Science.gov

Sample records for room temperature solid

  1. Coherent population trapping in a crystalline solid at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesov, Roman

    2005-11-01

    Observation of coherent population trapping (CPT) at ground-state Zeeman sublevels of Cr3+ ion in ruby at room temperature is reported. A mechanism of CPT, not owing to optical pumping, is revealed in a situation when the optical pulse duration is shorter than the population decay time from the excited optical state.

  2. Designing room-temperature multiferroic materials in a single-phase solid-solution film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, H. J.; Song, C.; Cui, B.; Peng, J. J.; Li, F.; Xiao, L. R.; Pan, F.

    2016-09-01

    The search for multiferroic materials with simultaneous ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties in a single phase at room temperature continues to be fuelled from the perspective of developing multifunctional devices. Here we design a single-phase multiferroic La0.67Sr0.33MnO3-BaTiO3 film, which possesses epitaxial single-crystal and solid-solution structure, high magnetic Curie temperature (~640 K) as well as switchable ferroelectric polarization. Moreover, a notable strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling at room temperature in the way of modulating the magnetism with an external applied voltage is also observed. The synthetic solid-solution multiferroic film may open an extraordinary avenue for exploring a series of room-temperature multiferroic materials.

  3. Complex hydrides as room-temperature solid electrolytes for rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jongh, P. E.; Blanchard, D.; Matsuo, M.; Udovic, T. J.; Orimo, S.

    2016-03-01

    A central goal in current battery research is to increase the safety and energy density of Li-ion batteries. Electrolytes nowadays typically consist of lithium salts dissolved in organic solvents. Solid electrolytes could facilitate safer batteries with higher capacities, as they are compatible with Li-metal anodes, prevent Li dendrite formation, and eliminate risks associated with flammable organic solvents. Less than 10 years ago, LiBH4 was proposed as a solid-state electrolyte. It showed a high ionic conductivity, but only at elevated temperatures. Since then a range of other complex metal hydrides has been reported to show similar characteristics. Strategies have been developed to extend the high ionic conductivity of LiBH4 down to room temperature by partial anion substitution or nanoconfinement. The present paper reviews the recent developments in complex metal hydrides as solid electrolytes, discussing in detail LiBH4, strategies towards for fast room-temperature ionic conductors, alternative compounds, and first explorations of implementation of these electrolytes in all-solid-state batteries.

  4. Chain and conformation stability of solid-state DNA: implications for room temperature storage

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Jacques; Colotte, Marthe; Coudy, Delphine; Couallier, Vincent; Portier, Joseph; Morin, Bénédicte; Tuffet, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    There is currently wide interest in room temperature storage of dehydrated DNA. However, there is insufficient knowledge about its chemical and structural stability. Here, we show that solid-state DNA degradation is greatly affected by atmospheric water and oxygen at room temperature. In these conditions DNA can even be lost by aggregation. These are major concerns since laboratory plastic ware is not airtight. Chain-breaking rates measured between 70°C and 140°C seemed to follow Arrhenius’ law. Extrapolation to 25°C gave a degradation rate of about 1–40 cuts/105 nucleotides/century. However, these figures are to be taken as very tentative since they depend on the validity of the extrapolation and the positive or negative effect of contaminants, buffers or additives. Regarding the secondary structure, denaturation experiments showed that DNA secondary structure could be preserved or fully restored upon rehydration, except possibly for small fragments. Indeed, below about 500 bp, DNA fragments underwent a very slow evolution (almost suppressed in the presence of trehalose) which could end in an irreversible denaturation. Thus, this work validates using room temperature for storage of DNA if completely protected from water and oxygen. PMID:19969539

  5. Chain and conformation stability of solid-state DNA: implications for room temperature storage.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Jacques; Colotte, Marthe; Coudy, Delphine; Couallier, Vincent; Portier, Joseph; Morin, Bénédicte; Tuffet, Sophie

    2010-03-01

    There is currently wide interest in room temperature storage of dehydrated DNA. However, there is insufficient knowledge about its chemical and structural stability. Here, we show that solid-state DNA degradation is greatly affected by atmospheric water and oxygen at room temperature. In these conditions DNA can even be lost by aggregation. These are major concerns since laboratory plastic ware is not airtight. Chain-breaking rates measured between 70 degrees C and 140 degrees C seemed to follow Arrhenius' law. Extrapolation to 25 degrees C gave a degradation rate of about 1-40 cuts/10(5) nucleotides/century. However, these figures are to be taken as very tentative since they depend on the validity of the extrapolation and the positive or negative effect of contaminants, buffers or additives. Regarding the secondary structure, denaturation experiments showed that DNA secondary structure could be preserved or fully restored upon rehydration, except possibly for small fragments. Indeed, below about 500 bp, DNA fragments underwent a very slow evolution (almost suppressed in the presence of trehalose) which could end in an irreversible denaturation. Thus, this work validates using room temperature for storage of DNA if completely protected from water and oxygen. PMID:19969539

  6. Scalable architecture for a room temperature solid-state quantum information processor.

    PubMed

    Yao, N Y; Jiang, L; Gorshkov, A V; Maurer, P C; Giedke, G; Cirac, J I; Lukin, M D

    2012-04-24

    The realization of a scalable quantum information processor has emerged over the past decade as one of the central challenges at the interface of fundamental science and engineering. Here we propose and analyse an architecture for a scalable, solid-state quantum information processor capable of operating at room temperature. Our approach is based on recent experimental advances involving nitrogen-vacancy colour centres in diamond. In particular, we demonstrate that the multiple challenges associated with operation at ambient temperature, individual addressing at the nanoscale, strong qubit coupling, robustness against disorder and low decoherence rates can be simultaneously achieved under realistic, experimentally relevant conditions. The architecture uses a novel approach to quantum information transfer and includes a hierarchy of control at successive length scales. Moreover, it alleviates the stringent constraints currently limiting the realization of scalable quantum processors and will provide fundamental insights into the physics of non-equilibrium many-body quantum systems.

  7. Preparation of Soft Magnetic Fe-Ni-Pb-B Alloy Nanoparticles by Room Temperature Solid-Solid Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Qin

    2013-01-01

    The Fe-Ni-Pb-B alloy nanoparticles was prepared by a solid-solid chemical reaction of ferric trichloride, nickel chloride, lead acetate, and potassium borohydride powders at room temperature. The research results of the ICP and thermal analysis indicate that the resultants are composed of iron, nickel, lead, boron, and PVP, and the component of the alloy is connected with the mole ratio of potassium borohydride and the metal salts. The TEM images show that the resultants are ultrafine and spherical particles, and the particle size is about a diameter of 25 nm. The largest saturation magnetization value of the 21.18 emu g−1 is obtained in the Fe-Ni-Pb-B alloy. The mechanism of the preparation reaction for the Fe-Ni-Pb-B multicomponent alloys is discussed. PMID:24348196

  8. Laser-induced solid-surface room-temperature phosphorimetry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Campiglia, A.D.; Hueber, D.M.; Vo-dinh, T.

    1996-02-01

    Laser-induced solid-surface room-temperature phosphorimetry (SSRTP) has been employed for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A nitrogen-pumped laser and a dye laser were used as excitation sources. The effects of sample volume, laser irradiation, and background reduction treatment on the precision and sensitivity of the method were studied. With the use of thallium (I) acetate as a phosphorescence enhancer, picogram limits of detection were estimated for phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo[{ital g},{ital h},{ital i}]perylene, chrysene, coronene, and 1,2-benzofluorene. The study demonstrates that laser excitation can improve the sensitivity of SSRTP by up to three orders of magnitude. {copyright} {ital 1996 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.}

  9. Advances in room-temperature solid-state gamma-ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanczyk, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    This article presents a review and analysis of different concepts of gamma-ray spectrometry using room-temperature solid-state detectors. The classical approach involving the use of a charge-sensitive preamplifier and attempting to collect all the ionization charge produced by the gamma ray is analyzed and discussed in terms of the charge transport parameters of the most promising compound semiconductor materials. It is concluded that compound semiconductor detector materials having a large disparity between the ..mu.. tau products for electrons and holes (such as HgI/sub 2/ and CdTe) will have rather poor energy resolution if the classical method of spectrometry requiring full charge collection is employed. 30 references.

  10. A temperature relaxation method for the measurement of the specific heat of solids at room temperature in student laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín, E.; Delgado-Vasallo, O.; Valiente, H.

    2003-10-01

    A laboratory experiment is described which employs a relaxation method for the measurement of the specific heat at constant pressure of solids at room temperature. The experiment employs measurements of the cooling (or heating) rate of a sample whose temperature differs from that of the surroundings due to light heating. This rate depends on the temperature difference, the specific heat of the sample and the heat transfer coefficient. The sample is suspended adiabatically in a reservoir in which a vacuum can be made. The influence of heat dissipation by convection on the results is discussed for the first time for this kind of experiment. The theoretical aspects related to the described technique involve concepts from several branches of physics that makes the experiment of interest and suitable for students at undergraduate and graduate levels of physics, material sciences and engineering.

  11. Thin film rechargeable room temperature batteries using solid redox polymerization electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, M.M.; Visco, S.J.; De Jonghe, L.C. )

    1992-07-01

    This paper discusses thin-film solid-state batteries consisting of lithium foils, amorphous PEO separators, and solid redox polymerization electrodes (SRPEs) that were assembled, discharged, and cycled at room temperature. No solvents were added to any of the components, nor were structural additives used. Performances were studied as a function of cathode thickness and composition of separator and SRPE. At 50 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}, cells could be discharged to a depth of 0-.6 to 1.3 C/cm{sup 2} , at 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} to a depth of 0.5 C/cm{sup 2}, and at 200 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} depth of 0.25 C/cm{sup 2}. It was also possible to pulse batteries at higher current densities for short periods of time (ranging from 0.1 To 3 s) with instantaneous recovery of open-circuit potential after the performance occurred. Batteries may be designed to be paper or may consist of several cells stacked together to give a somewhat thicker device. Practical energy and power densities were calculated as a function of component dimensions (cathode and current collector thicknesses) for paper thin batteries consisting of lithium anodes, amorphous PEO separators, SRPEs, and metallized plastic current collectors. Power densities of 30 W/l (continuous discharge) and pulse 0.1 s power densities over 1000 W/l may be achieved for these ultrathin devices.

  12. Engineering the metathesis and oxidation-reduction reaction in solid state at room temperature for nanosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Pengfei; Cao, Yali; Jia, Dianzeng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Ruili

    2014-01-01

    It is a long-standing goal to explore convenient synthesis methodology for functional materials. Recently, several multiple-step approaches have been designed for photocatalysts AgnX@Ag (X = Cl−, PO43−, etc.), mainly containing the ion-exchange (metathesis) reaction followed by photoreduction in solution. But they were obsessed by complicated process, the uncontrollability of composition and larger sizes of Ag particles. Here we show a general solid-state route for the synthesis of AgnX@Ag catalysts with hierarchical structures. Due to strong surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles with broad shape and size, the AgnX@Ag showed high photocatalytic activity in visible region. Especially, the composition of AgnX@Ag composites could be accurately controlled by regulating the feed ratio of (NH2OH)2·H2SO4 to anions, by which the performance were easily optimized. Results demonstrate that the metathesis and oxidation-reduction reactions can be performed in solid state at room temperature for nanosynthesis, greatly reducing the time/energy consumption and pollution. PMID:24614918

  13. A NEW SAMPLE CELL DESIGN FOR STUDYING SOLID-MATRIX ROOM TEMPERATURE PHOSPHORESCENCE MOISTURE QUENCHING. (R824100)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new sample chamber was developed that can be used in the measurement of the effects of moisture on the room-temperature solid-matrix phosphorescence of phosphors adsorbed onto filter paper. The sample chamber consists of a sealed quartz cell that contains a special teflon sampl...

  14. Slow and Fast Light in Room Temperature Solids: Fundamentals and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Robert W.

    2004-03-01

    In recent years there has been great interest in techniques that can lead to a modification of the propagation velocity of light pulses through optical materials. Interest stems both from the intrinsic interest in the ability to control the velocity of light over large ranges and from the potential for applications such as controllable delay lines, optical data storage devices, optical memories, and devices for quantum information. Matthew Bigelow, Nick Lepeshkin, and I have recently developed a new method for achieving ultra-slow light propagation in room temperature solids. Our method makes use of an effect known as coherent population oscillations. In particular, we apply pump and probe fields to a ruby crystal, and the population of ground-state chromium ions is induced to oscillate coherently at the resulting beat frequency. These oscillations lead to a decreased absorption of the probe beam, and consequently (by the Kramers-Kronig relations) to a steep variation of the refractive index. In our laboratory studies of this effect, we observed reduced light velocities with light speeds as low as 57 m/s. We have also studied light propagation in the reverse saturable absorber alexandrite. In this case, the sign of the effect is inverted, leading to superluminal (but causal) light propagation.

  15. Performance evaluation of ZnO–CuO hetero junction solid state room temperature ethanol sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Ming-Ru; Suyambrakasam, Gobalakrishnan; Wu, Ren-Jang; Chavali, Murthy

    2012-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Sensor response (resistance) curves of time were changed from 150 ppm to 250 ppm alcohol concentration of ZnO–CuO 1:1. The response and recovery times were measured to be 62 and 83 s, respectively. The sensing material ZnO–CuO is a high potential alcohol sensor which provides a simple, rapid and highly sensitive alcohol gas sensor operating at room temperature. Highlights: ► The main advantages of the ethanol sensor are as followings. ► Novel materials ZnO–CuO ethanol sensor. ► The optimized ZnO–CuO hetero contact system. ► A good sensor response and room working temperature (save energy). -- Abstract: A semiconductor ethanol sensor was developed using ZnO–CuO and its performance was evaluated at room temperature. Hetero-junction sensor was made of ZnO–CuO nanoparticles for sensing alcohol at room temperature. Nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method and optimized with different weight ratios. Sensor characteristics were linear for the concentration range of 150–250 ppm. Composite materials of ZnO–CuO were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). ZnO–CuO (1:1) material showed maximum sensor response (S = R{sub air}/R{sub alcohol}) of 3.32 ± 0.1 toward 200 ppm of alcohol vapor at room temperature. The response and recovery times were measured to be 62 and 83 s, respectively. The linearity R{sup 2} of the sensor response was 0.9026. The sensing materials ZnO–CuO (1:1) provide a simple, rapid and highly sensitive alcohol gas sensor operating at room temperature.

  16. Superluminal and Ultra-Slow Light Propagation in Room-Temperature Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Robert W.; Bigelow, Matthew S.; Lepeshkin, Nick N.

    2004-12-01

    We have observed ultra-slow light propagation (57 m s-1) in ruby and superluminal (-800 m s-1) light propagation in alexandrite at room temperature. The modified light speed results from the rapid variation in refractive index associated with spectral holes and antiholes produced by the process of coherent population oscillations.

  17. Liquid-like ionic conduction in solid lithium and sodium monocarba-closo-decaborates near or at room temperature

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tang, Wan Si; Matsuo, Motoaki; Wu, Hui; Stavila, Vitalie; Zhou, Wei; Talin, Albert Alec; Soloninin, Alexei V.; Skoryunov, Roman V.; Babanova, Olga A.; Skripov, Alexander V.; et al

    2016-02-05

    Both LiCB9H10 and NaCB9H10 exhibit liquid-like cationic conductivities (≥0.03 S cm–1) in their disordered hexagonal phases near or at room temperature. Furthermore, these unprecedented conductivities and favorable stabilities enabled by the large pseudoaromatic polyhedral anions render these materials in their pristine or further modified forms as promising solid electrolytes in next-generation, power devices.

  18. Room temperature gas-solid reaction of titanium on glass surfaces forming a very low resistivity layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solís, Hugo; Clark, Neville; Azofeifa, Daniel; Avendano, E.

    2016-09-01

    Titanium films were deposited on quartz, glass, polyamide and PET substrates in a high vacuum system at room temperature and their electrical resistance monitored in vacuo as a function of thickness. These measurements indicate that a low electrical resistance layer is formed in a gas-solid reaction during the condensation of the initial layers of Ti on glass and quartz substrates. Layers begin to show relative low electrical resistance at around 21 nm for glass and 9nm for quartz. Samples deposited on polyamide and PET do not show this low resistance feature.

  19. A study of room-temperature LixMn1.5Ni0.5O4 solid solutions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Saravanan, Kuppan; Jarry, Angelique; Kostecki, Robert; Chen, Guoying

    2015-01-26

    Understanding the kinetic implication of solid-solution vs. biphasic reaction pathways is critical for the development of advanced intercalation electrode materials. Yet this has been a long-standing challenge in materials science due to the elusive metastable nature of solid solution phases. The present study reports the synthesis, isolation, and characterization of room-temperature LixMn1.5Ni0.5O4 solid solutions. In situ XRD studies performed on pristine and chemically-delithiated, micron-sized single crystals reveal the thermal behavior of LixMn1.5Ni0.5O4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) cathode material consisting of three cubic phases: LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 (Phase I), Li0.5Mn1.5Ni0.5O4 (Phase II) and Mn1.5Ni0.5O4 (Phase III). A phase diagram capturing the structuralmore » changes as functions of both temperature and Li content was established. In conclusion, the work not only demonstrates the possibility of synthesizing alternative electrode materials that are metastable in nature, but also enables in-depth evaluation on the physical, electrochemical and kinetic properties of transient intermediate phases and their role in battery electrode performance.« less

  20. A study of room-temperature LixMn1.5Ni0.5O4 solid solutions

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, Kuppan; Jarry, Angelique; Kostecki, Robert; Chen, Guoying

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the kinetic implication of solid-solution vs. biphasic reaction pathways is critical for the development of advanced intercalation electrode materials. Yet this has been a long-standing challenge in materials science due to the elusive metastable nature of solid solution phases. The present study reports the synthesis, isolation, and characterization of room-temperature LixMn1.5Ni0.5O4 solid solutions. In situ XRD studies performed on pristine and chemically-delithiated, micron-sized single crystals reveal the thermal behavior of LixMn1.5Ni0.5O4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) cathode material consisting of three cubic phases: LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 (Phase I), Li0.5Mn1.5Ni0.5O4 (Phase II) and Mn1.5Ni0.5O4 (Phase III). A phase diagram capturing the structural changes as functions of both temperature and Li content was established. The work not only demonstrates the possibility of synthesizing alternative electrode materials that are metastable in nature, but also enables in-depth evaluation on the physical, electrochemical and kinetic properties of transient intermediate phases and their role in battery electrode performance. PMID:25619504

  1. Catalytic solid substrate room temperature phosphorimetry for the determination of trace rhamnose based on its condensation reaction with calcein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Lin, Li-Ping; Wang, Hong-Xin; Lin, Shao-Qin; Zhang, Li-Hong; Cai, Wen-Lian; Lin, Xuan; Pan, You-Zhu; Wang, Xin-Xing; Li, Zhi-Ming; Jiao, Li; Cui, Ma-Lin

    2011-12-01

    Calcein (R) could not only emit strong and stable room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) on filter paper using I - as perturber, but also could be oxidized by H 2O 2 to form a non-phosphorescence compound (R'), resulting in the quenching of RTP signal of R. Moreover, the ortho-hydrogen of phenolic hydroxyl in R took condensation reaction with rhamnose (Rha) to produce non-phosphorescence compound (R-Rha) causing the RTP signal of R to further quench, and R-Rha was oxidized by H 2O 2 to form R' and Rha, bringing about the sharp RTP signal quenching of R. Thus, a new solid substrate room temperature phosphorimetry (SSRTP) for the determination of trace Rha based on its strong catalytic effect on H 2O 2 oxidizing R has been established, with the detection limit (LD) of 7.8 zg spot -1 (corresponding concentration: 2.0 × 10 -17 g ml -1, sample volume: 0.40 μl spot -1). This method has been applied to determine trace Rha in cigarettes and jujubes, with the results coinciding well with those determined by a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The component of R-Rha also was analyzed by means of HPLC, mass spectrometer and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. The mechanism of catalytic SSRTP for the determination of trace Rha was discussed.

  2. New room temperature high resolution solid-state detector (CdZnTe) for hard x rays and gamma rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Amyelizabeth C.; Desai, Upendra D.

    1993-01-01

    The new CdZnTe high 'Z' material represents a significant improvement in detectors for high energy photons. With the thicknesses available, photons up to 100 keV can be efficiently detected. This material has a wide band gap of 1.5 - 2.2 eV which allows it to operate at room temperature while providing high spectral resolution. Results of resolution evaluations are presented. This detector can be used for high resolution spectral measurements of photons in x-ray and gamma-ray astronomy, offering a significant reduction in the weight, power, and volume of the detector system compared to more conventional detector types such as scintillation counters. In addition, the detector will have the simplicity and reliability of solid-state construction. The CdZnTe detector, as a new development, has not yet been evaluated in space. The Get Away Special program can provide this opportunity.

  3. Room-temperature laser annealing for solid-phase epitaxial crystallization of β-Ga2O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiojiri, Daishi; Fukuda, Daiji; Yamauchi, Ryosuke; Tsuchimine, Nobuo; Koyama, Koji; Kaneko, Satoru; Matsuda, Akifumi; Yoshimoto, Mamoru

    2016-10-01

    The epitaxial crystallization of β-Ga2O3 thin films on NiO-buffered α-Al2O3(0001) substrates via the solid-phase crystallization of amorphous Ga2O3 thin films by KrF excimer laser annealing at room temperature (RT) was examined. The results of X-ray and reflection high-energy electron diffraction measurements indicated that the epitaxial β-Ga2O3 (\\bar{2}01) thin films were fabricated by RT laser annealing. The optical bandgap of the thin films was estimated to be 4.9 eV from the results of UV/vis transmittance measurements. In the cathodoluminescence spectrum, UV-green luminescence was observed for the thin films. These optical properties are similar to those of bulk β-Ga2O3.

  4. A novel optical biosensor for direct and selective determination of serotonin in serum by Solid Surface-Room Temperature Phosphorescence.

    PubMed

    Ramon-Marquez, Teresa; Medina-Castillo, Antonio L; Fernandez-Gutierrez, Alberto; Fernandez-Sanchez, Jorge F

    2016-08-15

    This paper describes a novel biosensor which combines the use of nanotechnology (non-woven nanofibre mat) with Solid Surface-Room Temperature Phosphorescence (SS-RTP) measurement for the determination of serotonin in human serum. The developed biosensor is simple and can be directly applied in serum; only requires a simple clean-up protocol. Therefore it is the first time that serotonin is analysed directly in serum with a non-enzymatic technique. This new approach is based on the covalent immobilization of serotonin directly from serum on a functional nanofibre material (Tiss®-Link) with a preactivated surface for direct covalent immobilization of primary and secondary amines, and the subsequent measurement of serotonin phosphorescent emission from the solid surface. The phosphorescent detection allows avoiding the interference from any fluorescence emission or scattering light from any molecule present in the serum sample which can be also immobilised on the nanofibre material. The determination of serotonin with this SS-RTP sensor overcomes some limitations, such as large interference from the matrix and high cost and complexity of many of the methods widely used for serotonin analysis. The potential applicability of the sensor in the clinical diagnosis was demonstrated by analysing serum samples from seven healthy volunteers. The method was validated with an external reference laboratory, obtaining a correlation coefficient of 0.997 which indicates excellent correlation between the two methods.

  5. A novel optical biosensor for direct and selective determination of serotonin in serum by Solid Surface-Room Temperature Phosphorescence.

    PubMed

    Ramon-Marquez, Teresa; Medina-Castillo, Antonio L; Fernandez-Gutierrez, Alberto; Fernandez-Sanchez, Jorge F

    2016-08-15

    This paper describes a novel biosensor which combines the use of nanotechnology (non-woven nanofibre mat) with Solid Surface-Room Temperature Phosphorescence (SS-RTP) measurement for the determination of serotonin in human serum. The developed biosensor is simple and can be directly applied in serum; only requires a simple clean-up protocol. Therefore it is the first time that serotonin is analysed directly in serum with a non-enzymatic technique. This new approach is based on the covalent immobilization of serotonin directly from serum on a functional nanofibre material (Tiss®-Link) with a preactivated surface for direct covalent immobilization of primary and secondary amines, and the subsequent measurement of serotonin phosphorescent emission from the solid surface. The phosphorescent detection allows avoiding the interference from any fluorescence emission or scattering light from any molecule present in the serum sample which can be also immobilised on the nanofibre material. The determination of serotonin with this SS-RTP sensor overcomes some limitations, such as large interference from the matrix and high cost and complexity of many of the methods widely used for serotonin analysis. The potential applicability of the sensor in the clinical diagnosis was demonstrated by analysing serum samples from seven healthy volunteers. The method was validated with an external reference laboratory, obtaining a correlation coefficient of 0.997 which indicates excellent correlation between the two methods. PMID:27085954

  6. Room temperature high-fidelity holonomic single-qubit gate on a solid-state spin

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo-Camejo, Silvia; Lazariev, Andrii; Hell, Stefan W.; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    At its most fundamental level, circuit-based quantum computation relies on the application of controlled phase shift operations on quantum registers. While these operations are generally compromised by noise and imperfections, quantum gates based on geometric phase shifts can provide intrinsically fault-tolerant quantum computing. Here we demonstrate the high-fidelity realization of a recently proposed fast (non-adiabatic) and universal (non-Abelian) holonomic single-qubit gate, using an individual solid-state spin qubit under ambient conditions. This fault-tolerant quantum gate provides an elegant means for achieving the fidelity threshold indispensable for implementing quantum error correction protocols. Since we employ a spin qubit associated with a nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond, this system is based on integrable and scalable hardware exhibiting strong analogy to current silicon technology. This quantum gate realization is a promising step towards viable, fault-tolerant quantum computing under ambient conditions. PMID:25216026

  7. SEPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TETROL METABOLITES OF BENZO[A]PYRENE-DNA ADDUCTS USING HPLC AND SOLID-MATRIX ROOM TEMPERATURE LUMINESCENCE. (R824100)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Four tetrols of benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adducts were separated using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Chromatographic fractions containing a given tetrol were readily characterized with solid-matrix room temperature luminescence techniques. So...

  8. Manipulation of Zeeman coherence in solids at room temperature: Ramsey interference in the coherent-population-trapping spectrum of ruby

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesov, Roman; Scully, Marlan O.; Kocharovskaya, Olga

    2006-11-15

    Coherent population trapping (CPT) in a three-level atomic medium pumped by two subsequent short optical pulses is considered under the condition of negligible population decay from the excited optical state. It is shown that the amount of atomic population transferred to the excited state by the combined action of the pulses strongly depends on the phase of the ground-state coherence excited by the first pulse at the arrival time of the second pulse. Oscillatory behavior of optical excitation efficiency on the time delay between the pulses is predicted. It is also shown that saturating optical pulses can produce population inversion in a resonantly pumped quasi-two-level system. A class of solid materials in which the predicted phenomena can be observed at room temperature is found. It includes some rare-earth and transition-metal doped dielectric crystals where Orbach relaxation between ground-state Zeeman states is suppressed: ruby, alexandrite, and several others. On the basis of the theoretical predictions, experimental observation of Ramsey fringes in CPT spectrum of ruby is reported.

  9. Manipulation of Zeeman coherence in solids at room temperature: Ramsey interference in the coherent-population-trapping spectrum of ruby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesov, Roman; Scully, Marlan O.; Kocharovskaya, Olga

    2006-11-01

    Coherent population trapping (CPT) in a three-level atomic medium pumped by two subsequent short optical pulses is considered under the condition of negligible population decay from the excited optical state. It is shown that the amount of atomic population transferred to the excited state by the combined action of the pulses strongly depends on the phase of the ground-state coherence excited by the first pulse at the arrival time of the second pulse. Oscillatory behavior of optical excitation efficiency on the time delay between the pulses is predicted. It is also shown that saturating optical pulses can produce population inversion in a resonantly pumped quasi-two-level system. A class of solid materials in which the predicted phenomena can be observed at room temperature is found. It includes some rare-earth and transition-metal doped dielectric crystals where Orbach relaxation between ground-state Zeeman states is suppressed: ruby, alexandrite, and several others. On the basis of the theoretical predictions, experimental observation of Ramsey fringes in CPT spectrum of ruby is reported.

  10. Room-Temperature All-solid-state Rechargeable Sodium-ion Batteries with a Cl-doped Na3PS4 Superionic Conductor.

    PubMed

    Chu, Iek-Heng; Kompella, Christopher S; Nguyen, Han; Zhu, Zhuoying; Hy, Sunny; Deng, Zhi; Meng, Ying Shirley; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2016-01-01

    All-solid-state sodium-ion batteries are promising candidates for large-scale energy storage applications. The key enabler for an all-solid-state architecture is a sodium solid electrolyte that exhibits high Na(+) conductivity at ambient temperatures, as well as excellent phase and electrochemical stability. In this work, we present a first-principles-guided discovery and synthesis of a novel Cl-doped tetragonal Na3PS4 (t-Na3-xPS4-xClx) solid electrolyte with a room-temperature Na(+) conductivity exceeding 1 mS cm(-1). We demonstrate that an all-solid-state TiS2/t-Na3-xPS4-xClx/Na cell utilizing this solid electrolyte can be cycled at room-temperature at a rate of C/10 with a capacity of about 80 mAh g(-1) over 10 cycles. We provide evidence from density functional theory calculations that this excellent electrochemical performance is not only due to the high Na(+) conductivity of the solid electrolyte, but also due to the effect that "salting" Na3PS4 has on the formation of an electronically insulating, ionically conducting solid electrolyte interphase. PMID:27645565

  11. Room-Temperature All-solid-state Rechargeable Sodium-ion Batteries with a Cl-doped Na3PS4 Superionic Conductor.

    PubMed

    Chu, Iek-Heng; Kompella, Christopher S; Nguyen, Han; Zhu, Zhuoying; Hy, Sunny; Deng, Zhi; Meng, Ying Shirley; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2016-09-20

    All-solid-state sodium-ion batteries are promising candidates for large-scale energy storage applications. The key enabler for an all-solid-state architecture is a sodium solid electrolyte that exhibits high Na(+) conductivity at ambient temperatures, as well as excellent phase and electrochemical stability. In this work, we present a first-principles-guided discovery and synthesis of a novel Cl-doped tetragonal Na3PS4 (t-Na3-xPS4-xClx) solid electrolyte with a room-temperature Na(+) conductivity exceeding 1 mS cm(-1). We demonstrate that an all-solid-state TiS2/t-Na3-xPS4-xClx/Na cell utilizing this solid electrolyte can be cycled at room-temperature at a rate of C/10 with a capacity of about 80 mAh g(-1) over 10 cycles. We provide evidence from density functional theory calculations that this excellent electrochemical performance is not only due to the high Na(+) conductivity of the solid electrolyte, but also due to the effect that "salting" Na3PS4 has on the formation of an electronically insulating, ionically conducting solid electrolyte interphase.

  12. Room-Temperature All-solid-state Rechargeable Sodium-ion Batteries with a Cl-doped Na3PS4 Superionic Conductor

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Iek-Heng; Kompella, Christopher S.; Nguyen, Han; Zhu, Zhuoying; Hy, Sunny; Deng, Zhi; Meng, Ying Shirley; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2016-01-01

    All-solid-state sodium-ion batteries are promising candidates for large-scale energy storage applications. The key enabler for an all-solid-state architecture is a sodium solid electrolyte that exhibits high Na+ conductivity at ambient temperatures, as well as excellent phase and electrochemical stability. In this work, we present a first-principles-guided discovery and synthesis of a novel Cl-doped tetragonal Na3PS4 (t-Na3−xPS4−xClx) solid electrolyte with a room-temperature Na+ conductivity exceeding 1 mS cm−1. We demonstrate that an all-solid-state TiS2/t-Na3−xPS4−xClx/Na cell utilizing this solid electrolyte can be cycled at room-temperature at a rate of C/10 with a capacity of about 80 mAh g−1 over 10 cycles. We provide evidence from density functional theory calculations that this excellent electrochemical performance is not only due to the high Na+ conductivity of the solid electrolyte, but also due to the effect that “salting” Na3PS4 has on the formation of an electronically insulating, ionically conducting solid electrolyte interphase. PMID:27645565

  13. An All-Solid-State, Room-Temperature, Heterodyne Receiver for Atmospheric Spectroscopy at 1.2 THz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siles, Jose V.; Mehdi, Imran; Schlecht, Erich T.; Gulkis, Samuel; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Lin, Robert H.; Lee, Choonsup; Gill, John J.; Thomas, Bertrand; Maestrini, Alain E.

    2013-01-01

    Heterodyne receivers at submillimeter wavelengths have played a major role in astrophysics as well as Earth and planetary remote sensing. All-solid-state heterodyne receivers using both MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) Schottky-diode-based LO (local oscillator) sources and mixers are uniquely suited for long-term planetary missions or Earth climate monitoring missions as they can operate for decades without the need for any active cryogenic cooling. However, the main concern in using Schottky-diode-based mixers at frequencies beyond 1 THz has been the lack of enough LO power to drive the devices because 1 to 3 mW are required to properly pump Schottky diode mixers. Recent progress in HEMT- (high-electron-mobility- transistor) based power amplifier technology, with output power levels in excess of 1 W recently demonstrated at W-band, as well as advances in MMIC Schottky diode circuit technology, have led to measured output powers up to 1.4 mW at 0.9 THz. Here the first room-temperature tunable, all-planar, Schottky-diode-based receiver is reported that is operating at 1.2 THz over a wide (˜20%) bandwidth. The receiver front-end (see figure) consists of a Schottky-diode-based 540 to 640 GHz multiplied LO chain (featuring a cascade of W-band power amplifiers providing around 120 to 180 mW at W-band), a 200-GHz MMIC frequency doubler, and a 600-GHz MMIC frequency tripler, plus a biasable 1.2-THz MMIC sub-harmonic Schottky-diode mixer. The LO chain has been designed, fabricated, and tested at JPL and provides around 1 to 1.5 mW at 540 o 640 GHz. The sub-harmonic mixer consists of two Schottky diodes on a thin GaAs membrane in an anti-parallel configuration. An integrated metal insulator metal (MIM) capacitor has been included on-chip to allow dc bias for the Schottky diodes. A bias voltage of around 0.5 V/diode is necessary to reduce the LO power required down to the 1 to 1.5 mW available from the LO chain. The epilayer thickness and doping profiles have

  14. Room temperature polyesterification

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.S.; Stupp, S.I. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    A new room temperature polymerization method has been developed for the synthesis of high molecular weight polyesters directly from carboxylic acids and phenols. The solution polymerization reaction proceeds under mild conditions, near neutral pH, and also avoids the use of preactivated acid derivatives for esterification. The reaction is useful in the preparation of isoregic ordered chains with translational polar symmetry and also in the polymerization of functionalized or chiral monomers. The conditions required for polymerization in the carbodiimide-based reaction included catalysis by the 1:1 molecular complex formed by 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine and p-toluenesulfonic acid. These conditions were established through studies on a model system involving esterification of p-toluic acid and p-cresol. Self-condensation of several hydroxy acid monomers by this reaction has produced routinely good yields of polyesters with molecular weights greater than 15,000. It is believed that the high extents of reaction required for significant degrees of polymerization result from suppression of the side reaction leading to N-acylurea. The utility of this reaction in the formation of polar chains from sensitive monomers is demonstrated hereby the polycondensation of a chiral hydroxy acid.

  15. Determination of trace copper by solid substrate-room temperature phosphorescence quenching method based on activating effect of α,α'-dipyridyl on Vitamin C reducing beryllon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Liu Jia; Lin, Xuan; Lin, Hong; Li, Ping Ping; Liu, Hai Zhu; Huang, Jun Li; Lin, Shao Qin

    2006-07-01

    A new solid substrate-room temperature phosphorescence quenching method for the determination of trace copper has been established. It is based on the fact that beryllon (R) can emit strong and stable solid substrate-room temperature phosphorescence on the filter paper, and Vitamin C (Vc) reduces R to non-phosphorescent compound that leads to solid substrate-room temperature phosphorescence (SS-RTP) quenching of R, and α,α'-dipyridyl can activate copper catalyzing Vitamin C reducing R. The Δ Ip of the system with α,α'-dipyridyl is 3.3 times higher than that without α,α'-dipyridyl, which shows the reaction of α,α'-dipyridyl activating copper catalyzing Vitamin C reducing R. The reducing value of phosphorescence intensity (Δ Ip) is directly proportional to the content of Cu(II) in the range of 0.040-4.0 fg spot -1 (corresponding concentration: 0.10-10.0 pg ml -1, sample volume: 0.40 μl spot -1). The regression equation of working curve can be expressed as Δ Ip = 69.99 + 41.00 m Cu 2+ (fg spot -1) ( r = 0.9980, n = 6), and the detection limit is 0.0088 fg spot -1(corresponding concentration: 2.2 × 10 -14 g ml -1). This sensitive and accurate method with good repeatability and high selectivity has been applied to the determination of trace copper in real samples with satisfactory results. The reaction mechanism for the determination of trace copper by solid substrate-room temperature phosphorescence quenching method based on the activating effect of α,α'-dipyridyl on Vitamin C reducing beryllon is also discussed.

  16. Corneal storage at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Sachs, U; Goldman, K; Valenti, J; Kaufman, H E

    1978-06-01

    Short-term eye banking is based mainly on moist chamber and McCarey-Kaufman medium (M-K medium) preservation. Both involve a controlled 4 C temperature for storage. Warming the cornea to room temperature, however, drastically affects the endothelial viability. On enzymatic staining and histological study, the M-K medium-stored rabbit corneas had more normal endothelium than did "moist chamber" eyes when storage was prolonged for seven days at room temperature. In human corneas that were kept at 4 C for 24 hours and then exposed to a temperature of 25 C, destruction of organelles had occurred by six hours and was increased by 12 hours. Corneas that were kept in M-K medium had relatively intact endothelium after four days, but cell disruption and vacuolation was present by the seventh day. The M-K medium, therefore, affords protection to tissue warmed to room temperature, where metabolic activity is resumed. PMID:350203

  17. A room temperature Na/S battery using a β″ alumina solid electrolyte separator, tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether electrolyte, and a S/C composite cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Icpyo; Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Chang Hyeon; Park, Jin-Woo; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon; Kim, Ki-Won; Ahn, Hyo-Jun

    2016-01-01

    To realize a high-performance room temperature Na/S battery with an elemental sulfur cathode, it is important that sodium polysulfides stay within the cathode and that they have room enough to react freely. In this work, sodium polysulfides are confined to the cathode using a β″ alumina solid electrolyte separator and an optimal amount of tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) electrolyte. In addition, an activated carbon material, in the form of a sulfur/carbon (S/C) composite, with high surface area, porosity, and pore volume is employed in the cathode. The resulting Na/S battery shows a high first discharge capacity of 855 mAh g-1 and coulombic efficiency close to 100%, as well as stable cyclability, with a discharge capacity of 521 mAh g-1 at the 104th discharge.

  18. Room temperature terahertz polariton emitter

    SciTech Connect

    Geiser, Markus; Scalari, Giacomo; Castellano, Fabrizio; Beck, Mattias; Faist, Jerome

    2012-10-01

    Terahertz (THz) range electroluminescence from intersubband polariton states is observed in the ultra strong coupling regime, where the interaction energy between the collective excitation of a dense electron gas and a photonic mode is a significant portion of the uncoupled excitation energy. The polariton's increased emission efficiency along with a parabolic electron confinement potential allows operation up to room temperature in a nonresonant pumping scheme. This observation of room temperature electroluminescence of an intersubband device in the THz range is a promising proof of concept for more powerful THz sources.

  19. Room-temperature solid state synthesis of ZnO/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} heterojunction and their solar light photocatalytic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin; Ren, Pengrong; Fan, Huiqing

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • ZnO/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical nanostructures were synthesized via a solid-state reaction. • The amount of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} plays an important role in controlling the morphology. • The amount of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} plays an important role in controlling the photocatalysis. - Abstract: ZnO/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} heterojunction was prepared by solid state reaction method at room temperature. The as-prepared nanostructures were characterized as the assembled nanosheets of ZnO on which Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were well dispersed. Further studies revealed that the morphology and photocatalytic property could be regulated by tuning the amount of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The introduction of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} can lead to the enhancement of solar light absorption, and the 5% ZnO/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples exhibited the best photocatalytic activity under the solar light irradiation. The excellent photocatalytic performances could be ascribed to the synergistic effects of the hierarchical nanostructures and the effective separation of photogenerated carriers. Moreover, the hydroxyl radicals (·OH) are found to be the main active species generated in the oxidation reaction of RhB over ZnO/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} photocatalyst. Therefore, our work demonstrated a facile way to prepare hierarchical nanostructures with excellent photocatalytic performance using solid state method at room temperature.

  20. Catalytic solid substrate-room temperature phosphorimetry for the determination of residual perphenazine based on the electronic effect of rhodamine 6G.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi-Yong; Cui, Ma-Lin; Zhang, Li-Hong; Jiang, Shu-Lian; Jiao, Li; Lin, Xuan; Lin, Shao-Qin; Liu, Jia-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The rhodamine 6G(+) -perphenazine (Rhod 6G(+) -PPH) compound is formed in the ester-exchange reaction between -OH of PPH and -COOC2 H5 of Rhod 6G(+) . PPH was oxidized to a red compound (PPH') in the presence of K2 S2 O8 . Interestingly, the room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) of Rhod 6G(+) was quenched because the -OH of PPH' reacted with -COOC2 H5 of Rhod 6G(+) -PPH to form Rhod 6G(+) -PPH' and PPH, which decreased the π-electron density (δ) of the carbon atom in the Rhod 6G(+) -PPH' conjugated system and enhanced the nonradiation energy loss of the excited Rhod 6G(+) of the triplet state. The PPH content was directly proportional to the ΔIp of the system. Thus, a new catalytic solid-substrate room temperature phosphorimetry (SSRTP) method was established for the determination of PPH. The method had high sensitivity (the limit of detection was 0.019 fg/spot, corresponding to a concentration of 4.8 × 10(-14)  g/mL; the sampling quantity was 0.40 μL/spot), good selectivity, convenience and speed. The analytical results were in accordance with those of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The structures of Rhod 6G(+) , PPH and Rhod 6G(+) -PPH were characterized by infrared spectra. The reaction mechanism by which PPH was determined is discussed.

  1. Room temperature photoluminescence in the visible range from silicon nanowires grown by a solid-state reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguita, J. V.; Sharma, P.; Henley, S. J.; Silva, S. R. P.

    2009-11-01

    The solid-liquid-solid method (also known as the solid-state method) is used to produce silicon nanowires at the core of silica nanowires with a support catalyst layer structure of nickel and titanium layers sputtered on oxide-coated silicon wafers. This silane-free process is low cost and large-area compatible. Using electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy we deduce that the wires have crystalline silicon cores. The nanowires show photoluminescence in the visible range (orange), and we investigate the origin of this band. We further show that the nanowires form a random mesh that acts as an efficient optical trap, giving rise to an optically absorbing medium.

  2. A new chemical route to a hybrid nanostructure: room-temperature solid-state reaction synthesis of Ag@AgCl with efficient photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pengfei; Cao, Yali

    2012-08-01

    The room-temperature solid-state chemical reaction technique has been used to synthesize the silver nanoparticle-loaded semiconductor silver@silver chloride for the first time. It has the advantages of convenient operation, lower cost, less pollution, and mass production. This simple technique created a wide array of nanosized silver particles which had a strong surface plasmon resonance effect in the visible region, and built up an excellent composite structure of silver@silver chloride hybrid which exhibited high photocatalytic activity and stability towards decomposition of organic methyl orange under visible-light illumination. Moreover, this work achieved the control of composition of the silver@silver chloride composite simply by adjusting the feed ratio of reactants. It offers an alternative method for synthesising metal@semiconductor composites.

  3. Rapid synthesis of ZnO nano-rods by one-step, room-temperature, solid-state reaction and their gas-sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhi-Peng; Liu, Lang; Zhang, Li; Jia, Dian-Zeng

    2006-05-01

    ZnO nano-rods are prepared by one-step solid-state reaction of zinc acetate dihydrate, sodium hydroxide and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at room temperature. The samples are characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The gas-sensing properties of the prepared material have been investigated. The results indicate that the as-prepared ZnO nano-rods are uniform with diameters of 10-30 nm and lengths of about 150-250 nm. The relatively high sensor signal and stability of sensors made from ZnO nano-rods demonstrate the potential for developing a new class of sensitive sensors.

  4. Novel room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Amita

    2004-06-01

    Today's information world, bits of data are processed by semiconductor chips, and stored in the magnetic disk drives. But tomorrow's information technology may see magnetism (spin) and semiconductivity (charge) combined in one 'spintronic' device that exploits both charge and 'spin' to carry data (the best of two worlds). Spintronic devices such as spin valve transistors, spin light emitting diodes, non-volatile memory, logic devices, optical isolators and ultra-fast optical switches are some of the areas of interest for introducing the ferromagnetic properties at room temperature in a semiconductor to make it multifunctional. The potential advantages of such spintronic devices will be higher speed, greater efficiency, and better stability at a reduced power consumption. This Thesis contains two main topics: In-depth understanding of magnetism in Mn doped ZnO, and our search and identification of at least six new above room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors. Both complex doped ZnO based new materials, as well as a number of nonoxides like phosphides, and sulfides suitably doped with Mn or Cu are shown to give rise to ferromagnetism above room temperature. Some of the highlights of this work are discovery of room temperature ferromagnetism in: (1) ZnO:Mn (paper in Nature Materials, Oct issue, 2003); (2) ZnO doped with Cu (containing no magnetic elements in it); (3) GaP doped with Cu (again containing no magnetic elements in it); (4) Enhancement of Magnetization by Cu co-doping in ZnO:Mn; (5) CdS doped with Mn, and a few others not reported in this thesis. We discuss in detail the first observation of ferromagnetism above room temperature in the form of powder, bulk pellets, in 2-3 mu-m thick transparent pulsed laser deposited films of the Mn (<4 at. percent) doped ZnO. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectra recorded from 2 to 200nm areas showed homogeneous distribution of Mn substituting

  5. Polariton condensates at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillet, Thierry; Brimont, Christelle

    2016-10-01

    We review the recent developments of the polariton physics in microcavities featuring the exciton-photon strong coupling at room temperature, and leading to the achievement of room-temperature polariton condensates. Such cavities embed active layers with robust excitons that present a large binding energy and a large oscillator strength, i.e. wide bandgap inorganic or organic semiconductors, or organic molecules. These various systems are compared, in terms of figures of merit and of common features related to their strong oscillator strength. The various demonstrations of polariton laser are compared, as well as their condensation phase diagrams. The room-temperature operation indeed allows a detailed investigation of the thermodynamic and out-of-equilibrium regimes of the condensation process. The crucial role of the spatial dynamics of the condensate formation is discussed, as well as the debated issue of the mechanism of stimulated relaxation from the reservoir to the condensate under non-resonant excitation. Finally the prospects of polariton devices are presented.

  6. A facile and rapid room-temperature route to hierarchical bismuth oxyhalide solid solutions with composition-dependent photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Han, Qiaofeng; Zhu, Junwu; Wang, Xin

    2016-09-01

    The unique nanosheet-based flower-like BiOCl1-xBrx (x=0-1) hierarchical solid solutions have been prepared by the reaction of Bi2O3 and KCl/KBr in mixed solution of glacial acetic acid (HAc) and H2O in dozens of minutes under ambient conditions. During the preparation process, the intermediate bismuth oxide acetate (CH3COOBiO) plays a key role in the formation of BiOCl1-xBrx solid solutions in such a short time. The as-prepared hierarchical BiOCl1-xBrx solid solutions possess high specific surface areas and modified band structures, which exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity for Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation in comparison with pure BiOCl and BiOBr under visible light irradiation, with the activity reaching the maximum at x=0.5. The photodegradation efficiency of the BiOCl0.5Br0.5 solid solution is twice and 12times higher than P25 TiO2 under UV and visible light irradiation, respectively.

  7. Enhanced photoluminescence of SrWO4:Eu3+ red phosphor synthesized by mechanochemically assisted solid state metathesis reaction method at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Anthuvan John; Banu, I. B. Shameem

    2015-06-01

    Optically efficient europium activated alkaline earth metal tungstate nano phosphor (SrWO4) with different doping concentrations have been synthesized by mechanochemically assisted solid state metathesis reaction at room temperature for the first time. The XRD and Raman spectra results indicated that the prepared powders exhibit a scheelite-type tetragonal structure. FTIR spectra exhibited a high absorption band situated at around 854 cm-1, which was ascribed to the W-O antisymmetric stretching vibrations into the [WO4]2- tetrahedron groups. Analysis of the emission spectra with different Eu3+ concentrations revealed that the optimum dopant concentration for SrWO4: x Eu3+ phosphor is about 8 mol% of Eu3+.The red emission intensity of the SSM prepared SrWO4: 0.08Eu3+ phosphors are 2 times greater than that of the commercial Y2O2S: Eu3+ red phosphor prepared by the conventional solid state reaction method. All the results indicate that the phosphor is a promising red phosphor pumped by NUV InGaN chip for fabricating WLED.

