discrete Event Simulation (DES) is one of the design methods NASA employs for crew performance of the CEV. During the early development of the CEV, NASA and its prime Orion contractor Lockheed Martin (LM) strived to seek an effective low-cost method for developing and validating human performance DES models. This paper focuses on the method developed while creating a DES model for the CEV Rendezvous, Proximity Operations, and Docking (RPOD) task to the International Space Station. Our approach to validation was to attack the problem from several fronts. First, we began the development of the model early in the CEV design stage. Second, we adhered strictly to M&S development standards. Third, we involved the stakeholders, NASA astronauts, subject matter experts, and NASA's modeling and simulation development community throughout. Fourth, we applied standard and easy-to-conduct methods to ensure the model's accuracy. Lastly, we reviewed the data from an earlier human-in-the-loop RPOD simulation that had different objectives, which provided us an additional means to estimate the model's confidence level. The results revealed that a majority of the DES model was a reasonable representation of the current CEV design.

  13. Using micro saint to predict performance in a nuclear power plant control room

    SciTech Connect

    Lawless, M.T.; Laughery, K.R.; Persenky, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires a technical basis for regulatory actions. In the area of human factors, one possible technical basis is human performance modeling technology including task network modeling. This study assessed the feasibility and validity of task network modeling to predict the performance of control room crews. Task network models were built that matched the experimental conditions of a study on computerized procedures that was conducted at North Carolina State University. The data from the {open_quotes}paper procedures{close_quotes} conditions were used to calibrate the task network models. Then, the models were manipulated to reflect expected changes when computerized procedures were used. These models` predictions were then compared to the experimental data from the {open_quotes}computerized conditions{close_quotes} of the North Carolina State University study. Analyses indicated that the models predicted some subsets of the data well, but not all. Implications for the use of task network modeling are discussed.

  14. Operational behavioral health and performance resources for international space station crews and families.

    PubMed

    Sipes, Walter E; Vander Ark, Stephen T

    2005-06-01

    The Behavioral Health and Performance Section (BHP) at NASA Johnson Space Center provides direct and indirect psychological services to the International Space Station (ISS) astronauts and their families. Beginning with the NASA-Mir Program, services available to the crews and families have gradually expanded as experience is gained in long-duration flight. Enhancements to the overall BHP program have been shaped by crewmembers' personal preferences, family requests, specific events during the missions, programmatic requirements, and other lessons learned. The BHP program focuses its work on four areas: operational psychology, behavioral medicine, human-to-system interface, and sleep and circadian. Within these areas of focus are psychological and psychiatric screening for astronaut selection as well as many resources that are available to the crewmembers, families, and other groups such as crew surgeon and various levels of management within NASA. Services include: preflight, in flight, and postflight preparation; training and support; resources from a Family Support Office; in-flight monitoring; clinical care for astronauts and their families; and expertise in the workload and work/rest scheduling of crews on the ISS. Each of the four operational areas is summarized, as are future directions for the BHP program.

  15. Operational behavioral health and performance resources for international space station crews and families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.; Vander Ark, Stephen T.

    2005-01-01

    The Behavioral Health and Performance Section (BHP) at NASA Johnson Space Center provides direct and indirect psychological services to the International Space Station (ISS) astronauts and their families. Beginning with the NASA-Mir Program, services available to the crews and families have gradually expanded as experience is gained in long-duration flight. Enhancements to the overall BHP program have been shaped by crewmembers' personal preferences, family requests, specific events during the missions, programmatic requirements, and other lessons learned. The BHP program focuses its work on four areas: operational psychology, behavioral medicine, human-to-system interface, and sleep and circadian. Within these areas of focus are psychological and psychiatric screening for astronaut selection as well as many resources that are available to the crewmembers, families, and other groups such as crew surgeon and various levels of management within NASA. Services include: preflight, in flight, and postflight preparation; training and support; resources from a Family Support Office; in-flight monitoring; clinical care for astronauts and their families; and expertise in the workload and work/rest scheduling of crews on the ISS. Each of the four operational areas is summarized, as are future directions for the BHP program.

  16. Position-specific behaviors and their impact on crew performance: Implications for training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, J. Randolph

    1993-01-01

    The present study was motivated by results from a preliminary report documenting the impact of specific crewmembers on overall crew performance (Wilhelm & Law, 1992), and a cross-airline cross-fleet project investigating human factors behaviors of commercial aviation flightcrews (Helmreich, Butler, Whilhelm, & Lofaro, 1992). The purpose of the current investigation is to study how position-specific behaviors impact flightcrew performance, and how these position-specific behaviors differ between two airlines and two flying environments. Implications for training will also be addressed.

  17. Some Aspects of Psychophysiological Support of Crew Member's Performance Reliability in Space Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechaev, A. P.; Myasnikov, V. I.; Stepanova, S. I.; Isaev, G. F.; Bronnikov, S. V.

    The history of cosmonautics demonstrates many instances in which only crewmembers' intervention allowed critical situations to be resolved, or catastrophes to be prevented. However, during "crew-spacecraft" system operation human is exposed by influence of numerous flight factors, and beforehand it is very difficult to predict their effects on his functional state and work capacity. So, the incidents are known when unfavorable alterations of crewmember's psychophysiological state (PPS) provoked errors in task performance. The objective of the present investigation was to substantiate the methodological approach directed to increase reliability of a crewmember performance (human error prevention) by means of management of his/her PPS. The specific aims of the investigation were: 1) to evaluate the statistical significance of the interrelation between crew errors (CE) and crewmember's PPS, and 2) to develop the way of PPS management. At present, there is no conventional method to assess combined effect of flight conditions (microgravity, confinement, psychosocial factors, etc.) on crewmembers' PPS. For this purpose experts of the Medical Support Group (psychoneurologists and psychologists) at the Moscow Mission Control Center analyze information received during radio and TV contacts with crew. Peculiarities of behavior, motor activity, sleep, speech, mood, emotional reactions, well-being and sensory sphere, trend of dominant interests and volitional acts, signs of deprivation phenomena are considered as separate indicators of crewmember's PPS. The set of qualitative symptoms reflecting PPS alterations and corresponding to them ratings (in arbitrary units) was empirically stated for each indicator. It is important to emphasize that symptoms characterizing more powerful PPS alterations have higher ratings. Quantitative value of PPS integral parameter is calculating by adding up the ratings of all separate indicators over a day, a week, or other temporal interval (in

  18. Influence of the postion of crew members on aerodynamics performance of two-man bobsleigh.

    PubMed

    Dabnichki, Peter; Avital, Eldad

    2006-01-01

    Bobsleigh aerodynamics has long been recognised as one of the crucial performance factors. Although the published research in the area is very limited, it is well known that the leading nations in the sport devote significant resources in research and development of sleds' aerodynamics. However, the rules and regulations pose strict design constraints on the shape modifications aiming at aerodynamics improvements. The reason for that is two-fold: (i) safety of the athletes and (ii) reduction of equipment impact on competition outcome. One particular area that has not been looked at and falls outside the current rules and regulations is the influence of the crew positioning and internal modifications on the aerodynamic performance. The current study presents results on numerical simulation of the flow in the cavity underpinned with some experimental measurements including flow visualisation of the air circulation around the bobsleigh. A simplified computational model was developed to assess the trends and its results validated by windtunnel tests. The results show that crew members influence the drag level significantly and suggest that purely internal modifications can be introduced to reduce the overall resistance drag.

  19. Assessment of performance of UV sterilizer for room air bacteria.

    PubMed

    Joshi, P V

    2002-02-01

    Paper presents a technique for performance of UV sterilizer for room air bacteria. Patterns of decay of room air bacteria concentration during sterilization and build-up there after as a function of time is studied. Decay process seems to follow exponential pattern. Half-lives during decay are estimated. For single sterilizer unit with a dose of 16 W the decay half-life is around 8.6 min. For the dose of 32 W (2 sterilizers), half-life is estimated to be 6.18 min. The removal rates of room air bacteria due to sterilizer are compared with the natural decay of aerosols at steady state. The importance of decay half-life in the assessment has been stated. The bacteria concentration buildup process after putting off the sterilizers seems to be sigmoidal in nature. The buildup half-life is estimated to be around 53 min for present experimental conditions.

  20. International Space Station USOS Crew Quarters On-orbit vs Design Performance Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa Ann; Bahr, Juergen F.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Operational Segment (USOS) received the first two permanent ISS Crew Quarters (CQ) on Utility Logistics Flight Two (ULF2) in November 2008. Up to four CQs can be installed into the Node 2 element to increase the ISS crewmember size to six. The CQs provide private crewmember space with enhanced acoustic noise mitigation, integrated radiation reduction material, communication equipment, redundant electrical systems, and redundant caution and warning systems. The racksized CQ is a system with multiple crewmember restraints, adjustable lighting, controllable ventilation, and interfaces that allow each crewmember to personalize their CQ workspace. The deployment and initial operational checkout during integration of the ISS CQ to the Node is described. Additionally, the comparison of on-orbit to original design performance is outlined for the following key operational parameters: interior acoustic performance, air flow rate, temperature rise, and crewmember feedback on provisioning and restraint layout.

  1. Crew factors in flight operations 9: Effects of planned cockpit rest on crew performance and alertness in long-haul operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Graeber, R. Curtis; Dinges, David F.; Connell, Linda J.; Rountree, Michael S.; Spinweber, Cheryl L.; Gillen, Kelly A.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a planned cockpit rest period to improve alertness and performance in long-haul flight operations. The Rest Group (12 crew members) was allowed a planned 40 minute rest period during the low workload, cruise portion of the flight, while the No-Rest Group (9 crew members) had a 40 minute planned control period when they maintained usual flight activities. Measures used in the study included continuous ambulatory recordings of brain wave and eye movement activity, a reaction time/vigilance task, a wrist activity monitor, in-flight fatigue and alertness ratings, a daily log for noting sleep periods, meals, exercise, flight and duty periods, and the NASA Background Questionnaire. The Rest Group pilots slept on 93 percent of the opportunities, falling asleep in 5.6 minutes and sleeping for 25.8 minutes. This nap was associated with improved physiological alertness and performance compared to the No-Rest Group. The benefits of the nap were observed through the critical descent and landing phases of flight. The nap did not affect layover sleep or the cumulative sleep debt. The nap procedures were implemented with minimal disruption to usual flight operations and there were no reported or identified concerns regarding safety.

  2. The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to Improve Crew Health and Performance for Future Exploration Missions and Lunar Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Novak, Joseph D.; Polk, James D.; Gillis, David B.; Schmid, Josef; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    Medical requirements for the future Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM), advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suits and Lunar habitat are currently being developed. Crews returning to the lunar surface will construct the lunar habitat and conduct scientific research. Inherent in aggressive surface activities is the potential risk of injury to crewmembers. Physiological responses and the operational environment for short forays during the Apollo lunar missions were studied and documented. Little is known about the operational environment in which crews will live and work and the hardware will be used for long-duration lunar surface operations. Additional information is needed regarding productivity and the events that affect crew function such as a compressed timeline. The Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested a study in December 2005 to identify Apollo mission issues relevant to medical operations that had impact to crew health and/or performance. The operationally oriented goals of this project were to develop or modify medical requirements for new exploration vehicles and habitats, create a centralized database for future access, and share relevant Apollo information with the multiple entities at NASA and abroad participating in the exploration effort.

  3. The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to Improve Crew Health and Performance for Future Exploration Missions and Lunar Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Polk, James D.; Gillis, David B.; Schmid, Joseph; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.; Novak, Joseph D.

    2007-01-01

    Medical requirements for the future Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM), advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suits and Lunar habitat are currently being developed. Crews returning to the lunar surface will construct the lunar habitat and conduct scientific research. Inherent in aggressive surface activities is the potential risk of injury to crewmembers. Physiological responses to and the operational environment of short forays during the Apollo lunar missions were studied and documented. Little is known about the operational environment in which crews will live and work and the hardware that will be used for long-duration lunar surface operations.Additional information is needed regarding productivity and the events that affect crew function such as a compressed timeline. The Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested a study in December 2005 to identify Apollo mission issues relevant to medical operations that had impact to crew health and/or performance. The operationally oriented goals of this project were to develop or modify medical requirements for new exploration vehicles and habitats, create a centralized database for future access, and share relevant Apollo information with the multiple entities at NASA and abroad participating in the exploration effort.

  4. Situational Awareness, Crew Resource Management and Operational Performance in Fatigued Two-Man Crews Using Three Stimulant Countermeasures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    when the dynamics of group/team interaction are injected into the research program. The DUO- WOMBAT -CS is the primary measure examined herein...placebo). The participants were repeatedly tested in pairs throughout the deprivation period. Testing included the WOMBAT , flights in the USAARL UH-60...research simulator, and various other tasks. Scores were compared over time and between drug groups, for the WOMBAT and the simulator performance

  5. Space Biology and Medicine. Volume 4; Health, Performance, and Safety of Space Crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietlein, Lawrence F. (Editor); Pestov, Igor D. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    Volume IV is devoted to examining the medical and associated organizational measures used to maintain the health of space crews and to support their performance before, during, and after space flight. These measures, collectively known as the medical flight support system, are important contributors to the safety and success of space flight. The contributions of space hardware and the spacecraft environment to flight safety and mission success are covered in previous volumes of the Space Biology and Medicine series. In Volume IV, we address means of improving the reliability of people who are required to function in the unfamiliar environment of space flight as well as the importance of those who support the crew. Please note that the extensive collaboration between Russian and American teams for this volume of work resulted in a timeframe of publication longer than originally anticipated. Therefore, new research or insights may have emerged since the authors composed their chapters and references. This volume includes a list of authors' names and addresses should readers seek specifics on new information. At least three groups of factors act to perturb human physiological homeostasis during space flight. All have significant influence on health, psychological, and emotional status, tolerance, and work capacity. The first and most important of these factors is weightlessness, the most specific and radical change in the ambient environment; it causes a variety of functional and structural changes in human physiology. The second group of factors precludes the constraints associated with living in the sealed, confined environment of spacecraft. Although these factors are not unique to space flight, the limitations they entail in terms of an uncomfortable environment can diminish the well-being and performance of crewmembers in space. The third group of factors includes the occupational and social factors associated with the difficult, critical nature of the

  6. Performance Sustainment of Two Man Crews During 87 Hours of Extended Wakefulness With Stimulants (Dexedrine, Caffeine, Modafinil) and Napping: Analysis of Aircrew Performance During In-Flight Emergency Situations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Crews during 87 Hours of Extended Wakefulness with Stimulants (Dexedrine, Caffeine, Modafinil ) and Napping: 5b. GRANT NUMBER Analysis of Aircrew...caffeine, modafinil , and placebo affected participant ability to employ good aircrew coordination practices and function as an effective crew during...project Performance Sustainment of Two Man Crews during 87 Hours of Extended Wakefulness with Stimulants (Dexedrine, Caffeine, Modafinil ) and Napping by

  7. Exploring flight crew behaviour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A programme of research into the determinants of flight crew performance in commercial and military aviation is described, along with limitations and advantages associated with the conduct of research in such settings. Preliminary results indicate significant relationships among personality factors, attitudes regarding flight operations, and crew performance. The potential theoretical and applied utility of the research and directions for further research are discussed.

  8. [Certain principles of Mars mission crew life and the organization of the performance].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, A I; Demin, E P; Bystritskaia, A F; Gushchin, V I; Vinokhodova, A G

    2002-01-01

    Article is devoted to some new aspects of biomedical support and countermeasures during a manned Mars mission. Significant differences in crew--Mission control interaction in a Martian and orbital flight are described. Special attention is paid to the problem of the Martian crew autonomy and decision-making. The authors give some practical recommendations for improvement of the space flight medical support system existing in Russia to meet the needs of a Martian expedition.

  9. Crew Health and Performance Improvements with Reduced Carbon Dioxide Levels and the Resource Impact to Accomplish Those Reductions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Meyers, Valerie E.; Sipes, Walter; Scully, Robert R.; Matty, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) removal is one of the primary functions of the International Space Station (ISS) atmosphere revitalization systems. Primary CO2 removal is via the ISS s two Carbon Dioxide Removal Assemblies (CDRAs) and the Russian carbon dioxide removal assembly (Vozdukh); both of these systems are regenerable, meaning that their CO2 removal capacity theoretically remains constant as long as the system is operating. Contingency CO2 removal capability is provided by lithium hydroxide (LiOH) canisters, which are consumable, meaning that their CO2 removal capability disappears once the resource is used. With the advent of 6 crew ISS operations, experience showing that CDRA failures are not uncommon, and anecdotal association of crew symptoms with CO2 values just above 4 mmHg, the question arises: How much lower do we keep CO2 levels to minimize the risk to crew health and performance, and what will the operational cost to the CDRAs be to do it? The primary crew health concerns center on the interaction of increased intracranial pressure from fluid shifts and the increased intracranial blood flow induced by CO2. Typical acute symptoms include headache, minor visual disturbances, and subtle behavioral changes. The historical database of CO2 exposures since the beginning of ISS operations has been compared to the incidence of crew symptoms reported in private medical conferences. We have used this database in an attempt to establish an association between the CO2 levels and the risk of crew symptoms. This comparison will answer the question of the level needed to protect the crew from acute effects. As for the second part of the question, operation of the ISS s regenerable CO2 removal capability reduces the limited life of constituent parts. It also consumes limited electrical power and thermal control resources. Operation of consumable CO2 removal capability (LiOH) uses finite consumable materials, which must be replenished in the long term. Therefore, increased CO

  10. Flight Crew Workload, Acceptability, and Performance When Using Data Comm in a High-Density Terminal Area Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, R. Michael; Baxley, Brian T.; Adams, Cathy A.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Latorella, Kara A.; Comstock, James R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This document describes a collaborative FAA/NASA experiment using 22 commercial airline pilots to determine the effect of using Data Comm to issue messages during busy, terminal area operations. Four conditions were defined that span current day to future flight deck equipage: Voice communication only, Data Comm only, Data Comm with Moving Map Display, and Data Comm with Moving Map displaying taxi route. Each condition was used in an arrival and a departure scenario at Boston Logan Airport. Of particular interest was the flight crew response to D-TAXI, the use of Data Comm by Air Traffic Control (ATC) to send taxi instructions. Quantitative data was collected on subject reaction time, flight technical error, operational errors, and eye tracking information. Questionnaires collected subjective feedback on workload, situation awareness, and acceptability to the flight crew for using Data Comm in a busy terminal area. Results showed that 95% of the Data Comm messages were responded to by the flight crew within one minute and 97% of the messages within two minutes. However, post experiment debrief comments revealed almost unanimous consensus that two minutes was a reasonable expectation for crew response. Flight crews reported that Expected D-TAXI messages were useful, and employment of these messages acceptable at all altitude bands evaluated during arrival scenarios. Results also indicate that the use of Data Comm for all evaluated message types in the terminal area was acceptable during surface operations, and during arrivals at any altitude above the Final Approach Fix, in terms of response time, workload, situation awareness, and flight technical performance. The flight crew reported the use of Data Comm as implemented in this experiment as unacceptable in two instances: in clearances to cross an active runway, and D-TAXI messages between the Final Approach Fix and 80 knots during landing roll. Critical cockpit tasks and the urgency of out-the window scan made the

  11. Team Performance and Error Management in Chinese and American Simulated Flight Crews: The Role of Cultural and Individual Differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald D.; Bryant, Janet L.; Tedrow, Lara; Liu, Ying; Selgrade, Katherine A.; Downey, Heather J.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes results of a study conducted for NASA-Langley Research Center. This study is part of a program of research conducted for NASA-LARC that has focused on identifying the influence of national culture on the performance of flight crews. We first reviewed the literature devoted to models of teamwork and team performance, crew resource management, error management, and cross-cultural psychology. Davis (1999) reported the results of this review and presented a model that depicted how national culture could influence teamwork and performance in flight crews. The second study in this research program examined accident investigations of foreign airlines in the United States conducted by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). The ability of cross-cultural values to explain national differences in flight outcomes was examined. Cultural values were found to covary in a predicted way with national differences, but the absence of necessary data in the NTSB reports and limitations in the research method that was used prevented a clear understanding of the causal impact of cultural values. Moreover, individual differences such as personality traits were not examined in this study. Davis and Kuang (2001) report results of this second study. The research summarized in the current report extends this previous research by directly assessing cultural and individual differences among students from the United States and China who were trained to fly in a flight simulator using desktop computer workstations. The research design used in this study allowed delineation of the impact of national origin, cultural values, personality traits, cognitive style, shared mental model, and task workload on teamwork, error management and flight outcomes. We briefly review the literature that documents the importance of teamwork and error management and its impact on flight crew performance. We next examine teamwork and crew resource management training designed to improve

  12. [Aviation and high-altitude medicine for anaesthetists. Part 4: human performance limitations and crew resource management].

    PubMed

    Egerth, Martin; Pump, Stefan; Graf, Jürgen

    2013-06-01

    For pilots and doctors, as well as a variety of other professions the knowledge of human performance limitations is essential, especially in critical situations. Crew resource management was developed in the 1980s in the aviation industry in order to ensure systematic training and support in such instances. Just recently, the value is recognized not only in other high reliability organizations but also in medicine.

  13. The effects of bedrest on crew performance during simulated shuttle reentry. Volume 2: Control task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jex, H. R.; Peters, R. A.; Dimarco, R. J.; Allen, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    A simplified space shuttle reentry simulation performed on the NASA Ames Research Center Centrifuge is described. Anticipating potentially deleterious effects of physiological deconditioning from orbital living (simulated here by 10 days of enforced bedrest) upon a shuttle pilot's ability to manually control his aircraft (should that be necessary in an emergency) a comprehensive battery of measurements was made roughly every 1/2 minute on eight military pilot subjects, over two 20-minute reentry Gz vs. time profiles, one peaking at 2 Gz and the other at 3 Gz. Alternate runs were made without and with g-suits to test the help or interference offered by such protective devices to manual control performance. A very demanding two-axis control task was employed, with a subcritical instability in the pitch axis to force a high attentional demand and a severe loss-of-control penalty. The results show that pilots experienced in high Gz flying can easily handle the shuttle manual control task during 2 Gz or 3 Gz reentry profiles, provided the degree of physiological deconditioning is no more than induced by these 10 days of enforced bedrest.

  14. Science-based HRA: experimental comparison of operator performance to IDAC (Information-Decision-Action Crew) simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Shirley, Rachel; Smidts, Carol; Boring, Ronald; Li, Yuandan; Mosleh, Ali

    2015-02-01

    Information-Decision-Action Crew (IDAC) operator model simulations of a Steam Generator Tube Rupture are compared to student operator performance in studies conducted in the Ohio State University’s Nuclear Power Plant Simulator Facility. This study is presented as a prototype for conducting simulator studies to validate key aspects of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) methods. Seven student operator crews are compared to simulation results for crews designed to demonstrate three different decision-making strategies. The IDAC model used in the simulations is modified slightly to capture novice behavior rather that expert operators. Operator actions and scenario pacing are compared. A preliminary review of available performance shaping factors (PSFs) is presented. After the scenario in the NPP Simulator Facility, student operators review a video of the scenario and evaluate six PSFs at pre-determined points in the scenario. This provides a dynamic record of the PSFs experienced by the OSU student operators. In this preliminary analysis, Time Constraint Load (TCL) calculated in the IDAC simulations is compared to TCL reported by student operators. We identify potential modifications to the IDAC model to develop an “IDAC Student Operator Model.” This analysis provides insights into how similar experiments could be conducted using expert operators to improve the fidelity of IDAC simulations.

  15. Crew decision making under stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, J.

    1992-01-01

    Flight crews must make decisions and take action when systems fail or emergencies arise during flight. These situations may involve high stress. Full-missiion flight simulation studies have shown that crews differ in how effectively they cope in these circumstances, judged by operational errors and crew coordination. The present study analyzed the problem solving and decision making strategies used by crews led by captains fitting three different personality profiles. Our goal was to identify more and less effective strategies that could serve as the basis for crew selection or training. Methods: Twelve 3-member B-727 crews flew a 5-leg mission simulated flight over 1 1/2 days. Two legs included 4 abnormal events that required decisions during high workload periods. Transcripts of videotapes were analyzed to describe decision making strategies. Crew performance (errors and coordination) was judged on-line and from videotapes by check airmen. Results: Based on a median split of crew performance errors, analyses to date indicate a difference in general strategy between crews who make more or less errors. Higher performance crews showed greater situational awareness - they responded quickly to cues and interpreted them appropriately. They requested more decision relevant information and took into account more constraints. Lower performing crews showed poorer situational awareness, planning, constraint sensitivity, and coordination. The major difference between higher and lower performing crews was that poorer crews made quick decisions and then collected information to confirm their decision. Conclusion: Differences in overall crew performance were associated with differences in situational awareness, information management, and decision strategy. Captain personality profiles were associated with these differences, a finding with implications for crew selection and training.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Engineered Structured Sorbents for Atmosphere Revitalization Systems On Board Crewed Space Vehicles and Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David F.; Perry, Jay L.; Knox, James C.; Junaedi, Christian; Roychoudhury, Subir

    2011-01-01

    Engineered structured (ES) sorbents are being developed to meet the technical challenges of future crewed space exploration missions. ES sorbents offer the inherent performance and safety attributes of zeolite and other physical adsorbents but with greater structural integrity and process control to improve durability and efficiency over packed beds. ES sorbent techniques that are explored include thermally linked and pressure-swing adsorption beds for water-save dehumidification and sorbent-coated metal meshes for residual drying, trace contaminant control, and carbon dioxide control. Results from sub-scale performance evaluations of a thermally linked pressure-swing adsorbent bed and an integrated sub-scale ES sorbent system are discussed.

  17. Enroute flight-path planning - Cooperative performance of flight crews and knowledge-based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip J.; Mccoy, Elaine; Layton, Chuck; Galdes, Deb

    1989-01-01

    Interface design issues associated with the introduction of knowledge-based systems into the cockpit are discussed. Such issues include not only questions about display and control design, they also include deeper system design issues such as questions about the alternative roles and responsibilities of the flight crew and the computer system. In addition, the feasibility of using enroute flight path planning as a context for exploring such research questions is considered. In particular, the development of a prototyping shell that allows rapid design and study of alternative interfaces and system designs is discussed.

  18. Applications of Known Quantitative Techniques for Developing Airborne ASW Crew Performance Criteria,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-07-01

    configuration concept . Work has been undertaken by squadron personnel to I develop a preliminary experimental approach . Todate , two discussions asto the...crew. One TACCO would be the man who turns the knobs , views the scope, and otherwise keeps the information up -to-date . A second TACCO would be 1...Such .i g r o up , u , i , m v , i i l a l i l e d u r i n g t h ’ ~~~ st ~~c rk , i s fl~ ’~~ a~ , , i l a h l e and it i s p r~ ’ -( po

  19. Selection for optimal crew performance - Relative impact of selection and training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R.

    1987-01-01

    An empirical study supporting Helmreich's (1986) theoretical work on the distinct manner in which training and selection impact crew coordination is presented. Training is capable of changing attitudes, while selection screens for stable personality characteristics. Training appears least effective for leadership, an area strongly influenced by personality. Selection is least effective for influencing attitudes about personal vulnerability to stress, which appear to be trained in resource management programs. Because personality correlates with attitudes before and after training, it is felt that selection may be necessary even with a leadership-oriented training cirriculum.

  20. Crew health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger D.

    1992-01-01

    Crew health concerns for Space Station Freedom are numerous due to medical hazards from isolation and confinement, internal and external environments, zero gravity effects, occupational exposures, and possible endogenous medical events. The operational crew health program will evolve from existing programs and from life sciences investigations aboard Space Station Freedom to include medical monitoring and certification, medical intervention, health maintenance and countermeasures, psychosocial support, and environmental health monitoring. The knowledge and experience gained regarding crew health issues and needs aboard Space Station Freedom will be used not only to verify requirements and programs for long duration space flight, but also in planning and preparation for Lunar and Mars exploration and colonization.

  1. A predictive model of nuclear power plant crew decision-making and performance in a dynamic simulation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyne, Kevin Anthony

    The safe operation of complex systems such as nuclear power plants requires close coordination between the human operators and plant systems. In order to maintain an adequate level of safety following an accident or other off-normal event, the operators often are called upon to perform complex tasks during dynamic situations with incomplete information. The safety of such complex systems can be greatly improved if the conditions that could lead operators to make poor decisions and commit erroneous actions during these situations can be predicted and mitigated. The primary goal of this research project was the development and validation of a cognitive model capable of simulating nuclear plant operator decision-making during accident conditions. Dynamic probabilistic risk assessment methods can improve the prediction of human error events by providing rich contextual information and an explicit consideration of feedback arising from man-machine interactions. The Accident Dynamics Simulator paired with the Information, Decision, and Action in a Crew context cognitive model (ADS-IDAC) shows promise for predicting situational contexts that might lead to human error events, particularly knowledge driven errors of commission. ADS-IDAC generates a discrete dynamic event tree (DDET) by applying simple branching rules that reflect variations in crew responses to plant events and system status changes. Branches can be generated to simulate slow or fast procedure execution speed, skipping of procedure steps, reliance on memorized information, activation of mental beliefs, variations in control inputs, and equipment failures. Complex operator mental models of plant behavior that guide crew actions can be represented within the ADS-IDAC mental belief framework and used to identify situational contexts that may lead to human error events. This research increased the capabilities of ADS-IDAC in several key areas. The ADS-IDAC computer code was improved to support additional

  2. Human Behavior and Performance Support for ISS Operations and Astronaut Selections: NASA Operational Psychology for Six-Crew Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderArk, Steve; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert; Cockrell, Gabrielle

    2010-01-01

    The Behavioral Health and Performance group at NASA Johnson Space Center provides psychological support services and behavioral health monitoring for ISS astronauts and their families. The ISS began as an austere outpost with minimal comforts of home and minimal communication capabilities with family, friends, and colleagues outside of the Mission Control Center. Since 1998, the work of international partners involved in the Space Flight Human Behavior and Performance Working Group has prepared high-level requirements for behavioral monitoring and support. The "buffet" of services from which crewmembers can choose has increased substantially. Through the process of development, implementation, reviewing effectiveness and modifying as needed, the NASA and Wyle team have proven successful in managing the psychological health and well being of the crews and families with which they work. Increasing the crew size from three to six brought additional challenges. For the first time, all partners had to collaborate at the planning and implementation level, and the U.S. served as mentor to extrapolate their experiences to the others. Parity in available resources, upmass, and stowage had to be worked out. Steady progress was made in improving off-hours living and making provisions for new technologies within a system that has difficulty moving quickly on certifications. In some respect, the BHP support team fell victim to its previous successes. With increasing numbers of crewmembers in training, requests to engage our services spiraled upward. With finite people and funds, a cap had to placed on many services to ensure that parity could be maintained. The evolution of NASA BHP services as the ISS progressed from three- to six-crew composition will be reviewed, and future challenges that may be encountered as the ISS matures in its assembly-complete state will be discussed.

  3. Commercial Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    Phil McAlister delivers a presentation by the Commercial Crew (CC) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to...

  4. Simulation and experimental studies of operators` decision styles and crew composition while using an ecological and traditional user interface for the control room of a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Meshkati, N.; Buller, B.J.; Azadeh, M.A.

    1995-04-01

    The goal of this research is threefold: (1) use of the Skill-, Rule-, and Knowledge-based levels of cognitive control -- the SRK framework -- to develop an integrated information processing conceptual framework (for integration of workstation, job, and team design); (2) to evaluate the user interface component of this framework -- the Ecological display; and (3) to analyze the effect of operators` individual information processing behavior and decision styles on handling plant disturbances plus their performance on, and preference for, Traditional and Ecological user interfaces. A series of studies were conducted. In Part I, a computer simulation model and a mathematical model were developed. In Part II, an experiment was designed and conducted at the EBR-II plant of the Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho. It is concluded that: the integrated SRK-based information processing model for control room operations is superior to the conventional rule-based model; operators` individual decision styles and the combination of their styles play a significant role in effective handling of nuclear power plant disturbances; use of the Ecological interface results in significantly more accurate event diagnosis and recall of various plant parameters, faster response to plant transients, and higher ratings of subject preference; and operators` decision styles affect on both their performance and preference for the Ecological interface.

  5. Preliminary assessment of the impact of incorporating a detailed algorithm for the effects of nuclear irradiation on combat crew performance into the Janus combat simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Warshawsky, A.S.; Uzelac, M.J.; Pimper, J.E. )

    1989-05-01

    The Crew III algorithm for assessing time and dose dependent combat crew performance subsequent to nuclear irradiation was incorporated into the Janus combat simulation system. Battle outcomes using this algorithm were compared to outcomes based on the currently used time-independent cookie-cutter'' assessment methodology. The results illustrate quantifiable differences in battle outcome between the two assessment techniques. Results suggest that tactical nuclear weapons are more effective than currently assumed if performance degradation attributed to radiation doses between 150 to 3000 rad are taken into account. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Overview of crew member energy expenditure during Shuttle Flight 61-8 EASE/ACCESS task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horrigan, D. J.; Waligora, J. W.; Stanford, J.; Edwards, B. F.

    1987-01-01

    The energy expenditure of the Shuttle Flight 61-B crewmembers during the extravehicular performance of Experimental Assembly of Structures in EVA (EASE) and Assembly Concept of Construction of Space Structures (ACCESS) construction system tasks are reported. These data consist of metabolic rate time profiles correlated with specific EASE and ACCESS tasks and crew comments. Average extravehicular activity metabolic rates are computed and compared with those reported from previous Apollo, Shylab, and Shuttle flights. These data reflect total energy expenditure and not that of individual muscle groups such as hand and forearm. When correlated with specific EVA tasks and subtasks, the metabolic profile data is expected to be useful in planning future EVA protocols. For example, after experiencing high work rates and apparent overheating during some Gemini EVAs, it was found useful to carefully monitor work rates in subsequent flights to assess the adequacy of cooling garments and as an aid to preplanning EVA procedures. This presentation is represented by graphs and charts.

  7. The Skylab Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to Improve Crew Health and Performance for Future Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James D.; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.; Williams, Richard S.; Lindgren, Kjell N.; Mathes, Karen L.; Gillis, David B.; Scheuring, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    From May of 1973 to February of 1974, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted a series of three manned missions to the Skylab space station, a voluminous vehicle largely descendant of Apollo hardware, and America s first space station. The crewmembers of these three manned missions spent record breaking durations of time in microgravity (28 days, 59 days and 84 days, respectively) and gave the U.S. space program its first experiences with long-duration space flight. The program overcame a number of obstacles (including a significant crippling of the Skylab vehicle) to conduct a lauded scientific program that encompassed life sciences, astronomy, solar physics, materials sciences and Earth observation. Skylab has more to offer than the results of its scientific efforts. The operations conducted by the Skylab crews and ground personnel represent a rich legacy of operational experience. As we plan for our return to the moon and the subsequent manned exploration of Mars, it is essential to utilize the experiences and insights of those involved in previous programs. Skylab and SMEAT (Skylab Medical Experiments Altitude Test) personnel have unique insight into operations being planned for the Constellation Program, such as umbilical extra-vehicular activity and water landing/recovery of long-duration crewmembers. Skylab was also well known for its habitability and extensive medical suite; topics which deserve further reflection as we prepare for lunar habitation and missions beyond Earth s immediate sphere of influence. The Skylab Medical Operations Summit was held in January 2008. Crewmembers and medical personnel from the Skylab missions and SMEAT were invited to participate in a two day summit with representatives from the Constellation Program medical operations community. The purpose of the summit was to discuss issues pertinent to future Constellation operations. The purpose of this document is to formally present the recommendations of the

  8. Crew Activity Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, James; Kirillov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The crew activity analyzer (CAA) is a system of electronic hardware and software for automatically identifying patterns of group activity among crew members working together in an office, cockpit, workshop, laboratory, or other enclosed space. The CAA synchronously records multiple streams of data from digital video cameras, wireless microphones, and position sensors, then plays back and processes the data to identify activity patterns specified by human analysts. The processing greatly reduces the amount of time that the analysts must spend in examining large amounts of data, enabling the analysts to concentrate on subsets of data that represent activities of interest. The CAA has potential for use in a variety of governmental and commercial applications, including planning for crews for future long space flights, designing facilities wherein humans must work in proximity for long times, improving crew training and measuring crew performance in military settings, human-factors and safety assessment, development of team procedures, and behavioral and ethnographic research. The data-acquisition hardware of the CAA (see figure) includes two video cameras: an overhead one aimed upward at a paraboloidal mirror on the ceiling and one mounted on a wall aimed in a downward slant toward the crew area. As many as four wireless microphones can be worn by crew members. The audio signals received from the microphones are digitized, then compressed in preparation for storage. Approximate locations of as many as four crew members are measured by use of a Cricket indoor location system. [The Cricket indoor location system includes ultrasonic/radio beacon and listener units. A Cricket beacon (in this case, worn by a crew member) simultaneously transmits a pulse of ultrasound and a radio signal that contains identifying information. Each Cricket listener unit measures the difference between the times of reception of the ultrasound and radio signals from an identified beacon

  9. Crew procedures development techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.; Hawk, M. L.; Mangiaracina, A. A.; Mcgavern, J. L.; Spangler, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    The study developed requirements, designed, developed, checked out and demonstrated the Procedures Generation Program (PGP). The PGP is a digital computer program which provides a computerized means of developing flight crew procedures based on crew action in the shuttle procedures simulator. In addition, it provides a real time display of procedures, difference procedures, performance data and performance evaluation data. Reconstruction of displays is possible post-run. Data may be copied, stored on magnetic tape and transferred to the document processor for editing and documentation distribution.

  10. Measuring Human Performance in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms Using Eye Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert; Rice, Brandon Charles; Bower, Gordon Ross; Spielman, Zachary Alexander; Hill, Rachael Ann; LeBlanc, Katya Lee

    2015-11-01

    Control room modernization will be an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. As part of modernization efforts, personnel will need to gain a full understanding of how control room technologies affect performance of human operators. Recent advances in technology enables the use of eye tracking technology to continuously measure an operator’s eye movement, which correlates with a variety of human performance constructs such as situation awareness and workload. This report describes eye tracking metrics in the context of how they will be used in nuclear power plant control room simulator studies.

  11. Room Acoustic Conditions of Performers in AN Old Opera House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    IANNACE, GINO; IANNIELLO, CARMINE; MAFFEI, LUIGI; ROMANO, ROSARIO

    2000-04-01

    Proposed objective criteria related to the acoustic conditions for instrumentalists and singers have not received a sufficiently wide consent yet. In spite of this situation, it is the opinion of the authors that the measurement of existing criteria is useful for analysis and comparison. This paper reports the results of various acoustic measurements carried out in the Teatro di San Carlo, Naples-Italy, with the aim of obtaining objective information about its acoustics for performers. A first set of measurements was carried out when the theater was fitted for a symphonic concert and a second one when it was fitted for an opera performance.

  12. STS-99 Crew Activities Report/Flight Day 1 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Live footage shows the crew, Commander Kevin R. Kregel, Pilot Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie, and Mission Specialists Janet L. Kavandi, Janice E. Voss, Mamoru Mohri and Gerhard P.J. Thiele, seated in the dining room with the traditional cake. The crew is seen performing various pre-launch activities including suit-up, walk out to the Astro-van, and strap-in into the vehicle. Also seen are the retractions of the orbiter access arm and the gaseous oxygen mint hood, main engine start, booster ignition, liftoff, and separation of the solid rocket boosters. The Red Team (first of the dual shift crew) includes Kregel, Kavandi, and Thiele, who are shown conducting jet thruster firings, activating radar instruments, and deploying the boom (mass).

  13. Monitoring and talking to the room: autochthonous coordination patterns in team interaction and performance.

    PubMed

    Kolbe, Michaela; Grote, Gudela; Waller, Mary J; Wacker, Johannes; Grande, Bastian; Burtscher, Michael J; Spahn, Donat R

    2014-11-01

    This paper builds on and extends theory on team functioning in high-risk environments. We examined 2 implicit coordination behaviors that tend to emerge autochthonously within high-risk teams: team member monitoring and talking to the room. Focusing on nonrandom patterns of behavior, we examined sequential patterns of team member monitoring and talking to the room in higher- and lower-performing action teams working in a high-risk health care environment. Using behavior observation methods, we coded verbal and nonverbal behaviors of 27 anesthesia teams performing an induction of general anesthesia in a natural setting and assessed team performance with a Delphi-validated checklist-based performance measure. Lag sequential analyses revealed that higher-performing teams were characterized by patterns in which team member monitoring was followed by speaking up, providing assistance, and giving instructions and by patterns in which talking to the room was followed by further talking to the room and not followed by instructions. Higher- and lower-performing teams did not differ with respect to the frequency of team member monitoring and talking to the room occurrence. The results illustrate the importance of patterns of autochthonous coordination behaviors and demonstrate that the interaction patterns, as opposed to the behavior frequencies, discriminated higher- from lower-performing teams. Implications for future research and for team training are included. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Commercial Crew Launch America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thon, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation is intended to discuss NASA's long term human exploration goals of our solar system. The emphasis will be on how our CCP (Commercial Crew Program) supports our space bound human exploration goals by encouraging commercial entities to perform missions to LEO (Low Earth Orbit), thus allowing NASA to focus on beyond LEO human exploration missions.

  15. Effective Crew Operations: An Analysis of Technologies for Improving Crew Activities and Medical Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Craig

    2005-01-01

    NASA's vision for space exploration (February 2004) calls for development of a new crew exploration vehicle, sustained lunar operations, and human exploration of Mars. To meet the challenges of planned sustained operations as well as the limited communications between Earth and the crew (e.g., Mars exploration), many systems will require crews to operate in an autonomous environment. It has been estimated that once every 2.4 years a major medical issue will occur while in space. NASA's future travels, especially to Mars, will begin to push this timeframe. Therefore, now is the time for investigating technologies and systems that will support crews in these environments. Therefore, this summer two studies were conducted to evaluate the technology and systems that may be used by crews in future missions. The first study evaluated three commercial Indoor Positioning Systems (IPS) (Versus, Ekahau, and Radianse) that can track equipment and people within a facility. While similar to Global Positioning Systems (GPS), the specific technology used is different. Several conclusions can be drawn from the evaluation conducted, but in summary it is clear that none of the systems provides a complete solution in meeting the tracking and technology integration requirements of NASA. From a functional performance (e.g., system meets user needs) evaluation perspective, Versus performed fairly well on all performance measures as compared to Ekahau and Radianse. However, the system only provides tracking at the room level. Thus, Versus does not provide the level of fidelity required for tracking assets or people for NASA requirements. From an engineering implementation perspective, Ekahau is far simpler to implement that the other two systems because of its wi-fi design (e.g., no required runs of cable). By looking at these two perspectives, one finds there was no clear system that met NASA requirements. Thus it would be premature to suggest that any of these systems are ready for

  16. Li-Ion Pouch Cell Designs; Performance and Issues for Crewed Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darcy, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work: Are there any performance show stoppers for spinning them into spacecraft applications? (1) Are the seals compatible with extended vacuum operations? (2) How uniformly and cleanly are they made? (3) How durable are they?

  17. PPP effectiveness study. [automatic procedures recording and crew performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    This design note presents a study of the Procedures and Performance Program (PPP) effectiveness. The intent of the study is to determine manpower time savings and the improvements in job performance gained through PPP automated techniques. The discussion presents a synopsis of PPP capabilities and identifies potential users and associated applications, PPP effectiveness, and PPP applications to other simulation/training facilities. Appendix A provides a detailed description of each PPP capability.

  18. Effects of reduced nocturnal temperature on pig performance and energy consumption in swine nursery rooms.

    PubMed

    Johnston, L J; Brumm, M C; Moeller, S J; Pohl, S; Shannon, M C; Thaler, R C

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of a reduced nocturnal temperature (RNT) regimen on performance of weaned pigs and energy consumption during the nursery phase of production. The age of weaned pigs assigned to experiments ranged from 16 to 22 d. In Exp. 1, 3 stations conducted 2 trials under a common protocol that provided data from 6 control rooms (CON; 820 pigs) and 6 RNT rooms (818 pigs). Two mirror-image nursery rooms were used at each station. Temperature in the CON room was set to 30°C for the first 7 d, then reduced by 2°C per week through the remainder of the experiment. Room temperature settings were held constant throughout the day and night. The temperature setting in the RNT room was the same as CON during the first 7 d, but beginning on the night of d 7, the room temperature setting was reduced 6°C from the daytime temperature from 1900 to 0700 h. The use of heating fuel and electricity were measured weekly in each room. Overall, ADG (0.43 kg), ADFI (0.62 kg), and G:F (0.69) were identical for CON and RNT rooms. Consumption of heating fuel [9,658 vs. 7,958 British thermal units (Btu)·pig(-1)·d(-1)] and electricity (0.138 vs. 0.125 kilowatt-hour (kWh)·pig(-1)·d(-1)] were not statistically different for CON and RNT rooms, respectively. In Exp. 2, 4 stations conducted at least 2 trials that provided data from 9 CON rooms (2,122 pigs) and 10 RNT rooms (2,176 pigs). Experimental treatments and protocols were the same as Exp. 1, except that the RNT regimen was imposed on the night of d 5 and the targeted nighttime temperature reduction was 8.3°C. Neither final pig BW (21.8 vs. 21.5 kg; SE = 0.64), ADG (0.45 vs. 0.44 kg; SE = 0.016), ADFI (0.61 vs. 0.60 kg; SE = 0.019), nor G:F (0.75 vs. 0.75; SE = 0.012) were different for pigs housed in CON or RNT rooms, respectively. Consumption of heating fuel and electricity was consistently reduced in RNT rooms for all 4 stations. Consumption of heating fuel (10,019 vs. 7,061 Btu

  19. Communication indices of crew coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, B. G.; Lozito, S.; Foushee, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between communication patterns and performance in 10 two-person flightcrews is explored with the aim of identifying speech variations which differentiate low- and high-error full mission simulator flights. Verbal data, transcribed from the videotaped performances, are treated as interactive sequences of speech events in which statements spoken by one crewmember are considered within the context of the other crewmember's prior and subsequent speech. Specific speech patterns characterized each crew, but the overriding findings included: a) marked homogeneity of patterns characterizing low-error crews, interpreted as the adoption of a standard form of communicating, and b) heterogeneity of patterns characterizing high-error crews, interpreted as the relative absence of a conventionalized form. Because conventions are regularities which confirm the expectations of those involved, predictability of crewmember behavior should be greater when standard conventions are followed. We conclude that such a practice can facilitate the coordination process and enhance crew performance.

  20. 49 CFR 218.24 - One-person crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false One-person crew. 218.24 Section 218.24...-person crew. (a) An engineer working alone as a one-person crew shall not perform duties on, under, or... unattended, the one-member crew shall secure the locomotive as follows: (i) The throttle is in the...

  1. Space Shuttle Wireless Crew Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, R. W.; Doe, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The design, development, and performance characteristics of the Space Shuttle's Wireless Crew Communications System are discussed. This system allows Space Shuttle crews to interface with the onboard audio distribution system without the need for communications umbilicals, and has been designed through the adaptation of commercially available hardware in order to minimize development time. Testing aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia has revealed no failures or design deficiencies.

  2. Performance evaluation of ZnO–CuO hetero junction solid state room temperature ethanol sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Ming-Ru; Suyambrakasam, Gobalakrishnan; Wu, Ren-Jang; Chavali, Murthy

    2012-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Sensor response (resistance) curves of time were changed from 150 ppm to 250 ppm alcohol concentration of ZnO–CuO 1:1. The response and recovery times were measured to be 62 and 83 s, respectively. The sensing material ZnO–CuO is a high potential alcohol sensor which provides a simple, rapid and highly sensitive alcohol gas sensor operating at room temperature. Highlights: ► The main advantages of the ethanol sensor are as followings. ► Novel materials ZnO–CuO ethanol sensor. ► The optimized ZnO–CuO hetero contact system. ► A good sensor response and room working temperature (save energy). -- Abstract: A semiconductor ethanol sensor was developed using ZnO–CuO and its performance was evaluated at room temperature. Hetero-junction sensor was made of ZnO–CuO nanoparticles for sensing alcohol at room temperature. Nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method and optimized with different weight ratios. Sensor characteristics were linear for the concentration range of 150–250 ppm. Composite materials of ZnO–CuO were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). ZnO–CuO (1:1) material showed maximum sensor response (S = R{sub air}/R{sub alcohol}) of 3.32 ± 0.1 toward 200 ppm of alcohol vapor at room temperature. The response and recovery times were measured to be 62 and 83 s, respectively. The linearity R{sup 2} of the sensor response was 0.9026. The sensing materials ZnO–CuO (1:1) provide a simple, rapid and highly sensitive alcohol gas sensor operating at room temperature.

  3. Design of a multisystem remote maintenance control room

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.J.; Kring, C.T.; Kawatsuma, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Remote Systems Development Section of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Japan's Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) recently collaborated in the development of a control room concept for remote operations. This report describes design methods and the resulting control room concept. The design project included five stages. The first was compilation of a complete function list; functions are tasks performed by operators in the control room while operating equipment located in the remote area. The second step was organization of the function list into ''function groups;'' function groups are sets of functions that operate one piece of equipment. The third stage was determination of crew size and requirements for supervision. The fourth stage was development of conceptual designs of displays and controls. The fifth stage was development of plans for placement of crew stations within the control room. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Room temperature, air crystallized perovskite film for high performance solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dubey, Ashish; Kantack, Nicholas; Adhikari, Nirmal; Reza, Khan Mamun; Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Kumar, Mukesh; Khatiwada, Devendra; Darling, Seth; Qiao, Qiquan

    2016-05-31

    For the first time, room temperature heating free growth and crystallization of perovskite films in ambient air without the use of thermal annealing is reported. Highly efficient perovskite nanorod-based solar cells were made using ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbI3 nanorods/PC60BM/rhodamine/Ag. All the layers except PEDOT:PSS were processed at room temperature thereby eliminating the need for thermal treatment. Perovskite films were spin coated inside a N-2 filled glovebox and immediately were taken outside in air having 40% relative humidity (RH). Exposure to humid air was observed to promote the crystallization process in perovskite films even at room temperature. Perovskite films kept for 5 hours in ambient air showed nanorod-like morphology having high crystallinity, with devices exhibiting the highest PCE of 16.83%, which is much higher than the PCE of 11.94% for traditional thermally annealed perovskite film based devices. Finally, it was concluded that moisture plays an important role in room temperature crystallization of pure perovskite nanorods, showing improved optical and charge transport properties, which resulted in high performance solar cells.

  5. Room temperature, air crystallized perovskite film for high performance solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Dubey, Ashish; Kantack, Nicholas; Adhikari, Nirmal; ...

    2016-05-31

    For the first time, room temperature heating free growth and crystallization of perovskite films in ambient air without the use of thermal annealing is reported. Highly efficient perovskite nanorod-based solar cells were made using ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbI3 nanorods/PC60BM/rhodamine/Ag. All the layers except PEDOT:PSS were processed at room temperature thereby eliminating the need for thermal treatment. Perovskite films were spin coated inside a N-2 filled glovebox and immediately were taken outside in air having 40% relative humidity (RH). Exposure to humid air was observed to promote the crystallization process in perovskite films even at room temperature. Perovskite films kept for 5 hours inmore » ambient air showed nanorod-like morphology having high crystallinity, with devices exhibiting the highest PCE of 16.83%, which is much higher than the PCE of 11.94% for traditional thermally annealed perovskite film based devices. Finally, it was concluded that moisture plays an important role in room temperature crystallization of pure perovskite nanorods, showing improved optical and charge transport properties, which resulted in high performance solar cells.« less

  6. Enhanced performance of room-temperature-grown epitaxial thin films of vanadium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Nag, Joyeeta; Payzant, E Andrew; More, Karren Leslie; HaglundJr., Richard F

    2011-01-01

    Stoichiometric vanadium dioxide in bulk, thin film and nanostructured forms exhibits an insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) accompanied by a structural phase transformation, induced by temperature, light, electric fields, doping or strain. We have grown epitaxial films of vanadium dioxide on c-plane (0001) of sapphire using two different procedures involving (1) room temperature growth followed by annealing and (2) direct high temperature growth. Strain at the film-substrate interface due to growth at different temperatures leads to interesting differences in morphologies and phase transition characteristics. Comparison of the morphologies and switching characteristics of the two films shows that contrary to conventional wisdom, the room-temperature grown films have smoother, more continuous morphologies and better switching performance, consistent with the behavior of epitaxially grown semiconductors.

  7. Pushover, Response Spectrum and Time History Analyses of Safe Rooms in a Poor Performance Masonry Building

    SciTech Connect

    Mazloom, M.

    2008-07-08

    The idea of safe room has been developed for decreasing the earthquake casualties in masonry buildings. The information obtained from the previous ground motions occurring in seismic zones expresses the lack of enough safety of these buildings against earthquakes. For this reason, an attempt has been made to create some safe areas inside the existing masonry buildings, which are called safe rooms. The practical method for making these safe areas is to install some prefabricated steel frames in some parts of the existing structure. These frames do not carry any service loads before an earthquake. However, if a devastating earthquake happens and the load bearing walls of the building are destroyed, some parts of the floors, which are in the safe areas, will fall on the roof of the installed frames and the occupants who have sheltered there will survive. This paper presents the performance of these frames located in a destroying three storey masonry building with favorable conclusions. In fact, the experimental pushover diagram of the safe room located at the ground-floor level of this building is compared with the analytical results and it is concluded that pushover analysis is a good method for seismic performance evaluation of safe rooms. For time history analysis the 1940 El Centro, the 2003 Bam, and the 1990 Manjil earthquake records with the maximum peak accelerations of 0.35g were utilized. Also the design spectrum of Iranian Standard No. 2800-05 for the ground kind 2 is used for response spectrum analysis. The results of time history, response spectrum and pushover analyses show that the strength and displacement capacity of the steel frames are adequate to accommodate the distortions generated by seismic loads and aftershocks properly.

  8. High performance hydrogen storage from Be-BTB metal-organic framework at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wei-Xian; Thornton, Aaron W; Hill, Anita J; Cox, Barry J; Hill, James M; Hill, Matthew R

    2013-07-09

    The metal-organic framework beryllium benzene tribenzoate (Be-BTB) has recently been reported to have one of the highest gravimetric hydrogen uptakes at room temperature. Storage at room temperature is one of the key requirements for the practical viability of hydrogen-powered vehicles. Be-BTB has an exceptional 298 K storage capacity of 2.3 wt % hydrogen. This result is surprising given that the low adsorption enthalpy of 5.5 kJ mol(-1). In this work, a combination of atomistic simulation and continuum modeling reveals that the beryllium rings contribute strongly to the hydrogen interaction with the framework. These simulations are extended with a thermodynamic energy optimization (TEO) model to compare the performance of Be-BTB to a compressed H2 tank and benchmark materials MOF-5 and MOF-177 in a MOF-based fuel cell. Our investigation shows that none of the MOF-filled tanks satisfy the United States Department of Energy (DOE) storage targets within the required operating temperatures and pressures. However, the Be-BTB tank delivers the most energy per volume and mass compared to the other material-based storage tanks. The pore size and the framework mass are shown to be contributing factors responsible for the superior room temperature hydrogen adsorption of Be-BTB.

  9. A general route toward complete room temperature processing of printed and high performance oxide electronics.

    PubMed

    Baby, Tessy T; Garlapati, Suresh K; Dehm, Simone; Häming, Marc; Kruk, Robert; Hahn, Horst; Dasgupta, Subho

    2015-03-24

    Critical prerequisites for solution-processed/printed field-effect transistors (FETs) and logics are excellent electrical performance including high charge carrier mobility, reliability, high environmental stability and low/preferably room temperature processing. Oxide semiconductors can often fulfill all the above criteria, sometimes even with better promise than their organic counterparts, except for their high process temperature requirement. The need for high annealing/curing temperatures renders oxide FETs rather incompatible to inexpensive, flexible substrates, which are commonly used for high-throughput and roll-to-roll additive manufacturing techniques, such as printing. To overcome this serious limitation, here we demonstrate an alternative approach that enables completely room-temperature processing of printed oxide FETs with device mobility as large as 12.5 cm(2)/(V s). The key aspect of the present concept is a chemically controlled curing process of the printed nanoparticle ink that provides surprisingly dense thin films and excellent interparticle electrical contacts. In order to demonstrate the versatility of this approach, both n-type (In2O3) and p-type (Cu2O) oxide semiconductor nanoparticle dispersions are prepared to fabricate, inkjet printed and completely room temperature processed, all-oxide complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) invertors that can display significant signal gain (∼18) at a supply voltage of only 1.5 V.

  10. STS-79 Pilot Terrence Wilcutt in White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt chats with white room closeout crew lead Rick Welty before climbing into the flight deck of the Space Shuttle Atlantis at Launch Pad 39A; at right is closeout crew member Jim Davis.

  11. Performance predictions for a room temperature, Ericsson cycle, magnetic heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnell, J. G.

    1982-05-01

    The performance potential of a room temperature magnetic heat pump utilizing Gadolinium and operating on an Ericsson Cycle was investigated at magnetic flux densities of 2 and 7-Tesla which represent the upper limits of conventional and superconducting electromagnetics, respectively. At a coefficient of performance of 5, a 7-Tesla system would provide a cooling capacity of at best 1200 BTU per hour per pound of Gadolinium while a 2-Tesla system would operate at approximately 130 BTU per hour per pound of Gadolinium. Magnetic circuit efficiency was not determined but must be high (95-percent or better) in order for the magnetic heat pump performance to compete with conventional cooling systems. It is unlikely the magnetic heat pump investigated could approach the performance and compactness of the conventional cooling systems unless field strengths much greater than 7-Tesla are possible.

  12. STS-69 James S. Voss photographs fellow crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS-69 Payload Commander James S. Voss (left) captures the moment as fellow crew members Michael L. Gernhardt, mission specialist, and Kenneth D. Cockrell, pilot,, prepare to enter the Space Shuttle Endeavour at Launch Pad 39A. Assisting the astronauts into the orbiter for flight are the white room closeout crew, led by Travis Thompson (right).

  13. APOLLO SOYUZ TEST PROJECT [ASTP] CREWS ADDRESS PERSONNEL IN LCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Soviet and American crews for the July Apollo Soyuz Test Project [standing, center] addressed personnel assembled in a firing room at KSC on February 10. The crews for the joint manned space mission toured the Center during their three-day visit which also included inspection of ASTP equipment and facilities and a trip to Disney World.

  14. Hollow V₂O₅ Nanoassemblies for High-Performance Room-Temperature Hydrogen Sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Ting; Whang, Wha-Tzong; Chen, Chun-Hua

    2015-04-29

    Nanostructured oxides with characteristic morphologies are essential building blocks for high-performance gas-sensing devices. We describe the high-yield fabrication of a series of functionalized V2O5 nanoassemblies through a facile polyol approach with specific varieties of polyvinylpyrrolidone. The synthesized V2O5 nanoassemblies consisting of tiny one-dimensional nanoblocks with the absence of any extrinsic catalysts exhibit distinct hemispherical or spherical hollow morphologies and operate as room-temperature hydrogen sensors with remarkable sensitivities and responses.

  15. Anaerobic digestion in mesophilic and room temperature conditions: Digestion performance and soil-borne pathogen survival.

    PubMed

    Chen, Le; Jian, Shanshan; Bi, Jinhua; Li, Yunlong; Chang, Zhizhou; He, Jian; Ye, Xiaomei

    2016-05-01

    Tomato plant waste (TPW) was used as the feedstock of a batch anaerobic reactor to evaluate the effect of anaerobic digestion on Ralstonia solanacearum and Phytophthora capsici survival. Batch experiments were carried out for TS (total solid) concentrations of 2%, 4% and 6% respectively, at mesophilic (37±1°C) and room (20-25°C) temperatures. Results showed that higher digestion performance was achieved under mesophilic digestion temperature and lower TS concentration conditions. The biogas production ranged from 71 to 416L/kg VS (volatile solids). The inactivation of anaerobic digestion tended to increase as digestion performance improved. The maximum log copies reduction of R. solanacearum and P. capsici detected by quantitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction) were 3.80 and 4.08 respectively in reactors with 4% TS concentration at mesophilic temperatures. However, both in mesophilic and room temperature conditions, the lowest reduction of R. solanacearum was found in the reactors with 6% TS concentration, which possessed the highest VFA (volatile fatty acid) concentration. These findings indicated that simple accumulation of VFAs failed to restrain R. solanacearum effectively, although the VFAs were considered poisonous. P. capsici was nearly completely dead under all conditions. Based on the digestion performance and the pathogen survival rate, a model was established to evaluate the digestate biosafety.

  16. Commercial Crew Program Crew Safety Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassberg, Nathan; Stover, Billy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to explain to our international partners (ESA and JAXA) how NASA is implementing crew safety onto our commercial partners under the Commercial Crew Program. It will show them the overall strategy of 1) how crew safety boundaries have been established; 2) how Human Rating requirements have been flown down into programmatic requirements and over into contracts and partner requirements; 3) how CCP SMA has assessed CCP Certification and CoFR strategies against Shuttle baselines; 4) Discuss how Risk Based Assessment (RBA) and Shared Assurance is used to accomplish these strategies.

  17. Feasibility Assessment of Performing Surgery in a Deployable Medical System Operating Room

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    instance, frequent hand washing has been shown to significantly lessen the incidence of nosocomial infections . In addition, improved operating room...Room Nurse : A registered nurse who works in an operating room. Responsible for the clinical and technical knowledge of both scrub and circulating...risk management. 26 Criteria included the following: noise exposure, nosocomial infections , environmental controls, air exchanges, and electrical

  18. Benefits of Advanced Control Room Technologies: Phase One Upgrades to the HSSL, Research Plan, and Performance Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Le Blanc, Katya; Joe, Jeffrey; Rice, Brandon; Ulrich, Thomas; Boring, Ronald

    2015-05-01

    Control Room modernization is an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. None of the 99 currently operating commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. has completed a full-scale control room modernization to date. A full-scale modernization might, for example, entail replacement of all analog panels with digital workstations. Such modernizations have been undertaken successfully in upgrades in Europe and Asia, but the U.S. has yet to undertake a control room upgrade of this magnitude. Instead, nuclear power plant main control rooms for the existing commercial reactor fleet remain significantly analog, with only limited digital modernizations. Previous research under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program has helped establish a systematic process for control room upgrades that support the transition to a hybrid control room. While the guidance developed to date helps streamline the process of modernization and reduce costs and uncertainty associated with introducing digital control technologies into an existing control room, these upgrades do not achieve the full potential of newer technologies that might otherwise enhance plant and operator performance. The aim of the control room benefits research is to identify previously overlooked benefits of modernization, identify candidate technologies that may facilitate such benefits, and demonstrate these technologies through human factors research. This report describes the initial upgrades to the HSSL and outlines the methodology for a pilot test of the HSSL configuration.

  19. 78 FR 28275 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... hypobaric chamber training for crew and space flight participants to experience and demonstrate knowledge of... Federal Aviation Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Safety Approval Performance...), FAA Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST), 800 Independence Avenue SW., Room 331,...

  20. Shared Problem Models and Crew Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The importance of crew decision making to aviation safety has been well established through NTSB accident analyses: Crew judgment and decision making have been cited as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents in commercial air transport, general aviation, and military aviation. Yet the bulk of research on decision making has not proven helpful in improving the quality of decisions in the cockpit. One reason is that traditional analytic decision models are inappropriate to the dynamic complex nature of cockpit decision making and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions. A new model of dynamic naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove more useful for training or aiding cockpit decision making. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulation and National Transportation Safety Board accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation and reflect the crew's metacognitive skill. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication contributes to performance because it assures that all crew members have essential information, but it also regulates and coordinates crew actions and is the medium of collective thinking in response to a problem. This presentation will examine the relation between communication that serves to build performance. Implications of these findings for crew training will be discussed.

  1. 26 CFR 31.3121(o)-1 - Crew leader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crew leader. 31.3121(o)-1 Section 31.3121(o)-1... Contributions Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(o)-1 Crew leader. The term “crew leader” means an individual who furnishes individuals to perform agricultural labor...

  2. Record performance of electrical injection sub-wavelength metallic-cavity semiconductor lasers at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Ding, K; Hill, M T; Liu, Z C; Yin, L J; van Veldhoven, P J; Ning, C Z

    2013-02-25

    We demonstrate a continuous wave (CW) sub-wavelength metallic-cavity semiconductor laser with electrical injection at room temperature (RT). Our metal-cavity laser with a cavity volume of 0.67λ3 (λ = 1591 nm) shows a linewidth of 0.5 nm at RT, which corresponds to a Q-value of 3182 compared to 235 of the cavity Q, the highest Q under lasing condition for RT CW operation of any sub-wavelength metallic-cavity laser. Such record performance provides convincing evidences of the feasibility of RT CW sub-wavelength metallic-cavity lasers, thus opening a wide range of practical possibilities of novel nanophotonic devices based on metal-semiconductor structures.

  3. Performance assessment of an RFID system for automatic surgical sponge detection in a surgery room.

    PubMed

    Dinis, H; Zamith, M; Mendes, P M

    2015-01-01

    A retained surgical instrument is a frequent incident in medical surgery rooms all around the world, despite being considered an avoidable mistake. Hence, an automatic detection solution of the retained surgical instrument is desirable. In this paper, the use of millimeter waves at the 60 GHz band for surgical material RFID purposes is evaluated. An experimental procedure to assess the suitability of this frequency range for short distance communications with multiple obstacles was performed. Furthermore, an antenna suitable to be incorporated in surgical materials, such as sponges, is presented. The antenna's operation characteristics are evaluated as to determine if it is adequate for the studied application over the given frequency range, and under different operating conditions, such as varying sponge water content.

  4. An Analysis of Log Raft Open Water Performance and Crew Capability to Move Megaliths Pre-classic Olmec Used for Colossal Head Sculptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazell, Leslie C.

    2013-06-01

    In Mesoamerica, Preclassic Olmec society used large stones for monumental head sculptures, some of which weighed over 20 tonnes. These megaliths were retrieved from the Tuxtla Mountains and transported a distance of at least 80 km to their principal centre at San Lorenzo. The methods and routes used are uncertain, but water-based routes using rafts have been considered the more likely strategy. Of two watercraft types proposed, a log raft configuration has been more favoured. This research examines the possibility that rafts were used and considers structural viability and as the primary motive force, human physiological capabilities. Analyses were undertaken of both raft and crew and their combined performance under these loads. Maritime and meteorological factors found in the Gulf of Mexico were also applied to technological parameters. These analyses show that a log raft configuration would not have been a viable means to move such highly valued stones upstream on rivers, nor over open water.

  5. STS-109 Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Footage shows the crew of STS-109 (Commander Scott Altman, Pilot Duane Carey, Payload Commander John Grunsfeld, and Mission Specialists Nancy Currie, James Newman, Richard Linnehan, and Michael Massimino) during various parts of their training. Scenes show the crew's photo session, Post Landing Egress practice, training in Dome Simulator, Extravehicular Activity Training in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), and using the Virtual Reality Laboratory Robotic Arm. The crew is also seen tasting food as they choose their menus for on-orbit meals.

  6. Apollo experience report: Crew station integration. Volume 1: Crew station design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, L. D.; Nussman, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    An overview of the evolution of the design and development of the Apollo command module and lunar module crew stations is given, with emphasis placed on the period from 1964 to 1969. The organizational planning, engineering techniques, and documentation involved are described, and a detailed chronology of the meetings, reviews, and exercises is presented. Crew station anomalies for the Apollo 7 to 11 missions are discussed, and recommendations for the solution of recurring problems of crew station acoustics, instrument glass failure, and caution and warning system performance are presented. Photographs of the various crew station configurations are also provided.

  7. Wireless Crew Communication Feasibility Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archer, Ronald D.; Romero, Andy; Juge, David

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing discussions with crew currently onboard the ISS as well as the crew debriefs from completed ISS missions indicate that issues associated with the lack of wireless crew communication results in increased crew task completion times and lower productivity, creates cable management issues, and increases crew frustration.

  8. Effects of Shift Work on Cognitive Performance, Sleep Quality, and Sleepiness among Petrochemical Control Room Operators

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Reza; Haidarimoghadam, Rashid; Golmohamadi, Rostam; Soltanian, Alireza; Zoghipaydar, Mohamad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is associated with both sleepiness and reduced performance. The aim of this study was to examine cognitive performance, sleepiness, and sleep quality among petrochemical control room shift workers. Sixty shift workers participated in this study. Cognitive performance was evaluated using a number of objective tests, including continuous performance test, n-back test, and simple reaction time test; sleepiness was measured using the subjective Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS); and sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. ANCOVA, t-test, and repeated-measures ANOVA were applied for statistical analyses, and the significance level was set at p < 0.05. All variables related to cognitive performance, except for omission error, significantly decreased at the end of both day and night shifts (p < 0.0001). There were also significant differences between the day and night shifts in terms of the variables of omission error (p < 0.027) and commission error (p < 0.036). A significant difference was also observed between daily and nightly trends of sleepiness (p < 0.0001) so that sleepiness was higher for the night shift. Participants had low sleep quality on both day and night shifts, and there were significant differences between the day and night shifts in terms of subjective sleep quality and quantity (p < 0.01). Long working hours per shift result in fatigue, irregularities in the circadian rhythm and the cycle of sleep, induced cognitive performance decline at the end of both day and night shifts, and increased sleepiness in night shift. It, thus, seems necessary to take ergonomic measures such as planning for more appropriate shift work and reducing working hours. PMID:27103934

  9. STS-92 Meal - Suit up - Depart O&C - Launch Discovery On Orbit - Landing - Crew Egress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The video begins with the introduction of the crew of Space Shuttle Discovery on STS-92, at their customary pre-flight meal. The crew consists of Commander Brian Duffy, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists Leroy Chiao, William McArthur, Peter "Jeff" Wisoff, Michael Lopez-Alegria, and Koichi Wakata. The introduction and suit-up of the astronauts, and their departure in the Astrovan are shown at a quick pace. The video shows in detail the seating of the crew and each astronaut's final preparations in the White Room prior to boarding. Views of Discovery's night launch include: SLF Convoy, Beach Tracker, VAB, Pad Perimeter, Tower-1, UCS-15, Press Site, UCS-23, OTV-61, OTV-70, OTV-71, and the In-Cabin Ascent Camera. While in orbit, the Discovery orbiter docks with the International Space Station (ISS). The docking is shown in a series of still images. The video includes clips from four extravehicular activities (EVAs). The crew members who performed the EVAs comment on them while speaking to Mission Control. During the EVAs, the Z1 Truss and an antenna are attached to the ISS. The crew members on the fourth EVA test jet packs. Views of landing include: TV-1, TV-2, TV-3, LRO-1, and HUD.

  10. Considerations for Crew Rescue from the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, K.

    The design and development of crew emergency response systems, particularly to provide an unplanned emergency return to earth capability, requires an understanding of crew performance changes in space. The combined effects of psychological and physiological adaptation during long-duration missions will have a significant effect on crew performance in the unpredictable and potentially life threatening conditions of an emergency return to earth. It is therefore important that the systems to be developed for emergency egress address these challenges through an integrated program to produce optimum productivity and safety in times of utmost stress.

  11. STS-47 Crew Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The crew of STS-47, Commander Robert L. Gibson, Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Payload Commander Mark C. Lee, Mission Specialists N. Jan Davis, Jay Apt, and Mae C. Jemison, and Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri answer questions from the press about the upcoming Endeavour mission and the crew's personal views of the mission.

  12. Crew Earth Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runco, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Crew Earth Observations (CEO) takes advantage of the crew in space to observe and photograph natural and human-made changes on Earth. The photographs record the Earth's surface changes over time, along with dynamic events such as storms, floods, fires and volcanic eruptions. These images provide researchers on Earth with key data to better understand the planet.

  13. Commercial Crew Medical Ops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbaugh, Randall; Cole, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Provide commercial partners with: center insight into NASA spaceflight medical experience center; information relative to both nominal and emergency care of the astronaut crew at landing site center; a basis for developing and sharing expertise in space medical factors associated with returning crew.

  14. Ambient Light Intensity, Actigraphy, Sleep and Respiration, Circadian Temperature and Melatonin Rhythms and Daytime Performance of Crew Members During Space Flight on STS-90 and STS-95 Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, Charles A.; Dijk, D.-J.; Neri, D. F.; Hughes, R. J.; Ronda, J. M.; Wyatt, J. K.; West, J. B.; Prisk, G. K.; Elliott, A. R.; Young, L. R.

    1999-01-01

    Sleep disruption and associated waking sleepiness and fatigue are common during space flight. A survey of 58 crew members from nine space shuttle missions revealed that most suffered from sleep disruption, and reportedly slept an average of only 6.1 hours per day of flight as compared to an average of 7.9 hours per day on the ground. Nineteen percent of crewmembers on single shift missions and 50 percent of the crewmembers in dual shift operations reported sleeping pill usage (benzodiazepines) during their missions. Benzodiazepines are effective as hypnotics, however, not without adverse side effects including carryover sedation and performance impairment, anterograde amnesia, and alterations in sleep EEG. Our preliminary ground-based data suggest that pre-sleep administration of 0.3 mg of the pineal hormone melatonin may have the acute hypnotic properties needed for treating the sleep disruption of space flight without producing the adverse side effects associated with benzodiazepines. We hypothesize that pre-sleep administration of melatonin will result in decreased sleep latency, reduced nocturnal sleep disruption, improved sleep efficiency, and enhanced next-day alertness and cognitive performance both in ground-based simulations and during the space shuttle missions. Specifically, we have carried out experiments in which: (1) ambient light intensity aboard the space shuttle is assessed during flight; (2) the impact of space flight on sleep (assessed polysomnographically and actigraphically), respiration during sleep, circadian temperature and melatonin rhythms, waking neurobehavioral alertness and performance is assessed in crew members of the Neurolab and STS-95 missions; (3) the effectiveness of melatonin as a hypnotic is assessed independently of its effects on the phase of the endogenous circadian pacemaker in ground-based studies, using a powerful experimental model of the dyssomnia of space flight; (4) the effectiveness of melatonin as a hypnotic is

  15. STS-88 crew goes through Crew Equipment Interface Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Inside the payload bay of Space Shuttle orbiter Endeavour, workers and STS-88 crew members on a movable work platform or bucket move closer to the rear of the orbiter's crew compartment. While Endeavour is being prepared for flight inside Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 1, the STS-88 crew members are participating in a Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT) to familiarize themselves with the orbiter's midbody and crew compartments. A KSC worker (left) maneuvers the platform to give Mission Specialists Jerry L. Ross and James H. Newman (right) a closer look. Looking on is Wayne Wedlake of United Space Alliance at Johnson Space Center. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 3, 1998, STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). The primary payload is the Unity connecting module which will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module, expected to be already on orbit after a November launch from Russia. After the mating, Ross and Newman are scheduled to perform three spacewalks to connect power, data and utility lines and install exterior equipment. The first major U.S.-built component of ISS, Unity will serve as a connecting passageway to living and working areas of the space station. Unity has two attached pressurized mating adapters (PMAs) and one stowage rack installed inside. PMA-1 provides the permanent connection point between Unity and Zarya; PMA-2 will serve as a Space Shuttle docking port. Zarya is a self-supporting active vehicle, providing propulsive control capability and power during the early assembly stages. It also has fuel storage capability.

  16. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Operator Performance Metrics for Control Room Modernization: A Practical Guide for Early Design Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Boring; Roger Lew; Thomas Ulrich; Jeffrey Joe

    2014-03-01

    As control rooms are modernized with new digital systems at nuclear power plants, it is necessary to evaluate the operator performance using these systems as part of a verification and validation process. There are no standard, predefined metrics available for assessing what is satisfactory operator interaction with new systems, especially during the early design stages of a new system. This report identifies the process and metrics for evaluating human system interfaces as part of control room modernization. The report includes background information on design and evaluation, a thorough discussion of human performance measures, and a practical example of how the process and metrics have been used as part of a turbine control system upgrade during the formative stages of design. The process and metrics are geared toward generalizability to other applications and serve as a template for utilities undertaking their own control room modernization activities.

  17. Crew Transportation Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitler, Pamela S. (Compiler); Mango, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Commercial Crew Program (CCP) has been chartered to facilitate the development of a United States (U.S.) commercial crew space transportation capability with the goal of achieving safe, reliable, and cost effective access to and from low Earth orbit (LEO) and the International Space Station (ISS) as soon as possible. Once the capability is matured and is available to the Government and other customers, NASA expects to purchase commercial services to meet its ISS crew rotation and emergency return objectives.

  18. STS-111 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor on June 6, 2002, these four astronauts comprised the prime crew for NASA's STS-111 mission. Astronaut Kenneth D. Cockrell (front right) was mission commander, and astronaut Paul S. Lockhart (front left) was pilot. Astronauts Philippe Perrin (rear left), representing the French Space Agency, and Franklin R. Chang-Diaz were mission specialists assigned to extravehicular activity (EVA) work on the International Space Station (ISS). In addition to the delivery and installation of the Mobile Base System (MBS), this crew dropped off the Expedition Five crew members at the orbital outpost, and brought back the Expedition Four trio at mission's end.

  19. STS-63 crew insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Designed by the crew members, the crew patch depicts the Orbiter maneuving to rendezvous with Russia's Space Station Mir. The name is printed in Cyrillic on the side of the station. Visible in the Orbiter's payload bay are the commercial space laboratory Spacehab and the Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) satellite which are major payloads on the flight. The six points on the rising sun and the three stars are symbolic of the mission's Space Transportation System (STS) numerical designation. Flags of the United States and Russia at the bottom of the patch symbolize the cooperative operations of this mission. The crew will be flying aboard the space shuttle Discovery.

  20. STS-121 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    These seven astronauts take a break from training to pose for the STS-121 crew portrait. From the left are mission specialists Stephanie D. Wilson, and Michael E. Fossum, Commander Steven W. Lindsey, mission specialist Piers J. Sellers, pilot Mark E. Kelly; European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut and mission specialist Thomas Reiter of Germany; and mission specialist Lisa M. Nowak. The crew members are attired in training versions of their shuttle launch and entry suit. The crew, first ever to launch on Independence Day, tested new equipment and procedures to improve shuttle safety, as well as delivered supplies and made repairs to the space station.

  1. Habitability Designs for Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    NASA's space human factors team is contributing to the habitability of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), which will take crews to low Earth orbit, and dock there with additional vehicles to go on to the moon's surface. They developed a task analysis for operations and for self-sustenance (sleeping, eating, hygiene), and estimated the volumes required for performing the various tasks and for the associated equipment, tools and supplies. Rough volumetric mockups were built for crew evaluations. Trade studies were performed to determine the size and location of windows. The habitability analysis also contributes to developing concepts of operations by identifying constraints on crew time. Recently completed studies provided stowage concepts, tools for assessing lighting constraints, and approaches to medical procedure development compatible with the tight space and absence of gravity. New work will be initiated to analyze design concepts and verify that equipment and layouts do meet requirements.

  2. Advanced crew procedures development techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.; Mangiaracina, A. A.; Mcgavern, J. L.; Spangler, M. C.; Tatum, I. C.

    1975-01-01

    The development of an operational computer program, the Procedures and Performance Program (PPP), is reported which provides a procedures recording and crew/vehicle performance monitoring capability. The PPP provides real time CRT displays and postrun hardcopy of procedures, difference procedures, performance, performance evaluation, and training script/training status data. During post-run, the program is designed to support evaluation through the reconstruction of displays to any point in time. A permanent record of the simulation exercise can be obtained via hardcopy output of the display data, and via magnetic tape transfer to the Generalized Documentation Processor (GDP). Reference procedures data may be transferred from the GDP to the PPP.

  3. Crew factors in the aerospace workplace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Foushee, H. C.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of technological change in the aerospace workplace on pilot performance are discussed. Attention is given to individual and physiological problems, crew and interpersonal problems, environmental and task problems, organization and management problems, training and intervention problems. A philosophy and conceptual framework for conducting research on these problems are presented and two aerospace studies are examined which investigated: (1) the effect of leader personality on crew effectiveness and (2) the working undersea habitat known as Aquarius.

  4. Crew Transportation Operations Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  5. Effects of Above Real Time Training (ARTT) On Individual Skills and Contributions to Crew/Team Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Syed Firasat; Khan, M. Javed; Rossi, Marcia J.; Crane, Peter; Guckenberger, Dutch; Bageon, Kellye

    2001-01-01

    Above Real Time Training (ARTT) is the training acquired on a real time simulator when it is modified to present events at a faster pace than normal. The experiments on training of pilots performed by NASA engineers and others have indicated that real time training (RTT) reinforced with ARTT would offer an effective training strategy for such tasks which require significant effort at time and workload management. A study was conducted to find how ARTT and RTT complement each other for training of novice pilot-navigator teams to fly on a required route. In the experiment, each of the participating pilot-navigator teams was required to conduct simulator flights on a prescribed two-legged ground track while maintaining required air speed and altitude. At any instant in a flight, the distance between the actual spatial point location of the airplane and the required spatial point was used as a measure of deviation from the required route. A smaller deviation represented better performance. Over a segment of flight or over complete flight, an average value of the deviation represented consolidated performance. The deviations were computed from the information on latitude, longitude, and altitude. In the combined ARTT and RTT program, ARTT at intermediate training intervals was beneficial in improving the real time performance of the trainees. It was observed that the team interaction between pilot and navigator resulted in maintaining high motivation and active participation throughout the training program.