  8. Enhanced photoluminescence of SrWO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} red phosphor synthesized by mechanochemically assisted solid state metathesis reaction method at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Peter, Anthuvan John Banu, I. B. Shameem

    2015-06-24

    Optically efficient europium activated alkaline earth metal tungstate nano phosphor (SrWO{sub 4}) with different doping concentrations have been synthesized by mechanochemically assisted solid state metathesis reaction at room temperature for the first time. The XRD and Raman spectra results indicated that the prepared powders exhibit a scheelite-type tetragonal structure. FTIR spectra exhibited a high absorption band situated at around 854 cm{sup −1}, which was ascribed to the W–O antisymmetric stretching vibrations into the [WO{sub 4}]{sup 2−} tetrahedron groups. Analysis of the emission spectra with different Eu{sup 3+} concentrations revealed that the optimum dopant concentration for SrWO{sub 4}: x Eu{sup 3+} phosphor is about 8 mol% of Eu{sup 3+}.The red emission intensity of the SSM prepared SrWO{sub 4}: 0.08Eu{sup 3+} phosphors are 2 times greater than that of the commercial Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S: Eu{sup 3+} red phosphor prepared by the conventional solid state reaction method. All the results indicate that the phosphor is a promising red phosphor pumped by NUV InGaN chip for fabricating WLED.

  9. Determination of enrofloxacin by room-temperature phosphorimetry after solid phase extraction on an acrylic polymer sorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Cabrini F.; Martins, Renata K. S.; da Silva, Andrea R.; da Cunha, Alessandra L. M. C.; Aucélio, Ricardo Q.

    A phosphorimetric method was developed to enable the determination of enrofloxacin using photochemical derivatization which was used to both improve detection limits and to minimize the uncertainty of measurements. Phosphorescence was induced on cellulose containing TlNO3. Absolute limit of detection at the ng range and linear analytical response over three orders of magnitude were achieved. A metrological study was made to obtain the combined uncertainty value and to identify that the precision was mainly affected by the changing of substrates when measuring the signal from each replicate. Pharmaceutical formulations containing enrofloxacin were successfully analyzed by the method and the results were similar to the ones achieved using a HPLC method. A solid phase extraction on an acrylic polymer was optimized to separate enrofloxacin from interferents such as diclofenac and other components from biological matrices, which allowed the successful use of the method in urine analysis.

  10. Phosphorescence induced by pressure and continuous light irradiation of benzophenone and 4,4`-bis(dimethylamino)benzophenone in solid polymers at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Dreger, Z.A.; Lang, J.M.; Drickamer, H.G.

    1996-03-14

    We report efficient room temperature phosphorescence induced by pressure (PIP) and/or by continuous light irradiation (light-induced phosphorescence (LIP)) in two ketones: benzophenone (BP) and its p-dimethylamino-substituted (Michler`s ketone (MK)) both dissolved in solid poly(ethyl methacrylate) (PEMA). Under pressure both BP and MK reveal a remarkable growth of the phosphorescence intensity: 2 orders of magnitude (within 5 kbar) and 1 order of magnitude (within 50 kbar) respectively for MK and BP. For MK, above 5 kbar the phosphorescence intensity significantly decreases, but for BP the decrease is negligible even above 50 kbar. A model based on the increase of the amount of {pi},{pi}{sup *} character in the predominately n,{pi}{sup *} triplet state with increasing pressure is proposed to account for the observed features of the PIP. The LIP occurs only at pressures below the maximum in the PIP. With prolonged irradiation, the overall shape of the phosphorescence intensity curve versus time depends on pressure, exciting light intensity, and concentration. A tentative explanation of the LIP effect is given that assumes a creation of the phosphorescent photoproduct via the hydrogen abstraction reaction. 36 refs., 14 figs.

  11. In Situ Synthesis of Porous Carbons by Using Room-Temperature, Atmospheric-Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma as High-Performance Adsorbents for Solid-Phase Microextraction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yao; Wu, Li; Xu, Kailai; Tian, Yunfei; Hou, Xiandeng; Zheng, Chengbin

    2015-09-21

    A one-step, template-free method is described to synthesize porous carbons (PCs) in situ on a metal surface by using a room-temperature, atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma. This method not only features high efficiency, environmentally friendliness, and low cost and simple equipment, but also can conveniently realize large-area synthesis of PCs by only changing the design of the DBD reactor. The synthesized PCs have a regulated nestlike morphology, and thus, provide a high specific surface area and high pore volume, which result in excellent adsorption properties. Its applicability was demonstrated by using a PC-coated stainless-steel fiber as a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber to preconcentrate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) prior to analysis by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The results showed that the fiber exhibited excellent enrichment factors (4.1×10(4) to 3.1×10(5)) toward all tested PAHs. Thus, the PC-based SPME-GC-FID provides low limits of detection (2 to 20 ng L(-1)), good precision (<7.8%), and good recoveries (80-115%) for ultra-sensitive determination of PAHs in real water samples. In addition, the PC-coated fiber could be stable enough for more than 500 replicate extraction cycles. PMID:26267394

  12. A new perspective on self-reversed thermo-remanent magnetization and room-temperature magnetic exchange bias in quenched and annealed ferri-ilmenite solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P.; Harrison, R. J.; Fabian, K.; McEnroe, S. A.; Miyajima, N.

    2012-04-01

    In the 1950's, rocks containing ferri-ilmenite solid solutions with compositions X FeTiO3 = 0.53-0.71 were discovered to self-reverse during cooling in a weak field. Such samples played a vexing early role in the history of geomagnetism, because they demonstrably acquire a thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) inverse to the external field, strengthening a common opinion, at that time, that reversed lavas result from a rock-magnetic self-reversal process, while the geomagnetic field polarity itself is constant in time. Early self-reversal models postulated two distinct phases, a subsidiary phase with weak magnetization, and higher Fe content, Curie temperature, and coercivity, referred to as "the x phase", and a dominant phase with a strong magnetization, lower Fe content, Curie T temperature, and coercivity. The "x phase" magnetizes first at higher temperature parallel to the Earth field, and the dominant phase acquires a stronger magnetization at a lower temperature in an orientation opposite to the Earth field, either by direct antiferromagnetic coupling, or as a magnetostatic response to the previously acquired mineral magnetization. Landmark work by Nord and Lawson, on quench and annealing experiments with TEM, showed that, during quench, the solid solution starts to order, but with alternate A and B positioning of Fe and Ti layers. With coarsening, the alternately and chaotically positioned domains merge along antiphase domain boundaries (APBs) that are inherently unstable. With further annealing, boundaries move and are eliminated due to coarsening of some domains and shrinking of others. They showed that quenched, or slightly annealed samples, show self-reversed TRM, but further annealing results in a coarse simple ferrimagnetic phase. They suggested that the "x phase" is represented by the disordered regions along the chemical antiphase boundaries. Harrison visualized a solid solution sample, after quench and coarsening after annealing, which consisted of two

  13. Topological Insulators at Room Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haijun; Liu, Chao-Xing; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-03-25

    Topological insulators are new states of quantum matter with surface states protected by the time-reversal symmetry. In this work, we perform first-principle electronic structure calculations for Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} crystals. Our calculations predict that Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, Bi{sub 2}T e{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} are topological insulators, while Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} is not. In particular, Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} has a topologically non-trivial energy gap of 0.3eV , suitable for room temperature applications. We present a simple and unified continuum model which captures the salient topological features of this class of materials. These topological insulators have robust surface states consisting of a single Dirac cone at the {Lambda} point.

  14. Proposal for a room-temperature diamond maser

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Liang; Pfender, Matthias; Aslam, Nabeel; Neumann, Philipp; Yang, Sen; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2015-01-01

    The application of masers is limited by its demanding working conditions (high vacuum or low temperature). A room-temperature solid-state maser is highly desirable, but the lifetimes of emitters (electron spins) in solids at room temperature are usually too short (∼ns) for population inversion. Masing from pentacene spins in p-terphenyl crystals, which have a long spin lifetime (∼0.1 ms), has been demonstrated. This maser, however, operates only in the pulsed mode. Here we propose a room-temperature maser based on nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond, which features the longest known solid-state spin lifetime (∼5 ms) at room temperature, high optical pumping efficiency (∼106 s−1) and material stability. Our numerical simulation demonstrates that a maser with a coherence time of approximately minutes is feasible under readily accessible conditions (cavity Q-factor ∼5 × 104, diamond size ∼3 × 3 × 0.5 mm3 and pump power <10 W). A room-temperature diamond maser may facilitate a broad range of microwave technologies. PMID:26394758

  15. A room-temperature all-solid-state 4.7 THz multiplied LO source to enable the heterodyne observation of interstellar neutral oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siles, Jose

    emission and absorption, the models that predict the chemistry of ISM cannot be verified, revised and/or completed. Until this problem is solved, or in other words, until the fine OI atomic line is observed in high spectral and spatial resolution, the chemistry of oxygen in interstellar clouds and protostellar regions, essential for understanding the formation of stars and the incorporation of key molecules into forming planetary system, will not be fully understood. As a response to this problem, we will develop the first all-solid-state continuous coherent local oscillator (LO) source at 4.7 THz to enable very high-resolution heterodyne observation (R=»/”» > 1E6) of the 4.748 THz (63.1837 μm) fine structure line of neutral atomic oxygen (OI). This source will be broadband, frequency-agile, temperature and frequency stable and will operate at room-temperature (no need of cryogenic cooling). With hot electron bolometer detectors (HEB) already available, the proposed source is the only technological part that is still missing to provide the radio-astronomers with this highly necessary science data for the complete understanding of star and planetary systems formation processes.

  16. Solid-State Dynamic Nuclear Polarization at 9.4 and 18.8 T from 100 K to Room Temperature

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Efficient dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in solids, which enables very high sensitivity NMR experiments, is currently limited to temperatures of around 100 K and below. Here we show how by choosing an adequate solvent, 1H cross effect DNP enhancements of over 80 can be obtained at 240 K. To achieve this we use the biradical TEKPol dissolved in a glassy phase of ortho-terphenyl (OTP). We study the solvent DNP enhancement of both TEKPol and BDPA in OTP in the range from 100 to 300 K at 9.4 and 18.8 T. Surprisingly, we find that the DNP enhancement decreases only relatively slowly for temperatures below the glass transition of OTP (Tg = 243 K), and 1H enhancements around 15–20 at ambient temperature can be observed. We use this to monitor molecular dynamic transitions in the pharmaceutically relevant solids Ambroxol and Ibuprofen. PMID:26555676

  17. Room temperature creep in metals and alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Deibler, Lisa Anne

    2014-09-01

    Time dependent deformation in the form of creep and stress relaxation is not often considered a factor when designing structural alloy parts for use at room temperature. However, creep and stress relaxation do occur at room temperature (0.09-0.21 Tm for alloys in this report) in structural alloys. This report will summarize the available literature on room temperature creep, present creep data collected on various structural alloys, and finally compare the acquired data to equations used in the literature to model creep behavior. Based on evidence from the literature and fitting of various equations, the mechanism which causes room temperature creep is found to include dislocation generation as well as exhaustion.

  18. IMPROVED SYNTHESIS OF ROOM TEMPERATURE IONIC LIQUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), molten salts comprised of N-alkylimidazolium cations and various anions, have received significant attention due to their commercial potential in a variety of chemical applications especially as substitutes for conventional volatile organic...

  19. Determining Camera Gain in Room Temperature Cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Joshua Cogliati

    2010-12-01

    James R. Janesick provides a method for determining the amplification of a CCD or CMOS camera when only access to the raw images is provided. However, the equation that is provided ignores the contribution of dark current. For CCD or CMOS cameras that are cooled well below room temperature, this is not a problem, however, the technique needs adjustment for use with room temperature cameras. This article describes the adjustment made to the equation, and a test of this method.

  20. Giant electrocaloric effect in ferroelectric nanotubes near room temperature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Man; Wang, Jie

    2015-01-12

    Ferroelectric perovskite oxides possess large electrocaloric effect, but only at high temperature, which limits their potential as next generation solid state cooling devices. Here, we demonstrate from phase field simulations that a giant adiabatic temperature change exhibits near room temperature in the strained ferroelectric PbTiO₃ nanotubes, which is several times in magnitude larger than that of PbTiO₃ thin films. Such giant adiabatic temperature change is attributed to the extrinsic contribution of unusual domain transition, which involves a dedicated interplay among the electric field, strain, temperature and polarization. Careful selection of external strain allows one to harness the extrinsic contribution to obtain large adiabatic temperature change in ferroelectric nanotubes near room temperature. Our finding provides a novel insight into the electrocaloric response of ferroelectric nanostructures and leads to a new strategy to tailor and improve the electrocaloric properties of ferroelectric materials through domain engineering.

  1. A Na(+) Superionic Conductor for Room-Temperature Sodium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Song, Shufeng; Duong, Hai M; Korsunsky, Alexander M; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have ruled the consumer electronics market for the past 20 years and have great significance in the growing number of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage applications. However, in addition to concerns about electrochemical performance, the limited availability of lithium is gradually becoming an important issue for further continued use and development of lithium ion batteries. Therefore, a significant shift in attention has been taking place towards new types of rechargeable batteries such as sodium-based systems that have low cost. Another important aspect of sodium battery is its potential compatibility with the all-solid-state design where solid electrolyte is used to replace liquid one, leading to simple battery design, long life span, and excellent safety. The key to the success of all-solid-state battery design is the challenge of finding solid electrolytes possessing acceptable high ionic conductivities at room temperature. Herein, we report a novel sodium superionic conductor with NASICON structure, Na3.1Zr1.95Mg0.05Si2PO12 that shows high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 3.5 × 10(-3) S cm(-1). We also report successful fabrication of a room-temperature solid-state Na-S cell using this conductor.

  2. A Na+ Superionic Conductor for Room-Temperature Sodium Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shufeng; Duong, Hai M.; Korsunsky, Alexander M.; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2016-08-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have ruled the consumer electronics market for the past 20 years and have great significance in the growing number of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage applications. However, in addition to concerns about electrochemical performance, the limited availability of lithium is gradually becoming an important issue for further continued use and development of lithium ion batteries. Therefore, a significant shift in attention has been taking place towards new types of rechargeable batteries such as sodium-based systems that have low cost. Another important aspect of sodium battery is its potential compatibility with the all-solid-state design where solid electrolyte is used to replace liquid one, leading to simple battery design, long life span, and excellent safety. The key to the success of all-solid-state battery design is the challenge of finding solid electrolytes possessing acceptable high ionic conductivities at room temperature. Herein, we report a novel sodium superionic conductor with NASICON structure, Na3.1Zr1.95Mg0.05Si2PO12 that shows high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 3.5 × 10‑3 S cm‑1. We also report successful fabrication of a room-temperature solid-state Na-S cell using this conductor.

  3. A Na+ Superionic Conductor for Room-Temperature Sodium Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shufeng; Duong, Hai M.; Korsunsky, Alexander M.; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have ruled the consumer electronics market for the past 20 years and have great significance in the growing number of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage applications. However, in addition to concerns about electrochemical performance, the limited availability of lithium is gradually becoming an important issue for further continued use and development of lithium ion batteries. Therefore, a significant shift in attention has been taking place towards new types of rechargeable batteries such as sodium-based systems that have low cost. Another important aspect of sodium battery is its potential compatibility with the all-solid-state design where solid electrolyte is used to replace liquid one, leading to simple battery design, long life span, and excellent safety. The key to the success of all-solid-state battery design is the challenge of finding solid electrolytes possessing acceptable high ionic conductivities at room temperature. Herein, we report a novel sodium superionic conductor with NASICON structure, Na3.1Zr1.95Mg0.05Si2PO12 that shows high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 3.5 × 10−3 S cm−1. We also report successful fabrication of a room-temperature solid-state Na-S cell using this conductor. PMID:27572915

  4. A Na(+) Superionic Conductor for Room-Temperature Sodium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Song, Shufeng; Duong, Hai M; Korsunsky, Alexander M; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have ruled the consumer electronics market for the past 20 years and have great significance in the growing number of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage applications. However, in addition to concerns about electrochemical performance, the limited availability of lithium is gradually becoming an important issue for further continued use and development of lithium ion batteries. Therefore, a significant shift in attention has been taking place towards new types of rechargeable batteries such as sodium-based systems that have low cost. Another important aspect of sodium battery is its potential compatibility with the all-solid-state design where solid electrolyte is used to replace liquid one, leading to simple battery design, long life span, and excellent safety. The key to the success of all-solid-state battery design is the challenge of finding solid electrolytes possessing acceptable high ionic conductivities at room temperature. Herein, we report a novel sodium superionic conductor with NASICON structure, Na3.1Zr1.95Mg0.05Si2PO12 that shows high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 3.5 × 10(-3) S cm(-1). We also report successful fabrication of a room-temperature solid-state Na-S cell using this conductor. PMID:27572915

  5. Solid-state {sup 19}F and {sup 13}C NMR of room temperature fluorinated graphite and samples thermally treated under fluorine: Low-field and high-resolution studies

    SciTech Connect

    Giraudet, J.; Dubois, M.; Guerin, K.; Pinheiro, J.P.; Hamwi, A.; Stone, W.E.E.; Pirotte, P.; Masin, F. . E-mail: fmasin@ulb.ac.be

    2005-04-15

    Room temperature graphite fluorides consisting of raw material and samples post-treated in pure fluorine atmosphere in the temperature range 100-500 deg. C have been studied by solid-state NMR. Several NMR approaches have been used, both high and low-field {sup 19}F, {sup 19}F MAS and {sup 13}C MAS with {sup 19}F to {sup 13}C cross polarization. The modifications, in the graphitic lattice, of the catalytic iodine fluorides products have been examined. A transformation of the C-F bond character from semi-ionic to covalent has been found to occur at a post-treatment temperature close to 400 deg. C. It is shown that covalency increases with temperature.

  6. Electric control of magnetism at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liaoyu; Wang, Dunhui; Cao, Qingqi; Zheng, Yuanxia; Xuan, Haicheng; Gao, Jinlong; Du, Youwei

    2012-01-01

    In the single-phase multiferroics, the coupling between electric polarization (P) and magnetization (M) would enable the magnetoelectric (ME) effect, namely M induced and modulated by E, and conversely P by H. Especially, the manipulation of magnetization by an electric field at room-temperature is of great importance in technological applications, such as new information storage technology, four-state logic device, magnetoelectric sensors, low-power magnetoelectric device and so on. Furthermore, it can reduce power consumption and realize device miniaturization, which is very useful for the practical applications. In an M-type hexaferrite SrCo2Ti2Fe8O19, large magnetization and electric polarization were observed simultaneously at room-temperature. Moreover, large effect of electric field-controlled magnetization was observed even without magnetic bias field. These results illuminate a promising potential to apply in magnetoelectric devices at room temperature and imply plentiful physics behind them. PMID:22355737

  7. Dynamics of Glass Relaxation at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Roger C.; Smith, John R.; Potuzak, Marcel; Guo, Xiaoju; Bowden, Bradley F.; Kiczenski, T. J.; Allan, Douglas C.; King, Ellyn A.; Ellison, Adam J.; Mauro, John C.

    2013-06-01

    The problem of glass relaxation under ambient conditions has intrigued scientists and the general public for centuries, most notably in the legend of flowing cathedral glass windows. Here we report quantitative measurement of glass relaxation at room temperature. We find that Corning® Gorilla® Glass shows measurable and reproducible relaxation at room temperature. Remarkably, this relaxation follows a stretched exponential decay rather than simple exponential relaxation, and the value of the stretching exponent (β=3/7) follows a theoretical prediction made by Phillips for homogeneous glasses.

  8. Room Temperature Multiferroicity of Charge Transfer Crystals.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei; Chen, Xiaomin; Li, Huashan; Gong, Maogang; Yuan, Guoliang; Grossman, Jeffrey C; Wuttig, Manfred; Ren, Shenqiang

    2015-09-22

    Room temperature multiferroics has been a frontier research field by manipulating spin-driven ferroelectricity or charge-order-driven magnetism. Charge-transfer crystals based on electron donor and acceptor assembly, exhibiting simultaneous spin ordering, are drawing significant interests for the development of all-organic magnetoelectric multiferroics. Here, we report that a remarkable anisotropic magnetization and room temperature multiferroicity can be achieved through assembly of thiophene donor and fullerene acceptor. The crystal motif directs the dimensional and compositional control of charge-transfer networks that could switch magnetization under external stimuli, thereby opening up an attractive class of all-organic nanoferronics.

  9. Widely tunable room temperature semiconductor terahertz source

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Q. Y.; Slivken, S.; Bandyopadhyay, N.; Bai, Y.; Razeghi, M.

    2014-11-17

    We present a widely tunable, monolithic terahertz source based on intracavity difference frequency generation within a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at room temperature. A three-section ridge waveguide laser design with two sampled grating sections and a distributed-Bragg section is used to achieve the terahertz (THz) frequency tuning. Room temperature single mode THz emission with a wide tunable frequency range of 2.6–4.2 THz (∼47% of the central frequency) and THz power up to 0.1 mW is demonstrated, making such device an ideal candidate for THz spectroscopy and sensing.

  10. Room-temperature antiferromagnetic memory resistor.

    PubMed

    Marti, X; Fina, I; Frontera, C; Liu, Jian; Wadley, P; He, Q; Paull, R J; Clarkson, J D; Kudrnovský, J; Turek, I; Kuneš, J; Yi, D; Chu, J-H; Nelson, C T; You, L; Arenholz, E; Salahuddin, S; Fontcuberta, J; Jungwirth, T; Ramesh, R

    2014-04-01

    The bistability of ordered spin states in ferromagnets provides the basis for magnetic memory functionality. The latest generation of magnetic random access memories rely on an efficient approach in which magnetic fields are replaced by electrical means for writing and reading the information in ferromagnets. This concept may eventually reduce the sensitivity of ferromagnets to magnetic field perturbations to being a weakness for data retention and the ferromagnetic stray fields to an obstacle for high-density memory integration. Here we report a room-temperature bistable antiferromagnetic (AFM) memory that produces negligible stray fields and is insensitive to strong magnetic fields. We use a resistor made of a FeRh AFM, which orders ferromagnetically roughly 100 K above room temperature, and therefore allows us to set different collective directions for the Fe moments by applied magnetic field. On cooling to room temperature, AFM order sets in with the direction of the AFM moments predetermined by the field and moment direction in the high-temperature ferromagnetic state. For electrical reading, we use an AFM analogue of the anisotropic magnetoresistance. Our microscopic theory modelling confirms that this archetypical spintronic effect, discovered more than 150 years ago in ferromagnets, is also present in AFMs. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of fabricating room-temperature spintronic memories with AFMs, which in turn expands the base of available magnetic materials for devices with properties that cannot be achieved with ferromagnets.

  11. Room-temperature antiferromagnetic memory resistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, X.; Fina, I.; Frontera, C.; Liu, Jian; Wadley, P.; He, Q.; Paull, R. J.; Clarkson, J. D.; Kudrnovský, J.; Turek, I.; Kuneš, J.; Yi, D.; Chu, J.-H.; Nelson, C. T.; You, L.; Arenholz, E.; Salahuddin, S.; Fontcuberta, J.; Jungwirth, T.; Ramesh, R.

    2014-04-01

    The bistability of ordered spin states in ferromagnets provides the basis for magnetic memory functionality. The latest generation of magnetic random access memories rely on an efficient approach in which magnetic fields are replaced by electrical means for writing and reading the information in ferromagnets. This concept may eventually reduce the sensitivity of ferromagnets to magnetic field perturbations to being a weakness for data retention and the ferromagnetic stray fields to an obstacle for high-density memory integration. Here we report a room-temperature bistable antiferromagnetic (AFM) memory that produces negligible stray fields and is insensitive to strong magnetic fields. We use a resistor made of a FeRh AFM, which orders ferromagnetically roughly 100 K above room temperature, and therefore allows us to set different collective directions for the Fe moments by applied magnetic field. On cooling to room temperature, AFM order sets in with the direction of the AFM moments predetermined by the field and moment direction in the high-temperature ferromagnetic state. For electrical reading, we use an AFM analogue of the anisotropic magnetoresistance. Our microscopic theory modelling confirms that this archetypical spintronic effect, discovered more than 150 years ago in ferromagnets, is also present in AFMs. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of fabricating room-temperature spintronic memories with AFMs, which in turn expands the base of available magnetic materials for devices with properties that cannot be achieved with ferromagnets.

  12. Imprinting bulk amorphous alloy at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Song-Yi; Park, Eun-Soo; Ott, Ryan T.; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Huh, Moo-Young; Kim, Do-Hyang; Eckert, Jürgen; Lee, Min-Ha

    2015-01-01

    We present investigations on the plastic deformation behavior of a brittle bulk amorphous alloy by simple uniaxial compressive loading at room temperature. A patterning is possible by cold-plastic forming of the typically brittle Hf-based bulk amorphous alloy through controlling homogenous flow without the need for thermal energy or shaping at elevated temperatures. The experimental evidence suggests that there is an inconsistency between macroscopic plasticity and deformability of an amorphous alloy. Moreover, imprinting of specific geometrical features on Cu foil and Zr-based metallic glass is represented by using the patterned bulk amorphous alloy as a die. These results demonstrate the ability of amorphous alloys or metallic glasses to precisely replicate patterning features onto both conventional metals and the other amorphous alloys. Our work presents an avenue for avoiding the embrittlement of amorphous alloys associated with thermoplastic forming and yields new insight the forming application of bulk amorphous alloys at room temperature without using heat treatment. PMID:26563908

  13. Imprinting bulk amorphous alloy at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Song-Yi; Park, Eun-Soo; Ott, Ryan T; Lograsso, Thomas A; Huh, Moo-Young; Kim, Do-Hyang; Eckert, Jürgen; Lee, Min-Ha

    2015-01-01

    We present investigations on the plastic deformation behavior of a brittle bulk amorphous alloy by simple uniaxial compressive loading at room temperature. A patterning is possible by cold-plastic forming of the typically brittle Hf-based bulk amorphous alloy through controlling homogenous flow without the need for thermal energy or shaping at elevated temperatures. The experimental evidence suggests that there is an inconsistency between macroscopic plasticity and deformability of an amorphous alloy. Moreover, imprinting of specific geometrical features on Cu foil and Zr-based metallic glass is represented by using the patterned bulk amorphous alloy as a die. These results demonstrate the ability of amorphous alloys or metallic glasses to precisely replicate patterning features onto both conventional metals and the other amorphous alloys. Our work presents an avenue for avoiding the embrittlement of amorphous alloys associated with thermoplastic forming and yields new insight the forming application of bulk amorphous alloys at room temperature without using heat treatment. PMID:26563908

  14. Imprinting bulk amorphous alloy at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Song-Yi; Park, Eun-Soo; Ott, Ryan T.; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Huh, Moo-Young; Kim, Do-Hyang; Eckert, Jürgen; Lee, Min-Ha

    2015-11-01

    We present investigations on the plastic deformation behavior of a brittle bulk amorphous alloy by simple uniaxial compressive loading at room temperature. A patterning is possible by cold-plastic forming of the typically brittle Hf-based bulk amorphous alloy through controlling homogenous flow without the need for thermal energy or shaping at elevated temperatures. The experimental evidence suggests that there is an inconsistency between macroscopic plasticity and deformability of an amorphous alloy. Moreover, imprinting of specific geometrical features on Cu foil and Zr-based metallic glass is represented by using the patterned bulk amorphous alloy as a die. These results demonstrate the ability of amorphous alloys or metallic glasses to precisely replicate patterning features onto both conventional metals and the other amorphous alloys. Our work presents an avenue for avoiding the embrittlement of amorphous alloys associated with thermoplastic forming and yields new insight the forming application of bulk amorphous alloys at room temperature without using heat treatment.

  15. Imprinting bulk amorphous alloy at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Song-Yi; Park, Eun-Soo; Ott, Ryan T.; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Huh, Moo-Young; Kim, Do-Hyang; Eckert, Jürgen; Lee, Min-Ha

    2015-11-13

    We present investigations on the plastic deformation behavior of a brittle bulk amorphous alloy by simple uniaxial compressive loading at room temperature. A patterning is possible by cold-plastic forming of the typically brittle Hf-based bulk amorphous alloy through controlling homogenous flow without the need for thermal energy or shaping at elevated temperatures. The experimental evidence suggests that there is an inconsistency between macroscopic plasticity and deformability of an amorphous alloy. Moreover, imprinting of specific geometrical features on Cu foil and Zr-based metallic glass is represented by using the patterned bulk amorphous alloy as a die. These results demonstrate the ability of amorphous alloys or metallic glasses to precisely replicate patterning features onto both conventional metals and the other amorphous alloys. In conclusion, our work presents an avenue for avoiding the embrittlement of amorphous alloys associated with thermoplastic forming and yields new insight the forming application of bulk amorphous alloys at room temperature without using heat treatment.

  16. Individual room temperature control: A peaceful solution to thermostat wars

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, C.A. )

    1994-01-01

    This article addresses the problem of maintaining thermal comfort in individual rooms using an individual room temperature control concept to provide greater occupant comfort and potentially reduce energy consumption. The topics of the article include occupant temperature control methods, multi-room zone control, HVAC system operation, computer simulation, and the results of using individual room temperature control.

  17. Room-Temperature Liquid Crystal Blue Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taushanoff, Stefanie; van Le, Khoa; Twieg, Robert; Jakli, Antal

    2009-03-01

    The ``blue phases'' of a highly chiral liquid crystal are defect-studded structures of double-twist cylinders that are laced together. The three phases, BPI*, BPII* and BPIII* differ only in the packing of the double-twist cylinders. Until recently, blue phases were of limited practical use because they appeared for only a very narrow temperature range. Mixtures that show BPI* and BPII* phases for wide temperature ranges at or around room temperature are now available [1]. Relatively wide temperature BPIII (the blue fog) phase so far was available only at very high temperatures [2]. Here we present mixtures with room-temperature wide range BPIII* phase and compare the ability of chiral dopants to form the different blue phases in a base nematic mixture. PDLC films cast with blue-phase material are also examined.[3pt] [1] H. Coles and M. Pivnenko, Nature 2005 436-18 997-1000 [0pt] [2] C. V. Yelamaggad, I. S. Shashikala, G. Liao, D.S. Shankar Rao, S. K. Prasad , Q. Li A. Jakli, Chem. Mater Comm, 2006, 18, 6100-6102

  18. Determination of trace silver by solid substrate-room temperature phosphorescence quenching method based on double catalytic system of meta-nitrophenyfluorone-polyoxyethylene-chromium-potassium bromate-β-cyclodextrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiaming, Liu; Xuan, Lin; Aihong, Wu; Li-Xiang, Hu; Hangxia, HE; Honghua, Huang; Longdi, Li; Shaoqin, Lin

    2006-09-01

    A new solid substrate-room temperature phosphorescence (SS-RTP) quenching method for the determination of trace silver has been established. It is based on the fact that when using Mg 2+ as ion perturber and β-CD as surfactant, the system of meta-nitrophenyfluorone (R)-polyoxyethylene-Cr(III) can emit strong and stable room temperature phosphorescence signal on filter paper whose surface is modified by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-H 3BO 3-NaOH. Ag(I) can catalyze KBrO 3 oxidizing R-PEO-Cr(III) system which causes the quenching of SS-RTP. The reducing value of phosphorescence intensity (Δ Ip) is directly proportional to the concentration of Ag(I) in the range of 3.2-160 ag spot -1 (corresponding concentration: 2.43 fg ml -1, the sample volume: 0.40 μl spot -1) with a detection limit (LD) of 0.97 ag spot -1. The regression equation of working curve can be expressed as Δ Ip = 13.92 + 0.3089 m (ag spot -1) ( r = 0.9983, n = 6). This method has many advantages, such as a wide linear dynamic range, high sensitivity, good repeatability and selectivity. It has been applied to the determination of trace silver in real samples with satisfactory results. What is more, the mechanism of SS-RTP quenching method based on Ag(I) catalyzing KBrO 3 oxidizing meta-nitrophenyfluorone has also been discussed.

  19. A Highly Reversible Room-Temperature Sodium Metal Anode

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Owing to its low cost and high natural abundance, sodium metal is among the most promising anode materials for energy storage technologies beyond lithium ion batteries. However, room-temperature sodium metal anodes suffer from poor reversibility during long-term plating and stripping, mainly due to formation of nonuniform solid electrolyte interphase as well as dendritic growth of sodium metal. Herein we report for the first time that a simple liquid electrolyte, sodium hexafluorophosphate in glymes (mono-, di-, and tetraglyme), can enable highly reversible and nondendritic plating–stripping of sodium metal anodes at room temperature. High average Coulombic efficiencies of 99.9% were achieved over 300 plating–stripping cycles at 0.5 mA cm–2. The long-term reversibility was found to arise from the formation of a uniform, inorganic solid electrolyte interphase made of sodium oxide and sodium fluoride, which is highly impermeable to electrolyte solvent and conducive to nondendritic growth. As a proof of concept, we also demonstrate a room-temperature sodium–sulfur battery using this class of electrolytes, paving the way for the development of next-generation, sodium-based energy storage technologies. PMID:27163006

  20. Magnetic heat pumping near room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that magnetic heat pumping can be made practical at room temperature by using a ferromagnetic material with a Curie point at or near operating temperature and an appropriate regenerative thermodynamic cycle. Measurements are performed which show that gadolinium is a resonable working material and it is found that the application of a 7-T magnetic field to gadolinium at the Curie point (293 K) causes a heat release of 4 kJ/kg under isothermal conditions or a temperature rise of 14 K under adiabatic conditions. A regeneration technique can be used to lift the load of the lattice and electronic heat capacities off the magnetic system in order to span a reasonable temperature difference and to pump as much entropy per cycle as possible

  1. Imprinting bulk amorphous alloy at room temperature

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kim, Song-Yi; Park, Eun-Soo; Ott, Ryan T.; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Huh, Moo-Young; Kim, Do-Hyang; Eckert, Jürgen; Lee, Min-Ha

    2015-11-13

    We present investigations on the plastic deformation behavior of a brittle bulk amorphous alloy by simple uniaxial compressive loading at room temperature. A patterning is possible by cold-plastic forming of the typically brittle Hf-based bulk amorphous alloy through controlling homogenous flow without the need for thermal energy or shaping at elevated temperatures. The experimental evidence suggests that there is an inconsistency between macroscopic plasticity and deformability of an amorphous alloy. Moreover, imprinting of specific geometrical features on Cu foil and Zr-based metallic glass is represented by using the patterned bulk amorphous alloy as a die. These results demonstrate the abilitymore » of amorphous alloys or metallic glasses to precisely replicate patterning features onto both conventional metals and the other amorphous alloys. In conclusion, our work presents an avenue for avoiding the embrittlement of amorphous alloys associated with thermoplastic forming and yields new insight the forming application of bulk amorphous alloys at room temperature without using heat treatment.« less

  2. Bioinduced Room-Temperature Methanol Reforming.

    PubMed

    Heim, Leo E; Thiel, Daniel; Gedig, Christian; Deska, Jan; Prechtl, Martin H G

    2015-08-24

    Imitating nature's approach in nucleophile-activated formaldehyde dehydrogenation, air-stable ruthenium complexes proved to be exquisite catalysts for the dehydrogenation of formaldehyde hydrate as well as for the transfer hydrogenation to unsaturated organic substrates at loadings as low as 0.5 mol %. Concatenation of the chemical hydrogen-fixation route with an oxidase-mediated activation of methanol gives an artificial methylotrophic in vitro metabolism providing methanol-derived reduction equivalents for synthetic hydrogenation purposes. Moreover, for the first time methanol reforming at room temperature was achieved on the basis of this bioinduced dehydrogenation path delivering hydrogen gas from aqueous methanol.

  3. A study of room-temperature LixMn1.5Ni0.5O4 solid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Saravanan, Kuppan; Jarry, Angelique; Kostecki, Robert; Chen, Guoying

    2015-01-26

    Understanding the kinetic implication of solid-solution vs. biphasic reaction pathways is critical for the development of advanced intercalation electrode materials. Yet this has been a long-standing challenge in materials science due to the elusive metastable nature of solid solution phases. The present study reports the synthesis, isolation, and characterization of room-temperature LixMn1.5Ni0.5O4 solid solutions. In situ XRD studies performed on pristine and chemically-delithiated, micron-sized single crystals reveal the thermal behavior of LixMn1.5Ni0.5O4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) cathode material consisting of three cubic phases: LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 (Phase I), Li0.5Mn1.5Ni0.5O4 (Phase II) and Mn1.5Ni0.5O4 (Phase III). A phase diagram capturing the structural changes as functions of both temperature and Li content was established. In conclusion, the work not only demonstrates the possibility of synthesizing alternative electrode materials that are metastable in nature, but also enables in-depth evaluation on the physical, electrochemical and kinetic properties of transient intermediate phases and their role in battery electrode performance.

  4. Absorber Materials at Room and Cryogenic Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    F. Marhauser, T.S. Elliott, A.T. Wu, E.P. Chojnacki, E. Savrun

    2011-09-01

    We recently reported on investigations of RF absorber materials at cryogenic temperatures conducted at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The work was initiated to find a replacement material for the 2 Kelvin low power waveguide Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorbers employed within the original cavity cryomodules of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). This effort eventually led to suitable candidates as reported in this paper. Furthermore, though constrained by small funds for labor and resources, we have analyzed a variety of lossy ceramic materials, several of which could be usable as HOM absorbers for both normal conducting and superconducting RF structures, e.g. as loads in cavity waveguides and beam tubes either at room or cryogenic temperatures and, depending on cooling measures, low to high operational power levels.

  5. Room temperature luminescence and ferromagnetism of AlN:Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Cai, G. M.; Wang, W. J.

    2016-06-01

    AlN:Fe polycrystalline powders were synthesized by a modified solid state reaction (MSSR) method. Powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy results reveal the single phase nature of the doped samples. In the doped AlN samples, Fe is in Fe2+ state. Room temperature ferromagnetic behavior is observed in AlN:Fe samples. Two photoluminescence peaks located at about 592 nm (2.09 eV) and 598 nm (2.07 eV) are observed in AlN:Fe samples. Our results suggest that AlN:Fe is a potential material for applications in spintronics and high power laser devices.

  6. Room-temperature storage of microalgae in water-in-oil emulsions: influence of solid particle type and concentration in the oil phase.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Lorena; Scher, Herbert; Jeoh, Tina; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2015-12-01

    Water-in-oil emulsions containing silica nanoparticles (Aerosil R974) have the potential to stabilize microalgae for long-term storage. Studies were completed to determine if smectite clays could be used as an alternative to Aerosil R974. Emulsions were prepared with Aerosil R974, and hectorite and bentonite clays in the continuous phase and Chlorella sorokiniana was added to the aqueous phase to monitor the effects of solid particles on emulsion stability. Biological stability (cell viability) was determined using cell density measurements, and physical stability was measured from water droplet size distributions obtained by light scattering measurements and by examining phase separation over time. Measurements were also made to determine the effects of particles in the oil phase on emulsion viscosity. Particle concentrations greater than 0.25 wt% in the oil phase were required for maintaining physical stability. In emulsions containing 1 wt% solid particles and microalgae, biological stability of cells could be sustained for 340 days, regardless of particle type. At 1 wt% particles in the oil phase, apparent viscosity was 165% greater for samples containing hectorite and bentonite clays compared to samples containing Aerosil R974. The higher viscosity would need to be considered in large-scale production of emulsions for commercial application.

  7. Structure of room temperature ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yethiraj, Arun

    2016-10-01

    The structure of room temperature ionic liquids is studied using molecular dynamics simulations and integral equation theory. Three ionic liquids 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium hexfluorophosphate, [C n MIM] [PF6], for n  =  1, 4, and 8, are studied using a united atom model of the ions. The primary interest is a study of the pair correlation functions and a test of the reference interaction site model theory. There is liquid-like ordering in the liquid that arises from electrostatic attractions and steric packing considerations. The theory is not in quantitative agreement with the simulation results and underestimates the degree of liquid-like order. A pre-peak in the static structure factor is seen in both simulations and theory, suggesting that this is a geometric effect arising from a packing of the alkyl chains.

  8. Atomically resolved force microscopy at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Seizo

    2014-04-24

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can now not only image individual atoms but also construct atom letters using atom manipulation method even at room temperature (RT). Therefore, the AFM is the second generation atomic tool following the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). However the AFM can image even insulating atoms, and also directly measure/map the atomic force and potential at the atomic scale. Noting these advantages, we have been developing a bottom-up nanostructuring system at RT based on the AFM. It can identify chemical species of individual atoms and then manipulate selected atom species to the predesigned site one-by-one to assemble complex nanostructures consisted of multi atom species at RT. Here we introduce our results toward atom-by-atom assembly of composite nanostructures based on the AFM at RT including the latest result on atom gating of nano-space for atom-by-atom creation of atom clusters at RT for semiconductor surfaces.

  9. Thiazolylimines as novel ligand-systems for spin-crossover centred near room temperature.

    PubMed

    Struch, N; Wagner, N; Schnakenburg, G; Weisbarth, R; Klos, S; Beck, J; Lützen, A

    2016-09-28

    A new thiazolylimine ligand system for iron(ii) complexes which stabilises spin-crossover in solution and solid states with T1/2 temperatures around room temperature has been developed. This effect is studied in solution and solid states. Furthermore crystal packing effects are investigated offering a variety of T1/2 and even hysteresis centred at -3 °C in the solid state. PMID:27534997

  10. Thiazolylimines as novel ligand-systems for spin-crossover centred near room temperature.

    PubMed

    Struch, N; Wagner, N; Schnakenburg, G; Weisbarth, R; Klos, S; Beck, J; Lützen, A

    2016-09-28

    A new thiazolylimine ligand system for iron(ii) complexes which stabilises spin-crossover in solution and solid states with T1/2 temperatures around room temperature has been developed. This effect is studied in solution and solid states. Furthermore crystal packing effects are investigated offering a variety of T1/2 and even hysteresis centred at -3 °C in the solid state.

  11. Electrorecovery of actinides at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Stoll, Michael E; Oldham, Warren J; Costa, David A

    2008-01-01

    There are a large number of purification and processing operations involving actinide species that rely on high-temperature molten salts as the solvent medium. One such application is the electrorefining of impure actinide metals to provide high purity material for subsequent applications. There are some drawbacks to the electrodeposition of actinides in molten salts including relatively low yields, lack of accurate potential control, maintaining efficiency in a highly corrosive environment, and failed runs. With these issues in mind we have been investigating the electrodeposition of actinide metals, mainly uranium, from room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and relatively high-boiling organic solvents. The RTILs we have focused on are comprised of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium or quaternary ammonium cations and mainly the {sup -}N(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} anion [bis(trif1uoromethylsulfonyl)imide {equivalent_to} {sup -}NTf{sub 2}]. These materials represent a class of solvents that possess great potential for use in applications employing electrochemical procedures. In order to ascertain the feasibility of using RTILs for bulk electrodeposition of actinide metals our research team has been exploring the electron transfer behavior of simple coordination complexes of uranium dissolved in the RTIL solutions. More recently we have begun some fundamental electrochemical studies on the behavior of uranium and plutonium complexes in the organic solvents N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Our most recent results concerning electrodeposition will be presented in this account. The electrochemical behavior of U(IV) and U(III) species in RTILs and the relatively low vapor pressure solvents NMP and DMSO is described. These studies have been ongoing in our laboratory to uncover conditions that will lead to the successful bulk electrodeposition of actinide metals at a working electrode surface at room temperature or slightly elevated temperatures. The RTILs we

  12. A Two-Dimensional Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Solid of Manganese(II) Hydrogenophosphate Showing High Proton Conductivity at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-Rong; Xue, Chen; Li, Cui-Ping; Zhang, Kai-Ming; Luo, Hong-Bin; Liu, Shao-Xian; Ren, Xiao-Ming

    2016-09-01

    The inorganic-organic hybrid metal hydrogenophosphate with a formula of (C2H10N2)[Mn2(HPO4)3](H2O) (1) shows layered crystal structure. The inorganic anion layer is built from Mn3O13 cluster units, and the interlayer spaces are filled by the charge-compensated ethylenediammonium dications together with the lattice water molecules. The thermogravimetry, variable-temperature powder X-ray diffraction, and the proton conductance under anhydrous and moisture environments were investigated for 1, disclosing that 1 shows high thermal stability and high proton transport nature, and the proton conductivity reaches to 1.64 × 10(-3) S·cm(-1) under 99%RH even at 293 K. The high proton conductivity is related to the formation of denser H-bond networks in the lattice. PMID:27509084

  13. Room temperature molecular up conversion in solution.

    PubMed

    Nonat, Aline; Chan, Chi Fai; Liu, Tao; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Liu, Zhenyu; Wong, Wing-Tak; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Wong, Ka-Leung; Charbonnière, Loïc J

    2016-01-01

    Up conversion is an Anti-Stokes luminescent process by which photons of low energy are piled up to generate light at a higher energy. Here we show that the addition of fluoride anions to a D2O solution of a macrocyclic erbium complex leads to the formation of a supramolecular [(ErL)2F](+) assembly in which fluoride is sandwiched between two complexes, held together by the synergistic interactions of the Er-F-Er bridging bond, four intercomplex hydrogen bonds and two aromatic stacking interactions. Room temperature excitation into the Er absorption bands at 980 nm of a solution of the complex in D2O results in the observation of up converted emission at 525, 550 and 650 nm attributed to Er centred transitions via a two-step excitation. The up conversion signal is dramatically increased upon formation of the [(ErL)2F](+) dimer in the presence of 0.5 equivalents of fluoride anions. PMID:27302144

  14. Room-temperature nanowire terahertz photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, Lorenzo; Coquillant, Dominique; Viti, Leonardo; Ercolani, Daniele; Sorba, Lucia; Knap, Wojciech; Tredicucci, Alessandro; Vitiello, Miriam S.

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) represent an ideal building block for implementing rectifying diodes or plasma­ wave detectors that could operate well into the THz, thanks to the typical attofarad-order capacitance. Despite the strong effort in developing these nanostructures for a new generation of complementary metal-oxide semi­ conductors (CMOS), memory and photonic devices, their potential as radiation sensors into the Terahertz is just starting to be explored. We report on the development of NW-based field effect transistors operating as high sensitivity THz detectors in the 0.3 - 2.8 THz range. By feeding the radiation field of either an electronic THz source or a quantum cascade laser (QCL) at the gate-source electrodes by means of a wide band dipole antenna, we measured a photovoltage signal corresponding to responsivity values up to 100 V IW, with impressive noise equivalent power levels < 6 x 10-11W/Hz at room temperature and a > 300kHz modulation bandwidth. The potential scalability to even higher frequencies and the technological feasibility of realizing multi-pixel arrays coupled with QCL sources make the proposed technology highly competitive for a future generation of THz detection systems.

  15. Room temperature molecular up conversion in solution

    PubMed Central

    Nonat, Aline; Chan, Chi Fai; Liu, Tao; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Liu, Zhenyu; Wong, Wing-Tak; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Wong, Ka-Leung; Charbonnière, Loïc J.

    2016-01-01

    Up conversion is an Anti-Stokes luminescent process by which photons of low energy are piled up to generate light at a higher energy. Here we show that the addition of fluoride anions to a D2O solution of a macrocyclic erbium complex leads to the formation of a supramolecular [(ErL)2F]+ assembly in which fluoride is sandwiched between two complexes, held together by the synergistic interactions of the Er-F-Er bridging bond, four intercomplex hydrogen bonds and two aromatic stacking interactions. Room temperature excitation into the Er absorption bands at 980 nm of a solution of the complex in D2O results in the observation of up converted emission at 525, 550 and 650 nm attributed to Er centred transitions via a two-step excitation. The up conversion signal is dramatically increased upon formation of the [(ErL)2F]+ dimer in the presence of 0.5 equivalents of fluoride anions. PMID:27302144

  16. Room-Temperature Multiferroic Hexagonal LuFeO3

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Xuemei; Balke, Nina; Chi, Miaofang; Gai, Zheng; Keavney, David; Lee, Ho Nyung; Shen, Jian; Snijders, Paul C; Wang, Wenbin; Ward, Thomas Z; Xu, Xiaoshan; Yi, Jieyu; Zhu, Leyi; Christen, Hans M; Zhao, Jun

    2013-01-01

    We observed the coexistence of ferroelectricity and weak ferromagnetism at room temperature in the hexagonal phase of LuFeO3 stabilized by epitaxial thin film growth. While the ferroelectricity in hexagonal LuFeO3 can be understood as arising from its polar structure, the observation of weak ferromagnetism at room temperature is remarkable considering the frustrated triangular spin structure. An explanation of the room temperature weak ferromagnetism is proposed in terms of a subtle lattice distortion revealed by the structural characterization. The combination of ferroelectricity and weak ferromagnetism in epitaxial films at room temperature offers great potential for the application of this novel multiferroic material in next generation devices.

  17. Determination of trace alkaline phosphatase by affinity adsorption solid substrate room temperature phosphorimetry based on wheat germ agglutinin labeled with 8-quinolineboronic acid phosphorescent molecular switch and prediction of diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Gao, Hui; Li, Fei-Ming; Shi, Xiu-Mei; Lin, Chang-Qing; Lin, Li-Ping; Wang, Xin-Xing; Li, Zhi-Ming

    2010-09-01

    The 8-quinolineboronic acid phosphorescent molecular switch (abbreviated as PMS-8-QBA. Thereinto, 8-QBA is 8-quinolineboronic acid, and PMS is phosphorescent molecular switch) was found for the first time. PMS-8-QBA, which was in the "off" state, could only emit weak room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) on the acetyl cellulose membrane (ACM). However, PMS-8-QBA turned "on" automatically for its changed structure, causing that the RTP of 8-QBA in the system increased, after PMS-8-QBA-WGA (WGA is wheat germ agglutinin) was formed by reaction between -OH of PMS-8-QBA and -COOH of WGA. More interesting is that the -NH 2 of PMS-8-QBA-WGA could react with the -COOH of alkaline phosphatase (AP) to form the affinity adsorption (AA) product WGA-AP-WGA-8-QBA-PMS (containing -NH-CO- bond), which caused RTP of the system to greatly increase. Thus, affinity adsorption solid substrate room temperature phosphorimetry using PMS-8-QBA as labelling reagent (PMS-8-QBA-AA-SSRTP) for the determination of trace AP was established. The method had many advantages, such as high sensitivity (the detection limit (LD) was 2.5 zg spot -1. For sample volume of 0.40 μl spot -1, corresponding concentration was 6.2 × 10 -18 g ml -1), good selectivity (the allowed concentration of coexisting material was higher, when the relative error was ±5%), high accuracy (applied to detection of AP content in serum samples, the result was coincided with those obtained by enzyme-linked immunoassay), which was suitable for the detection of trace AP content in serum samples and the forecast of human diseases. Meanwhile, the mechanism of PMS-8-QBA-AASSRTP was discussed. The new field of analytical application and clinic diagnosis technique of molecule switch are exploited, based on the phosphorescence characteristic of PMS-8-QBA, the AA reaction between WGA and AP, as well as the relation between AP content and human diseases. The research results promote the development and interpenetrate among molecule

  18. Water in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayer, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (or RTILs, salts with a melting point below 25 °C) have become a subject of intense study over the last several decades. Currently, RTIL application research includes synthesis, batteries, solar cells, crystallization, drug delivery, and optics. RTILs are often composed of an inorganic anion paired with an asymmetric organic cation which contains one or more pendant alkyl chains. The asymmetry of the cation frustrates crystallization, causing the salt's melting point to drop significantly. In general, RTILs are very hygroscopic, and therefore, it is of interest to examine the influence of water on RTIL structure and dynamics. In addition, in contrast to normal aqueous salt solutions, which crystallize at low water concentration, in an RTIL it is possible to examine isolated water molecules interacting with ions but not with other water molecules. Here, optical heterodyne-detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) measurements of orientational relaxation on a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate RTILs as a function of chain length and water concentration are presented. The addition of water to the longer alkyl chain RTILs causes the emergence of a long time bi-exponential orientational anisotropy decay. Such decays have not been seen previously in OHD-OKE experiments on any type of liquid and are analyzed here using a wobbling-in-a-cone model. The orientational relaxation is not hydrodynamic, with the slowest relaxation component becoming slower as the viscosity decreases for the longest chain, highest water content samples. The dynamics of isolated D2O molecules in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BmImPF6) were examined using two dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy. Spectral diffusion and incoherent and coherent transfer of excitation between the symmetric and antisymmetric modes are examined. The coherent transfer experiments are used to address the nature of inhomogeneous

  19. Compton imager using room temperature silicon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurfess, James D.; Novikova, Elena I.; Phlips, Bernard F.; Wulf, Eric A.

    2007-08-01

    We have been developing a multi-layer Compton Gamma Ray Imager using position-sensitive, intrinsic silicon detectors. Advantages of this approach include room temperature operation, reduced Doppler broadening, and use of conventional silicon fabrication technologies. We have obtained results on the imaging performance of a multi-layer instrument where each layer consists of a 2×2 array of double-sided strip detectors. Each detector is 63 mm×63 mm×2 mm thick and has 64 strips providing a strip pitch of approximately 0.9 mm. The detectors were fabricated by SINTEF ICT (Oslo Norway) from 100 mm diameter wafers. The use of large arrays of silicon detectors appears especially advantageous for applications that require excellent sensitivity, spectral resolution and imaging such as gamma ray astrophysics, detection of special nuclear materials, and medical imaging. The multiple Compton interactions (three or more) in the low-Z silicon enable the energy and direction of the incident gamma ray to be determined without full deposition of the incident gamma-ray energy in the detector. The performance of large volume instruments for various applications are presented, including an instrument under consideration for NASA's Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT) mission and applications to Homeland Security. Technology developments that could further extend the sensitivity and performance of silicon Compton Imagers are presented, including the use of low-energy (few hundred keV) electron tracking within novel silicon detectors and the potential for a wafer-bonding approach to produce thicker, position-sensitive silicon detectors with an associated reduction of required electronics and instrument cost.

  20. A stable room-temperature sodium-sulfur battery.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuya; Xu, Shaomao; Agrawral, Akanksha; Choudhury, Snehashis; Lu, Yingying; Tu, Zhengyuan; Ma, Lin; Archer, Lynden A

    2016-01-01

    High-energy rechargeable batteries based on earth-abundant materials are important for mobile and stationary storage technologies. Rechargeable sodium-sulfur batteries able to operate stably at room temperature are among the most sought-after platforms because such cells take advantage of a two-electron-redox process to achieve high storage capacity from inexpensive electrode materials. Here we report a room-temperature sodium-sulfur battery that uses a microporous carbon-sulfur composite cathode, and a liquid carbonate electrolyte containing the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium-chlorate tethered to SiO2 nanoparticles. We show that these cells can cycle stably at a rate of 0.5 C (1 C=1675, mAh g(-1)) with 600 mAh g(-1) reversible capacity and nearly 100% Coulombic efficiency. By means of spectroscopic and electrochemical analysis, we find that the particles form a sodium-ion conductive film on the anode, which stabilizes deposition of sodium. We also find that sulfur remains interred in the carbon pores and undergo solid-state electrochemical reactions with sodium ions. PMID:27277345

  1. A stable room-temperature sodium–sulfur battery

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shuya; Xu, Shaomao; Agrawral, Akanksha; Choudhury, Snehashis; Lu, Yingying; Tu, Zhengyuan; Ma, Lin; Archer, Lynden A.

    2016-01-01

    High-energy rechargeable batteries based on earth-abundant materials are important for mobile and stationary storage technologies. Rechargeable sodium–sulfur batteries able to operate stably at room temperature are among the most sought-after platforms because such cells take advantage of a two-electron-redox process to achieve high storage capacity from inexpensive electrode materials. Here we report a room-temperature sodium–sulfur battery that uses a microporous carbon–sulfur composite cathode, and a liquid carbonate electrolyte containing the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium-chlorate tethered to SiO2 nanoparticles. We show that these cells can cycle stably at a rate of 0.5 C (1 C=1675, mAh g−1) with 600 mAh g−1 reversible capacity and nearly 100% Coulombic efficiency. By means of spectroscopic and electrochemical analysis, we find that the particles form a sodium-ion conductive film on the anode, which stabilizes deposition of sodium. We also find that sulfur remains interred in the carbon pores and undergo solid-state electrochemical reactions with sodium ions. PMID:27277345

  2. A stable room-temperature sodium-sulfur battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shuya; Xu, Shaomao; Agrawral, Akanksha; Choudhury, Snehashis; Lu, Yingying; Tu, Zhengyuan; Ma, Lin; Archer, Lynden A.

    2016-06-01

    High-energy rechargeable batteries based on earth-abundant materials are important for mobile and stationary storage technologies. Rechargeable sodium-sulfur batteries able to operate stably at room temperature are among the most sought-after platforms because such cells take advantage of a two-electron-redox process to achieve high storage capacity from inexpensive electrode materials. Here we report a room-temperature sodium-sulfur battery that uses a microporous carbon-sulfur composite cathode, and a liquid carbonate electrolyte containing the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium-chlorate tethered to SiO2 nanoparticles. We show that these cells can cycle stably at a rate of 0.5 C (1 C=1675, mAh g-1) with 600 mAh g-1 reversible capacity and nearly 100% Coulombic efficiency. By means of spectroscopic and electrochemical analysis, we find that the particles form a sodium-ion conductive film on the anode, which stabilizes deposition of sodium. We also find that sulfur remains interred in the carbon pores and undergo solid-state electrochemical reactions with sodium ions.

  3. A stable room-temperature sodium-sulfur battery.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuya; Xu, Shaomao; Agrawral, Akanksha; Choudhury, Snehashis; Lu, Yingying; Tu, Zhengyuan; Ma, Lin; Archer, Lynden A

    2016-06-09

    High-energy rechargeable batteries based on earth-abundant materials are important for mobile and stationary storage technologies. Rechargeable sodium-sulfur batteries able to operate stably at room temperature are among the most sought-after platforms because such cells take advantage of a two-electron-redox process to achieve high storage capacity from inexpensive electrode materials. Here we report a room-temperature sodium-sulfur battery that uses a microporous carbon-sulfur composite cathode, and a liquid carbonate electrolyte containing the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium-chlorate tethered to SiO2 nanoparticles. We show that these cells can cycle stably at a rate of 0.5 C (1 C=1675, mAh g(-1)) with 600 mAh g(-1) reversible capacity and nearly 100% Coulombic efficiency. By means of spectroscopic and electrochemical analysis, we find that the particles form a sodium-ion conductive film on the anode, which stabilizes deposition of sodium. We also find that sulfur remains interred in the carbon pores and undergo solid-state electrochemical reactions with sodium ions.

  4. Determination of trace glucose and forecast of human diseases by affinity adsorption solid substrate room temperature phosphorimetry based on Triticum valgaris lectin labeled with 4.0-generation dendrimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiming; Zhu, Guohui; Liu, Jiaming; Lu, Qiaomei; Yang, Minlan; Wu, Hong; Shi, Xiumei; Chen, Xinhua

    2007-08-01

    A new phosphorescence labeling reagent Triton-100X-4.0G-D (4.0G-D refers to 4.0-generation dendrimers) was found. Quantitative specific affinity adsorption (AA) reaction between Triton-100X-4.0G-D-WGA and glucose (G) was carried out on the surface of nitrocellulose membrane (NCM), and the Δ Ip of the product of AA reaction was linear correlation to the content of G. Based on the facts above, a new method for the determination of trace G was established by WGA labeled with Triton-100X-4.0G-D affinity adsorption solid substrate room temperature phosphorimetry (Triton-100X-4.0G-D-WGA-AA-SS-RTP). This research showed that AA-SS-RTP for either direct method or sandwich method could combine very well the characteristics of both the high sensitivity of SS-RTP and the specificity of the AA reaction. Detection limits (LD) were 0.24 fg spot -1 for direct method and 0.18 fg spot -1 for sandwich method, indicating both of them were of high sensitivity. The method has been applied to the determination of the content of G in human serum, and the results were coincided with those obtained by glucose oxidize enzyme method. It can also be applied to forecast accurately some human diseases, such as primary hepatic carcinoma, cirrhosis, acute and chronic hepatitis, transfer hepatocellular, etc. Meanwhile, the mechanism for the determination of G with AA-SS-RTP was discussed.

  5. Room-temperature ultrasensitive mass spectrometer via dynamical decoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Nan; Yin, Zhang-qi

    2014-10-01

    We propose an ultrasensitive mass spectrometer based on a coupled quantum-bit-oscillator system. Under dynamical decoupling control of the quantum bit (qubit), the qubit coherence exhibits a comb structure in the time domain. The time-comb structure enables high-precision measurements of oscillator frequency, which can be used as an ultrasensitive mass spectrometer. We show that, in the ideal case, the sensitivity η of the proposed mass spectrometer has better performance at higher temperature and scales with the temperature T as η ˜T-1 /2 . While taking into account qubit and oscillator decay, the optimal sensitivity reaches a universal value independent of environmental temperature T . The measurement sensitivity η also shows an improved dependence on the control-pulse number N as η ˜N-3 /2 , in comparison with the N-1 /2 scaling in previous magnetometry studies. With the present technology on solid-state spin qubit and high-quality optomechanical system, our proposal is feasible to realize an ultrasensitive room-temperature mass spectrometer.

  6. Room temperature and productivity in office work

    SciTech Connect

    Seppanen, O.; Fisk, W.J.; Lei, Q.H.

    2006-07-01

    Indoor temperature is one of the fundamental characteristics of the indoor environment. It can be controlled with a degree of accuracy dependent on the building and its HVAC system. The indoor temperature affects several human responses, including thermal comfort, perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance at work. In this study, we focused on the effects of temperature on performance at office work. We included those studies that had used objective indicators of performance that are likely to be relevant in office type work, such as text processing, simple calculations (addition, multiplication), length of telephone customer service time, and total handling time per customer for call-center workers. We excluded data from studies of industrial work performance. We calculated from all studies the percentage of performance change per degree increase in temperature, and statistically analyzed measured work performance with temperature. The results show that performance increases with temperature up to 21-22 C, and decreases with temperature above 23-24 C. The highest productivity is at temperature of around 22 C. For example, at the temperature of 30 C, the performance is only 91.1% of the maximum i.e. the reduction in performance is 8.9%.

  7. Room-temperature observations of the weak localization in low-mobility graphene films

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Junhao; Wang, Shanyue; Qian, Di; Song, Fengqi E-mail: bgwang@nju.edu.cn; Wang, Baigeng E-mail: bgwang@nju.edu.cn; Han, Min; Zhou, Jianfeng; Wang, Xinran; Wang, Xuefeng

    2013-12-07

    We report room-temperature observations of the quantum conductance corrections caused by the weak localization in graphene films synthesized using solid-state-source chemical vapor deposition. Both Raman spectroscopy and Hall measurements showed strong disorder in the samples with a low mobility of ∼430 cm{sup 2}/V s. The emergence of weak localization at room temperature arises from the competition between the valley-dependent scattering and the thermal dephasing in such low-quality samples, although quantum effects normally appear in the samples that have an ideal structure at cryogenic temperatures. The large disorder in our low-mobility samples unexpectedly preserved the quantum mechanical weak localization.

  8. Fabrication method for a room temperature hydrogen sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seal, Sudipta (Inventor); Shukla, Satyajit V. (Inventor); Ludwig, Lawrence (Inventor); Cho, Hyoung (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A sensor for selectively determining the presence and measuring the amount of hydrogen in the vicinity of the sensor. The sensor comprises a MEMS device coated with a nanostructured thin film of indium oxide doped tin oxide with an over layer of nanostructured barium cerate with platinum catalyst nanoparticles. Initial exposure to a UV light source, at room temperature, causes burning of organic residues present on the sensor surface and provides a clean surface for sensing hydrogen at room temperature. A giant room temperature hydrogen sensitivity is observed after making the UV source off. The hydrogen sensor of the invention can be usefully employed for the detection of hydrogen in an environment susceptible to the incursion or generation of hydrogen and may be conveniently used at room temperature.

  9. Neutron absorbing room temperature vulcanizable silicone rubber compositions

    DOEpatents

    Zoch, Harold L.

    1979-11-27

    A neutron absorbing composition comprising a one-component room temperature vulcanizable silicone rubber composition or a two-component room temperature vulcanizable silicone rubber composition in which the composition contains from 25 to 300 parts by weight based on the base silanol or vinyl containing diorganopolysiloxane polymer of a boron compound or boron powder as the neutron absorbing ingredient. An especially useful boron compound in this application is boron carbide.

  10. Room temperature triplet state spectroscopy of organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Reineke, Sebastian; Baldo, Marc A

    2014-01-01

    Organic light-emitting devices and solar cells are devices that create, manipulate, and convert excited states in organic semiconductors. It is crucial to characterize these excited states, or excitons, to optimize device performance in applications like displays and solar energy harvesting. This is complicated if the excited state is a triplet because the electronic transition is 'dark' with a vanishing oscillator strength. As a consequence, triplet state spectroscopy must usually be performed at cryogenic temperatures to reduce competition from non-radiative rates. Here, we control non-radiative rates by engineering a solid-state host matrix containing the target molecule, allowing the observation of phosphorescence at room temperature and alleviating constraints of cryogenic experiments. We test these techniques on a wide range of materials with functionalities spanning multi-exciton generation (singlet exciton fission), organic light emitting device host materials, and thermally activated delayed fluorescence type emitters. Control of non-radiative modes in the matrix surrounding a target molecule may also have broader applications in light-emitting and photovoltaic devices. PMID:24445870

  11. Room temperature triplet state spectroscopy of organic semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Reineke, Sebastian; Baldo, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Organic light-emitting devices and solar cells are devices that create, manipulate, and convert excited states in organic semiconductors. It is crucial to characterize these excited states, or excitons, to optimize device performance in applications like displays and solar energy harvesting. This is complicated if the excited state is a triplet because the electronic transition is ‘dark’ with a vanishing oscillator strength. As a consequence, triplet state spectroscopy must usually be performed at cryogenic temperatures to reduce competition from non-radiative rates. Here, we control non-radiative rates by engineering a solid-state host matrix containing the target molecule, allowing the observation of phosphorescence at room temperature and alleviating constraints of cryogenic experiments. We test these techniques on a wide range of materials with functionalities spanning multi-exciton generation (singlet exciton fission), organic light emitting device host materials, and thermally activated delayed fluorescence type emitters. Control of non-radiative modes in the matrix surrounding a target molecule may also have broader applications in light-emitting and photovoltaic devices. PMID:24445870

  12. Thermal Effect in Opal Below Room Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Buerger, Martin J.; Shoemaker, Gerald L.

    1972-01-01

    Opal, once believed to be amorphous silica, was shown by Levin and Ott (1932, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 54, 828-829) to give an x-ray powder pattern of the high-temperature form of cristobalite. The early explanation of this anomalous existence of a phase below its high-low transition temperature is now known to be untenable. One of us suggested that the tiny sizes of the component cristobalite crystals might explain the anomaly; if so, the transition might be expected below ambient temperatures. The record of a du Pont 900 Thermoanalyzer indeed revealed heat effects in opal below ambient temperatures, with an exotherm having a maximum at about -40° on cooling and an endotherm that began about -50° on heating. This was not a latent-heat effect due to the high-low transition of cristobalite, however, for the low-cristobalite pattern persisted to below -50°. Opal normally contains 4-9% water, which is tenaciously held; water loss is nearly linear with temperatures up to about 422°, when water loss is abruptly complete. Water-free opal does not display the thermal effect, but the same opal rehydrated does display it. Water is housed in minute voids, judged to be a few hundred Ångströms across, between minute particles of cristobalite. This water behaves differently from water in bulk, for its begins to melt at about -50°. PMID:16592025

  13. Control and Room Temperature Optimization of Energy Efficient Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Djouadi, Seddik M; Kuruganti, Phani Teja

    2012-01-01

    The building sector consumes a large part of the energy used in the United States and is responsible for nearly 40% of greenhouse gas emissions. It is therefore economically and environmentally important to reduce the building energy consumption to realize massive energy savings. In this paper, a method to control room temperature in buildings is proposed. The approach is based on a distributed parameter model represented by a three dimensional (3D) heat equation in a room with heater/cooler located at ceiling. The latter is resolved using finite element methods, and results in a model for room temperature with thousands of states. The latter is not amenable to control design. A reduced order model of only few states is then derived using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD). A Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) is computed based on the reduced model, and applied to the full order model to control room temperature.

  14. Nature of room-temperature photoluminescence in ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, W.; Walukiewicz, W.; Ager III, J.W.; Yu, K.M.; Yuan, H.B.; Xin, H.P.; Cantwell, G.; Song, J.J.

    2004-11-11

    The temperature dependence of the photoluminescence (PL) transitions associated with various excitons and their phonon replicas in high-purity bulk ZnO has been studied at temperatures from 12 K to above room temperature (320 K). Several strong PL emission lines associated with LO phonon replicas of free and bound excitons are clearly observed. The room temperature PL spectrum is dominated by the phonon replicas of the free exciton transition with the maximum at the first LO phonon replica. The results explain the discrepancy between the transition energy of free exciton determined by reflection measurement and the peak position obtained by the PL measurement.

  15. Solid rocket motor temperature sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, J.R.; Heister, S.D.

    1994-11-01

    The temperature sensitivity of the propellant and the solid rocket motor are described by several different temperature sensitivity coefficients. This enabled the derivation of three different relationships for the temperature sensitivity coefficient pi(sub K). To demonstrate this, two different propellants were used wherein the values of pi(sub K) were generated and compared. It was observed that the expressions are of equal complexity and offer ease of use. All involve only the burning rate data and the use of the parameters in St. Roberts burning rate low. It is also suggested that the most general expression for the sensitivity coefficient should be used since it is a true pi(sub K) relationship having the partial derivatives taken with the motor geometry held constant. 11 refs.

  16. Direct On-Surface Patterning of a Crystalline Laminar Covalent Organic Framework Synthesized at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    de la Peña Ruigómez, Alejandro; Rodríguez-San-Miguel, David; Stylianou, Kyriakos C; Cavallini, Massimiliano; Gentili, Denis; Liscio, Fabiola; Milita, Silvia; Roscioni, Otello Maria; Ruiz-González, Maria Luisa; Carbonell, Carlos; Maspoch, Daniel; Mas-Ballesté, Rubén; Segura, José Luis; Zamora, Félix

    2015-07-20

    We report herein an efficient, fast, and simple synthesis of an imine-based covalent organic framework (COF) at room temperature (hereafter, RT-COF-1). RT-COF-1 shows a layered hexagonal structure exhibiting channels, is robust, and is porous to N2 and CO2 . The room-temperature synthesis has enabled us to fabricate and position low-cost micro- and submicropatterns of RT-COF-1 on several surfaces, including solid SiO2 substrates and flexible acetate paper, by using lithographically controlled wetting and conventional ink-jet printing.

  17. Mesophases in nearly 2D room-temperature ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Manini, N; Cesaratto, M; Del Pópolo, M G; Ballone, P

    2009-11-26

    Computer simulations of (i) a [C(12)mim][Tf(2)N] film of nanometric thickness squeezed at kbar pressure by a piecewise parabolic confining potential reveal a mesoscopic in-plane density and composition modulation reminiscent of mesophases seen in 3D samples of the same room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL). Near 2D confinement, enforced by a high normal load, as well as relatively long aliphatic chains are strictly required for the mesophase formation, as confirmed by computations for two related systems made of (ii) the same [C(12)mim][Tf(2)N] adsorbed at a neutral solid surface and (iii) a shorter-chain RTIL ([C(4)mim][Tf(2)N]) trapped in the potential well of part i. No in-plane modulation is seen for ii and iii. In case ii, the optimal arrangement of charge and neutral tails is achieved by layering parallel to the surface, while, in case iii, weaker dispersion and packing interactions are unable to bring aliphatic tails together into mesoscopic islands, against overwhelming entropy and Coulomb forces. The onset of in-plane mesophases could greatly affect the properties of long-chain RTILs used as lubricants. PMID:19886615

  18. Near-room temperature relaxor multiferroic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Dilsom A.; Kumar, A.; Ortega, N.; Katiyar, R. S.; Scott, J. F.

    2010-11-01

    We report the fabrication and characterization of highly oriented Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)0.60(Fe0.5Ta0.5)0.40O3 thin films. Dielectric spectra showed a maximum (Tm) around 350 K for 1 kHz that shifted to higher temperatures (by ˜30 K) with an increase in frequency up to 1 MHz. High dielectric dispersion below and above Tm, low dielectric loss (2%-5%), high dielectric constant (˜1380@1 kHz), ferroelectric polarization, and weak magnetic moment are observed. Real and imaginary dielectric data were fitted with a nonlinear Vogel-Fulcher equation, implying a relaxor nature. The ac conductivity shows frequency-dependent conductivity, low loss, and frequency-dependent kinks near Tm.

  19. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Teflon due to carbon dangling bonds.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y W; Lu, Y H; Yi, J B; Feng, Y P; Herng, T S; Liu, X; Gao, D Q; Xue, D S; Xue, J M; Ouyang, J Y; Ding, J

    2012-03-06

    The ferromagnetism in many carbon nanostructures is attributed to carbon dangling bonds or vacancies. This provides opportunities to develop new functional materials, such as molecular and polymeric ferromagnets and organic spintronic materials, without magnetic elements (for example, 3d and 4f metals). Here we report the observation of room temperature ferromagnetism in Teflon tape (polytetrafluoroethylene) subjected to simple mechanical stretching, cutting or heating. First-principles calculations indicate that the room temperature ferromagnetism originates from carbon dangling bonds and strong ferromagnetic coupling between them. Room temperature ferromagnetism has also been successfully realized in another polymer, polyethylene, through cutting and stretching. Our findings suggest that ferromagnetism due to networks of carbon dangling bonds can arise in polymers and carbon-based molecular materials.

  20. Giant room-temperature elastocaloric effect in ferroelectric ultrathin films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Infante, Ingrid C; Lou, Xiaojie; Bellaiche, Laurent; Scott, James F; Dkhil, Brahim

    2014-09-17

    Environmentally friendly ultrathin BaTiO3 capacitors can exhibit a giant stress-induced elastocaloric effect without hysteresis loss or Joule heating. By combining this novel elastocaloric effect with the intrinsic electrocaloric effect, an ideal refrigeration cycle with high performance (temperature change over 10 K with a wide working-temperature window of 60 K) at room temperature is proposed for future cooling applications. PMID:25042767

  1. Nanostructured Materials for Room-Temperature Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Xianghong; Neri, Giovanni; Pinna, Nicola

    2016-02-01

    Sensor technology has an important effect on many aspects in our society, and has gained much progress, propelled by the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Current research efforts are directed toward developing high-performance gas sensors with low operating temperature at low fabrication costs. A gas sensor working at room temperature is very appealing as it provides very low power consumption and does not require a heater for high-temperature operation, and hence simplifies the fabrication of sensor devices and reduces the operating cost. Nanostructured materials are at the core of the development of any room-temperature sensing platform. The most important advances with regard to fundamental research, sensing mechanisms, and application of nanostructured materials for room-temperature conductometric sensor devices are reviewed here. Particular emphasis is given to the relation between the nanostructure and sensor properties in an attempt to address structure-property correlations. Finally, some future research perspectives and new challenges that the field of room-temperature sensors will have to address are also discussed.

  2. High temperature solid state storage cell

    DOEpatents

    Rea, Jesse R.; Kallianidis, Milton; Kelsey, G. Stephen

    1983-01-01

    A completely solid state high temperature storage cell comprised of a solid rechargeable cathode such as TiS.sub.2, a solid electrolyte which remains solid at the high temperature operating conditions of the cell and which exhibits high ionic conductivity at such elevated temperatures such as an electrolyte comprised of lithium iodide, and a solid lithium or other alkali metal alloy anode (such as a lithium-silicon alloy) with 5-50% by weight of said anode being comprised of said solid electrolyte.

  3. Ether-based nonflammable electrolyte for room temperature sodium battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jinkui; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Lifei; Yang, Jian; Xiong, Shenglin; Qian, Yitai

    2015-06-01

    Safety problem is one of the key points that hinder the development of room temperature sodium batteries. In this paper, four well-known nonflammable organic compounds, Trimethyl Phosphate (TMP), Tri(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite (TFEP), Dimethyl Methylphosphonate (DMMP), Methyl nonafluorobuyl Ether (MFE), are investigated as nonflammable solvents in sodium batteries for the first time. Among them, MFE is stable towards sodium metal at room temperature. The electrochemical properties and electrode compatibility of MFE based electrolyte are investigated. Both Prussian blue cathode and carbon nanotube anode show good electrochemical performance retention in this electrolyte. The results suggest that MFE is a promising option as nonflammable electrolyte additive for sodium batteries.

  4. Room-Temperature-Cured Copolymers for Lithium Battery Gel Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Tigelaar, Dean M.

    2009-01-01

    Polyimide-PEO copolymers (PEO signifies polyethylene oxide) that have branched rod-coil molecular structures and that can be cured into film form at room temperature have been invented for use as gel electrolytes for lithium-ion electric-power cells. These copolymers offer an alternative to previously patented branched rod-coil polyimides that have been considered for use as polymer electrolytes and that must be cured at a temperature of 200 C. In order to obtain sufficient conductivity for lithium ions in practical applications at and below room temperature, it is necessary to imbibe such a polymer with a suitable carbonate solvent or ionic liquid, but the high-temperature cure makes it impossible to incorporate and retain such a liquid within the polymer molecular framework. By eliminating the high-temperature cure, the present invention makes it possible to incorporate the required liquid.

  5. Room temperature ferromagnetic (Fe₁-xCox)₃BO₅ nanorods.

    PubMed

    He, Shuli; Zhang, Hongwang; Xing, Hui; Li, Kai; Cui, Hongfei; Yang, Chenguang; Sun, Shouheng; Zeng, Hao

    2014-07-01

    Cobalt-doped ferroferriborate ((Fe1-xCox)3BO5) nanorods (NRs) are synthesized by a one-pot high-temperature organic-solution-phase method. The aspect ratios of the NRs are tuned by the heating rate. These NRs form via anisotropic growth along twin boundaries of the multiply twinned nuclei. Magnetic properties are dramatically modified by Co substitutional doping, changing from antiferromagnetic order at low temperatures to ferromagnetic above room temperature, with a greatly enhanced magnetic ordering temperature. These anisotropic ferromagnetic NRs with a high ordering temperature may provide a new platform for understanding nanomagnetism and for magnetic applications. PMID:24905634

  6. Protocols for dry DNA storage and shipment at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Natalia V; Kuzmina, Masha L

    2013-01-01

    The globalization of DNA barcoding will require core analytical facilities to develop cost-effective, efficient protocols for the shipment and archival storage of DNA extracts and PCR products. We evaluated three dry-state DNA stabilization systems: commercial Biomatrica® DNAstable® plates, home-made trehalose and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) plates on 96-well panels of insect DNA stored at 56 °C and at room temperature. Controls included unprotected samples that were stored dry at room temperature and at 56 °C, and diluted samples held at 4 °C and at −20 °C. PCR and selective sequencing were performed over a 4-year interval to test the condition of DNA extracts. Biomatrica® provided better protection of DNA at 56 °C and at room temperature than trehalose and PVA, especially for diluted samples. PVA was the second best protectant after Biomatrica® at room temperature, whereas trehalose was the second best protectant at 56 °C. In spite of lower PCR success, the DNA stored at −20 °C yielded longer sequence reads and stronger signal, indicating that temperature is a crucial factor for DNA quality which has to be considered especially for long-term storage. Although it is premature to advocate a transition to DNA storage at room temperature, dry storage provides an additional layer of security for frozen samples, protecting them from degradation in the event of freezer failure. All three forms of DNA preservation enable shipment of dry DNA and PCR products between barcoding facilities. PMID:23789643

  7. Halide-stabilized LiBH4, a room-temperature lithium fast-ion conductor.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Hideki; Matsuo, Motoaki; Takamura, Hitoshi; Ando, Mariko; Noda, Yasuto; Karahashi, Taiki; Orimo, Shin-ichi

    2009-01-28

    Solid state lithium conductors are attracting much attention for their potential applications to solid-state batteries and supercapacitors of high energy density to overcome safety issues and irreversible capacity loss of the currently commercialized ones. Recently, we discovered a new class of lithium super ionic conductors based on lithium borohydride (LiBH(4)). LiBH(4) was found to have conductivity as high as 10(-2) Scm(-1) accompanied by orthorhombic to hexagonal phase transition above 115 degrees C. Polarization to the lithium metal electrode was shown to be extremely low, providing a versatile anode interface for the battery application. However, the high transition temperature of the superionic phase has limited its applications. Here we show that a chemical modification of LiBH(4) can stabilize the superionic phase even below room temperature. By doping of lithium halides, high conductivity can be obtained at room temperature. Both XRD and NMR confirmed room-temperature stabilization of superionic phase for LiI-doped LiBH(4). The electrochemical measurements showed a great advantage of this material as an extremely lightweight lithium electrolyte for batteries of high energy density. This material will open alternative opportunities for the development of solid ionic conductors other than previously known lithium conductors. PMID:19119813

  8. Required Be Capsule Strength For Room Temperature Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, B

    2005-03-21

    The purpose of this memo is to lay out the criteria for the Be capsule strength necessary for room temperature transport. Ultimately we will test full thickness capsules by sealing high pressures inside, but currently we are limited to both thinner capsules and alternative measures of capsule material strength.

  9. Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids for Electrochemical Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, Heather; Yowell, Leonard; Moloney, Padraig G.; Arepalli, Sivaram; Nikolaev, P.; Huffman, C.; Ready, Jud; Higgins, C.D.; Turano, S. P.; Kohl, P.A.; Kim, K.

    2009-01-01

    A document discusses room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) used as electrolytes in carbon-nanotube-based, electrochemical, double-layer capacitors. Unlike the previous electrolyte (EtNB4 in acetonitrile), the RTIL used here does not produce cyanide upon thermal decomposition and does not have a moisture sensitivity.

  10. Evaluation of Ceramic Honeycomb Core Compression Behavior at Room Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, Richard K.; Lapointe, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    Room temperature flatwise compression tests were conducted on two varieties of ceramic honeycomb core specimens that have potential for high-temperature structural applications. One set of specimens was fabricated using strips of a commercially-available thin-gage "ceramic paper" sheet molded into a hexagonal core configuration. The other set was fabricated by machining honeycomb core directly from a commercially available rigid insulation tile material. This paper summarizes the results from these tests.

  11. A highly reversible room-temperature lithium metal battery based on crosslinked hairy nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Snehashis; Mangal, Rahul; Agrawal, Akanksha; Archer, Lynden A.

    2015-12-01

    Rough electrodeposition, uncontrolled parasitic side-reactions with electrolytes and dendrite-induced short-circuits have hindered development of advanced energy storage technologies based on metallic lithium, sodium and aluminium electrodes. Solid polymer electrolytes and nanoparticle-polymer composites have shown promise as candidates to suppress lithium dendrite growth, but the challenge of simultaneously maintaining high mechanical strength and high ionic conductivity at room temperature has so far been unmet in these materials. Here we report a facile and scalable method of fabricating tough, freestanding membranes that combine the best attributes of solid polymers, nanocomposites and gel-polymer electrolytes. Hairy nanoparticles are employed as multifunctional nodes for polymer crosslinking, which produces mechanically robust membranes that are exceptionally effective in inhibiting dendrite growth in a lithium metal battery. The membranes are also reported to enable stable cycling of lithium batteries paired with conventional intercalating cathodes. Our findings appear to provide an important step towards room-temperature dendrite-free batteries.

  12. A highly reversible room-temperature lithium metal battery based on crosslinked hairy nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Snehashis; Mangal, Rahul; Agrawal, Akanksha; Archer, Lynden A

    2015-12-04

    Rough electrodeposition, uncontrolled parasitic side-reactions with electrolytes and dendrite-induced short-circuits have hindered development of advanced energy storage technologies based on metallic lithium, sodium and aluminium electrodes. Solid polymer electrolytes and nanoparticle-polymer composites have shown promise as candidates to suppress lithium dendrite growth, but the challenge of simultaneously maintaining high mechanical strength and high ionic conductivity at room temperature has so far been unmet in these materials. Here we report a facile and scalable method of fabricating tough, freestanding membranes that combine the best attributes of solid polymers, nanocomposites and gel-polymer electrolytes. Hairy nanoparticles are employed as multifunctional nodes for polymer crosslinking, which produces mechanically robust membranes that are exceptionally effective in inhibiting dendrite growth in a lithium metal battery. The membranes are also reported to enable stable cycling of lithium batteries paired with conventional intercalating cathodes. Our findings appear to provide an important step towards room-temperature dendrite-free batteries.

  13. Room temperature manipulation of long lifetime spins in metallic-like carbon nanospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Náfrádi, Bálint; Choucair, Mohammad; Dinse, Klaus-Peter; Forró, László

    2016-07-01

    The time-window for processing electron spin information (spintronics) in solid-state quantum electronic devices is determined by the spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times of electrons. Minimizing the effects of spin-orbit coupling and the local magnetic contributions of neighbouring atoms on spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times at room temperature remain substantial challenges to practical spintronics. Here we report conduction electron spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times of 175 ns at 300 K in 37+/-7 nm carbon spheres, which is remarkably long for any conducting solid-state material of comparable size. Following the observation of spin polarization by electron spin resonance, we control the quantum state of the electron spin by applying short bursts of an oscillating magnetic field and observe coherent oscillations of the spin state. These results demonstrate the feasibility of operating electron spins in conducting carbon nanospheres as quantum bits at room temperature.

  14. High energy sodium based room temperature flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamie, Jack

    As novel energy sources such as solar, wind and tidal energies are explored it becomes necessary to build energy storage facilities to load level the intermittent nature of these energy sources. Energy storage is achieved by converting electrical energy into another form of energy. Batteries have many properties that are attractive for energy storage including high energy and power. Among many different types of batteries, redox flow batteries (RFBs) offer many advantages. Unlike conventional batteries, RFBs store energy in a liquid medium rather than solid active materials. This method of storage allows for the separation of energy and power unlike conventional batteries. Additionally flow batteries may have long lifetimes because there is no expansion or contraction of electrodes. A major disadvantage of RFB's is its lower energy density when compared to traditional batteries. In this Thesis, a novel hybrid Na-based redox flow battery (HNFB) is explored, which utilizes a room temperature molten sodium based anode, a sodium ion conducting solid electrolyte and liquid catholytes. The sodium electrode leads to high voltages and energy and allows for the possibility of multi-electron transfer per molecule. Vanadium acetylacetonate (acac) and TEMPO have been investigated for their use as catholytes. In the vanadium system, 2 electrons transfers per vanadium atom were found leading to a doubling of capacity. In addition, degradation of the charged state was found to be reversible within the voltage range of the cell. Contamination by water leads to the formation of vanadyl acetylacetonate. Although it is believed that vanadyl complex need to be taken to low voltages to be reduced back to vanadium acac, a new mechanism is shown that begins at higher voltages (2.1V). Vanadyl complexes react with excess ligand and protons to reform the vanadium complex. During this reaction, water is reformed leading to the continuous cycle in which vanadyl is formed and then reduced back

  15. Atom inlays performed at room temperature using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Abe, Masayuki; Hirayama, Shinji; Oyabu, Noriaki; Custance, Óscar; Morita, Seizo

    2005-02-01

    The ability to manipulate single atoms and molecules laterally for creating artificial structures on surfaces is driving us closer to the ultimate limit of two-dimensional nanoengineering. However, experiments involving this level of manipulation have been performed only at cryogenic temperatures. Scanning tunnelling microscopy has proved, so far, to be a unique tool with all the necessary capabilities for laterally pushing, pulling or sliding single atoms and molecules, and arranging them on a surface at will. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that it is possible to perform well-controlled lateral manipulations of single atoms using near-contact atomic force microscopy even at room temperature. We report the creation of 'atom inlays', that is, artificial atomic patterns formed from a few embedded atoms in the plane of a surface. At room temperature, such atomic structures remain stable on the surface for relatively long periods of time.

  16. Room-temperature magnetoelectric multiferroic thin films and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Katiyar, Ram S; Kuman, Ashok; Scott, James F.

    2014-08-12

    The invention provides a novel class of room-temperature, single-phase, magnetoelectric multiferroic (PbFe.sub.0.67W.sub.0.33O.sub.3).sub.x (PbZr.sub.0.53Ti.sub.0.47O.sub.3).sub.1-x (0.2.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.8) (PFW.sub.x-PZT.sub.1-x) thin films that exhibit high dielectric constants, high polarization, weak saturation magnetization, broad dielectric temperature peak, high-frequency dispersion, low dielectric loss and low leakage current. These properties render them to be suitable candidates for room-temperature multiferroic devices. Methods of preparation are also provided.

  17. Room Temperature Characterization of a Magnetic Bearing for Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montague, Gerald; Jansen, Mark; Provenza, Andrew; Jansen, Ralph; Ebihara, Ben; Palazzolo, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Open loop, experimental force and power measurements of a three-axis, radial, heteropolar magnetic bearing at room temperature for rotor speeds up to 20,000 RPM are presented in this paper. The bearing, NASA Glenn Research Center's and Texas A&M's third generation high temperature magnetic bearing, was designed to operate in a 1000 F (540 C) environment and was primarily optimized for maximum load capacity. The experimentally measured force produced by one C-core of this bearing was 630 lb. (2.8 kN) at 16 A, while a load of 650 lbs (2.89 kN) was predicted at 16 A using 1D circuit analysis. The maximum predicted radial load for one of the three axes is 1,440 lbs (6.41 kN) at room temperature. The maximum measured load of an axis was 1050 lbs. (4.73 kN). Results of test under rotating conditions showed that rotor speed has a negligible effect on the bearing's load capacity. A single C-core required approximately 70 W of power to generate 300 lb (1.34 kN) of magnetic force. The room temperature data presented was measured after three thermal cycles up to 1000 F (540 C), totaling six hours at elevated temperatures.

  18. Robust isothermal electric control of exchange bias at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binek, Christian

    2011-03-01

    Voltage-controlled spintronics is of particular importance to continue progress in information technology through reduced power consumption, enhanced processing speed, integration density, and functionality in comparison with present day CMOS electronics. Almost all existing and prototypical solid-state spintronic devices rely on tailored interface magnetism, enabling spin-selective transmission or scattering of electrons. Controlling magnetism at thin-film interfaces, preferably by purely electrical means, is a key challenge to better spintronics. Currently, most attempts to electrically control magnetism focus on potentially large magnetoelectric effects of multiferroics. We report on our interest in magnetoelectric Cr 2 O3 (chromia). Robust isothermal electric control of exchange bias is achieved at room temperature in perpendicular anisotropic Cr 2 O3 (0001)/CoPd exchange bias heterostructures. This discovery promises significant implications for potential spintronics. From the perspective of basic science, our finding serves as macroscopic evidence for roughness-insensitive and electrically controllable equilibrium boundary magnetization in magnetoelectric antiferromagnets. The latter evolves at chromia (0001) surfaces and interfaces when chromia is in one of its two degenerate antiferromagnetic single domain states selected via magnetoelectric annealing. Theoretical insight into the boundary magnetization and its role in electrically controlled exchange bias is gained from first-principles calculations and general symmetry arguments. Measurements of spin-resolved ultraviolet photoemission, magnetometry at Cr 2 O3 (0001) surfaces, and detailed investigations of the unique exchange bias properties of Cr 2 O3 (0001)/CoPd including its electric controllability provide macroscopically averaged information about the boundary magnetization of chromia. Laterally resolved X-ray PEEM and temperature dependent MFM reveal detailed microscopic information of the chromia

  19. Room-temperature voltage tunable phonon thermal conductivity via reconfigurable interfaces in ferroelectric thin films.

    PubMed

    Ihlefeld, Jon F; Foley, Brian M; Scrymgeour, David A; Michael, Joseph R; McKenzie, Bonnie B; Medlin, Douglas L; Wallace, Margeaux; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Hopkins, Patrick E

    2015-03-11

    Dynamic control of thermal transport in solid-state systems is a transformative capability with the promise to propel technologies including phononic logic, thermal management, and energy harvesting. A solid-state solution to rapidly manipulate phonons has escaped the scientific community. We demonstrate active and reversible tuning of thermal conductivity by manipulating the nanoscale ferroelastic domain structure of a Pb(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 film with applied electric fields. With subsecond response times, the room-temperature thermal conductivity was modulated by 11%.

  20. One-pot synthesis of β-acetamido ketones using boric acid at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Karimi-Jaberi, Zahed; Mohammadi, Korosh

    2012-01-01

    β-acetamido ketones were synthesized in excellent yields through one-pot condensation reaction of aldehydes, acetophenones, acetyl chloride, and acetonitrile in the presence of boric acid as a solid heterogeneous catalyst at room temperature. It is the first successful report of boric acid that has been used as solid acid catalyst for the preparation of β-acetamido ketones. The remarkable advantages offered by this method are green catalyst, mild reaction conditions, simple procedure, short reaction times, and good-to-excellent yields of products.

  1. Effects of room temperature aging on two cryogenic temperature sensor models used in aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courts, S. Scott; Krause, John

    2012-06-01

    Cryogenic temperature sensors used in aerospace applications are typically procured far in advance of the mission launch date. Depending upon the program, the temperature sensors may be stored at room temperature for extended periods as installation and groundbased testing can take years before the actual flight. The effects of long term storage at room temperature are sometimes approximated by the use of accelerated aging at temperatures well above room temperature, but this practice can yield invalid results as the sensing material and/or electrical contacting method can be increasingly unstable with higher temperature exposure. To date, little data are available on the effects of extended room temperature aging on sensors commonly used in aerospace applications. This research examines two such temperature sensors models - the Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. model CernoxTM and DT-670-SD temperature sensors. Sample groups of each model type have been maintained for ten years or longer with room temperature storage between calibrations. Over an eighteen year period, the CernoxTM temperature sensors exhibited a stability of better than ±20 mK for T<30 K and better than ±0.1% of temperature for T>30 K. Over a ten year period the model DT-670-SD sensors exhibited a stability of better than ±140 mK for T<25 K and better than ±75 mK for T>25 K.

  2. Disorder-induced Room Temperature Ferromagnetism in Glassy Chromites

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, C. Moyses; Nagar, Sandeep; Ramzan, Muhammad; Shukla, R.; Jayakumar, O. D.; Tyagi, A. K.; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Jeng-Lung; Glans, Per-Anders; Chang, Chinglin; Blomqvist, Andreas; Lizárraga, Raquel; Holmström, Erik; Belova, Lyubov; Guo, Jinghua; Ahuja, Rajeev; Rao, K. V.

    2014-01-01

    We report an unusual robust ferromagnetic order above room temperature upon amorphization of perovskite [YCrO3] in pulsed laser deposited thin films. This is contrary to the usual expected formation of a spin glass magnetic state in the resulting disordered structure. To understand the underlying physics of this phenomenon, we combine advanced spectroscopic techniques and first-principles calculations. We find that the observed order-disorder transformation is accompanied by an insulator-metal transition arising from a wide distribution of Cr-O-Cr bond angles and the consequent metallization through free carriers. Similar results also found in YbCrO3-films suggest that the observed phenomenon is more general and should, in principle, apply to a wider range of oxide systems. The ability to tailor ferromagnetic order above room temperature in oxide materials opens up many possibilities for novel technological applications of this counter intuitive effect. PMID:24732685

  3. Tribochemical Decomposition of Light Ionic Hydrides at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Nevshupa, Roman; Ares, Jose Ramón; Fernández, Jose Francisco; Del Campo, Adolfo; Roman, Elisa

    2015-07-16

    Tribochemical decomposition of magnesium hydride (MgH2) induced by deformation at room temperature was studied on a micrometric scale, in situ and in real time. During deformation, a near-full depletion of hydrogen in the micrometric affected zone is observed through an instantaneous (t < 1 s) and huge release of hydrogen (3-50 nmol/s). H release is related to a nonthermal decomposition process. After deformation, the remaining hydride is thermally decomposed at room temperature, exhibiting a much slower rate than during deformation. Confocal-microRaman spectroscopy of the mechanically affected zone was used to characterize the decomposition products. Decomposition was enhanced through the formation of the distorted structure of MgH2 with reduced crystal size by mechanical deformation.

  4. Room-temperature reactions for self-cleaning molecular nanosensors.

    PubMed

    Warnick, Keith H; Wang, Bin; Cliffel, David E; Wright, David W; Haglund, Richard F; Pantelides, Sokrates T

    2013-02-13

    New sensing techniques for detecting molecules, especially self-cleaning sensors, are in demand. Here we describe a room-temperature process in which a nanostructured substrate catalyzes the reaction of a target molecule with atmospheric oxygen and the reaction energy is absorbed by the substrate, where it can in principle be detected. Specifically, we report first-principles calculations describing a reaction between 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) and atmospheric O(2) catalyzed by Fe-porphyrin at room temperature, incorporating an oxygen into the methyl group of DNT and releasing 1.9 eV per reaction. The atomic oxygen left on the Fe site can be removed by reacting with another DNT molecule, restoring the Fe catalyst.