  6. The Effect of MOPP4 on M198 Howitzer Crew Performance. Volume 2. Task Times for Fire Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    Human Engineering Laboratory (HEL) was testing the utility of a prinier rack located about two feet from the bi cech . Another complication is that... Thomas , Reliability and Validity Assessment of a Taxonomy for Predicting Relative Stressor Effects on Human Task Performance, Technical Report 5060-1

  7. NEEMO 14: Evaluation of Human Performance for Rover, Cargo Lander, Crew Lander, and Exploration Tasks in Simulated Partial Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    The ultimate success of future human space exploration missions is dependent on the ability to perform extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks effectively, efficiently, and safely, whether those tasks represent a nominal mode of operation or a contingency capability. To optimize EVA systems for the best human performance, it is critical to study the effects of varying key factors such as suit center of gravity (CG), suit mass, and gravity level. During the 2-week NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 14 mission, four crewmembers performed a series of EVA tasks under different simulated EVA suit configurations and used full-scale mockups of a Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV) rover and lander. NEEMO is an underwater spaceflight analog that allows a true mission-like operational environment and uses buoyancy effects and added weight to simulate different gravity levels. Quantitative and qualitative data collected during NEEMO 14, as well as from spacesuit tests in parabolic flight and with overhead suspension, are being used to directly inform ongoing hardware and operations concept development of the SEV, exploration EVA systems, and future EVA suits. OBJECTIVE: To compare human performance across different weight and CG configurations. METHODS: Four subjects were weighed out to simulate reduced gravity and wore either a specially designed rig to allow adjustment of CG or a PLSS mockup. Subjects completed tasks including level ambulation, incline/decline ambulation, standing from the kneeling and prone position, picking up objects, shoveling, ladder climbing, incapacitated crewmember handling, and small and large payload transfer. Subjective compensation, exertion, task acceptability, and duration data as well as photo and video were collected. RESULTS: There appear to be interactions between CG, weight, and task. CGs nearest the subject s natural CG are the most predictable in terms of acceptable performance across tasks. Future research should focus on

  8. Contamination control of the space shuttle Orbiter crew compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartelson, Donald W.

    1986-01-01

    Effective contamination control as applied to manned space flight environments is a discipline characterized and controlled by many parameters. An introduction is given to issues involving Orbiter crew compartment contamination control. An effective ground processing contamination control program is an essential building block to a successful shuttle mission. Personnel are required to don cleanroom-grade clothing ensembles before entering the crew compartment and follow cleanroom rules and regulations. Prior to crew compartment entry, materials and equipment must be checked by an orbiter integrity clerk stationed outside the white-room entrance for compliance to program requirements. Analysis and source identification of crew compartment debris studies have been going on for two years. The objective of these studies is to determine and identify particulate generating materials and activities in the crew compartment. Results show a wide spectrum of many different types of materials. When source identification is made, corrective action is implemented to minimize or curtail further contaminate generation.

  9. Expedition Seven Crew Members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This crew portrait of Expedition Seven, Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven mission commander (left), and Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition Seven NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer (right) was taken while in training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. Destined for the International Space Station (ISS), the two-man crew launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on April 26, 2003. aboard a Soyez TMA-1 spacecraft.

  10. The effects of bed rest on crew performance during simulated shuttle reentry. Volume 1: Study overview and physiological results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, A.; Vykukal, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    A centrifuge study was carried out to measure physiological stress and control task performance during simulated space shuttle orbiter reentry. Jet pilots were tested with, and without, anti-g-suit protection. The pilots were exposed to simulated space shuttle reentry acceleration profiles before, and after, ten days of complete bed rest, which produced physiological deconditioning similar to that resulting from prolonged exposure to orbital zero g. Pilot performance in selected control tasks was determined during simulated reentry, and before and after each simulation. Physiological stress during reentry was determined by monitoring heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration rate. Study results indicate: (1) heart rate increased during the simulated reentry when no g protection was given, and remained at or below pre-bed rest values when g-suits were used; (2) pilots preferred the use of g-suits to muscular contraction for control of vision tunneling and grayout during reentry; (3) prolonged bed rest did not alter blood pressure or respiration rate during reentry, but the peak reentry acceleration level did; and (4) pilot performance was not affected by prolonged bed rest or simulated reentry.

  11. Cabin crew stress factors examined.

    PubMed

    Barayan, O S

    1991-05-01

    The impact of reduced cockpit crew on the cabin crew in commercial airlines is examined. One hundred cabin crew members participated in a study to determine what stressors are present in contemporary transport aircraft, the extent of differences in rating context-related and task-related stressors, and the effect of peak versus normal periods of duty time on stress factors. Results indicate that under peak period conditions, context-related factors are more stressful than task-related factors. Recommendations to alleviate cabin crew stress factors include training to maximize crew knowledge and abilities, elevate cabin crew to the same status as cockpit crew, improve the cabin crew certification program, and expose cabin crew to cockpit crew procedures to foster better communication and enhance safety.

  12. STS-88 crew goes through Crew Equipment Interface Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Inside the payload bay of orbiter Endeavour in the Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 1, STS-88 Mission Specialists Jerry L. Ross (left) and James H. Newman (right foreground) get a close look at the Orbiter Docking System. The STS-88 crew members are participating in a Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT), familiarizing themselves with the orbiter's midbody and crew compartments. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 3, 1998, STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). The primary payload is the Unity connecting module which will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module, expected to be already on orbit after a November launch from Russia. While on orbit during STS-88, Unity will be latched atop the Orbiter Docking System in the forward section of Endeavour's payload bay for the mating of the two modules. After the mating, Ross and Newman are scheduled to perform three spacewalks to connect power, data and utility lines and install exterior equipment. The first major U.S.-built component of ISS, Unity will serve as a connecting passageway to living and working areas of the space station. Unity has two attached pressurized mating adapters (PMAs) and one stowage rack installed inside. PMA-1 provides the permanent connection point between Unity and Zarya; PMA-2 will serve as a Space Shuttle docking port. Zarya is a self-supporting active vehicle, providing propulsive control capability and power during the early assembly stages. It also has fuel storage capability.

  13. STS-88 crew goes through Crew Equipment Interface Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Inside the payload bay of Space Shuttle orbiter Endeavour in Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 1, STS-88 Mission Specialists Jerry L. Ross (crouching at left) and James H. Newman (far right) get a close look at equipment. Looking on is Wayne Wedlake (far left), with United Space Alliance at Johnson Space Center, and a KSC worker (behind Newman) who is operating the movable work platform or bucket. The STS-88 crew members are participating in a Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT), familiarizing themselves with the orbiter's midbody and crew compartments. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 3, 1998, STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). The primary payload is the Unity connecting module which will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module, expected to be already on orbit after a November launch from Russia. After the mating, Ross and Newman are scheduled to perform three spacewalks to connect power, data and utility lines and install exterior equipment. The first major U.S.-built component of ISS, Unity will serve as a connecting passageway to living and working areas of the space station. Unity has two attached pressurized mating adapters (PMAs) and one stowage rack installed inside. PMA-1 provides the permanent connection point between Unity and Zarya; PMA-2 will serve as a Space Shuttle docking port. Zarya is a self-supporting active vehicle, providing propulsive control capability and power during the early assembly stages. It also has fuel storage capability.

  14. Hubble Space Telescope Crew Rescue Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlin, Teri L.; Canga, Michael A.; Cates, Grant R.

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of the 2003 Columbia accident, NASA removed the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) from the Space Shuttle manifest. Reasons cited included concerns that the risk of flying the mission would be too high. The HST SM4 was subsequently reinstated and flown as Space Transportation System (STS)-125 because of improvements in the ascent debris environment, the development of techniques for astronauts to perform on orbit repairs to damaged thermal protection, and the development of a strategy to provide a viable crew rescue capability. However, leading up to the launch of STS-125, the viability of the HST crew rescue capability was a recurring topic. For STS-125, there was a limited amount of time available to perform a crew rescue due to limited consumables (power, oxygen, etc.) available on the Orbiter. The success of crew rescue depended upon several factors, including when a problem was identified; when and what actions, such as powering down, were begun to conserve consumables; and where the Launch on Need (LON) vehicle was in its ground processing cycle. Crew rescue success also needed to be weighed against preserving the Orbiter s ability to have a landing option in case there was a problem with the LON vehicle. This paper focuses on quantifying the HST mission loss of crew rescue capability using Shuttle historical data and various power down strategies. Results from this effort supported NASA s decision to proceed with STS-125, which was successfully completed on May 24th 2009.

  15. LOFT Debriefings: An Analysis of Instructor Techniques and Crew Participation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismukes, R. Key; Jobe, Kimberly K.; McDonnell, Lori K.

    1997-01-01

    This study analyzes techniques instructors use to facilitate crew analysis and evaluation of their Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) performance. A rating instrument called the Debriefing Assessment Battery (DAB) was developed which enables raters to reliably assess instructor facilitation techniques and characterize crew participation. Thirty-six debriefing sessions conducted at five U.S. airlines were analyzed to determine the nature of instructor facilitation and crew participation. Ratings obtained using the DAB corresponded closely with descriptive measures of instructor and crew performance. The data provide empirical evidence that facilitation can be an effective tool for increasing the depth of crew participation and self-analysis of CRM performance. Instructor facilitation skill varied dramatically, suggesting a need for more concrete hands-on training in facilitation techniques. Crews were responsive but fell short of actively leading their own debriefings. Ways to improve debriefing effectiveness are suggested.

  16. NASA Crew Launch Vehicle Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    The US. Vision for Space Exploration, announced January 2004, outlines the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) strategic goals and objectives. These include: 1) Flying the Shuttle as safely as possible until its retirement, not later than 2010. 2) Bringing a new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) into service as soon as possible after Shuttle retirement. 3) Developing a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics at NASA, consistent with the redirection of the human spaceflight program to focus on exploration. 4) Completing the International Space Station (ISS) in a manner consistent with international partner commitments and the needs of human exploration. 5) Encouraging the pursuit of appropriate partnerships with the emerging commercial space sector. 6) Establishing a lunar return program having the maximum possible utility for later missions to Mars and other destinations. Following the confirmation of the new NASA Administrator in April 2005, the Agency commissioned a team of aerospace subject matter experts from government and industry to perform the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), which provided in-depth information for selecting the follow-on launch vehicle designs to enable these goals, The ESAS team analyzed a number of potential launch systems, with a focus on: (1) a human-rated launch vehicle for crew transport and (2) a heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) to carry cargo. After several months of intense study utilizing technical performance, budget, and schedule objectives, the results showed that the optimum architecture to meet the challenge of safe, reliable crew transport is a two-stage variant of the Space Shuttle propulsion system - utilizing the reusable Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) as the first stage, along with a new upper stage that uses a derivative of the RS-25 Space Shuttle Main Engine to deliver 25 metric tons to low-Earth orbit. The CEV that this new Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) lofts into space

  17. Crew productivity issues in long-duration space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholas, John M.; Foushee, H. Clayton; Ulschak, Francis L.

    1988-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests the importance of teamwork, coordination, and conflict resolution to the performance and survival of isolated, confined groups in high-technology environments. With the advent of long-duration space flight, group-related issues of crew functioning will take on added significance. This paper discusses the influence of crew roles, status, leadership, and norms on the performance of small, confined groups, and offers guidelines and suggestions regarding organizational design, crew selection, training, and team building for crew productivity and social well-being in long-duration spaceflight.

  18. Assured Crew Return Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, D. A.; Craig, J. W.; Drone, B.; Gerlach, R. H.; Williams, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The developmental status is discussed regarding the 'lifeboat' vehicle to enhance the safety of the crew on the Space Station Freedom (SSF). NASA's Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) is intended to provide a means for returning the SSF crew to earth at all times. The 'lifeboat' philosophy is the key to managing the development of the ACRV which further depends on matrixed support and total quality management for implementation. The risk of SSF mission scenarios are related to selected ACRV mission requirements, and the system and vehicle designs are related to these precepts. Four possible ACRV configurations are mentioned including the lifting-body, Apollo shape, Discoverer shape, and a new lift-to-drag concept. The SCRAM design concept is discussed in detail with attention to the 'lifeboat' philosophy and requirements for implementation.

  19. Airline Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The discovery that human error has caused many more airline crashes than mechanical malfunctions led to an increased emphasis on teamwork and coordination in airline flight training programs. Human factors research at Ames Research Center has produced two crew training programs directed toward more effective operations. Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) defines areas like decision making, workload distribution, communication skills, etc. as essential in addressing human error problems. In 1979, a workshop led to the implementation of the CRM program by United Airlines, and later other airlines. In Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT), crews fly missions in realistic simulators while instructors induce emergency situations requiring crew coordination. This is followed by a self critique. Ames Research Center continues its involvement with these programs.

  20. Assured crew return vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerimele, Christopher J. (Inventor); Ried, Robert C. (Inventor); Peterson, Wayne L. (Inventor); Zupp, George A., Jr. (Inventor); Stagnaro, Michael J. (Inventor); Ross, Brian P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A return vehicle is disclosed for use in returning a crew to Earth from low earth orbit in a safe and relatively cost effective manner. The return vehicle comprises a cylindrically-shaped crew compartment attached to the large diameter of a conical heat shield having a spherically rounded nose. On-board inertial navigation and cold gas control systems are used together with a de-orbit propulsion system to effect a landing near a preferred site on the surface of the Earth. State vectors and attitude data are loaded from the attached orbiting craft just prior to separation of the return vehicle.

  1. STS-118 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    These seven astronauts take a break from training to pose for the STS-118 crew portrait. Pictured from the left are astronauts Richard A. 'Rick' Mastracchio, mission specialist; Barbara R. Morgan, mission specialist; Charles O. Hobaugh, pilot; Scott J. Kelly, commander; Tracy E. Caldwell, Canadian Space Agency's Dafydd R. 'Dave' Williams, and Alvin Drew Jr., all mission specialists. The crew members are attired in training versions of their shuttle launch and entry suits. The main objective of the STS-118 mission was to install the fifth Starboard (S5) truss segment on the International Space Station (ISS).

  2. STS-71 crew insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The STS-71 crew patch design depicts the orbiter Atlantis in the process of the first international docking mission with the Russian Space Station Mir. The names of the 10 astronauts and cosmonauts who will fly aboard the orbiter are shown along the outer

  3. Crew Module Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redifer, Matthew E.

    2011-01-01

    The presentation presents an overview of the Crew Module development for the Pad Abort 1 flight test. The presentation describes the integration activity from the initial delivery of the primary structure through the installation of vehicle subsystems, then to flight test. A brief overview of flight test results is given.

  4. Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module Ascent Abort Coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Mark B.; Evans, Bryan M.; Merritt, Deborah S.; Falck, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is required to maintain continuous abort capability from lift off through destination arrival. This requirement is driven by the desire to provide the capability to safely return the crew to Earth after failure scenarios during the various phases of the mission. This paper addresses abort trajectory design considerations, concept of operations and guidance algorithm prototypes for the portion of the ascent trajectory following nominal jettison of the Launch Abort System (LAS) until safe orbit insertion. Factors such as abort system performance, crew load limits, natural environments, crew recovery, and vehicle element disposal were investigated to determine how to achieve continuous vehicle abort capability.

  5. Getting a Crew into Orbit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Despite the temporary setback in our country's crewed space exploration program, there will continue to be missions requiring crews to orbit Earth and beyond. Under the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, NASA should have its own heavy launch rocket and crew vehicle developed by 2016. Private companies will continue to explore space, as well. At the…

  6. STS-88 crew goes through Crew Equipment Interface Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Lowered on a movable work platform or bucket inside the payload bay of orbiter Endeavour, STS-88 Mission Specialists Jerry L. Ross (far right) and James H. Newman (second from right) get a close look at the Orbiter Docking System. At left is the bucket operator and Wayne Wedlake, with United Space Alliance at Johnson Space Center. The STS-88 crew members are in Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 1 to participate in a Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT) to familiarize themselves with the orbiter's midbody and crew compartments. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 3, 1998, STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). The primary payload is the Unity connecting module which will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module, expected to be already on orbit after a November launch from Russia. While on orbit during STS-88, Unity will be latched atop the Orbiter Docking System in the forward section of Endeavour's payload bay for the mating of the two modules. After the mating, Ross and Newman are scheduled to perform three spacewalks to connect power, data and utility lines and install exterior equipment. The first major U.S.-built component of ISS, Unity will serve as a connecting passageway to living and working areas of the space station. Unity has two attached pressurized mating adapters (PMAs) and one stowage rack installed inside. PMA-1 provides the permanent connection point between Unity and Zarya; PMA-2 will serve as a Space Shuttle docking port. Zarya is a self-supporting active vehicle, providing propulsive control capability and power during the early assembly stages. It also has fuel storage capability.

  7. STS-88 crew goes through Crew Equipment Interface Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    As the bucket operator (left) lowers them into the open payload bay of the orbiter Endeavour, STS-88 Mission Specialists Jerry L. Ross (second from left) and James H. Newman (second from right) do a sharp-edge inspection. At their right is Wayne Wedlake, with United Space Alliance at Johnson Space Center. Below them is the Orbiter Docking System, the remote manipulator system arm and a tunnel into the payload bay. The STS-88 crew members are participating in a Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT), familiarizing themselves with the orbiter's midbody and crew compartments. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 3, 1998, STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). The primary payload is the Unity connecting module which will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module, expected to be already on orbit after a November launch from Russia. After the mating, Ross and Newman are scheduled to perform three spacewalks to connect power, data and utility lines and install exterior equipment. The first major U.S.-built component of ISS, Unity will serve as a connecting passageway to living and working areas of the space station. Unity has two attached pressurized mating adapters (PMAs) and one stowage rack installed inside. PMA-1 provides the permanent connection point between Unity and Zarya; PMA-2 will serve as a Space Shuttle docking port. Zarya is a self-supporting active vehicle, providing propulsive control capability and power during the early assembly stages. It also has fuel storage capability.

  8. Room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong H.; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Williams, Spencer T.; Jen, Alex K.-Y.

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we describe a room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer (EEL) for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PHJ PVSCs). This EEL is composed of a bilayered fulleropyrrolidinium iodide (FPI)-polyethyleneimine (PEIE) and PC61BM, which yields a promising power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.7% with insignificant hysteresis. We reveal that PC61BM can serve as a surface modifier of FPI-PEIE to simultaneously facilitate the crystallization of perovskite and the charge extraction at FPI-PEIE/CH3NH3PbI3 interface. Furthermore, the FPI-PEIE can also tune the work function of ITO and dope PC61BM to promote the efficient electron transport between ITO and PC61BM. Based on the advantages of room-temperature processability and decent electrical property of FPI-PEIE/PC61BM EEL, a high-performance flexible PVSC with a PCE ~10% is eventually demonstrated. This study shows the potential of low-temperature processed organic EEL to replace transition metal oxide-based interlayers for highly printing compatible PVSCs with high-performance.In this work, we describe a room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer (EEL) for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PHJ PVSCs). This EEL is composed of a bilayered fulleropyrrolidinium iodide (FPI)-polyethyleneimine (PEIE) and PC61BM, which yields a promising power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.7% with insignificant hysteresis. We reveal that PC61BM can serve as a surface modifier of FPI-PEIE to simultaneously facilitate the crystallization of perovskite and the charge extraction at FPI-PEIE/CH3NH3PbI3 interface. Furthermore, the FPI-PEIE can also tune the work function of ITO and dope PC61BM to promote the efficient electron transport between ITO and PC61BM. Based on the advantages of room-temperature processability and decent electrical property of FPI-PEIE/PC61BM EEL, a high-performance flexible PVSC with a PCE ~10% is

  9. Halogen poisoning effect of Pt-TiO2 for formaldehyde catalytic oxidation performance at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Bei; Yu, Jiaguo; Ho, Wingkei

    2016-02-01

    Catalytic decomposition of formaldehyde (HCHO) at room temperature is an important method for HCHO removal. Pt-based catalysts are the optimal catalyst for HCHO decomposition at room temperature. However, the stability of this catalyst remains unexplored. In this study, Pt-TiO2 (Pt-P25) catalysts with and without adsorbed halogen ions (including F-, Cl-, Br-, and I-) were prepared through impregnation and ion modification. Pt-TiO2 samples with adsorbed halogen ions exhibited reduced catalytic activity for formaldehyde decomposition at room temperature compared with the Pt-TiO2 sample; the catalytic activity followed the order of F-Pt-P25, Cl-Pt-P25, Br-Pt-P25, and I-Pt-P25. Characterization results (including XRD, TEM, HRTEM, BET, XPS, and metal dispersion) showed that the adsorbed halogen ions can poison Pt nanoparticles (NPs), thereby reducing the HCHO oxidation activity of Pt-TiO2. The poison mechanism is due to the strong adsorption of halogen ions on the surface of Pt NPs. The adsorbed ions form coordination bonds with surface Pt atoms by transferring surplus electrons into the unoccupied 5d orbit of the Pt atom, thereby inhibiting oxygen adsorption and activation of the Pt NP surface. Moreover, deactivation rate increases with increasing diameter of halogen ions. This study provides new insights into the fabrication of high-performance Pt-based catalysts for indoor air purification.

  10. Improved spectrometer performance of cadmium selenide room temperature gamma-ray detector

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, M.; Burger, A.

    1986-02-01

    The surface preparation technology of CdSe crystals used for room temperature gamma-ray detection has been studied. X-ray fluorescense analysis of the surface of the crystal exposed to the Br-methanol etchant revealed the production of CdBr/sub 2/ compound as a result of the crystal-etchant reaction. The CdBr/sub 2/ ''poisoning'' causes high surface leakage currents increasing significantly the electronic noise of the device. A modified etching process has been developed in present work allowing to reduce greatly the surface leakage. Prominent reduction in the noise threshold with a simultaneous improvement of the energy resolution of CdSe detectors is reported.

  11. STS-112 Crew Interviews - Wolf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-112 Mission Specialist David Wolf is seen during this preflight interview, where he first answers questions on his career path and role models. Other questions cover mission goals, ISS (International Space Station) Expedition 5 spacecrew, crew training, the S1 Truss and its radiators, the MBS (Mobile Base Structure), his experience onboard Mir, and his EVAs (extravehicular activities) on the coming mission. The EVAs are the subject of several questions. Wolf discusses his crew members, and elsewhere discusses Pilot Pamela Melroy's role as an IV crew member during EVAs. In addition, Wolf answers questions on transfer operations, the SHIMMER experiment, and his thoughts on multinational crews and crew bonding.

  12. Sonic Boom Assessment for the Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, Marissa

    2007-01-01

    The Constellation Environmental Impact Statement (Cx EIS) requires that an assessment be performed on the environmental impact of sonic booms during the reentry of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). This included an analysis of current planned vehicle trajectories for the Crew Module (CM) and the Service Module (SM) debris and the determination of the potential impact to the overflown environment.

  13. Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW) database :

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, Valerie Ann-Peters; Ogilvie, Alistair B.; Bond, Cody R.

    2013-09-01

    To benchmark the current U.S. wind turbine fleet reliability performance and identify the major contributors to component-level failures and other downtime events, the Department of Energy funded the development of the Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW) database by Sandia National Laboratories. This report is the third annual Wind Plant Reliability Benchmark, to publically report on CREW findings for the wind industry. The CREW database uses both high resolution Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) data from operating plants and Strategic Power Systems ORAPWindª (Operational Reliability Analysis Program for Wind) data, which consist of downtime and reserve event records and daily summaries of various time categories for each turbine. Together, these data are used as inputs into CREWs reliability modeling. The results presented here include: the primary CREW Benchmark statistics (operational availability, utilization, capacity factor, mean time between events, and mean downtime); time accounting from an availability perspective; time accounting in terms of the combination of wind speed and generation levels; power curve analysis; and top system and component contributors to unavailability.

  14. STS-120 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    These seven astronauts took a break from training to pose for the STS-120 crew portrait. Pictured from the left are astronauts Scott E. Parazynski, Douglas H. Wheelock, Stephanie D. Wilson, all mission specialists; George D. Zamka, pilot; Pamela A. Melroy, commander; Daniel M. Tani, Expedition 16 flight engineer; and Paolo A. Nespoli, mission specialist representing the European Space Agency (ESA). The crew members were attired in training versions of their shuttle launch and entry suits. Tani joined Expedition 16 as flight engineer after launching to the International Space Station (ISS) and is scheduled to return home on mission STS-122. STS-120 launched October 23, 2007 with the main objectives of installing the U.S. Node 2, Harmony, and the relocation and deployment of the P6 truss to its permanent location.

  15. STS-67 crew insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Observation and remote exploration of the Universe in the ultraviolet wavelengths of light are the focus of the STS-67/ASTRO-2 mission, as depicted in the crew patch designed by the crew members. The insignia shows the ASTRO-2 telescopes in the Space Shuttle Endeavour's payload bay, orbiting high above Earth's atmosphere. The three sets of rays, diverging from the telescope on the patch atop the Instrument Pointing System (IPS), correspond to the three ASTRO-2 telescopes - the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT), The Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT), and the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (WUPPE). The telescopes are coaligned to simultaneously view the same astronomical object, as shown by the convergence of rays on the NASA symbol. This symbol also represents the excellence of the union of the NASA teams and the universality's in the exploration of the universe through astronomy. The celestial targets of ASTRO-2 include the observation of planets, stars and gala

  16. Room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong H; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Williams, Spencer T; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2015-11-07

    In this work, we describe a room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer (EEL) for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PHJ PVSCs). This EEL is composed of a bilayered fulleropyrrolidinium iodide (FPI)-polyethyleneimine (PEIE) and PC61BM, which yields a promising power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.7% with insignificant hysteresis. We reveal that PC61BM can serve as a surface modifier of FPI-PEIE to simultaneously facilitate the crystallization of perovskite and the charge extraction at FPI-PEIE/CH3NH3PbI3 interface. Furthermore, the FPI-PEIE can also tune the work function of ITO and dope PC61BM to promote the efficient electron transport between ITO and PC61BM. Based on the advantages of room-temperature processability and decent electrical property of FPI-PEIE/PC61BM EEL, a high-performance flexible PVSC with a PCE ∼10% is eventually demonstrated. This study shows the potential of low-temperature processed organic EEL to replace transition metal oxide-based interlayers for highly printing compatible PVSCs with high-performance.

  17. Room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jong H.; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Williams, Spencer T.; Jen, Alex K. -Y.

    2015-09-24

    Here in this work, we describe a room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer (EEL) for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PHJ PVSCs). This EEL is composed of a bilayered fulleropyrrolidinium iodide (FPI)-polyethyleneimine (PEIE) and PC61BM, which yields a promising power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.7% with insignificant hysteresis. We reveal that PC61BM can serve as a surface modifier of FPI-PEIE to simultaneously facilitate the crystallization of perovskite and the charge extraction at FPI-PEIE/CH3NH3PbI3 interface. Furthermore, the FPI-PEIE can also tune the work function of ITO and dope PC61BM to promote the efficient electron transport between ITO and PC61BM. Based on the advantages of room-temperature processability and decent electrical property of FPI-PEIE/PC61BM EEL, a high-performance flexible PVSC with a PCE ~10% is eventually demonstrated. Lastly, this study shows the potential of low-temperature processed organic EEL to replace transition metal oxide-based interlayers for highly printing compatible PVSCs with high-performance.

  18. Room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Jong H.; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Williams, Spencer T.; ...

    2015-09-24

    Here in this work, we describe a room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer (EEL) for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PHJ PVSCs). This EEL is composed of a bilayered fulleropyrrolidinium iodide (FPI)-polyethyleneimine (PEIE) and PC61BM, which yields a promising power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.7% with insignificant hysteresis. We reveal that PC61BM can serve as a surface modifier of FPI-PEIE to simultaneously facilitate the crystallization of perovskite and the charge extraction at FPI-PEIE/CH3NH3PbI3 interface. Furthermore, the FPI-PEIE can also tune the work function of ITO and dope PC61BM to promote the efficient electron transport between ITO and PC61BM. Basedmore » on the advantages of room-temperature processability and decent electrical property of FPI-PEIE/PC61BM EEL, a high-performance flexible PVSC with a PCE ~10% is eventually demonstrated. Lastly, this study shows the potential of low-temperature processed organic EEL to replace transition metal oxide-based interlayers for highly printing compatible PVSCs with high-performance.« less

  19. Crew Skills and Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Thomas; Burbank, Daniel C.; Eppler, Dean; Garrison, Robert; Harvey, Ralph; Hoffman, Paul; Schmitt, Harrison

    1998-01-01

    One of the major focus points for the workshop was the topic of crew skills and training necessary for the Mars surface mission. Discussions centered on the mix of scientific skills necessary to accomplish the proposed scientific goals, and the training environment that can bring the ground and flight teams to readiness. Subsequent discussion resulted in recommendations for specific steps to begin the process of training an experienced Mars exploration team.

  20. STS-112 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, HOUSTON, TEXAS -- (STS112-S-002) These five astronauts and cosmonaut take a break from training to pose for the STS-112 crew portrait. Astronauts Pamela A. Melroy and Jeffrey S. Ashby, pilot and commander respectively, are in the cen ter of the photo. The mission specialists are from left to right, astronauts Sandra H. Magnus, David A. Wolf and Piers J. Sellers, and cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin, who represents Rosaviakosmos.

  1. Flight Crew Health Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gullett, C. C.

    1970-01-01

    The health maintenance program for commercial flight crew personnel includes diet, weight control, and exercise to prevent heart disease development and disability grounding. The very high correlation between hypertension and overweight in cardiovascular diseases significantly influences the prognosis for a coronary prone individual and results in a high rejection rate of active military pilots applying for civilian jobs. In addition to physical fitness the major items stressed in pilot selection are: emotional maturity, glucose tolerance, and family health history.

  2. STS-99 Crew Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The STS-99 crew members designed the flight insignia for the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), the most ambitious Earth mapping mission to date. Two radar anternas, one located in the Shuttle bay and the other located on the end of a 60-meter deployable mast, was used during the mission to map Earth's features. The goal was to provide a 3-dimensional topographic map of the world's surface up to the Arctic and Antarctic Circles. In the patch, the clear portion of Earth illustrates the radar beams penetrating its cloudy atmosphere and the unique understanding of the home planet that is provided by space travel. The grid on Earth reflects the mapping character of the SRTM mission. The patch depicts the Space Shuttle Endeavour orbiting Earth in a star spangled universe. The rainbow along Earth's horizon resembles an orbital sunrise. The crew deems the bright colors of the rainbow as symbolic of the bright future ahead because of human beings' venturing into space. The crew of six launched aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor on February 11, 2000 and completed 222 hours of around the clock radar mapping gathering enough information to fill more than 20,000 CDs.

  3. Selecting pilots with crew resource management skills.

    PubMed

    Hedge, J W; Bruskiewicz, K T; Borman, W C; Hanson, M A; Logan, K K; Siem, F M

    2000-10-01

    For years, pilot selection has focused primarily on the identification of individuals with superior flying skills and abilities. More recently, the aviation community has become increasingly aware that successful completion of a flight or mission requires not only flying skills but the ability to work well in a crew situation. This project involved development and validation of a crew resource management (CRM) skills test for Air Force transport pilots. A significant relation was found between the CRM skills test and behavior-based ratings of aircraft commander CRM performance, and the implications of these findings for CRM-based selection and training are discussed.

  4. Expedition 3 Crew Interview: Frank Culbertson, Jr.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Expedition 3 Commander Frank Culbertson is seen being interviewed before leaving to become part of the third resident crew on the International Space Station (ISS). He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. He discusses his expectations for life on the ISS and the experiments he will be performing while on board. Culbertson gives details on the spacewalks that will take place during the STS-105 mission (the mission carrying the Expedition 3 crew up to the ISS) and the unloading operations for the Multipurpose Logistics Module.

  5. Expedition 3 Crew Interview: Vladimir Dezhurov

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Expedition 3 Pilot Vladimir Dezhurov is seen being interviewed before leaving to become part of the third resident crew on the International Space Station (ISS). He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. He discusses his expectations for life on the ISS and the experiments he will be performing while on board. Dezhurov gives details on the spacewalks that will take place during the STS-105 mission (the mission carrying the Expedition 3 crew up to the ISS) and the unloading operations for the Multipurpose Logistics Module.

  6. Expedition 3 Crew Interview: Mikhail Turin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Expedition 3 Flight Engineer Mikhail Turin is seen being interviewed before leaving to become part of the third resident crew on the International Space Station (ISS). He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. He discusses his expectations for life on the ISS and the experiments he will be performing while on board. Turin gives details on the spacewalks that will take place during the STS-105 mission (the mission carrying the Expedition 3 crew up to the ISS) and the unloading operations for the Multipurpose Logistics Module.

  7. Crew Management Processes Revitalize Patient Care

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, two physicians, former NASA astronauts, created LifeWings Partners LLC in Memphis, Tennessee and began using Crew Resource Management (CRM) techniques developed at Ames Research Center in the 1970s to help improve safety and efficiency at hospitals. According to the company, when hospitals follow LifeWings? training, they can see major improvements in a number of areas, including efficiency, employee satisfaction, operating room turnaround, patient advocacy, and overall patient outcomes. LifeWings has brought its CRM training to over 90 health care organizations and annual sales have remained close to $3 million since 2007.

  8. A Crew Exposure Study. Volume I. Offshore.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-15

    AD-Alil 178 A CREW EXPOSURE STUDY VOLUME I OFFSNORE(U) SOUTHWEST- 1/4 RESEARCH INST SAN ANTONIO TX ENGINEERING SCIENCES DIV U J ASTLEFORD ET AL. 5...Research Institute Division of Engineering Sciences 11. Contract or Grant No. P. 0. Drawer 28510 DOT-CG23-80-C-20015 San Antonio, Texas 78284 13. Type of...accumulated gas in gas compressor rooms as a result of fugitive emissions from the compressor and fuel gas engine . The accumulated information from this

  9. Behavioral characteristics of effective crew leaders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginnett, Robert C.

    1989-01-01

    The behaviors of effective versus less effective captains as they form and lead their crews in line operations are analyzed. The research examines real work groups in an actual organization with a specific and consequential task to perform and is based on a normative model of work group effectiveness. Selection of captains is outlined, as well as data collection over the course of six months of crew and cockpit observations including over 300 hours of direct crew observations and 110 hours of actual flight time. Common characteristics of the effective leaders as well as the deviations of the less effective are described, and organizational implications are assessed. The concept of 'shells' depicted as a series of concentric circles moving outward from the group's task execution at the center is introduced and discussed.

  10. Objective performance analysis of spherical microphone arrays for speech enhancement in rooms.

    PubMed

    Peled, Yotam; Rafaely, Boaz

    2012-09-01

    Reverberation and noise have a significant effect on the intelligibility of speech in rooms. The detection of clear speech in highly reverberant and noisy enclosures is an extremely difficult task. Recently, spherical microphone arrays have been studied for processing of sound fields in three-dimensions, with applications ranging from acoustic analysis to speech enhancement. This paper presents the derivation of a model that facilitates the prediction of spherical array configurations that guarantee an acceptable level of speech intelligibility in reverberant and noisy environments. A spherical microphone array is employed to generate a spatial filter that maximizes speech intelligibility according to an objective measure that combines the effects of both reverberation and noise. The spherical array beamformer is designed to enhance the speech signal while minimizing noise power and maintaining robustness over a wide frequency range. The paper includes simulation and experimental studies with a comparison to speech transmission index based analysis to provide initial validation of the model. Examples are presented in which the minimum number of microphones in a spherical array can be determined from environment conditions such as reverberation time, noise level, and distance of the array to the speech source.

  11. Design Considerations for a Crewed Mars Ascent Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Exploration architecture studies identified the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) as one of the largest "gear ratio" items in a crewed Mars mission. Because every kilogram of mass ascended from the Martian surface requires seven kilograms or more of ascent propellant, it is desirable for the MAV to be as small and lightweight as possible. Analysis identified four key factors that drive MAV sizing: 1) Number of crew: more crew members require more equipment-and a larger cabin diameter to hold that equipment-with direct implications to structural, thermal, propulsion, and power subsystem mass. 2) Which suit is worn during ascent: Extravehicular Activity (EVA) type suits are physically larger and heavier than Intravehicular Activity (IVA) type suits and because they are less flexible, EVA suits require more elbow-room to maneuver in and out of. An empty EVA suit takes up about as much cabin volume as a crew member. 3) How much time crew spends in the MAV: less than about 12 hours and the MAV can be considered a "taxi" with few provisions for crew comfort. However, if the crew spends more than 12 consecutive hours in the MAV, it begins to look like a Habitat requiring more crew comfort items. 4) How crew get into/out of the MAV: ingress/egress method drives structural mass (for example, EVA hatch vs. pressurized tunnel vs. suit port) as well as consumables mass for lost cabin atmosphere, and has profound impacts on surface element architecture. To minimize MAV cabin mass, the following is recommended: Limit MAV usage to 24 consecutive hours or less; discard EVA suits on the surface and ascend wearing IVA suits; Limit MAV functionality to ascent only, rather than dual-use ascent/habitat functions; and ingress/egress the MAV via a detachable tunnel to another pressurized surface asset.

  12. Endeavour's Crew Wakes to Song Contest Winner

    NASA Video Gallery

    The STS-134 crew members were awakened on the final day of their mission with the song “Sunrise Number 1,” performed by the band Stormy Mondays. This song was chosen in an online vote of the ge...

  13. Worldwide Spacecraft Crew Hatch History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The JSC Flight Safety Office has developed this compilation of historical information on spacecraft crew hatches to assist the Safety Tech Authority in the evaluation and analysis of worldwide spacecraft crew hatch design and performance. The document is prepared by SAIC s Gary Johnson, former NASA JSC S&MA Associate Director for Technical. Mr. Johnson s previous experience brings expert knowledge to assess the relevancy of data presented. He has experience with six (6) of the NASA spacecraft programs that are covered in this document: Apollo; Skylab; Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Space Shuttle, ISS and the Shuttle/Mir Program. Mr. Johnson is also intimately familiar with the JSC Design and Procedures Standard, JPR 8080.5, having been one of its original developers. The observations and findings are presented first by country and organized within each country section by program in chronological order of emergence. A host of reference sources used to augment the personal observations and comments of the author are named within the text and/or listed in the reference section of this document. Careful attention to the selection and inclusion of photos, drawings and diagrams is used to give visual association and clarity to the topic areas examined.

  14. Boost in room temperature thermoelectric performance of PbSe:Alx through band modification and low densification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayner, Chhatrasal; Sharma, Raghunandan; Das, Malay K.; Kar, Kamal K.

    2016-10-01

    Optimization of the transport properties of PbSe to maximize its thermoelectric performance at room temperature has been achieved through a combination of elemental doping and low densification. Al doped PbSe (PbSe:Alx; 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.06) with both lattice substitutional (Pb site) and interstitial occupation has been synthesized through solid state reaction. High Seebeck coefficient of ˜300 to 400 μV/K is noticed at 300 to 500 K. This, combined with the lower thermal conductivity of ˜1.20 W/m K, provides an improved ZT value as high as ˜0.67 at 300 K to the PbSe:Alx Also, by substituting Al in PbSe, maximum power factors of ˜20 to 26.6 μW/cm K2 at 310 K are produced. The high room temperature thermoelectric performance of PbSe:Alx has been attributed to the mix contribution of the Al impurity states and the low densification. The strategy may be utilized to cost effective development of the low working temperature thermoelectric devices.

  15. Performance Predictions for a Room Temperature, Ericsson Cycle, Magnetic Heat Pump.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    Performance CPM Cycles Per Minute GD Gadolinium KJ Kilojoules Conversion Constants (Work was done in English units and the following provides...PAS-82-11 1AINE THERMIAL HEAT PUMP PERFORMANCE RT 7. 0 TESI 00109 04IG, *I.- 2. W PLATE W ~I 6IIII. - 0.040 TEMP. NOT Em), r - s. MIXING TDU,7. 0.0 oa

  16. 46 CFR 190.20-25 - Washrooms and toilet rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Washrooms and toilet rooms. 190.20-25 Section 190.20-25... and toilet rooms. (a) There must be provided at least 1 toilet, 1 washbasin, and 1 shower or bathtub for each 8 members or portion thereof in the crew to be accommodated who do not occupy rooms to...

  17. STS-74 MS Jerry L. Ross in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    At Launch Pad 39A, Mission Specialist Jerry L. Ross is nearly ready to enter the Space Shuttle Atlantis, scheduled for liftoff at about 7:30 a.m. EST, Nov. 12. Johnson Space Center Lockheed suit technician Ray Villalobos (left) is one member of the white room closeout crew that helps Shuttle crews into the orbiter.

  18. STS-69 Mission Commander David M. Walker in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS-69 Mission Commander David M. Walker chats with white room closeout crew members Bob Saulnier (left), Regulo Villalobos and closeout crew leader Travis Thompson prior to entering the flight deck of the Space Shuttle Endeavour at Launch Pad 39A.