  5. Room temperature hyperpolarization of nuclear spins in bulk

    PubMed Central

    Tateishi, Kenichiro; Negoro, Makoto; Nishida, Shinsuke; Kagawa, Akinori; Morita, Yasushi; Kitagawa, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), a means of transferring spin polarization from electrons to nuclei, can enhance the nuclear spin polarization (hence the NMR sensitivity) in bulk materials at most 660 times for 1H spins, using electron spins in thermal equilibrium as polarizing agents. By using electron spins in photo-excited triplet states instead, DNP can overcome the above limit. We demonstrate a 1H spin polarization of 34%, which gives an enhancement factor of 250,000 in 0.40 T, while maintaining a bulk sample (∼0.6 mg, ∼0.7 × 0.7 × 1 mm3) containing >1019 1H spins at room temperature. Room temperature hyperpolarization achieved with DNP using photo-excited triplet electrons has potentials to be applied to a wide range of fields, including NMR spectroscopy and MRI as well as fundamental physics. PMID:24821773

  6. Nanostructured ZnO Films for Room Temperature Ammonia Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhivya Ponnusamy; Sridharan Madanagurusamy

    2014-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been deposited by a reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique onto a thoroughly cleaned glass substrate at room temperature. X-ray diffraction revealed that the deposited film was polycrystalline in nature. The field emission scanning electron micrograph (FE-SEM) showed the uniform formation of a rugby ball-shaped ZnO nanostructure. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) confirmed that the film was stoichiometric and the direct band gap of the film, determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy, was 3.29 eV. The ZnO nanostructured film exhibited better sensing towards ammonia (NH3) at room temperature (˜30°C). The fabricated ZnO film based sensor was capable of detecting NH3 at as low as 5 ppm, and its parameters, such as response, selectivity, stability, and response/recovery time, were also investigated.

  7. Room Temperature Creep Of SiC/SiC Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew; Levine, Stanley (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    During a recent experimental study, time dependent deformation was observed for a damaged Hi-Nicalon reinforced, BN interphase, chemically vapor infiltrated SiC matrix composites subjected to static loading at room temperature. The static load curves resembled primary creep curves. In addition, acoustic emission was monitored during the test and significant AE activity was recorded while maintaining a constant load, which suggested matrix cracking or interfacial sliding. For similar composites with carbon interphases, little or no time dependent deformation was observed. Evidently, exposure of the BN interphase to the ambient environment resulted in a reduction in the interfacial mechanical properties, i.e. interfacial shear strength and/or debond energy. These results were in qualitative agreement with observations made by Eldridge of a reduction in interfacial shear stress with time at room temperature as measured by fiber push-in experiments.

  8. Stability of blood gases in ice and at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Liss, H P; Payne, C P

    1993-04-01

    Arterial blood samples from 75 patients were analyzed for PO2, PCO2, and pH at 0, 15, and 30 min. After the baseline analysis, 60 samples were kept in ice while 59 samples were left at room temperature. There was a statistically significant increase in the PO2 at 15 min and again at 30 min in both groups. There was a statistically significant decrease in the PCO2 at 15 min in both groups. There were no further changes in the PCO2 at 30 min in either group. There was a statistically significant decrease in the pH at 15 min in both groups. There was a further statistically significant decrease in the pH at 30 min in the group of blood samples left at room temperature but not in those in ice. There is no reason to keep arterial blood in ice if blood gas analysis is done within 30 min. PMID:8131450

  9. Enhanced magnetic Purcell effect in room-temperature masers

    PubMed Central

    Breeze, Jonathan; Tan, Ke-Jie; Richards, Benjamin; Sathian, Juna; Oxborrow, Mark; Alford, Neil McN

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the world’s first room-temperature maser was demonstrated. The maser consisted of a sapphire ring housing a crystal of pentacene-doped p-terphenyl, pumped by a pulsed rhodamine-dye laser. Stimulated emission of microwaves was aided by the high quality factor and small magnetic mode volume of the maser cavity yet the peak optical pumping power was 1.4 kW. Here we report dramatic miniaturization and 2 orders of magnitude reduction in optical pumping power for a room-temperature maser by coupling a strontium titanate resonator with the spin-polarized population inversion provided by triplet states in an optically excited pentacene-doped p-terphenyl crystal. We observe maser emission in a thimble-sized resonator using a xenon flash lamp as an optical pump source with peak optical power of 70 W. This is a significant step towards the goal of continuous maser operation. PMID:25698634

  10. Method for stabilizing low-level mixed wastes at room temperature

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Singh, Dileep

    1997-01-01

    A method to stabilize solid and liquid waste at room temperature is provided comprising combining solid waste with a starter oxide to obtain a powder, contacting the powder with an acid solution to create a slurry, said acid solution containing the liquid waste, shaping the now-mixed slurry into a predetermined form, and allowing the now-formed slurry to set. The invention also provides for a method to encapsulate and stabilize waste containing cesium comprising combining the waste with Zr(OH).sub.4 to create a solid-phase mixture, mixing phosphoric acid with the solid-phase mixture to create a slurry, subjecting the slurry to pressure; and allowing the now pressurized slurry to set. Lastly, the invention provides for a method to stabilize liquid waste, comprising supplying a powder containing magnesium, sodium and phosphate in predetermined proportions, mixing said powder with the liquid waste, such as tritium, and allowing the resulting slurry to set.

  11. Method for stabilizing low-level mixed wastes at room temperature

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.

    1997-07-08

    A method to stabilize solid and liquid waste at room temperature is provided comprising combining solid waste with a starter oxide to obtain a powder, contacting the powder with an acid solution to create a slurry, said acid solution containing the liquid waste, shaping the now-mixed slurry into a predetermined form, and allowing the now-formed slurry to set. The invention also provides for a method to encapsulate and stabilize waste containing cesium comprising combining the waste with Zr(OH){sub 4} to create a solid-phase mixture, mixing phosphoric acid with the solid-phase mixture to create a slurry, subjecting the slurry to pressure; and allowing the now pressurized slurry to set. Lastly, the invention provides for a method to stabilize liquid waste, comprising supplying a powder containing magnesium, sodium and phosphate in predetermined proportions, mixing said powder with the liquid waste, such as tritium, and allowing the resulting slurry to set. 4 figs.

  12. Giant electrocaloric effect in asymmetric ferroelectric tunnel junctions at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yang Infante, Ingrid C.; Dkhil, Brahim; Lou, Xiaojie

    2014-02-24

    Room-temperature electrocaloric properties of Pt/BaTiO{sub 3}/SrRuO{sub 3} ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) are studied by using a multiscale thermodynamic model. It is found that there is a divergence in the adiabatic temperature change ΔT for the two opposite polarization orientations. This difference under a typical writing voltage of 3 V can reach over 1 K as the barrier thickness decreases. Thanks to the ultrahigh external stimulus, a giant electrocaloric effect (1.53 K/V) with ΔT being over 4.5 K can be achieved at room temperature, which demonstrates the perspective of FTJs as a promising solid-state refrigeration.

  13. Room-temperature Formation of Hollow Cu2O Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, Ling-I; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Huang, Wenyu; Yang, Peidong

    2010-01-18

    Monodisperse Cu and Cu2O nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesized using tetradecylphosphonic acid as a capping agent. Dispersing the NPs in chloroform and hexane at room temperature results in the formation of hollow Cu2O NPs and Cu@Cu2O core/shell NPs, respectively. The monodisperse Cu2O NPs are used to fabricate hybrid solar cells with efficiency of 0.14percent under AM 1.5 and 1 Sun illumination.

  14. Aggregation-based growth of silver nanowires at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lanlan; Wang, Li; Song, Yonghai; Guo, Cunlan; Sun, Yujing; Peng, Chongyang; Liu, Zhelin; Li, Zhuang

    2008-02-01

    We describe an aggregation-based growth mechanism for formation of silver nanowires at room temperature. It is found that the pH of solution and the concentration of L-cysteine capping molecules have an important effect on the formation and growth of nanowires. Characterization by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-vis spectroscopy recorded as time clearly shows that the silver nanowires are grown at the expense of nanoparticles.

  15. Room Temperature, Metal-Free Arylation of Aliphatic Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Raju; Lindstedt, Erik; Jalalian, Nazli; Olofsson, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Diaryliodonium salts are demonstrated as efficient arylating agents of aliphatic alcohols under metal-free conditions. The reaction proceeds at room temperature within 90 min to give alkyl aryl ethers in good to excellent yields. Aryl groups with electron-withdrawing substituents are transferred most efficiently, and unsymmetric iodonium salts give chemoselective arylations. The methodology has been applied to the formal synthesis of butoxycaine. PMID:24808991

  16. Mercuric iodine room temperature gamma-ray detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patt, Bradley E.; Markakis, Jeffrey M.; Gerrish, Vernon M.; Haymes, Robert C.; Trombka, Jacob I.

    1990-01-01

    high resolution mercuric iodide room temperature gamma-ray detectors have excellent potential as an essential component of space instruments to be used for high energy astrophysics. Mercuric iodide detectors are being developed both as photodetectors used in combination with scintillation crystals to detect gamma-rays, and as direct gamma-ray detectors. These detectors are highly radiation damage resistant. The list of applications includes gamma-ray burst detection, gamma-ray line astronomy, solar flare studies, and elemental analysis.

  17. Spontaneous Polarization Buildup in a Room-Temperature Polariton Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Baumberg, J. J.; Christopoulos, S.; Kavokin, A. V.; Grundy, A. J. D.; Baldassarri Hoeger von Hoegersthal, G.; Butte, R.; Christmann, G.; Feltin, E.; Carlin, J.-F.; Grandjean, N.; Solnyshkov, D. D.; Malpuech, G.

    2008-09-26

    We observe the buildup of strong ({approx}50%) spontaneous vector polarization in emission from a GaN-based polariton laser excited by short optical pulses at room temperature. The Stokes vector of emitted light changes its orientation randomly from one excitation pulse to another, so that the time-integrated polarization remains zero. This behavior is completely different from any previous laser. We interpret this observation in terms of the spontaneous symmetry breaking in a Bose-Einstein condensate of exciton polaritons.

  18. Remote control of magnetostriction-based nanocontacts at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Jammalamadaka, S. Narayana; Kuntz, Sebastian; Berg, Oliver; Kittler, Wolfram; Kannan, U. Mohanan; Chelvane, J. Arout; Sürgers, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The remote control of the electrical conductance through nanosized junctions at room temperature will play an important role in future nano-electromechanical systems and electronic devices. This can be achieved by exploiting the magnetostriction effects of ferromagnetic materials. Here we report on the electrical conductance of magnetic nanocontacts obtained from wires of the giant magnetostrictive compound Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.95 as an active element in a mechanically controlled break-junction device. The nanocontacts are reproducibly switched at room temperature between “open” (zero conductance) and “closed” (nonzero conductance) states by variation of a magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the long wire axis. Conductance measurements in a magnetic field oriented parallel to the long wire axis exhibit a different behaviour where the conductance switches between both states only in a limited field range close to the coercive field. Investigating the conductance in the regime of electron tunneling by mechanical or magnetostrictive control of the electrode separation enables an estimation of the magnetostriction. The present results pave the way to utilize the material in devices based on nano-electromechanical systems operating at room temperature. PMID:26323326

  19. Noninvasive liver iron measurements with a room-temperature susceptometer

    PubMed Central

    Avrin, W F; Kumar, S

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility measurements on the liver can quantify iron overload accurately and noninvasively. However, established susceptometer designs, using Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) that work in liquid helium, have been too expensive for widespread use. This paper presents a less expensive liver susceptometer that works at room temperature. This system uses oscillating magnetic fields, which are produced and detected by copper coils. The coil design cancels the signal from the applied field, eliminating noise from fluctuations of the source-coil current and sensor gain. The coil unit moves toward and away from the patient at 1 Hz, cancelling drifts due to thermal expansion of the coils. Measurements on a water phantom indicated instrumental errors less than 30 μg of iron per gram of wet liver tissue, which is small compared with other errors due to the response of the patient’s body. Liver iron measurements on eight thalassemia patients yielded a correlation coefficient r=0.98 between the room-temperature susceptometer and an existing SQUID. These results indicate that the fundamental accuracy limits of the room-temperature susceptometer are similar to those of the SQUID. PMID:17395991

  20. Remote control of magnetostriction-based nanocontacts at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jammalamadaka, S. Narayana; Kuntz, Sebastian; Berg, Oliver; Kittler, Wolfram; Kannan, U. Mohanan; Chelvane, J. Arout; Sürgers, Christoph

    2015-09-01

    The remote control of the electrical conductance through nanosized junctions at room temperature will play an important role in future nano-electromechanical systems and electronic devices. This can be achieved by exploiting the magnetostriction effects of ferromagnetic materials. Here we report on the electrical conductance of magnetic nanocontacts obtained from wires of the giant magnetostrictive compound Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.95 as an active element in a mechanically controlled break-junction device. The nanocontacts are reproducibly switched at room temperature between “open” (zero conductance) and “closed” (nonzero conductance) states by variation of a magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the long wire axis. Conductance measurements in a magnetic field oriented parallel to the long wire axis exhibit a different behaviour where the conductance switches between both states only in a limited field range close to the coercive field. Investigating the conductance in the regime of electron tunneling by mechanical or magnetostrictive control of the electrode separation enables an estimation of the magnetostriction. The present results pave the way to utilize the material in devices based on nano-electromechanical systems operating at room temperature.

  1. Remote control of magnetostriction-based nanocontacts at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Jammalamadaka, S Narayana; Kuntz, Sebastian; Berg, Oliver; Kittler, Wolfram; Kannan, U Mohanan; Chelvane, J Arout; Sürgers, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The remote control of the electrical conductance through nanosized junctions at room temperature will play an important role in future nano-electromechanical systems and electronic devices. This can be achieved by exploiting the magnetostriction effects of ferromagnetic materials. Here we report on the electrical conductance of magnetic nanocontacts obtained from wires of the giant magnetostrictive compound Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.95 as an active element in a mechanically controlled break-junction device. The nanocontacts are reproducibly switched at room temperature between "open" (zero conductance) and "closed" (nonzero conductance) states by variation of a magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the long wire axis. Conductance measurements in a magnetic field oriented parallel to the long wire axis exhibit a different behaviour where the conductance switches between both states only in a limited field range close to the coercive field. Investigating the conductance in the regime of electron tunneling by mechanical or magnetostrictive control of the electrode separation enables an estimation of the magnetostriction. The present results pave the way to utilize the material in devices based on nano-electromechanical systems operating at room temperature. PMID:26323326

  2. Aging of ceramic carbonized hydroxyapatite at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, M. V.; Kamzin, A. S.

    2016-08-01

    The process of aging of ceramic carbonized hydroxyapatite (CHA) produced in a dry carbon dioxide atmosphere at temperatures of 800-1200°C has been studied by chemical and X-ray structural analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy methods. The phase composition and structure of initial prepared ceramics samples and those aged for a year have been compared. It has been shown that relaxation of internal stresses occurring during pressed sample sintering causes plastic deformation of crystallites at room temperature, accompanied by redistribution of carbonate ions between A1, A2, B1, and B2 sites and CHA decomposition with the formation of CaO separations.

  3. Electrical creation of spin polarization in silicon at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Ron

    2010-03-01

    The integration of magnetism and mainstream semiconductor electronics could impact information technology in ways beyond imagination. A pivotal step is the implementation of spin-based electronic functionality in silicon devices. Much of the interest in silicon derives from its prevalence in semiconductor technology and from the robustness and longevity of spin as it is only weakly coupled to other degrees of freedom in the material. Recently it has become possible to induce and detect spin polarization in otherwise non-magnetic semiconductors (GaAs and Si) using all-electrical structures, but so far at temperatures below 150 K and only in n-type material. The main challenges are: (i) to design fully electrical silicon-based spintronic devices with large spin signals, (ii) to demonstrate device operation at room temperature, (iii) to do so for n-type and p-type material, and (iv) to find ways to manipulate spins and spin flow with a gate electric field. After a brief overview of the state of affairs, our recent advances in these areas are described. In particular, we demonstrate room-temperature electrical injection of spin polarization into n-type and p-type silicon from a ferromagnetic tunnel contact, spin manipulation using the Hanle effect, and the electrical detection of the induced spin accumulation. It is shown that a spin splitting as large as 2.9 meV can be created in Si at room temperature, corresponding to an electron spin polarization of 4.6%. The results open the way to the implementation of spin functionality in complementary silicon devices and electronic circuits operating at ambient temperature, and to the exploration of their prospects as well as the fundamental rules that govern their behavior. [4pt] [1] S.P. Dash, S. Sharma, R.S. Patel, M.P. de Jong and R. Jansen, Nature 462, 491 (2009).

  4. Energy-filtered cold electron transport at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Bhadrachalam, Pradeep; Subramanian, Ramkumar; Ray, Vishva; Ma, Liang-Chieh; Wang, Weichao; Kim, Jiyoung; Cho, Kyeongjae; Koh, Seong Jin

    2014-01-01

    Fermi-Dirac electron thermal excitation is an intrinsic phenomenon that limits functionality of various electron systems. Efforts to manipulate electron thermal excitation have been successful when the entire system is cooled to cryogenic temperatures, typically <1 K. Here we show that electron thermal excitation can be effectively suppressed at room temperature, and energy-suppressed electrons, whose energy distribution corresponds to an effective electron temperature of ~45 K, can be transported throughout device components without external cooling. This is accomplished using a discrete level of a quantum well, which filters out thermally excited electrons and permits only energy-suppressed electrons to participate in electron transport. The quantum well (~2 nm of Cr2O3) is formed between source (Cr) and tunnelling barrier (SiO2) in a double-barrier-tunnelling-junction structure having a quantum dot as the central island. Cold electron transport is detected from extremely narrow differential conductance peaks in electron tunnelling through CdSe quantum dots, with full widths at half maximum of only ~15 mV at room temperature. PMID:25204839

  5. Room-temperature spin thermoelectrics in metallic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tölle, Sebastian; Gorini, Cosimo; Eckern, Ulrich

    2014-12-01

    Considering metallic films at room temperature, we present the first theoretical study of the spin Nernst and thermal Edelstein effects that takes into account dynamical spin-orbit coupling, i.e., direct spin-orbit coupling with the vibrating lattice (phonons) and impurities. This gives rise to a novel process, namely, a dynamical side-jump mechanism, and to dynamical Elliott-Yafet spin relaxation, never before considered in this context. Both are the high-temperature counterparts of the well-known T =0 side-jump and Elliott-Yafet, central to the current understanding of the spin Hall, spin Nernst and Edelstein (current-induced spin polarization) effects at low T . We consider the experimentally relevant regime T >TD , with TD the Debye temperature, as the latter is lower than room temperature in transition metals such as Pt, Au and Ta typically employed in spin injection/extraction experiments. We show that the interplay between intrinsic (Bychkov-Rashba type) and extrinsic (dynamical) spin-orbit coupling yields a nonlinear T dependence of the spin Nernst and spin Hall conductivities.

  6. Electroluminescence from localized defects in zinc oxide: toward electrically driven single photon sources at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sumin; Berhane, Amanuel M; Gentle, Angus; Ton-That, Cuong; Phillips, Matthew R; Aharonovich, Igor

    2015-03-18

    Single photon sources are required for a wide range of applications in quantum information science, quantum cryptography, and quantum communications. However, the majority of room temperature emitters to date are only excited optically, which limits their proper integration into scalable devices. In this work, we overcome this limitation and present room temperature electrically driven light emission from localized defects in zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and thin films. The devices emit in the red spectral range and show excellent rectifying behavior. The emission is stable over an extensive period of time, providing an important prerequisite for practical devices. Our results open possibilities for building new ZnO-based quantum integrated devices that incorporate solid-state single photon sources for quantum information technologies. PMID:25741632

  7. Electroluminescence from localized defects in zinc oxide: toward electrically driven single photon sources at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sumin; Berhane, Amanuel M; Gentle, Angus; Ton-That, Cuong; Phillips, Matthew R; Aharonovich, Igor

    2015-03-18

    Single photon sources are required for a wide range of applications in quantum information science, quantum cryptography, and quantum communications. However, the majority of room temperature emitters to date are only excited optically, which limits their proper integration into scalable devices. In this work, we overcome this limitation and present room temperature electrically driven light emission from localized defects in zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and thin films. The devices emit in the red spectral range and show excellent rectifying behavior. The emission is stable over an extensive period of time, providing an important prerequisite for practical devices. Our results open possibilities for building new ZnO-based quantum integrated devices that incorporate solid-state single photon sources for quantum information technologies.

  8. Room-temperature and near-room-temperature molecule-based magnets.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Mark D; Crawford, T Daniel; Yee, Gordon T

    2008-07-01

    Additional members of the family of high- T c molecule-based magnets, V[acceptor] 2. yCH 2Cl 2 have been discovered in which the acceptor is a fluorophenyltricyanoethylene. Varying the number and position of the fluorine substitutions around the phenyl ring results in materials with significantly different magnetic ordering temperatures ( T c's) ranging from 160 to 300 K. Density functional theory calculations were performed on the neutral and anionic forms of the acceptors that reveal modest correlation between T c and three calculated quantities: the gas-phase electron affinity, the dihedral angle between the phenyl ring and the olefin, and the Mulliken spin densities on the nitrogen atoms. The electrochemistry of the acceptors has also been examined.

  9. Terahertz pulsed photogenerated current in microdiodes at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ilkov, Marjan; Torfason, Kristinn; Manolescu, Andrei Valfells, Ágúst

    2015-11-16

    Space-charge modulation of the current in a vacuum diode under photoemission leads to the formation of beamlets with time periodicity corresponding to THz frequencies. We investigate the effect of the emitter temperature and internal space-charge forces on the formation and persistence of the beamlets. We find that temperature effects are most important for beam degradation at low values of the applied electric field, whereas at higher fields, intra-beamlet space-charge forces are dominant. The current modulation is most robust when there is only one beamlet present in the diode gap at a time, corresponding to a macroscopic version of the Coulomb blockade. It is shown that a vacuum microdiode can operate quite well as a tunable THz oscillator at room temperature with an applied electric field above 10 MV/m and a diode gap of the order of 100 nm.

  10. Does the electric power grid need a room temperature superconductor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malozemoff, A. P.

    2013-11-01

    Superconductivity can revolutionize electric power grids, for example with high power underground cables to open urban power bottlenecks and fault current limiters to solve growing fault currents problems. Technology based on high temperature superconductor (HTS) wire is beginning to meet these critical needs. Wire performance is continually improving. For example, American Superconductor has recently demonstrated long wires with up to 500 A/cm-width at 77 K, almost doubling its previous production performance. But refrigeration, even at 77 K, is a complication, driving interest in discovering room temperature superconductors (RTS). Unfortunately, short coherence lengths and accelerated flux creep will make RTS applications unlikely. Existing HTS technology, in fact, offers a good compromise of relatively high operating temperature but not so high as to incur coherence-length and flux-creep limitations. So - no, power grids do not need RTS; existing HTS wire is proving to be what grids really need.

  11. Superionic glass-ceramic electrolytes for room-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Akitoshi; Noi, Kousuke; Sakuda, Atsushi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Innovative rechargeable batteries that can effectively store renewable energy, such as solar and wind power, urgently need to be developed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. All-solid-state batteries with inorganic solid electrolytes and electrodes are promising power sources for a wide range of applications because of their safety, long-cycle lives and versatile geometries. Rechargeable sodium batteries are more suitable than lithium-ion batteries, because they use abundant and ubiquitous sodium sources. Solid electrolytes are critical for realizing all-solid-state sodium batteries. Here we show that stabilization of a high-temperature phase by crystallization from the glassy state dramatically enhances the Na(+) ion conductivity. An ambient temperature conductivity of over 10(-4) S cm(-1) was obtained in a glass-ceramic electrolyte, in which a cubic Na(3)PS(4) crystal with superionic conductivity was first realized. All-solid-state sodium batteries, with a powder-compressed Na(3)PS(4) electrolyte, functioned as a rechargeable battery at room temperature.

  12. Room temperature GaAsSb single nanowire infrared photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Li, Ziyuan; Yuan, Xiaoming; Fu, Lan; Peng, Kun; Wang, Fan; Fu, Xiao; Caroff, Philippe; White, Thomas P; Hoe Tan, Hark; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2015-11-01

    Antimonide-based ternary III-V nanowires (NWs) allow for a tunable bandgap over a wide range, which is highly interesting for optoelectronics applications, and in particular for infrared photodetection. Here we demonstrate room temperature operation of GaAs0.56Sb0.44 NW infrared photodetectors grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. These GaAs0.56Sb0.44 NWs have uniform axial composition and show p-type conductivity with a peak field-effect mobility of ∼12 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)). Under light illumination, single GaAs0.56Sb0.44 NW photodetectors exhibited typical photoconductor behavior with an increased photocurrent observed with the increase of temperature owing to thermal activation of carrier trap states. A broadband infrared photoresponse with a long wavelength cutoff at ∼1.66 μm was obtained at room temperature. At a low operating bias voltage of 0.15 V a responsivity of 2.37 (1.44) A/W with corresponding detectivity of 1.08 × 10(9) (6.55 × 10(8)) cm√Hz/W were achieved at the wavelength of 1.3 (1.55) μm, indicating that ternary GaAs0.56Sb0.44 NWs are promising photodetector candidates for small footprint integrated optical telecommunication systems. PMID:26451616

  13. Icelike water monolayer adsorbed on mica at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, P.B.; Xu, L.; Shen, Y.R.; Salmeron, M.

    1998-10-01

    The structure of a water film formed on mica at room temperature, in equilibrium with water vapor at various relative humidities (RH), was studied using sum-frequency-generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and scanning polarization force microscopy (SPFM). Analysis of the O-D stretch modes in the SFG spectra of D{sub 2}O on mica indicates that as RH increases, the submonolayer water structure evolves into a more ordered hydrogen-bonding network. At full monolayer coverage ({approximately} 90% RH), the SFG spectrum suggests an icelike film with no dangling O-D groups, in agreement with a recent molecular dynamics simulation.

  14. Anaerobic digestion in mesophilic and room temperature conditions: Digestion performance and soil-borne pathogen survival.

    PubMed

    Chen, Le; Jian, Shanshan; Bi, Jinhua; Li, Yunlong; Chang, Zhizhou; He, Jian; Ye, Xiaomei

    2016-05-01

    Tomato plant waste (TPW) was used as the feedstock of a batch anaerobic reactor to evaluate the effect of anaerobic digestion on Ralstonia solanacearum and Phytophthora capsici survival. Batch experiments were carried out for TS (total solid) concentrations of 2%, 4% and 6% respectively, at mesophilic (37±1°C) and room (20-25°C) temperatures. Results showed that higher digestion performance was achieved under mesophilic digestion temperature and lower TS concentration conditions. The biogas production ranged from 71 to 416L/kg VS (volatile solids). The inactivation of anaerobic digestion tended to increase as digestion performance improved. The maximum log copies reduction of R. solanacearum and P. capsici detected by quantitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction) were 3.80 and 4.08 respectively in reactors with 4% TS concentration at mesophilic temperatures. However, both in mesophilic and room temperature conditions, the lowest reduction of R. solanacearum was found in the reactors with 6% TS concentration, which possessed the highest VFA (volatile fatty acid) concentration. These findings indicated that simple accumulation of VFAs failed to restrain R. solanacearum effectively, although the VFAs were considered poisonous. P. capsici was nearly completely dead under all conditions. Based on the digestion performance and the pathogen survival rate, a model was established to evaluate the digestate biosafety. PMID:27155428

  15. Unconditional polarization qubit quantum memory at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namazi, Mehdi; Kupchak, Connor; Jordaan, Bertus; Shahrokhshahi, Reihaneh; Figueroa, Eden

    2016-05-01

    The creation of global quantum key distribution and quantum communication networks requires multiple operational quantum memories. Achieving a considerable reduction in experimental and cost overhead in these implementations is thus a major challenge. Here we present a polarization qubit quantum memory fully-operational at 330K, an unheard frontier in the development of useful qubit quantum technology. This result is achieved through extensive study of how optical response of cold atomic medium is transformed by the motion of atoms at room temperature leading to an optimal characterization of room temperature quantum light-matter interfaces. Our quantum memory shows an average fidelity of 86.6 +/- 0.6% for optical pulses containing on average 1 photon per pulse, thereby defeating any classical strategy exploiting the non-unitary character of the memory efficiency. Our system significantly decreases the technological overhead required to achieve quantum memory operation and will serve as a building block for scalable and technologically simpler many-memory quantum machines. The work was supported by the US-Navy Office of Naval Research, Grant Number N00141410801 and the Simons Foundation, Grant Number SBF241180. B. J. acknowledges financial assistance of the National Research Foundation (NRF) of South Africa.

  16. CuInP₂S₆ Room Temperature Layered Ferroelectric.

    PubMed

    Belianinov, A; He, Q; Dziaugys, A; Maksymovych, P; Eliseev, E; Borisevich, A; Morozovska, A; Banys, J; Vysochanskii, Y; Kalinin, S V

    2015-06-10

    We explore ferroelectric properties of cleaved 2-D flakes of copper indium thiophosphate, CuInP2S6 (CITP), and probe size effects along with limits of ferroelectric phase stability, by ambient and ultra high vacuum scanning probe microscopy. CITP belongs to the only material family known to display ferroelectric polarization in a van der Waals, layered crystal at room temperature and above. Our measurements directly reveal stable, ferroelectric polarization as evidenced by domain structures, switchable polarization, and hysteresis loops. We found that at room temperature the domain structure of flakes thicker than 100 nm is similar to the cleaved bulk surfaces, whereas below 50 nm polarization disappears. We ascribe this behavior to a well-known instability of polarization due to depolarization field. Furthermore, polarization switching at high bias is also associated with ionic mobility, as evidenced both by macroscopic measurements and by formation of surface damage under the tip at a bias of 4 V-likely due to copper reduction. Mobile Cu ions may therefore also contribute to internal screening mechanisms. The existence of stable polarization in a van-der-Waals crystal naturally points toward new strategies for ultimate scaling of polar materials, quasi-2D, and single-layer materials with advanced and nonlinear dielectric properties that are presently not found in any members of the growing "graphene family".

  17. Wetting behavior of dialkylimidazolium chloroaluminate, a room temperature molten salt

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhart, J.

    1985-08-01

    Eberhart (1979) has found that the wetting behavior of a battery electrolyte can have a dramatic effect on the internal resistance of the battery as well as its cycle life. Good wetting of battery separators by electrolyte is essential for the easy passage of ions through the separator pores, while porous, gas diffusion electrodes require a lesser degree of wetting. For several years, a room temperature molten salt system has been under study. This system is composed of 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (C6N2H11Cl or MeEtImCl) plus aluminum chloride. The application of this novel liquid solution as a battery electrolyte appears to be promising. Available data suggest that likely candidates include cells with a chlorine positive electrode reactant and a magnesium, aluminum, or zinc negative electrode material. The present investigation is concerned with an assessment of the wetting behavior in the considered system, taking into account a study of the contact angles of various room temperature molten salts on candidate battery separator and porous electrode materials. 10 references.

  18. Simple room temperature bonding of thermoplastics and poly(dimethylsiloxane).

    PubMed

    Sunkara, Vijaya; Park, Dong-Kyu; Hwang, Hyundoo; Chantiwas, Rattikan; Soper, Steven A; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung

    2011-03-01

    We describe a simple and versatile method for bonding thermoplastics to elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) at room temperature. The bonding of various thermoplastics including polycarbonate (PC), cyclic olefin copolymer (COC), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and polystyrene (PS), to PDMS has been demonstrated at room temperature. An irreversible bonding was formed instantaneously when the thermoplastics, activated by oxygen plasma followed by aminopropyltriethoxysilane modification, were brought into contact with the plasma treated PDMS. The surface modified thermoplastics were characterized by water contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The tensile strength of the bonded hybrid devices fabricated with PC, COC, PMMA, and PS was found to be 430, 432, 385, and 388 kPa, respectively. The assembled devices showed high burst resistance at a maximum channel pressure achievable by an in-house built syringe pump, 528 kPa. Furthermore, they displayed very high hydrolytic stability; no significant change was observed even after the storage in water at 37 °C over a period of three weeks. In addition, this thermoplastic-to-PDMS bonding technique has been successfully employed to fabricate a relatively large sized device. For example, a lab-on-a-disc with a diameter of 12 cm showed no leakage when it spins for centrifugal fluidic pumping at a very high rotating speed of 6000 rpm. PMID:21152492

  19. Simple room temperature bonding of thermoplastics and poly(dimethylsiloxane).

    PubMed

    Sunkara, Vijaya; Park, Dong-Kyu; Hwang, Hyundoo; Chantiwas, Rattikan; Soper, Steven A; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung

    2011-03-01

    We describe a simple and versatile method for bonding thermoplastics to elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) at room temperature. The bonding of various thermoplastics including polycarbonate (PC), cyclic olefin copolymer (COC), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and polystyrene (PS), to PDMS has been demonstrated at room temperature. An irreversible bonding was formed instantaneously when the thermoplastics, activated by oxygen plasma followed by aminopropyltriethoxysilane modification, were brought into contact with the plasma treated PDMS. The surface modified thermoplastics were characterized by water contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The tensile strength of the bonded hybrid devices fabricated with PC, COC, PMMA, and PS was found to be 430, 432, 385, and 388 kPa, respectively. The assembled devices showed high burst resistance at a maximum channel pressure achievable by an in-house built syringe pump, 528 kPa. Furthermore, they displayed very high hydrolytic stability; no significant change was observed even after the storage in water at 37 °C over a period of three weeks. In addition, this thermoplastic-to-PDMS bonding technique has been successfully employed to fabricate a relatively large sized device. For example, a lab-on-a-disc with a diameter of 12 cm showed no leakage when it spins for centrifugal fluidic pumping at a very high rotating speed of 6000 rpm.

  20. Exfoliated black phosphorus gas sensing properties at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donarelli, M.; Ottaviano, L.; Giancaterini, L.; Fioravanti, G.; Perrozzi, F.; Cantalini, C.

    2016-06-01

    Room temperature gas sensing properties of chemically exfoliated black phosphorus (BP) to oxidizing (NO2, CO2) and reducing (NH3, H2, CO) gases in a dry air carrier have been reported. To study the gas sensing properties of BP, chemically exfoliated BP flakes have been drop casted on Si3N4 substrates provided with Pt comb-type interdigitated electrodes in N2 atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterizations show respectively the occurrence of a mixed structure, composed of BP coarse aggregates dispersed on BP exfoliated few layer flakes bridging the electrodes, and a clear 2p doublet belonging to BP, which excludes the occurrence of surface oxidation. Room temperature electrical tests in dry air show a p-type response of multilayer BP with measured detection limits of 20 ppb and 10 ppm to NO2 and NH3 respectively. No response to CO and CO2 has been detected, while a slight but steady sensitivity to H2 has been recorded. The reported results confirm, on an experimental basis, what was previously theoretically predicted, demonstrating the promising sensing properties of exfoliated BP.

  1. Synthesis of manganese spinel nanoparticles at room temperature by coprecipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannelli, F.; Autret-Lambert, C.; Mathieu, C.; Chartier, T.; Delorme, F.; Seron, A

    2012-08-15

    This paper is focused on a new route to synthesize Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles by alkalisation by sodium hydroxide on a manganeous solution at room temperature. The precipitates obtained at different pH values have been characterized by XRD and TEM. Since the first addition of sodium hydroxide, a white Mn(OH){sub 2} precipitate appears. At pH=7, {gamma}-MnOOH phase is predominant with needle like shaped particles. At pH=10, hausmanite nanoparticles, which exhibits well defined cubic shape in the range 50-120 nm are obtained. This new precipitation route is a fast and easy environmentally friendly process to obtain well crystallized hausmanite nanoparticles. - Graphical abstract: TEM image showing Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles after a precipitation at pH=10. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new route to synthesize Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles has been demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis has been performed by precipitation at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The size of the Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles is between 50 and 120 nm.

  2. Observation of room-temperature skyrmion Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, W.; Zhang, X.; Upadhyaya, P.; Zhang, W.; Yu, G.; Jungfleisch, M.; Fradin, F.; Pearson, J.; Tserkovnyak, Y.; Wang, K.; Heinonen, O.; Zhou, Y.; Te Velthuis, Suzanne; Hoffmann, A.

    The realization of room-temperature magnetic skyrmions is key to enabling the implementation of skyrmion-based spintronics. In this work, we present the efficient conversion of chiral stripe domains into Néel skyrmions through a geometrical constriction patterned in a Ta/CoFeB/TaOx trilayer film at room temperature. This is enabled by an interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, and laterally divergent current-induced spin-orbit torques. We further show the generation of magnetic skyrmions solely by the divergent spin-orbit torques through a nonmagnetic point contact. By increasing the current density, we observe the skyrmion Hall effect - that is the accumulation of skyrmions at one side of the device. The related Hall angle for skyrmion motion is also revealed under an ac driving current. Financial support for the work at Argonne came from Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Science, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, work at UCLA was supported by TANMS.

  3. Directional molecular sliding at room temperature on a silicon runway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouju, Xavier; Chérioux, Frédéric; Coget, Sébastien; Rapenne, Gwénaël; Palmino, Frank

    2013-07-01

    The design of working nanovehicles is a key challenge for the development of new devices. In this context, 1D controlled sliding of molecules on a silicon-based surface is successfully achieved by using an optimized molecule-substrate pair. Even though the molecule and surface are compatible, the molecule-substrate interaction provides a 1D template effect to guide molecular sliding along a preferential surface orientation. Molecular motion is monitored by STM experiments under ultra-high vacuum at room temperature. Molecule-surface interactions are elucidated by semi-empirical calculations.The design of working nanovehicles is a key challenge for the development of new devices. In this context, 1D controlled sliding of molecules on a silicon-based surface is successfully achieved by using an optimized molecule-substrate pair. Even though the molecule and surface are compatible, the molecule-substrate interaction provides a 1D template effect to guide molecular sliding along a preferential surface orientation. Molecular motion is monitored by STM experiments under ultra-high vacuum at room temperature. Molecule-surface interactions are elucidated by semi-empirical calculations. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Computational details, additional STM images and movies showing DETB molecules sliding on the SmSi(111)-(7 × 1) reconstruction obtained from semi-empirical calculations. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01685d

  4. Room temperature ferroelectricity in continuous croconic acid thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xuanyuan; Lu, Haidong; Yin, Yuewei; Zhang, Xiaozhe; Wang, Xiao; Yu, Le; Ahmadi, Zahra; Costa, Paulo S.; DiChiara, Anthony D.; Cheng, Xuemei; Gruverman, Alexei; Enders, Axel; Xu, Xiaoshan

    2016-09-01

    Ferroelectricity at room temperature has been demonstrated in nanometer-thin quasi 2D croconic acid thin films, by the polarization hysteresis loop measurements in macroscopic capacitor geometry, along with observation and manipulation of the nanoscale domain structure by piezoresponse force microscopy. The fabrication of continuous thin films of the hydrogen-bonded croconic acid was achieved by the suppression of the thermal decomposition using low evaporation temperatures in high vacuum, combined with growth conditions far from thermal equilibrium. For nominal coverages ≥20 nm, quasi 2D and polycrystalline films, with an average grain size of 50-100 nm and 3.5 nm roughness, can be obtained. Spontaneous ferroelectric domain structures of the thin films have been observed and appear to correlate with the grain patterns. The application of this solvent-free growth protocol may be a key to the development of flexible organic ferroelectric thin films for electronic applications.

  5. Room temperature ferromagnetism in a phthalocyanine based carbon material

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, Z. Sato, K.; Sakai, M.; Fukuda, T.; Kamata, N.; Hagiwara, M.; Kida, T.

    2014-02-07

    We report on a simple method to fabricate a magnetic carbon material that contains nitrogen-coordinated transition metals and has a large magnetic moment. Highly chlorinated iron phthalocyanine was used as building blocks and potassium as a coupling reagent to uniformly disperse nitrogen-coordinated iron atoms on the phthalocyanine based carbon material. The iron phthalocyanine based carbon material exhibits ferromagnetic properties at room temperature and the ferromagnetic phase transition occurs at T{sub c} = 490 ± 10 K. Transmission electron microscopy observation, X-ray diffraction analysis, and the temperature dependence of magnetization suggest that the phthalocyanine molecules form three-dimensional random networks in the iron phthalocyanine based carbon material.

  6. Room temperature quantum coherence in a potential molecular qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Katharina; Dengler, Dominik; Lenz, Samuel; Endeward, Burkhard; Jiang, Shang-Da; Neugebauer, Petr; van Slageren, Joris

    2014-10-01

    The successful development of a quantum computer would change the world, and current internet encryption methods would cease to function. However, no working quantum computer that even begins to rival conventional computers has been developed yet, which is due to the lack of suitable quantum bits. A key characteristic of a quantum bit is the coherence time. Transition metal complexes are very promising quantum bits, owing to their facile surface deposition and their chemical tunability. However, reported quantum coherence times have been unimpressive. Here we report very long quantum coherence times for a transition metal complex of 68 μs at low temperature (qubit figure of merit QM=3,400) and 1 μs at room temperature, much higher than previously reported values for such systems. We show that this achievement is because of the rigidity of the lattice as well as removal of nuclear spins from the vicinity of the magnetic ion.

  7. Room temperature skyrmion ground state stabilized through interlayer exchange coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gong Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; N'Diaye, Alpha T.

    2015-06-15

    Possible magnetic skyrmion device applications motivate the search for structures that extend the stability of skyrmion spin textures to ambient temperature. Here, we demonstrate an experimental approach to stabilize a room temperature skyrmion ground state in chiral magnetic films via exchange coupling across non-magnetic spacer layers. Using spin polarized low-energy electron microscopy to measure all three Cartesian components of the magnetization vector, we image the spin textures in Fe/Ni films. We show how tuning the thickness of a copper spacer layer between chiral Fe/Ni films and perpendicularly magnetized Ni layers permits stabilization of a chiral stripe phase, a skyrmion phase, and a single domain phase. This strategy to stabilize skyrmion ground states can be extended to other magnetic thin film systems and may be useful for designing skyrmion based spintronics devices.

  8. Room-temperature chiral magnetic skyrmions in ultrathin magnetic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulle, Olivier; Vogel, Jan; Yang, Hongxin; Pizzini, Stefania; de Souza Chaves, Dayane; Locatelli, Andrea; Menteş, Tevfik Onur; Sala, Alessandro; Buda-Prejbeanu, Liliana D.; Klein, Olivier; Belmeguenai, Mohamed; Roussigné, Yves; Stashkevich, Andrey; Chérif, Salim Mourad; Aballe, Lucia; Foerster, Michael; Chshiev, Mairbek; Auffret, Stéphane; Miron, Ioan Mihai; Gaudin, Gilles

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic skyrmions are chiral spin structures with a whirling configuration. Their topological properties, nanometre size and the fact that they can be moved by small current densities have opened a new paradigm for the manipulation of magnetization at the nanoscale. Chiral skyrmion structures have so far been experimentally demonstrated only in bulk materials and in epitaxial ultrathin films, and under an external magnetic field or at low temperature. Here, we report on the observation of stable skyrmions in sputtered ultrathin Pt/Co/MgO nanostructures at room temperature and zero external magnetic field. We use high lateral resolution X-ray magnetic circular dichroism microscopy to image their chiral Néel internal structure, which we explain as due to the large strength of the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction as revealed by spin wave spectroscopy measurements. Our results are substantiated by micromagnetic simulations and numerical models, which allow the identification of the physical mechanisms governing the size and stability of the skyrmions.

  9. Enabling NIR imaging at room temperature using quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Calvez, S.; Bourvon, H.; Kanaan, H.; Meunier-Della Gatta, S.; Philippot, C.; Reiss, P.

    2011-10-01

    Imaging in visible light at room temperature is now a well-mastered technology, whereas imaging in the near infrared (NIR) remains a challenge. NIR imaging has many applications like sensing, night vision and biological diagnostics. Unfortunately, silicon detectors are inefficient above 1000 nm, and other IR technologies still need low working temperatures and are thus expensive. Colloidal quantum dots can overcome these limitations thanks to their absorption wavelength tunability depending on their chemical composition and size. After a brief review of this research field, we will present the preparation of hybrid photodetectors using NIR absorbing PbS quantum dots in combination with poly(3-hexylthiopene) and PCBM. We discuss different solution based deposition processes for device fabrication (spincoating, dip-coating, doctor blading, inkjet printing). Preliminary device tests result in a detectivity of 4.7.109 Jones at 1300 nm.

  10. Room temperature homogeneous flow in a bulk metallic glass with low glass transition temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, K.; Xia, X. X.; Bai, H. Y.; Zhao, D. Q.; Wang, W. H.

    2011-04-04

    We report a high entropy metallic glass of Zn{sub 20}Ca{sub 20}Sr{sub 20}Yb{sub 20}(Li{sub 0.55}Mg{sub 0.45}){sub 20} via composition design that exhibiting remarkable homogeneous deformation without shear banding under stress at room temperature. The glass also shows properties such as low glass transition temperature (323 K) approaching room temperature, low density and high specific strength, good conductivity, polymerlike thermoplastic manufacturability, and ultralow elastic moduli comparable to that of bones. The alloy is thermally and chemically stable.

  11. Enhanced room temperature ferromagnetism in antiferromagnetic NiO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravikumar, Patta; Kisan, Bhagaban; Perumal, A.

    2015-08-01

    We report systematic investigations of structural, vibrational, resonance and magnetic properties of nanoscale NiO powders prepared by ball milling process under different milling speeds for 30 hours of milling. Structural properties revealed that both pure NiO and as-milled NiO powders exhibit face centered cubic structure, but average crystallite size decreases to around 11 nm along with significant increase in strain with increasing milling speed. Vibrational properties show the enhancement in the intensity of one-phonon longitudinal optical (LO) band and disappearance of two-magnon band due to size reduction. In addition, two-phonon LO band exhibits red shift due to size-induced phonon confinement effect and surface relaxation. Pure NiO powder exhibit antiferromagnetic nature, which transforms into induced ferromagnetic after size reduction. The average magnetization at room temperature increases with decreasing the crystallite size and a maximum moment of 0.016 μB/f.u. at 12 kOe applied field and coercivity of 170 Oe were obtained for 30 hours milled NiO powders at 600 rotation per minute milling speed. The change in the magnetic properties is also supported by the vibrational properties. Thermomagnetization measurements at high temperature reveal a well-defined magnetic phase transition at high temperature (TC) around 780 K due to induced ferromagnetic phase. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies reveal a good agreement between the EPR results and magnetic properties. The observed results are described on the basis of crystallite size variation, defect density, large strain, oxidation/reduction of Ni and interaction between uncompensated surfaces and particle core with lattice expansion. The obtained results suggest that nanoscale NiO powders with high TC and moderate magnetic moment at room temperature with cubic structure would be useful to expedite for spintronic devices.

  12. Enhanced room temperature ferromagnetism in antiferromagnetic NiO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ravikumar, Patta; Kisan, Bhagaban; Perumal, A.

    2015-08-15

    We report systematic investigations of structural, vibrational, resonance and magnetic properties of nanoscale NiO powders prepared by ball milling process under different milling speeds for 30 hours of milling. Structural properties revealed that both pure NiO and as-milled NiO powders exhibit face centered cubic structure, but average crystallite size decreases to around 11 nm along with significant increase in strain with increasing milling speed. Vibrational properties show the enhancement in the intensity of one-phonon longitudinal optical (LO) band and disappearance of two-magnon band due to size reduction. In addition, two-phonon LO band exhibits red shift due to size-induced phonon confinement effect and surface relaxation. Pure NiO powder exhibit antiferromagnetic nature, which transforms into induced ferromagnetic after size reduction. The average magnetization at room temperature increases with decreasing the crystallite size and a maximum moment of 0.016 μ{sub B}/f.u. at 12 kOe applied field and coercivity of 170 Oe were obtained for 30 hours milled NiO powders at 600 rotation per minute milling speed. The change in the magnetic properties is also supported by the vibrational properties. Thermomagnetization measurements at high temperature reveal a well-defined magnetic phase transition at high temperature (T{sub C}) around 780 K due to induced ferromagnetic phase. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies reveal a good agreement between the EPR results and magnetic properties. The observed results are described on the basis of crystallite size variation, defect density, large strain, oxidation/reduction of Ni and interaction between uncompensated surfaces and particle core with lattice expansion. The obtained results suggest that nanoscale NiO powders with high T{sub C} and moderate magnetic moment at room temperature with cubic structure would be useful to expedite for spintronic devices.

  13. Stability and partial oligomerization of naphthalene under high pressure at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozaki, Ayako; Mimura, Koichi; Nishida, Tamihito; Inoue, Toru; Nakano, Satoshi; Kagi, Hiroyuki

    2016-10-01

    The stability and pressure-induced chemical reactions of naphthalene were investigated at room temperature at pressures up to 23 GPa. In-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that naphthalene retained its crystal structure up to ∼20 GPa, whereas a solid amorphous phase was observed in the recovered samples. Based on microanalysis of the recovered samples using Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS), naphthalene dimer and trimer isomers were observed at pressures exceeding 15 GPa. The dimers were classified as products of simple dimerization, naphthylation, and condensation, similar to the case of the pressure-induced dimerization of benzene, indicating a similar dimerization mechanism for naphthalene.

  14. [Studies on the health standard for room temperature in cold regions].

    PubMed

    Meng, Z L

    1990-03-01

    The microclimate of 205 rooms of single storey houses in four new rural residential districts in coastal and inland Shandong was monitored and studied the blood circulation of the finger, skin temperature, sweating function and other physiological indexes among 2,401 peasants. We interrogated their personal sensation to cold and warmth. The count was done by the application of thermal equilibrium index (TEI), predicted 4-hour Sweat Rate (P4SR) and the uncomfortable index. The standard room temperature is recommended as follows. In rural area in winter the appropriate room temperature is 14-16 degrees C, the comfortable room temperature is 16-20 degrees C, the lowest room temperature must not be below 14 degrees C. In summer the appropriate room temperature is 25-28 degrees C, the comfortable room temperature is 26-27 degrees C, the highest temperature must not be above 28 degrees C. PMID:2364801

  15. Electrically driven photon antibunching from a single molecule at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Nothaft, Maximilian; Höhla, Steffen; Jelezko, Fedor; Frühauf, Norbert; Pflaum, Jens; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Single-photon emitters have been considered for applications in quantum information processing, quantum cryptography and metrology. For the sake of integration and to provide an electron photon interface, it is of great interest to stimulate single-photon emission by electrical excitation as demonstrated for quantum dots. Because of low exciton binding energies, it has so far not been possible to detect sub-Poissonian photon statistics of electrically driven quantum dots at room temperature. However, organic molecules possess exciton binding energies on the order of 1eV, thereby facilitating the development of an electrically driven single-photon source at room temperature in a solid-state matrix. Here we demonstrate electroluminescence of single, electrically driven molecules at room temperature. By careful choice of the molecular emitter, as well as fabrication of a specially designed organic light-emitting diode structure, we were able to achieve stable single-molecule emission and detect sub-Poissonian photon statistics. PMID:22252552

  16. Advances in materials for room temperature hydrogen sensors.

    PubMed

    Arya, Sunil K; Krishnan, Subramanian; Silva, Hayde; Jean, Sheila; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2012-06-21

    Hydrogen (H(2)), as a source of energy, continues to be a compelling choice in applications ranging from fuel cells and propulsion systems to feedstock for chemical, metallurgical and other industrial processes. H(2), being a clean, reliable, and affordable source, is finding ever increasing use in distributed electric power generation and H(2) fuelled cars. Although still under 0.1%, the distributed use of H(2) is the fastest growing area. In distributed H(2) storage, distribution, and consumption, safety continues to be a critical aspect. Affordable safety systems for distributed H(2) applications are critical for the H(2) economy to take hold. Advances in H(2) sensors are driven by specificity, reliability, repeatability, stability, cost, size, response time, recovery time, operating temperature, humidity range, and power consumption. Ambient temperature sensors for H(2) detection are increasingly being explored as they offer specificity, stability and robustness of high temperature sensors with lower operational costs and significantly longer operational lifetimes. This review summarizes and highlights recent developments in room temperature H(2) sensors.

  17. Contracting cardiomyocytes in hydrophobic room-temperature ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, Takayuki; Fujita, Kyoko; Higashi, Ayako; Sakiyama, Keiko; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Morishima, Keisuke

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biocompatible room-temperature ionic liquid was applied on beating cardiomyocyte. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lifetime of beating cardiomyocytes was depended on anion functional group. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A longer lifetime was recorded for no functional group on alkyl chain on their anion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amino group on alkyl chain and fluorine in anion induced fatal condition changes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We reported liquid electrolyte interface to stimulate cardiomyocytes. -- Abstract: Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are drawing attention as a new class of nonaqueous solvents to replace organic and aqueous solvents for chemical processes in the liquid phase at room temperature. The RTILs are notable for their characteristics of nonvolatility, extremely low vapor pressure, electric conductivity, and incombustibility. These distinguished properties of RTILs have brought attention to them in applications with biological cells and tissue in vacuum environment for scanning electron microscopy, and in microfluidic devices for micro-total analysis system (micro-TAS). Habitable RTILs could increase capability of nonaqueous micro-TAS for living cells. Some RTILs seemed to have the capability to replace water in biological applications. However, these RTILs had been applied to just supplemental additives for biocompatible test, to fixed cells as a substitute for an aqueous solution, and to simple molecules. None of RTILs in which directly soaks a living cell culture. Therefore, we demonstrated the design of RTILs for a living cell culture and a liquid electrolyte to stimulate contracting cardiomyocytes using the RTILs. We assessed the effect of RTILs on the cardiomyocytes using the beating lifetime to compare the applicability of RTILs for biological applications. Frequent spontaneous contractions of cardiomyocytes were confirmed in amino acid anion RTILs [P{sub 8,8,8,8}][Leu] and [P{sub 8

  18. Intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Brett, Daniel J L; Atkinson, Alan; Brandon, Nigel P; Skinner, Stephen J

    2008-08-01

    High temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), typified by developers such as Siemens Westinghouse and Rolls-Royce, operate in the temperature region of 850-1000 degrees C. For such systems, very high efficiencies can be achieved from integration with gas turbines for large-scale stationary applications. However, high temperature operation means that the components of the stack need to be predominantly ceramic and high temperature metal alloys are needed for many balance-of-plant components. For smaller scale applications, where integration with a heat engine is not appropriate, there is a trend to move to lower temperatures of operation, into the so-called intermediate temperature (IT) range of 500-750 degrees C. This expands the choice of materials and stack geometries that can be used, offering reduced system cost and, in principle, reducing the corrosion rate of stack and system components. This review introduces the IT-SOFC and explains the advantages of operation in this temperature regime. The main advances made in materials chemistry that have made IT operation possible are described and some of the engineering issues and the new opportunities that reduced temperature operation affords are discussed. This tutorial review examines the advances being made in materials and engineering that are allowing solid oxide fuel cells to operate at lower temperature. The challenges and advantages of operating in the so-called 'intermediate temperature' range of 500-750 degrees C are discussed and the opportunities for applications not traditionally associated with solid oxide fuel cells are highlighted. This article serves as an introduction for scientists and engineers interested in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells and the challenges and opportunities of reduced temperature operation. PMID:18648682

  19. Outcome of impact disruption of iron meteorites at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsura, T.; Nakamura, A.; Takabe, A.; Okamoto, T.; Sangen, K.; Hasegawa, S.; Liu, X.; Mashimo, T.

    2014-07-01

    The iron meteorites and some M-class asteroids are generally understood to originate in the cores of differentiated planetesimals or in the local melt pools of primitive bodies. On these primitive bodies and planetesimals, a wide range of collisional events at different mass scales, temperatures, and impact velocities would have occurred. Iron materials have a brittle-ductile transition at a certain temperature, which depends on metallurgical factors such as grain size and purity, and on conditions such as strain-rate and confining pressure [1]. An evolutional scenario of iron meteorite parent bodies was proposed in which they formed in the terrestrial planet region, after which they were scattered into the main belt by collisions, Yarkovsky thermal forces, and resonances [2]. In this case, they may have experienced collisional evolution in the vicinity of the Earth before they were scattered into the main belt. The size distribution of iron bodies in the main belt may therefore have depended on the disruption threshold of iron bodies at temperature above the brittle-ductile transition. This paper presents the results of impact-disruption experiments of iron meteorite and steel specimens mm-cm in size as projectiles or targets conducted at room temperature using three light-gas guns and one powder gun. Our iron specimens were almost all smaller in size than their counterparts (as targets or projectiles, respectively). The fragment size distribution of iron material was different from that of rocks. In iron fragmentation, a higher percentage of the mass is concentrated in larger fragments, i.e., the mass fraction of fine fragments is much less than that of rocks shown in the Figure (left). This is probably due to the ductile nature of the iron materials at room temperature. Furthermore, the Figure (right) shows that the largest fragment mass fraction f is dependent not only on the energy density but also on the size of the specimens. In order to obtain a generalized

  20. Thermoelectricity in atom-sized junctions at room temperatures.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Morikawa, Takanori; Arima, Akihide; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2013-01-01

    Atomic and molecular junctions are an emerging class of thermoelectric materials that exploit quantum confinement effects to obtain an enhanced figure of merit. An important feature in such nanoscale systems is that the electron and heat transport become highly sensitive to the atomic configurations. Here we report the characterization of geometry-sensitive thermoelectricity in atom-sized junctions at room temperatures. We measured the electrical conductance and thermoelectric power of gold nanocontacts simultaneously down to the single atom size. We found junction conductance dependent thermoelectric voltage oscillations with period 2e(2)/h. We also observed quantum suppression of thermovoltage fluctuations in fully-transparent contacts. These quantum confinement effects appeared only statistically due to the geometry-sensitive nature of thermoelectricity in the atom-sized junctions. The present method can be applied to various nanomaterials including single-molecules or nanoparticles and thus may be used as a useful platform for developing low-dimensional thermoelectric building blocks. PMID:24270238

  1. Creep of Mg-PSZ at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Finlayson, T.R. . Dept. of Physics); Gross, A.K. . Dept. of Materials Engineering); Griffiths, J.R. . Div. of Manufacturing Technology); Kisi, E.H. . Faculty of Science and Technology)

    1994-03-01

    Transient [beta], or Andrade, creep occurs when magnesia-partially-stabilized zirconia is loaded in tension at room temperature. The equation relating the longitudinal or tensile creep strain [var epsilon][sub l][sup c] to the tensile stress, [sigma], and to the time, t, has been determined to be [var epsilon][sub l][sup c] = A[sigma][sup m]t[sup n] in which the constants A, m, and n depend on the phase content of the zirconia. Observations are reported of the tetragonal-to-monoclinic and tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transformations which occur during creep: there is also a progressive development of microcracking. It is shown that a combination of these phenomena can account for the observed creep behavior.

  2. Room temperature water splitting at the surface of magnetite.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Gareth S; Novotný, Zbyněk; Jacobson, Peter; Schmid, Michael; Diebold, Ulrike

    2011-08-17

    An array of surface science measurements has revealed novel water adsorption behavior at the Fe(3)O(4)(001) surface. Following room temperature exposure to water, a low coverage of hydrogen atoms is observed, with no associated water hydroxyl group. Mild annealing of the hydrogenated surface leads to desorption of water via abstraction of surface oxygen atoms, leading to a reduction of the surface. These results point to an irreversible splitting of the water molecule. The observed phenomena are discussed in the context of recent DFT calculations (Mulakaluri, N.; Pentcheva, R.; Scheffler, M. J. Phys. Chem. C 2010, 114, 11148), which show that the Jahn-Teller distorted surface isolates adsorbed H in a geometry that could kinetically hinder recombinative desorption. In contrast, the adsorption geometry facilitates interaction between water hydroxyl species, which are concluded to leave the surface following a reactive desorption process, possibly via the creation of O(2).

  3. Gas sensing properties of nanocrystalline diamond at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Kulha, Pavel; Laposa, Alexandr; Hruska, Karel; Demo, Pavel; Kromka, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Summary This study describes an integrated NH3 sensor based on a hydrogenated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD)-sensitive layer coated on an interdigitated electrode structure. The gas sensing properties of the sensor structure were examined using a reducing gas (NH3) at room temperature and were found to be dependent on the electrode arrangement. A pronounced response of the sensor, which was comprised of dense electrode arrays (of 50 µm separation distance), was observed. The sensor functionality was explained by the surface transfer doping effect. Moreover, the three-dimensional model of the current density distribution of the hydrogenated NCD describes the transient flow of electrons between interdigitated electrodes and the hydrogenated NCD surface, that is, the formation of a closed current loop. PMID:25551062

  4. Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Humberto R; Perea-López, Nestor; Elías, Ana Laura; Berkdemir, Ayse; Wang, Bei; Lv, Ruitao; López-Urías, Florentino; Crespi, Vincent H; Terrones, Humberto; Terrones, Mauricio

    2013-08-14

    Individual monolayers of metal dichalcogenides are atomically thin two-dimensional crystals with attractive physical properties different from those of their bulk counterparts. Here we describe the direct synthesis of WS2 monolayers with triangular morphologies and strong room-temperature photoluminescence (PL). The Raman response as well as the luminescence as a function of the number of S-W-S layers is also reported. The PL weakens with increasing number of layers due to a transition from direct band gap in a monolayer to indirect gap in multilayers. The edges of WS2 monolayers exhibit PL signals with extraordinary intensity, around 25 times stronger than that at the platelet's center. The structure and chemical composition of the platelet edges appear to be critical for PL enhancement.

  5. Microstructure of room temperature ionic liquids at stepped graphite electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Guang; Li, Song; Zhao, Wei; Cummings, Peter T.

    2015-07-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) [emim][TFSI] at stepped graphite electrodes were performed to investigate the influence of the thickness of the electrode surface step on the microstructure of interfacial RTILs. A strong correlation was observed between the interfacial RTIL structure and the step thickness in electrode surface as well as the ion size. Specifically, when the step thickness is commensurate with ion size, the interfacial layering of cation/anion is more evident; whereas, the layering tends to be less defined when the step thickness is close to the half of ion size. Furthermore, two-dimensional microstructure of ion layers exhibits different patterns and alignments of counter-ion/co-ion lattice at neutral and charged electrodes. As the cation/anion layering could impose considerable effects on ion diffusion, the detailed information of interfacial RTILs at stepped graphite presented here would help to understand the molecular mechanism of RTIL-electrode interfaces in supercapacitors.

  6. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in cerium dioxide powders

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhmatullin, R. M. Pavlov, V. V.; Semashko, V. V.; Korableva, S. L.

    2015-08-15

    Room-temperature ferromagnetism is detected in a CeO{sub 2} powder with a grain size of about 35 nm and a low (<0.1 at %) manganese and iron content. The ferromagnetism in a CeO{sub 2} sample with a submicron crystallite size and the same manganese and iron impurity content is lower than in the nanocrystalline sample by an order of magnitude. Apart from ferromagnetism, both samples exhibit EPR spectra of localized paramagnetic centers, the concentration of which is lower than 0.01 at %. A comparative analysis of these results shows that the F-center exchange (FCE) mechanism cannot cause ferromagnetism. This conclusion agrees with the charge-transfer ferromagnetism model proposed recently.

  7. Electrically Injected Photon-Pair Source at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boitier, Fabien; Orieux, Adeline; Autebert, Claire; Lemaître, Aristide; Galopin, Elisabeth; Manquest, Christophe; Sirtori, Carlo; Favero, Ivan; Leo, Giuseppe; Ducci, Sara

    2014-05-01

    One of the main challenges for future quantum information technologies is the miniaturization and integration of high performance components in a single chip. In this context, electrically driven sources of nonclassical states of light have a clear advantage over optically driven ones. Here we demonstrate the first electrically driven semiconductor source of photon pairs working at room temperature and telecom wavelengths. The device is based on type-II intracavity spontaneous parametric down-conversion in an AlGaAs laser diode and generates pairs at 1.57 μm. Time-correlation measurements of the emitted pairs give an internal generation efficiency of 7×10-11 pairs/injected electron. The capability of our platform to support the generation, manipulation, and detection of photons opens the way to the demonstration of massively parallel systems for complex quantum operations.

  8. Icelike Water Monolayer Adsorbed on Mica at Room Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, P.B.; Xu, L.; Shen, Y.R.; Salmeron, M.

    1998-12-01

    The structure of a water film formed on mica at room temperature, in equilibrium with water vapor at various relative humidities (RH), was studied using sum-frequency-generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and scanning polarization force microscopy (SPFM). Analysis of the O-D stretch modes in the SFG spectra of D{sub 2}O on mica indicates that as RH increases, the submonolayer water structure evolves into a more ordered hydrogen-bonding network. At full monolayer coverage ({approximately} 90{percent} RH) , the SFG spectrum suggests an icelike film with no dangling O-D groups, in agreement with a recent molecular dynamics simulation. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Calculation of the room-temperature shapes of unsymmetric laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.

    1981-01-01

    A theory explaining the characteristics of the cured shapes of unsymmetric laminates is presented. The theory is based on an extension of classical lamination theory which accounts for geometric nonlinearities. A Rayleigh-Ritz approach to minimizing the total potential energy is used to obtain quantitative information regarding the room temperature shapes of square T300/5208 (0(2)/90(2))T and (0(4)/90(4))T graphite-epoxy laminates. It is shown that, depending on the thickness of the laminate and the length of the side the square, the saddle shape configuration is actually unstable. For values of length and thickness that render the saddle shape unstable, it is shown that two stable cylindrical shapes exist. The predictions of the theory are compared with existing experimental data.

  10. Realization of a flux-driven memtranstor at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi-Peng, Shen; Da-Shan, Shang; Yi-Sheng, Chai; Young, Sun

    2016-02-01

    The memtranstor has been proposed to be the fourth fundamental circuit memelement in addition to the memristor, memcapacitor, and meminductor. Here, we demonstrate the memtranstor behavior at room temperature in a device made of the magnetoelectric hexaferrite (Ba0.5Sr1.5Co2Fe11AlO22) where the electric polarization is tunable by external magnetic field. This device shows a nonlinear q-φ relationship with a butterfly-shaped hysteresis loop, in agreement with the anticipated memtranstor behavior. The memtranstor, like other memelements, has a great potential in developing more advanced circuit functionalities. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 11227405, 11534015, 11274363, and 11374347) and the Natural Science Foundation from the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB07030200).

  11. Emergence of room-temperature ferroelectricity at reduced dimensions.

    PubMed

    Lee, D; Lu, H; Gu, Y; Choi, S-Y; Li, S-D; Ryu, S; Paudel, T R; Song, K; Mikheev, E; Lee, S; Stemmer, S; Tenne, D A; Oh, S H; Tsymbal, E Y; Wu, X; Chen, L-Q; Gruverman, A; Eom, C B

    2015-09-18

    The enhancement of the functional properties of materials at reduced dimensions is crucial for continuous advancements in nanoelectronic applications. Here, we report that the scale reduction leads to the emergence of an important functional property, ferroelectricity, challenging the long-standing notion that ferroelectricity is inevitably suppressed at the scale of a few nanometers. A combination of theoretical calculations, electrical measurements, and structural analyses provides evidence of room-temperature ferroelectricity in strain-free epitaxial nanometer-thick films of otherwise nonferroelectric strontium titanate (SrTiO3). We show that electrically induced alignment of naturally existing polar nanoregions is responsible for the appearance of a stable net ferroelectric polarization in these films. This finding can be useful for the development of low-dimensional material systems with enhanced functional properties relevant to emerging nanoelectronic devices. PMID:26383947

  12. Radiation stability of some room temperature ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadeeswara Rao, Ch.; Venkatesan, K. A.; Tata, B. V. R.; Nagarajan, K.; Srinivasan, T. G.; Vasudeva Rao, P. R.

    2011-05-01

    Radiation stability of some room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) that find useful electrochemical applications in nuclear fuel cycle has been evaluated. The ionic liquids such as protonated betaine bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (HbetNTf 2), aliquat 336 (tri-n-octlymethylammonium chloride), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (bmimCl), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (hmimCl), N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BMPyNTf 2) and N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (MPPiNTf 2) have been irradiated to various absorbed dose levels, up to 700 kGy. The effect of gamma radiation on these ionic liquids has been evaluated by determining the variations in the physical properties such as color, density, viscosity, refractive index and electrochemical window. The changes in density, viscosity and refractive index of these ionic liquids upon irradiation were insignificant; however, the color and electrochemical window varied significantly with increase of absorbed dose.

  13. Complete S matrix in a microwave cavity at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Barthélemy, Jérôme; Legrand, Olivier; Mortessagne, Fabrice

    2005-01-01

    We experimentally study the widths of resonances in a two-dimensional microwave cavity at room temperature. By developing a model for the coupling antennas, we are able to discriminate their contribution from those of Ohmic losses to the broadening of resonances. Concerning Ohmic losses, we experimentally put to evidence two mechanisms: damping along propagation and absorption at the contour, the latter being responsible for variations of widths from mode to mode due to its dependence on the spatial distribution of the field at the contour. A theory, based on an S -matrix formalism, is given for these variations. It is successfully validated through measurements of several hundreds of resonances in a rectangular cavity.

  14. Room-Temperature, Low-Barrier Boron Doping of Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Shixuan

    Doping graphene with boron has been difficult because of high reaction barriers. Here, we describe a low-energy reaction route derived from first-principles calculations and validated by experiments. We find that a boron atom on graphene on a ruthenium(0001) substrate can replace a carbon by pushing it through, with substrate attraction helping to reduce the barrier to only 0.1 eV, implying that the doping can take place at room temperature. High-quality graphene is grown on a Ru(0001) surface and exposed to B2H6. Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that boron is indeed incorporated substitutionally without disturbing the graphene lattice. (L.D. Pan et al., Nano Lett. 2015, 15, 6464. In collaboration with Lida Pan, Yande Que, Hui Chen, Dongfei Wang, Jun Li, Chengmin Shen, Wende Xiao, Hongjun Gao in CAS, and S. Pantellides in Vanderbilt University.)

  15. Room-Temperature, Low-Barrier Boron Doping of Graphene.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lida; Que, Yande; Chen, Hui; Wang, Dongfei; Li, Jun; Shen, Chengmin; Xiao, Wende; Du, Shixuan; Gao, Hongjun; Pantelides, Sokrates T

    2015-10-14

    Doping graphene with boron has been difficult because of high reaction barriers. Here, we describe a low-energy reaction route derived from first-principles calculations and validated by experiments. We find that a boron atom on graphene on a ruthenium(0001) substrate can replace a carbon by pushing it through, with substrate attraction helping to reduce the barrier to only 0.1 eV, implying that the doping can take place at room temperature. High-quality graphene is grown on a Ru(0001) surface and exposed to B2H6. Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that boron is indeed incorporated substitutionally without disturbing the graphene lattice.

  16. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in graphitic petal arrays.

    PubMed

    Rout, Chandra Sekhar; Kumar, Anurag; Kumar, Nitesh; Sundaresan, A; Fisher, Timothy S

    2011-03-01

    We report room-temperature ferromagnetism of graphitic petal arrays grown on Si substrates by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition without catalyst. The samples have been characterized by Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to confirm the absence of possible ferromagnetic impurities. The petals exhibit ferromagnetic hysteresis with saturation magnetization of ∼4.67 emu cm(-3) and coercivity of ∼105 Oe at 300 K, comparable to the reported behavior of few-layer graphene. Upon O2 annealing the saturation magnetization and coercivity decreased to 2.1 emu cm(-3) and ∼75 Oe respectively. The origin of ferromagnetism is believed to arise from the edge defects and vacancies in the petals. PMID:21264436

  17. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in graphitic petal arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Chandra Sekhar; Kumar, Anurag; Kumar, Nitesh; Sundaresan, A.; Fisher, Timothy S.

    2011-03-01

    We report room-temperature ferromagnetism of graphitic petal arrays grown on Si substrates by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition without catalyst. The samples have been characterized by Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to confirm the absence of possible ferromagnetic impurities. The petals exhibit ferromagnetic hysteresis with saturation magnetization of ~4.67 emu cm-3 and coercivity of ~105 Oe at 300 K, comparable to the reported behavior of few-layer graphene. Upon O2 annealing the saturation magnetization and coercivity decreased to 2.1 emu cm-3 and ~75 Oe respectively. The origin of ferromagnetism is believed to arise from the edge defects and vacancies in the petals.

  18. Ratcheting fatigue behavior of Zircaloy-2 at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajpurohit, R. S.; Sudhakar Rao, G.; Chattopadhyay, K.; Santhi Srinivas, N. C.; Singh, Vakil

    2016-08-01

    Nuclear core components of zirconium alloys experience asymmetric stress or strain cycling during service which leads to plastic strain accumulation and drastic reduction in fatigue life as well as dimensional instability of the component. Variables like loading rate, mean stress, and stress amplitude affect the influence of asymmetric loading. In the present investigation asymmetric stress controlled fatigue tests were conducted with mean stress from 80 to 150 MPa, stress amplitude from 270 to 340 MPa and stress rate from 30 to 750 MPa/s to study the process of plastic strain accumulation and its effect on fatigue life of Zircaloy-2 at room temperature. It was observed that with increase in mean stress and stress amplitude accumulation of ratcheting strain was increased and fatigue life was reduced. However, increase in stress rate led to improvement in fatigue life due to less accumulation of ratcheting strain.

  19. Reduced graphene oxide for room-temperature gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ganhua; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Chen, Junhong

    2009-11-01

    We demonstrated high-performance gas sensors based on graphene oxide (GO) sheets partially reduced via low-temperature thermal treatments. Hydrophilic graphene oxide sheets uniformly suspended in water were first dispersed onto gold interdigitated electrodes. The partial reduction of the GO sheets was then achieved through low-temperature, multi-step annealing (100, 200, and 300 °C) or one-step heating (200 °C) of the device in argon flow at atmospheric pressure. The electrical conductance of GO was measured after each heating cycle to interpret the level of reduction. The thermally-reduced GO showed p-type semiconducting behavior in ambient conditions and was responsive to low-concentration NO2 and NH3 gases diluted in air at room temperature. The sensitivity can be attributed mainly to the electron transfer between the reduced GO and adsorbed gaseous molecules (NO2/NH3). Additionally, the contact between GO and the Au electrode is likely to contribute to the overall sensing response because of the adsorbates-induced Schottky barrier variation. A simplified model is used to explain the experimental observations.

  20. Room temperature manipulation of long lifetime spins in metallic-like carbon nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Náfrádi, Bálint; Choucair, Mohammad; Dinse, Klaus-Peter; Forró, László

    2016-01-01

    The time-window for processing electron spin information (spintronics) in solid-state quantum electronic devices is determined by the spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times of electrons. Minimizing the effects of spin-orbit coupling and the local magnetic contributions of neighbouring atoms on spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times at room temperature remain substantial challenges to practical spintronics. Here we report conduction electron spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times of 175 ns at 300 K in 37±7 nm carbon spheres, which is remarkably long for any conducting solid-state material of comparable size. Following the observation of spin polarization by electron spin resonance, we control the quantum state of the electron spin by applying short bursts of an oscillating magnetic field and observe coherent oscillations of the spin state. These results demonstrate the feasibility of operating electron spins in conducting carbon nanospheres as quantum bits at room temperature. PMID:27426851

  1. A highly reversible room-temperature lithium metal battery based on crosslinked hairy nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Snehashis; Mangal, Rahul; Agrawal, Akanksha; Archer, Lynden A.

    2015-01-01

    Rough electrodeposition, uncontrolled parasitic side-reactions with electrolytes and dendrite-induced short-circuits have hindered development of advanced energy storage technologies based on metallic lithium, sodium and aluminium electrodes. Solid polymer electrolytes and nanoparticle-polymer composites have shown promise as candidates to suppress lithium dendrite growth, but the challenge of simultaneously maintaining high mechanical strength and high ionic conductivity at room temperature has so far been unmet in these materials. Here we report a facile and scalable method of fabricating tough, freestanding membranes that combine the best attributes of solid polymers, nanocomposites and gel-polymer electrolytes. Hairy nanoparticles are employed as multifunctional nodes for polymer crosslinking, which produces mechanically robust membranes that are exceptionally effective in inhibiting dendrite growth in a lithium metal battery. The membranes are also reported to enable stable cycling of lithium batteries paired with conventional intercalating cathodes. Our findings appear to provide an important step towards room-temperature dendrite-free batteries. PMID:26634644

  2. Room temperature manipulation of long lifetime spins in metallic-like carbon nanospheres

    PubMed Central

    Náfrádi, Bálint; Choucair, Mohammad; Dinse, Klaus-Peter; Forró, László

    2016-01-01

    The time-window for processing electron spin information (spintronics) in solid-state quantum electronic devices is determined by the spin–lattice and spin–spin relaxation times of electrons. Minimizing the effects of spin–orbit coupling and the local magnetic contributions of neighbouring atoms on spin–lattice and spin–spin relaxation times at room temperature remain substantial challenges to practical spintronics. Here we report conduction electron spin–lattice and spin–spin relaxation times of 175 ns at 300 K in 37±7 nm carbon spheres, which is remarkably long for any conducting solid-state material of comparable size. Following the observation of spin polarization by electron spin resonance, we control the quantum state of the electron spin by applying short bursts of an oscillating magnetic field and observe coherent oscillations of the spin state. These results demonstrate the feasibility of operating electron spins in conducting carbon nanospheres as quantum bits at room temperature. PMID:27426851

  3. Electrodrift purification of materials for room temperature radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    James, Ralph B.; Van Scyoc, III, John M.; Schlesinger, Tuviah E.

    1997-06-24

    A method of purifying nonmetallic, crystalline semiconducting materials useful for room temperature radiation detecting devices by applying an electric field across the material. The present invention discloses a simple technology for producing purified ionic semiconducting materials, in particular PbI.sub.2 and preferably HgI.sub.2, which produces high yields of purified product, requires minimal handling of the material thereby reducing the possibility of introducing or reintroducing impurities into the material, is easy to control, is highly selective for impurities, retains the stoichiometry of the material and employs neither high temperatures nor hazardous materials such as solvents or liquid metals. An electric field is applied to a bulk sample of the material causing impurities present in the sample to drift in a preferred direction. After all of the impurities have been transported to the ends of the sample the current flowing through the sample, a measure of the rate of transport of mobile impurities, falls to a low, steady state value, at which time the end sections of the sample where the impurities have concentrated are removed leaving a bulk sample of higher purity material. Because the method disclosed here only acts on the electrically active impurities, the stoichiometry of the host material remains substantially unaffected.

  4. Electrodrift purification of materials for room temperature radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    James, R.B.; Van Scyoc, J.M. III; Schlesinger, T.E.

    1997-06-24

    A method of purifying nonmetallic, crystalline semiconducting materials useful for room temperature radiation detecting devices by applying an electric field across the material is disclosed. The present invention discloses a simple technology for producing purified ionic semiconducting materials, in particular PbI{sub 2} and preferably HgI{sub 2}, which produces high yields of purified product, requires minimal handling of the material thereby reducing the possibility of introducing or reintroducing impurities into the material, is easy to control, is highly selective for impurities, retains the stoichiometry of the material and employs neither high temperatures nor hazardous materials such as solvents or liquid metals. An electric field is applied to a bulk sample of the material causing impurities present in the sample to drift in a preferred direction. After all of the impurities have been transported to the ends of the sample the current flowing through the sample, a measure of the rate of transport of mobile impurities, falls to a low, steady state value, at which time the end sections of the sample where the impurities have concentrated are removed leaving a bulk sample of higher purity material. Because the method disclosed here only acts on the electrically active impurities, the stoichiometry of the host material remains substantially unaffected. 4 figs.

  5. Robust isothermal electric control of exchange bias at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    He, X.; Vescovo, E.; Wang, Y.; Caruso, A.N.; Belashchenko, K.D.; Dowben, P.A.; Binek, C.

    2010-06-20

    Voltage-controlled spin electronics is crucial for continued progress in information technology. It aims at reduced power consumption, increased integration density and enhanced functionality where non-volatile memory is combined with high-speed logical processing. Promising spintronic device concepts use the electric control of interface and surface magnetization. From the combination of magnetometry, spin-polarized photoemission spectroscopy, symmetry arguments and first-principles calculations, we show that the (0001) surface of magnetoelectric Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} has a roughness-insensitive, electrically switchable magnetization. Using a ferromagnetic Pd/Co multilayer deposited on the (0001) surface of a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystal, we achieve reversible, room-temperature isothermal switching of the exchange-bias field between positive and negative values by reversing the electric field while maintaining a permanent magnetic field. This effect reflects the switching of the bulk antiferromagnetic domain state and the interface magnetization coupled to it. The switchable exchange bias sets in exactly at the bulk Neel temperature.

  6. Robust isothermal electric control of exchange bias at room temperature.

    PubMed

    He, Xi; Wang, Yi; Wu, Ning; Caruso, Anthony N; Vescovo, Elio; Belashchenko, Kirill D; Dowben, Peter A; Binek, Christian

    2010-07-01

    Voltage-controlled spin electronics is crucial for continued progress in information technology. It aims at reduced power consumption, increased integration density and enhanced functionality where non-volatile memory is combined with high-speed logical processing. Promising spintronic device concepts use the electric control of interface and surface magnetization. From the combination of magnetometry, spin-polarized photoemission spectroscopy, symmetry arguments and first-principles calculations, we show that the (0001) surface of magnetoelectric Cr(2)O(3) has a roughness-insensitive, electrically switchable magnetization. Using a ferromagnetic Pd/Co multilayer deposited on the (0001) surface of a Cr(2)O(3) single crystal, we achieve reversible, room-temperature isothermal switching of the exchange-bias field between positive and negative values by reversing the electric field while maintaining a permanent magnetic field. This effect reflects the switching of the bulk antiferromagnetic domain state and the interface magnetization coupled to it. The switchable exchange bias sets in exactly at the bulk Néel temperature.

  7. Engineering Room-temperature Superconductors Via ab-initio Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulian, Mamikon; Melkonyan, Gurgen; Gulian, Armen

    The BCS, or bosonic model of superconductivity, as Little and Ginzburg have first argued, can bring in superconductivity at room temperatures in the case of high-enough frequency of bosonic mode. It was further elucidated by Kirzhnitset al., that the condition for existence of high-temperature superconductivity is closely related to negative values of the real part of the dielectric function at finite values of the reciprocal lattice vectors. In view of these findings, the task is to calculate the dielectric function for real materials. Then the poles of this function will indicate the existence of bosonic excitations which can serve as a "glue" for Cooper pairing, and if the frequency is high enough, and the dielectric matrix is simultaneously negative, this material is a good candidate for very high-Tc superconductivity. Thus, our approach is to elaborate a methodology of ab-initio calculation of the dielectric function of various materials, and then point out appropriate candidates. We used the powerful codes (TDDF with the DP package in conjunction with ABINIT) for computing dielectric responses at finite values of the wave vectors in the reciprocal lattice space. Though our report is concerned with the particular problem of superconductivity, the application range of the data processing methodology is much wider. The ability to compute the dielectric function of existing and still non-existing (though being predicted!) materials will have many more repercussions not only in fundamental sciences but also in technology and industry.

  8. A computed room temperature line list for phosphine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa-Silva, Clara; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2013-06-01

    An accurate and comprehensive room temperature rotation-vibration transition line list for phosphine (31PH3) is computed using a newly refined potential energy surface and a previously constructed ab initio electric dipole moment surface. Energy levels, Einstein A coefficients and transition intensities are computed using these surfaces and a variational approach to the nuclear motion problem as implemented in the program TROVE. A ro-vibrational spectrum is computed, covering the wavenumber range 0-8000 cm-1. The resulting line list, which is appropriate for temperatures up to 300 K, consists of a total of 137 million transitions between 5.6 million energy levels. Several of the band centres are shifted to better match experimental transition frequencies. The line list is compared to the most recent HITRAN database and other laboratorial sources. Transition wavelengths and intensities are generally found to be in good agreement with the existing experimental data, with particularly close agreement for the rotational spectrum. An analysis of the comparison between the theoretical data created and the existing experimental data is performed, and suggestions for future improvements and assignments to the HITRAN database are made.

  9. New Flexible Channels for Room Temperature Tunneling Field Effect Transistors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hao, Boyi; Asthana, Anjana; Hazaveh, Paniz Khanmohammadi; Bergstrom, Paul L.; Banyai, Douglas; Savaikar, Madhusudan A.; Jaszczak, John A.; Yap, Yoke Khin

    2016-02-05

    Tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs) have been proposed to overcome the fundamental issues of Si based transistors, such as short channel effect, finite leakage current, and high contact resistance. Unfortunately, most if not all TFETs are operational only at cryogenic temperatures. Here we report that iron (Fe) quantum dots functionalized boron nitride nanotubes (QDs-BNNTs) can be used as the flexible tunneling channels of TFETs at room temperatures. The electrical insulating BNNTs are used as the one-dimensional (1D) substrates to confine the uniform formation of Fe QDs on their surface as the flexible tunneling channel. Consistent semiconductor-like transport behaviors under variousmore » bending conditions are detected by scanning tunneling spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscopy system (insitu STM-TEM). Ultimately, as suggested by computer simulation, the uniform distribution of Fe QDs enable an averaging effect on the possible electron tunneling pathways, which is responsible for the consistent transport properties that are not sensitive to bending.« less

  10. Silicene field-effect transistors operating at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Li; Cinquanta, Eugenio; Chiappe, Daniele; Grazianetti, Carlo; Fanciulli, Marco; Dubey, Madan; Molle, Alessandro; Akinwande, Deji

    2015-03-01

    Free-standing silicene, a silicon analogue of graphene, has a buckled honeycomb lattice and, because of its Dirac bandstructure combined with its sensitive surface, offers the potential for a widely tunable two-dimensional monolayer, where external fields and interface interactions can be exploited to influence fundamental properties such as bandgap and band character for future nanoelectronic devices. The quantum spin Hall effect, chiral superconductivity, giant magnetoresistance and various exotic field-dependent states have been predicted in monolayer silicene. Despite recent progress regarding the epitaxial synthesis of silicene and investigation of its electronic properties, to date there has been no report of experimental silicene devices because of its air stability issue. Here, we report a silicene field-effect transistor, corroborating theoretical expectations regarding its ambipolar Dirac charge transport, with a measured room-temperature mobility of ˜100 cm2 V-1 s-1 attributed to acoustic phonon-limited transport and grain boundary scattering. These results are enabled by a growth-transfer-fabrication process that we have devised—silicene encapsulated delamination with native electrodes. This approach addresses a major challenge for material preservation of silicene during transfer and device fabrication and is applicable to other air-sensitive two-dimensional materials such as germanene and phosphorene. Silicene's allotropic affinity with bulk silicon and its low-temperature synthesis compared with graphene or alternative two-dimensional semiconductors suggest a more direct integration with ubiquitous semiconductor technology.

  11. Investigation of Room temperature Ferromagnetism in Mn doped Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colakerol Arslan, Leyla; Toydemir, Burcu; Onel, Aykut Can; Ertas, Merve; Doganay, Hatice; Gebze Inst of Tech Collaboration; Research Center Julich Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    We present a systematic investigation of structural, magnetic and electronic properties of MnxGe1 -x single crystals. MnxGe1-x films were grown by sequential deposition of Ge and Mn by molecular-beam epitaxy at low substrate temperatures in order to avoid precipitation of ferromagnetic Ge-Mn intermetallic compounds. Reflected high energy electron diffraction and x-ray diffraction observations revealed that films are epitaxially grown on Si (001) substrates from the initial stage without any other phase formation. Magnetic measurements carried out using a physical property measurement system showed that all samples exhibited ferromagnetism at room temperature. Electron spin resonance indicates the presence of magnetically ordered localized spins of divalent Mn ions. X-ray absorption measurements at the Mn L-edge confirm significant substitutional doping of Mn into Ge-sites. The ferromagnetism was mainly induced by Mn substitution for Ge site, and indirect exchange interaction of these magnetic ions with the intrinsic charge carriers is the origin of ferromagnetism. The magnetic interactions were better understood by codoping with nonmagnetic impurities. This work was supported by Marie-Curie Reintegration Grant (PIRG08-GA-2010-276973).

  12. New Flexible Channels for Room Temperature Tunneling Field Effect Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Boyi; Asthana, Anjana; Hazaveh, Paniz Khanmohammadi; Bergstrom, Paul L.; Banyai, Douglas; Savaikar, Madhusudan A.; Jaszczak, John A.; Yap, Yoke Khin

    2016-01-01

    Tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs) have been proposed to overcome the fundamental issues of Si based transistors, such as short channel effect, finite leakage current, and high contact resistance. Unfortunately, most if not all TFETs are operational only at cryogenic temperatures. Here we report that iron (Fe) quantum dots functionalized boron nitride nanotubes (QDs-BNNTs) can be used as the flexible tunneling channels of TFETs at room temperatures. The electrical insulating BNNTs are used as the one-dimensional (1D) substrates to confine the uniform formation of Fe QDs on their surface as the flexible tunneling channel. Consistent semiconductor-like transport behaviors under various bending conditions are detected by scanning tunneling spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscopy system (in-situ STM-TEM). As suggested by computer simulation, the uniform distribution of Fe QDs enable an averaging effect on the possible electron tunneling pathways, which is responsible for the consistent transport properties that are not sensitive to bending. PMID:26846587

  13. Silicene field-effect transistors operating at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Tao, Li; Cinquanta, Eugenio; Chiappe, Daniele; Grazianetti, Carlo; Fanciulli, Marco; Dubey, Madan; Molle, Alessandro; Akinwande, Deji

    2015-03-01

    Free-standing silicene, a silicon analogue of graphene, has a buckled honeycomb lattice and, because of its Dirac bandstructure combined with its sensitive surface, offers the potential for a widely tunable two-dimensional monolayer, where external fields and interface interactions can be exploited to influence fundamental properties such as bandgap and band character for future nanoelectronic devices. The quantum spin Hall effect, chiral superconductivity, giant magnetoresistance and various exotic field-dependent states have been predicted in monolayer silicene. Despite recent progress regarding the epitaxial synthesis of silicene and investigation of its electronic properties, to date there has been no report of experimental silicene devices because of its air stability issue. Here, we report a silicene field-effect transistor, corroborating theoretical expectations regarding its ambipolar Dirac charge transport, with a measured room-temperature mobility of ∼100 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) attributed to acoustic phonon-limited transport and grain boundary scattering. These results are enabled by a growth-transfer-fabrication process that we have devised--silicene encapsulated delamination with native electrodes. This approach addresses a major challenge for material preservation of silicene during transfer and device fabrication and is applicable to other air-sensitive two-dimensional materials such as germanene and phosphorene. Silicene's allotropic affinity with bulk silicon and its low-temperature synthesis compared with graphene or alternative two-dimensional semiconductors suggest a more direct integration with ubiquitous semiconductor technology.

  14. Reversible oxygen scavenging at room temperature using electrochemically reduced titanium oxide nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Thomas; Tulsyan, Gaurav; Diaz, Carlos A.; Weinstein, Steven J.; Richter, Christiaan

    2015-05-01

    A material capable of rapid, reversible molecular oxygen uptake at room temperature is desirable for gas separation and sensing, for technologies that require oxygen storage and oxygen splitting such as fuel cells (solid-oxide fuel cells in particular) and for catalytic applications that require reduced oxygen species (such as removal of organic pollutants in water and oil-spill remediation). To date, however, the lowest reported temperature for a reversible oxygen uptake material is in the range of 200-300 °C, achieved in the transition metal oxides SrCoOx (ref. 1) and LuFe2O4+x (ref. 2) via thermal cycling. Here, we report rapid and reversible oxygen scavenging by TiO2-x nanotubes at room temperature. The uptake and release of oxygen is accomplished by an electrochemical rather than a standard thermal approach. We measure an oxygen uptake rate as high as 14 mmol O2 g-1 min-1, ˜2,400 times greater than commercial, irreversible oxygen scavengers. Such a fast oxygen uptake at a remarkably low temperature suggests a non-typical mechanistic pathway for the re-oxidation of TiO2-x. Modelling the diffusion of oxygen, we show that a likely pathway involves ‘exceptionally mobile’ interstitial oxygen produced by the oxygen adsorption and decomposition dynamics, recently observed on the surface of anatase.

  15. MTR, TRA603. BASEMENT DECONTAMINATION ROOM DETAILS. WALLS OF SOLID CONCRETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. BASEMENT DECONTAMINATION ROOM DETAILS. WALLS OF SOLID CONCRETE MASONRY. STAINLESS STEEL WORK BENCH, FLOOR COVING AND DRAINS. "WARM" FLOOR DRAIN. OVERHEAD SHOWER WITH CHAIN PULL. IDO MTR-603-IDO-4, 12/1952. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-396-110468, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. AW-101 entrained solids - Solubility versus temperature

    SciTech Connect

    GJ Lumetta; RC Lettau; GF Piepel

    2000-03-31

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the solubility of the solids entrained in the diluted AW-101 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. BNFL requested Battelle to dilute the AW-1-1 sample using de-ionized water to mimic expected plant operating conditions. BNFL further requested Battelle to assess the solubility of the solids present in the diluted AW-101 sample versus temperature conditions of 30, 40, and 50 C. BNFL requested these tests to assess the composition of the LAW supernatant and solids versus expected plant-operating conditions. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-7, Rev. 0, Determination of the Solubility of LAW Entrained Solids. The test went according to plan, with no deviations from the test plan.

  17. Effect of Temperature Cycling and Exposure to Extreme Temperatures on Reliability of Solid Tantalum Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    In this work, results of multiple temperature cycling (TC) (up to 1,000 cycles) of different types of solid tantalum capacitors are analyzed and reported. Deformation of chip tantalum during temperature variations simulating reflow soldering conditions was measured to evaluate the possibility of the pop-corning effect in the parts. To simulate the effect of short-time exposures to solder reflow temperatures on the reliability of tantalum capacitors, several part types were subjected to multiple cycles (up to 100) between room temperature and 240 C with periodical measurements of electrical characteristics of the parts. Mechanisms of degradation caused by temperature cycling and exposure to high temperatures, and the requirements of MIL-PRF-55365 for assessment of the resistance of the parts to soldering heat are discussed.

  18. Improved x-ray spectroscopy with room temperature CZT detectors.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Shannon G; Shikhaliev, Polad M; Matthews, Kenneth L

    2011-09-01

    Compact, room temperature x-ray spectroscopy detectors are of interest in many areas including diagnostic x-ray imaging, radiation protection and dosimetry. Room temperature cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) semiconductor detectors are promising candidates for these applications. One of the major problems for CZT detectors is low-energy tailing of the energy spectrum due to hole trapping. Spectral post-correction methods to correct the tailing effect do not work well for a number of reasons; thus it is advisable to eliminate the hole trapping effect in CZT using physical methods rather than correcting an already deteriorated energy spectrum. One method is using a CZT detector with an electrode configuration which modifies the electric field in the CZT volume to decrease low-energy tailing. Another method is to irradiate the CZT surface at a tilted angle, which modifies depth of interaction to decrease low-energy tailing. Neither method alone, however, eliminates the tailing effect. In this work, we have investigated the combination of modified electric field and tilted angle irradiation in a single detector to further decrease spectral tailing. A planar CZT detector with 10 × 10 × 3 mm³ size and CZT detector with 5 × 5 × 5 mm³ size and cap-shaped electrode were used in this study. The cap-shaped electrode (referred to as CAPture technology) modifies the electric field distribution in the CZT volume and decreases the spectral tailing effect. The detectors were investigated at 90° (normal) and 30° (tilted angle) irradiation modes. Two isotope sources with 59.6 and 122 keV photon energies were used for gamma-ray spectroscopy experiments. X-ray spectroscopy was performed using collimated beams at 60, 80 and 120 kVp tube voltages, in both normal and tilted angle irradiation. Measured x-ray spectra were corrected for K x-ray escape fractions that were calculated using Monte Carlo methods. The x-ray spectra measured with tilted angle CAPture detector at 60, 80 and 120

  19. Quasi-Solid Electrolytes for High Temperature Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kalaga, Kaushik; Rodrigues, Marco-Tulio F; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Babu, Ganguli; Arava, Leela Mohana Reddy; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2015-11-25

    Rechargeable batteries capable of operating at high temperatures have significant use in various targeted applications. Expanding the thermal stability of current lithium ion batteries requires replacing the electrolyte and separators with stable alternatives. Since solid-state electrolytes do not have a good electrode interface, we report here the development of a new class of quasi-solid-state electrolytes, which have the structural stability of a solid and the wettability of a liquid. Microflakes of clay particles drenched in a solution of lithiated room temperature ionic liquid forming a quasi-solid system has been demonstrated to have structural stability until 355 °C. With an ionic conductivity of ∼3.35 mS cm(-1), the composite electrolyte has been shown to deliver stable electrochemical performance at 120 °C, and a rechargeable lithium battery with Li4Ti5O12 electrode has been tested to deliver reliable capacity for over several cycles of charge-discharge.

  20. New layered metal oxides as positive electrode materials for room-temperature sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Lin-Qin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Chen, Li-Quan

    2015-03-01

    In order to achieve better Na storage performance, most layered oxide positive electrode materials contain toxic and expensive transition metals Ni and/or Co, which are also widely used for lithium-ion batteries. Here we report a new quaternary layered oxide consisting of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Ti transition metals with O3-type oxygen stacking as a positive electrode for room-temperature sodium-ion batteries. The material can be simply prepared by a high-temperature solid-state reaction route and delivers a reversible capacity of 94 mAh/g with an average storage voltage of 3.2 V. This paves the way for cheaper and non-toxic batteries with high Na storage performance. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51222210 and 11234013) and the One Hundred Talent Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Non-magnetic organic/inorganic spin injector at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Shinto P.; Mondal, Prakash Chandra; Naaman, Ron; Moshe, Hagay; Mastai, Yitzhak

    2014-12-15

    Spin injection into solid-state devices is commonly performed by use of ferromagnetic metal electrodes. Here, we present a spin injector design without permanent magnet; rather, the spin selectivity is determined by a chiral tunneling barrier. The chiral tunneling barrier is composed of an ultrathin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer that is deposited on top of a chiral self-assembled monolayer (SAM), which consists of cysteine or oligopeptide molecules. The experimentally observed magnetoresistance can be up to 20% at room temperature, and it displays an uncommon asymmetric curve as a function of the applied magnetic field. These findings show that the spin injector transmits only one spin orientation, independent of external magnetic field. The sign of the magnetoresistance depends on the handedness of the molecules in the SAM, which act as a spin filter, and the magnitude of the magnetoresistance depends only weakly on temperature.

  2. Secondary calcium solid electrolyte high temperature battery

    SciTech Connect

    Sammells, A.F.; Schumacher, B.