  19. Awareness and performance of blood transfusion standards in operating rooms of Shiraz hospitals in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Robati, R; Mirahmadi Nejad, E

    2015-01-01

    Background Assuring safety and survival of blood in vitro depends on anti-coagulation substances, blood bag characteristics, storage conditions, and transport of blood. Besides, careful selection and screening of donors as well as blood tests can minimize the transmission risk of blood-transmissible pathogens and optimize blood health. The aim of this study was to assay the level of knowledge and practices among anesthesia technicians on blood transfusion standards. Materials and Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed among 85 anesthesia technicians Shiraz, Iran throughout 2012 who were examined by census using blood transfusion questionnaires and checklists. The data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software. Results The obtained findings indicated that 32.44% of the technicians have corrected knowledge of blood transfusion standards; nevertheless, 73.84% have corrected performance. Conclusions The technicians mostly performed based on their habit and experience. However, their knowledge about blood transfusion and blood bag storage was low. PMID:26131349

  20. Crew appliance study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Viable crew appliance concepts were identified by means of a thorough literature search. Studies were made of the food management, personal hygiene, housekeeping, and off-duty habitability functions to determine which concepts best satisfy the Space Shuttle Orbiter and Modular Space Station mission requirements. Models of selected appliance concepts not currently included in the generalized environmental-thermal control and life support systems computer program were developed and validated. Development plans of selected concepts were generated for future reference. A shuttle freezer conceptual design was developed and a test support activity was provided for regenerative environmental control life support subsystems.

  1. Apollo 1 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Portrait of the Apollo 1 prime crew for first manned Apollo space flight. From left to right are: Edward H. White II, Virgil I. 'Gus' Grissom, and Roger B. Chaffee. On January 27, 1967 at 5:31 p.m. CST (6:31 local time) during a routine simulated launch test onboard the Apollo Saturn V Moon rocket, an electrical short circuit inside the Apollo Command Module ignited the pure oxygen environment and within a matter of seconds all three Apollo 1 crewmembers perished.

  2. STS-63 crew portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    With the United States and Russian flags in the background, five NASA astronauts and a Russian cosmonaut named to fly aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery for the the STS-63 mission pose for the flight crew portrait at JSC. Left to right (front row) are Janice E. Voss, mission specialist, Eileen M. Collins, pilot; James D. Wetherbee, mission commander; and Vladimir Titov of the Russian Space Agency, mission specialist. In the rear are Bernard A. Harris Jr., payload commander; and C. Michael Foale, mission specialist.

  3. STS-115 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These six astronauts take a break from training to pose for the STS-115 crew portrait. Astronauts Brent W. Jett, Jr. (right) and Christopher J. Ferguson, commander and pilot, respectively, flank the mission insignia. The mission specialists are, from left to right, astronauts Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper, Joseph R. (Joe) Tanner, Daniel C. Burbank, and Steven G. MacLean, who represents the Canadian Space Agency. This mission continued the assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) with the installation of the truss segments P3 and P4.

  4. STS-39 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The STS-39 crew portrait includes 7 astronauts. Pictured are Charles L. Veach, mission specialist 5; Michael L. Coats, commander; Gregory J. Harbaugh, mission specialist 2; Donald R. McMonagle, mission specialist 4; L. Blaine Hammond, pilot; Richard J. Hieb, mission specialist 3; and Guion S. Buford, Jr., mission specialist 1. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on April 28, 1991 at 7:33:14 am (EDT), STS-39 was a Department of Defense (DOD) mission. The primary unclassified payload included the Air Force Program 675 (AFP-675), the Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS), and the Shuttle Pallet Satellite II (SPAS II).

  5. Asteroid Crewed Segment Mission Lean Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gard, Joe; McDonald, Mark; Jermstad, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The next generation of human spaceflight missions presents numerous challenges to designers that must be addressed to produce a feasible concept. The specific challenges of designing an exploration mission utilizing the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft to carry astronauts beyond earth orbit to explore an asteroid stored in a distant retrograde orbit around the moon will be addressed. Mission designers must carefully balance competing constraints including cost, schedule, risk, and numerous spacecraft performance metrics including launch mass, nominal landed mass, abort landed mass, mission duration, consumable limits and many others. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission will be described along with results from the concurrent mission design trades that led to its formulation. While the trades presented are specific to this mission, the integrated process is applicable to any potential future mission. The following trades were critical in the mission formulation and will be described in detail: 1) crew size, 2) mission duration, 3) trajectory design, 4) docking vs grapple, 5) extravehicular activity tasks, 6) launch mass and integrated vehicle performance, 7) contingency performance, 8) crew consumables including food, clothing, oxygen, nitrogen and water, and 9) mission risk. The additional Orion functionality required to perform the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission and how it is incorporated while minimizing cost, schedule and mass impacts will be identified. Existing investments in the NASA technology portfolio were leveraged to provide the added functionality that will be beneficial to future exploration missions. Mission kits are utilized to augment Orion with the necessary functionality without introducing costly new requirements to the mature Orion spacecraft design effort. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission provides an exciting early mission for the Orion and SLS while providing a stepping stone to even more ambitious missions in the future.

  6. Space Station Freedom crew training.

    PubMed

    Bobko, K J; Gibson, E G; Maroney, S A; Muccio, J D

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the Space Station Freedom Program presents an array of new and enhanced challenges which need to be addressed en route to developing an effective and affordable infrastructure for crew training. Such an infrastructure is essential for the safety and success of the program. The three major challenges that affect crew training are the long lifetime of the program (thirty years), the interdependence of successive increments, and the participation of the three International Partners (Canada, European Space Agency, and Japan) and a myriad of experimenters. This paper addresses these major challenges as they drive the development of a crew training capability and the actual conduct of crew training.

  7. STS-69 Mission Specialist James H. Newman in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    At Launch Pad 39A, STS-69 Mission Specialist James H. Newman chats with white room closeout crew members Rene Arriens (far left), Travis Thompson and Bob Saulnier (right) prior to entering the Space Shuttle Endeavour.

  8. STS-79 Mission Specialist John Blaha in White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 Mission Specialist John E. Blaha shares a light moment with white room closeout crew members Rick Welty (No. 1) and Jim Davis (right), before entering the Space Shuttle Atlantis at Launch Pad 39A.

  9. STS-80 Mission Specialist Thomas Jones in White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-80 Mission Specialist Thomas D. Jones prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Columbia at Launch Pad 39B, with assistance from white room closeout crew members (from left) Rick Welty and Bob Saulnier.

  10. STS-79 Mission Specialist Thomas Akers in White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 Mission Specialist Thomas D. Akers shares a light moment with white room closeout crew members Rick Welty (left) and Travis Thompson, before entering the Space Shuttle Atlantis at Launch Pad 39A.

  11. STS-82 M.S. Steven Smith in White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-82 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Discovery at Launch Pad 39A, with the assistance of white room closeout crew members Dave Law, in front; Carlous Gillis, at left; and James Davis.

  12. STS-75 MS Jeffrey A. Hoffman in White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-75 Mission Specialist Jeffrey A. Hoffman prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Columbia at Launch Pad 39B with assistance from white room closeout crew members Rene Arriens (No. 5) and Bob Saulnier (No. 6).

  13. STS-80 Commander Kenneth D. Cockrell in White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-80 Commander Kenneth D. Cockrell prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Columbia at Launch Pad 39B, with assistance from white room closeout crew members (from left) Ray Villalobos, Troy Stewart and Jim Martin.

  14. STS-69 Pilot Kenneth D. Cockrell in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    At Launch Pad 39A, STS-69 Pilot Kenneth D. Cockrell is assisted into the Space Shuttle Endeavour by white room closeout crew members Regulo Villalobos (left), Travis Thompson and Bob Saulnier (right).

  15. STS-80 Mission Specialist Story Musgrave in White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-80 Mission Specialist Story Musgrave prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Columbia at Launch Pad 39B, with assistance from white room closeout crew members (from left) Rick Welty, Troy Stewart, Ray Villalobos and Bob Saulnier.

  16. STS-75 Pilot Scott Horowitz in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-75 Pilot Scott J. 'Doc' Horowitz (center) prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Columbia at Launch Pad 39B with assistance from white room closeout crew members Paul Arnold (left), Dave Law and Bob Saulnier.

  17. Facilitation techniques as predictors of crew participation in LOFT debriefings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonnell, L. K.

    1996-01-01

    Based on theories of adult learning and airline industry guidelines for Crew Resource Management (CRM), the stated objective during Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) debriefings is for instructor pilots (IP's) to facilitate crew self-analysis of performance. This study reviews 19 LOFT debriefings from two major U.S. airlines to examine the relationship between IP efforts at facilitation and associated characteristics of crew participation. A subjective rating scale called the Debriefing Assessment Battery was developed and utilized to evaluate the effectiveness of IP facilitation and the quality of crew participation. The results indicate that IP content, encouragement, and questioning techniques are highly and significantly correlated with, and can therefore predict, the degree and depth of crew participation.

  18. Decoupling effective Li+ ion conductivity from electrolyte viscosity for improved room-temperature cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giffin, Guinevere A.; Moretti, Arianna; Jeong, Sangsik; Passerini, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    Ionic liquids are attractive materials for alternative electrolytes to combat the safety issues associated with conventional organic carbonate-based electrolytes. However, the performance of ionic liquid-based cells is generally not competitive as the high viscosity and low conductivity limits the rate performance. The work presented here demonstrates that the drawbacks in terms of rate capability can be overcome through the use of the high lithium concentration Pyr12O1FTFSI0.6LiFTFSI0.4 electrolyte. Despite an order of magnitude difference in the conductivity and viscosity, this high concentration electrolyte outperforms the lithium-dilute electrolyte with the same components in terms of rate capability in Li metal/LFP cells and LTO/LFP cells. The results suggest that the effective Li ion transport in the concentrated electrolyte is higher than in the dilute solution.

  19. Reliable assessment of laparoscopic performance in the operating room using videotape analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lily; Hogle, Nancy J; Moore, Brianna B; Graham, Mark J; Sinanan, Mika N; Bailey, Robert; Fowler, Dennis L

    2007-06-01

    The Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills (GOALS) is a valid assessment tool for objectively evaluating the technical performance of laparoscopic skills in surgery residents. We hypothesized that GOALS would reliably differentiate between an experienced (expert) and an inexperienced (novice) laparoscopic surgeon (construct validity) based on a blinded videotape review of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy procedure. Ten board-certified surgeons actively engaged in the practice and teaching of laparoscopy reviewed and evaluated the videotaped operative performance of one novice and one expert laparoscopic surgeon using GOALS. Each reviewer recorded a score for both the expert and the novice videotape reviews in each of the 5 domains in GOALS (depth perception, bimanual dexterity, efficiency, tissue handling, and overall competence). The scores for the expert and the novice were compared and statistically analyzed using single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA). The expert scored significantly higher than the novice did in the domains of depth perception (p = .005), bimanual dexterity (p = .001), efficiency (p = .001), and overall competence ( p = .001). Interrater reliability for the reviewers of the novice tape was Cronbach alpha = .93 and the expert tape was Cronbach alpha = .87. There was no difference between the two for tissue handling. The Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills is a valid, objective assessment tool for evaluating technical surgical performance when used to blindly evaluate an intraoperative videotape recording of a laparoscopic procedure.

  20. STS-112 Crew Interviews: Yurchikhin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A preflight interview with mission specialist Fyodor Yurchikhin is presented. He worked for a long time in Energia in the Russian Mission Control Center (MCC). Yurchikhin discusses the main goal of the STS-112 flight, which is to install the Integrated Truss Assembly S1 (Starboard Side Thermal Radiator Truss) on the International Space Station. He also talks about the three space walks required to install the S1. After the installation of S1, work with the bolts and cameras are performed. Yurchikhin is involved in working with nitrogen and ammonia jumpers. He expresses the complexity of his work, but says that he and the other crew members are ready for the challenge.

  1. Deployable Crew Quarters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo

    2008-01-01

    The deployable crew quarters (DCQ) have been designed for the International Space Station (ISS). Each DCQ would be a relatively inexpensive, deployable boxlike structure that is designed to fit in a rack bay. It is to be occupied by one crewmember to provide privacy and sleeping functions for the crew. A DCQ comprises mostly hard panels, made of a lightweight honeycomb or matrix/fiber material, attached to each other by cloth hinges. Both faces of each panel are covered with a layer of Nomex cloth and noise-suppression material to provide noise isolation from ISS. On Earth, the unit is folded flat and attached to a rigid pallet for transport to the ISS. On the ISS, crewmembers unfold the unit and install it in place, attaching it to ISS structural members by use of soft cords (which also help to isolate noise and vibration). A few hard pieces of equipment (principally, a ventilator and a smoke detector) are shipped separately and installed in the DCQ unit by use of a system of holes, slots, and quarter-turn fasteners. Full-scale tests showed that the time required to install a DCQ unit amounts to tens of minutes. The basic DCQ design could be adapted to terrestrial applications to satisfy requirements for rapid deployable emergency shelters that would be lightweight, portable, and quickly erected. The Temporary Early Sleep Station (TeSS) currently on-orbit is a spin-off of the DCQ.

  2. Performance Evaluation of Conventional Sb-based Multiquantum Well Lasers operating above 3μm at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadri, A.; Zitouni, K.; Rouillard, Y.; Christol, P.

    We present the results of a theoretical performance evaluation of conventional type I Sb-based Quinary Multiple Quantum Well Lasers operating in cw at λ>3μm at Room Temperature. In this purpose, we use a k.P band structure model to calculate the optical properties of these new Quinary Sb-based heterostructures. Our calculations show that for optimized laser structures emitting near 3.3μm, modal gain value GmodalM =50cm-1 and threshold current densities Jth = 2-3 kA/cm2 are expected. Thanks to the valence band offset enhancement, hole lifetime are shown to increase by one order of magnitude in Quinary laser with respect to Quaternary counterpart. Our results show that this kind of Quinary Sb-based type I laser structures are quite convenient for cw RT Laser operation at λ>3μm.

  3. Potential Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Crewed Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.; McDonald, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    A deep-space mission has been proposed to identify and redirect an asteroid to a distant retrograde orbit around the moon, and explore it by sending a crew using the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), which represents the third segment of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), could be performed on EM-3 or EM-4 depending on asteroid return date. Recent NASA studies have raised questions on how we could progress from current Human Space Flight (HSF) efforts to longer term human exploration of Mars. This paper will describe the benefits of execution of the ARM as the initial stepping stone towards Mars exploration, and how the capabilities required to send humans to Mars could be built upon those developed for the asteroid mission. A series of potential interim missions aimed at developing such capabilities will be described, and the feasibility of such mission manifest will be discussed. Options for the asteroid crewed mission will also be addressed, including crew size and mission duration.

  4. Flight Crew Health Stabilization Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Smith L.

    2010-01-01

    This document establishes the policy and procedures for the HSP and is authorized through the Director, Johnson Space Center (JSC). This document delineates the medical operations requirements for the HSP. The HSP goals are accomplished through an awareness campaign and procedures such as limiting access to flight crewmembers, medical screening, and controlling flight crewmember activities. NASA's Human Space Flight Program uses strategic risk mitigation to achieve mission success while protecting crew health and safety. Infectious diseases can compromise crew health and mission success, especially in the immediate preflight period. The primary purpose of the Flight Crew Health Stabilization Program (HSP) is to mitigate the risk of occurrence of infectious disease among astronaut flight crews in the immediate preflight period. Infectious diseases are contracted through direct person-to-person contact, and through contact with infectious material in the environment. The HSP establishes several controls to minimize crew exposure to infectious agents. The HSP provides a quarantine environment for the crew that minimizes contact with potentially infectious material. The HSP also limits the number of individuals who come in close contact with the crew. The infection-carrying potential of these primary contacts (PCs) is minimized by educating them in ways to avoid infections and avoiding contact with the crew if they are or may be sick. The transmission of some infectious diseases can be greatly curtailed by vaccinations. PCs are strongly encouraged to maintain updated vaccinations.

  5. STS-71 preflight crew portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Crew members for the STS-71 mission and the related Mir missions assembled for a crew portrait at JSC. In front are, left to right, Vladimir N. Dezhurov, Robert L. Gibson and Anatoliy Y. Solovyev, mission commanders for Mir-18, STS-71 and Mir-19, respecti

  6. Flight crew health stabilization program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooley, B. C.; Mccollum, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The flight crew health stabilization program was developed to minimize or eliminate the possibility of adverse alterations in the health of flight crews during immediate preflight, flight, and postflight periods. The elements of the program, which include clinical medicine, immunology, exposure prevention, and epidemiological surveillance, are discussed briefly. No crewmember illness was reported for the missions for which the program was in effect.

  7. Crew Transportation Technical Management Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinnie, John M. (Compiler); Lueders, Kathryn L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    Under the guidance of processes provided by Crew Transportation Plan (CCT-PLN-1100), this document, with its sister documents, International Space Station (ISS) Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document (CCT-REQ-1130), Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria (CCT-STD-1140), Crew Transportation Operations Standards (CCT STD-1150), and ISS to Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Interface Requirements Document (SSP 50808), provides the basis for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) certification for services to the ISS for the Commercial Provider. When NASA Crew Transportation System (CTS) certification is achieved for ISS transportation, the Commercial Provider will be eligible to provide services to and from the ISS during the services phase.

  8. Crew interface with a telerobotic control station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mok, Eva

    1987-01-01

    A method for apportioning crew-telerobot tasks has been derived to facilitate the design of a crew-friendly telerobot control station. To identify the most appropriate state-of-the-art hardware for the control station, task apportionment must first be conducted to identify if an astronaut or a telerobot is best to execute the task and which displays and controls are required for monitoring and performance. Basic steps that comprise the task analysis process are: (1) identify space station tasks; (2) define tasks; (3) define task performance criteria and perform task apportionment; (4) verify task apportionment; (5) generate control station requirements; (6) develop design concepts to meet requirements; and (7) test and verify design concepts.

  9. STS-58 Crew Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The STS-58 crew insignia depicts the Space Shuttle Columbia with a Spacelab module in its payload bay in orbit around Earth. The Spacelab and the lettering 'Spacelab Life Sciences II' highlight its primary mission. An Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) support pallet is shown in the aft payload bay, stressing the length of the mission. The hexagonal shape of the patch depicts the carbon ring. Encircling the inner border of the patch is the double helix of DNA. Its yellow background represents the sun. Both medical and veterinary caducei are shown to represent the STS-58 life sciences experiments. The position of the spacecraft in orbit about Earth with the United States in the background symbolizes the ongoing support of the American people for scientific research.

  10. Crew Interviews: Treschev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Sergei Treschev is a Cosmonaut of the Rocket Space Corporation Energia, (RSC), from Volynsky District, Lipetsk Region (Russia). He graduated from Moscow Energy Institute. After years of intense training with RSC Energia, he was selected as International Space Station (ISS) Increment 5 flight engineer. The Expedition-Five crew (two Russian cosmonauts and one American astronaut) will stay on the station for approximately 5 months. The Multipurpose Logistics Module, or MPLM, will carry experiment racks and three stowage and resupply racks to the station. The mission will also install a component of the Canadian Arm called the Mobile Base System (MBS) to the Mobile Transporter (MT) installed during STS-110. This completes the Canadian Mobile Servicing System, or MSS. The mechanical arm will now have the capability to "inchworm" from the U.S. Lab fixture to the MSS and travel along the Truss to work sites.

  11. Working conditions in the engine department - A qualitative study among engine room personnel on board Swedish merchant ships.

    PubMed

    Lundh, Monica; Lützhöft, Margareta; Rydstedt, Leif; Dahlman, Joakim

    2011-01-01

    The specific problems associated with the work on board within the merchant fleet are well known and have over the years been a topic of discussion. The work conditions in the engine room (ER) are demanding due to, e.g. the thermal climate, noise and awkward working postures. The work in the engine control room (ECR) has over recent years undergone major changes, mainly due to the introduction of computers on board. In order to capture the impact these changes had implied, and also to investigate how the work situation has developed, a total of 20 engine officers and engine ratings were interviewed. The interviews were semi-structured and Grounded Theory was used for the data analysis. The aim of the present study was to describe how the engine crew perceive their work situation and working environment on board. Further, the aim was to identify areas for improvements which the engine crew consider especially important for a safe and effective work environment. The result of the study shows that the design of the ECR and ER is crucial for how different tasks are performed. Design which does not support operational procedures and how tasks are performed risk inducing inappropriate behaviour as the crew members' are compelled to find alternative ways to perform their tasks in order to get the job done. These types of behaviour can induce an increased risk of exposure to hazardous substances and the engine crew members becoming injured.

  12. STS-69 Crew members display 'Dog Crew' patches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Following their arrival at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility, the five astronauts assigned to Space Shuttle Mission STS-69 display the unofficial crew patch for their upcoming spaceflight: the Dog Crew II patch. Mission Commander David M. Walker (center) and Payload Commander James S. Voss (second from right) previously flew together on Mission STS-53, the final dedicated Department of Defense flight on the Space Shuttle. A close comradery formed among Walker, Voss and the rest of the crew, and they dubbed themselves the 'dogs of war', with each of the STS-53 'Dog Crew' members assigned a 'dog tag' or nickname. When the STS-69 astronauts also became good buddies, they decided it was time for the Dog Crew II to be named. Walker's dog tag is Red Dog, Voss's is Dogface, Pilot Kenneth D. Cockrell (second from left) is Cujo, space rookie and Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt (left) is Under Dog, and Mission Specialist James H. Newman (right) is Pluato. The Dog Crew II patch features a bulldog peering out from a doghouse shaped like the Space Shuttle and lists the five crew member's dog names. The five astronauts are scheduled to lift off on the fifth Shuttle flight of the year at 11:04 a.m. EDT, August 31, aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour.

  13. Crew Exploration Vehicle Environmental Control and Life Support Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard; Carrasquillo, Robyn; Cross, CIndy; Peterson, Laurie; Tuan, George

    2007-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is the first crew transport vehicle to be developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the last thirty years. The CEV is being developed to transport the crew safely from the Earth to the Moon and back again. This year, the prime contractor has been selected, requirements have been refined, and development areas are being pursued. The Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system, which includes the life support and active thermal control systems, is moving one year closer to performing on orbit.

  14. Apollo experience report: Crew provisions and equipment subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcallister, F.

    1972-01-01

    A description of the construction and use of crew provisions and equipment subsystem items for the Apollo Program is presented. The subsystem is composed principally of survival equipment, bioinstrumentation devices, medical components and accessories, water- and waste-management equipment, personal-hygiene articles, docking aids, flight garments (excluding the pressure garment assembly), and various other crew-related accessories. Particular attention is given to items and assemblies that presented design, development, or performance problems: the crew optical alinement sight system, the metering water dispenser, and the waste-management system. Changes made in design and materials to improve the fire safety of the hardware are discussed.

  15. Space Station crew workload - Station operations and customer accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinkle, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The features of the Space Station which permit crew members to utilize work time for payload operations are discussed. The user orientation, modular design, nonstressful flight regime, in space construction, on board control, automation and robotics, and maintenance and servicing of the Space Station are examined. The proposed crew size, skills, and functions as station operator and mission specialists are described. Mission objectives and crew functions, which include performing material processing, life science and astronomy experiments, satellite and payload equipment servicing, systems monitoring and control, maintenance and repair, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and Mobile Remote Manipulator System operations, on board planning, housekeeping, and health maintenance and recreation, are studied.

  16. Quantitative analysis of the size effect of room temperature nanoimprinted P3HT nanopillar arrays on the photovoltaic performance.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guangzhu; Li, Chao; Li, Xiaohui; Wu, Yangjiang; Liu, Jieping; Li, Yaowen; Hu, Zhijun; Li, Yongfang

    2015-07-07

    We develop a solvent-assisted room temperature nanoimprint lithography (SART-NIL) technique to fabricate an ideal active layer consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanopillar arrays surrounded by [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester. Characterization by scanning electron microscopy, two-dimensional grazing incidence wide angle X-rays diffraction, and conducting atomic force microscopy reveals that the SART-NIL technique can precisely control the size of P3HT nanopillar arrays. With the decrease in diameters of P3HT nanopillar arrays, the P3HT nanopillar arrays exhibit a more preferable face-on molecular orientation, enhanced UV-vis absorption and higher conducting ability along the direction perpendicular to the substrate. The ordered bulk heterojunction film consisting of P3HT nanopillar arrays with a diameter of ∼45 nm (OBHJ-45) gives face-on orientation, a high interfacial area of 2.87, a high conducting ability of ∼130 pA and efficient exciton diffusion and dissociation. The polymer solar cell (PSC) based on an OBHJ-45 film exhibits a significantly improved device performance compared with those of PSCs based on the P3HT nanoapillar arrays with diameters ∼100 nm and ∼60 nm. We believe that the SART-NIL technique is a powerful tool for fabricating an ideal active layer for high performance PSCs.

  17. Room temperature synthesis of cobalt-manganese-nickel oxalates micropolyhedrons for high-performance flexible electrochemical energy storage device

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi-Zhou; Zhao, Junhong; Xia, Jing; Wang, Lulu; Lai, Wen-Yong; Pang, Huan; Huang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt-manganese-nickel oxalates micropolyhedrons were successfully fabricated by a room temperature chemical co-precipitation method. Interestingly, the Co0.5Mn0.4Ni0.1C2O4*nH2O micropolyhedrons and graphene nanosheets have been successfully applied as the positive and negative electrode materials (a battery type Faradaic electrode and a capacitive electrode, respectively) for flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors. More importantly, the as-assembled device achieved a maximum energy density of 0.46 mWh·cm−3, a decent result among devices with similar structures. The as-assembled device showed good flexibility, functioning well under both normal and bent conditions (0°–180°). The resulting device showed little performance decay even after 6000 cycles, which rendered the Co0.5Mn0.4Ni0.1C2O4*nH2O//Graphene device configuration a promising candidate for high-performance flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors in the field of high-energy-density energy storage devices. PMID:25705048

  18. Continuation of advanced crew procedures development techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.; Evans, M. E.; Mangiaracina, A. A.; Mcgavern, J. L.; Spangler, M. C.; Tatum, I. C.

    1976-01-01

    An operational computer program, the Procedures and Performance Program (PPP) which operates in conjunction with the Phase I Shuttle Procedures Simulator to provide a procedures recording and crew/vehicle performance monitoring capability was developed. A technical synopsis of each task resulting in the development of the Procedures and Performance Program is provided. Conclusions and recommendations for action leading to the improvements in production of crew procedures development and crew training support are included. The PPP provides real-time CRT displays and post-run hardcopy output of procedures, difference procedures, performance data, parametric analysis data, and training script/training status data. During post-run, the program is designed to support evaluation through the reconstruction of displays to any point in time. A permanent record of the simulation exercise can be obtained via hardcopy output of the display data and via transfer to the Generalized Documentation Processor (GDP). Reference procedures data may be transferred from the GDP to the PPP. Interface is provided with the all digital trajectory program, the Space Vehicle Dynamics Simulator (SVDS) to support initial procedures timeline development.

  19. Space Station crew safety - Human factors model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M.; Junge, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    A model of the various human factors issues and interactions that might affect crew safety is developed. The first step addressed systematically the central question: How is this Space Station different from all other spacecraft? A wide range of possible issue was identified and researched. Five major topics of human factors issues that interacted with crew safety resulted: Protocols, Critical Habitability, Work Related Issues, Crew Incapacitation and Personal Choice. Second, an interaction model was developed that would show some degree of cause and effect between objective environmental or operational conditions and the creation of potential safety hazards. The intermediary steps between these two extremes of causality were the effects on human performance and the results of degraded performance. The model contains three milestones: stressor, human performance (degraded) and safety hazard threshold. Between these milestones are two countermeasure intervention points. The first opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against stress. If this countermeasure fails, performance degrades. The second opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against error. If this second countermeasure fails, the threshold of a potential safety hazard may be crossed.

  20. STS-112 Crew Training Clip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Footage shows the crew of STS-112 (Jeffrey Ashby, Commander; Pamela Melroy, Pilot; David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus, and Fyodor Yurchikhin, Mission Specialists) during several parts of their training. The video is arranged into short segments. In 'Topside Activities at the NBL', Wolf and Sellers are fitted with EVA suits for pool training. 'Pre-Launch Bailout Training in CCT II' shows all six crew members exiting from the hatch on a model of a shuttle orbiter cockpit. 'EVA Training in the VR Lab' shows a crew member training with a virtual reality simulator, interspersed with footage of Magnus, and Wolf with Melroy, at monitors. There is a 'Crew Photo Session', and 'Pam Melroy and Sandy Magnus at the SES Dome' also features a virtual reality simulator. The final two segments of the video involve hands-on training. 'Post Landing Egress at the FFT' shows the crew suiting up into their flight suits, and being raised on a harness, to practice rapelling from the cockpit hatch. 'EVA Prep and Post at the ISS Airlock' shows the crew assembling an empty EVA suit onboard a model of a module. The crew tests oxygen masks, and Sellers is shown on an exercise bicycle with an oxygen mask, with his heart rate monitored (not shown).

  1. Crew Field Notes: A New Tool for Planetary Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horz, Friedrich; Evans, Cynthia; Eppler, Dean; Gernhardt, Michael; Bluethmann, William; Graf, Jodi; Bleisath, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) field tests of 2010 focused on the simultaneous operation of two rovers, a historical first. The complexity and data volume of two rovers operating simultaneously presented significant operational challenges for the on-site Mission Control Center, including the real time science support function. The latter was split into two "tactical" back rooms, one for each rover, that supported the real time traverse activities; in addition, a "strategic" science team convened overnight to synthesize the day's findings, and to conduct the strategic forward planning of the next day or days as detailed in [1, 2]. Current DRATS simulations and operations differ dramatically from those of Apollo, including the most evolved Apollo 15-17 missions, due to the advent of digital technologies. Modern digital still and video cameras, combined with the capability for real time transmission of large volumes of data, including multiple video streams, offer the prospect for the ground based science support room(s) in Mission Control to witness all crew activities in unprecedented detail and in real time. It was not uncommon during DRATS 2010 that each tactical science back room simultaneously received some 4-6 video streams from cameras mounted on the rover or the crews' backpacks. Some of the rover cameras are controllable PZT (pan, zoom, tilt) devices that can be operated by the crews (during extensive drives) or remotely by the back room (during EVAs). Typically, a dedicated "expert" and professional geologist in the tactical back room(s) controls, monitors and analyses a single video stream and provides the findings to the team, commonly supported by screen-saved images. It seems obvious, that the real time comprehension and synthesis of the verbal descriptions, extensive imagery, and other information (e.g. navigation data; time lines etc) flowing into the science support room(s) constitute a fundamental challenge to future mission

  2. STS-112 crew leave the crew transport vehicle after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- As the STS-112 crew leaves the crew transport vehicle, they are greeted by mission managers and guests. The crew, from left, are Mission Specialists David Wolf, Fyodor Yurchikhin and Sandra Magnus; Pilot Pamela Melroy; Piers Sellers (talking to Acting Deputy Director JoAnn Morgan) and Commander Jeffrey Ashby (talking to Launch Director Mike Leinbach). Morgan is also Director of External Relations and Business Development. The crew returned to KSC after completing a 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. .

  3. Flight Crew Integration (FCI) ISS Crew Comments Database & Products Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuh, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This Crew Debrief Data provides support for design and development of vehicles, hardware, requirements, procedures, processes, issue resolution, lessons learned, consolidation and trending for current Programs; and much of the data is also used to support development of future Programs.

  4. True Cost of Amateur Clean rooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, W. Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the cost factors for clean rooms that are not professionally built, monitored or maintained. These amateur clean rooms are built because scientist and engineers desire to create a clean room to build a part of an experiment that requires a clean room, and the program manager is looking to save money. However, in the long run these clean rooms may not save money, as the cost of maintenance may be higher due to the cost of transporting the crews, and if the materials were of lesser quality, the cost of modifications may diminish any savings, and the product may not be of the same quality. Several examples are shown of the clean rooms that show some of the problems that can arise from amateur clean rooms.

  5. Room Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuttruff, Heinrich; Mommertz, Eckard

    The traditional task of room acoustics is to create or formulate conditions which ensure the best possible propagation of sound in a room from a sound source to a listener. Thus, objects of room acoustics are in particular assembly halls of all kinds, such as auditoria and lecture halls, conference rooms, theaters, concert halls or churches. Already at this point, it has to be pointed out that these conditions essentially depend on the question if speech or music should be transmitted; in the first case, the criterion for transmission quality is good speech intelligibility, in the other case, however, the success of room-acoustical efforts depends on other factors that cannot be quantified that easily, not least it also depends on the hearing habits of the listeners. In any case, absolutely "good acoustics" of a room do not exist.

  6. STS-116 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This is the STS-116 Crew Portrait. Pictured on the front row from left to right are: William Oefelein, pilot; Joan Higginbotham, mission specialist; and Mark Polansky, commander. On the back row, left to right, are: Robert Curbeam, Nicholas Patrick, Sunita Williams, and the European Space Agency's Christer Fuglesang, all mission specialists. Williams joined Expedition 14 in progress to serve as flight engineer aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on December 9, 2006, the seven delivered two high profile Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC') payloads: The Lab-On-A Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS) and the Water Delivery System, a vital component of the Station's Oxygen Generation System. The primary mission objective was to deliver and install the P5 truss element. The P5 installation was conducted during the first of three space walks, and involved use of both the shuttle and station's robotic arms. The remainder of the mission included a major reconfiguration and activation of the ISS electrical and thermal control systems, as well as delivery of Zvezda Service Module debris panels, which will increase ISS protection from potential impacts of micro-meteorites and orbital debris.

  7. STS-112 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These 5 astronauts and cosmonaut, all members of the STS-112 mission, pose for a crew portrait. Pictured from left to right are: Astronauts Sandra H. Magnus, mission specialist; David A. Wolf, mission specialist; Pamela A. Melroy, pilot; Jeffrey S. Ashby, commander; Piers J. Sellers, mission specialist; and cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin, mission specialist representing Rosaviakosmos. STS-112 launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis October 7, 2002 for an 11-day mission completing three sessions of Extra Vehicular Activity(EVA). Its primary mission was to install the Starboard (S1) Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the railway on the ISS providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts.

  8. Performance of room temperature mercuric iodide /HgI2/ detectors in the ultralow-energy X-ray region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, A. J.; Barton, J. B.; Huth, G. C.; Whited, R.; Ortale, C.; Economou, T. E.; Turkevich, A. L.; Iwanczyk, J. S.

    1981-02-01

    Experiments have been done to study the performance of mercuric iodide (HgI2) detectors in the ultralow-energy X-ray region. Energy resolution values of 245 eV (FWHM) for the Mg K-alpha X-ray line at 1.25 keV and 225 eV (FWHM) for the electronic noise linewidth have been obtained for an HgI2 detector with painted carbon contacts using a pulsed-light feedback preamplifier; the whole system was operated at room temperature. The resolution values in the ultralow-energy region are still limited by electronic noise of the system. In an attempt to minimize X-ray attenuation in the front contact, detectors were prepared with thin evaporated Pd contacts. These detectors show a pronounced low-energy tailing of the photopeak below a few keV, in contrast to the spectra obtained by detectors with carbon contact. An attempt has been made to explain the tailing effect starting with models wich have been proposed to describe similar effects in Ge detectors.

  9. Performance of room temperature mercuric iodide /HgI2/ detectors in the ultralow-energy X-ray region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabrowski, A. J.; Barton, J. B.; Huth, G. C.; Whited, R.; Ortale, C.; Economou, T. E.; Turkevich, A. L.; Iwanczyk, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments have been done to study the performance of mercuric iodide (HgI2) detectors in the ultralow-energy X-ray region. Energy resolution values of 245 eV (FWHM) for the Mg K-alpha X-ray line at 1.25 keV and 225 eV (FWHM) for the electronic noise linewidth have been obtained for an HgI2 detector with painted carbon contacts using a pulsed-light feedback preamplifier; the whole system was operated at room temperature. The resolution values in the ultralow-energy region are still limited by electronic noise of the system. In an attempt to minimize X-ray attenuation in the front contact, detectors were prepared with thin evaporated Pd contacts. These detectors show a pronounced low-energy tailing of the photopeak below a few keV, in contrast to the spectra obtained by detectors with carbon contact. An attempt has been made to explain the tailing effect starting with models wich have been proposed to describe similar effects in Ge detectors.

  10. Apollo 7 and 8 Crew in the White House.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Apollo 7 and 8 flight crews sign a commemorative document to be hung in the Treaty Room of the White House honoring the occasion. Those signing are from left to right: Apollo 7 Astronauts: Walter Cunningham, Donn F. Eisele, and Walter M. Schirra. Apollo 8 Astronauts: William A. Anders, James A. Lovell, Jr., and Frank Borman. Standing are: Charles A. Lindbergh (also a signer) Lady Bird Johnson President Lyndon B. Johnson NASA Administrator James E. Webb, Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey.

  11. Crew pose for portrait while training at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The STS 51-L crew poses for a portrait while training at Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Launch complex 39, Pad B. They are standing in the White Room during a break in countdown training. Left to right are Teacher in Space Payload Specialist Sharon Christa McAuliffe; Payload Specialist Gregory Jarvis; and Astronauts Judith A. Resnik, mission specialist; Francis R. (Dick) Scobee, mission commander; Ronald E. McNair, mission specialist; Mike J. Smith, pilot; and Ellison S. Onizuka, mission specialist.

  12. 65. Photocopy of General Arrangement, Crew's Mess & Berthing Space, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. Photocopy of General Arrangement, Crew's Mess & Berthing Space, Wash Room, Galley & Galley Stores. Basalt Rock Co. Inc., Shipbuilding Division, Napa, California. Coast Guard Headquarters Drawing No.540-WAGL-3306-1, dated January 1943. Original drawing property of the U.S. Coast Guard. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. The Human-Electronic Crew: Can We Trust The Team?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    only certain information is of use powered bus THEN the pump pressure will be to the crew. The models used have been designed to NORMAL OTHERWISE it...various bus ties. These actions are design the user will not have faith in the ability of anticipated and presented before the initial action of the...implications o:" proposed interface designs , early enough for the latest ergonomics data to be useful. MIDAS outputs for a control room exam.te are given. Paper

  14. Commercial Crew Planning Status Forum

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA presents an overview of common themes captured from industry responses provided to NASA's Commercial Crew Initiative Request for Information (RFI) published on May 21, 2010. The forum includes...

  15. Real-Time Teleguidance of a Non-Surgeon Crew Medical Officer Performing Orthopedic Surgery at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station During Winter-Over

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The Amundsen-Scott South Pole Research station located at the geographic South Pole, is the most isolated, permanently inhabited human outpost on Earth. Medical care is provided to station personnel by a non-surgeon crew medical officer (CMO). During the winter-over period from February to October, the station is isolated, with no incoming or outgoing flights due to severe weather conditions. In late June, four months after the station had closed for the austral winter, a 31 year old meteorologist suffered a complete rupture of his patellar tendon while sliding done an embankment. An evacuation was deemed to be too risky to aircrews due to the extreme cold and darkness. A panel of physicians from Massachusetts General Hospital, Johns Hopkins University and the University of Texas Medical Branch were able to assess the patient remotely via telemedicine and agreed that surgery was the only means to restore mobility and prevent long term disability. The lack of a surgical facility and a trained surgical team were overcome by conversion of the clinic treatment area, and intensive preparation of medical laypersons as surgical assistants. The non-surgeon CMO and CMO assistant at South Pole, were guided through the administration of spinal anesthetic, and the two-hour operative repair by medical consultants at Massachusetts General Hospital. Real-time video of the operative field, directions from the remote consultants and audio communication were provided by videoconferencing equipment, operative cameras, and high bandwidth satellite communications. In real-time, opening incision/exposure, tendon relocation, hemostatsis, and operative closure by the CMO was closely monitored and guided and by the remote consultants. The patient s subsequent physical rehabilitation over the ensuing months of isolation was also monitored remotely via telemedicine. This was the first time in South Pole s history that remote teleguidance had been used for surgery and represents a model for

  16. Quantitative analysis of the size effect of room temperature nanoimprinted P3HT nanopillar arrays on the photovoltaic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Guangzhu; Li, Chao; Li, Xiaohui; Wu, Yangjiang; Liu, Jieping; Li, Yaowen; Hu, Zhijun; Li, Yongfang

    2015-06-01

    We develop a solvent-assisted room temperature nanoimprint lithography (SART-NIL) technique to fabricate an ideal active layer consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanopillar arrays surrounded by [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester. Characterization by scanning electron microscopy, two-dimensional grazing incidence wide angle X-rays diffraction, and conducting atomic force microscopy reveals that the SART-NIL technique can precisely control the size of P3HT nanopillar arrays. With the decrease in diameters of P3HT nanopillar arrays, the P3HT nanopillar arrays exhibit a more preferable face-on molecular orientation, enhanced UV-vis absorption and higher conducting ability along the direction perpendicular to the substrate. The ordered bulk heterojunction film consisting of P3HT nanopillar arrays with a diameter of ~45 nm (OBHJ-45) gives face-on orientation, a high interfacial area of 2.87, a high conducting ability of ~130 pA and efficient exciton diffusion and dissociation. The polymer solar cell (PSC) based on an OBHJ-45 film exhibits a significantly improved device performance compared with those of PSCs based on the P3HT nanoapillar arrays with diameters ~100 nm and ~60 nm. We believe that the SART-NIL technique is a powerful tool for fabricating an ideal active layer for high performance PSCs.We develop a solvent-assisted room temperature nanoimprint lithography (SART-NIL) technique to fabricate an ideal active layer consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanopillar arrays surrounded by [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester. Characterization by scanning electron microscopy, two-dimensional grazing incidence wide angle X-rays diffraction, and conducting atomic force microscopy reveals that the SART-NIL technique can precisely control the size of P3HT nanopillar arrays. With the decrease in diameters of P3HT nanopillar arrays, the P3HT nanopillar arrays exhibit a more preferable face-on molecular orientation, enhanced UV-vis absorption and higher

  17. ISS Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayt, Robert L. (Compiler); Lueders, Kathryn L. (Compiler)

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document (CCT-REQ-1130) contains all technical, safety, and crew health medical requirements that are mandatory for achieving a Crew Transportation System Certification that will allow for International Space Station delivery and return of NASA crew and limited cargo. Previously approved on TN23183.

  18. The Actual Gemini 9 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini 9 backup crew members are, Commander, Thomas P. Stafford and pilot Eugene A. Cernan. The back-up crew became the prime crew when on February 28, 1966 the prime crew for the Gemini 9 mission were killed when their twin seat T- 38 trainer jet aircraft crashed into a building during a landing approach in bad weather.

  19. ZnO Nanoparticles/Reduced Graphene Oxide Bilayer Thin Films for Improved NH3-Sensing Performances at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Tai, Huiling; Yuan, Zhen; Zheng, Weijian; Ye, Zongbiao; Liu, Chunhua; Du, Xiaosong

    2016-12-01

    ZnO nanoparticles and graphene oxide (GO) thin film were deposited on gold interdigital electrodes (IDEs) in sequence via simple spraying process, which was further restored to ZnO/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) bilayer thin film by the thermal reduction treatment and employed for ammonia (NH3) detection at room temperature. rGO was identified by UV-vis absorption spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) analyses, and the adhesion between ZnO nanoparticles and rGO nanosheets might also be formed. The NH3-sensing performances of pure rGO film and ZnO/rGO bilayer films with different sprayed GO amounts were compared. The results showed that ZnO/rGO film sensors exhibited enhanced response properties, and the optimal GO amount of 1.5 ml was achieved. Furthermore, the optimal ZnO/rGO film sensor showed an excellent reversibility and fast response/recovery rate within the detection range of 10-50 ppm. Meanwhile, the sensor also displayed good repeatability and selectivity to NH3. However, the interference of water molecules on the prepared sensor is non-ignorable; some techniques should be researched to eliminate the effect of moisture in the further work. The remarkably enhanced NH3-sensing characteristics were speculated to be attributed to both the supporting role of ZnO nanoparticles film and accumulation heterojunction at the interface between ZnO and rGO. Thus, the proposed ZnO/rGO bilayer thin film sensor might give a promise for high-performance NH3-sensing applications.

  20. ZnO Nanoparticles/Reduced Graphene Oxide Bilayer Thin Films for Improved NH3-Sensing Performances at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Huiling; Yuan, Zhen; Zheng, Weijian; Ye, Zongbiao; Liu, Chunhua; Du, Xiaosong

    2016-03-01

    ZnO nanoparticles and graphene oxide (GO) thin film were deposited on gold interdigital electrodes (IDEs) in sequence via simple spraying process, which was further restored to ZnO/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) bilayer thin film by the thermal reduction treatment and employed for ammonia (NH3) detection at room temperature. rGO was identified by UV-vis absorption spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) analyses, and the adhesion between ZnO nanoparticles and rGO nanosheets might also be formed. The NH3-sensing performances of pure rGO film and ZnO/rGO bilayer films with different sprayed GO amounts were compared. The results showed that ZnO/rGO film sensors exhibited enhanced response properties, and the optimal GO amount of 1.5 ml was achieved. Furthermore, the optimal ZnO/rGO film sensor showed an excellent reversibility and fast response/recovery rate within the detection range of 10-50 ppm. Meanwhile, the sensor also displayed good repeatability and selectivity to NH3. However, the interference of water molecules on the prepared sensor is non-ignorable; some techniques should be researched to eliminate the effect of moisture in the further work. The remarkably enhanced NH3-sensing characteristics were speculated to be attributed to both the supporting role of ZnO nanoparticles film and accumulation heterojunction at the interface between ZnO and rGO. Thus, the proposed ZnO/rGO bilayer thin film sensor might give a promise for high-performance NH3-sensing applications.

  1. STS-82 Crew Members in VPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-82 crew members handle hardware for the second Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission as part of the crew familiarization prelaunch activities at KSCs Vertical Processing Facility (VPF). Payload Commander Mark C. Lee, facing camera at center, has his gloved hand on the latch for the Multipurpose ORU (Orbital Replacement Unit) Protective Enclosure, known by the acronym MOPE. Watching him are STS-82 Mission Specialists Joseph R. 'Joe' Tanner, to Lees right, and Gregory J. Harbaugh, second from right, as well as HST technicians and other workers. Lee, Tanner and Harbaugh, along with fellow Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith, will perform the spacewalks required for servicing and repair of HST, which was deployed nearly seven years ago and first serviced in 1993. STS-82 is targeted for a mid-February liftoff on the Space Shuttle Discovery.

  2. STS-112 crew boarding Atlantis for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the White Room at Launch Pad 39B, STS-112 Mission Specialist Piers Sellers, Ph.D., prepares to enter Space Shuttle Atlantis during a simulated launch countdown, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, a dress rehearsal for launch. Launch of STS-112 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled for Oct. 2, between 2 and 6 p.m. EDT. STS-112 is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, which will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts.

  3. STS-112 crew boarding Atlantis for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the White Room at Launch Pad 39B, STS-112 Mission Specialist Fyodor Yurchikhin, Ph.D., a cosmonaut with the Russian Space Agency, receives assistance with his spacesuit during a simulated launch countdown, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, a dress rehearsal for launch. Launch of STS-112 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled for Oct. 2, between 2 and 6 p.m. EDT. STS-112 is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, which will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts.

  4. STS-112 crew boarding Atlantis for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the White Room at Launch Pad 39B, STS-112 Mission Specialist Sandra Magnus, Ph.D., receives assistance with her spacesuit during a simulated launch countdown, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, a dress rehearsal for launch. Launch of STS-112 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled for Oct. 2, between 2 and 6 p.m. EDT. STS-112 is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, which will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts.

  5. STS-112 crew boarding Atlantis for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the White Room at Launch Pad 39B, STS-112 Pilot Pamela Melroy adjusts her spacesuit during a simulated launch countdown, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, a dress rehearsal for launch. Launch of STS-112 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled for Oct. 2, between 2 and 6 p.m. EDT. STS-112 is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, which will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts.

  6. STS-112 crew boarding Atlantis for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the White Room at Launch Pad 39B, STS-112 Commander Jeffrey Ashby receives assistance with his spacesuit during a simulated launch countdown, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, a dress rehearsal for launch. Launch of STS-112 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled for Oct. 2, between 2 and 6 p.m. EDT. STS-112 is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first star board truss segment, which will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts.

  7. 46 CFR 72.20-25 - Washrooms and toilet rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... who do not occupy sleeping accommodations to which private or semi-private facilities are attached. (b) The toilet rooms and washrooms shall be located convenient to the sleeping quarters of the crew to... semi-private facilities are provided and washbasins are installed in the sleeping rooms. (e) Where...

  8. 46 CFR 72.20-25 - Washrooms and toilet rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... who do not occupy sleeping accommodations to which private or semi-private facilities are attached. (b) The toilet rooms and washrooms shall be located convenient to the sleeping quarters of the crew to... semi-private facilities are provided and washbasins are installed in the sleeping rooms. (e) Where...

  9. 37. ENGINE ROOM, FROM PORT SIDE OF CONTROL CONSOLE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. ENGINE ROOM, FROM PORT SIDE OF CONTROL CONSOLE, LOOKING TOWARDS STERN, PORT ENGINE AT RIGHT, STARBOARD ENGINE AT LEFT, BOTH ARE DIESEL ENGINES, IN BACKGROUND IS STAIRS UP TO CREWS' BERTHING, BEYONE THE STAIRS IS THE DOOR TO AFT ENGINE ROOM & MACHINE SHOP. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. 46 CFR 72.20-25 - Washrooms and toilet rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... who do not occupy sleeping accommodations to which private or semi-private facilities are attached. (b) The toilet rooms and washrooms shall be located convenient to the sleeping quarters of the crew to... semi-private facilities are provided and washbasins are installed in the sleeping rooms. (e) Where...

  11. 46 CFR 72.20-25 - Washrooms and toilet rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... who do not occupy sleeping accommodations to which private or semi-private facilities are attached. (b) The toilet rooms and washrooms shall be located convenient to the sleeping quarters of the crew to... semi-private facilities are provided and washbasins are installed in the sleeping rooms. (e) Where...

  12. 46 CFR 72.20-25 - Washrooms and toilet rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... who do not occupy sleeping accommodations to which private or semi-private facilities are attached. (b) The toilet rooms and washrooms shall be located convenient to the sleeping quarters of the crew to... semi-private facilities are provided and washbasins are installed in the sleeping rooms. (e) Where...

  13. Intercultural crew issues in long-duration spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Norbert O; Lyons, Terence J; Binder, Heidi

    2003-05-01

    Before long-duration flights with international crews can be safely undertaken, potential interpersonal difficulties will need to be addressed. Crew performance breakdown has been recognized by the American Institute of Medicine, in scientific literature, and in popular culture. However, few studies of human interaction and performance in confined, isolated environments exist, and the data pertaining to those studies are mostly anecdotal. Many incidents involving crew interpersonal dynamics, those among flight crews, as well as between flight crews and ground controllers, are reported only in non-peer reviewed books and newspapers. Consequently, due to this lack of concrete knowledge, the selection of astronauts and cosmonauts has focused on individual rather than group selection. Additional selection criteria such as interpersonal and communication competence, along with intercultural training, will have a decisive impact on future mission success. Furthermore, industrial psychological research has demonstrated the ability to select a group based on compatibility. With all this in mind, it is essential to conduct further research on heterogeneous, multi-national crews including selection and training for long-duration space missions.

  14. Intercultural crew issues in long-duration spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Norbert O.; Lyons, Terence J.; Binder, Heidi

    2003-01-01

    Before long-duration flights with international crews can be safely undertaken, potential interpersonal difficulties will need to be addressed. Crew performance breakdown has been recognized by the American Institute of Medicine, in scientific literature, and in popular culture. However, few studies of human interaction and performance in confined, isolated environments exist, and the data pertaining to those studies are mostly anecdotal. Many incidents involving crew interpersonal dynamics, those among flight crews, as well as between flight crews and ground controllers, are reported only in non-peer reviewed books and newspapers. Consequently, due to this lack of concrete knowledge, the selection of astronauts and cosmonauts has focused on individual rather than group selection. Additional selection criteria such as interpersonal and communication competence, along with intercultural training, will have a decisive impact on future mission success. Furthermore, industrial psychological research has demonstrated the ability to select a group based on compatibility. With all this in mind, it is essential to conduct further research on heterogeneous, multi-national crews including selection and training for long-duration space missions.

  15. Room temperature performance of 4 V aqueous hybrid supercapacitor using multi-layered lithium-doped carbon negative electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Sho; Yamamoto, Rie; Sugimoto, Shigeyuki; Sugimoto, Wataru

    2016-09-01

    Water-stable multi-layered lithium-doped carbon (LixC6) negative electrode using poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-lithium bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) polymer electrolyte containing N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl)imide (PP13TFSI) ionic liquid was developed. Electrochemical properties at 60 °C of the aqueous hybrid supercapacitor using activated carbon positive electrode and a multi-layered LixC6 negative electrode (LixC6 | PEO-LiTFSI | LTAP) without PP13TFSI exhibited performance similar to that using Li anode (Li | PEO-LiTFSI | LTAP). A drastic decrease in ESR was achieved by the addition of PP13TFSI to PEO-LiTFSI, allowing room temperature operation. The ESR of the multi-layered LixC6 negative electrode with PEO-LiTFSI-PP13TFSI at 25 °C was 801 Ω cm2, which is 1/6 the value of the multi-layered Li negative electrode with PEO-LiTFSI (5014 Ω cm2). Charge/discharge test of the aqueous hybrid supercapacitor using multi-layered LixC6 negative electrode with PEO-LiTFSI-PP13TFSI at 25 °C afforded specific capacity of 20.6 mAh (g-activated carbon)-1 with a working voltage of 2.7-3.7 V, and good long-term capability up to 3000 cycles. Furthermore, an aqueous hybrid supercapacitor consisting of a high capacitance RuO2 nanosheet positive electrode and multi-layered LixC6 negative electrode with PEO-LiTFSI-PP13TFSI showed specific capacity of 196 mAh (g-RuO2)-1 and specific energy of 625 Wh (kg-RuO2)-1 in 2.0 M acetic acid-lithium acetate buffered solution at 25 °C.

  16. Communication constraints, indexical countermeasures, and crew configuration effects in simulated space-dwelling groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hienz, Robert D.; Brady, Joseph V.; Hursh, Steven R.; Banner, Michele J.; Gasior, Eric D.; Spence, Kevin R.

    2007-02-01

    Previous research with groups of individually isolated crews communicating and problem-solving in a distributed interactive simulation environment has shown that the functional interchangeability of available communication channels can serve as an effective countermeasure to communication constraints. The present report extends these findings by investigating crew performance effects and psychosocial adaptation following: (1) the loss of all communication channels, and (2) changes in crew configuration. Three-person crews participated in a simulated planetary exploration mission that required identification, collection, and analysis of geologic samples. Results showed that crews developed and employed discrete navigation system operations that served as functionally effective communication signals (i.e., “indexical” or “deictic” cues) in generating appropriate crewmember responses and maintaining performance effectiveness in the absence of normal communication channels. Additionally, changes in crew configuration impacted both performance effectiveness and psychosocial adaptation.

  17. Crew-Aided Autonomous Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Greg N.

    2015-01-01

    A sextant provides manual capability to perform star/planet-limb sightings and offers a cheap, simple, robust backup navigation source for exploration missions independent from the ground. Sextant sightings from spacecraft were first exercised in Gemini and flew as the lost-communication backup for all Apollo missions. This study characterized error sources of navigation-grade sextants for feasibility of taking star and planetary limb sightings from inside a spacecraft. A series of similar studies was performed in the early/mid-1960s in preparation for Apollo missions. This study modernized and updated those findings in addition to showing feasibility using Linear Covariance analysis techniques. The human eyeball is a remarkable piece of optical equipment and provides many advantages over camera-based systems, including dynamic range and detail resolution. This technique utilizes those advantages and provides important autonomy to the crew in the event of lost communication with the ground. It can also provide confidence and verification of low-TRL automated onboard systems. The technique is extremely flexible and is not dependent on any particular vehicle type. The investigation involved procuring navigation-grade sextants and characterizing their performance under a variety of conditions encountered in exploration missions. The JSC optical sensor lab and Orion mockup were the primary testing locations. For the accuracy assessment, a group of test subjects took sextant readings on calibrated targets while instrument/operator precision was measured. The study demonstrated repeatability of star/planet-limb sightings with bias and standard deviation around 10 arcseconds, then used high-fidelity simulations to verify those accuracy levels met the needs for targeting mid-course maneuvers in preparation for Earth reen.

  18. STS-111 crew breakfast before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-111 crew gather for the traditional pre-launch meal before the second launch attempt aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour. Seated left to right are Mission Specialists Franklin Chang-Diaz and Philippe Perrin (CNES); the Expedition 5 crew cosmonauts Sergei Treschev (RSA) and Valeri Korzun (RSA) and astronaut Peggy Whitson; Pilot Paul Lockhart and Commander Kenneth Cockrell. In front of them is the traditional cake. This mission marks the 14th Shuttle flight to the International Space Station and the third Shuttle mission this year. Mission STS-111 is the 18th flight of Endeavour and the 110th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program. On mission STS-111, astronauts will deliver the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, the Mobile Base System (MBS), and the Expedition Five crew to the Space Station. During the seven days Endeavour will be docked to the Station, three spacewalks will be performed dedicated to installing MBS and the replacement wrist-roll joint on the Station's Canadarm2 robotic arm. Liftoff is scheduled for 5:22 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  19. International Space Station USOS Crew Quarters Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa Ann; Bahr, Juergen F.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Operational Segment (USOS) currently provides a Temporary Sleep Station (TeSS) as crew quarters for one crewmember in the Laboratory Module. The Russian Segment provides permanent crew quarters (Kayutas) for two crewmembers in the Service Module. The TeSS provides limited electrical, communication, and ventilation functionality. A new permanent rack sized USOS ISS Crew Quarters (CQ) is being developed. Up to four CQs can be installed into the Node 2 element to increase the ISS crewmember size to six. The new CQs will provide private crewmember space with enhanced acoustic noise mitigation, integrated radiation reduction material, controllable airflow, communication equipment, redundant electrical systems, and redundant caution and warning systems. The rack sized CQ is a system with multiple crewmember restraints, adjustable lighting, controllable ventilation, and interfaces that allow each crewmember to personalize their CQ workspace. Providing an acoustically quiet and visually isolated environment, while ensuring crewmember safety, is critical for obtaining crewmember rest and comfort to enable long term crewmember performance. The numerous human factor, engineering, and program considerations during the concept, design, and prototyping are outlined in the paper.

  20. Commercial Crew Development Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Commercial Crew Development Program is designed to stimulate efforts within the private sector that will aid in the development and demonstration of safe, reliable, and cost-effective space transportation capabilities. With the goal of delivery cargo and eventually crew to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the International Space Station (ISS) the program is designed to foster the development of new spacecraft and launch vehicles in the commercial sector. Through Space Act Agreements (SAAs) in 2011 NASA provided $50M of funding to four partners; Blue Origin, The Boeing Company, Sierra Nevada Corporation, and SpaceX. Additional, NASA has signed two unfunded SAAs with ATK and United Space Alliance. This paper will give a brief summary of these SAAs. Additionally, a brief overview will be provided of the released version of the Commercial Crew Development Program plans and requirements documents.

  1. Readiness for First Crewed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaible, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to develop a generic framework for evaluating whether any given program has sufficiently complete and balanced plans in place to allow crewmembers to fly safely on a human spaceflight system for the first time (i.e., first crewed flight). The NESC assembled a small team which included experts with experience developing robotic and human spaceflight and aviation systems through first crewed test flight and into operational capability. The NESC team conducted a historical review of the steps leading up to the first crewed flights of Mercury through the Space Shuttle. Benchmarking was also conducted with the United States (U.S.) Air Force and U.S. Navy. This report contains documentation of that review.

  2. Expedition 7 Crew Training Clip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This video shows the Expedition 7 crew of the International Space Station (ISS) during various training activities prior to launch. The crew consisted of Commander Yuri Malenchenko and Flight Engineer Ed Lu. At the virtual reality lab, the two astronauts work at a control panel, with Lu operating a joystick and speaking on earphones. Another section of the video shows Lu and Malenchenko inputting data into laptop computers, Lu testing an intercom and a video camera, and Lu using a machine to analyze blood samples from the crew. At the neutral buoyancy lab, the astronauts are helped in suit-up. The attachment of their gloves is shown. The video ends with Lu and Malenchenko lowered into a pool on a platform.

  3. STS-105 Mission Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This is the portrait of the astronaut and cosmonaut crewmembers comprising the STS-105 mission. The base crew (bottom center), left to right, are pilot Frederick W. (Rich) Sturckow, Mission Specialists Patrick G. Forester and Daniel T. Barry, and Commander Scott J. Horowitz. The upper right group are the International Space Station (ISS) Expedition Three crew, (left to right) Cosmonaut Mikhail Tyurin, flight engineer; Astronaut Frank L. Culbertson, Jr., commander; and Cosmonaut Vladimir N. Dezhurov, flight engineer. The upper left group are the ISS Expedition Two crew, (left to right) Astronaut James S. Voss, commander; Cosmonaut Yury V. Usachev, flight engineer; and Astronaut Susan J. Helms, flight engineer. The STS-105 was the 11th ISS assembly flight and launched on August 19, 2001 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  4. Pilot personality and crew coordination - Implications for training and selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R.; Helmreich, Robert L.; Gregorich, Steven E.; Geis, Craig E.

    1991-01-01

    It is contended that past failures to find linkages between performance and personality were due to a combination of premature performance evaluation, inadequate statistical modeling, and/or the reliance on data gathered in contrived as opposed to realistic situations. The goal of the research presented is to isolate subgroups of pilots along performance-related personality dimensions and to document limits on the impact of crew coordination training between the groups. Three different profiles were identified through cluster analysis of personality scales that replicated across samples and predicted attitude change following training in crew coordination.

  5. Expedition-8 Crew Members Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This is a portrait of the Expedition-8 two man crew. Pictured left is Cosmonaut Alexander Y, Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer; and Michael C. Foale (right), Expedition-8 Mission Commander and NASA ISS Science Officer. The crew posed for this portrait while training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. The two were launched for the International Space Station (ISS) aboard a Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan, along with European Space Agency (ESA) Astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain, on October 18, 2003.

  6. STS-88 crew goes through Crew Equipment Interface Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    -- In the Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 1, STS-88 Mission Specialists Sergei Krikalev (left), a cosmonaut from Russia; and Jerry L. Ross examine equipment that will be aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour. Launch of mission STS-88 is targeted for Dec. 3, 1998. The STS-88 crew members are participating in a Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT), familiarizing themselves with the orbiter's midbody and crew compartments. Other crew members are Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. 'Rick' Sturckow and Mission Specialists Nancy J. Currie and James H. Newman. STS- 88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). The primary payload is the Unity connecting module which will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module, expected to be already on orbit after a November launch from Russia. The first major U.S.-built component of ISS, Unity will serve as a connecting passageway to living and working areas of the space station. Unity has two attached pressurized mating adapters (PMAs) and one stowage rack installed inside. PMA-1 provides the permanent connection point between Unity and Zarya; PMA-2 will serve as a Space Shuttle docking port. Zarya is a self-supporting active vehicle, providing propulsive control capability and power during the early assembly stages. It also has fuel storage capability.

  7. STS-88 crew goes through Crew Equipment Interface Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Clad in their blue flight suits, STS-88 Mission Specialists (from left) Sergei Krikalev, a cosmonaut from Russia; Jerry L. Ross; and James H. Newman examine equipment from a toolbox that will be on the Space Shuttle Endeavour during their flight. Talking to Ross is Wayne Wedlake of United Space Alliance at Johnson Space Center, while Henry Thacker (facing camera), of Flight Crew Systems at KSC, looks on. Launch of mission STS-88 is targeted for Dec. 3, 1998. The STS-88 crew members are participating in a Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT) in the Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 1 to familiarize themselves with the orbiter's midbody and crew compartments. STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). The primary payload is the Unity connecting module which will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module, expected to be already on orbit after a November launch from Russia. The first major U.S.-built component of ISS, Unity will serve as a connecting passageway to living and working areas of the space station. Unity has two attached pressurized mating adapters (PMAs) and one stowage rack installed inside. PMA-1 provides the permanent connection point between Unity and Zarya; PMA-2 will serve as a Space Shuttle docking port. Zarya is a self-supporting active vehicle, providing propulsive control capability and power during the early assembly stages. It also has fuel storage capability.

  8. STS-88 crew goes through Crew Equipment Interface Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    -- In the Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 1, STS-88 Mission Specialists (left to right) Jerry L. Ross; Sergei Krikalev, a cosmonaut from Russia; and James H. Newman examine equipment that will be on the Space Shuttle Endeavour during their upcoming flight. Launch of Mission STS-88 is targeted for Dec. 3, 1998. The STS-88 crew members are participating in a Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT), familiarizing themselves with the orbiter's midbody and crew compartments. Other crew members are Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. 'Rick' Sturckow and Mission Specialist Nancy J. Currie. STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). The primary payload is the Unity connecting module which will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module, expected to be already on orbit after a November launch from Russia. The first major U.S.-built component of ISS, Unity will serve as a connecting passageway to living and working areas of the space station. Unity has two attached pressurized mating adapters (PMAs) and one stowage rack installed inside. PMA-1 provides the permanent connection point between Unity and Zarya; PMA-2 will serve as a Space Shuttle docking port. Zarya is a self-supporting active vehicle, providing propulsive control capability and power during the early assembly stages. It also has fuel storage capability.

  9. Assured crew return capability Crew Emergency Return Vehicle (CERV) avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Harvey Dean

    1990-01-01

    The Crew Emergency Return Vehicle (CERV) is being defined to provide Assured Crew Return Capability (ACRC) for Space Station Freedom. The CERV, in providing the standby lifeboat capability, would remain in a dormat mode over long periods of time as would a lifeboat on a ship at sea. The vehicle must be simple, reliable, and constantly available to assure the crew's safety. The CERV must also provide this capability in a cost effective and affordable manner. The CERV Project philosophy of a simple vehicle is to maximize its useability by a physically deconditioned crew. The vehicle reliability goes unquestioned since, when needed, it is the vehicle of last resort. Therefore, its systems and subsystems must be simple, proven, state-of-the-art technology with sufficient redundancy to make it available for use as required for the life of the program. The CERV Project Phase 1'/2 Request for Proposal (RFP) is currently scheduled for release on October 2, 1989. The Phase 1'/2 effort will affirm the existing project requirements or amend and modify them based on a thorough evaluation of the contractor(s) recommendations. The system definition phase, Phase 2, will serve to define CERV systems and subsystems. The current CERV Project schedule has Phase 2 scheduled to begin October 1990. Since a firm CERV avionics design is not in place at this time, the treatment of the CERV avionics complement for the reference configuration is not intended to express a preference with regard to a system or subsystem.

  10. Vulnerability of manned spacecraft to crew loss from orbital debris penetration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamsen, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    Orbital debris growth threatens the survival of spacecraft systems from impact-induced failures. Whereas the probability of debris impact and spacecraft penetration may currently be calculated, another parameter of great interest to safety engineers is the probability that debris penetration will cause actual spacecraft or crew loss. Quantifying the likelihood of crew loss following a penetration allows spacecraft designers to identify those design features and crew operational protocols that offer the highest improvement in crew safety for available resources. Within this study, a manned spacecraft crew survivability (MSCSurv) computer model is developed that quantifies the conditional probability of losing one or more crew members, P(sub loss/pen), following the remote likelihood of an orbital debris penetration into an eight module space station. Contributions to P(sub loss/pen) are quantified from three significant penetration-induced hazards: pressure wall rupture (explosive decompression), fragment-induced injury, and 'slow' depressurization. Sensitivity analyses are performed using alternate assumptions for hazard-generating functions, crew vulnerability thresholds, and selected spacecraft design and crew operations parameters. These results are then used to recommend modifications to the spacecraft design and expected crew operations that quantitatively increase crew safety from orbital debris impacts.

  11. STS-31 Crew Training: Firefighting, Food Tasting, EVA Prep and Post

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Space Shuttle crew is shown lighting a pond of gasoline and then performing firefighting tasks. The crew is also shown tasting food including lemonade, chicken casserole, and tortillas, and performing extravehicular activity (EVA) equipment checkouts in the CCT middeck and airlock.

  12. Autonomous onboard crew operations: A review and developmental approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the literature generated by an intercenter mission approach and consolidation team and their contractors was performed to obtain background information on the development of autonomous operations concepts for future space shuttle and space platform missions. The Boeing 757/767 flight management system was examined to determine the relevance for transfer of the developmental approach and technology to the performance of the crew operations function. In specific, the engine indications and crew alerting system was studied to determine the relevance of this display for the performance of crew operations onboard the vehicle. It was concluded that the developmental approach and technology utilized in the aeronautics industry would be appropriate for development of an autonomous operations concept for the space platform.

  13. STS-74 Pilot James D. Halsell in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    At Launch Pad 39A, STS-74 Pilot James D. Halsell Jr. gets ready to enter the Space Shuttle Atlantis. Assisting him are the white room closeout crew: (from left) KSC NASA quality assurance technician Eartha Shoemaker; KSC Lockheed closeout crew lead Mike Mangione; and Johnson Space Center Lockheed suit technician Ray Villalobos. Atlantis is scheduled for liftoff at about 7:30 a.m. EST, Nov. 12.

  14. International Space Station Crew Quarters Ventilation and Acoustic Design Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James L., Jr.; Cady, Scott M; Welsh, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Operational Segment has four permanent rack sized ISS Crew Quarters (CQs) providing a private crew member space. The CQs use Node 2 cabin air for ventilation/thermal cooling, as opposed to conditioned ducted air-from the ISS Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA) or the ISS fluid cooling loop. Consequently, CQ can only increase the air flow rate to reduce the temperature delta between the cabin and the CQ interior. However, increasing airflow causes increased acoustic noise so efficient airflow distribution is an important design parameter. The CQ utilized a two fan push-pull configuration to ensure fresh air at the crew member's head position and reduce acoustic exposure. The CQ ventilation ducts are conduits to the louder Node 2 cabin aisle way which required significant acoustic mitigation controls. The CQ interior needs to be below noise criteria curve 40 (NC-40). The design implementation of the CQ ventilation system and acoustic mitigation are very inter-related and require consideration of crew comfort balanced with use of interior habitable volume, accommodation of fan failures, and possible crew uses that impact ventilation and acoustic performance. Each CQ required 13% of its total volume and approximately 6% of its total mass to reduce acoustic noise. This paper illustrates the types of model analysis, assumptions, vehicle interactions, and trade-offs required for CQ ventilation and acoustics. Additionally, on-orbit ventilation system performance and initial crew feedback is presented. This approach is applicable to any private enclosed space that the crew will occupy.

  15. International Space Station Crew Restraint Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, M.; Norris, L.; Holden, K.

    2005-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. In 2004, The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (UTAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center completed development/evaluation of several design concepts for crew restraints to meet the various needs outlined above. Restraints were designed for general purpose use, for teleoperation (Robonaut) and for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox. All design efforts followed a human factors engineering design lifecycle, beginning with identification of requirements followed by an iterative prototype/test cycle. Anthropometric

  16. Orbiter Crew Compartment Integration-Stowage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, L. Gary

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the Orbiter Crew Compartment Integration (CCI) stowage. The evolution of orbiter crew compartment stowage volume is also described, along with photographs presented of the on-orbit volume stowage capacity.

  17. Commercial Crew Program CCiCap Partners

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Commercial Crew Program and its newest Commercial Crew Integrated Capability (CCiCap) partners are embracing the American spirit as they advance their integrated rocket and spacecraft design...

  18. Crew quarters for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, F. E.

    1989-01-01

    The only long-term U.S. manned space mission completed has been Skylab, which has similarities as well as differences to the proposed Space Station. With the exception of Skylab missions, there has been a dearth of experience on which to base the design of the individual Space Station Freedom crew quarters. Shuttle missions commonly do not have sleep compartments, only 'sleeping arrangements'. There are provisions made for each crewmember to have a sleep restraint and a sleep liner, which are attached to a bulkhead or a locker. When the Shuttle flights began to have more than one working shift, crew quarters became necessary due to noise and other disturbances caused by crew task-related activities. Shuttle missions that have planned work shifts have incorporated sleep compartments. To assist in gaining more information and insight for the design of the crew quarters for the Space Station Freedom, a survey was given to current crewmembers with flight experience. The results from this survey were compiled and integrated with information from the literature covering space experience, privacy, and human-factors issues.

  19. STS-74 Cmdr Kenneth D. Cameron in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    At Launch Pad 39A, STS-74 Commander Kenneth D. Cameron finishes preparing his launch/entry suit for flight as a team of white room closeout crew personnel assist him. From left are KSC Lockheed closeout crew lead Mike Mangione; KSC NASA quality assurance technician Eartha Shoemaker; Johnson Space Center Lockheed suit technician Ray Villalobos; JSC NASA suit tech Jean Alexander (behind Cameron); and astronaut Steve Smith.The closeout crew will help Cameron into the cockpit of the orbiter Atlantis, scheduled for liftoff at about 7:30 a.m. EST, Nov. 12.

  20. Crew Strength Training

    NASA Video Gallery

    Train to develop your upper and lower body strength in your muscles and bones by performing body-weight squats and push-ups.The Train Like an Astronaut project uses the excitement of exploration to...

  1. NASA's Commercial Crew Program, the Next Step in U.S. Space Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mango, Edward J.; Thomas, Rayelle E.

    2013-09-01

    The Commercial Crew Program (CCP) is leading NASA's efforts to develop the next U.S. capability for crew transportation and rescue services to and from the International Space Station (ISS) by the mid-decade timeframe. The outcome of this capability is expected to stimulate and expand the U.S. space transportation industry. NASA is relying on its decades of human space flight experience to certify U.S. crewed vehicles to the ISS and is doing so in a two phase certification approach. NASA Certification will cover all aspects of a crew transportation system, including development, test, evaluation, and verification; program management and control; flight readiness certification; launch, landing, recovery, and mission operations; sustaining engineering and maintenance/upgrades. To ensure NASA crew safety, NASA Certification will validate technical and performance requirements, verify compliance with NASA requirements, validate the crew transportation system operates in appropriate environments, and quantify residual risks.

  2. NASA's Commercial Crew Program, The Next Step in U.S. Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, Edward J.; Thomas, Rayelle E.

    2013-01-01

    The Commercial Crew Program (CCP) is leading NASA's efforts to develop the next U.S. capability for crew transportation and rescue services to and from the International Space Station (ISS) by the mid-decade timeframe. The outcome of this capability is expected to stimulate and expand the U.S. space transportation industry. NASA is relying on its decades of human space flight experience to certify U.S. crewed vehicles to the ISS and is doing so in a two phase certification approach. NASA Certification will cover all aspects of a crew transportation system, including development, test, evaluation, and verification; program management and control; flight readiness certification; launch, landing, recovery, and mission operations; sustaining engineering and maintenance/upgrades. To ensure NASA crew safety, NASA Certification will validate technical and performance requirements, verify compliance with NASA requirements, validate the crew transportation system operates in appropriate environments, and quantify residual risks.

  3. Crew Scheduling of Space Operations Squadrons (SOPS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    total number of midnight-shifs crew i works per cycle; OS total number of off-shifts crew i has per cycle; where DSt , NSi, SSt, MS&, and OSj e z + and i...the cycle length. Since each day-shift is worked by exactly one crew, then X DS1 = CL. (2-9) i-l Since crew schedules are equivalent, DSI = DS2

  4. Adaptive Attitude Control of the Crew Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muse, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    An H(sub infinity)-NMA architecture for the Crew Launch Vehicle was developed in a state feedback setting. The minimal complexity adaptive law was shown to improve base line performance relative to a performance metric based on Crew Launch Vehicle design requirements for all most all of the Worst-on-Worst dispersion cases. The adaptive law was able to maintain stability for some dispersions that are unstable with the nominal control law. Due to the nature of the H(sub infinity)-NMA architecture, the augmented adaptive control signal has low bandwidth which is a great benefit for a manned launch vehicle.

  5. Memory's Room.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Liberal Arts Studiolo from the Ducal Palace at Guibbio, Italy. Discusses how the room's design and decoration mirrors its educational uses. Notes that the object of education was to provide the young person with a kind of mental library of materials that could be drawn upon quickly. (RS)

  6. 46 CFR 45.125 - Crew passageways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crew passageways. 45.125 Section 45.125 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.125 Crew passageways. The vessel must have means for protection of the crew from...

  7. 46 CFR 122.420 - Crew training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crew training. 122.420 Section 122.420 Shipping COAST... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Crew Requirements § 122.420 Crew training. (a) The owner, charterer, master, or managing operator shall instruct each...

  8. 30 CFR 250.606 - Crew instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crew instructions. 250.606 Section 250.606... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations § 250.606 Crew instructions. Prior to engaging in well-workover operations, crew members shall be instructed in the...

  9. 30 CFR 250.1621 - Crew instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crew instructions. 250.1621 Section 250.1621... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1621 Crew instructions. Prior to engaging in well-completion or well-workover operations, crew members shall be instructed in the...

  10. 29 CFR 788.15 - Multiple crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Multiple crews. 788.15 Section 788.15 Labor Regulations... EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.15 Multiple crews. In many cases an employer who operates a sawmill or concentration yard will be supplied with logs or other forestry products by several crews of persons who...

  11. 30 CFR 250.506 - Crew instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crew instructions. 250.506 Section 250.506... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.506 Crew instructions. Prior to engaging in well-completion operations, crew members shall be instructed in the...

  12. 46 CFR 185.420 - Crew training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crew training. 185.420 Section 185.420 Shipping COAST...) OPERATIONS Crew Requirements § 185.420 Crew training. (a) The owner, charterer, master or managing operator... duties listed in the station bill required by § 185.514 of this part. (b) Training conducted on a...

  13. Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project. Phase 2; Human Factors and Crew Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.; Hurlbert, K. M.; Kirby, G.; Lewis, J. F.; ORear, P.

    1997-01-01

    Phase 2 of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project was conducted in June and July of 1996 at the NASA Johnson Space Center. The primary objective of Phase 2 was to demonstrate and evaluate an integrated physicochemical air revitalization and regenerative water recovery system capable of sustaining a human crew of four for 30 days inside a closed chamber. The crew (3 males and 1 female) was continuously present inside a chamber throughout the 30-day test. The objective of this paper was to describe crew interactions and human factors for the test. Crew preparations for the test included training and familiarization of chamber systems and accommodations, and medical and psychological evaluations. During the test, crew members provided metabolic loads for the life support systems, performed maintenance on chamber systems, and evaluated human factors inside the chamber. Overall, the four crew members found the chamber to be comfortable for the 30-day test. The crew performed well together and this was attributed in part to team dynamics, skill mix (one commander, two system experts, and one logistics lead), and a complementary mix of personalities. Communication with and support by family, friends, and colleagues were identified as important contributors to the high morale of the crew during the test. Lessons learned and recommendations for future testing are presented by the crew in this paper.

  14. Post-Landing Orion Crew Survival in Warm Ocean Areas: A Case Study in Iterative Environmental Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rains, George E.; Bue, Grant C.; Pantermuehl, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    The Orion crew module (CM) is being designed to perform survivable land and water landings. There are many issues associated with post-landing crew survival. In general, the most challenging of the realistic Orion landing scenarios from an environmental control standpoint is the off-nominal water landing. Available power and other consumables will be very limited after landing, and it may not be possible to provide full environmental control within the crew cabin for very long after splashdown. Given the bulk and thermal insulation characteristics of the crew-worn pressure suits, landing in a warm tropical ocean area would pose a risk to crew survival from elevated core body temperatures, if for some reason the crewmembers were not able to remove their suits and/or exit the vehicle. This paper summarizes the analyses performed and conclusions reached regarding post-landing crew survival following a water landing, from the standpoint of the crew s core body temperatures.

  15. Confined Formation of Ultrathin ZnO Nanorods/Reduced Graphene Oxide Mesoporous Nanocomposites for High-Performance Room-Temperature NO2 Sensors.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yi; Wang, Jing; Xu, Jian-Long; Li, Xian; Xie, Dan; Xiang, Lan; Komarneni, Sridhar

    2016-12-28

    Here we demonstrate high-performance room-temperature NO2 sensors based on ultrathin ZnO nanorods/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) mesoporous nanocomposites. Ultrathin ZnO nanorods were loaded on rGO nanosheets by a facile two-step additive-free solution synthesis involving anchored seeding followed by oriented growth. The ZnO nanorod diameters were simply controlled by the seed diameters associated with the spatial confinement effects of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets. Compared to the solely ZnO nanorods and rGO-based sensors, the optimal sensor based on ultrathin ZnO nanorods/rGO nanocomposites exhibited higher sensitivity and quicker p-type response to parts per million level of NO2 at room temperature, and the sensitivity to 1 ppm of NO2 was 119% with the response and recovery time being 75 and 132 s. Moreover, the sensor exhibited full reversibility, excellent selectivity, and a low detection limit (50 ppb) to NO2 at room temperature. In addition to the high transport capability of rGO as well as excellent NO2 adsorption ability derived from ultrathin ZnO nanorods and mesoporous structures, the superior sensing performance of the nanocomposites was attributed to the synergetic effect of ZnO and rGO, which was realized by the electron transfer across the ZnO-rGO interfaces through band energy alignment.

  16. STS-112 crew during Crew Equipment Interface Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - During a Crew Equipment Interface Test, STS-112 Mission Specialist Piers Sellers looks at the engine on Atlantis, the designated orbiter for the mission. On the 15th assembly flight to the International Space Station, Atlantis and crew will be ferrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure. The S1 truss is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment also will house communications systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. The S1 truss will be attached to the S0 truss. STS-112 is currently scheduled for launch Aug. 22, 2002.