    1986-01-01

    The authors report on recent work directed towards determining the viability of polycrystalline Ca/sup 2 +/ conducting ..beta..''-alumina solid electrolytes as the basis for a new type of high temperature battery. In this battery system the negative electrode consisted of a calcium-silicon alloy whose redox electro-chemistry was mediated to the calcium conducting solid electrolyte via the use of the molten salt eutectic CaCl/sub 2/ (51.4/sup M//0), CaI/sub 2/ (mp 550/sup 0/C). Both the molten salt and the calcium-alloy negative active material were separated from the positive active material via the Ca/sup 2 +/ conducting polycrystalline solid electrolyte. The positive electrode consisted of a solid-state matrix having a somewhat related crystallographic structure to Ca/sup 2 +/ ..beta..''-alumina, but where a significant fraction of the A1/sup 3 +/ sites located within this solid electrolyte's spinel block were replaced by immobile transition metal species. These species were available for participating in solid-state redox electrochemistry upon electrochemical cell cycling.

  3. Room temperature semiconductor detectors for hard x-ray astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Ann M.; Stahle, Carl M.; Lisse, Casey M.; Babu, Sachi; Gehrels, Neil A.; Teegarden, Bonnard J.; Shu, Peter K.

    1994-09-01

    Room temperature cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) and mercuric iodide (HgI2) semiconductor hard X-ray detectors are currently being evaluated at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for use in future balloon and satellite applications. PoRTIA, a small engineering prototype hard X-ray (20 - 150 keV) balloon instrument will contain both a CdZnTe and a HgI2 detector, each 6.5 cm2 x .15 - .2 cm and sharing the same 5 degree(s) field-of-view. PoRTIA will be launched from Alice Springs, Australia in the Spring of 1995 as a piggyback instrument aboard the GRIS balloon payload. PoRTIA will provide valuable information about detector efficiency, durability and material dependent detector background components at balloon altitudes as it observes the Crab Nebula. In addition, a CdZnTe research and development program has been initiated to develop the capability to produce improved CdZnTe detectors for astrophysics applications. The work at Goddard continues in an effort to develop CdZnTe detectors with improvements in electronics, contacts and packaging methods.

  4. Gradient Limitations in Room Temperature and Superconducting Acceleration Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Solyak, N. A.

    2009-01-22

    Accelerating gradient is a key parameter of the accelerating structure in large linac facilities, like future Linear Collider. In room temperature accelerating structures the gradient is limited mostly by breakdown phenomena, caused by high surface electric fields or pulse surface heating. High power processing is a necessary procedure to clean surface and improve the gradient. In the best tested X-band structures the achieved gradient is exceed 100 MV/m in of {approx}200 ns pulses for breakdown rate of {approx}10{sup -7}. Gradient limit depends on number of factors and no one theory which can explain all sets of experimental results and predict gradient in new accelerating structure. In paper we briefly overview the recent experimental results of breakdown studies, progress in understanding of gradient limitations and scaling laws. Although superconducting rf technology has been adopted throughout the world for ILC, it has frequently been difficult to reach the predicted performance in these structures due to a number of factors: multipactoring, field emission, Q-slope, thermal breakdown. In paper we are discussing all these phenomena and the ways to increase accelerating gradient in SC cavity, which are a part of worldwide R and D program.

  5. Gradient limitations in room temperature and superconducting acceleration structures

    SciTech Connect

    Solyak, N.A.; /Fermilab

    2008-10-01

    Accelerating gradient is a key parameter of the accelerating structure in large linac facilities, like future Linear Collider. In room temperature accelerating structures the gradient is limited mostly by breakdown phenomena, caused by high surface electric fields or pulse surface heating. High power processing is a necessary procedure to clean surface and improve the gradient. In the best tested X-band structures the achieved gradient is exceed 100 MV/m in of {approx}200 ns pulses for breakdown rate of {approx} 10{sup -7}. Gradient limit depends on number of factors and no one theory which can explain all sets of experimental results and predict gradient in new accelerating structure. In paper we briefly overview the recent experimental results of breakdown studies, progress in understanding of gradient limitations and scaling laws. Although superconducting rf technology has been adopted throughout the world for ILC, it has frequently been difficult to reach the predicted performance in these structures due to a number of factors: multipactoring, field emission, Q-slope, thermal breakdown. In paper we are discussing all these phenomena and the ways to increase accelerating gradient in SC cavity, which are a part of worldwide R&D program.

  6. Proactive aquatic ecotoxicological assessment of room-temperature ionic liquids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulacki, K.J.; Chaloner, D.T.; Larson, J.H.; Costello, D.M.; Evans-White, M. A.; Docherty, K.M.; Bernot, R.J.; Brueseke, M.A.; Kulpa, C.F.; Lamberti, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic environments are being contaminated with a myriad of anthropogenic chemicals, a problem likely to continue due to both unintentional and intentional releases. To protect valuable natural resources, novel chemicals should be shown to be environmentally safe prior to use and potential release into the environment. Such proactive assessment is currently being applied to room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs). Because most ILs are water-soluble, their effects are likely to manifest in aquatic ecosystems. Information on the impacts of ILs on numerous aquatic organisms, focused primarily on acute LC50 and EC50 endpoints, is now available, and trends in toxicity are emerging. Cation structure tends to influence IL toxicity more so than anion structure, and within a cation class, the length of alkyl chain substituents is positively correlated with toxicity. While the effects of ILs on several aquatic organisms have been studied, the challenge for aquatic toxicology is now to predict the effects of ILs in complex natural environments that often include diverse mixtures of organisms, abiotic conditions, and additional stressors. To make robust predictions about ILs will require coupling of ecologically realistic laboratory and field experiments with standard toxicity bioassays and models. Such assessments would likely discourage the development of especially toxic ILs while shifting focus to those that are more environmentally benign. Understanding the broader ecological effects of emerging chemicals, incorporating that information into predictive models, and conveying the conclusions to those who develop, regulate, and use those chemicals, should help avoid future environmental degradation. ?? 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

  7. High-power room-temperature-operated CO laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Kouki; Taniwaki, Manabu; Sato, Shunichi; Kumagai, Mikio; Takashima, Yoich; Naito, Yasuhiro; Nagano, Hiroshi; Hasuike, Toru

    2000-04-01

    The objectives of this study are to achieve high-power, efficient operation of a room-temperature CO laser and to collect data for designing the CO laser system for nuclear reactor decommissioning. The influence of the H2O concentration in the laser gas on the output performance was investigated, and it was found that the H2O concentration should be kept as low as possible (less than 260 ppm) to obtain stable, high-power outputs. To improve output performance, the rf frequency was increased from 13.56 MHz to 27.12 MHz. The output power for the 27.12 MHz excitation was increased by 10 to 20% compared with that for the 13.56 MHz excitation. The laser output was scaled by extending the discharge tube inner diameter from 19 mm to 30 mm. By optimizing the air gap length and the curvature radius of the outer metallic electrode, the operating gas conditions, and the reflectivity of the output coupler, a maximum output of 830 W was obtained at a laser efficiency of 12.2% with adding neither Kr nor Xe. The addition of Kr was more effective for increasing the output than the addition of Xe. A maximum output of 910 W was obtained at a laser efficiency of 14.8% with Kr addition, and a maximum output of 810 W was obtained at a laser efficiency of 16.2% with Xe addition.

  8. Realization of Ground State Artificial Skyrmion Lattices at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Dustin A.; Maranville, Brian B.; Balk, Andrew J.; Kirby, Brian J.; Pierce, Daniel T.; Unguris, John; Borchers, Julie A.; Fischer, Peter; Liu, Kai

    Artificial skyrmion lattices stable at ambient conditions offer a convenient and powerful platform to explore skyrmion physics and topological phenomena and motivates their inclusion in next-generation data and logic devices. In this work we present direct experimental evidence of artificial skyrmion lattices with a stable ground state at room temperature. Our approach is to pattern vortex-state Co nanodots (560 nm diameter) in hexagonal arrays on top of a Co/Pd multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy; the skyrmion state is prepared using a specific magnetic field sequence. Ion irradiation has been employed to suppress PMA in the underlayer and allow imprinting of the vortex structure from the nanodots to form skyrmion lattices, as revealed by polarized neutron reflectometry. Circularity control is realized through Co dot shape asymmetry, and confirmed by microscopy and FORC magnetometry. The vortex polarity is set during the field sequence and confirmed by magnetometry. Spin-transport studies further demonstrate a sensitivity to the skyrmion spin texture.Work supported by NSF (DMR-1008791, ECCS-1232275 and DMR-1543582)

  9. Microstructure of room temperature ionic liquids at stepped graphite electrodes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Feng, Guang; Li, Song; Zhao, Wei; Cummings, Peter T.

    2015-07-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) [emim][TFSI] at stepped graphite electrodes were performed to investigate the influence of the thickness of the electrode surface step on the microstructure of interfacial RTILs. A strong correlation was observed between the interfacial RTIL structure and the step thickness in electrode surface as well as the ion size. Specifically, when the step thickness is commensurate with ion size, the interfacial layering of cation/anion is more evident; whereas, the layering tends to be less defined when the step thickness is close to the half of ion size. Furthermore, two-dimensional microstructure of ionmore » layers exhibits different patterns and alignments of counter-ion/co-ion lattice at neutral and charged electrodes. As the cation/anion layering could impose considerable effects on ion diffusion, the detailed information of interfacial RTILs at stepped graphite presented here would help to understand the molecular mechanism of RTIL-electrode interfaces in supercapacitors.« less

  10. Giant single-molecule anisotropic magnetoresistance at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-Jun; Bai, Mei-Lin; Chen, Zhao-Bin; Zhou, Xiao-Shun; Shi, Zhan; Zhang, Meng; Ding, Song-Yuan; Hou, Shi-Min; Schwarzacher, Walther; Nichols, Richard J; Mao, Bing-Wei

    2015-05-13

    We report an electrochemically assisted jump-to-contact scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) break junction approach to create reproducible and well-defined single-molecule spintronic junctions. The STM break junction is equipped with an external magnetic field either parallel or perpendicular to the electron transport direction. The conductance of Fe-terephthalic acid (TPA)-Fe single-molecule junctions is measured and a giant single-molecule tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (T-AMR) up to 53% is observed at room temperature. Theoretical calculations based on first-principles quantum simulations show that the observed AMR of Fe-TPA-Fe junctions originates from electronic coupling at the TPA-Fe interfaces modified by the magnetic orientation of the Fe electrodes with respect to the direction of current flow. The present study highlights new opportunities for obtaining detailed understanding of mechanisms of charge and spin transport in molecular junctions and the role of interfaces in determining the MR of single-molecule junctions. PMID:25894840

  11. Room-temperature luminescence from kaolin induced by organic amines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyne, L. M.; Kloepping, R.; Pollack, G.

    1984-01-01

    Several new, room-temperature luminescent phenomena, resulting from the interaction of kaolin and various amino compounds, have been observed. The emission of light from kaolin pastes (treated with quinoline, pyridine, hydrazine, monoethanolamine, n-butylamine, and piperidine) was shown to decay monotonically over a period of hours to days. More light was released by a given amino compound after it was dried and purified. Hydrazine, in addition to the monotonically decaying photon release, produces delayed pulses of light with peak emission wavelength of 365 nm which last between several hours and several days. These photon bursts are acutely sensitive to the initial dryness of the hydrazine, both in the number of bursts and the integrated photon output. The amount of light and the capacity of the kaolin to produce the delayed burst appeared to be strongly dependent on preliminary heating and on gamma-irradiation, analogous to the dehydration-induced light pulse previously reported from the Ames Research Center. A small, delayed burst of photons occurred when piperidine and n-butylamine were removed by evaporation into an H2SO4 reservoir.

  12. Controlled synthesis of pentagonal gold nanotubes at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yingpu; Lu, Gongxuan

    2008-07-01

    Large quantities of pentagonal gold nanotubes have been synthesized by reducing chloroauric acid with silver nanowires in an aqueous solution of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at room temperature. These gold nanotubes possess perfect structures, smooth surfaces, highly crystalline walls, and similar cross-sections to that of the silver template. In this process, the CTAB participation was found to be crucial for shape-controlled synthesis of pentagonal gold nanotubes. In the absence of CTAB, loose and hollow gold structures were routinely generated, while bundled gold nanotubes with rough surfaces were obtained by replacing the CTAB with poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). The possible formation mechanism of pentagonal gold nanotubes has also been discussed on the basis of various growth stages studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images. In addition, the catalytic properties of these hollow nanostructures for hydrogen generation reaction from HCHO solution have also been investigated. They showed higher activity than that of spherical gold nanoparticles. PMID:21828702

  13. Water-driven structure transformation in nanoparticles at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hengzhong; Gilbert, Benjamin; Huang, Feng; Banfield, Jillian F

    2003-08-28

    The thermodynamic behaviour of small particles differs from that of the bulk material by the free energy term gammaA--the product of the surface (or interfacial) free energy and the surface (or interfacial) area. When the surfaces of polymorphs of the same material possess different interfacial free energies, a change in phase stability can occur with decreasing particle size. Here we describe a nanoparticle system that undergoes structural changes in response to changes in the surface environment rather than particle size. ZnS nanoparticles (average diameter 3 nm) were synthesized in methanol and found to exhibit a reversible structural transformation accompanying methanol desorption, indicating that the particles readily adopt minimum energy structural configurations. The binding of water to the as-formed particles at room temperature leads to a dramatic structural modification, significantly reducing distortions of the surface and interior to generate a structure close to that of sphalerite (tetrahedrally coordinated cubic ZnS). These findings suggest a route for post-synthesis control of nanoparticle structure and the potential use of the nanoparticle structural state as an environmental sensor. Furthermore, the results imply that the structure and reactivity of nanoparticles at planetary surfaces, in interplanetary dust and in the biosphere, will depend on both particle size and the nature of the surrounding molecules. PMID:12944961

  14. Room temperature molten salt as medium for lithium battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Y. S.; Zhou, R. Q.

    Due to the wide electrochemical window and high ionic conductivity, the 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (MeEtImCl) room temperature molten salt (RTMS) was investigated as the medium for lithium battery in the present work. The addition of C 6H 5SO 2Cl to the RTMS was shown to improve its chemical stability and the reversibility of the lithium electrode because of the removal of Al 2Cl 7- from the melt. Electrochemical reaction which occurred at the LiCoO 2 was studied and the carbon current collector was found to interact with the melt. Out of the various carbon materials studied, graphite was found to be the best material. A LiAl/LiCoO 2 battery using RTMS as the electrolyte was assembled for battery test. Satisfactory results were obtained in preliminary cycling, showing a cell voltage of 3.45 V with better than 90% coulombic efficiency and a discharging capacity of 112 mA h/g LiCoO 2 at current density of 1 mA/cm 2.

  15. Room-temperature in situ nuclear spin hyperpolarization from optically pumped nitrogen vacancy centres in diamond

    SciTech Connect

    King, Jonathan P.; Jeong, Keunhong; Vassiliou, Christophoros C.; Shin, Chang S.; Page, Ralph H.; Avalos, Claudia E.; Wang, Hai-Jing; Pines, Alexander

    2015-12-07

    Low detection sensitivity stemming from the weak polarization of nuclear spins is a primary limitation of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. Methods have been developed to enhance nuclear spin polarization but they typically require high magnetic fields, cryogenic temperatures or sample transfer between magnets. Here we report bulk, room-temperature hyperpolarization of 13C nuclear spins observed via high-field magnetic resonance. The technique harnesses the high optically induced spin polarization of diamond nitrogen vacancy centres at room temperature in combination with dynamic nuclear polarization. We observe bulk nuclear spin polarization of 6%, an enhancement of ~170,000 over thermal equilibrium. The signal of the hyperpolarized spins was detected in situ with a standard nuclear magnetic resonance probe without the need for sample shuttling or precise crystal orientation. In conclusion, hyperpolarization via optical pumping/dynamic nuclear polarization should function at arbitrary magnetic fields enabling orders of magnitude sensitivity enhancement for nuclear magnetic resonance of solids and liquids under ambient conditions.

  16. Room-temperature in situ nuclear spin hyperpolarization from optically pumped nitrogen vacancy centres in diamond

    DOE PAGESBeta

    King, Jonathan P.; Jeong, Keunhong; Vassiliou, Christophoros C.; Shin, Chang S.; Page, Ralph H.; Avalos, Claudia E.; Wang, Hai-Jing; Pines, Alexander

    2015-12-07

    Low detection sensitivity stemming from the weak polarization of nuclear spins is a primary limitation of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. Methods have been developed to enhance nuclear spin polarization but they typically require high magnetic fields, cryogenic temperatures or sample transfer between magnets. Here we report bulk, room-temperature hyperpolarization of 13C nuclear spins observed via high-field magnetic resonance. The technique harnesses the high optically induced spin polarization of diamond nitrogen vacancy centres at room temperature in combination with dynamic nuclear polarization. We observe bulk nuclear spin polarization of 6%, an enhancement of ~170,000 over thermal equilibrium. The signal ofmore » the hyperpolarized spins was detected in situ with a standard nuclear magnetic resonance probe without the need for sample shuttling or precise crystal orientation. In conclusion, hyperpolarization via optical pumping/dynamic nuclear polarization should function at arbitrary magnetic fields enabling orders of magnitude sensitivity enhancement for nuclear magnetic resonance of solids and liquids under ambient conditions.« less

  17. Instantaneous radioiodination of rose bengal at room temperature and a cold kit therefor

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, Jr., Harold A.; Hupf, Homer B.; Wanek, Philip M.

    1981-01-01

    The disclosure relates to the radioiodination of rose bengal at room temperature and a cold-kit therefor. A purified rose bengal tablet is stirred into acidified ethanol at or near room temperature, until a suspension forms. Reductant-free .sup.125 I.sup.- is added and the resulting mixture stands until the exchange label reaction occurs at room temperature. A solution of sterile isotonic phosphate buffer and sodium hydroxide is added and the final resulting mixture is sterilized by filtration.

  18. 40 CFR Table B-4 to Subpart B of... - Line Voltage and Room Temperature Test Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Line Voltage and Room Temperature Test... B-4 Table B-4 to Subpart B of Part 53—Line Voltage and Room Temperature Test Conditions Test day... Temperatures shall be controlled to ± 1 °C....

  19. Room temperature single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Comandar, L. C.; Patel, K. A.; Fröhlich, B. Lucamarini, M.; Sharpe, A. W.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Shields, A. J.; Penty, R. V.

    2014-01-13

    We report room temperature operation of telecom wavelength single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution (QKD). Room temperature operation is achieved using InGaAs avalanche photodiodes integrated with electronics based on the self-differencing technique that increases avalanche discrimination sensitivity. Despite using room temperature detectors, we demonstrate QKD with record secure bit rates over a range of fiber lengths (e.g., 1.26 Mbit/s over 50 km). Furthermore, our results indicate that operating the detectors at room temperature increases the secure bit rate for short distances.

  20. Secondary calcium solid electrolyte high temperature battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammells, A. F.; Schumacher, B.

    1986-01-01

    The application of polycrystalline Ca(2+) conducting beta-double prime alumina solid electrolytes to a new type of high temperature battery is investigated, experimentally. The negative electrode in the battery consisted of a calcium-silicon alloy whose redox electrochemistry was mediated by the solid electrolyte via molten salt eutectic CaCl2 (51.4 m/o), and CaI2 (mp 550 C). The molten salt and the calcium alloy material were separated from the positive active material via the Ca2 Ca(2+) conducting polycrystalline electrolyte. The positive electrode consisted of a solid-state matrix having related crystallographic structure. The electrochemical reversibility of the cells was measured at 580 C. The charge-discharge characteristics of the cells are plotted vs. time in a graph.

  1. Room temperature magnetocaloric effect of La-deficient bulk perovskite manganite La 0.7MnO 3- δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiming; Xu, Qingyu; Sun, Jingzhi; Pan, Jian; Zhang, He

    2011-04-01

    Room temperature magnetocaloric effect in La-deficient bulk perovskite manganite La 0.7MnO 3- δ prepared by conventional solid-state reaction has been reported. The maximum value of the magnetic entropy change (about-1.32 J/kg K) and the refrigerant capacity (approximately close to 37 J/kg) had been obtained at 290 K corresponding to a magnetic field variation of 1 T for La 0.7MnO 3- δ. It is the strong Jahn-Teller coupling that changes Mn-O bond length and Mn-O-Mn bond angles and then the canted spin arrangement and induces the strong double-exchange coupling to a comparatively high magnetic transition temperature. This Curie temperature near room temperature with easy fabrication and higher chemical stability makes La 0.7MnO 3- δ a potential candidate as a working substance in magnetic refrigeration technology.

  2. Room-temperature macromolecular serial crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    PubMed Central

    Stellato, Francesco; Oberthür, Dominik; Liang, Mengning; Bean, Richard; Gati, Cornelius; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Barty, Anton; Burkhardt, Anja; Fischer, Pontus; Galli, Lorenzo; Kirian, Richard A.; Meyer, Jan; Panneerselvam, Saravanan; Yoon, Chun Hong; Chervinskii, Fedor; Speller, Emily; White, Thomas A.; Betzel, Christian; Meents, Alke; Chapman, Henry N.

    2014-01-01

    A new approach for collecting data from many hundreds of thousands of microcrystals using X-ray pulses from a free-electron laser has recently been developed. Referred to as serial crystallography, diffraction patterns are recorded at a constant rate as a suspension of protein crystals flows across the path of an X-ray beam. Events that by chance contain single-crystal diffraction patterns are retained, then indexed and merged to form a three-dimensional set of reflection intensities for structure determination. This approach relies upon several innovations: an intense X-ray beam; a fast detector system; a means to rapidly flow a suspension of crystals across the X-ray beam; and the computational infrastructure to process the large volume of data. Originally conceived for radiation-damage-free measurements with ultrafast X-ray pulses, the same methods can be employed with synchrotron radiation. As in powder diffraction, the averaging of thousands of observations per Bragg peak may improve the ratio of signal to noise of low-dose exposures. Here, it is shown that this paradigm can be implemented for room-temperature data collection using synchrotron radiation and exposure times of less than 3 ms. Using lysozyme microcrystals as a model system, over 40 000 single-crystal diffraction patterns were obtained and merged to produce a structural model that could be refined to 2.1 Å resolution. The resulting electron density is in excellent agreement with that obtained using standard X-ray data collection techniques. With further improvements the method is well suited for even shorter exposures at future and upgraded synchrotron radiation facilities that may deliver beams with 1000 times higher brightness than they currently produce. PMID:25075341

  3. Towards Room Temperature Silicon Memory Using Single Electron Effects.^*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Sandip

    1996-03-01

    In a semiconductor device, transport, where single electron effects prevail, is usually characterized by sub-μ A currents, large time-constants, and non-linearities that are not suitably harnessed by conventional methods of implementing logic. However, many of the attributes of single electron effects are quite appropriate for memories and we summarize one promising implementation involving low interface state density nano-crystals of silicon that are electrostatically coupled to a conducting channel whose conduction is modulated by a control gate.(S. Tiwari, et al., Digest of 52nd Annual Device Research Conference IVA-4 (1994))(S. Tiwari, et al., Digest of 53rd Annual Device Research Conference, 50 (1995))(S. Tiwari, et al., Digest of International Electron Devices Meeting (1995)) Single electron effects manifest themselves in the nano-crystals of silicon (5--7 nm in dimensions) where Coulombic energies of ≈ 60 meV are presently achieved, sufficient for 77 K demonstrations. Large threshold voltage shifts (> 0.2--0.25 V) are achieved by using large enough density of such nano-crystals where single/multiple electron storage occurs and appear as plateaus in threshold voltage - gate voltage characteristics. The charging of the nano-crystals occurs from an inversion layer and discharging occurs to a depletion region. Scaling of nano-crystals size is expected to shift this operational behavior to room temperature, and very low power behavior should be expected from scaled structures utilizing only a single nano-crystal. ^*Performed in collaboration with F. Rana, K. Chan, J. Welser, and H. Hanafi

  4. Room-temperature macromolecular serial crystallography using synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Stellato, Francesco; Oberthür, Dominik; Liang, Mengning; Bean, Richard; Gati, Cornelius; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Barty, Anton; Burkhardt, Anja; Fischer, Pontus; Galli, Lorenzo; Kirian, Richard A; Meyer, Jan; Panneerselvam, Saravanan; Yoon, Chun Hong; Chervinskii, Fedor; Speller, Emily; White, Thomas A; Betzel, Christian; Meents, Alke; Chapman, Henry N

    2014-07-01

    A new approach for collecting data from many hundreds of thousands of microcrystals using X-ray pulses from a free-electron laser has recently been developed. Referred to as serial crystallography, diffraction patterns are recorded at a constant rate as a suspension of protein crystals flows across the path of an X-ray beam. Events that by chance contain single-crystal diffraction patterns are retained, then indexed and merged to form a three-dimensional set of reflection intensities for structure determination. This approach relies upon several innovations: an intense X-ray beam; a fast detector system; a means to rapidly flow a suspension of crystals across the X-ray beam; and the computational infrastructure to process the large volume of data. Originally conceived for radiation-damage-free measurements with ultrafast X-ray pulses, the same methods can be employed with synchrotron radiation. As in powder diffraction, the averaging of thousands of observations per Bragg peak may improve the ratio of signal to noise of low-dose exposures. Here, it is shown that this paradigm can be implemented for room-temperature data collection using synchrotron radiation and exposure times of less than 3 ms. Using lysozyme microcrystals as a model system, over 40 000 single-crystal diffraction patterns were obtained and merged to produce a structural model that could be refined to 2.1 Å resolution. The resulting electron density is in excellent agreement with that obtained using standard X-ray data collection techniques. With further improvements the method is well suited for even shorter exposures at future and upgraded synchrotron radiation facilities that may deliver beams with 1000 times higher brightness than they currently produce.

  5. Room-temperature macromolecular serial crystallography using synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Stellato, Francesco; Oberthür, Dominik; Liang, Mengning; Bean, Richard; Gati, Cornelius; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Barty, Anton; Burkhardt, Anja; Fischer, Pontus; Galli, Lorenzo; Kirian, Richard A; Meyer, Jan; Panneerselvam, Saravanan; Yoon, Chun Hong; Chervinskii, Fedor; Speller, Emily; White, Thomas A; Betzel, Christian; Meents, Alke; Chapman, Henry N

    2014-07-01

    A new approach for collecting data from many hundreds of thousands of microcrystals using X-ray pulses from a free-electron laser has recently been developed. Referred to as serial crystallography, diffraction patterns are recorded at a constant rate as a suspension of protein crystals flows across the path of an X-ray beam. Events that by chance contain single-crystal diffraction patterns are retained, then indexed and merged to form a three-dimensional set of reflection intensities for structure determination. This approach relies upon several innovations: an intense X-ray beam; a fast detector system; a means to rapidly flow a suspension of crystals across the X-ray beam; and the computational infrastructure to process the large volume of data. Originally conceived for radiation-damage-free measurements with ultrafast X-ray pulses, the same methods can be employed with synchrotron radiation. As in powder diffraction, the averaging of thousands of observations per Bragg peak may improve the ratio of signal to noise of low-dose exposures. Here, it is shown that this paradigm can be implemented for room-temperature data collection using synchrotron radiation and exposure times of less than 3 ms. Using lysozyme microcrystals as a model system, over 40 000 single-crystal diffraction patterns were obtained and merged to produce a structural model that could be refined to 2.1 Å resolution. The resulting electron density is in excellent agreement with that obtained using standard X-ray data collection techniques. With further improvements the method is well suited for even shorter exposures at future and upgraded synchrotron radiation facilities that may deliver beams with 1000 times higher brightness than they currently produce. PMID:25075341

  6. A novel perovskite oxide chemically designed to show multiferroic phase boundary with room-temperature magnetoelectricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Posada, Carmen M.; Castro, Alicia; Kiat, Jean-Michel; Porcher, Florence; Peña, Octavio; Algueró, Miguel; Amorín, Harvey

    2016-09-01

    There is a growing activity in the search of novel single-phase multiferroics that could finally provide distinctive magnetoelectric responses at room temperature, for they would enable a range of potentially disruptive technologies, making use of the ability of controlling polarization with a magnetic field or magnetism with an electric one (for example, voltage-tunable spintronic devices, uncooled magnetic sensors and the long-searched magnetoelectric memory). A very promising novel material concept could be to make use of phase-change phenomena at structural instabilities of a multiferroic state. Indeed, large phase-change magnetoelectric response has been anticipated by a first-principles investigation of the perovskite BiFeO3-BiCoO3 solid solution, specifically at its morphotropic phase boundary between multiferroic polymorphs of rhombohedral and tetragonal symmetries. Here, we report a novel perovskite oxide that belongs to the BiFeO3-BiMnO3-PbTiO3 ternary system, chemically designed to present such multiferroic phase boundary with enhanced ferroelectricity and canted ferromagnetism, which shows distinctive room-temperature magnetoelectric responses.

  7. Room-temperature self-cleaning molecular sensing by catalytic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, Keith H.; Wang, Bin; Cliffel, David E.; Wright, David W.; Haglund, Richard F.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2013-03-01

    New sensing techniques using self-cleaning nanosensors for molecular detection are in demand. Here we describe a room-temperature process in which a nanostructured substrate catalyzes the reaction of a target molecule with atmospheric oxygen and the reaction energy is absorbed by the substrate, where it can in principle be detected. Specifically, we report first-principles calculations describing a reaction catalyzed by Fe-porphyrin at room temperature that breaks O2, incorporates an oxygen into the methyl group of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) and releases 1.9 eV per reaction. The atomic oxygen left on the Fe site can be removed by reacting with another DNT molecule, making the whole process self-cleaning. The reaction energy absorbed by the substrate can in principle be detected optically, as for example, by detecting the metal-insulator phase transition in VO2. We further explore issues of sensitivity and selectivity in exploiting this reaction for solid-state molecular sensing. This work was supported in part by DTRA grant HDTRA1-10-0047 and by the McMinn Endowment at Vanderbilt University. Calculations were performed on AFRL computing resources.

  8. Effect of short-term room temperature storage on the microbial community in infant fecal samples

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yong; Li, Sheng-Hui; Kuang, Ya-Shu; He, Jian-Rong; Lu, Jin-Hua; Luo, Bei-Jun; Jiang, Feng-Ju; Liu, Yao-Zhong; Papasian, Christopher J.; Xia, Hui-Min; Deng, Hong-Wen; Qiu, Xiu

    2016-01-01

    Sample storage conditions are important for unbiased analysis of microbial communities in metagenomic studies. Specifically, for infant gut microbiota studies, stool specimens are often exposed to room temperature (RT) conditions prior to analysis. This could lead to variations in structural and quantitative assessment of bacterial communities. To estimate such effects of RT storage, we collected feces from 29 healthy infants (0–3 months) and partitioned each sample into 5 portions to be stored for different lengths of time at RT before freezing at −80 °C. Alpha diversity did not differ between samples with storage time from 0 to 2 hours. The UniFrac distances and microbial composition analysis showed significant differences by testing among individuals, but not by testing between different time points at RT. Changes in the relative abundance of some specific (less common, minor) taxa were still found during storage at room temperature. Our results support previous studies in children and adults, and provided useful information for accurate characterization of infant gut microbiomes. In particular, our study furnished a solid foundation and justification for using fecal samples exposed to RT for less than 2 hours for comparative analyses between various medical conditions. PMID:27226242

  9. A novel perovskite oxide chemically designed to show multiferroic phase boundary with room-temperature magnetoelectricity

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Posada, Carmen M.; Castro, Alicia; Kiat, Jean-Michel; Porcher, Florence; Peña, Octavio; Algueró, Miguel; Amorín, Harvey

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing activity in the search of novel single-phase multiferroics that could finally provide distinctive magnetoelectric responses at room temperature, for they would enable a range of potentially disruptive technologies, making use of the ability of controlling polarization with a magnetic field or magnetism with an electric one (for example, voltage-tunable spintronic devices, uncooled magnetic sensors and the long-searched magnetoelectric memory). A very promising novel material concept could be to make use of phase-change phenomena at structural instabilities of a multiferroic state. Indeed, large phase-change magnetoelectric response has been anticipated by a first-principles investigation of the perovskite BiFeO3–BiCoO3 solid solution, specifically at its morphotropic phase boundary between multiferroic polymorphs of rhombohedral and tetragonal symmetries. Here, we report a novel perovskite oxide that belongs to the BiFeO3–BiMnO3–PbTiO3 ternary system, chemically designed to present such multiferroic phase boundary with enhanced ferroelectricity and canted ferromagnetism, which shows distinctive room-temperature magnetoelectric responses. PMID:27677353

  10. 2010 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference, and Room Temperature Semiconductor Detectors Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Nuclear Science Symposium (NSS) offers an outstanding opportunity for scientists and engineers interested or actively working in the fields of nuclear science, radiation instrumentation, software and their applications, to meet and discuss with colleagues from around the world. The program emphasizes the latest developments in technology and instrumentation and their implementation in experiments for space sciences, accelerators, other radiation environments, and homeland security. The Medical Imaging Conference (MIC) is the foremost international scientific meeting on the physics, engineering and mathematical aspects of nuclear medicine based imaging. As the field develops, multi-modality approaches are becoming more and more important. The content of the MIC reflects this, with a growing emphasis on the methodologies of X-ray, optical and MR imaging as they relate to nuclear imaging techniques. In addition, specialized topics will be addressed in the Short Courses and Workshops programs. The Workshop on Room-Temperature Semiconductor Detectors (RTSD) represents the largest forum of scientists and engineers developing new semiconductor radiation detectors and imaging arrays. Room-temperature solid-state radiation detectors for X-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron radiation are finding increasing applications in such diverse fields as medicine, homeland security, astrophysics and environmental remediation. The objective of this workshop is to provide a forum for discussion of the state of the art of material development for semiconductor, scintillator, and organic materials for detection, materials characterization, device fabrication and technology, electronics and applications.

  11. A moment model for phonon transport at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadzadeh, Alireza; Struchtrup, Henning

    2016-08-01

    Heat transfer in solids is modeled by deriving the macroscopic equations for phonon transport from the phonon-Boltzmann equation. In these equations, the Callaway model with frequency-dependent relaxation time is considered to describe the Resistive and Normal processes in the phonon interactions. Also, the Brillouin zone is considered to be a sphere, and its diameter depends on the temperature of the system. A simple model to describe phonon interaction with crystal boundary is employed to obtain macroscopic boundary conditions, where the reflection kernel is the superposition of diffusive reflection, specular reflection and isotropic scattering. Macroscopic moments are defined using a polynomial of the frequency and wave vector of phonons. As an example, a system of moment equations, consisting of three directional and seven frequency moments, i.e., 63 moments in total, is used to study one-dimensional heat transfer, as well as Poiseuille flow of phonons. Our results show the importance of frequency dependency in relaxation times and macroscopic moments to predict rarefaction effects. Good agreement with data reported in the literature is obtained.

  12. Highly Efficient Room Temperature Spin Injection Using Spin Filtering in MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xin

    2007-03-01

    Efficient electrical spin injection into GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well structures was demonstrated using CoFe/MgO tunnel spin injectors at room temperature. The spin polarization of the injected electron current was inferred from the circular polarization of electroluminescence from the quantum well. Polarization values as high as 57% at 100 K and 47% at 290 K were obtained in a perpendicular magnetic field of 5 Tesla. The interface between the tunnel spin injector and the GaAs interface remained stable even after thermal annealing at 400 ^oC. The temperature dependence of the electron-hole recombination time and the electron spin relaxation time in the quantum well was measured using time-resolved optical techniques. By taking into account of these properties of the quantum well, the intrinsic spin injection efficiency can be deduced. We conclude that the efficiency of spin injection from a CoFe/MgO spin injector is nearly independent of temperature and, moreover, is highly efficient with an efficiency of ˜ 70% for the temperature range studied (10 K to room temperature). Tunnel spin injectors are thus highly promising components of future semiconductor spintronic devices. Collaborators: Roger Wang^1, 3, Gian Salis^2, Robert Shelby^1, Roger Macfarlane^1, Seth Bank^3, Glenn Solomon^3, James Harris^3, Stuart S. P. Parkin^1 ^1 IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA 95120 ^2 IBM Zurich Research Laboratory, S"aumerstrasse 4, 8803 R"uschlikon, Switzerland ^3 Solid States and Photonics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305

  13. Development of a room-temperature phosphorescence fiber-optic sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Campiglia, A.D.; Alarie, J.P.; Vo-Dinh, T.

    1996-05-01

    The design of a new fiber optic sensor based on solid-surface room temperature phosphorimetry is presented for the analyses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples. Analytical figures of merit are given for several compounds of environmental importance. Limits of detection at the nanograms per milliliter level were estimated for pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, 1,2:3,4-dibenzanthracene, coronene, and 2,3-benzofluorene. The linearity of response of the phosphorescence sensor was evaluated, showing a fairly linear behavior for quantitative analysis. Finally, the feasibility of monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous media was illustrated by identifying pyrene in a contaminated ground water sample. 33 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Room-temperature quantum cloning machine with full coherent phase control in nanodiamond.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yan-Chun; Liu, Gang-Qin; Liu, Dong-Qi; Fan, Heng; Pan, Xin-Yu

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the classical world, an unknown quantum state cannot be cloned ideally, as stated by the no-cloning theorem. However, it is expected that approximate or probabilistic quantum cloning will be necessary for different applications, and thus various quantum cloning machines have been designed. Phase quantum cloning is of particular interest because it can be used to attack the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) states used in quantum key distribution for secure communications. Here, we report the first room-temperature implementation of quantum phase cloning with a controllable phase in a solid-state system: the nitrogen-vacancy centre of a nanodiamond. The phase cloner works well for all qubits located on the equator of the Bloch sphere. The phase is controlled and can be measured with high accuracy, and the experimental results are consistent with theoretical expectations. This experiment provides a basis for phase-controllable quantum information devices. PMID:23511233

  15. Trapping of hydrogen atoms in X-irradiated salts at room temperature and the decay kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, C. E.; Philipp, W. H.; Marsik, S. J.

    1974-01-01

    The salts (hypophosphites, formates, a phosphite, a phosphate, and an oxalate) were X-irradiated, whereby hydrogen formed chemically by a radiolytic process becomes trapped in the solid. By room temperature vacuum extraction, the kinetics for the evolution of this trapped hydrogen was studied mass spectrometrically. All salts except two exhibited second-order kinetics. The two exceptions (NaH2PO2(H2O) and K2HPO4) showed first-order kinetics. Based on experimental results, the escape of hydrogen involves three steps: the diffusion of hydrogen atoms from the bulk to the surface, association of these atoms on the surface (rate controlling step for second-order hydrogen evolution), and the desorption of molecular hydrogen from the surface. The hydrogen does not escape if the irradiated salt is stored in air, apparently because adsorbed air molecules occupy surface sites required in the escape mechanism.

  16. Coherent control of single spins in silicon carbide at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Widmann, Matthias; Lee, Sang-Yun; Rendler, Torsten; Son, Nguyen Tien; Fedder, Helmut; Paik, Seoyoung; Yang, Li-Ping; Zhao, Nan; Yang, Sen; Booker, Ian; Denisenko, Andrej; Jamali, Mohammad; Momenzadeh, S Ali; Gerhardt, Ilja; Ohshima, Takeshi; Gali, Adam; Janzén, Erik; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2015-02-01

    Spins in solids are cornerstone elements of quantum spintronics. Leading contenders such as defects in diamond or individual phosphorus dopants in silicon have shown spectacular progress, but either lack established nanotechnology or an efficient spin/photon interface. Silicon carbide (SiC) combines the strength of both systems: it has a large bandgap with deep defects and benefits from mature fabrication techniques. Here, we report the characterization of photoluminescence and optical spin polarization from single silicon vacancies in SiC, and demonstrate that single spins can be addressed at room temperature. We show coherent control of a single defect spin and find long spin coherence times under ambient conditions. Our study provides evidence that SiC is a promising system for atomic-scale spintronics and quantum technology. PMID:25437256

  17. Picosecond Lifetimes with High Quantum Yields from Single-Photon-Emitting Colloidal Nanostructures at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Bidault, Sébastien; Devilez, Alexis; Maillard, Vincent; Lermusiaux, Laurent; Guigner, Jean-Michel; Bonod, Nicolas; Wenger, Jérôme

    2016-04-26

    Minimizing the luminescence lifetime while maintaining a high emission quantum yield is paramount in optimizing the excitation cross-section, radiative decay rate, and brightness of quantum solid-state light sources, particularly at room temperature, where nonradiative processes can dominate. We demonstrate here that DNA-templated 60 and 80 nm diameter gold nanoparticle dimers, featuring one fluorescent molecule, provide single-photon emission with lifetimes that can fall below 10 ps and typical quantum yields in a 45-70% range. Since these colloidal nanostructures are obtained as a purified aqueous suspension, fluorescence spectroscopy can be performed on both fixed and freely diffusing nanostructures to quantitatively estimate the distributions of decay rate and fluorescence intensity enhancements. These data are in excellent agreement with theoretical calculations and demonstrate that millions of bright fluorescent nanostructures, with radiative lifetimes below 100 ps, can be produced in parallel. PMID:26972678

  18. Room-Temperature Quantum Cloning Machine with Full Coherent Phase Control in Nanodiamond

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yan-Chun; Liu, Gang-Qin; Liu, Dong-Qi; Fan, Heng; Pan, Xin-Yu

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the classical world, an unknown quantum state cannot be cloned ideally, as stated by the no-cloning theorem. However, it is expected that approximate or probabilistic quantum cloning will be necessary for different applications, and thus various quantum cloning machines have been designed. Phase quantum cloning is of particular interest because it can be used to attack the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) states used in quantum key distribution for secure communications. Here, we report the first room-temperature implementation of quantum phase cloning with a controllable phase in a solid-state system: the nitrogen-vacancy centre of a nanodiamond. The phase cloner works well for all qubits located on the equator of the Bloch sphere. The phase is controlled and can be measured with high accuracy, and the experimental results are consistent with theoretical expectations. This experiment provides a basis for phase-controllable quantum information devices. PMID:23511233

  19. Reversible mechanochromic luminescence at room temperature in cationic platinum(II) terpyridyl complexes.

    PubMed

    Han, Ali; Du, Pingwu; Sun, Zijun; Wu, Haotian; Jia, Hongxing; Zhang, Rui; Liang, Zhenning; Cao, Rui; Eisenberg, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Reversible mechanochromic luminescence in cationic platinum(II) terpyridyl complexes is described. The complexes [Pt(Nttpy)Cl]X2 (Nttpy = 4'-(p-nicotinamide-N-methylphenyl)-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine, X = PF6 (1), SbF6 (2), Cl (3), ClO4 (4), OTf (5), BF4 (6)) exhibit different colors under ambient light in the solid state, going from red to orange to yellow. All of these complexes are brightly luminescent at both room temperature and 77 K. Upon gentle grinding, the yellow complexes (4-6) turn orange and exhibit bright red luminescence. The red luminescence can be changed back to yellow by the addition of a few drops of acetonitrile to the sample. Crystallographic studies of the yellow and red forms of complex 5 suggest that the mechanochromic response is likely the result of a change in intermolecular Pt···Pt distances upon grinding.

  20. N2-broadening coefficients of methyl chloride at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, C.; Jacquemart, D.; Buldyreva, J.; Lacome, N.; Perrin, A.

    2012-07-01

    Methyl chloride is of interest for atmospheric applications, since this molecule is directly involved in the catalytic destruction of ozone in the lower stratosphere. In a previous work [Bray et al. JQSRT 2011;112:2446], lines positions and intensities of self-perturbed 12CH335Cl and 12CH337Cl have been studied into details for the 3.4 μm spectral region. The present work is focused on measurement and calculation of N2-broadening coefficients of the 12CH335Cl and 12CH337Cl isotopologues. High-resolution Fourier Transform spectra of CH3Cl-N2 mixtures at room-temperature have been recorded between 2800 and 3200 cm-1 at LADIR (using a classical source) and between 47 and 59 cm-1 at SOLEIL (using the synchrotron source on the AILES beamline). 612 mid-infrared transitions of the ν1 band and 86 far-infrared transitions of the pure rotational band have been analyzed using a multispectrum fitting procedure. Average accuracy on the deduced N2-broadening coefficients has been estimated to 5% and 10% in the mid- and far-infrared spectral regions, respectively. The J- and K-rotational dependences of these coefficients have been observed in the mid-infrared region and then a simulation has been performed using an empirical model for 0≤J≤50, K≤9. The 12CH335Cl-N2 line widths for 0≤J≤50 and K≤10 of the ν1 band and for 55≤J≤67 and K≤15 of the pure rotational band have been computed using a semi-classical approach involving exact trajectories and a real symmetric-top geometry of the active molecule. Finally, a global comparison with the experimental and theoretical data existing in the literature has been performed. Similar J- and K-rotational dependences have been appeared while no clear evidence for any vibrational or isotopic dependences have been pointed out.

  1. Tomographic reconstruction of indoor spatial temperature distributions using room impulse responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleisteiner, M.; Barth, M.; Raabe, A.

    2016-03-01

    Temperature can be estimated by acoustic travel time measurements along known sound paths. By using a multitude of known sound paths in combination with a tomographic reconstruction technique a spatial and temporal resolution of the temperature field can be achieved. Based on it, this article focuses on an experimental method in order to determine the spatially differentiated development of room temperature with only one loudspeaker and one microphone. The theory of geometrical room acoustics is being used to identify sound paths under consideration of reflections. The travel time along a specific sound path is derived from the room impulse response. Temporal variances in room impulse response can be attributed primarily to a change in air temperature and airflow. It is shown that in the absence of airflow a 3D acoustic monitoring of the room temperature can be realized with a fairly limited use of hardware.

  2. Ordered iron aluminide alloys having an improved room-temperature ductility and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, Vinod K.

    1992-01-01

    A process is disclosed for improving the room temperature ductility and strength of iron aluminide intermetallic alloys. The process involves thermomechanically working an iron aluminide alloy by means which produce an elongated grain structure. The worked alloy is then heated at a temperature in the range of about 650.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. to produce a B2-type crystal structure. The alloy is rapidly cooled in a moisture free atmosphere to retain the B2-type crystal structure at room temperature, thus providing an alloy having improved room temperature ductility and strength.

  3. Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development

    SciTech Connect

    S. Elangovan; Scott Barnett; Sossina Haile

    2008-06-30

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency energy conversion devices. Present materials set, using yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, limit the cell operating temperatures to 800 C or higher. It has become increasingly evident however that lowering the operating temperature would provide a more expeditious route to commercialization. The advantages of intermediate temperature (600 to 800 C) operation are related to both economic and materials issues. Lower operating temperature allows the use of low cost materials for the balance of plant and limits degradation arising from materials interactions. When the SOFC operating temperature is in the range of 600 to 700 C, it is also possible to partially reform hydrocarbon fuels within the stack providing additional system cost savings by reducing the air preheat heat-exchanger and blower size. The promise of Sr and Mg doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) electrolyte materials, based on their high ionic conductivity and oxygen transference number at the intermediate temperature is well recognized. The focus of the present project was two-fold: (a) Identify a cell fabrication technique to achieve the benefits of lanthanum gallate material, and (b) Investigate alternative cathode materials that demonstrate low cathode polarization losses at the intermediate temperature. A porous matrix supported, thin film cell configuration was fabricated. The electrode material precursor was infiltrated into the porous matrix and the counter electrode was screen printed. Both anode and cathode infiltration produced high performance cells. Comparison of the two approaches showed that an infiltrated cathode cells may have advantages in high fuel utilization operations. Two new cathode materials were evaluated. Northwestern University investigated LSGM-ceria composite cathode while Caltech evaluated Ba-Sr-Co-Fe (BSCF) based pervoskite cathode. Both cathode materials showed lower polarization losses at temperatures as low as 600

  4. Long-term room temperature preservation of corpse soft tissue: an approach for tissue sample storage

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Disaster victim identification (DVI) represents one of the most difficult challenges in forensic sciences, and subsequent DNA typing is essential. Collected samples for DNA-based human identification are usually stored at low temperature to halt the degradation processes of human remains. We have developed a simple and reliable procedure for soft tissue storage and preservation for DNA extraction. It ensures high quality DNA suitable for PCR-based DNA typing after at least 1 year of room temperature storage. Methods Fragments of human psoas muscle were exposed to three different environmental conditions for diverse time periods at room temperature. Storage conditions included: (a) a preserving medium consisting of solid sodium chloride (salt), (b) no additional substances and (c) garden soil. DNA was extracted with proteinase K/SDS followed by organic solvent treatment and concentration by centrifugal filter devices. Quantification was carried out by real-time PCR using commercial kits. Short tandem repeat (STR) typing profiles were analysed with 'expert software'. Results DNA quantities recovered from samples stored in salt were similar up to the complete storage time and underscored the effectiveness of the preservation method. It was possible to reliably and accurately type different genetic systems including autosomal STRs and mitochondrial and Y-chromosome haplogroups. Autosomal STR typing quality was evaluated by expert software, denoting high quality profiles from DNA samples obtained from corpse tissue stored in salt for up to 365 days. Conclusions The procedure proposed herein is a cost efficient alternative for storage of human remains in challenging environmental areas, such as mass disaster locations, mass graves and exhumations. This technique should be considered as an additional method for sample storage when preservation of DNA integrity is required for PCR-based DNA typing. PMID:21846338

  5. A STUDY ON ASH PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION CHARACTERISITICS OF CANDLE FILTER SURFACE REGENERATION AT ROOM TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevan, V.; Kang, B.S-J.; Johnson, E.K.