  17. CDTI: Crew Function Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tole, J. R.; Young, L. R.

    1982-01-01

    Man machine interaction often requires the operator to perform a sterotyped scan of instruments to monitor and/or control a system. Situations in which this type of behavior exists, such as instrument flight, scan pattern has been shown to be altered by imposition of simultaneous verbal tasks. The relationship between pilot visual scan of instruments and mental workload was described. A verbal loading task of varying difficulty caused pilots to stare at the primary instrument as the difficulty increased and to shed looks at instruments of less importance. The verbal loading task affected rank ordering of scanning sequences. The behavior of pilots with widely varying skill levels suggested that these effects occur most strongly at lower skill levels and are less apparent at high skill levels. Graphical interpretation of the hypothetical relationship between skill, workload, and performance is introduced and modeling results are presented to support this interpretation.

  18. STS-75 Chang-Diaz and MS Jeff Hoffman in White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-75 Payload Commander Franklin R. Chang-Diaz (center) and Mission Specialist Jeffrey A. Hoffman (right) prepare to enter the Space Shuttle Columbia at Launch Pad 39B with assistance from the white room closeout crew.

  19. STS-88 crew goes through Crew Equipment Interface Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 1, STS-88 Commander Robert D. Cabana makes a visual inspection of the windows on Space Shuttle orbiter Endeavour. The STS-88 crew members are participating in a Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT), familiarizing themselves with the orbiter's midbody and crew compartments. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 3, 1998, STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). The primary payload is the Unity connecting module which will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module, expected to be already on orbit after a November launch from Russia. The first major U.S.-built component of ISS, Unity will serve as a connecting passageway to living and working areas of the space station. Unity has two attached pressurized mating adapters (PMAs) and one stowage rack installed inside. PMA-1 provides the permanent connection point between Unity and Zarya; PMA-2 will serve as a Space Shuttle docking port. Zarya is a self-supporting active vehicle, providing propulsive control capability and power during the early assembly stages. It also has fuel storage capability.

  20. STS-88 crew goes through Crew Equipment Interface Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, STS-88 Mission Specialists Sergei Krikalev, a Russian cosmonaut, and Jerry L. Ross check out equipment on the Unity connecting module, primary payload on the mission. The STS-88 crew members are participating in a Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT), familiarizing themselves with the orbiter's midbody and crew compartments. Scheduled for launch on Dec. 3, 1998, STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for the International Space Station. The Unity connecting module will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module, already on orbit after a November launch. Unity will have two Pressurized Mating Adapters (PMAs) attached and 1 stowage rack installed inside. PMA-1 will connect U.S. and Russian elements; PMA-2 will provide a Shuttle docking location. Eventually, Unity's six ports will provide connecting points for the Z1 truss exterior framework, U.S. lab, airlock, cupola, Node 3, and the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, as well as the control module. Zarya is a self-supporting active vehicle, providing propulsive control capability and power through the early assembly stages. It provides fuel storage capability and a rendezvous and docking capability to the Service Module.

  1. STS-88 crew goes through Crew Equipment Interface Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Inside Space Shuttle orbiter Endeavour in the Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 1, workers James Neilhouse (left) and Melissa Groening (right) watch while STS-88 Mission Specialists James H. Newman (second from left) and Sergei Krikalev, a Russian cosmonaut, check overhead equipment. STS-88 crew members are participating in a Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT), familiarizing themselves with the orbiter's midbody and crew compartments. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 3, 1998, STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). The primary payload is the Unity connecting module which will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module, expected to be already on orbit after a November launch from Russia. The first major U.S.-built component of ISS, Unity will serve as a connecting passageway to living and working areas of the space station. Unity has two attached pressurized mating adapters (PMAs) and one stowage rack installed inside. PMA-1 provides the permanent connection point between Unity and Zarya; PMA-2 will serve as a Space Shuttle docking port. Zarya is a self-supporting active vehicle, providing propulsive control capability and power during the early assembly stages. It also has fuel storage capability.

  2. STS-88 crew goes through Crew Equipment Interface Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 1, STS-88 Commander Robert D. Cabana watches from inside Space Shuttle orbiter Endeavour as worker Tracey Hackett cleans the outside of a window. The STS-88 crew members are participating in a Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT), familiarizing themselves with the orbiter's midbody and crew compartments. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 3, 1998, STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). The primary payload is the Unity connecting module which will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module, expected to be already on orbit after a November launch from Russia. The first major U.S.-built component of ISS, Unity will serve as a connecting passageway to living and working areas of the space station. Unity has two attached pressurized mating adapters (PMAs) and one stowage rack installed inside. PMA-1 provides the permanent connection point between Unity and Zarya; PMA-2 will serve as a Space Shuttle docking port. Zarya is a self-supporting active vehicle, providing propulsive control capability and power during the early assembly stages. It also has fuel storage capability.

  3. STS-88 crew goes through Crew Equipment Interface Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, STS-88 Mission Specialists Sergei Krikalev (left), a Russian cosmonaut; James H. Newman (center); and Jerry L. Ross conduct a sharp-edge inspection of the Unity connecting module, which is the primary payload on their upcoming mission. The STS-88 crew members are participating in a Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT), familiarizing themselves with the orbiter's midbody and crew compartments. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 3, 1998, STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). The primary payload is the Unity connecting module which will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module, expected to be already on orbit after a November launch from Russia. The first major U.S.-built component of ISS, Unity will serve as a connecting passageway to living and working areas of the space station. Unity has two attached pressurized mating adapters (PMAs) and one stowage rack installed inside. PMA-1 provides the permanent connection point between Unity and Zarya; PMA-2 will serve as a Space Shuttle docking port. Zarya is a self-supporting active vehicle, providing propulsive control capability and power during the early assembly stages. It also has fuel storage capability.

  4. STS-88 crew goes through Crew Equipment Interface Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Inside the Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 1, STS-88 Mission Specialists Sergei Krikalev (left), a Russian cosmonaut; and James H. Newman look over equipment for their upcoming flight. The STS-88 crew members are participating in a Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT), familiarizing themselves with the orbiter's midbody and crew compartments. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 3, 1998, STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). The primary payload is the Unity connecting module which will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module, expected to be already on orbit after a November launch from Russia. The first major U.S.- built component of ISS, Unity will serve as a connecting passageway to living and working areas of the space station. Unity has two attached pressurized mating adapters (PMAs) and one stowage rack installed inside. PMA-1 provides the permanent connection point between Unity and Zarya; PMA-2 will serve as a Space Shuttle docking port. Zarya is a self-supporting active vehicle, providing propulsive control capability and power during the early assembly stages. It also has fuel storage capability.

  5. STS-88 crew goes through Crew Equipment Interface Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 1, STS-88 Pilot Frederick W. Sturckow makes a visual inspection of windows on the Space Shuttle orbiter Endeavour. The STS-88 crew members are participating in a Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT), familiarizing themselves with the orbiter's midbody and crew compartments. Targeted for launch on Dec. 3, 1998, STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). The primary payload is the Unity connecting module which will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module, expected to be already on orbit after a November launch from Russia. The first major U.S.-built component of ISS, Unity will serve as a connecting passageway to living and working areas of the space station. Unity has two attached pressurized mating adapters (PMAs) and one stowage rack installed inside. PMA-1 provides the permanent connection point between Unity and Zarya; PMA-2 will serve as a Space Shuttle docking port. Zarya is a self-supporting active vehicle, providing propulsive control capability and power during the early assembly stages. It also has fuel storage capability.

  6. STS-114: Discovery Crew Arrival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    George Diller of NASA Public Affairs narrates the STS-114 Crew arrival at Kennedy Space Center aboard a Gulf Stream aircraft. They were greeted by Center Director Jim Kennedy. Commander Eileen Collins introduced each of her crew members and gave a brief description of their roles in the mission. Mission Specialist 3, Andrew Thomas will be the lead crew member on the inspection on flight day 2; he is the intravehicular (IV) crew member that will help and guide Mission Specialists Souichi Noguchi and Stephen Robinson during their spacewalks. Pilot James Kelly will be operating the shuttle systems in flying the Shuttle; he will be flying the space station robotic arm during the second extravehicular activity and he will be assisting Mission Specialist Wendy Lawrence during the other two extravehicular activities; he will be assisting on the rendezvous on flight day three, and landing of the shuttle. Commander Collins also mentioned Pilot Kelly's recent promotion to Colonel by the United States Air Force. Mission Specialist 1, Souichi Noguchi from JAXA (The Japanese Space Agency) will be flying on the flight deck for ascent; he will be doing three spacewalks on day 5, 7, and 9; He will be the photo/TV lead for the different types of cameras on board to document the flight and to send back the information to the ground for both technical and public affairs reasons. Mission Specialist 5, Charles Camada will be doing the inspection on flight day 2 with Mission Specialist Thomas and Pilot Kelly; he will be transferring the logistics off the shuttle and onto the space station and from the space station back to the shuttle; He will help set up eleven lap tops on board. Mission Specialist 4, Wendy Lawrence will lead the transfer of logistics to the space station; she is the space station arm operator during extravehicular activities 1 and 3; she will be carrying the 6,000 pounds of external storage platform from the shuttle payload bay over to the space station; she is also

  7. Pilot Ashby in the White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    STS-93 Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby is checked out by white room closeout crew members before entering the orbiter Columbia. The white room is an environmental chamber at the end of the orbiter access arm that provides entry to the orbiter crew compartment. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X- ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 and 22 launch attempts were scrubbed, the launch was again rescheduled for Friday, July 23, at 12:24 a.m. EDT. The target landing date is July 27 at 11:20 p.m. EDT.

  8. Organization, selection, and training of crews for extended spaceflight: findings from analogs and implications.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, J M; Foushee, H C

    1990-01-01

    Ample research evidence from space analogs points to the crucial role that teamwork plays in the performance of small groups in isolation and confinement. This paper surveys findings about the impacts of group behavior and social interaction on crew morale, coordination, and productivity. Implications for the organization, selection, and training of crews for extended spaceflight are discussed.

  9. Composite Crew Module: Primary Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsch, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    In January 2007, the NASA Administrator and Associate Administrator for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate chartered the NASA Engineering and Safety Center to design, build, and test a full-scale crew module primary structure, using carbon fiber reinforced epoxy based composite materials. The overall goal of the Composite Crew Module project was to develop a team from the NASA family with hands-on experience in composite design, manufacturing, and testing in anticipation of future space exploration systems being made of composite materials. The CCM project was planned to run concurrently with the Orion project's baseline metallic design within the Constellation Program so that features could be compared and discussed without inducing risk to the overall Program. This report discusses the project management aspects of the project including team organization, decision making, independent technical reviews, and cost and schedule management approach.

  10. Spacecraft Crew Cabin Condensation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrillo, Laurie Y.; Rickman, Steven L.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2013-01-01

    A report discusses a new technique to prevent condensation on the cabin walls of manned spacecraft exposed to the cold environment of space, as such condensation could lead to free water in the cabin. This could facilitate the growth of mold and bacteria, and could lead to oxidation and weakening of the cabin wall. This condensation control technique employs a passive method that uses spacecraft waste heat as the primary wallheating mechanism. A network of heat pipes is bonded to the crew cabin pressure vessel, as well as the pipes to each other, in order to provide for efficient heat transfer to the cabin walls and from one heat pipe to another. When properly sized, the heat-pipe network can maintain the crew cabin walls at a nearly uniform temperature. It can also accept and distribute spacecraft waste heat to maintain the pressure vessel above dew point.

  11. Manned Mars mission crew factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.

    1986-01-01

    Crew factors include a wide range of concerns relating to the human system and its role in a Mars mission. There are two important areas which will play a large part in determining the crew for a Mars mission. The first relates to the goals and priorities determined for such a vast endeavor. The second is the design of the vehicle for the journey. The human system cannot be separated from the other systems in that vehicle. In fact it will be the human system which drives the development of many of the technical breakthroughs necessary to make a Mars mission successful. As much as possible, the engineering systems must adapt to the needs of the human system and its individual components.

  12. Rocking the boat: does perfect rowing crew synchronization reduce detrimental boat movements?

    PubMed

    Cuijpers, L S; Passos, P J M; Murgia, A; Hoogerheide, A; Lemmink, K A P M; de Poel, H J

    2016-11-23

    In crew rowing, crew members need to mutually synchronize their movements to achieve optimal crew performance. Intuitively, poor crew coordination is often deemed to involve additional boat movements such as surge velocity fluctuations, heave, pitch, and roll, which would imply lower efficiency (eg, due to increased hydrodynamic drag). The aim of this study was to investigate this alleged relation between crew coordination and boat movements at different stroke rates. Fifteen crews of two rowers rowed in a double scull (ie, a two-person boat) at 18, 22, 26, 30, and 34 strokes per minute. Oar angles (using potentiometers) and movements of the boat (using a three-axial accelerometer-gyroscope sensor) were measured (200 Hz). Results indicated that crew synchronization became more consistent with stroke rate, while surge, heave, and pitch fluctuations increased. Further, within each stroke rate condition, better crew synchronization was related to less roll of the boat, but increased fluctuations regarding surge, heave, and pitch. Together this demonstrates that while better crew synchronization relates to enhanced lateral stability of the boat, it inevitably involves more detrimental boat movements and hence involves lower biomechanical efficiency.

  13. Orion Crew Module Aerodynamic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Bibb, Karen L.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Rhode, Matthew N.; Owens, Bruce; Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Bell, James H.; Wilson, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    The Apollo-derived Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), part of NASA s now-cancelled Constellation Program, has become the reference design for the new Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The MPCV will serve as the exploration vehicle for all near-term human space missions. A strategic wind-tunnel test program has been executed at numerous facilities throughout the country to support several phases of aerodynamic database development for the Orion spacecraft. This paper presents a summary of the experimental static aerodynamic data collected to-date for the Orion Crew Module (CM) capsule. The test program described herein involved personnel and resources from NASA Langley Research Center, NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Johnson Space Flight Center, Arnold Engineering and Development Center, Lockheed Martin Space Sciences, and Orbital Sciences. Data has been compiled from eight different wind tunnel tests in the CEV Aerosciences Program. Comparisons are made as appropriate to highlight effects of angle of attack, Mach number, Reynolds number, and model support system effects.

  14. Quarantined Apollo 11 Crew Debriefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home until they reached the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. The three are seen here at the MSC, still inside the MQF, undergoing their first debriefing on Sunday, August 3, 1969. Behind the glass are (L-R): Edwin Aldrin, Michael Collins, and Neil Armstrong.

  15. STS-114: Discovery Crew Post Landing Press Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The crew of the STS-114 Discovery is shown during a post landing press briefing. Commander Collins introduces the crew members who consist of Pilot Jim Kelley, Mission Specialist Soichi Noguchi from JAXA, Steve Robinson, Mission Specialist and Charlie Camarda, Mission Specialist. Steve Robinson answers a question from the news media about the repair that he performed in orbit, and his feelings about being back in his hometown of California. Commander Collins talks about the most significant accomplishment of the mission. The briefing ends as each crewmember reflects on the Space Shuttle Columbia tragedy and expresses their personal thoughts and feelings as they re-entered the Earth's atmosphere.

  16. Crew emergency return vehicle - Electrical power system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darcy, E. C.; Barrera, T. P.

    1989-01-01

    A crew emergency return vehicle (CERV) is proposed to perform the lifeboat function for the manned Space Station Freedom. This escape module will be permanently docked to Freedom and, on demand, will be capable of safely returning the crew to earth. The unique requirements that the CERV imposes on its power source are presented, power source options are examined, and a baseline system is selected. It consists of an active Li-BCX DD-cell modular battery system and was chosen for the maturity of its man-rated design and its low development costs.

  17. Orion Crew Member Injury Predictions during Land and Water Landings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Littell, Justin D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Tabiei, Ala

    2008-01-01

    A review of astronaut whole body impact tolerance is discussed for land or water landings of the next generation manned space capsule named Orion. LS-DYNA simulations of Orion capsule landings are performed to produce a low, moderate, and high probability of injury. The paper evaluates finite element (FE) seat and occupant simulations for assessing injury risk for the Orion crew and compares these simulations to whole body injury models commonly referred to as the Brinkley criteria. The FE seat and crash dummy models allow for varying the occupant restraint systems, cushion materials, side constraints, flailing of limbs, and detailed seat/occupant interactions to minimize landing injuries to the crew. The FE crash test dummies used in conjunction with the Brinkley criteria provides a useful set of tools for predicting potential crew injuries during vehicle landings.

  18. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The STS-101 crew gather during a meeting with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. From left, Mission Specialist Susan J. Helms, Commander James D. Halsell Jr., Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber, Pilot Scott J. Horowitz and Mission Specialists Yuri Vladimirovich Usachev, Jeffery N. Williams and James S. Voss. In the background is the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the pad. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  19. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A light-hearted moment during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. From left, Commander James D. Halsell Jr., Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber and Pilot Scott J. Horowitz. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  20. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-101 Mission Specialist Yuri Vladimirovich Usachev, a Russian cosmonaut, and his wife Vera Sergeevna Usacheva during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  1. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-101 Commander James D. Halsell Jr. waves as he stands with his wife Kathy during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  2. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-101 Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber and her husband Jerome Elkind during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  3. High-performance laser mode-locker with glass-hosted SWNTs realized by room-temperature aerosol deposition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Jun; Choi, Ho-Jun; Nam, Song-Min; Song, Yong-Won

    2011-02-28

    We preserve optical nonlinear properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) within SiO2-host employing aerosol deposition (AD) that guarantees the formation of dense ceramic thick films at room temperature without combustion and solubility limitation of the SWNTs. The intact nonlinearity is verified with transmittance check, Raman spectrometry and electron microscopes. As a saturable absorption device, the SiO2-SWNT composite film successfully mode-locks fiber lasers inducing high-quality output pulses with the measured pulse duration and repetition rate of 890 fs and 9.52 MHz, respectively. After experiencing the intracavity power higher than 20 dBm, the hosted SWNTs are survived to function as the pulse formers.

  4. A Room Temperature H2 Sensor Fabricated Using High Performance Pt-Loaded SnO2 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng-Chang; Shaikh, Muhammad Omar

    2015-01-01

    Highly sensitive H2 gas sensors were prepared using pure and Pt-loaded SnO2 nanoparticles. Thick film sensors (~35 μm) were fabricated that showed a highly porous interconnected structure made of high density small grained nanoparticles. Using Pt as catalyst improved sensor response and reduced the operating temperature for achieving high sensitivity because of the negative temperature coefficient observed in Pt-loaded SnO2. The highest sensor response to 1000 ppm H2 was 10,500 at room temperature with a response time of 20 s. The morphology of the SnO2 nanoparticles, the surface loading concentration and dispersion of the Pt catalyst and the microstructure of the sensing layer all play a key role in the development of an effective gas sensing device. PMID:26091394

  5. 29 CFR 780.331 - Crew leaders and labor contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS... performance of work by his crew and his authority to determine the wage rates paid to his workers. (c)...

  6. 29 CFR 780.331 - Crew leaders and labor contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS... performance of work by his crew and his authority to determine the wage rates paid to his workers. (c)...

  7. 29 CFR 780.331 - Crew leaders and labor contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS... performance of work by his crew and his authority to determine the wage rates paid to his workers. (c)...

  8. 29 CFR 780.331 - Crew leaders and labor contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS... performance of work by his crew and his authority to determine the wage rates paid to his workers. (c)...

  9. STS-109 Shuttle Mission Onboard Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On the Space Shuttle Columbia's mid deck, the STS-109 crew of seven pose for the traditional in-flight portrait. From the left (front row), are astronauts Nancy J. Currie, mission specialist; Scott D. Altman, mission commander; and Duane G. Carey, pilot. Pictured on the back row from left to right are astronauts John M. Grunsfield, payload commander; and Richard M. Lirneham, James H. Newman, and Michael J. Massimino, all mission specialists. The 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program, the STS-109 mission launched March 1, 2002, and lasted 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes. The goal of the mission was the maintenance and upgrade of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Using Columbia's robotic arm, the telescope was captured and secured on a work stand in Columbia's payload bay where four members of the crew performed five space walks to complete system upgrades to the HST. The Marshall Space Flight Center had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST, which is the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit.

  10. Analysis of crew functions as an aid in Space Station interior layout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, A. L.; Tullis, Thomas S.; Bied, Barbra

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station must be designed to facilitate all of the functions that its crew will perform, both on-duty and off-duty, as efficiently and comfortably as possible. This paper examines the functions to be performed by the Space Station crew in order to make inferences about the design of an interior layout that optimizes crew productivity. Twenty-seven crew functions were defined, as well as five criteria for assessing relationships among all pairs of those functions. Hierarchical clustering and multidimensional scaling techniques were used to visually summarize the relationships. A key result was the identification of two dimensions for describing the configuration of crew functions: 'Private-Public' and 'Group-Individual'. Seven specific recommendations for Space Station interior layout were derived from the analyses.

  11. Group-level issues in the design and training of cockpit crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackman, J. Richard

    1987-01-01

    Cockpit crews always operate in an organizational context, and the transactions between the crew and representatives of that context (e.g., organizational managers, air traffic controllers) are consequential for any crew's performance. For a complete understanding of crew performance a look beyond the traditional focus on individual pilots is provided to see how team- and organization-level factors can enhance (or impede) the ability of even well-trained individuals to work together effectively. This way of thinking about cockpit crews (that is, viewing them as teams that operate in organizations) offers some potentially useful avenues for thinking about next steps in the development of CRM training programs. Those possibilities are explored, emphasizing how they can enrich (not replace) individually-focussed CRM training.

  12. The role of communications, socio-psychological, and personality factors in the maintenance of crew coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of group dynamics on the capability of aircraft crew members to make full use of the resources available on the flight deck in order to maintain flight safety is discussed. Instances of crewmembers withholding altimeter or heading information from the captain are cited as examples of domineering attitudes from command pilots and overconscientiousness on the parts of copilots, who may refuse to relay information forcefully enough or to take control of the aircraft in the case of pilot incapacitation. NASA studies of crew performance in controlled, simulator settings, concentrating on communication, decision making, crew interaction, and integration showed that efficient communication reduced errors. Acknowledgements served to encourage correct communication. The best crew performance is suggested to occur with personnel who are capable of both goal and group orientation. Finally, one bad effect of computer controlled flight is cited to be the tendency of the flight crew to think that someone else is taking care of difficulties in threatening situations.

  13. A higher performance dye-sensitized solar cell based on the modified PMII/EMIMBF4 binary room temperature ionic liquid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wu-yang; Cao, Da-peng; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Xiang-yu; Mi, Bao-xiu; Gao, Zhi-qiang; Liang, Zhong-cheng

    2016-07-01

    Additives and iodine (I2) are used to modify the binary room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolyte to enhance the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The short-circuit current density ( J SC) of 17.89 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage ( V OC) of 0.71 V and fill factor ( FF) of 0.50 are achieved in the optimal device. An average photoelectric conversion efficiency ( PCE) of 6.35% is achieved by optimization, which is over two times larger than that of the parent device before optimization (2.06%), while the maximum PCE can reach up to 6.63%.

  14. The advancement of a new human factors report--'The Unique Report'--facilitating flight crew auditing of performance/operations as part of an airline's safety management system.

    PubMed

    Leva, M C; Cahill, J; Kay, A M; Losa, G; McDonald, N

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents the findings of research relating to the specification of a new human factors report, conducted as part of the work requirements for the Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems project, sponsored by the European Commission. Specifically, it describes the proposed concept for a unique report, which will form the basis for all operational and safety reports completed by flight crew. This includes all mandatory and optional reports. Critically, this form is central to the advancement of improved processes and technology tools, supporting airline performance management, safety management, organisational learning and knowledge integration/information-sharing activities. Specifically, this paper describes the background to the development of this reporting form, the logic and contents of this form and how reporting data will be made use of by airline personnel. This includes a description of the proposed intelligent planning process and the associated intelligent flight plan concept, which makes use of airline operational and safety analyses information. Primarily, this new reporting form has been developed in collaboration with a major Spanish airline. In addition, it has involved research with five other airlines. Overall, this has involved extensive field research, collaborative prototyping and evaluation of new reports/flight plan concepts and a number of evaluation activities. Participants have included both operational and management personnel, across different airline flight operations processes. Statement of Relevance: This paper presents the development of a reporting concept outlined through field research and collaborative prototyping within an airline. The resulting reporting function, embedded in the journey log compiled at the end of each flight, aims at enabling employees to audit the operations of the company they work for.

  15. STS-26 crew trains in JSC crew compartment trainer (CCT) shuttle mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson trains in the crew compartment trainer (CCT) located in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Nelson, wearing new (navy blue) partial pressure suit (launch and entry suit (LES)) and helmet, is strapped into his launch and entry station on the CCT middeck. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new partial pressure suits and checked out crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options.

  16. STS-26 crew trains in JSC crew compartment trainer (CCT) shuttle mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson trains in the crew compartment trainer (CCT) located in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Nelson, wearing new (navy blue) partial pressure suit (launch and entry suit (LES)) and helmet, peers out the open CCT side hatch and prepares to deploy inflatable slide. Technicians observe the activity from scaffolding on either side of the hatch. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new partial pressure suits and checked out crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options.

  17. STS-26 crew trains in JSC crew compartment trainer (CCT) shuttle mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers sit on flight deck of the crew compartment trainer (CCT) shuttle mockup. Pilot Richard O. Covey (left) at pilot station controls and Mission Specialist (MS) John M. Lounge (center) and MS David C. Hilmers on aft flight deck are wearing the new (navy blue) partial pressure suits (launch and entry suits (LESs)). During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new partial pressure suits and checked out crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options. CCT shuttle mockup is located in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A.

  18. STS-26 crew trains in JSC crew compartment trainer (CCT) shuttle mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck tests cushion outside the crew compartment trainer (CCT) side hatch. Hauck, wearing new (navy blue) partial pressure suit (launch and entry suit (LES)) and helmet, tumbles out CCT side hatch onto cushion as technicians look on. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new partial pressure suits and checked out crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options. CCT is located in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A.

  19. Behind the Scenes: Discovery Crew Performs Swimmingly

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this episode of NASA "Behind the Scenes," astronaut Mike Massimino visits the Johnson Space Center's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory. The world's largest indoor pool is where Al Drew, Tim Kopra, Mik...

  20. Required Area for a Crew Person in a Space Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Frances E.

    1998-01-01

    This 176 page report was written in circa 1966 to examine the effects of confmement during space flight. One of the topics covered was the required size of a space vehicle for extended missions. Analysis was done using size of crew and length of time in a confmed space. The report was based on all information available at that time. The data collected and analyzed included both NASA and (when possible) Russian missions flown to date, analogs (such as submarines), and ground studies. Both psychological and physiological responses to confmement were examined. Factors evaluated in estimating the degree of impairment included the level of performance of intellectual, perceptual, manual and co-ordinated tasks, response to psychological testing, subjective comments of the participants, nature and extent of physiological change, and the nature and extent of behavioral change and the nature and extent of somatic complaints. Information was not included from studies where elements of perceptual isolation were more than mildly incidental - water immersion studies, studies in darkened and acoustically insulated rooms, studies with distorted environmental inputs - unpattemed light and white noise. Using the graph from the document, the upper line provides a threshold of minimum acceptable volumeall points above the line may be considered acceptable. The lower line provides a threshold of unacceptable volume - all points below the line are unacceptable. The area in between the two lines is the area of doubtful acceptability where impairment tends to increase with reduction in volume and increased duration of exposure. Reference is made of the Gemini VII, 14-day duration mission which had detectable impairment with a combination of 40 cubic feet per man for 14 days. In line with all other data this point should be in the 'marked impairment' zone. It is assumed that the state of fitness, dedication and experience influenced this outcome.

  1. Basement utility room (room 24; air handling room), near the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Basement utility room (room 24; air handling room), near the west end of the combat operations center, looking southwest towards fan system one, air ducts, and walk-in filter rooms. The exterior equipment well is visible at the left - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  2. Facile fabrication of high-performance InGaZnO thin film transistor using hydrogen ion irradiation at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Byung Du; Park, Jin-Seong; Chung, K. B.

    2014-10-20

    Device performance of InGaZnO (IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) are investigated as a function of hydrogen ion irradiation dose at room temperature. Field effect mobility is enhanced, and subthreshold gate swing is improved with the increase of hydrogen ion irradiation dose, and there is no thermal annealing. The electrical device performance is correlated with the electronic structure of IGZO films, such as chemical bonding states, features of the conduction band, and band edge states below the conduction band. The decrease of oxygen deficient bonding and the changes in electronic structure of the conduction band leads to the improvement of device performance in IGZO TFT with an increase of the hydrogen ion irradiation dose.

  3. Self-template-directed synthesis of porous perovskite nanowires at room temperature for high-performance visible-light photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Sifei; Zhang, Jingfang; Shi, Yanmei; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Bin

    2015-05-04

    The unique optoelectronic properties and promising photovoltaic applications of organolead halide perovskites have driven the exploration of facile strategies to synthesize organometal halide perovskites and corresponding hybrid materials and devices. Currently, the preparation of CH3 NH3 PbBr3 perovskite nanowires, especially those with porous features, is still a great challenge. An efficient self-template-directed synthesis of high-quality porous CH3 NH3 PbBr3 perovskite nanowires in solution at room temperature using the Pb-containing precursor nanowires as both the sacrificial template and the Pb(2+) source in the presence of CH3 NH3 Br and HBr is now presented. The initial formation of CH3 NH3 PbBr3 perovskite layers on the surface of the precursor nanowires and the following dissolution of the organic component of the latter led to the formation of mesopores and the preservation of the 1D morphology. Furthermore, the perovskite nanowires are potential materials for visible-light photodetectors with high sensitivity and stability.

  4. Absence attributed to sickness in oil tanker crews.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, J T

    1976-01-01

    Absences attributed to sickness were investigated in 1410 deck and engine-room crew members during a period of two years and five months. The mean frequency of absences was 0-23 per man year, with a mean duration per absence of 41 days. The absence frequency varied with both rank and place of work. Altogether 23% of deck officers serving throughout the study and 43% of engine-room ratings had one or more absences. Spells of absence in young officers were five times more frequent when they were on leave than at sea. In the younger officers more than half of all spells that were initiated while on leave occurred at the end of the leave period. The contrasting environments of ship and shore allow the relative importance of effects on absence frequency of the work and home environment and of medical and social factors to be considered separately. PMID:1268109

  5. Upper Extremity Injuries in NASCAR Drivers and Pit Crew

    PubMed Central

    Wertman, Gary; Gaston, R. Glenn; Heisel, William

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding the position-specific musculoskeletal forces placed on the body of athletes facilitates treatment, prevention, and return-to-play decisions. While position-specific injuries are well documented in most major sports, little is known about the epidemiology of position-specific injuries in National Association for Stock Car Automobile Racing (NASCAR) drivers and pit crew. Purpose: To investigate position-specific upper extremity injuries in NASCAR drivers and pit crew members. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed to assess position-specific injuries in NASCAR drivers and pit crew members. Included in the study were patients seen by a single institution between July 2003 and October 2014 with upper extremity injuries from race-related NASCAR events or practices. Charts were reviewed to identify the diagnosis, mechanism of injury, and position of each patient. Results: A total of 226 NASCAR team members were treated between July 2003 and October 2014. Of these, 118 injuries (52%) occurred during NASCAR racing events or practices. The majority of these injuries occurred in NASCAR changers (42%), followed by injuries in drivers (16%), carriers (14%), jack men (11%), fuel men (9%), and utility men (8%). The majority of the pit crew positions are at risk for epicondylitis, while drivers are most likely to experience neuropathies, such as hand-arm vibration syndrome. The changer sustains the most hand-related injuries (42%) on the pit crew team, while carriers commonly sustain injuries to their digits (29%). Conclusion: Orthopaedic injuries in NASCAR vary between positions. Injuries in NASCAR drivers and pit crew members are a consequence of the distinctive forces associated with each position throughout the course of the racing season. Understanding these forces and position-associated injuries is important for preventive measures and facilitates diagnosis and return-to-play decisions

  6. ISS Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueders, Kathryn L. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    Under the guidance of processes provided by Crew Transportation Plan (CCT-PLN-1100), this document with its sister documents, Crew Transportation Technical Management Processes (CCT-PLN-1120), Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria (CCT-STD-1140), and Crew Transportation Operations Standards (CCT-STD-1150), and International Space Station (ISS) to Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Interface Requirements Document (SSP 50808), provides the basis for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) certification for services to the ISS for the Commercial Provider. When NASA Crew Transportation System (CTS) certification is achieved for ISS transportation, the Commercial Provider will be eligible to provide services to and from the ISS during the services phase of the NASA Commercial Crew Program (CCP).

  7. STS-41D Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-41D mission included (seated left to right) Richard M. (Mike) Mullane, mission specialist; Steven A. Hawley, mission specialist; Henry W. Hartsfield, commander; and Michael L. (Mike) Coats, pilot. Standing in the rear are Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; and Judith A. (Judy) Resnik, mission specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery August 30, 1984 at 8:41:50 am (EDT), the STS-41D mission deployed three satellites: the Satellite Business System SBS-D; the SYCOM IV-2 (also known as LEASAT-2); and the TELSTAR.

  8. STS-107 Crew Training Clip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-06-01

    The STS-107 is a Multidiscipline Microgravity and Earth Science Research Mission to conduct international scientific investigations in orbit. The crew consists of Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon, Commander Rick Husband, Pilot William McCool, and Mission Specialists David Brown, Laurel Clark, Michael Anderson, and Kalpana Chawla. The crewmembers are shown getting suited in the Pre-Launch Ingress and Egress training area. The other areas of training include Payload Experiment in Fixed Base/Spacehab, Mist Experiment Combustion Module 2, Phab 4 Experiment in CCT Mid-deck and Payload Experiment Demo-Protein Crystal Growth.

  9. STS-121 crew visits SSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Astronauts Steve Lindsey (left), Stephanie Wilson, Lisa Nowak and Piers Sellers meet with employees at NASA Stennis Space Center. The crewmembers on NASA's space shuttle mission STS-121, which launched July 4, 2006, thanked SSC's workers for their dedication and safe work history. `We feel blessed that you are a part of the NASA family,' Wilson said. All four expressed gratitude for the reliability of the space shuttle's main engines, which helped propel the STS-121 crew into orbit on their 13-day mission.

  10. Understanding and Counteracting Fatigue in Flight Crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallis, Melissa; Neri, David; Rosekind, Mark; Gander, Philippa; Caldwell, John; Graeber, Curtis

    2007-01-01

    The materials included in the collection of documents describe the research of the NASA Ames Fatigue Countermeasures Group (FCG), which examines the extent to which fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption affect flight-crew performance. The group was formed in 1980 in response to a Congressional request to examine a possible safety problem of uncertain magnitude due to transmeridian flying and a potential problem due to fatigue in association with various factors found in air-transport operations and was originally called the Fatigue/Jet Lag Program. The goals of the FCG are: (1) the development and evaluation of strategies for mitigating the effects of sleepiness and circadian disruption on pilot performance levels; (2) the identification and evaluation of objective approaches for the prediction of alertness changes in flight crews; and (3) the transfer and application of research results to the operational field via classes, workshops, and safety briefings. Some of the countermeasure approaches that have been identified to be scientifically valid and operationally relevant are brief naps (less than 40 min) in the cockpit seat and 7-min activity breaks, which include postural changes and ambulation. Although a video-based alertness monitor based on slow eyelid closure shows promise in other operational environments, research by the FCG has demonstrated that in its current form at the time of this reporting, it is not feasible to implement it in the cockpit. Efforts also focus on documenting the impact of untreated fatigue on various types of flight operations. For example, the FCG recently completed a major investigation into the effects of ultra-long-range flights (20 continuous hours in duration) on the alertness and performance of pilots in order to establish a baseline set of parameters against which the effectiveness of new ultra-long-range fatigue remedies can be judged.

  11. Special Purpose Crew Restraints for Teleoperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Holden, Kritina; Norris, Lena

    2004-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), and long duration space missions being planned for the moon and Mars, humans will be living and working in microgravity over increasingly long periods of time. In addition to weightlessness, the confined nature of a spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility, and access to the activity area. These challenges can result in prolonged periods of unnatural postures for the crew, ultimately causing pain, injury, and loss of productivity. Determining the right set of human factors requirements and providing an ergonomically designed environment is crucial to mission success. While a number of general purpose restraints have been used on ISS (handrails, foot loops), experience has shown that these general purpose restraints may not be optimal, or even acceptable for some tasks that have unique requirements. For example, some onboard activities require extreme stability (e.g., glovebox microsurgery), and others involve the use of arm, torso and foot movements in order to perform the task (e-g. robotic teleoperation); standard restraint systems will not work in these situations. The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (WAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center began evaluations of crew restraints for these special situations by looking at NASAs Robonaut. Developed by the Robot Systems Technology Branch, Robonaut is a humanoid robot that can be remotely operated through a tetepresence control system by an operator. It was designed to perform work in hazardous environments (e.g., Extra Vehicular Activities). A Robonaut restraint was designed, modeled for the population, and ultimately tested onboard the KC-135 microgravity aircraft. While in microgravity, participants were asked to get in and out of the restraint from different locations, perform maximum reach exercises, and finally to teleoperate Robonaut while in the restraint. The sessions were videotaped

  12. Development of Urine Receptacle Assembly for the Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cibuzar, Branelle Rae; Thomas, Evan; Peterson, Laurie; Goforth, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    The Urine Receptacle Assembly (URA) initially was developed for Apollo as a primary means of urine collection. The aluminum housing with stainless steel honeycomb insert provided all male crewmembers with a non-invasive means of micturating into a urine capturing device and then venting to space. The performance of the URA was a substantial improvement over previous devices but its performance was not well understood. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) program is exploring the URA as a contingency liquid waste management system for the vehicle. URA improvements are required to meet CEV requirements, including: consumables minimization, flow performance, acceptable hygiene standards, crew comfort, and female crewmember capability. This paper presents the results of a historical review of URA performance during the Apollo program, recent URA performance tests on the reduced gravity aircraft flight under varying flow conditions, and a proposed development plan for the URA to meet CEV needs.

  13. Crew coordination issues of EVS approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Bernd; Korn, Bernd R.

    2004-08-01

    Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS) are currently developed with the goal to alleviate restrictions in airspace and airport capacity in low visibility conditions. Existing EVS-systems are based on IR-sensors although the penetration of bad weather (dense fog and light rain) by MMW-radar is remarkably better than in the infrared spectrum. But the quality of MMW radar is rather poor compared to IR images. However, the analysis of radar images can be simplified dramatically when simple passive radar retro-reflectors are used to mark the runway. This presentation is the third in a series of studies investigating the use of such simple landing aids. In the first study the feasibility of the radar PAPI concept was determined; the second one provided first promising human performance results in a low-fidelity simulation. The present study examined pilot performance, workload, situation awareness, and crew coordination issues in a high-fidelity simulation of 'Radar-PAPI' visual aids supporting a precision straight-in landing in low visibility (CAT-II). Simulation scenarios were completed in a fixed-base cockpit simulator involving six two-pilot flight-deck crews. Pilots could derive visual cues to correct lateral glide-path deviations from 13 pairs of runway-marking corner reflectors. Vertical deviations were indicated by a set of six diplane reflectors using intensity-coding to provide the PAPI categories needed for the correction of vertical deviations. The study compared three display formats and associated crew coordination issues: (1) PF views a head-down B-scope display and switches to visual landing upon PNF's call-out that runway is in sight; (2) PF views a head-down C-scope display and switches to visual landing upon PNF's call-out that runway is in sight; (3) PF views through a head-up display (HUD) that displays primary flight guidance information and receives vertical and lateral guidance from PNF who views a head-down B-scope. PNF guidance is terminated upon PF

  14. Crew Communication as a Factor in Aviation Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goguen, J.; Linde, C.; Murphy, M.

    1986-01-01

    The crew communication process is analyzed. Planning and explanation are shown to be well-structured discourse types, described by formal rules. These formal rules are integrated with those describing the other most important discourse type within the cockpit: the command-and-control speech act chain. The latter is described as a sequence of speech acts for making requests (including orders and suggestions), for making reports, for supporting or challenging statements, and for acknowledging previous speech acts. Mitigation level, a linguistic indication of indirectness and tentativeness in speech, was an important variable in several hypotheses, i.e., the speech of subordinates is more mitigated than the speech of superiors, the speech of all crewmembers is less mitigated when they know that they are in either a problem or emergency situation, and mitigation is a factor in failures of crewmembers to initiate discussion of new topics or have suggestions ratified by the captain. Test results also show that planning and explanation are more frequently performed by captains, are done more during crew- recognized problems, and are done less during crew-recognized emergencies. The test results also indicated that planning and explanation are more frequently performed by captains than by other crewmembers, are done more during crew-recognized problems, and are done less during-recognized emergencies.