    2002-09-19

    Ceramic barrier filtration is a leading technology employed in hot gas filtration. Hot gases loaded with ash particle flow through the ceramic candle filters and deposit ash on their outer surface. The deposited ash is periodically removed using back pulse cleaning jet, known as surface regeneration. The cleaning done by this technique still leaves some residual ash on the filter surface, which over a period of time sinters, forms a solid cake and leads to mechanical failure of the candle filter. A room temperature testing facility (RTTF) was built to gain more insight into the surface regeneration process before testing commenced at high temperature. RTTF was instrumented to obtain pressure histories during the surface regeneration process and a high-resolution high-speed imaging system was integrated in order to obtain pictures of the surface regeneration process. The objective of this research has been to utilize the RTTF to study the surface regeneration process at the convenience of room temperature conditions. The face velocity of the fluidized gas, the regeneration pressure of the back pulse and the time to build up ash on the surface of the candle filter were identified as the important parameters to be studied. Two types of ceramic candle filters were used in the study. Each candle filter was subjected to several cycles of ash build-up followed by a thorough study of the surface regeneration process at different parametric conditions. The pressure histories in the chamber and filter system during build-up and regeneration were then analyzed. The size distribution and movement of the ash particles during the surface regeneration process was studied. Effect of each of the parameters on the performance of the regeneration process is presented. A comparative study between the two candle filters with different characteristics is presented.

  6. Nano-structured TiO2 film fabricated at room temperature and its acoustic properties

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jie; Cao, Wenwu; Jiang, Bei; Zhang, D S; Zheng, H; Zhou, Q; Shung, K K

    2009-01-01

    Nano-structured TiO2 thin film has been successfully fabricated at room temperature. Using a quarter wavelength characterization method, we have measured the acoustic impedance of this porous film, which can be adjusted from 5.3 to 7.19 Mrayl by curing it at different temperatures. The uniform microstructure and easy fabrication at room temperature make this material an excellent candidate for matching layers of ultra-high frequency ultrasonic imaging transducers. PMID:19672322

  7. Substrate Temperature Effects on Room Temperature Sensing Properties of Nanostructured ZnO Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Jonnala Rakesh; Mani, Ganesh Kumar; Shankar, Prabakaran; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates using chemical spray pyrolysis technique at different substrate temperatures such as 523, 623 and 723 K. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed the formation of polycrystalline films with hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure and revealed the change in preferential orientation of the crystal planes. Scanning electron micrographs showed the formation of uniformly distributed spherical shaped grains at low deposition temperature and pebbles like structure at the higher temperature. Transmittance of 85% was observed for the film deposited at 723 K. The band gap of the films was found to be increased from 3.15 to 3.23 eV with a rise in deposition temperature. The electrical conductivity of the films was found to be improved with an increase in substrate temperature. Surface of ZnO thin films deposited at 523 K, 623 K and 723 K were found to be hydrophobic with the contact angles of 92°, 105° and 128° respectively. The room temperature gas sensing characteristics of all the films were studied and found that the film deposited at 623 K showed a better response towards ammonia vapour. PMID:27398478

  8. Deformation and fracture characteristics of Inconel X-750 at room temperature and elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.J.

    1980-06-01

    Electron fractographic and thin foil electron metallographic techniques were used to evaluate the deformation and fracture characteristics of Inconel X-750 at temperatures ranging from 24 to 816/sup 0/C. Operative dislocation mechanisms and fracture surface morphologies were related to the overall tensile response of this nickel-base superalloy. At room temperature, failure occurred primarily by an intergranular dimple rupture mechanism associated with microvoid coalescence along grain boundary denuded regions. A fairly high density of dislocations throughout the matrix resulted in relatively high ductility levels even though failure occurred by an intergranular mechanism. Under intermediate temperature conditions (316 to 427/sup 0/C), increased transgranular fracture coupled with extensive dislocation activity within the Inconel X-750 matrix caused a slight increase in ductility. At progressively higher temperatures, 538 to 704/sup 0/C, all dislocation activity was channeled through narrow slip bands which subsequently initiated localized separation and resulted in a very faceted fracture surface appearance. The absence of a homogeneous dislocation substructure in this temperature regime resulted in a severe degradation in ductility levels. At the highest test temperature (816/sup 0/C), a uniform dislocation network throughout the Inconel X-750 matrix coupled with intense dislocation activity in the grain boundary denuded zone resulted in a marked improvement in ductility. Furthermore, the extensive dislocation activity along grain boundary regions ultimately resulted in an intergranular fracture morphology.

  9. Local magnetoresistance in Fe/MgO/Si lateral spin valve at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Tomoyuki Koike, Hayato; Oikawa, Tohru; Suzuki, Toshio; Ando, Yuichiro; Suzuki, Yoshishige; Shiraishi, Masashi

    2014-02-03

    Room temperature local magnetoresistance in two-terminal scheme is reported. By employing 1.6 nm-thick MgO tunnel barrier, spin injection efficiency is increased, resulting in large non-local magnetoresistance. The magnitude of the non-local magnetoresistance is estimated to be 0.0057 Ω at room temperature. As a result, a clear rectangle signal is observed in local magnetoresistance measurement even at room temperature. We also investigate the origin of local magnetoresistance by measuring the spin accumulation voltage of each contact separately.

  10. Pentacene on Ni(111): room-temperature molecular packing and temperature-activated conversion to graphene.

    PubMed

    Dinca, L E; De Marchi, F; MacLeod, J M; Lipton-Duffin, J; Gatti, R; Ma, D; Perepichka, D F; Rosei, F

    2015-02-21

    We investigate, using scanning tunnelling microscopy, the adsorption of pentacene on Ni(111) at room temperature and the behaviour of these monolayer films with annealing up to 700 °C. We observe the conversion of pentacene into graphene, which begins from as low as 220 °C with the coalescence of pentacene molecules into large planar aggregates. Then, by annealing at 350 °C for 20 minutes, these aggregates expand into irregular domains of graphene tens of nanometers in size. On surfaces where graphene and nickel carbide coexist, pentacene shows preferential adsorption on the nickel carbide phase. The same pentacene to graphene transformation was also achieved on Cu(111), but at a higher activation temperature, producing large graphene domains that exhibit a range of moiré superlattice periodicities.

  11. Fabrication of Wollastonite Coatings on Zirconia by Room Temperature Spray Process.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Kook; Eum, Sangcheol; Kim, Jaehong; Hwang, Kyu Hong

    2016-02-01

    Wollastonite-based bioceramic powders were synthesized by solid-state reaction between calcite and silica powder. To control the phase and bioactivity of wollastonite, we also prepared four kinds of wollastonite-based bioceramics by adding an enstatite (MgSiO3) powder. After solid state reaction at 1000-1300 degrees C, micron-sized powders were obtained by milling and screening. By using these powders, wollastonite coatings were fabricated on zirconia substrates by a room temperature spray process, and their microstructure and composition under different coating condition were investigated. Wollastonite coatings on zirconia substrates were formed with the homogeneous microstructure and nanoscaled grain size. The phase composition of the resultant wollastonite coatings was similar to that of the starting powders, however, the grain size of the wollastonite particles was reduced to about 100 nm due to their formation by particle impaction and fracture. The wollastonite coating layer exhibited bioactivity in a stimulated body fluid and forming ability of 25 nm sized-hydroxyapatite precipitates of during in vitro test in SBF solution. PMID:27433716

  12. Light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting: searching room for improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, Sergey Y.

    2016-03-01

    State-of-the art light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for solid-state lighting (SSL) are reviewed with the focus on their efficiency and ways for its improvement. Mechanisms of the LED efficiency losses are considered on the heterostructure, chip, and device levels, including high-current efficiency droop, recombination losses, "green gap", current crowding, Stokes losses, etc. Materials factors capable of lowering the LED efficiency, like composition fluctuations in InGaN alloys and plastic stress relaxation in device heterostructures, are also considered. Possible room for the efficiency improvement is discussed along with advanced schemes of color mixing and LED parameters optimal for generation of high-quality white light.

  13. Designing switchable polarization and magnetization at room temperature in an oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, P.; Pitcher, M. J.; Alaria, J.; Niu, H.; Borisov, P.; Stamenov, P.; Claridge, J. B.; Rosseinsky, M. J.

    2015-09-01

    Ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials exhibit long-range order of atomic-scale electric or magnetic dipoles that can be switched by applying an appropriate electric or magnetic field, respectively. Both switching phenomena form the basis of non-volatile random access memory, but in the ferroelectric case, this involves destructive electrical reading and in the magnetic case, a high writing energy is required. In principle, low-power and high-density information storage that combines fast electrical writing and magnetic reading can be realized with magnetoelectric multiferroic materials. These materials not only simultaneously display ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism, but also enable magnetic moments to be induced by an external electric field, or electric polarization by a magnetic field. However, synthesizing bulk materials with both long-range orders at room temperature in a single crystalline structure is challenging because conventional ferroelectricity requires closed-shell d0 or s2 cations, whereas ferromagnetic order requires open-shell dn configurations with unpaired electrons. These opposing requirements pose considerable difficulties for atomic-scale design strategies such as magnetic ion substitution into ferroelectrics. One material that exhibits both ferroelectric and magnetic order is BiFeO3, but its cycloidal magnetic structure precludes bulk magnetization and linear magnetoelectric coupling. A solid solution of a ferroelectric and a spin-glass perovskite combines switchable polarization with glassy magnetization, although it lacks long-range magnetic order. Crystal engineering of a layered perovskite has recently resulted in room-temperature polar ferromagnets, but the electrical polarization has not been switchable. Here we combine ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism at room temperature in a bulk perovskite oxide, by constructing a percolating network of magnetic ions with strong superexchange interactions within a structural scaffold

  14. Designing switchable polarization and magnetization at room temperature in an oxide.

    PubMed

    Mandal, P; Pitcher, M J; Alaria, J; Niu, H; Borisov, P; Stamenov, P; Claridge, J B; Rosseinsky, M J

    2015-09-17

    Ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials exhibit long-range order of atomic-scale electric or magnetic dipoles that can be switched by applying an appropriate electric or magnetic field, respectively. Both switching phenomena form the basis of non-volatile random access memory, but in the ferroelectric case, this involves destructive electrical reading and in the magnetic case, a high writing energy is required. In principle, low-power and high-density information storage that combines fast electrical writing and magnetic reading can be realized with magnetoelectric multiferroic materials. These materials not only simultaneously display ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism, but also enable magnetic moments to be induced by an external electric field, or electric polarization by a magnetic field. However, synthesizing bulk materials with both long-range orders at room temperature in a single crystalline structure is challenging because conventional ferroelectricity requires closed-shell d(0) or s(2) cations, whereas ferromagnetic order requires open-shell d(n) configurations with unpaired electrons. These opposing requirements pose considerable difficulties for atomic-scale design strategies such as magnetic ion substitution into ferroelectrics. One material that exhibits both ferroelectric and magnetic order is BiFeO3, but its cycloidal magnetic structure precludes bulk magnetization and linear magnetoelectric coupling. A solid solution of a ferroelectric and a spin-glass perovskite combines switchable polarization with glassy magnetization, although it lacks long-range magnetic order. Crystal engineering of a layered perovskite has recently resulted in room-temperature polar ferromagnets, but the electrical polarization has not been switchable. Here we combine ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism at room temperature in a bulk perovskite oxide, by constructing a percolating network of magnetic ions with strong superexchange interactions within a structural scaffold

  15. High-Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Edmonds, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    NASA PS400 is a solid lubricant coating invented for high-temperature tribological applications. This plasma-sprayed coating is a variant of the previously patented PS304 coating, and has been formulated to provide higher density, smoother surface finish, and better dimensional stability. This innovation is a new composite material that provides a means to reduce friction and wear in mechanical components. PS400 is a blend of a nickel-molybdenum binder, chrome oxide hardener, silver lubricant, and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic lubricant that can either be sprayed or deposited by other means, such as powder metallurgy. The resulting composite material is then finished by grinding and polishing to produce a smooth, self-lubricating surface.

  16. Rapid and controllable covalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rubí, Yadienka; Guan, Jingwen; Lin, Shuqiong; Scriver, Christine; Sturgeon, Ralph E; Simard, Benoit

    2007-12-28

    We report a rapid and efficient procedure to functionalize SWNT where free radicals generated at room temperature by a redox reaction between reduced SWNT and diacyl peroxide derivatives were covalently attached to the SWNT wall. PMID:18060123

  17. Evaluation of DNA/RNAshells for room temperature nucleic acids storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaopan; Li, Qiyuan; Wang, Xian; Zhou, Xiaolin; He, Xuheng; Liao, Qiuyan; Zhu, Fengqin; Cheng, Le; Zhang, Yong

    2015-02-01

    Traditional nucleic acids preservation methods rely on maintaining samples in cold environments, which are costly to operate and time sensitive. Recent work validated that using room temperature for the storage of nucleic acids is possible if the samples are completely protected from water and oxygen. Here, we conducted accelerated aging and real-time degradation studies to evaluate the new technology DNAshell and RNAshell, which preserves DNA and RNA at room temperature, including the DNA and RNA yield, purity, and integrity. DNA and RNA solutions are dried in the presence of stabilizers in stainless steel minicapsules, then redissolved after different time points of heating and storing at room temperature. Results show that DNAshell and RNAshell ensure the safe storage of nucleic acids at room temperature for long periods of time, and that the quality of these nucleic acids is suitable for common downstream analysis.

  18. Robust room temperature valley polarization in monolayer and bilayer WS2.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Pramoda K; Lin, Fan-Cheng; Yeh, Chao-Hui; Huang, Jer-Shing; Chiu, Po-Wen

    2016-03-21

    We report robust room temperature valley polarization in chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) grown monolayer and bilayer WS2via polarization-resolved photoluminescence measurements using excitation below the bandgap. We show that excitation with energy slightly below the bandgap of the multi-valleyed transition metal chalcogenides can effectively suppress the random redistribution of excited electrons and, thereby, greatly enhance the efficiency of valley polarization at room temperature. Compared to mechanically exfoliated WS2, our CVD grown WS2 films also show enhancement in the coupling of spin, layer and valley degree of freedom and, therefore, provide improved valley polarization. At room temperature, using below-bandgap excitation and CVD grown monolayer and bilayer WS2, we have reached a record-high valley polarization of 35% and 80%, respectively, exceeding the previously reported values of 10% and 65% for mechanically exfoliated WS2 layers using resonant excitation. This observation provides a new direction to enhance valley control at room temperature.

  19. ROOM TEMPERATURE BULK AND TEMPLATE-FREE SYNTHESIS OF LEUCOEMARLDINE POLYANILINE NANOFIBERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Herein, we describe a simple strategy for the bulk and template-free synthesis of reduced leucoemarldine polyaniline nanofibers size ranging from as low as 10 nm to 50 nm without the use of any reducing agents at room temperature.

  20. Saccharides as Prospective Immobilizers of Nucleic Acids for Room-Temperature Structural EPR Studies.

    PubMed

    Kuzhelev, Andrey A; Shevelev, Georgiy Yu; Krumkacheva, Olesya A; Tormyshev, Victor M; Pyshnyi, Dmitrii V; Fedin, Matvey V; Bagryanskaya, Elena G

    2016-07-01

    Pulsed dipolar electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for structural studies of biomolecules and their complexes. This method, whose applicability has been recently extended to room temperatures, requires immobilization of the studied biosystem to prevent averaging of dipolar couplings; at the same time, the modification of native conformations by immobilization must be avoided. In this work, we provide first demonstration of room-temperature EPR distance measurements in nucleic acids using saccharides trehalose, sucrose, and glucose as immobilizing media. We propose an approach that keeps structural conformation and unity of immobilized double-stranded DNA. Remarkably, room-temperature electron spin dephasing time of triarylmethyl-labeled DNA in trehalose is noticeably longer compared to previously used immobilizers, thus providing a broader range of available distances. Therefore, saccharides, and especially trehalose, can be efficiently used as immobilizers of nucleic acids, mimicking native conditions and allowing wide range of structural EPR studies at room temperatures. PMID:27320083

  1. Red photoluminescence of living systems at the room temperature : measurements and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashova, I. S.; Rud, V. Yu; Shpunt, V. Ch; Rud, Yu V.; Glinushkin, A. P.

    2016-08-01

    Presents results of a study of the red luminescence of living plants at room temperature. The analysis of obtained results allows to conclude that the photoluminescence spectra for green leaves in all cases represent the two closely spaced bands.

  2. A room-temperature adenosine-based molecular beacon for highly sensitive detection of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Hsiu; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2012-06-25

    This study developed a simple, sensitive, and selective molecular beacon for detecting nucleic acids at room temperature based on coralyne induced conformational change of a MB through A(2)-coralyne-A(2) coordination.

  3. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in zinc-blende and deformed CrAs thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, J. F.; Zhao, J. H.; Deng, J. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Li, S. S.; Wu, X. G.; Jia, Q. J.

    2006-04-01

    We try to clarify the controversy about the origin of room-temperature ferromagnetism in a CrAs compound. Two kinds of CrAs thin films were grown on GaAs by molecular-beam epitaxy. Structural analyses confirm that the as-grown CrAs film is a pure zinc-blende phase. Magnetic measurements suggest that room-temperature ferromagnetism exists in zinc-blende CrAs. In contrast, the CrAs film turns into a mixture of zinc-blende and deformed CrAs after annealing. A ferromagnetic signal measured at room temperature demonstrates that zinc-blende CrAs remains room-temperature ferromagnetism even when it is partly deformed into a non-zinc-blende phase.

  4. High temperature thermoplastic elastomers synthesized by living anionic polymerization in hydrocarbon solvent at room temperature

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schlegel, Ralf; Williams, Katherine; Voyloy, Dimitry; Steren, Carlos A.; Goodwin, Andrew; Coughlin, E. Bryan; Gido, Samuel; Beiner, Mario; Hong, Kunlun; Kang, Nam -Goo; et al

    2016-03-30

    We present the synthesis and characterization of a new class of high temperature thermoplastic elastomers composed of polybenzofulvene–polyisoprene–polybenzofulvene (FIF) triblock copolymers. All copolymers were prepared by living anionic polymerization in benzene at room temperature. Homopolymerization and effects of additives on the glass transition temperature (Tg) of polybenzofulvene (PBF) were also investigated. Among all triblock copolymers studied, FIF with 14 vol % of PBF exhibited a maximum stress of 14.3 ± 1.3 MPa and strain at break of 1390 ± 66% from tensile tests. The stress–strain curves of FIF-10 and 14 were analyzed by a statistical molecular approach using a nonaffinemore » tube model to estimate the thermoplastic elastomer behavior. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that the softening temperature of PBF in FIF was 145 °C, much higher than that of thermoplastic elastomers with polystyrene hard blocks. Microphase separation of FIF triblock copolymers was observed by small-angle X-ray scattering, even though long-range order was not achieved under the annealing conditions employed. Additionally, the microphase separation of the resulting triblock copolymers was examined by atomic force microscopy.« less

  5. Direct mineral carbonation of steelmaking slag for CO2 sequestration at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Rushendra Revathy, T D; Palanivelu, K; Ramachandran, A

    2016-04-01

    Rapid increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere has forced the international community towards adopting actions to restrain from the impacts of climate change. Moreover, in India, the dependence on fossil fuels is projected to increase in the future, implying the necessity of capturing CO2 in a safe manner. Alkaline solid wastes can be utilized for CO2 sequestration by which its disposal issues in the country could also be met. The present work focuses to study direct mineral carbonation of steelmaking slag (SS) at room temperature and low-pressure conditions (<10 bar). Direct mineral carbonation of SS was carried out in a batch reactor with pure CO2 gas. The process parameters that may influence the carbonation of SS, namely, CO2 gas pressure, liquid to solid ratio (L/S) and reaction time were also studied. The results showed that maximum sequestration of SS was attained in the aqueous route with a capacity of 82 g of CO2/kg (6 bar, L/S ratio of 10 and 3 h). In the gas-solid route, maximum sequestration capacity of about 11.1 g of CO2/kg of SS (3 bar and 3 h) was achieved indicating that aqueous route is the better one under the conditions studied. These findings demonstrate that SS is a promising resource and this approach could be further developed and used for CO2 sequestration in the country. The carbonation process was evidenced using FT-IR, XRD, SEM and TG analysis.

  6. Room temperature exchange bias in SmFeO3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang (王晓雄), Xiaoxiong; Cheng (程相义), Xiangyi; Gao (高尚), Shang; Song (宋俊达), Junda; Ruan (阮可青), Keqing; Li (李晓光), Xiaoguang

    2016-02-01

    Exchange bias phenomenon is generally ascribed to the unidirectional magnetic shift along the field axes at interface of two magnetic materials. Room temperature exchange bias is found in SmFeO3 single crystal. The behavior after different cooling procedure is regular, and the training behavior is attributed to the athermal training and its pinning origin is attributed to the antiferromagnetic clusters. Its being single phase and occurring at room temperature make it an appropriate candidate for application.

  7. Copper-Catalyzed N-Arylation of 2-Pyridones Employing Diaryliodonium Salts at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seo-Hee; Sung, Dan-Bi; Park, Cho-Hee; Kim, Won-Suk

    2016-09-01

    A new and mild synthetic approach for the N-arylation of 2-pyridones with diaryliodonium salts has been developed. Most reactions proceed readily at room temperature in the presence of 10 mol % of copper chloride. As a result, a wide range of N-arylpyridine-2-ones were synthesized in yields of 23% to 99%. With this method, an antifibrotic drug, Pirfenidone, was successfully synthesized in 99% yield within 30 min at room temperature. PMID:27484240

  8. Ultra-Low-Cost Room Temperature SiC Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faur, Maria

    1997-01-01

    The research group at CSU has conducted theoretical and experimental research on 'Ultra-Low-Cost Room Temperature SiC Thin Films. The effectiveness of a ultra-low-cost room temperature thin film SiC growth technique on Silicon and Germanium substrates and structures with applications to space solar sells, ThermoPhotoVoltaic (TPV) cells and microelectronic and optoelectronic devices was investigated and the main result of this effort are summarized.

  9. Room-temperature single-photon sources based on nanocrystal fluorescence in photonic/plasmonic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukishova, S. G.; Winkler, J. M.; Bissell, L. J.; Mihaylova, D.; Liapis, Andreas C.; Shi, Z.; Goldberg, D.; Menon, V. M.; Boyd, R. W.; Chen, G.; Prasad, P.

    2014-10-01

    Results are presented here towards robust room-temperature SPSs based on fluorescence in nanocrystals: colloidal quantum dots, color-center diamonds and doped with trivalent rare-earth ions (TR3+). We used cholesteric chiral photonic bandgap and Bragg-reflector microcavities for single emitter fluorescence enhancement. We also developed plasmonic bowtie nanoantennas and 2D-Si-photonic bandgap microcavities. The paper also provides short outlines of other technologies for room-temperature single-photon sources.

  10. Room-temperature miscibility gap in LixFePO4.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Atsuo; Koizumi, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Shin-Ichi; Sonoyama, Noriyuki; Kanno, Ryoji; Yonemura, Masao; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Yo

    2006-05-01

    The rechargeable lithium-ion cell is an advanced energy-storage system. However, high cost, safety hazards, and chemical instability prohibit its use in large-scale applications. An alternative cathode material, LiFePO(4), solves these problems, but has a kinetic problem involving strong electron/hole localization. One reason for this is believed to be the limited carrier density in the fixed monovalent Fe(3+)PO(4)/LiFe(2+)PO(4) two-phase electrode reaction in LixFePO4. Here, we provide experimental evidence that LixFePO4, at room temperature, can be described as a mixture of the Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) mixed-valent intermediate LialphaFePO4 and Li1-betaFePO4 phases. Using powder neutron diffraction, the site occupancy numbers for lithium in each phase were refined to be alpha=0.05 and 1-beta=0.89. The corresponding solid solution ranges outside the miscibility gap (0temperatures.

  11. Colossal Room-Temperature Electrocaloric Effect in Ferroelectric Polymer Nanocomposites Using Nanostructured Barium Strontium Titanates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangzu; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Yang, Tiannan; Li, Qi; Chen, Long-Qing; Jiang, Shenglin; Wang, Qing

    2015-07-28

    The electrocaloric effect (ECE) refers to conversion of thermal to electrical energy of polarizable materials and could form the basis for the next-generation refrigeration and power technologies that are highly efficient and environmentally friendly. Ferroelectric materials such as ceramic and polymer films exhibit large ECEs, but each of these monolithic materials has its own limitations for practical cooling applications. In this work, nanosized barium strontium titanates with systematically varied morphologies have been prepared to form polymer nanocomposites with the ferroelectric polymer matrix. The solution-processed polymer nanocomposites exhibit an extraordinary room-temperature ECE via the synergistic combination of the high breakdown strength of a ferroelectric polymer matrix and the large change of polarization with temperature of ceramic nanofillers. It is found that a sizable ECE can be generated under both modest and high electric fields, and further enhanced greatly by tailoring the morphology of the ferroelectric nanofillers such as increasing the aspect ratio of the nanoinclusions. The effect of the geometry of the nanofillers on the dielectric permittivity, polarization, breakdown strength, ECE and crystallinity of the ferroelectric polymer has been systematically investigated. Simulations based on the phase-field model have been carried out to substantiate the experimental results. With the remarkable cooling energy density and refrigerant capacity, the polymer nanocomposites are promising for solid-state cooling applications.

  12. Spreading of lithium on a stainless steel surface at room temperature

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Skinner, C. H.; Capece, A. M.; Roszell, J. P.; Koel, B. E.

    2015-11-10

    Lithium conditioned plasma facing surfaces have lowered recycling and enhanced plasma performance on many fusion devices and liquid lithium plasma facing components are under consideration for future machines. A key factor in the performance of liquid lithium components is the wetting by lithium of its container. We have observed the surface spreading of lithium from a mm-scale particle to adjacent stainless steel surfaces using a scanning Auger microprobe that has elemental discrimination. Here, the spreading of lithium occurred at room temperature (when lithium is a solid) from one location at a speed of 0.62 μm/day under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Separatemore » experiments using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) investigated bonding energetics between monolayer-scale films of lithium and stainless steel. While multilayer lithium desorption from stainless steel begins to occur just above 500 K (Edes = 1.54 eV), sub-monolayer Li desorption occurred in a TPD peak at 942 K (Edes = 2.52 eV) indicating more energetically favorable lithium-stainless steel bonding (in the absence of an oxidation layer) than lithium lithium bonding.« less

  13. Spreading of lithium on a stainless steel surface at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C. H.; Capece, A. M.; Roszell, J. P.; Koel, B. E.

    2015-11-10

    Lithium conditioned plasma facing surfaces have lowered recycling and enhanced plasma performance on many fusion devices and liquid lithium plasma facing components are under consideration for future machines. A key factor in the performance of liquid lithium components is the wetting by lithium of its container. We have observed the surface spreading of lithium from a mm-scale particle to adjacent stainless steel surfaces using a scanning Auger microprobe that has elemental discrimination. Here, the spreading of lithium occurred at room temperature (when lithium is a solid) from one location at a speed of 0.62 μm/day under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Separate experiments using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) investigated bonding energetics between monolayer-scale films of lithium and stainless steel. While multilayer lithium desorption from stainless steel begins to occur just above 500 K (Edes = 1.54 eV), sub-monolayer Li desorption occurred in a TPD peak at 942 K (Edes = 2.52 eV) indicating more energetically favorable lithium-stainless steel bonding (in the absence of an oxidation layer) than lithium lithium bonding.

  14. Room-temperature miscibility gap in LixFePO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Atsuo; Koizumi, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Shin-Ichi; Sonoyama, Noriyuki; Kanno, Ryoji; Yonemura, Masao; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Yo

    2006-05-01

    The rechargeable lithium-ion cell is an advanced energy-storage system. However, high cost, safety hazards, and chemical instability prohibit its use in large-scale applications. An alternative cathode material, LiFePO4, solves these problems, but has a kinetic problem involving strong electron/hole localization. One reason for this is believed to be the limited carrier density in the fixed monovalent Fe3+PO4/LiFe2+PO4 two-phase electrode reaction in LixFePO4. Here, we provide experimental evidence that LixFePO4, at room temperature, can be described as a mixture of the Fe3+/Fe2+ mixed-valent intermediate LiαFePO4 and Li1-βFePO4 phases. Using powder neutron diffraction, the site occupancy numbers for lithium in each phase were refined to be α=0.05 and 1-β=0.89. The corresponding solid solution ranges outside the miscibility gap (0temperatures.

  15. Room-temperature miscibility gap in LixFePO4.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Atsuo; Koizumi, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Shin-Ichi; Sonoyama, Noriyuki; Kanno, Ryoji; Yonemura, Masao; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Yo

    2006-05-01

    The rechargeable lithium-ion cell is an advanced energy-storage system. However, high cost, safety hazards, and chemical instability prohibit its use in large-scale applications. An alternative cathode material, LiFePO(4), solves these problems, but has a kinetic problem involving strong electron/hole localization. One reason for this is believed to be the limited carrier density in the fixed monovalent Fe(3+)PO(4)/LiFe(2+)PO(4) two-phase electrode reaction in LixFePO4. Here, we provide experimental evidence that LixFePO4, at room temperature, can be described as a mixture of the Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) mixed-valent intermediate LialphaFePO4 and Li1-betaFePO4 phases. Using powder neutron diffraction, the site occupancy numbers for lithium in each phase were refined to be alpha=0.05 and 1-beta=0.89. The corresponding solid solution ranges outside the miscibility gap (0temperatures. PMID:16617345

  16. Graphene-based room-temperature implementation of a modified Deutsch-Jozsa quantum algorithm.

    PubMed

    Dragoman, Daniela; Dragoman, Mircea

    2015-12-01

    We present an implementation of a one-qubit and two-qubit modified Deutsch-Jozsa quantum algorithm based on graphene ballistic devices working at room temperature. The modified Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm decides whether a function, equivalent to the effect of an energy potential distribution on the wave function of ballistic charge carriers, is constant or not, without measuring the output wave function. The function need not be Boolean. Simulations confirm that the algorithm works properly, opening the way toward quantum computing at room temperature based on the same clean-room technologies as those used for fabrication of very-large-scale integrated circuits. PMID:26541203

  17. Graphene-based room-temperature implementation of a modified Deutsch-Jozsa quantum algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragoman, Daniela; Dragoman, Mircea

    2015-12-01

    We present an implementation of a one-qubit and two-qubit modified Deutsch-Jozsa quantum algorithm based on graphene ballistic devices working at room temperature. The modified Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm decides whether a function, equivalent to the effect of an energy potential distribution on the wave function of ballistic charge carriers, is constant or not, without measuring the output wave function. The function need not be Boolean. Simulations confirm that the algorithm works properly, opening the way toward quantum computing at room temperature based on the same clean-room technologies as those used for fabrication of very-large-scale integrated circuits.

  18. Room-temperature calorimeter for x-ray free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T. Kato, M.; Saito, N.; Tono, K.; Yabashi, M.; Ishikawa, T.

    2015-09-15

    We have developed a room-temperature calorimeter for absolute radiant power measurements of x-ray free-electron lasers. This room-temperature calorimeter is an electrical substitution device based on the equivalence of electrical and radiant heating. Consequently, the measured radiant powers are traceable to electrical standards, i.e., the International System Units (SI). We demonstrated the performance of the room-temperature calorimeter by electrical power measurements (offline tests). In the offline tests, the room-temperature calorimeter was proven to be able to measure external powers up to at least 6.9 mW, which exceeds the upper limit (∼4 mW) of a cryogenic radiometer (the primary standard detector in Japan). In addition, measurement uncertainties of the room-temperature calorimeter were evaluated to be less than 1.0%, which is adequate for the radiant power measurements of x-ray free-electron lasers. An indirect comparison with the cryogenic radiometer was performed using a synchrotron radiation source to confirm the validity of the absolute radiant powers measured with the room-temperature calorimeter. The absolute radiant powers measured by the calorimeter agreed with those measured by the cryogenic radiometer within 0.6%, which is less than the relative standard uncertainty of the comparison (1.0%)

  19. Evolution of Dust Structures from Room to Cryogenic Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Antipov, S. N.; Asinovskii, E. I.; Kirillin, A. V.; Markovets, V. V.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E.

    2008-09-07

    In this work dusty plasma of dc glow discharge at the temperatures in the range of 4.2-300 K was experimentally and numerically investigated. As it was shown in the experiments, the deep cooling of discharge tube walls leads to dramatic change of dusty plasma properties. In particular, sufficient increase of dust particle kinetic temperature (by about an order) and dust density (by several orders) was observed at low (cryogenic) temperatures. At 4.2 K, this can lead to the forming of a super dense dust structures with novel properties. Numerical simulations of charging process, dust charge fluctuation and screening of dust particle charge in plasma were made in dependence with the neutral gas temperature and dust density. The main attention was given to proper ion-atom collision analysis that allows us to investigate mechanisms of dust structure transformation observed in the cryogenic experiments.

  20. Fast synthesis of high-quality reduced graphene oxide at room temperature under light exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Some, Surajit; Kim, Sungjin; Samanta, Khokan; Kim, Youngmin; Yoon, Yeoheung; Park, Younghun; Lee, Sae Mi; Lee, Keunsik; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2014-09-01

    An approach of presenting new reducing reagents, sodium-benzophenone (Na-B) or Na-B in the presence of the hydrazine (Na-B-H) system under light exposure could produce rGOs with/without N-doping at room temperature in both the solution phase and on a solid substrate. Benzophenone activated those solutions acting as a photosensitizer under light. It was assumed that the newly generated radical anions with electrons from Na-B under light can reduce GO to rGO sheets (rGONa-B1). In addition, the Na-B-H system can allow a higher degree of reduction with the doping of nitrogen atoms by the introduction of hydrazine to produce radical anions and electrons with a sodium hydrazide complex, which helps decrease the sheet resistance of the as-made rGONa-B-H2. The excellent properties (very low oxygen content (C/O ~16.2), and low sheet resistance (~130 Ω square-1)) of the rGOs were confirmed by XPS, XRD, IR, Raman spectroscopy, TGA, wettability, and sheet resistance measurements. High-quality rGO films on flexible substrates could be prepared by directly immersing the GO films in these solutions for several minutes.An approach of presenting new reducing reagents, sodium-benzophenone (Na-B) or Na-B in the presence of the hydrazine (Na-B-H) system under light exposure could produce rGOs with/without N-doping at room temperature in both the solution phase and on a solid substrate. Benzophenone activated those solutions acting as a photosensitizer under light. It was assumed that the newly generated radical anions with electrons from Na-B under light can reduce GO to rGO sheets (rGONa-B1). In addition, the Na-B-H system can allow a higher degree of reduction with the doping of nitrogen atoms by the introduction of hydrazine to produce radical anions and electrons with a sodium hydrazide complex, which helps decrease the sheet resistance of the as-made rGONa-B-H2. The excellent properties (very low oxygen content (C/O ~16.2), and low sheet resistance (~130 Ω square-1)) of the r

  1. Entanglement and Bell's inequality violation above room temperature in metal carboxylates.

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, A M; Soares-Pinto, D O; Sarthour, R S; Oliveira, I S; Reis, Mario S; Brandao, Paula; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F

    2009-01-01

    In the present work we show that a particular family of materials, the metal carboxylates, may have entangled states up to very high temperatures. From magnetic-susceptibility measurements, we have estimated the critical temperature below which entanglement exists in the copper carboxylate {Cu-2(O2CH)(4)}{Cu(O2CH)(2)(2-methylpyridine)(2)}, and we have found this to be above room temperature (T-e similar to 630 K). Furthermore, the results show that the system remains maximally entangled until close to similar to 100 K and the Bell's inequality is violated up to nearly room temperature (similar to 290 K).

  2. One-pot room-temperature conversion of cyclohexane to adipic acid by ozone and UV light.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kuo Chu; Sagadevan, Arunachalam

    2014-12-19

    Nitric acid oxidation of cyclohexane accounts for ~95% of the worldwide adipic acid production and is also responsible for ~5 to 8% of the annual worldwide anthropogenic emission of the ozone-depleting greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Here we report a N2O-free process for adipic acid synthesis. Treatment of neat cyclohexane, cyclohexanol, or cyclohexanone with ozone at room temperature and 1 atmosphere of pressure affords adipic acid as a solid precipitate. Addition of acidic water or exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation (or a combination of both) dramatically enhances the oxidative conversion of cyclohexane to adipic acid.

  3. A Fluorinated Ligand Enables Room-Temperature and Regioselective Pd-Catalyzed Fluorination of Aryl Triflates and Bromides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A new biaryl monophosphine ligand (AlPhos, L1) allows for the room-temperature Pd-catalyzed fluorination of a variety of activated (hetero)aryl triflates. Furthermore, aryl triflates and bromides that are prone to give mixtures of regioisomeric aryl fluorides with Pd-catalysis can now be converted to the desired aryl fluorides with high regioselectivity. Analysis of the solid-state structures of several Pd(II) complexes, as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations, shed light on the origin of the enhanced reactivity observed with L1. PMID:26413908

  4. Thermal Transport in C60 Molecular Crystals Above Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, Caroline S.; McGaughey, Alan J. H.

    2015-03-01

    The thermal conductivity of solid fullerene molecular systems has garnered significant interest as an example of materials whose thermal transport is dominated by Einstein-type oscillators. Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, this study isolates the roles of intramolecular and intermolecular vibrational degrees of freedom on the bulk thermal conductivity of the face-centered cubic C60 molecular crystal. The Green-Kubo method is used to predict the bulk thermal conductivity. The contributions to thermal transport resulting from collective motions of the molecules, molecular rotations, and intramolecular vibrations are isolated using non-equilibrium methods. These contributions are interpreted using a Debye model, a nearest-neighbor resistance network, and Allen-Feldman theory. C.S.G. is grateful for funding from the NASA Office of Graduate Research through the Space Technology Research Fellowship.

  5. Tunable room-temperature ferromagnet using an iron-oxide and graphene oxide nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Lin, Aigu L; Rodrigues, J N B; Su, Chenliang; Milletari, M; Loh, Kian Ping; Wu, Tom; Chen, Wei; Neto, A H Castro; Adam, Shaffique; Wee, Andrew T S

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic materials have found wide application ranging from electronics and memories to medicine. Essential to these advances is the control of the magnetic order. To date, most room-temperature applications have a fixed magnetic moment whose orientation is manipulated for functionality. Here we demonstrate an iron-oxide and graphene oxide nanocomposite based device that acts as a tunable ferromagnet at room temperature. Not only can we tune its transition temperature in a wide range of temperatures around room temperature, but the magnetization can also be tuned from zero to 0.011 A m(2)/kg through an initialization process with two readily accessible knobs (magnetic field and electric current), after which the system retains its magnetic properties semi-permanently until the next initialization process. We construct a theoretical model to illustrate that this tunability originates from an indirect exchange interaction mediated by spin-imbalanced electrons inside the nanocomposite. PMID:26100970

  6. Tunable room-temperature ferromagnet using an iron-oxide and graphene oxide nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Aigu L.; Rodrigues, J. N. B.; Su, Chenliang; Milletari, M.; Loh, Kian Ping; Wu, Tom; Chen, Wei; Neto, A. H. Castro; Adam, Shaffique; Wee, Andrew T. S.

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic materials have found wide application ranging from electronics and memories to medicine. Essential to these advances is the control of the magnetic order. To date, most room-temperature applications have a fixed magnetic moment whose orientation is manipulated for functionality. Here we demonstrate an iron-oxide and graphene oxide nanocomposite based device that acts as a tunable ferromagnet at room temperature. Not only can we tune its transition temperature in a wide range of temperatures around room temperature, but the magnetization can also be tuned from zero to 0.011 A m2/kg through an initialization process with two readily accessible knobs (magnetic field and electric current), after which the system retains its magnetic properties semi-permanently until the next initialization process. We construct a theoretical model to illustrate that this tunability originates from an indirect exchange interaction mediated by spin-imbalanced electrons inside the nanocomposite.

  7. Biomedical application of metalloporphyrins room-temperature phosphorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savitsky, Alexander P.

    1993-05-01

    Biological specimens are characterized by high light-scattering and background fluorescence which cause decrease in sensitivity of immunoassays. These unfavorable effects can be minimized by selecting a label with high absolute sensitivity, appropriate excitation and emission wavelengths, and time-resolved mode of measurements. This can be achieved by the use of metalloporphyrin labels, microsecond logic for discrimination of scattered light and background fluorescence which arises in optical elements, cells, solvents, and samples. The intensity of metalloporphyrin phosphorescence depends to a great extent on pH. Nonionic and cationic micelles have a strong effect on the phosphorescence quantum yield of Pd- coproporphyrin. Under optimum conditions Pd-coproporphyrin can be detected at a concentration of 10-13M by using modified Arcus 1230 (Wallac, Finland). On the basis of these results a novel class of luminescent labels --phosphorescent metalloporphyrins -- was applied to immunoassays. Pd- and Pt-coproporphyrins were used for the covalent labeling of antibodies and antigens. Special derivatives of a porphyrin with activated side chain were synthesized. Techniques for covalent coupling of porphyrins and their metal derivatives with proteins were developed as well as methods for purification of conjugates. A solid-phase time-resolved porphyrin phosphorescence immunoassay test was developed. The well known `sandwich' and competition techniques are compatible with the proposed method. Two or more metalloporphyrins with distinguishable phosphorescent parameters may be used for the simultaneous determining of several antigens in one sample.

  8. Room temperature detection of individual molecular physisorption using suspended bilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Muruganathan, Manoharan; Mizuta, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Detection of individual molecular adsorption, which represents the ultimate resolution of gas sensing, has rarely been realized with solid-state devices. So far, only a few studies have reported detection of individual adsorption by measuring the variation of electronic transport stemming from the charge transfer of adsorbate. We report room-temperature detection of the individual physisorption of carbon dioxide molecules with suspended bilayer graphene (BLG) based on a different mechanism. An electric field introduced by applying back-gate voltage is used to effectively enhance the adsorption rate. A unique device architecture is designed to induce tensile strain in the BLG to prevent its mechanical deflection onto the substrate by electrostatic force. Despite the negligible charge transfer from a single physisorbed molecule, it strongly affects the electronic transport in suspended BLG by inducing charged impurity, which can shut down part of the conduction of the BLG with Coulomb impurity scattering. Accordingly, we can detect each individual physisorption as a step-like resistance change with a quantized value in the BLG. We use density functional theory simulation to theoretically estimate the possible resistance response caused by Coulomb scattering of one adsorbed CO2 molecule, which is in agreement with our measurement. PMID:27152344

  9. Radiation defect dynamics in Si at room temperature studied by pulsed ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, J. B.; Myers, M. T.; Charnvanichborikarn, S.; Bayu Aji, L. B.; Kucheyev, S. O.; Shao, L.

    2015-10-07

    The evolution of radiation defects after the thermalization of collision cascades often plays the dominant role in the formation of stable radiation disorder in crystalline solids of interest to electronics and nuclear materials applications. Here, we explore a pulsed-ion-beam method to study defect interaction dynamics in Si crystals bombarded at room temperature with 500 keV Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe ions. The effective time constant of defect interaction is measured directly by studying the dependence of lattice disorder, monitored by ion channeling, on the passive part of the beam duty cycle. The effective defect diffusion length is revealed by the dependence of damage on the active part of the beam duty cycle. Results show that the defect relaxation behavior obeys a second order kinetic process for all the cases studied, with a time constant in the range of ∼4–13 ms and a diffusion length of ∼15–50 nm. Both radiation dynamics parameters (the time constant and diffusion length) are essentially independent of the maximum instantaneous dose rate, total ion dose, and dopant concentration within the ranges studied. However, both the time constant and diffusion length increase with increasing ion mass. This demonstrates that the density of collision cascades influences not only defect production and annealing efficiencies but also the defect interaction dynamics.

  10. Electrochemical performance of CuO nanocrystal film fabricated by room temperature sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.K.; Xia, H.; Lai, M.O.; Lu, L.

    2011-03-15

    Graphical abstract: High capacity of CuO thin film electrode for all-solid-state thin film batteries. Research highlights: {yields} Nanostructured CuO thin film is prepared by in situ sputtering. {yields} Excellent electrochemical performance with a very high capacity is achieved. {yields} Due to nanostructured grains, the in situ formed CuO possesses good cyclability. -- Abstract: To develop high performance anode materials for thin film batteries, copper oxide (CuO) film is fabricated at room temperature by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Morphological characterization shows that the CuO film consists of compacted CuO columnar grains of 20 nm in diameter and 200 nm in thickness. The measurement of lithium storage capacity and cyclability of the CuO film show that the first charge capacity of the film is 585 mAh g{sup -1} with an efficiency of 68.3% at a current density of 200 mA g{sup -1}. After the 50th cycle, the capacity retention remains as high as 97.4%. The nanostructured CuO film also shows a good rate capability even being cycled at 3000 mA g{sup -1} (5 C), demonstrating that the CuO film can be a promising material as an anode for high performance thin film batteries, especially for thin film battery with amorphous electrolyte.

  11. Room-temperature magnetic properties of SiC based nanowires synthesized via microwave heating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Song; Wang, Jigang

    2016-07-01

    Two kinds of ferromagnetic SiC based nanowires with and without Ni catalyst were successfully synthesized by employing microwave heating method. The comprehensive characterizations and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) have been applied to investigate the micro-structures and magnetic properties of as-grown nanowires. For the nanowires synthesized without using Ni catalyst, the diameters and lengths are in the range of 20-60 nm and dozens of micrometers, respectively. Particularly, the results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show that the nanowires consist of SiC core and SiOx shell. The SiC/SiOx coaxial nanowires exhibit room-temperature ferromagnetism with saturation magnetization (Ms) of 0.2 emu/g. As to the nanowires obtained using Ni catalyst, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results indicate that the Ni catalyzed nanowires have a nano-particle attached on the tip and a uniform diameter of approximately 50 nm. The vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism can be used to explain the formation of the Ni catalyzed nanowires. The detection result of VSM indicates that the Ni catalyzed nanowires possess the paramagnetism and the ferromagnetism, simultaneously. The enhancement of the ferromagnetism, compared with the SiC/SiOx coaxial nanowires, could be attributed to the Ni2Si and NiSi phases.

  12. Singular robust room-temperature spin response from topological Dirac fermions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lukas; Deng, Haiming; Korzhovska, Inna; Chen, Zhiyi; Konczykowski, Marcin; Hruban, Andrzej; Oganesyan, Vadim; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia

    2014-06-01

    Topological insulators are a class of solids in which the non-trivial inverted bulk band structure gives rise to metallic surface states that are robust against impurity scattering. In three-dimensional (3D) topological insulators, however, the surface Dirac fermions intermix with the conducting bulk, thereby complicating access to the low-energy (Dirac point) charge transport or magnetic response. Here we use differential magnetometry to probe spin rotation in the 3D topological material family (Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3). We report a paramagnetic singularity in the magnetic susceptibility at low magnetic fields that persists up to room temperature, and which we demonstrate to arise from the surfaces of the samples. The singularity is universal to the entire family, largely independent of the bulk carrier density, and consistent with the existence of electronic states near the spin-degenerate Dirac point of the 2D helical metal. The exceptional thermal stability of the signal points to an intrinsic surface cooling process, probably of thermoelectric origin, and establishes a sustainable platform for the singular field-tunable Dirac spin response.

  13. Room temperature metastable monoclinic phase in BaTiO3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lummen, Tom; Wang, Jianjun; Holt, Martin; Kumar, Amit; Vlahos, Eftihia; Denev, Sava; Chen, Long-Qing; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2011-03-01

    Low-symmetry monoclinic phases in ferroelectric materials are of considerable interest, due to their associated enhanced electromechanical coupling. Such phases have been found in Pb-based perovskite solid solutions such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT), where they form structural bridges between the rhombohedral and tetragonal ground states in compositional space. In this work, we directly image such a monoclinic phase in BaTi O3 crystals at room-temperature, using optical second harmonic generation, Raman, and X-ray microscopic imaging techniques. Phase-field modeling indicates that ferroelectric domain microstructures in BaTi O3 induce local inhomogeneous stresses in the crystals, which can effectively trap the transient intermediate monoclinic structure that occurs across the thermal orthorhombic-tetragonal phase boundary. The induced metastable monoclinic domains are ferroelectrically soft, being easily moved by electric fields as low as 0.5 kV cm-1 . Stabilizing such intermediate low-symmetry phases could very well lead to Pb-free materials with enhanced piezoelectric properties.