  15. Psychosocial issues affecting crews during long-duration international space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanas, Nick

    Psychosocial issues can negatively impact on crew performance and morale during long-duration international space missions. Major psychosocial factors that have been described in anecdotal reports from space and in studies from analog situations on Earth include: 1) crew heterogeneity due to gender differences, cultural issues, and work experiences and motivations; 2) language and dialect variations; and 3) task versus supportive leadership roles. All of these factors can lead to negative sequelae, such as intra-crew tension and cohesion disruptions. Specific sequelae that can result from single factors include subgrouping and scapegoating due to crew heterogeneity; miscommunication due to major or subtle language differences; and role confusion, competition, and status leveling due to inappropriate leadership role definition. It is time to conduct research exploring the impact of these psychosocial factors and their sequelae on space crews during actual long-duration international space missions.

  16. Psychosocial issues affecting crews during long-duration international space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanas, N.

    1998-01-01

    Psychosocial issues can negatively impact on crew performance and morale during long-duration international space missions. Major psychosocial factors that have been described in anecdotal reports from space and in studies from analog situations on Earth include: 1) crew heterogeneity due to gender differences, cultural issues, and work experiences and motivations; 2) language and dialect variations; and 3) task versus supportive leadership roles. All of these factors can lead to negative sequelae, such as intra-crew tension and cohesion disruptions. Specific sequelae that can result from single factors include subgrouping and scapegoating due to crew heterogeneity; miscommunication due to major or subtle language differences; and role confusion, competition, and status leveling due to inappropriate leadership role definition. It is time to conduct research exploring the impact of these psychosocial factors and their sequelae on space crews during actual long-duration international space missions.

  17. Novel Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Electrolyte to Enable LiFePO4 Quasi-Solid-State Li-Ion Batteries Performed Highly around Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Tan, Rui; Gao, Rongtan; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Mingjian; Xu, Junyi; Yang, Jinlong; Pan, Feng

    2016-11-16

    A novel type of organic-inorganic hybrid polymer electrolytes with high electrochemical performances around room temperature is formed by hybrid of nanofillers, Y-type oligomer, polyoxyethylene and Li-salt (PBA-Li), of which the Tg and Tm are significantly lowered by blended heterogeneous polyethers and embedded nanofillers with benefit of the dipole modification to achieve the high Li-ion migration due to more free-volume space. The quasi-solid-state Li-ion batteries based on the LiFePO4/15PBA-Li/Li-metal cells present remarkable reversible capacities (133 and 165 mAh g(-1) @0.2 C at 30 and 45 °C, respectively), good rate ability and stable cycle performance (141.9 mAh g(-1) @0.2 C at 30 °C after 150 cycles).

  18. Spacecraft crew procedures from paper to computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneal, Michael; Manahan, Meera

    1991-01-01

    Described here is a research project that uses human factors and computer systems knowledge to explore and help guide the design and creation of an effective Human-Computer Interface (HCI) for spacecraft crew procedures. By having a computer system behind the user interface, it is possible to have increased procedure automation, related system monitoring, and personalized annotation and help facilities. The research project includes the development of computer-based procedure system HCI prototypes and a testbed for experiments that measure the effectiveness of HCI alternatives in order to make design recommendations. The testbed will include a system for procedure authoring, editing, training, and execution. Progress on developing HCI prototypes for a middeck experiment performed on Space Shuttle Mission STS-34 and for upcoming medical experiments are discussed. The status of the experimental testbed is also discussed.

  19. Spacecraft crew procedures from paper to computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneal, Michael; Manahan, Meera

    1993-01-01

    Large volumes of paper are launched with each Space Shuttle Mission that contain step-by-step instructions for various activities that are to be performed by the crew during the mission. These instructions include normal operational procedures and malfunction or contingency procedures and are collectively known as the Flight Data File (FDF). An example of nominal procedures would be those used in the deployment of a satellite from the Space Shuttle; a malfunction procedure would describe actions to be taken if a specific problem developed during the deployment. A new FDF and associated system is being created for Space Station Freedom. The system will be called the Space Station Flight Data File (SFDF). NASA has determined that the SFDF will be computer-based rather than paper-based. Various aspects of the SFDF are discussed.

  20. STS-82 Crew Members in VPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In KSCs Vertical Processing Facility, STS-82 crew members become familiar with some of the hardware they will handle on the second Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission. At far left center is Payload Commander Mark C. Lee; Mission Specialist Joseph R. 'Joe' Tanner, in foreground, is facing sideways at far right. They and HST workers at the VPF are examining parts of the Multipurpose ORU (Orbital Replacement Unit) Protective Enclosure, known by the acronym MOPE. Lee and Tanner, along with fellow Mission Specialists Gregory J. Harbaugh and Steven L. Smith, will perform the spacewalks required for servicing and repair of HST, which was deployed nearly seven years ago and first serviced in 1993. STS-82 is targeted for a mid-February liftoff on the Space Shuttle Discovery.

  1. 46 CFR 92.20-10 - Location of crew spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location of crew spaces. 92.20-10 Section 92.20-10... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-10 Location of crew spaces. (a) Crew... the crew spaces may be below the deepest load line. (b) There must be no direct communication,...

  2. 46 CFR 92.20-10 - Location of crew spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location of crew spaces. 92.20-10 Section 92.20-10... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-10 Location of crew spaces. (a) Crew... the crew spaces may be below the deepest load line. (b) There must be no direct communication,...

  3. 46 CFR 92.20-10 - Location of crew spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Location of crew spaces. 92.20-10 Section 92.20-10... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-10 Location of crew spaces. (a) Crew... the crew spaces may be below the deepest load line. (b) There must be no direct communication,...

  4. 29 CFR 780.331 - Crew leaders and labor contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crew leaders and labor contractors. 780.331 Section 780.331... 13(a)(6) Statutory Provisions § 780.331 Crew leaders and labor contractors. (a) Whether a crew leader... contractor. A crew leader who merely assembles a crew and brings them to the farm to be supervised and...

  5. 46 CFR 92.20-10 - Location of crew spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location of crew spaces. 92.20-10 Section 92.20-10... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-10 Location of crew spaces. (a) Crew... the crew spaces may be below the deepest load line. (b) There must be no direct communication,...

  6. 46 CFR 92.20-10 - Location of crew spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of crew spaces. 92.20-10 Section 92.20-10... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-10 Location of crew spaces. (a) Crew... the crew spaces may be below the deepest load line. (b) There must be no direct communication,...

  7. 36. ENGINE ROOM FROM STARBOARD SIDE OF CONTROL CONSOLE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. ENGINE ROOM FROM STARBOARD SIDE OF CONTROL CONSOLE, LOOKING AT TWO DIESEL ENGINES, STAIRS LEAD UP TO CREW'S BERTHING. THIS IMAGE IS CLOSER TO THE STERN AND MORE ANGLED TOWARDS THE PORT THAN IMAGE 34. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  8. STS-86 Commander James Wetherbee in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-86 Commander James D. Wetherbee prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Atlantis at Launch Pad 39A, with the assistance of white room closeout crew member Jim Davis, a NASA quality assurance specialist. Rick Welty, United Space Alliance orbiter vehicle closeout chief, is in foreground with back to camera.

  9. STS-80 Mission Specialist Tamara E. Jernigan in White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-80 Mission Specialist Tamara E. Jernigan prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Columbia at Launch Pad 39B, with assistance from white room closeout crew members (from left) Ray Villalobos and Bob Saulnier. Behind her is Mission Specialist Story Musgrave.

  10. STS-79 Commander William Readdy in White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 Commander William F. Readdy gets ready to climb into the flight deck of the Space Shuttle Atlantis at Launch Pad 39A. Assisting him are white room closeout crew members Travis Thompson (from left), Jean Alexander and Jim Davis.

  11. Estimating the Reliability of a Crewed Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutomski, M. G.; Garza, J.

    2012-01-01

    Now that the Space Shuttle Program has been retired, the Russian Soyuz Launcher and Soyuz Spacecraft are the only means for crew transportation to and from the International Space Station (ISS). Are the astronauts and cosmonauts safer on the Soyuz than the Space Shuttle system? How do you estimate the reliability of such a crewed spacecraft? The recent loss of the 44 Progress resupply flight to the ISS has put these questions front and center. The Soyuz launcher has been in operation for over 40 years. There have been only two Loss of Crew (LOC) incidents and two Loss of Mission (LOM) incidents involving crew missions. Given that the most recent crewed Soyuz launcher incident took place in 1983, how do we determine current reliability of such a system? How do all of the failures of unmanned Soyuz family launchers such as the 44P impact the reliability of the currently operational crewed launcher? Does the Soyuz exhibit characteristics that demonstrate reliability growth and how would that be reflected in future estimates of success? In addition NASA has begun development of the Orion or Multi-Purpose Crewed Vehicle as well as started an initiative to purchase Commercial Crew services from private firms. The reliability targets are currently several times higher than the last Shuttle reliability estimate. Can these targets be compared to the reliability of the Soyuz arguably the highest reliable crewed spacecraft and launcher in the world to determine whether they are realistic and achievable? To help answer these questions this paper will explore how to estimate the reliability of the Soyuz launcher/spacecraft system over its mission to give a benchmark for other human spaceflight vehicles and their missions. Specifically this paper will look at estimating the Loss of Mission (LOM) and Loss of Crew (LOC) probability for an ISS crewed Soyuz launcher/spacecraft mission using historical data, reliability growth, and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques.

  12. STS-112 crew during Crew Equipment Interface Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- During a Crew Equipment Interface Test, STS-112 Mission Specialist Piers Sellers (foreground) points to an engine line on Atlantis, the designated orbiter for the mission, while Commander Jeffrey Ashby (behind) looks on. STS-112 is the 15th assembly flight to the International Space Station and will be ferrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure. The S1 truss is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment also will house communications systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. The S1 truss will be attached to the S0 truss. STS-112 is currently scheduled for launch Aug. 22, 2002.

  13. STS-112 crew during Crew Equipment Interface Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - During a Crew Equipment Interface Test, STS-112 Pilot Pamela Melroy (left) and Mission Specialist David Wolf (right) look at equipment pointed out by a technician in the payload bay of Atlantis. STS-112 is the 15th assembly flight to the International Space Station and will be ferrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure. The S1 truss is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment also will house communications systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. The S1 truss will be attached to the S0 truss. STS-112 is currently scheduled for launch Aug. 22, 2002 .

  14. STS-74 crew talk with recovery convoy crew after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    On Runway 33 of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility, STS-74 Commander Kenneth D. Cameron (left) and Mission Specialists Jerry L. Ross and Chris A. Hadfield chat with KSC recovery convoy crew member Shawn Greenwell, a runway measurement engineer. Cameron guided the orbiter Atlantis to the 27th end-of-mission landing at KSC in Shuttle program history, with main gear touchdown occuring at 12:01:27 p.m. EST. STS-74 marked the second docking of the U.S. Space Shuttle to the Russian Space Station Mir; Atlantis also was flown for the first docking earlier this year and its next mission, STS-76 in 1996, will be the third docking flight.

  15. STS-112 crew during Crew Equipment Interface Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- During a Crew Equipment Interface Test, STS-112 Mission Specialist Piers Sellers (left) points to an engine line on Atlantis, the designated orbiter for the mission, while Commander Jeffrey Ashby (right) looks on. STS-112 is the 15th assembly flight to the International Space Station and will be ferrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure. The S1 truss is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment also will house communications systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. The S1 truss will be attached to the S0 truss. STS-112 is currently scheduled for launch Aug. 22, 2002.

  16. STS-112 crew during Crew Equipment Interface Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- During a Crew Equipment Interface Test, STS-112 Pilot Pamela Melroy checks out the windshield on Atlantis, the designated orbiter for the mission. STS-112 is the 15th assembly flight to the International Space Station and will be ferrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure. The S1 truss is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment also will house communications systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. The S1 truss will be attached to the S0 truss. STS-112 is currently scheduled for launch Aug. 22, 2002.

  17. STS-112 crew during Crew Equipment Interface Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Accompanied by a technician, STS-112 Pilot Pamela Melroy (left) and Mission Specialist David Wolf (right) look at the payload and equipment in the bay of Atlantis during a Crew Equipment Interface Test at KSC. STS-112 is the 15th assembly flight to the International Space Station and will be ferrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure. The S1 truss is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment also will house communications systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. The S1 truss will be attached to the S0 truss. STS-112 is currently scheduled for launch Aug. 22, 2002 .

  18. STS-112 crew during Crew Equipment Interface Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- During a Crew Equipment Interface Test, STS-112 Mission Specialist Fyodor Yurchikhin looks at Atlantis, the designated orbiter for the mission. Yurchikhin is with the Russian Space Agency. STS-112 is the 15th assembly flight to the International Space Station and will be ferrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure. The S1 truss is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment also will house communications systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. The S1 truss will be attached to the S0 truss. STS-112 is currently scheduled for launch Aug. 22, 2002.

  19. Management of cosmic radiation exposure for aircraft crew in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Yonehara, Hidenori; Kosako, Toshiso; Fujitaka, Kazunobu; Sasaki, Yasuhito

    2011-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection has recommended that cosmic radiation exposure of crew in commercial jet aircraft be considered as occupational exposure. In Japan, the Radiation Council of the government has established a guideline that requests domestic airlines to voluntarily keep the effective dose of cosmic radiation for aircraft crew below 5 mSv y(-1). The guideline also gives some advice and policies regarding the method of cosmic radiation dosimetry, the necessity of explanation and education about this issue, a way to view and record dose data, and the necessity of medical examination for crew. The National Institute of Radiological Sciences helps the airlines to follow the guideline, particularly for the determination of aviation route doses by numerical simulation. The calculation is performed using an original, easy-to-use program package called 'JISCARD EX' coupled with a PHITS-based analytical model and a GEANT4-based particle tracing code. The new radiation weighting factors recommended in 2007 are employed for effective dose determination. The annual individual doses of aircraft crew were estimated using this program.

  20. Crew-Centered Operations: What HAL 9000 Should Have Been

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsmeyer, David J.; Clancy, Daniel J.; Crawford, James M.; Drummond, Mark E.

    2005-01-01

    To date, manned space flight has maintained the locus of control for the mission on the ground. Mission control performs tasks such as activity planning, system health management, resource allocation, and astronaut health monitoring. Future exploration missions require the locus of control to shift to on-board due light speed constraints and potential loss of communication. The lunar campaign must begin to utilize a shared control approach to validate and understand the limitations of the technology allowing astronauts to oversee and direct aspects of operation that require timely decision making. Crew-centered Operations require a system-level approach that integrates multiple technologies together to allow a crew-prime concept of operations. This paper will provide an overview of the driving mission requirements, highlighting the limitations of existing approaches to mission operations and identifying the critical technologies necessary to enable a crew-centered mode of operations. The paper will focus on the requirements, trade spaces, and concepts for fulfillment of this capability. The paper will provide a broad overview of relevant technologies including: Activity Planning and Scheduling; System Monitoring; Repair and Recovery; Crew Work Practices.

  1. Commercial Crew Development Environmental Control and Life Support System Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) Project was a short term Project that was managed within the Commercial Crew and Cargo Program Office (C3PO) to help develop and demonstrate a small number of key human spaceflight capabilities in support of moving towards a possible commercial crew transportation system to low earth orbit (LEO). It was intended to foster entrepreneurial activities with a few selected companies. The other purpose of the Project was to try to reduce some of the possible risk with a commercial crew transportation system to LEO. The entrepreneurial activities were encouraged with these few selected companies by NASA providing only part of the total funding to complete specific tasks that were jointly agreed to by NASA and the company. These joint agreements were documented in a Space Act Agreement (SAA) that was signed by NASA and the company. This paper will provide an overview of the CCDev Project and it will also discuss in detail the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) tasks that were performed under CCDev.

  2. STS-99 Flight Crew Post-Landing Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-99 mission was to complete high resolution mapping of large sections of the Earth's surface using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a specially modified radar system that will produced unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's Surface. The mission was launched at 12:31 on February 11, 2000 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The mission was led by Commander Kevin Kregel. The crew was Pilot Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie and Mission Specialists Janet L. Kavandi, Janice E. Voss, Mamoru Mohri, the National Space Development Agency (Japanese Space Agency) and Gerhard P. J. Thiele, from DARA (German Space Agency). The shuttle landed at Kennedy on the February 22, 2000 at 5:22 CST. This tape shows a post landing press conference with the crew. Commander Kregel made a brief statement praising the crew for the mission's success and then introduced the crewmembers. The crew answered questions about the retraction of the mast. The retraction had been successful, but the latches to the canister had failed. The extreme cold may have caused the problem and a solution was proposed from ground control. If this had not worked, an EVA would have been required. The astronauts were confident in the solution to the problem, however they were ready to perform any required EVA. Mamoru Mohri answered questions from the Japanese press, speaking in English and Japanese.

  3. Rowing Crew Coordination Dynamics at Increasing Stroke Rates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In rowing, perfect synchronisation is important for optimal performance of a crew. Remarkably, a recent study on ergometers demonstrated that antiphase crew coordination might be mechanically more efficient by reducing the power lost to within-cycle velocity fluctuations of the boat. However, coupled oscillator dynamics predict the stability of the coordination to decrease with increasing stroke rate, which in case of antiphase may eventually yield breakdowns to in-phase. Therefore, this study examined the effects of increasing stroke rate on in- and antiphase crew coordination in rowing dyads. Eleven experienced dyads rowed on two mechanically coupled ergometers on slides, which allowed the ergometer system to move back and forth as one ‘boat’. The dyads performed a ramp trial in both in- and antiphase pattern, in which stroke rates gradually increased from 30 strokes per minute (spm) to as fast as possible in steps of 2 spm. Kinematics of rowers, handles and ergometers were captured. Two dyads showed a breakdown of antiphase into in-phase coordination at the first stroke rate of the ramp trial. The other nine dyads reached between 34–42 spm in antiphase but achieved higher rates in in-phase. As expected, the coordinative accuracy in antiphase was worse than in in-phase crew coordination, while, somewhat surprisingly, the coordinative variability did not differ between the patterns. Whereas crew coordination did not substantially deteriorate with increasing stroke rate, stroke rate did affect the velocity fluctuations of the ergometers: fluctuations were clearly larger in the in-phase pattern than in the antiphase pattern, and this difference significantly increased with stroke rate. Together, these results suggest that although antiphase rowing is less stable (i.e., less resistant to perturbation), potential on-water benefits of antiphase over in-phase rowing may actually increase with stroke rate. PMID:26185987

  4. Crew Survivability After a Rapid Cabin Depressurization Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence acquired through historic failure investigations involving rapid cabin decompression (e.g. Challenger, Columbia and Soyuz 11) show that full evacuation of the cabin atmosphere may occur within seconds. During such an event, the delta-pressure between the sealed suit ventilation system and the cabin will rise at the rate of the cabin depressurization; potentially at a rate exceeding the capability of the suit relief valve. It is possible that permanent damage to the suit pressure enclosure and ventilation loop components may occur as the integrated system may be subjected to delta pressures in excess of the design-to pressures. Additionally, as the total pressure of the suit ventilation system decreases, so does the oxygen available to the crew. The crew may be subjected to a temporarily incapacitating, but non-lethal, hypoxic environment. It is expected that the suit will maintain a survivable atmosphere on the crew until the vehicle pressure control system recovers or the cabin has otherwise attained a habitable environment. A common finding from the aforementioned reports indicates that the crew would have had a better chance at surviving the event had they been in a protective configuration, that is, in a survival suit. Making use of these lessons learned, the Constellation Program implemented a suit loop in the spacecraft design and required that the crew be in a protective configuration, that is suited with gloves on and visors down, during dynamic phases of flight that pose the greatest risk for a rapid and uncontrolled cabin depressurization event: ascent, entry, and docking. This paper details the evaluation performed to derive suit pressure garment and ventilation system performance parameters that would lead to the highest probability of crew survivability after an uncontrolled crew cabin depressurization event while remaining in the realm of practicality for suit design. This evaluation involved: (1) assessment of stakeholder

  5. Astronaut Crippen prepares to join crew in training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Robert L. Crippen, 41-G crew commander, prepares to join his crew for training in the mockup and integration laboratory at JSC. Astronaut David C. Leestma, 41-G mission specialist, left, will join the crew in training.

  6. 76 FR 71057 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Crew's Effects Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Crew's Effects... approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Crew's Effects Declaration (CBP Form 1304). This... concerning the following information collection: Title: Crew's Effects Declaration. OMB Number:...

  7. 76 FR 56213 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Crew's Effects Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Crew's Effects... and other Federal agencies to comment on an information collection requirement concerning the Crew's... concerning the following information collection: Title: Crew's Effects Declaration. OMB Number:...

  8. 77 FR 40892 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Crew Member's Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Crew Member's... other Federal agencies to comment on an information collection requirement concerning the Crew Member's... CBP is soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title: Crew...

  9. Space-station crew-safety requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    Baseline rescue and survival concepts for future space station crews are described. Preliminary studies are being carried out to identify potential threats to crew safety and means to counteract the dangers. Significant factors being considered include the type of threat, the warning time, the number of crewmembers, strategies for protection of the crew (including life-support measures redundancy), and the dependence of space station crews on ground personnel. Attention is being given to the impact of safety devices on the space station geometry and cost, as well as the equipment necessary to maintain the crew in a psychological status positive enough to cope with emergencies. Typical threats would be fire, crewmember illness or injury, and abandonment of the station. A Shuttle launch could take up to 12 days, while equipping the space station with an emergency return capsule would permit return on the same day as the capsule was occupied.

  10. Crew Transportation System Design Reference Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Contains summaries of potential design reference mission goals for systems to transport humans to andfrom low Earth orbit (LEO) for the Commercial Crew Program. The purpose of this document is to describe Design Reference Missions (DRMs) representative of the end-to-end Crew Transportation System (CTS) framework envisioned to successfully execute commercial crew transportation to orbital destinations. The initial CTS architecture will likely be optimized to support NASA crew and NASA-sponsored crew rotation missions to the ISS, but consideration may be given in this design phase to allow for modifications in order to accomplish other commercial missions in the future. With the exception of NASA’s mission to the ISS, the remaining commercial DRMs are notional. Any decision to design or scar the CTS for these additional non-NASA missions is completely up to the Commercial Provider. As NASA’s mission needs evolve over time, this document will be periodically updated to reflect those needs.

  11. Expedition 5 Crew Interviews: Valery Korzun, Commander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition 5 Commander Valery Kozun is seen during a prelaunch interview. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, his role in the mission and what his responsibilities will be as commander, what the crew exchange will be like (the Expedition 5 crew will replace the Expedition 4 crew on the International Space Station (ISS)), the daily life on an extended stay mission, the loading operations that will take place, the experiments he will be conducting on board, and the planned extravehicular activities (EVAs) scheduled for the mission. Kozun discusses the EVAs in greater detail and explains the significance of the Mobile Base System and the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart for the ISS. He also explains at some length the science experiments which will be conducted on board by the Expedition 5 crew members. Korzun also touches on how his previous space experience on Mir (including dealing with a very serious fire) will benefit the Expedition 5 mission.

  12. Expedition 6 Crew Interviews: Ken Bowersox CDR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox is seen during a prelaunch interview. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, his role in the mission, what his responsibilities will be as commander, what the crew exchange will be like (transferring the Expedition 6 crew in place of the Expedition 5 crew on the International Space Station (ISS)) and what day-to-day life on an extended stay mission is like. Bowersox also discusses in some detail the planned extravehicular activities (EVAs), the anticipated use of the robot arms in installing the P1 truss and the on-going science experiments which will be conducted by the Expedition 6 crew. He touches on challenges posed by a late change in the crew roster. Bowersox ends with his thoughts on the value on the ISS in fostering international cooperation.

  13. An Analysis of Shuttle Crew Scheduling Violations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bristol, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    From the early years of the Space Shuttle program, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle crews have had a timeline of activities to guide them through their time on-orbit. Planners used scheduling constraints to build timelines that ensured the health and safety of the crews. If a constraint could not be met it resulted in a violation. Other agencies of the federal government also have scheduling constraints to ensure the safety of personnel and the public. This project examined the history of Space Shuttle scheduling constraints, constraints from Federal agencies and branches of the military and how these constraints may be used as a guide for future NASA and private spacecraft. This was conducted by reviewing rules and violations with regard to human aerospace scheduling constraints, environmental, political, social and technological factors, operating environment and relevant human factors. This study includes a statistical analysis of Shuttle Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) related violations to determine if these were a significant producer of constraint violations. It was hypothesized that the number of SCSC violations caused by EVA activities were a significant contributor to the total number of violations for Shuttle/ISS missions. Data was taken from NASA data archives at the Johnson Space Center from Space Shuttle/ISS missions prior to the STS-107 accident. The results of the analysis rejected the null hypothesis and found that EVA violations were a significant contributor to the total number of violations. This analysis could help NASA and commercial space companies understand the main source of constraint violations and allow them to create constraint rules that ensure the safe operation of future human private and exploration missions. Additional studies could be performed to evaluate other variables that could have influenced the scheduling violations that were analyzed.

  14. STS-112 Crew Interviews: Ashby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-112 Mission Commander Jeffrey Ashby is seen during this preflight interview, answering questions about his inspiration in becoming an astronaut and his career path and provides an overview of the mission. Ashby outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically during the docking and extravehicular activities (EVAs). He describes the payload (S1 truss) and the importance that the S1 truss will have in the development of the International Space Station (ISS). Ashby discusses the delivery and installation of the S1 truss scheduled to be done in the planned EVAs in some detail. He touches on the use and operation of the Canadarm 2 robotic arm in this process and outlines what supplies will be exchanged with the resident crew of the ISS during transfer activities. He ends with his thoughts on the value of the ISS in fostering international cooperation.

  15. Biomedical Wireless Ambulatory Crew Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmiel, Alan; Humphreys, Brad

    2009-01-01

    A compact, ambulatory biometric data acquisition system has been developed for space and commercial terrestrial use. BioWATCH (Bio medical Wireless and Ambulatory Telemetry for Crew Health) acquires signals from biomedical sensors using acquisition modules attached to a common data and power bus. Several slots allow the user to configure the unit by inserting sensor-specific modules. The data are then sent real-time from the unit over any commercially implemented wireless network including 802.11b/g, WCDMA, 3G. This system has a distributed computing hierarchy and has a common data controller on each sensor module. This allows for the modularity of the device along with the tailored ability to control the cards using a relatively small master processor. The distributed nature of this system affords the modularity, size, and power consumption that betters the current state of the art in medical ambulatory data acquisition. A new company was created to market this technology.

  16. STS-128 crew visits Stennis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts C.J. Sturckow (seated, left) and Pat Forrester (seated, right) sign autographs during their Oct. 7 visit to Stennis Space Center. The astronauts visited the rocket engine testing facility to thank Stennis employees for contributions to their recent STS-128 space shuttle mission. All three of the main engines used on the mission were tested at Stennis. Sturckow served as commander for the STS-128 flight; Forrester was a mission specialist. During a 14-day mission aboard space shuttle discovery, the STS-128 crew delivered equipment and supplies to the International Space Station, including science and storage racks, a freezer to store research samples, a new sleeping compartment and an exercise treadmill. The mission featured three spacewalks to replace experiments and install new equipment at the space station.

  17. STS-109 Crew Interviews - Altman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-109 crew Commander Scott D. Altman is seen during a prelaunch interview. He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, which are all related to maintenance of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). After the Columbia Orbiter's rendezvous with the HST, extravehicular activities (EVA) will be focused on several important tasks which include: (1) installing the Advanced Camera for Surveys; (2) installing a cooling system on NICMOS (Near Infrared Camera Multi-Object Spectrometer); (3) repairing the reaction wheel assembly; (4) installing additional solar arrays; (5) augmenting the power control unit; (6) working on the HST's gyros. The reaction wheel assembly task, a late addition to the mission, may necessitate the abandonment of one or more of the other tasks, such as the gyro work.

  18. Cultural Variability in Crew Discourse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Ute

    1999-01-01

    Four studies were conducted to determine features of effective crew communication in response to errors during flight. Study One examined whether US captains and first officers use different communication strategies to correct errors and problems on the flight deck, and whether their communications are affected by the two situation variables, level of risk and degree of face-threat involved in challenging an error. Study Two was the cross-cultural extension of Study One and involved pilots from three European countries. Study Three compared communication strategies of female and male air carrier pilots who were matched in terms of years and type of aircraft experience. The final study assessed the effectiveness of the communication strategies observed in Study One.

  19. The Apollo 11 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Portrait of the prime crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. From left to right they are: Commander, Neil A. Armstrong, Command Module Pilot, Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. On July 20th 1969 at 4:18 PM, EDT the Lunar Module 'Eagle' landed in a region of the Moon called the Mare Tranquillitatis, also known as the Sea of Tranquillity. After securing his spacecraft, Armstrong radioed back to earth: 'Houston, Tranquility Base here, the Eagle has landed'. At 10:56 p.m. that same evening and witnessed by a worldwide television audience, Neil Armstrong stepped off the 'Eagle's landing pad onto the lunar surface and said: 'That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.' He became the first human to set foot upon the Moon.

  20. STS-66 Official Crew insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Designed by the crew members, the STS-66 emblem depicts the Space Shuttle Atlantis launching into Earth orbit to study global environmental change. The payload for the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-3) and complimentary experiments are part of a continuing study of the atmosphere and the Sun's influence on it. The Space Shuttle is trailed by gold plumes representing the astronaut symbol and is superimposed over the Earth, much of which is visible from the flight's high inclination orbit. Sensitive instruments aboard the ATLAS pallet in the Shuttle payload bay and on the free-flying Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmospheric-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (CHRISTA-SPAS) will gaze down on Earth and toward the Sun, illustrated by the stylized sunrise and visible spectrum.

  1. Apollo 13 Crew on Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Commander Philip Eldredge Jerauld (at microphone), ship's chaplain for U.S.S. Iwo Jima, offers a prayer of thanks for the safe return of the Apollo 13 crew members soon after they arrived aboard the recovery ship. Standing in the center of the picture, from the left, are astronauts James A. Lovell Jr., Commander; Fred W. Haise Jr., Lunar Module Pilot; and John L. Swigert Jr., Command Module Pilot. The Apollo 13 Command Module 'Odyssey' splashed down at 12:07:44 p.m. (CST), April 17, 1970, to conclude safely a perilous space flight. The three astronauts were picked up by helicopter and flown to the U.S.S. Iwo Jima. Standing at left is Captain Leland E. Kirkemo, Commanding Officer of the U.S.S. Iwo Jima. Standing behind the chaplain, almost obscured, is Rear Admiral Donald C. Davis, Commanding Officer of Task Force 130, the Pacific Recovery Force for the Manned Spacecraft Missions.

  2. Effect of ultrasonic treatment of palygorskite on catalytic performance of Pd-Cu/palygorskite catalyst for room-temperature CO oxidation in humid circumstances.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongzhao; Wang, Yongning; Li, Xiao; Liu, Zhaotie; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2017-03-27

    Pd-Cu/palygorskite catalysts were prepared by a wet impregnation method using palygorskite (PC/N-Pal) and ultrasonic treated palygorskite (PC/U-Pal) as the support. Their catalytic activities toward CO oxidation at room temperature and in humid circumstances were investigated. PC/U-Pal exhibits much higher catalytic activity and stability than PC/N-Pal under the conditions of 1.0 vol.% CO and 3.3 vol.% H2O in the feed gas. The XRD results indicate that quartz impurities were eliminated from the palygorskite after the ultrasonic treatment, and more copper species exist in the form of Cu2Cl(OH)3 in PC/U-Pal. The TPR results suggest that there is an enhanced reducibility of PC/U-Pal after ultrasonic treatment. Furthermore, the ultrasonic treatment can properly decrease the hydrophilicity of the support and catalyst, which may also contribute to the excellent catalytic performance.

  3. View of Medical Support Room in Mission Control Center during Apollo 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Dr. J.F. Zieglschmid, M.D., Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) White Team Surgeon, is seated in the Medical Support Room in the Mission Control Center as he monitors crew biomedical data being received from the Apollo 16 spacecraft on the third day of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission.

  4. Room-temperature solid state synthesis of ZnO/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} heterojunction and their solar light photocatalytic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin; Ren, Pengrong; Fan, Huiqing

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • ZnO/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical nanostructures were synthesized via a solid-state reaction. • The amount of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} plays an important role in controlling the morphology. • The amount of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} plays an important role in controlling the photocatalysis. - Abstract: ZnO/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} heterojunction was prepared by solid state reaction method at room temperature. The as-prepared nanostructures were characterized as the assembled nanosheets of ZnO on which Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were well dispersed. Further studies revealed that the morphology and photocatalytic property could be regulated by tuning the amount of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The introduction of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} can lead to the enhancement of solar light absorption, and the 5% ZnO/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples exhibited the best photocatalytic activity under the solar light irradiation. The excellent photocatalytic performances could be ascribed to the synergistic effects of the hierarchical nanostructures and the effective separation of photogenerated carriers. Moreover, the hydroxyl radicals (·OH) are found to be the main active species generated in the oxidation reaction of RhB over ZnO/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} photocatalyst. Therefore, our work demonstrated a facile way to prepare hierarchical nanostructures with excellent photocatalytic performance using solid state method at room temperature.

  5. Flight Crew Factors for CTAS/FMS Integration in the Terminal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, Barry W.; Prevot, Thomas; Palmer, Everett A.; Shafto, M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS)/Flight Management System (FMS) integration on the flightdeck implies flight crews flying coupled in highly automated FMS modes [i.e. Vertical Navigation (VNAV) and Lateral Navigation (LNAV)] from top of descent to the final approach phase of flight. Pilots may also have to make FMS route edits and respond to datalink clearances in the Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) airspace. This full mission simulator study addresses how the introduction of these FMS descent procedures affect crew activities, workload, and performance. It also assesses crew acceptance of these procedures. Results indicate that the number of crew activities and workload ratings are significantly reduced below current day levels when FMS procedures can be flown uninterrupted, but that activity numbers increase significantly above current day levels and workload ratings return to current day levels when FMS procedures are interrupted by common ATC interventions and CTAS routing advisories. Crew performance showed some problems with speed control during FMS procedures. Crew acceptance of the FMS procedures and route modification requirements was generally high; a minority of crews expressed concerns about use of VNAV in the TRACON airspace. Suggestions for future study are discussed.

  6. Experimental Study on Ultrafine Particle Removal Performance of Portable Air Cleaners with Different Filters in an Office Room

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Huan; Shen, Henggen; Shui, Tiantian; Li, Qing; Zhou, Liuke

    2016-01-01

    Size- and time-dependent aerodynamic behaviors of indoor particles, including PM1.0, were evaluated in a school office in order to test the performance of air-cleaning devices using different filters. In-situ real-time measurements were taken using an optical particle counter. The filtration characteristics of filter media, including single-pass efficiency, volume and effectiveness, were evaluated and analyzed. The electret filter (EE) medium shows better initial removal efficiency than the high efficiency (HE) medium in the 0.3–3.5 μm particle size range, while under the same face velocity, the filtration resistance of the HE medium is several times higher than that of the EE medium. During service life testing, the efficiency of the EE medium decreased to 60% with a total purifying air flow of 25 × 104 m3/m2. The resistance curve rose slightly before the efficiency reached the bottom, and then increased almost exponentially. The single-pass efficiency of portable air cleaner (PAC) with the pre-filter (PR) or the active carbon granule filter (CF) was relatively poor. While PAC with the pre-filter and the high efficiency filter (PR&HE) showed maximum single-pass efficiency for PM1.0 (88.6%), PAC with the HE was the most effective at removing PM1.0. The enhancement of PR with HE and electret filters augmented the single-pass efficiency, but lessened the airflow rate and effectiveness. Combined with PR, the decay constant of large-sized particles could be greater than for PACs without PR. Without regard to the lifetime, the electret filters performed better with respect to resource saving and purification improvement. A most penetrating particle size range (MPPS: 0.4–0.65 μm) exists in both HE and electret filters; the MPPS tends to become larger after HE and electret filters are combined with PR. These results serve to provide a better understanding of the indoor particle removal performance of PACs when combined with different kinds of filters in school

  7. Human factors and life support issues in crew rescue from the International Space Station (ISS).

    PubMed

    Smart, K

    2001-06-01

    The design and development of crew emergency response systems, particularly to provide an unplanned emergency return to earth, requires an understanding of crew performance challenges in space. The combined effects of psychological and physiological adaptation during long duration missions will have a significant effect on crew performance in the unpredictable and potentially life threatening conditions of an emergency return to earth. It is therefore important that the systems to be developed for emergency egress address these challenges through an integrated program to produce optimum productivity and safety in times of utmost stress. Fundamental to the success of the CRV is the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), which provides the necessary conditions for the crew to survive their return mission in a shirt-sleeve environment. This paper will discuss the many issues in the design of an ECLSS system for CRV and place it in the context of the human performance challenges of the mission.

  8. Issues in life support and human factors in crew rescue from the ISS.

    PubMed

    Smart, K

    2001-01-01

    The design and development of crew emergency response systems, particularly to provide an unplanned emergency return to Earth, requires an understanding of crew performance challenges in space. The combined effects of psychological and physiological adaptation during long-duration missions will have a significant effect on crew performance in the unpredictable and potentially life-threatening conditions of an emergency return to Earth. It is therefore important that the systems to be developed for emergency egress address these challenges through an integrated program to produce optimum productivity and safety in times of utmost stress. Fundamental to the success of the CRV is the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), which provides the necessary conditions for the crew to survive their return mission in a shirtsleeve environment. This article will discuss the many issues in the design of an ECLSS system for CRV and place it in the context of the human performance challenges of the mission.

  9. Issues in life support and human factors in crew rescue from the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, K.

    2001-01-01

    The design and development of crew emergency response systems, particularly to provide an unplanned emergency return to Earth, requires an understanding of crew performance challenges in space. The combined effects of psychological and physiological adaptation during long-duration missions will have a significant effect on crew performance in the unpredictable and potentially life-threatening conditions of an emergency return to Earth. It is therefore important that the systems to be developed for emergency egress address these challenges through an integrated program to produce optimum productivity and safety in times of utmost stress. Fundamental to the success of the CRV is the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), which provides the necessary conditions for the crew to survive their return mission in a shirtsleeve environment. This article will discuss the many issues in the design of an ECLSS system for CRV and place it in the context of the human performance challenges of the mission.

  10. Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Potable Water System Verification Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Laurie; DeVera, Jean; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Nik; Steele, John; Gazda, Daniel; Roberts, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), also known as Orion, will ferry a crew of up to six astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS), or a crew of up to four astronauts to the moon. The first launch of CEV is scheduled for approximately 2014. A stored water system on the CEV will supply the crew with potable water for various purposes: drinking and food rehydration, hygiene, medical needs, sublimation, and various contingency situations. The current baseline biocide for the stored water system is ionic silver, similar in composition to the biocide used to maintain quality of the water transferred from the Orbiter to the ISS and stored in Contingency Water Containers (CWCs). In the CEV water system, the ionic silver biocide is expected to be depleted from solution due to ionic silver plating onto the surfaces of the materials within the CEV water system, thus negating its effectiveness as a biocide. Since the biocide depletion is expected to occur within a short amount of time after loading the water into the CEV water tanks at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), an additional microbial control is a 0.1 micron point of use filter that will be used at the outlet of the Potable Water Dispenser (PWD). Because this may be the first time NASA is considering a stored water system for longterm missions that does not maintain a residual biocide, a team of experts in materials compatibility, biofilms and point of use filters, surface treatment and coatings, and biocides has been created to pinpoint concerns and perform testing to help alleviate those concerns related to the CEV water system. Results from the test plans laid out in the paper presented to SAE last year (Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Potable Water System Verification Coordination, 2008012083) will be detailed in this paper. Additionally, recommendations for the CEV verification will be described for risk mitigation in meeting the physicochemical and microbiological requirements on the CEV PWS.

  11. Cancer incidence in airline cabin crew: experience from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Linnersjo, A; Hammar, N; Dammstrom, B; Johansson, M; Eliasch, H

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To determine the cancer incidence in Swedish cabin crew. Methods: Cancer incidence of cabin crew at the Swedish Scandinavian Airline System (SAS) (2324 women and 632 men) employed from 1957 to 1994 was determined during 1961–96 from the Swedish National Cancer Register. The cancer incidence in cabin crew was compared with that of the general Swedish population by comparing observed and expected number of cases through standardised incidence ratios (SIR). A nested case-control study was performed, including cancer cases diagnosed after 1979 and four controls per case matched by gender, age, and calendar year. Results: The SIR for cancer overall was 1.01 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.24) for women and 1.16 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.55) for men. Both men and women had an increased incidence of malignant melanoma of the skin (SIR 2.18 and 3.66 respectively) and men of non-melanoma skin cancer (SIR 4.42). Female cabin attendants had a non-significant increase of breast cancer (SIR 1.30; 95% CI 0.85 to 1.74). No clear associations were found between length of employment or cumulative block hours and cancer incidence. Conclusions: Swedish cabin crew had an overall cancer incidence similar to that of the general population. An increased incidence of malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer may be associated with exposure to UV radiation, either at work or outside work. An increased risk of breast cancer in female cabin crew is consistent with our results and may in part be due to differences in reproductive history. PMID:14573710

  12. IMPROVING CONTROL ROOM DESIGN AND OPERATIONS BASED ON HUMAN FACTORS ANALYSES OR HOW MUCH HUMAN FACTORS UPGRADE IS ENOUGH ?

    SciTech Connect

    HIGGINS,J.C.; OHARA,J.M.; ALMEIDA,P.

    2002-09-19

    THE JOSE CABRERA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IS A ONE LOOP WESTINGHOUSE PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR. IN THE CONTROL ROOM, THE DISPLAYS AND CONTROLS USED BY OPERATORS FOR THE EMERGENCY OPERATING PROCEDURES ARE DISTRIBUTED ON FRONT AND BACK PANELS. THIS CONFIGURATION CONTRIBUTED TO RISK IN THE PROBABILISTIC SAFETY ASSESSMENT WHERE IMPORTANT OPERATOR ACTIONS ARE REQUIRED. THIS STUDY WAS UNDERTAKEN TO EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF THE DESIGN ON CREW PERFORMANCE AND PLANT SAFETY AND TO DEVELOP DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS.FIVE POTENTIAL EFFECTS WERE IDENTIFIED. THEN NUREG-0711 [1], PROGRAMMATIC, HUMAN FACTORS, ANALYSES WERE CONDUCTED TO SYSTEMATICALLY EVALUATE THE CR-LA YOUT TO DETERMINE IF THERE WAS EVIDENCE OF THE POTENTIAL EFFECTS. THESE ANALYSES INCLUDED OPERATING EXPERIENCE REVIEW, PSA REVIEW, TASK ANALYSES, AND WALKTHROUGH SIMULATIONS. BASED ON THE RESULTS OF THESE ANALYSES, A VARIETY OF CONTROL ROOM MODIFICATIONS WERE IDENTIFIED. FROM THE ALTERNATIVES, A SELECTION WAS MADE THAT PROVIDED A REASONABLEBALANCE BE TWEEN PERFORMANCE, RISK AND ECONOMICS, AND MODIFICATIONS WERE MADE TO THE PLANT.

  13. A Study of a Lifting Body as a Space Station Crew Exigency Return Vehicle (CERV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacConochie, Ian O.

    2000-01-01

    A lifting body is described for use as a return vehicle for crews from a space station. Reentry trajectories, subsystem weights and performance, and costs are included. The baseline vehicle is sized for a crew of eight. An alternate configuration is shown in which only four crew are carried with the extra volume reserved for logistics cargo. A water parachute recovery system is shown as an emergency alternative to a runway landing. Primary reaction control thrusters from the Shuttle program are used for orbital maneuvering while the Shuttle verniers are used for all attitude control maneuvers.

  14. Handbook on astronaut crew motion disturbances for control system design. [in skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kullas, M. C.

    1979-01-01

    The analyses and results pertinent to the characterization of the disturbances imparted to the Skylab vehicle by the T-013 crew motion experiments are summarized. Guidelines to help control system designers assess anticipated crew motion disturbances during the design cycle of a new manned spacecraft control system are provided. These guidelines, in conjunction with the T-013 characterizations outlined, begin with the control system conceptual design and conclude with preliminary expectations for pointing performance as affected by crew motions. Block diagrams to highlight the contents so that the reader can easily identify the information and data flow are used. These diagrams provide a handy cross reference of related topics.

  15. Communication variations and aircrew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Folk, Valerie G.; Irwin, Cheryl M.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between communication variations and aircrew performance (high-error vs low-error performances) was investigated by analyzing the coded verbal transcripts derived from the videotape records of 18 two-person air transport crews who participated in a high-fidelity, full-mission flight simulation. The flight scenario included a task which involved abnormal operations and required the coordinated efforts of all crew members. It was found that the best-performing crews were characterized by nearly identical patterns of communication, whereas the midrange and poorer performing crews showed a great deal of heterogeneity in their speech patterns. Although some specific speech sequences can be interpreted as being more or less facilitative to the crew-coordination process, predictability appears to be the key ingredient for enhancing crew performance. Crews communicating in highly standard (hence predictable) ways were better able to coordinate their task, whereas crews characterized by multiple, nonstandard communication profiles were less effective in their performance.

  16. Space station crew safety: Human factors interaction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M.; Junge, M. K.

    1985-01-01

    A model of the various human factors issues and interactions that might affect crew safety is developed. The first step addressed systematically the central question: How is this space station different from all other spacecraft? A wide range of possible issue was identified and researched. Five major topics of human factors issues that interacted with crew safety resulted: Protocols, Critical Habitability, Work Related Issues, Crew Incapacitation and Personal Choice. Second, an interaction model was developed that would show some degree of cause and effect between objective environmental or operational conditions and the creation of potential safety hazards. The intermediary steps between these two extremes of causality were the effects on human performance and the results of degraded performance. The model contains three milestones: stressor, human performance (degraded) and safety hazard threshold. Between these milestones are two countermeasure intervention points. The first opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against stress. If this countermeasure fails, performance degrades. The second opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against error. If this second countermeasure fails, the threshold of a potential safety hazard may be crossed.

  17. Crewed Space Vehicle Battery Safety Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Darcy, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    This requirements document is applicable to all batteries on crewed spacecraft, including vehicle, payload, and crew equipment batteries. It defines the specific provisions required to design a battery that is safe for ground personnel and crew members to handle and/or operate during all applicable phases of crewed missions, safe for use in the enclosed environment of a crewed space vehicle, and safe for use in launch vehicles, as well as in unpressurized spaces adjacent to the habitable portion of a space vehicle. The required provisions encompass hazard controls, design evaluation, and verification. The extent of the hazard controls and verification required depends on the applicability and credibility of the hazard to the specific battery design and applicable missions under review. Evaluation of the design and verification program results shall be completed prior to certification for flight and ground operations. This requirements document is geared toward the designers of battery systems to be used in crewed vehicles, crew equipment, crew suits, or batteries to be used in crewed vehicle systems and payloads (or experiments). This requirements document also applies to ground handling and testing of flight batteries. Specific design and verification requirements for a battery are dependent upon the battery chemistry, capacity, complexity, charging, environment, and application. The variety of battery chemistries available, combined with the variety of battery-powered applications, results in each battery application having specific, unique requirements pertinent to the specific battery application. However, there are basic requirements for all battery designs and applications, which are listed in section 4. Section 5 includes a description of hazards and controls and also includes requirements.

  18. Analysis of Crew Fatigue in AIA Guantanamo Bay Aviation Accident

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Miller, Donna L.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Lebacqz, J. Victor; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Flight operations can engender fatigue, which can affect flight crew performance, vigilance, and mood. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) requested the NASA Fatigue Countermeasures Program to analyze crew fatigue factors in an aviation accident that occurred at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. There are specific fatigue factors that can be considered in such investigations: cumulative sleep loss, continuous hours of wakefulness prior to the incident or accident, and the time of day at which the accident occurred. Data from the NTSB Human Performance Investigator's Factual Report, the Operations Group Chairman's Factual Report, and the Flight 808 Crew Statements were analyzed, using conservative estimates and averages to reconcile discrepancies among the sources. Analysis of these data determined the following: the entire crew displayed cumulative sleep loss, operated during an extended period of continuous wakefulness, and obtained sleep at times in opposition to the circadian disposition for sleep, and that the accident occurred in the afternoon window of physiological sleepiness. In addition to these findings, evidence that fatigue affected performance was suggested by the cockpit voice recorder (CVR) transcript as well as in the captain's testimony. Examples from the CVR showed degraded decision-making skills, fixation, and slowed responses, all of which can be affected by fatigue; also, the captain testified to feeling "lethargic and indifferent" just prior to the accident. Therefore, the sleep/wake history data supports the hypothesis that fatigue was a factor that affected crewmembers' performance. Furthermore, the examples from the CVR and the captain's testimony support the hypothesis that the fatigue had an impact on specific actions involved in the occurrence of the accident.

  19. Space crew productivity: A driving factor in space station design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolbers, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    The criteria of performance, cost, and mission success probability (program confidence) are the principal factors that program or project managers and system engineers use in selecting the optimum design approach for meeting mission objectives. A frame of reference is discussed in which the interrelationships of these pertinent parameters can be made visible, and from which rational or informed decisions can be derived regarding the potential impact of adjustments in crew productivity on total Space Station System effectiveness.

  20. Expedition 4 Crew Interviews: Yury I. Onufrienko

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Expedition 4 Commander Yury Onufrienko is seen during a prelaunch interview. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, his role in the mission, what his responsibilities will be, what the crew exchange will be like (transferring the Expedition 4 crew in place of the Expedition 3 crew on the International Space Station (ISS)), the day-to-day life on an extended stay mission, the experiments he will be conducting on board, and what the S0 truss will mean to ISS. Onufrienko ends with his thoughts on the short-term and long-term future of the International Space Station.

  1. Expedition 4 Crew Interviews: Carl Walz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Expedition 4 Flight Engineer Carl Walz is seen during a prelaunch interview. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, his role in the mission, what his responsibilities will be, what the crew exchange will be like (transferring the Expedition 4 crew in place of the Expedition 3 crew on the International Space Station (ISS)), the day-to-day life on an extended stay mission, the experiments he will be conducting on board, and what the S0 truss will mean to ISS. Walz ends with his thoughts on the short-term and long-term future of the International Space Station.

  2. Expedition 4 Crew Interviews: Dan Bursch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Expedition 4 Flight Engineer Dan Bursch is seen during a prelaunch interview. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, his role in the mission, what his responsibilities will be, what the crew exchange will be like (transferring the Expedition 4 crew in place of the Expedition 3 crew on the International Space Station (ISS)), the day-to-day life on an extended stay mission, the experiments he will be conducting on board, and what the S0 truss will mean to ISS. Bursch ends with his thoughts on the short-term and long-term future of the International Space Station.

  3. Crew interface definition study, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callihan, J. C.; Kraemer, J. W.; Alles, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    The timeline analysis of the Shuttle orbiter missions which was conducted in the Phase I Crew Interface Definition Study and the requirements for the man-in-the-loop simulation study are presented. Mission definitions and objectives are presented as they relate to various Shuttle Orbiter missions. The requirements for crew participation and the information required by the crew are discussed, and finally the rationale behind the display concept and calling procedures is given. The simulation objectives, the simulation mechanization, including a detailed presentation of the display and control concept, the simulator test plan and the results are discussed.

  4. STS-69 crew outside Endeavour during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS-69 crew members wear broad smiles as they pose for a group photograph outside the crew hatch of the Space Shuttle Endeavour. The crew is participating in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for the launch targetd for Aug. 5. From left, are Mission Commander David M. Walker; Mission Specialists Michael L. Gernhardt and James H. Newman; Payload Commander James S. Voss and Pilot Kenneth D. Cockrell. Primary objectives of the mission are the deployment, retrieval and operation of the Wake Shield Facility (WSF) satellite on its second flight and the SPARTAN-201 spacecraft which is making its third flight.

  5. Outcomes of crew resource management training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Wilhelm, John A.

    1991-01-01

    Participants' self-reports and measures of attitudes regarding flightdeck management indicate that crew resource management training is favorably received and causes highly significant, positive changes in attitudes regarding crew coordination and personal capabilities. However, a subset of participants reacted negatively to the training and showed boomerangs (negative change) in attitudes. Explorations into the causes of this effect pinpoint personality factors and group dynamics as critical determinants of reactions to training and of the magnitude and direction of attitude changes. Implications of these findings for organizations desiring to enhance crew effectiveness are discussed, and areas of needed additional research are described.

  6. NASA's Commercial Crew Program, the Next Step in U.S. Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, Edward J., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Commercial Crew Program (CCP) is leading NASA's efforts to develop the next U.S. capability for crew transportation and rescue services to and from the International Space Station (ISS) by the middecade timeframe. The outcome of this capability is expected to stimulate and expand the U.S. space transportation industry. NASA is relying on its decades of human space flight experience to certify U.S. crewed vehicles to the ISS and is doing so in a two phase certification approach. NASA certification will cover all aspects of a crew transportation system, including: Development, test, evaluation, and verification. Program management and control. Flight readiness certification. Launch, landing, recovery, and mission operations. Sustaining engineering and maintenance/upgrades. To ensure NASA crew safety, NASA certification will validate technical and performance requirements, verify compliance with NASA requirements, validate that the crew transportation system operates in the appropriate environments, and quantify residual risks. The Commercial Crew Program will present progress to date and how it manages safety and reduces risk.

  7. Developing Crew Health Care and Habitability Systems for the Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurini, Kathy; Sawin, Charles F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will discuss the specific mission architectures associated with the NASA Exploration Vision and review the challenges and drivers associated with developing crew health care and habitability systems to manage human system risks. Crew health care systems must be provided to manage crew health within acceptable limits, as well as respond to medical contingencies that may occur during exploration missions. Habitability systems must enable crew performance for the tasks necessary to support the missions. During the summer of 2005, NASA defined its exploration architecture including blueprints for missions to the moon and to Mars. These mission architectures require research and technology development to focus on the operational risks associated with each mission, as well as the risks to long term astronaut health. This paper will review the highest priority risks associated with the various missions and discuss NASA s strategies and plans for performing the research and technology development necessary to manage the risks to acceptable levels.

  8. STS-113 P1 Truss paylad in Payload Changeout Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - From the Payload Changeout Room on Launch Pad 39A, the P1 truss payload, plus the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart B, are moved into the payload bay of Space Shuttle Endeavour. Scheduled to launch Nov. 10 on mission STS-113, Endeavour will make the 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. The mission will also deliver the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return Expedition 5 to Earth.

  9. STS-112 Commander Ashby in white room before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - -- In the White Room at Launch Pad 39B, STS-112 Commander Jeffrey Ashby receives assistance with his spacesuit before boarding Space Shuttle Atlantis. Liftoff is schedued for 3:46 p.m. EDT. Along with a crew of six, Atlantis will carry the S1 Integrated Truss Structure and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A to the International Space Station (ISS). The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts. On the 11-day mission, three spacewalks are planned to attach the S1 truss.

  10. STS-112 Pilot Melroy in white room before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - -- In the White Room at Launch Pad 39B, STS-112 Pilot Pamela Ann Melroy receives assistance with her spacesuit before boarding Space Shuttle Atlantis. Liftoff is schedued for 3:46 p.m. EDT. Along with a crew of six, Atlantis will carry the S1 Integrated Truss Structure and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A to the International Space Station (ISS). The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts. On the 11-day mission, three spacewalks are planned to attach the S1 truss.

  11. Surgical Management of Combined Intramedullary Arteriovenous Malformation and Perimedullary Arteriovenous Fistula within the Hybrid Operating Room after Five Years of Performing Focus Fractionated Radiotherapy: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    GEKKA, Masayuki; SEKI, Toshitaka; HIDA, Kazutoshi; OSANAI, Toshiya; HOUKIN, Kiyohiro

    2014-01-01

    Perimedullary arteriovenous fistula (AVF) shunts occur on the spinal cord surface and can be treated surgically or by endovascular embolization. In contrast, the nidus of an intramedullary arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is located in the spinal cord and is difficult to treat surgically or by endovascular techniques. The benefits of radiotherapy for treating intramedullary AVM have been published, but are anecdotal and consist largely of case reports. We present a case of combined cervical intramedullary AVM and perimedullary AVF which received surgical treatment within a hybrid operating room (OR) after 5 years of focus fractionated radiotherapy. A 37-year-old male presented with stepwise worsening myelopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging and spinal angiography revealed intramedullary AVM and perimedullary AVF at the C3 to C5 levels. In order to reduce nidus size and blood flow, we first performed focal fractionated radiotherapy. Five years later, the lesion volume was reduced. Following this, direct surgery was performed by an anterior approach using corpectomy in the hybrid OR. The spinal cord was monitored by motor-evoked potential throughout the surgery. Complete obliteration of the fistulous connection was confirmed by intraoperative indocyanine green video-angiography and intraoperative angiography, preserving the anterior spinal artery. We conclude that surgical treatment following focal fractionated radiotherapy may become one strategy for patients who are initially deemed ineligible for endovascular embolization and surgical treatment. Furthermore, the hybrid OR enables safe and precise treatment for spinal vascular disorders in the fields of endovascular treatment and neurosurgery. PMID:25367581

  12. STS-26 crew trains in JSC crew compartment trainer (CCT) shuttle mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson trains in the crew compartment trainer (CCT) located in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Nelson, wearing new (navy blue) partial pressure suit (launch and entry suit (LES)) and helmet, maneuvers himself into middeck mission specialists seat as MS David C. Hilmers pulls himself up onto flight deck from the middeck through the interdeck access hatch. Side hatch is closed and stowed treadmill appears in the foreground. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new partial pressure suits and checked out crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options. CCT is in launch (vertical) position therefore the aft middeck bulkhead and airlock become the floor.

  13. STS-26 crew trains in JSC crew compartment trainer (CCT) shuttle mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Pilot Richard O. Covey trains in the crew compartment trainer (CCT) located in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Covey, wearing new (navy blue) partial pressure suit (launch and entry suit (LES)) and communications carrier assembly (CCA), pulls himself up onto flight deck from the middeck through the interdeck access hatch. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new partial pressure suits and checked out crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options. CCT is in launch (vertical) position therefore the aft middeck bulkhead becomes the floor (note technician at the side hatch).

  14. STS-26 crew trains in JSC crew compartment trainer (CCT) shuttle mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) John M. Lounge trains in the crew compartment trainer (CCT) located in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Lounge, wearing new (navy blue) partial pressure suit (launch and entry suit (LES)) and communications carrier assembly (CCA), pulls himself up onto flight deck from the middeck through the interdeck access hatch. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new partial pressure suits and checked out crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options. CCT is in launch (vertical) position therefore the aft middeck bulkhead becomes the floor (note technician at the side hatch).

  15. STS-26 crew trains in JSC crew compartment trainer (CCT) shuttle mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson trains in the crew compartment trainer (CCT) located in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Nelson, wearing new (navy blue) partial pressure suit (launch and entry suit (LES)) and helmet, exits CCT via slide inflated at side hatch. Technicians at the bottom of the slide prepare to help Nelson to his feet as a second set of technicians observe the activity from scaffolding on either side of the open hatch. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new partial pressure suits and checked out crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options.

  16. STS-26 crew trains in JSC crew compartment trainer (CCT) shuttle mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers trains in the crew compartment trainer (CCT) located in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Hilmers, wearing new (navy blue) partial pressure suit (launch and entry suit (LES)) and helmet, slides out CCT side hatch on his back via platform extension. Astronaut Steven R. Nagel, who has served as both mission specialist and pilot on two previous missions, briefs Hilmers. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new partial pressure suits and checked out crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options.

  17. Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. J.; Cook, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    The Agency s Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) will be the first human rated space transportation system developed in the United States since the Space Shuttle. The CLV will utilize existing Shuttle heritage hardware and systems combined with a "clean sheet design" for the Upper Stage. The Upper Stage element will be designed and developed by a team of NASA engineers managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. The team will design the Upper Stage based on the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) Team s point of departure conceptual design as illustrated in the figure below. This concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 1 15 feet long and 216 inches in diameter. While this "clean-sheet" upper stage design inherently carries more risk than utilizing a modified design, the approach also has many advantages. This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of pursuing a "clean-sheet" design for the new CLV Upper Stage as well as describe in detail the overall design of the Upper Stage and its integration into NASA s CLV.

  18. Crew-integration and Automation Testbed (CAT)Program Overview and RUX06 Introduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-20

    unlimited Crew-integration and Automation Testbed ( CAT ) Program Overview and RUX06 Introduction 26-27 July 2006 Patrick Nunez, Terry Tierney, Brian Novak...3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Crew-integration and Automation Testbed ( CAT )Program Overview and RUX06 Introduction 5a. CONTRACT...Experiment • Capstone CAT experiment – Evaluate effectiveness of CAT program in improving the performance and/or reducing the workload for a mounted

  19. Study of Psychological (and Associated Physiological) Effects on a Tank Crew Resulting from Being Buttoned Up

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    field testing to allocate mandatory work cycles in order to force job interchangeability training. Enhancement of Performance by Drugs One of the major...Provisions should be made for urination and defecation with- in the crew compartment. One possible solution is slipon urinals at each crew position and a...weapons systems evaluations in field situations, provides support to Feadquarters, TCATA (TRADOC Combined Army Test Activity, former- ly called

  20. Cooling Properties of the Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Spacesuit: Results of an Environmental Chamber Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas; Gillis, David; Bue, Grant; Son, Chan; Norcross, Jason; Kuznetz, Larry; Chapman, Kirt; Chhipwadia, Ketan; McBride, Tim

    2008-01-01

    The shuttle crew wears the Advanced Crew Escape Spacesuit (ACES) to protect themselves from cabin decompression and to support bail out during landing. ACES is cooled by a liquid-cooled garment (LCG) that interfaces to a heat exchanger that dumps heat into the cabin. The ACES outer layer is made of Gore-Tex(Registered TradeMark), permitting water vapor to escape while containing oxygen. The crew can only lose heat via insensible water losses and the LCG. Under nominal landing operations, the average cabin temperature rarely exceeds 75 F, which is adequate for the ACES to function. Problem A rescue shuttle will need to return 11 crew members if the previous mission suffers a thermal protection system failure, preventing it from returning safely to Earth. Initial analysis revealed that 11 crew members in the shuttle will increase cabin temperature at wheel stop above 80 F, which decreases the ACES ability to keep crew members cool. Air flow in the middeck of the shuttle is inhomogeneous and some ACES may experience much higher temperatures that could cause excessive thermal stress to crew members. Methods A ground study was conducted to measure the cooling efficiency of the ACES at 75 F, 85 F, and 95 F at 50% relative humidity. Test subjects representing 5, 50, and 95 percentile body habitus of the astronaut corps performed hand ergometry keeping their metabolic rate at 400, 600, and 800 BTU/hr for one hour. Core temperature was measured by rectal probe and skin, while inside and outside the suit. Environmental chamber wall and cooling unit inlet and outlet temperatures were measured using high-resolution thermistors ( 0.2 C). Conclusions Under these test conditions, the ACES was able to protect the core temperature of all test subjects, however thermal stress due to high insensible losses and skin temperature and skin heat flow may impact crew performance. Further research should be performed to understand the impact on cognitive performance.

  1. View forward from bulkhead no. 38 of compartment B126 crew ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward from bulkhead no. 38 of compartment B-126 crew space. Note stop valves on bulkhead at right side of photograph; these steam control valves allowed remote activation of the main, auxiliary and safety valves for the port engine in the event that the engine room valves were disabled or unreachable. (044) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. Utilization of the International Space Station for Crew Autonomous Scheduling Test (CAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, Matthew; Marquez, Jesica; Hillenius, Steven; Korth, David; Bakalyar, Laure Rush; Woodbury, Neil; Larsen, Crystal M.; Bates, Shelby; Kockler, Mikayla; Rhodes, Brooke; Moore, William E., III; Deliz, Ivonne; Kanefsky, Bob; Zheng, Jimin; Henninger, Ashley; Edhlund, Isabelle; Smith, Kate; Kockler, William; Silva-Martinez, Jackelynne

    2017-01-01

    The United States space policy is evolving toward missions beyond low Earth orbit. In an effort to meet that policy, NASA has recognized Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) as a valuable capability. Identified within AMO capabilities is the potential for autonomous planning and replanning during human spaceflight operations. That is allowing crew members to collectively or individually participate in the development of their own schedules. Currently, dedicated mission operations planners collaborate with international partners to create daily plans for astronauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS), taking into account mission requirements, ground rules, and various vehicle and payload constraints. In future deep space operations the crew will require more independence from ground support due to communication transmission delays. Furthermore, crew members who are provided with the capability to schedule their own activities are able to leverage direct experience operating in the space environment, and possibly maximize their efficiency. CAST (Crew Autonomous Scheduling Test) is an ISS investigation designed to analyze three important hypotheses about crew autonomous scheduling. First, given appropriate inputs, the crew is able to create and execute a plan in a reasonable period of time without impacts to mission success. Second, the proximity of the planner, in this case the crew, to the planned operations increases their operational efficiency. Third, crew members are more satisfied when given a role in plan development. This paper presents the results from a single astronaut test subject who participated in five CAST sessions. The details on the operational philosophy of CAST are discussed, including the approach to crew training, selection criteria for test days, and data collection methods. CAST is a technology demonstration payload sponsored by the ISS Research Science and Technology Office, and performed by experts in Mission Operations Planning from

  3. Integrated Approach to Flight Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    The computer based approach used by United Airlines for flight training is discussed. The human factors involved in specific aircraft accidents are addressed. Flight crew interaction and communication as they relate to training and flight safety are considered.

  4. Expedition 31 Crew Trains for Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Expedition 31 crew - astronaut Joe Acaba and cosmonauts Gennady Padalka and Sergei Revin -- trains at Star City, Russia, for its upcoming launch to the International Space Station. Their backup...

  5. Students Speak With Expedition 30 Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    The International Space Station's Expedition 30 crew participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at O. Henry Middle School in Austin, Texas. The DLN connects students and t...

  6. STS-134 Crew Talks With Sam Ting

    NASA Video Gallery

    The STS-134 crew talks with Sam Ting, principal investigator for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, following the installation of the particle physics detector on the International Space Station duri...

  7. New Crew Members Arrive at Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Expedition 28 crew expanded to six members with the arrival of Flight Engineers Mike Fossum, Sergei Volkov and Satoshi Furukawa. The new trio docked to the International Space Station in the So...

  8. STS-113 Crew Interviews: Paul Lockhart, Pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-113 Pilot Paul Lockhart is seen during this preflight interview, where he gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. Lockhart outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically during the docking and extravehicular activities (EVAs). He describes the primary mission payload (the P1 truss) and the crew transfer activities (Expedition 6 crew will replace the Expedition 5 Crew). Lockhart discusses the planned EVAs in detail and mentions what supplies will be left for the resident crew of the International Space Station (ISS). He ends with his thoughts about the importance of the ISS as the second anniversary of continuous human occupation of the space station approaches.

  9. Expedition 33/34 Crew Prelaunch Activities

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33/34 crew members Kevin Ford, Oleg Novitskiy and Evgeny Tarelkin participate in a variety of prelaunch activities at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. They are set to launch aboard...

  10. Behind the Scenes: STS-134 Crew Training

    NASA Video Gallery

    03/25/2011 -- Astronaut Mike Massimino talks to the members of the STS-134 crew of space shuttle Endeavour about their mission during a training session at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory near NASA...

  11. Next Generation Spacecraft, Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This special bibliography includes research on reusable launch vehicles, aerospace planes, shuttle replacement, crew/cargo transfer vehicle, related X-craft, orbital space plane, and next generation launch technology.

  12. ISS Update: Flight Surgeon Keeps Crew Healthy

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer talks with NASA Medical Flight Officer Steve Gilmore about the role of a flight surgeon in tracking astronaut health and coordinating crew medical experim...

  13. President Obama Calls Atlantis and Station Crews

    NASA Video Gallery

    President Barack Obama called the crews of Atlantis and the International Space Station today, noting that the final shuttle mission also "ushers in an exciting new era to push the frontiers of spa...

  14. Crew factors in flight operations. Part 3: The operational significance of exposure to short-haul air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, H. C.; Lauber, J. K.; Baetge, M. M.; Acomb, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    Excessive flightcrew fatigue has potentially serious safety consequences. Laboratory studies have implicated fatigue as a causal factor associated with varying levels of performance deterioration depending on the amount of fatigue and the type of measure utilized in assessing performance. These studies have been of limited utility because of the difficulty of relating laboratory task performance to the demands associated with the operation of a complex aircraft. The performance of 20 volunteer twin-jet transport crews is examined in a full-mission simulator scenario that included most aspects of an actual line operation. The scenario included both routine flight operations and an unexpected mechanical abnormality which resulted in a high level of crew workload. Half of the crews flew the simulation within two to three hours after completing a three-day, high-density, short-haul duty cycle (Post-Duty condition). The other half flew the scenario after a minimum of three days off duty (Pre-Duty) condition). The results revealed that, not surprisingly, Post-Duty crews were significantly more fatigued than Pre-Duty crews. However, a somewhat counter-intuitive pattern of results emerged on the crew performancemeasures. In general, the performance of Post-Duty crews was significantly better than that of Pre-Duty crews, as rated by an expert observer on a number of dimensions relevant to flight safety. Analyses of the flightcrew communication patterns revealed that Post-Duty crews communicated significantly more overall, suggesting, as has previous research, that communication is a good predictor of overall crew performance.

  15. STS-47 Astronaut Crew Training Clip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The crew of STS-47, Commander Robert L. Gibson, Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Payload Commander Mark C. Lee, Mission Specialists N. Jan Davis, Jay Apt, and Mae C. Jemison, and Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, is seen during various parts of their training, including SAREX training in the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT), firefighting training. A familiarization flight in the KC-135, a food tasting, photo training in the Crew Compartment Trainer, and bailout training in the Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) are also shown.

  16. Skylab medical experiments altitude test crew observations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobko, K. J.

    1973-01-01

    The paper deals with the crew's observations during training and the SMEAT 56-day test. Topics covered include the crew's adaptation to the SMEAT environment and medical experiments protocol. Personal observations are made of daily activities surrounding the medical experiments hardware, Skylab clothing, supplementary activities, recreational equipment, food, and waste management. An assessment of these items and their contributions to the Skylab flight program is made.

  17. The STS-108 crew are at KSC for Crew Equipment Interface Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- During Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT) activities at KSC, STS-108 Commander Dominic L. Gorie checks the windshield inside orbiter Endeavour. The CEIT provides familiarization with the launch vehicle and payload. Mission STS-108 is a Utilization Flight (UF-1), carrying the Expedition Four crew plus Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello to the International Space Station. The mission crew comprises Gorie, Pilot Mark E. Kelly and Mission Specialists Linda A. Godwin and Daniel M. Tani. The Expedition Four crew comprises Yuri Onufriyenko, commander, Russian Aviation and Space Agency, and astronauts Daniel W. Bursch and Carl E. Walz. Endeavour is scheduled to launch Nov. 29 on mission STS-108.

  18. 46 CFR 72.20-10 - Location of crew spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location of crew spaces. 72.20-10 Section 72.20-10... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-10 Location of crew spaces. (a) Crew quarters must... spaces may be below the deepest load line. (b) There must be no direct communication, except...

  19. 46 CFR 72.20-10 - Location of crew spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location of crew spaces. 72.20-10 Section 72.20-10... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-10 Location of crew spaces. (a) Crew quarters must... spaces may be below the deepest load line. (b) There must be no direct communication, except...

  20. 46 CFR 190.20-10 - Location of crew spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Location of crew spaces. 190.20-10 Section 190.20-10... crew spaces. (a) Crew quarters must not be located farther forward in the vessel than a vertical plane... of the deck head of the crew spaces may be below the deepest load line. (b) There must be no...

  1. 46 CFR 190.20-10 - Location of crew spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location of crew spaces. 190.20-10 Section 190.20-10... crew spaces. (a) Crew quarters must not be located farther forward in the vessel than a vertical plane... of the deck head of the crew spaces may be below the deepest load line. (b) There must be no...

  2. 46 CFR 190.20-10 - Location of crew spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location of crew spaces. 190.20-10 Section 190.20-10... crew spaces. (a) Crew quarters must not be located farther forward in the vessel than a vertical plane... of the deck head of the crew spaces may be below the deepest load line. (b) There must be no...

  3. 46 CFR 72.20-10 - Location of crew spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Location of crew spaces. 72.20-10 Section 72.20-10... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-10 Location of crew spaces. (a) Crew quarters must... spaces may be below the deepest load line. (b) There must be no direct communication, except...

  4. International Space Station Crew Return Vehicle: X-38. Educational Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The International Space Station (ISS) will provide the world with an orbiting laboratory that will have long-duration micro-gravity experimentation capability. The crew size for this facility will depend upon the crew return capability. The first crews will consist of three astronauts from Russia and the United States. The crew is limited to three…

  5. 46 CFR 190.20-10 - Location of crew spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of crew spaces. 190.20-10 Section 190.20-10... crew spaces. (a) Crew quarters must not be located farther forward in the vessel than a vertical plane... of the deck head of the crew spaces may be below the deepest load line. (b) There must be no...

  6. 46 CFR 72.20-10 - Location of crew spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location of crew spaces. 72.20-10 Section 72.20-10... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-10 Location of crew spaces. (a) Crew quarters must... spaces may be below the deepest load line. (b) There must be no direct communication, except...

  7. 46 CFR 72.20-10 - Location of crew spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of crew spaces. 72.20-10 Section 72.20-10... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-10 Location of crew spaces. (a) Crew quarters must... spaces may be below the deepest load line. (b) There must be no direct communication, except...

  8. 46 CFR 190.20-10 - Location of crew spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location of crew spaces. 190.20-10 Section 190.20-10... crew spaces. (a) Crew quarters must not be located farther forward in the vessel than a vertical plane... of the deck head of the crew spaces may be below the deepest load line. (b) There must be no...

  9. 14 CFR 27.805 - Flight crew emergency exits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight crew emergency exits. 27.805 Section... § 27.805 Flight crew emergency exits. (a) For rotorcraft with passenger emergency exits that are not convenient to the flight crew, there must be flight crew emergency exits, on both sides of the rotorcraft...

  10. 14 CFR 460.9 - Informing crew of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Informing crew of risk. 460.9 Section 460.9... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.9 Informing crew of risk. An operator must inform in writing any individual serving as crew that the United...

  11. 14 CFR 29.805 - Flight crew emergency exits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight crew emergency exits. 29.805 Section... Accommodations § 29.805 Flight crew emergency exits. (a) For rotorcraft with passenger emergency exits that are not convenient to the flight crew, there must be flight crew emergency exits, on both sides of...

  12. 49 CFR 174.26 - Notice to train crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice to train crews. 174.26 Section 174.26... Requirements § 174.26 Notice to train crews. (a) The train crew must have a document that reflects the current position in the train of each rail car containing a hazardous material. The train crew must update...

  13. Crew collaboration in space: a naturalistic decision-making perspective.

    PubMed

    Orasanu, Judith

    2005-06-01

    Successful long-duration space missions will depend on the ability of crewmembers to respond promptly and effectively to unanticipated problems that arise under highly stressful conditions. Naturalistic decision making (NDM) exploits the knowledge and experience of decision makers in meaningful work domains, especially complex sociotechnical systems, including aviation and space. Decision making in these ambiguous, dynamic, high-risk environments is a complex task that involves defining the nature of the problem and crafting a response to achieve one's goals. Goal conflicts, time pressures, and uncertain outcomes may further complicate the process. This paper reviews theory and research pertaining to the NDM model and traces some of the implications for space crews and other groups that perform meaningful work in extreme environments. It concludes with specific recommendations for preparing exploration crews to use NDM effectively.

  14. STS-99 Flight Day Highlights and Crew Activities Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Live footage shows the Blue Team (second of the dual shift crew), Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie, Janice E. Voss and Mamoru Mohri, beginning the first mapping swath covering a 140-mile-wide path. While Mohri conducts mapping operations, Voss and Gorie are seen participating in a news conference with correspondents from NBC and CNN. The Red Team (first of the dual shift crew), Kevin R. Kregel, Janet L. Kavandi and Gerhard P.J. Thiele, relieves the Blue Team and are seen continuing the mapping operations for this around the clock Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Commander Kregel is shown performing boom (mass) durability tests, calibrating the EarthCam Payload, and speaking with the Launch Control Center (LCC) about trouble shooting a bracket for better camera angle.

  15. Crew collaboration in space: a naturalistic decision-making perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith

    2005-01-01

    Successful long-duration space missions will depend on the ability of crewmembers to respond promptly and effectively to unanticipated problems that arise under highly stressful conditions. Naturalistic decision making (NDM) exploits the knowledge and experience of decision makers in meaningful work domains, especially complex sociotechnical systems, including aviation and space. Decision making in these ambiguous, dynamic, high-risk environments is a complex task that involves defining the nature of the problem and crafting a response to achieve one's goals. Goal conflicts, time pressures, and uncertain outcomes may further complicate the process. This paper reviews theory and research pertaining to the NDM model and traces some of the implications for space crews and other groups that perform meaningful work in extreme environments. It concludes with specific recommendations for preparing exploration crews to use NDM effectively.

  16. Astronaut Risk Levels During Crew Module (CM) Land Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly S.; Littell, Justin

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) is investigating the merits of water and land landings for the crew exploration vehicle (CEV). The merits of these two options are being studied in terms of cost and risk to the astronauts, vehicle, support personnel, and general public. The objective of the present work is to determine the astronaut dynamic response index (DRI), which measures injury risks. Risks are determined for a range of vertical and horizontal landing velocities. A structural model of the crew module (CM) is developed and computational simulations are performed using a transient dynamic simulation analysis code (LS-DYNA) to determine acceleration profiles. Landing acceleration profiles are input in a human factors model that determines astronaut risk levels. Details of the modeling approach, the resulting accelerations, and astronaut risk levels are provided.

  17. A Human Factors Evaluation of a Methodology for Pressurized Crew Module Acceptability for Zero-Gravity Ingress of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, Merri J.

    2000-01-01

    This project aimed to develop a methodology for evaluating performance and acceptability characteristics of the pressurized crew module volume suitability for zero-gravity (g) ingress of a spacecraft and to evaluate the operational acceptability of the NASA crew return vehicle (CRV) for zero-g ingress of astronaut crew, volume for crew tasks, and general crew module and seat layout. No standard or methodology has been established for evaluating volume acceptability in human spaceflight vehicles. Volume affects astronauts'ability to ingress and egress the vehicle, and to maneuver in and perform critical operational tasks inside the vehicle. Much research has been conducted on aircraft ingress, egress, and rescue in order to establish military and civil aircraft standards. However, due to the extremely limited number of human-rated spacecraft, this topic has been un-addressed. The NASA CRV was used for this study. The prototype vehicle can return a 7-member crew from the International Space Station in an emergency. The vehicle's internal arrangement must be designed to facilitate rapid zero-g ingress, zero-g maneuverability, ease of one-g egress and rescue, and ease of operational tasks in multiple acceleration environments. A full-scale crew module mockup was built and outfitted with representative adjustable seats, crew equipment, and a volumetrically equivalent hatch. Human factors testing was conducted in three acceleration environments using ground-based facilities and the KC-135 aircraft. Performance and acceptability measurements were collected. Data analysis was conducted using analysis of variance and nonparametric techniques.

  18. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part I; Crew Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASAs Human spaceflight Architecture team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single space- ship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper provides the analysis of the interplanetary segments of the three Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions to Mars using the hybrid transportation architecture. The trajectory analysis provides departure and arrival dates and propellant needs for the three crew missions that are used by the campaign analysis team for campaign build-up and logistics aggregation analysis. Sensitivity analyses were performed to investigate the impact of mass growth, departure window, and propulsion system performance on the hybrid transportation architecture. The results and system analysis from this paper contribute to analyses of the other human spaceflight architecture team tasks and feed into the definition of the Evolvable Mars Campaign.

  19. An Application of Wedelin's Method to Railway Crew Scheduling Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Rei; Imaizumi, Jun; Fukumura, Naoto; Morito, Susumu

    So many scheduling problems arise in railway industries. One of the typical scheduling problems is Crew Scheduling Problem. Much attention has been paid to this problem by a lot of researchers, but many studies have not been done to the problems in railway industries in Japan. In this paper, we consider a railway crew scheduling problem in Japan. The problem can be formulated into Set Covering Problem (SCP). In SCP, a row corresponds to a trip representing a minimal task and a column corresponds to a pairing representing a sequence of trips performed by a certain crew. Many algorithms have been developed and proposed for it. On the other hand, in practical use, it is important to investigate how these algorithms behave and work on a certain problem. Therefore, we focus on Wedelin's algorithm, which is based on Lagrange relaxation and is known as one of the high performance algorithms for SCP, and mainly examine the basic idea of this algorithm. Furthermore, we show effectiveness of this procedure through computational experiments on instances from Japanese railway.

  20. Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort System Flight Test Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.

    2007-01-01

    The Constellation program is an organization within NASA whose mission is to create the new generation of spacecraft that will replace the Space Shuttle after its planned retirement in 2010. In the event of a catastrophic failure on the launch pad or launch vehicle during ascent, the successful use of the launch abort system will allow crew members to escape harm. The Flight Test Office is the organization within the Constellation project that will flight-test the launch abort system on the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The Flight Test Office has proposed six tests that will demonstrate the use of the launch abort system. These flight tests will be performed at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and are similar in nature to the Apollo Little Joe II tests performed in the 1960s. An overview of the launch abort system flight tests for the Orion crew exploration vehicle is given. Details on the configuration of the first pad abort flight test are discussed. Sample flight trajectories for two of the six flight tests are shown.