  14. Room temperature detection of individual molecular physisorption using suspended bilayer graphene

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian; Muruganathan, Manoharan; Mizuta, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Detection of individual molecular adsorption, which represents the ultimate resolution of gas sensing, has rarely been realized with solid-state devices. So far, only a few studies have reported detection of individual adsorption by measuring the variation of electronic transport stemming from the charge transfer of adsorbate. We report room-temperature detection of the individual physisorption of carbon dioxide molecules with suspended bilayer graphene (BLG) based on a different mechanism. An electric field introduced by applying back-gate voltage is used to effectively enhance the adsorption rate. A unique device architecture is designed to induce tensile strain in the BLG to prevent its mechanical deflection onto the substrate by electrostatic force. Despite the negligible charge transfer from a single physisorbed molecule, it strongly affects the electronic transport in suspended BLG by inducing charged impurity, which can shut down part of the conduction of the BLG with Coulomb impurity scattering. Accordingly, we can detect each individual physisorption as a step-like resistance change with a quantized value in the BLG. We use density functional theory simulation to theoretically estimate the possible resistance response caused by Coulomb scattering of one adsorbed CO2 molecule, which is in agreement with our measurement. PMID:27152344

  15. Room-temperature ferroelectricity of SrTiO{sub 3} films modulated by cation concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Fang; Zhang, Qinghua; Yang, Zhenzhong; Gu, Junxing; Liang, Yan; Li, Wentao; Wang, Weihua; Jin, Kuijuan; Gu, Lin; Guo, Jiandong

    2015-08-24

    The room-temperature ferroelectricity of SrTiO{sub 3} is promising for oxide electronic devices controlled by multiple fields. An effective way to control the ferroelectricity is highly demanded. Here, we show that the off-centered antisite-like defects in SrTiO{sub 3} films epitaxially grown on Si (001) play the determinative role in the emergence of room-temperature ferroelectricity. The density of these defects changes with the film cation concentration sensitively, resulting in a varied coercive field of the ferroelectric behavior. Consequently, the room-temperature ferroelectricity of SrTiO{sub 3} films can be effectively modulated by tuning the temperature of metal sources during the molecular beam epitaxy growth. Such an easy and reliable modulation of the ferroelectricity enables the flexible engineering of multifunctional oxide electronic devices.

  16. Fundamental Properties of TBAF Clathrate for Usage as a Latent Heat Storage at a Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizushima, Takanari; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Takao, Shingo; Yabe, Akira

    For promotion of further energy conservation, development of a coolant with a higher heat capacity regulated around a room temperature is strongly required. As a candidate of such a new coolant, we employ the clathrate hydrate, i.e., a mixture of Tetra n-butyl ammonium fluoride (TBAF) and water. This clathrate hydrate is composed of the micro crystals with an order of 100 μm in dimension. It retains fluidity and melting point at a room temperature of about 25 °C. Moreover, the melting point is able to be controlled between 25 °C and 0 °C by changing the concentration of TBAF. The temperature can be regulated by its latent heat at the melting point. Characteristics such as the latent heat and the crystal structure of the clathrate have been experimentally obtained to confirm the feasibility for its usage as the latent heat storage around a room temperature.

  17. Experimental Demonstration of Room-Temperature Spin Transport in n-Type Germanium Epilayers.

    PubMed

    Dushenko, S; Koike, M; Ando, Y; Shinjo, T; Myronov, M; Shiraishi, M

    2015-05-15

    We report an experimental demonstration of room-temperature spin transport in n-type Ge epilayers grown on a Si(001) substrate. By utilizing spin pumping under ferromagnetic resonance, which inherently endows a spin battery function for semiconductors connected with a ferromagnet, a pure spin current is generated in the n-Ge at room temperature. The pure spin current is detected by using the inverse spin-Hall effect of either a Pt or Pd electrode on n-Ge. From a theoretical model that includes a geometrical contribution, the spin diffusion length in n-Ge at room temperature is estimated to be 660 nm. Moreover, the spin relaxation time decreases with increasing temperature, in agreement with a recently proposed theory of donor-driven spin relaxation in multivalley semiconductors.

  18. Proposal of a general scheme to obtain room-temperature spin polarization in asymmetric antiferromagnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingxing; Wu, Xiaojun; Li, Zhenyu; Yang, Jinlong

    2015-09-01

    Exploring magnetic semiconductors is one of the most important questions for spintronic applications. Although various solutions, such as dilute magnetic semiconductors, have been proposed, a practical spintronic device working at room temperature has not been realized. The key to address this issue is to find magnetic materials with both room-temperature magnetic ordering and large spin polarization around the Fermi energy level. Here, we predict a new concept of asymmetric antiferromagnetic (AFM) semiconductors (AAFMSs) with both features. The high temperature magnetic ordering originates from the AFM coupling between different transition metal ions with strong super-exchange interaction, whereas the large spin polarization around the Fermi energy level owes to d orbital mismatch among these ions. Through first-principles calculations, a family of double perovskites A2Cr M O6 (A =Ca ,Sr ,Ba , and M =Ru ,Os ) are predicted to be AAFMSs. This paper provides a way for developing spintronic devices working at room temperature.

  19. Direct observation of a highly spin-polarized organic spinterface at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Djeghloul, F.; Ibrahim, F.; Cantoni, M.; Bowen, M.; Joly, L.; Boukari, S.; Ohresser, P.; Bertran, F.; Le Fèvre, P.; Thakur, P.; Scheurer, F.; Miyamachi, T.; Mattana, R.; Seneor, P.; Jaafar, A.; Rinaldi, C.; Javaid, S.; Arabski, J.; Kappler, J. -P; Wulfhekel, W.; Brookes, N. B.; Bertacco, R.; Taleb-Ibrahimi, A.; Alouani, M.; Beaurepaire, E.; Weber, W.

    2013-01-01

    Organic semiconductors constitute promising candidates toward large-scale electronic circuits that are entirely spintronics-driven. Toward this goal, tunneling magnetoresistance values above 300% at low temperature suggested the presence of highly spin-polarized device interfaces. However, such spinterfaces have not been observed directly, let alone at room temperature. Thanks to experiments and theory on the model spinterface between phthalocyanine molecules and a Co single crystal surface, we clearly evidence a highly efficient spinterface. Spin-polarised direct and inverse photoemission experiments reveal a high degree of spin polarisation at room temperature at this interface. We measured a magnetic moment on the molecule's nitrogen π orbitals, which substantiates an ab-initio theoretical description of highly spin-polarised charge conduction across the interface due to differing spinterface formation mechanisms in each spin channel. We propose, through this example, a recipe to engineer simple organic-inorganic interfaces with remarkable spintronic properties that can endure well above room temperature. PMID:23412079

  20. Experimental Demonstration of Room-Temperature Spin Transport in n -Type Germanium Epilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dushenko, S.; Koike, M.; Ando, Y.; Shinjo, T.; Myronov, M.; Shiraishi, M.

    2015-05-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of room-temperature spin transport in n -type Ge epilayers grown on a Si(001) substrate. By utilizing spin pumping under ferromagnetic resonance, which inherently endows a spin battery function for semiconductors connected with a ferromagnet, a pure spin current is generated in the n -Ge at room temperature. The pure spin current is detected by using the inverse spin-Hall effect of either a Pt or Pd electrode on n -Ge . From a theoretical model that includes a geometrical contribution, the spin diffusion length in n -Ge at room temperature is estimated to be 660 nm. Moreover, the spin relaxation time decreases with increasing temperature, in agreement with a recently proposed theory of donor-driven spin relaxation in multivalley semiconductors.

  1. Observation of a large spin-dependent transport length in organic spin valves at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianmin; Mizukami, Shigemi; Kubota, Takahide; Ma, Qinli; Oogane, Mikihiko; Naganuma, Hiroshi; Ando, Yasuo; Miyazaki, Terunobu

    2013-01-01

    The integration of organic semiconductors and magnetism has been a fascinating topic for fundamental scientific research and future applications in electronics, because organic semiconductors are expected to possess a large spin-dependent transport length based on weak spin-orbit coupling and weak hyperfine interaction. However, to date, this length has typically been limited to several nanometres at room temperature, and a large length has only been observed at low temperatures. Here we report on a novel organic spin valve device using C(60) as the spacer layer. A magnetoresistance ratio of over 5% was observed at room temperature, which is one of the highest magnetoresistance ratios ever reported. Most importantly, a large spin-dependent transport length of approximately 110 nm was experimentally observed for the C(60) layer at room temperature. These results provide insights for further understanding spin transport in organic semiconductors and may strongly advance the development of spin-based organic devices. PMID:23340432

  2. Dispersion interactions in room-temperature ionic liquids: results from a non-empirical density functional.

    PubMed

    Kohanoff, Jorge; Pinilla, Carlos; Youngs, Tristan G A; Artacho, Emilio; Soler, José M

    2011-10-21

    The role of dispersion or van de Waals (VDW) interactions in imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids is studied within the framework of density functional theory, using a recently developed non-empirical functional [M. Dion, H. Rydberg, E. Schröder, D. C. Langreth, and B. I. Lundqvist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 246401 (2004)], as efficiently implemented in the SIESTA code [G. Román-Pérez and J. M. Soler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 096102 (2009)]. We present results for the equilibrium structure and lattice parameters of several crystalline phases, finding a general improvement with respect to both the local density (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximations (GGA). Similar to other systems characterized by VDW bonding, such as rare gas and benzene dimers as well as solid argon, equilibrium distances and volumes are consistently overestimated by ≈7%, compared to -11% within LDA and 11% within GGA. The intramolecular geometries are retained, while the intermolecular distances and orientations are significantly improved relative to LDA and GGA. The quality is superior to that achieved with tailor-made empirical VDW corrections ad hoc [M. G. Del Pópolo, C. Pinilla, and P. Ballone, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 144705 (2007)]. We also analyse the performance of an optimized version of this non-empirical functional, where the screening properties of the exchange have been tuned to reproduce high-level quantum chemical calculations [J. Klimes, D. Bowler, and A. Michaelides, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22, 074203 (2010)]. The results for solids are even better with volumes and geometries reproduced within 2% of experimental data. We provide some insight into the issue of polymorphism of [bmim][Cl] crystals, and we present results for the geometry and energetics of [bmim][Tf] and [mmim][Cl] neutral and charged clusters, which validate the use of empirical force fields. PMID:22029322

  3. Subtle variation in ambient room temperature influences the expression of social cognition.

    PubMed

    Vigil, Jacob M; Swartz, Tyler J; Rowell, Lauren N

    2013-10-01

    Social signaling models predict that subtle variation in climatic temperature induces systematic changes in expressed cognition. An experiment showed that perceived room temperature was associated with variability in self-descriptions, social reactions of others, and desiring differing types of social networks. The findings reflect the tendency to inflate capacity demonstrations in warmer climates as a result of the social networking opportunities they enable.

  4. Mn,Cd-metallothionein-2: a room temperature magnetic protein.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Ching; Lee, Shang-Fan; Sun, Kein-Wen; Ho, Chien-Chang; Chen, Yu-Ting; Chang, Cheng-Hung; Kan, Lou-Sing

    2006-02-24

    Naturally occurring metallothionein (MT) is a metal binding protein, which binds to seven Zn2+ through 20 conserved cysteines and forms two metal binding clusters with a Zinc-Blende structure. We demonstrate that the MT, when substituting the Zn2+ ions by Mn2+ and Cd2+, exhibits magnetic hysteresis loop observable by SQUID from 10 to 330 K. The magnetic moment may have originated from the bridging effect of the sulfur atoms between the metal ions that leads to the alignment of the electron spins of the Mn2+ ions inside the clusters. The protein backbone may restrain the net spin moment of Mn2+ ions from thermal fluctuation. The modified magnetic-metallothionein is a novel approach to creating molecular magnets with operating temperatures up to 330 K. PMID:16403435

  5. Room Temperature Aging Study of Butyl O-rings

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Wilson

    2009-08-07

    During testing under the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign in 2001, preliminary data detected a previously unknown and potentially serious concern with recently procured butyl o-rings. All butyl o-rings molded from a proprietary formulation throughout the period circa 1999 through 2001 had less than a full cure. Tests showed that sealing force values for these suspect o-rings were much lower than expected and their physical properties were very sensitive to further post curing at elevated temperatures. Further testing confirmed that these o-rings were approximately 50% cured versus the typical industry standard of > 90% cured. Despite this condition, all suspect o-rings fully conformed to their QC acceptance requirements, including their individual product drawing requirements.

  6. Room Temperature Magnetic Barrier Layers in Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson-Cheeseman, B. B.; Wong, F. J.; Chopdekar, R. V.; Arenholz, E.; Suzuki, Y.

    2010-03-09

    We investigate the spin transport and interfacial magnetism of magnetic tunnel junctions with highly spin polarized LSMO and Fe3O4 electrodes and a ferrimagnetic NiFe2O4 (NFO) barrier layer. The spin dependent transport can be understood in terms of magnon-assisted spin dependent tunneling where the magnons are excited in the barrier layer itself. The NFO/Fe3O4 interface displays strong magnetic coupling, while the LSMO/NFO interface exhibits clear decoupling as determined by a combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism. This decoupling allows for distinct parallel and antiparallel electrode states in this all-magnetic trilayer. The spin transport of these devices, dominated by the NFO barrier layer magnetism, leads to a symmetric bias dependence of the junction magnetoresistance at all temperatures.

  7. Continuous wave room temperature external ring cavity quantum cascade laser

    SciTech Connect

    Revin, D. G. Hemingway, M.; Vaitiekus, D.; Cockburn, J. W.; Hempler, N.; Maker, G. T.; Malcolm, G. P. A.

    2015-06-29

    An external ring cavity quantum cascade laser operating at ∼5.2 μm wavelength in a continuous-wave regime at the temperature of 15 °C is demonstrated. Out-coupled continuous-wave optical powers of up to 23 mW are observed for light of one propagation direction with an estimated total intra-cavity optical power flux in excess of 340 mW. The uni-directional regime characterized by the intensity ratio of more than 60 for the light propagating in the opposite directions was achieved. A single emission peak wavelength tuning range of 90 cm{sup −1} is realized by the incorporation of a diffraction grating into the cavity.

  8. Geopolymer - room-temperature ceramic matrix for composites

    SciTech Connect

    Davidovits, J.; Davidovics, M.

    1988-08-01

    The semiamorphous three-dimensional networks of polymeric Na, K, Li, and Mg aluminosilicates of both poly(sialate) and poly(sialate-siloxo) type, collectively known as geopolymers, harden at 20-120 C and are similar to thermoset resins, but are stable at up to 1200-1400 C without shrinkage. A wide variety of alkaline-resistant inorganic reinforcements, notably SiC fibers, have been combined with geopolymer matrices to yield nonburning, nonsmoking high-temperature composites. An SiC fiber-reinforced K-poly(sialate-siloxo) matrix, shaped and hardened at 70 C for 1.5 hr, develops flexural mean strengths of the order of 380 MPa that are retained after firing at up to 900 C. 16 references.

  9. Effects of reduced nocturnal temperature on pig performance and energy consumption in swine nursery rooms.

    PubMed

    Johnston, L J; Brumm, M C; Moeller, S J; Pohl, S; Shannon, M C; Thaler, R C

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of a reduced nocturnal temperature (RNT) regimen on performance of weaned pigs and energy consumption during the nursery phase of production. The age of weaned pigs assigned to experiments ranged from 16 to 22 d. In Exp. 1, 3 stations conducted 2 trials under a common protocol that provided data from 6 control rooms (CON; 820 pigs) and 6 RNT rooms (818 pigs). Two mirror-image nursery rooms were used at each station. Temperature in the CON room was set to 30°C for the first 7 d, then reduced by 2°C per week through the remainder of the experiment. Room temperature settings were held constant throughout the day and night. The temperature setting in the RNT room was the same as CON during the first 7 d, but beginning on the night of d 7, the room temperature setting was reduced 6°C from the daytime temperature from 1900 to 0700 h. The use of heating fuel and electricity were measured weekly in each room. Overall, ADG (0.43 kg), ADFI (0.62 kg), and G:F (0.69) were identical for CON and RNT rooms. Consumption of heating fuel [9,658 vs. 7,958 British thermal units (Btu)·pig(-1)·d(-1)] and electricity (0.138 vs. 0.125 kilowatt-hour (kWh)·pig(-1)·d(-1)] were not statistically different for CON and RNT rooms, respectively. In Exp. 2, 4 stations conducted at least 2 trials that provided data from 9 CON rooms (2,122 pigs) and 10 RNT rooms (2,176 pigs). Experimental treatments and protocols were the same as Exp. 1, except that the RNT regimen was imposed on the night of d 5 and the targeted nighttime temperature reduction was 8.3°C. Neither final pig BW (21.8 vs. 21.5 kg; SE = 0.64), ADG (0.45 vs. 0.44 kg; SE = 0.016), ADFI (0.61 vs. 0.60 kg; SE = 0.019), nor G:F (0.75 vs. 0.75; SE = 0.012) were different for pigs housed in CON or RNT rooms, respectively. Consumption of heating fuel and electricity was consistently reduced in RNT rooms for all 4 stations. Consumption of heating fuel (10,019 vs. 7,061 Btu

  10. Sensitive Room Temperature Photoluminescence-Based Sensing of H2S with Novel CuO-ZnO Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Du, Baosheng; Sun, Ye; Yu, Miao; Yin, Yongqi; Tang, Wei; Chen, Chong; Sun, Lei; Yang, Bin; Cao, Wenwu; Ashfold, Michael N R

    2016-06-29

    Novel CuO nanoparticle-capped ZnO nanorods have been produced using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. These nanorods are shown to grow by a CuO-nanoparticle-assisted vapor-solid-solid (V-S-S) mechanism. The photoluminescence (PL) accompanying ultraviolet illumination of these capped nanorod samples shows large variations upon exposure to trace quantities of H2S gas. The present data suggest that both the Cu-doped ZnO stem and the CuO capping nanoparticle contribute to optical H2S sensing with these CuO-ZnO nanorods. This study represents the first demonstration of PL-based H2S gas sensing, at room temperature, with sub-ppm sensitivity. It also opens the way to producing CuO-ZnO nanorods by a V-S-S mechanism using gas-phase methods other than PLD. PMID:27258907

  11. Sensitive Room Temperature Photoluminescence-Based Sensing of H2S with Novel CuO-ZnO Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Du, Baosheng; Sun, Ye; Yu, Miao; Yin, Yongqi; Tang, Wei; Chen, Chong; Sun, Lei; Yang, Bin; Cao, Wenwu; Ashfold, Michael N R

    2016-06-29

    Novel CuO nanoparticle-capped ZnO nanorods have been produced using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. These nanorods are shown to grow by a CuO-nanoparticle-assisted vapor-solid-solid (V-S-S) mechanism. The photoluminescence (PL) accompanying ultraviolet illumination of these capped nanorod samples shows large variations upon exposure to trace quantities of H2S gas. The present data suggest that both the Cu-doped ZnO stem and the CuO capping nanoparticle contribute to optical H2S sensing with these CuO-ZnO nanorods. This study represents the first demonstration of PL-based H2S gas sensing, at room temperature, with sub-ppm sensitivity. It also opens the way to producing CuO-ZnO nanorods by a V-S-S mechanism using gas-phase methods other than PLD.

  12. Wetting behavior of imidazolium-containing, room-temperature molten salt. Technical report, 11 June 28-August 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhart, J.G.

    1984-08-28

    A room-temperature, molten-salt system composed of 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride plus aluminum chloride has been developed and extensively studied over the last few years. The most promising application of this liquid mixture is as a battery electrolyte, and for this reason a study was undertaken of the wettability of various candidate battery component materials by the molten salt. Advancing and receding contact angles were determined for the binary melt as a function of such variables as mixture composition, chlorination of the imidazolium ion, replacement of AlCl3 by LiCl, solid porosity, and solid surface cleaning procedure. Measurements were also made of the surface tension of the melt at one basic composition. Surface tension data was helpful in understanding the composition dependence of melt wetting behavior.

  13. Ultrabright continuously tunable terahertz-wave generation at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Shin'ichiro; Nawata, Kouji; Taira, Takunori; Shikata, Jun-Ichi; Kawase, Kodo; Minamide, Hiroaki

    2014-06-01

    The hottest frequency region in terms of research currently lies in the `frequency gap' region between microwaves and infrared: terahertz waves. Although new methods for generating terahertz radiation have been developed, most sources cannot generate high-brightness terahertz beams. Here we demonstrate the generation of ultrabright terahertz waves (brightness ~0.2 GW/sr.cm2, brightness temperature of ~1018 K, peak power of >50 kW) using parametric wavelength conversion in a nonlinear crystal; this is brighter than many specialized sources such as far-infrared free-electron lasers (~1016 K, ~2 kW). We revealed novel parametric wavelength conversion using stimulated Raman scattering in LiNbO3 without stimulated Brillouin scattering using recently-developed microchip laser. Furthermore, nonlinear up-conversion techniques allow the intense terahertz waves to be visualized and their frequency determined. These results are very promising for extending applied research into the terahertz region, and we expect that this source will open up new research fields such as nonlinear optics in the terahertz region.

  14. Room temperature aluminum antimonide radiation detector and methods thereof

    DOEpatents

    Lordi, Vincenzo; Wu, Kuang Jen J.; Aberg, Daniel; Erhart, Paul; Coombs, III, Arthur W; Sturm, Benjamin W

    2015-03-03

    In one embodiment, a method for producing a high-purity single crystal of aluminum antimonide (AlSb) includes providing a growing environment with which to grow a crystal, growing a single crystal of AlSb in the growing environment which comprises hydrogen (H.sub.2) gas to reduce oxide formation and subsequent incorporation of oxygen impurities in the crystal, and adding a controlled amount of at least one impurity to the growing environment to effectively incorporate at least one dopant into the crystal. In another embodiment, a high energy radiation detector includes a single high-purity crystal of AlSb, a supporting structure for the crystal, and logic for interpreting signals obtained from the crystal which is operable as a radiation detector at a temperature of about 25.degree. C. In one embodiment, a high-purity single crystal of AlSb includes AlSb and at least one dopant selected from a group consisting of selenium (Se), tellurium (Te), and tin (Sn).

  15. Ultrabright continuously tunable terahertz-wave generation at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Shin'ichiro; Nawata, Kouji; Taira, Takunori; Shikata, Jun-ichi; Kawase, Kodo; Minamide, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    The hottest frequency region in terms of research currently lies in the ‘frequency gap' region between microwaves and infrared: terahertz waves. Although new methods for generating terahertz radiation have been developed, most sources cannot generate high-brightness terahertz beams. Here we demonstrate the generation of ultrabright terahertz waves (brightness ~0.2 GW/sr·cm2, brightness temperature of ~1018 K, peak power of >50 kW) using parametric wavelength conversion in a nonlinear crystal; this is brighter than many specialized sources such as far-infrared free-electron lasers (~1016 K, ~2 kW). We revealed novel parametric wavelength conversion using stimulated Raman scattering in LiNbO3 without stimulated Brillouin scattering using recently-developed microchip laser. Furthermore, nonlinear up-conversion techniques allow the intense terahertz waves to be visualized and their frequency determined. These results are very promising for extending applied research into the terahertz region, and we expect that this source will open up new research fields such as nonlinear optics in the terahertz region. PMID:24898269

  16. Direct Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides at Room Temperature Upon Ultraviolet Phton Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchiya, Masaru; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Engelhard, Mark H.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2008-12-31

    Minute changes in oxygen concentration in complex oxides even of the order of ~0.001% can significantly influence functional properties ranging from onset of superconductivity to colossal dielectric constant and ferroic response. In this letter, we report on direct experimental measurement of enhanced oxygen incorporation into ultra-thin oxide films at room temperature under gentle UV photon exposure. Oxygen concentration changes in nanoscale yttria-doped-zirconia (YDZ) films grown on Ge substrate were quantified using the 16O(d,p)17O nuclear reaction. The oxygen concentration was consistently ~ 3 % larger in UV irradiated YDZ films compared to as-grown YDZ films and can be kinetically controlled. Possible incorporation mechanisms are discussed. This suggests a novel approach to modulate oxygen concentration in complex oxides. There is tremendous interest in the science and applications of ultra-thin oxide films, such as electrolyte membranes for solid oxide fuel cells 1, high-dielectric constant (high-κ) oxides for metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices 2 and multi-ferroics 3. In addition, thin film oxides also serve as model systems to investigate space charge effects on carrier transport and strongly correlated phenomena such as phase transitions. An overarching problem of central importance is the controlled synthesis of oxide films and how they impact functional properties. Particularly, the role of oxygen vacancies or non-stoichiometry has been found to be crucial in this regard. Examples include large magneto resistance effect and metal-to-insulator transition introduced by reducing oxygen stoichiometry of poly crystalline La0.67Ba0.33MnOz 3, nonsuperconducting-to-superconducting transformation by minute amount of oxygen incorporation upon annealing YBa2Cu3O7-δ(YBCO) films 4, and blue light emission at room temperature in oxygen deficient SrTiO3 (STO) 5, 6. These studies revealed

  17. Giant dielectric and magnetoelectric responses in insulating nanogranular films at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Nobukiyo; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Saburo; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2014-01-01

    The electric and magnetic properties of matter are of great interest for materials science and their use in electronic applications. Large dielectric and magnetoelectric responses of materials at room temperature are a great advantage for electromagnetic device applications. Here we present a study of FeCo-MgF nanogranular films exhibiting giant dielectric and magnetoelectric responses at room temperature; with dielectric constant ε′=490 and magnetoelectric response Δε′/ε′0=3%. In these films, Fe-Co alloy-based nanometer-sized magnetic granules are dispersed in a Mg-fluoride-based insulator matrix. Insulating nanogranular films are a new class of multifunctional materials. The giant responses are caused by spin-dependent charge oscillation between magnetic granules via quantum-mechanical tunnelling. A possible application of such insulating nanogranular materials with giant response is in the construction of a tunable device, in which impedance components such as capacitance and inductance are tunable at room temperature. PMID:25048805

  18. A novel NO2 gas sensor based on Hall effect operating at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J. Y.; Xie, W. M.; He, X. L.; Wang, H. C.

    2016-09-01

    Tungsten trioxide nanoparticles were obtained by a simple thermal oxidation approach. The structural and morphological properties of these nanoparticles are investigated using XRD, SEM and TEM. A WO3 thick film was deposited on the four Au electrodes to be a WO3 Hall effect sensor. The sensor was tested between magnetic field in a plastic test chamber. Room-temperature nitrogen dioxide sensing characteristics of Hall effect sensor were studied for various concentration levels of nitrogen dioxide at dry air and humidity conditions. A typical room-temperature response of 3.27 was achieved at 40 ppm of NO2 with a response and recovery times of 36 and 45 s, respectively. NO2 gas sensing mechanism of Hall effect sensor was also studied. The room-temperature operation, with the low deposition cost of the sensor, suggests suitability for developing a low-power cost-effective nitrogen dioxide sensor.

  19. Room temperature optical and magnetic properties of polyvinylpyrrolidone capped ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, Mahuya; Chakrabarti, Keka R.; Sanyal, D.; Chakrabarti, A.

    2009-09-15

    Defect induced room temperature ferromagnetic properties of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) capped nanocrystalline ZnO samples have been studied. Crystal phase and the lattice parameter of the synthesized nanocrystalline samples have been determined from X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron micrographs (HR-TEM). Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum for the bare ZnO sample shows a strong band at {approx} 379 nm and another band at {approx} 525 nm. The PL spectra also revealed that the number of oxygen vacancies in the uncapped sample is more than the PVP capped sample. Both sample exhibit ferromagnetic property at room temperature when annealed at 500 deg. C for 3 h, due to the formation of adequate oxygen vacancy related defects. The saturation magnetization for the annealed PVP capped sample is found to be larger compared to that for the uncapped sample.

  20. Room-temperature spin-polarized organic light-emitting diodes with a single ferromagnetic electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Baofu Alameh, Kamal; Song, Qunliang

    2014-05-19

    In this paper, we demonstrate the concept of a room-temperature spin-polarized organic light-emitting diode (Spin-OLED) structure based on (i) the deposition of an ultra-thin p-type organic buffer layer on the surface of the ferromagnetic electrode of the Spin-OLED and (ii) the use of oxygen plasma treatment to modify the surface of that electrode. Experimental results demonstrate that the brightness of the developed Spin-OLED can be increased by 110% and that a magneto-electroluminescence of 12% can be attained for a 150 mT in-plane magnetic field, at room temperature. This is attributed to enhanced hole and room-temperature spin-polarized injection from the ferromagnetic electrode, respectively.

  1. Ultrafast room temperature single-photon source from nanowire-quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Bounouar, S; Elouneg-Jamroz, M; Hertog, M den; Morchutt, C; Bellet-Amalric, E; André, R; Bougerol, C; Genuist, Y; Poizat, J-Ph; Tatarenko, S; Kheng, K

    2012-06-13

    Epitaxial semiconductor quantum dots are particularly promising as realistic single-photon sources for their compatibility with manufacturing techniques and possibility to be implemented in compact devices. Here, we demonstrate for the first time single-photon emission up to room temperature from an epitaxial quantum dot inserted in a nanowire, namely a CdSe slice in a ZnSe nanowire. The exciton and biexciton lines can still be resolved at room temperature and the biexciton turns out to be the most appropriate transition for single-photon emission due to a large nonradiative decay of the bright exciton to dark exciton states. With an intrinsically short radiative decay time (≈300 ps) this system is the fastest room temperature single-photon emitter, allowing potentially gigahertz repetition rates.

  2. Ferromagnetism at room temperature in Cr-doped anodic titanium dioxide nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Yulong E-mail: hwzhang@uestc.edu.cn; Zhang, Huaiwu E-mail: hwzhang@uestc.edu.cn; Li, Jie; Yu, Guoliang; Zhong, Zhiyong; Bai, Feiming; Jia, Lijun; Zhang, Shihong; Zhong, Peng

    2014-05-07

    This study reports the room-temperature ferromagnetism in Cr-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (NTs) synthesized via the electrochemical method followed by a novel Cr-doping process. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the TiO{sub 2} NTs were highly ordered with length up to 26 μm, outer diameter about 110 nm, and inner diameter about 100 nm. X-ray diffraction results indicated there were no magnetic contaminations of metallic Cr clusters or any other phases except anatase TiO{sub 2}. The Cr-doped TiO{sub 2} NTs were further annealed in oxygen, air and argon, and room-temperature ferromagnetism was observed in all Cr-doped samples. Moreover, saturation magnetizations and coercivities of the Cr-doped under various annealing atmosphere were further analyzed, and results indicate that oxygen content played a critical role in the room-temperature ferromagnetism.

  3. Room temperature spin transport in undoped (110) GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Yokota, Nobuhide Aoshima, Yohei; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Kawaguchi, Hitoshi

    2014-02-17

    We are reporting on our first observation of a micrometer-order electron spin transport in a (110) GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well (QW) at room temperature using a space- and time-resolved Kerr rotation technique. A 37-μm transport was observed within an electron spin lifetime of 1.2 ns at room temperature when using an in-plane electric field of 1.75 kV/cm. The spatio-temporal profiles of electron spins were well reproduced by the spin drift-diffusion equations coupled with the Poisson equation, supporting the validity of the measurement. The results suggest that (110) QWs are useful as a spin transport layer for semiconductor spintronic devices operating at room temperature.

  4. Quality of red blood cells isolated from umbilical cord blood stored at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhurova, Mariia; Akabutu, John; Acker, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) from cord blood contain fetal hemoglobin that is predominant in newborns and, therefore, may be more appropriate for neonatal transfusions than currently transfused adult RBCs. Post-collection, cord blood can be stored at room temperature for several days before it is processed for stem cells isolation, with little known about how these conditions affect currently discarded RBCs. The present study examined the effect of the duration cord blood spent at room temperature and other cord blood characteristics on cord RBC quality. RBCs were tested immediately after their isolation from cord blood using a broad panel of quality assays. No significant decrease in cord RBC quality was observed during the first 65 hours of storage at room temperature. The ratio of cord blood to anticoagulant was associated with RBC quality and needs to be optimized in future. This knowledge will assist in future development of cord RBC transfusion product.

  5. Magnetic switching of ferroelectric domains at room temperature in multiferroic PZTFT

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D.M.; Schilling, A.; Kumar, Ashok; Sanchez, D.; Ortega, N.; Arredondo, M.; Katiyar, R.S.; Gregg, J.M.; Scott, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Single-phase magnetoelectric multiferroics are ferroelectric materials that display some form of magnetism. In addition, magnetic and ferroelectric order parameters are not independent of one another. Thus, the application of either an electric or magnetic field simultaneously alters both the electrical dipole configuration and the magnetic state of the material. The technological possibilities that could arise from magnetoelectric multiferroics are considerable and a range of functional devices has already been envisioned. Realising these devices, however, requires coupling effects to be significant and to occur at room temperature. Although such characteristics can be created in piezoelectric-magnetostrictive composites, to date they have only been weakly evident in single-phase multiferroics. Here in a newly discovered room temperature multiferroic, we demonstrate significant room temperature coupling by monitoring changes in ferroelectric domain patterns induced by magnetic fields. An order of magnitude estimate of the effective coupling coefficient suggests a value of ~1 × 10−7 sm−1. PMID:23443562

  6. Room-Temperature Ferromagnetism in TiO2 Nanocrystals Synthesized by the Controlled Hydrolysis Procedure.

    PubMed

    Gu, Deen; Sun, Zhanhong; Zhou, Lv; Hu, Yongda; Jiang, Yadong

    2016-03-01

    TiO2 nanocrystals were prepared by a controlled hydrolysis procedure at room temperature. The effect of V-doping, N-doping and V/N codoping on the lattice parameters and magnetic properties of TiO2 nanocrystals was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and vibration sample magnetometry. Doping performed at room temperature causes the expansion of lattice parameters. Undoped and doped TiO2 nanocrystals show room-temperature ferromagnetism. A monotonic correlation between saturation magnetization and the ratio of the lattice parameter c to a (c/a) was observed. Saturation magnetization of TiO2 nanocrystals increases with the value of c/a.

  7. Room temperature coherent control of defect spin qubits in silicon carbide.

    PubMed

    Koehl, William F; Buckley, Bob B; Heremans, F Joseph; Calusine, Greg; Awschalom, David D

    2011-11-01

    Electronic spins in semiconductors have been used extensively to explore the limits of external control over quantum mechanical phenomena. A long-standing goal of this research has been to identify or develop robust quantum systems that can be easily manipulated, for future use in advanced information and communication technologies. Recently, a point defect in diamond known as the nitrogen-vacancy centre has attracted a great deal of interest because it possesses an atomic-scale electronic spin state that can be used as an individually addressable, solid-state quantum bit (qubit), even at room temperature. These exceptional quantum properties have motivated efforts to identify similar defects in other semiconductors, as they may offer an expanded range of functionality not available to the diamond nitrogen-vacancy centre. Notably, several defects in silicon carbide (SiC) have been suggested as good candidates for exploration, owing to a combination of computational predictions and magnetic resonance data. Here we demonstrate that several defect spin states in the 4H polytype of SiC (4H-SiC) can be optically addressed and coherently controlled in the time domain at temperatures ranging from 20 to 300 kelvin. Using optical and microwave techniques similar to those used with diamond nitrogen-vacancy qubits, we study the spin-1 ground state of each of four inequivalent forms of the neutral carbon-silicon divacancy, as well as a pair of defect spin states of unidentified origin. These defects are optically active near telecommunication wavelengths, and are found in a host material for which there already exist industrial-scale crystal growth and advanced microfabrication techniques. In addition, they possess desirable spin coherence properties that are comparable to those of the diamond nitrogen-vacancy centre. This makes them promising candidates for various photonic, spintronic and quantum information applications that merge quantum degrees of freedom with classical

  8. Stage for texture measurements above room temperature in a Philips X'Pert Pro MPD diffractometer

    SciTech Connect

    Sobrero, Cesar E.; Castellani, Daniel; Bolmaro, Raul E.; Malarria, Jorge A.

    2009-11-15

    A special stage for texture measurements above room temperature was designed with the proper size and weight to be fitted onto the Eulerean cradle of the Philips X'Pert Pro MPD diffractometer. With such device, flat samples of 2x2 cm{sup 2} area can be analyzed at a nearly constant temperature with variations below {+-}4 deg. C in the range between ambient temperature and 200 deg. C.

  9. Assessment of DNA Encapsulation, a New Room-Temperature DNA Storage Method

    PubMed Central

    Santoni, Sylvain; Saker, Safa; Gomard, Maite; Gardais, Eliane; Bizet, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    A new procedure for room-temperature storage of DNA was evaluated whereby DNA samples from human tissue, bacteria, and plants were stored under an anoxic and anhydrous atmosphere in small glass vials fitted in stainless-steel, laser-sealed capsules (DNAshells®). Samples were stored in DNAshells® at room temperature for various periods of time to assess any degradation and compare it to frozen control samples and those stored in GenTegra™ tubes. The study included analysis of the effect of accelerated aging by using a high temperature (76°C) at 50% relative humidity. No detectable DNA degradation was seen in samples stored in DNAshells® at room temperature for 18 months. Polymerase chain reaction experiments, pulsed field gel electrophoresis, and amplified fragment length polymorphism analyses also demonstrated that the protective properties of DNAshells® are not affected by storage under extreme conditions (76°C, 50% humidity) for 30 hours, guaranteeing 100 years without DNA sample degradation. However, after 30 hours of storage at 76°C, it was necessary to include adjustments to the process in order to avoid DNA loss. Successful protection of DNA was obtained for 1 week and even 1 month of storage at high temperature by adding trehalose, which provides a protective matrix. This study demonstrates the many advantages of using DNAshells® for room-temperature storage, particularly in terms of long-term stability, safety, transport, and applications for molecular biology research. PMID:24955733

  10. Room-temperature wafer scale bonding using smoothed Au seal ring surfaces for hermetic sealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashima, Yuichi; Maeda, Atsuhiko; Takagi, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated room-temperature bonding characteristics of electroplated Au surfaces smoothed by the lift-off and imprint methods. As a result, we found that smoothed surfaces enable strong bonding; on the other hand, electroplated rough surfaces result in very weak bonding. In transmission electron microscopy observations, no delamination was observed at the bonding interface bonded at room temperature using a smooth surface prepared by the lift-off method. Moreover, the hermeticity of the bonding interface prepared using smoothed surfaces was evaluated using diaphragm structures. As a result, we confirmed that good hermetic sealing was achieved using the electroplated Au surface smoothed by the lift-off method.

  11. The role of hydrogen in room-temperature ferromagnetism at graphite surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ohldag, Hendrik

    2011-08-12

    We present a x-ray dichroism study of graphite surfaces that addresses the origin and magnitude of ferromagnetism in metal-free carbon. We find that, in addition to carbon {pi} states, also hydrogen-mediated electronic states exhibit a net spin polarization with significant magnetic remanence at room temperature. The observed magnetism is restricted to the top {approx}10 nm of the irradiated sample where the actual magnetization reaches {approx_equal} 15 emu/g at room temperature. We prove that the ferromagnetism found in metal-free untreated graphite is intrinsic and has a similar origin as the one found in proton bombarded graphite.

  12. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes sensor for organic liquid detection at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Deepti; Khare, Neeraj; Vankar, V. D.

    2016-04-01

    We have explored the possibility of using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as room temperature chemical sensor for the detection of organic liquids such as ethanol, propanol, methanol and toluene. MWCNTs were synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD) technique. The interdigitated electrodes were fabricated by conventional photolithography technique. The sensor was fabricated by drop depositing MWCNT suspension onto the interdigitated electrodes. The sensing properties of MWCNTs sensor was studied for organic liquids detection. The resistance of sensor was found to increase upon exposure to these liquids. Sensor shows good reversibility and fast response at room temperature. Charge transfer between the organic liquid and sensing element is the dominant sensing mechanism.

  13. CeBr3 as a Room-Temperature, High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Guss, Michael Reed, Ding Yuan, Alexis Reed, and Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay

    2009-09-01

    Cerium bromide (CeBr3) has become a material of interest in the race for high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy at room temperature. This investigation quantified the potential of CeBr3 as a room temperature, high-resolution gamma-ray detector. The performance of CeBr3 crystals was compared to other scintillation crystals of similar dimensions and detection environments. Comparison of self-activity of CeBr3 to cerium-doped lanthanum tribromide (LaBr3:Ce) was performed. Energy resolution and relative intrinsic efficiency were measured and are presented.

  14. Some problems on rf breakdown in room temperature accelerator structure, a possible criterion

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.W.

    1986-04-01

    The discussion is confined to high gradient, room-temperature accelerators which have clean well-finished cavity surfaces and good vacuum conditions. Breakdown-initiating mechanisms due to ''cold'' field electron emission occurring at isolated sites on broad-area cavity surfaces, where the field is enhanced, are described. The influences of an alternating field and transition time tunneling are taken into account. The thermal instability resulting in vacuum voltage breakdown is hypothesized to derive a new criterion for room-temperature accelerator structure. 18 refs., 5 figs. (DWL)

  15. A 2.5-2.7 THz Room Temperature Electronic Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrini, Alain; Mehdi, Imran; Lin, Robert; Siles, Jose Vicente; Lee, Choonsup; Gill, John; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Schlecht, Erich; Bertrand, Thomas; Ward, John

    2011-01-01

    We report on a room temperature 2.5 to 2.7 THz electronic source based on frequency multipliers. The source utilizes a cascade of three frequency multipliers with W-band power amplifiers driving the first stage multiplier. Multiple-chip multipliers are utilized for the two initial stages to improve the power handling capability and a sub-micron anode is utilized for the final stage tripler. Room temperature measurements indicate that the source can put out a peak power of about 14 microwatts with more than 4 microwatts in the 2.5 to 2.7 THz range.

  16. Photoexcited Individual Nanowires: Key Elements in Room Temperature Detection of Oxidizing Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Prades, J. D.; Jimenez-Diaz, R.; Manzanares, M.; Andreu, T.; Cirera, A.; Romano-Rodriguez, A.; Morante, J. R.

    2009-05-23

    Illuminating metal oxide semiconductors with ultra-violet light is a feasible alternative to activate chemical reactions at their surface and thus, using them as gas sensors without the necessity of heating them. Here, the response at room temperature of individual single-crystalline SnO{sub 2} nanowires towards NO{sub 2} is studied in detail. The results reveal that similar responses to those obtained with thermally activated sensors can be achieved by choosing the optimal illumination conditions. This finding paves the way to the development of conductometric gas sensors operated at room temperature. The power consumption in these devices is in range with conventional micromachined sensors.

  17. Quantum confinement of zero-dimensional hybrid organic-inorganic polaritons at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H. S.; Lafosse, X.; Amo, A.; Bouchoule, S.; Bloch, J.; Abdel-Baki, K.; Lauret, J.-S.; Deleporte, E.

    2014-02-24

    We report on the quantum confinement of zero-dimensional polaritons in perovskite-based microcavity at room temperature. Photoluminescence of discrete polaritonic states is observed for polaritons localized in symmetric sphere-like defects which are spontaneously nucleated on the top dielectric Bragg mirror. The linewidth of these confined states is found much sharper (almost one order of magnitude) than that of photonic modes in the perovskite planar microcavity. Our results show the possibility to study organic-inorganic cavity polaritons in confined microstructure and suggest a fabrication method to realize integrated polaritonic devices operating at room temperature.

  18. Exploiting fast detectors to enter a new dimension in room-temperature crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, Robin L. Paterson, Neil; Axford, Danny; Aishima, Jun; Schulze-Briese, Clemens; Ren, Jingshan; Fry, Elizabeth E.; Stuart, David I.; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2014-05-01

    A departure from a linear or an exponential decay in the diffracting power of macromolecular crystals is observed and accounted for through consideration of a multi-state sequential model. A departure from a linear or an exponential intensity decay in the diffracting power of protein crystals as a function of absorbed dose is reported. The observation of a lag phase raises the possibility of collecting significantly more data from crystals held at room temperature before an intolerable intensity decay is reached. A simple model accounting for the form of the intensity decay is reintroduced and is applied for the first time to high frame-rate room-temperature data collection.

  19. High room temperature optical polarization due to spin-valley coupling in monolayer WS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanbicki, A. T.; McCreary, K. M.; Kioseoglou, G.; Currie, M.; Hellberg, C. S.; Friedman, A. L.; Jonker, B. T.

    2016-05-01

    We prepare single-layer WS2 films such that the photoluminescence is from either the neutral exciton or the negatively charged trion. While the neutral exciton emission has zero polarization at room temperature, we observe a room temperature optical polarization in excess of 40% for the trion. Using an applied gate voltage, we can modulate the electron density, and subsequently the polarization of the trion emission continuously from 20-40%. Both the polarization and the emission energy monotonically track the gate voltage with the emission energy increasing by 45 meV. We discuss the role electron capture by the exciton has on suppressing the intervalley scattering process.

  20. Efficient, resonantly pumped, room-temperature Er3+:GdVO4 laser.

    PubMed

    Ter-Gabrielyan, N; Fromzel, V; Ryba-Romanowski, W; Lukasiewicz, T; Dubinskii, M

    2012-04-01

    We report an efficient room-temperature operation of a resonantly pumped Er3+:GdVO4 laser at 1598.5 nm. The maximum continuous wave (CW) output power of 3.5 W with slope efficiency of 56% was achieved with resonant pumping by an Er-fiber laser at 1538.6 nm. With pumping by a commercial laser diode bar stack, a quasi-CW (QCW) output of 7.7 W and maximum slope efficiency of ~53% versus absorbed pump power were obtained. This is believed to be the first resonantly (in-band) pumped, room-temperature Er3+:GdVO4 laser.

  1. Room-temperature fabrication of light-emitting thin films based on amorphous oxide semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junghwan; Miyokawa, Norihiko; Ide, Keisuke; Toda, Yoshitake; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Hosono, Hideo; Kamiya, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    We propose a light-emitting thin film using an amorphous oxide semiconductor (AOS) because AOS has low defect density even fabricated at room temperature. Eu-doped amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin films fabricated at room temperature emitted intense red emission at 614 nm. It is achieved by precise control of oxygen pressure so as to suppress oxygen-deficiency/excess-related defects and free carriers. An electronic structure model is proposed, suggesting that non-radiative process is enhanced mainly by defects near the excited states. AOS would be a promising host for a thin film phosphor applicable to flexible displays as well as to light-emitting transistors.

  2. Metal-Based Room-Temperature Operating Single Electron Devices Using Scanning Probe Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Gotoh, Yoshitaka; TatsuroMaeda, TatsuroMaeda; Dagata, John; Harris, JamesS.

    1999-01-01

    Coulomb oscillation was clearly observed at room temperature in the singleelectron transistor fabricated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) nano-oxidationprocess. In order to obtain a clear Coulomb oscillation at room temperature, newand improved fabrication processes and measurement systems such as a pulse-modeAFM nano-oxidation process and a triaxial active feedback measurement system areintroduced. The Coulomb oscillation peaks appear with the period of 1.9 V at thedrain bias conditions of 0.25 V and 0.3 V. The current modulation rate ranges from20% to 30%.

  3. Single Event Effects on Space Radiation Hardened 64K SRAMS at Room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, O.; Schwartz, H.; McCarty, K.; Coss, J.; Barnes, C.

    1993-01-01

    The laser threshold linear Energy transfer for single event upsetscan be estimaed, even at room temperature, for space radiation hardened 64K SRAMs. The memories where independently developed to quality for the Qualified Manufacturer's List by IBM and Honeywell. The memory was so hard that high energy heavy ions generated by the Van de Graff could not determine the SEU threshold at room temperature. Use of pulsed Laser tests would meake it possible to forgo very expensive testing at ultra-high energy accelerators.

  4. Room temperature operational single electron transistor fabricated by focused ion beam deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karre, P. Santosh Kumar; Bergstrom, Paul L.; Mallick, Govind; Karna, Shashi P.

    2007-07-01

    We present the fabrication and room temperature operation of single electron transistors using 8nm tungsten islands deposited by focused ion beam deposition technique. The tunnel junctions are fabricated using oxidation of tungsten in peracetic acid. Clear Coulomb oscillations, showing charging and discharging of the nanoislands, are seen at room temperature. The device consists of an array of tunnel junctions; the tunnel resistance of individual tunnel junction of the device is calculated to be as high as 25.13GΩ. The effective capacitance of the array of tunnel junctions was found to be 0.499aF, giving a charging energy of 160.6meV.

  5. Development of an Analytical Method Based on Temperature Controlled Solid-Liquid Extraction Using an Ionic Liquid as Solid Solvent.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhongwei; Wang, Zhengquan; Zhu, Linna; Zhu, Zhiming; Cai, Jinying; Shen, Xiaoman; Fan, Tingli; Zhang, Yingnan; Chen, Zhixiu

    2015-12-10

    At the present paper, an analytical method based on temperature controlled solid-liquid extraction (TC-SLE) utilizing a synthesized ionic liquid, (N-butylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate, [BPy]PF₆), as solid solvent and phenanthroline (PT) as an extractant was developed to determine micro levels of Fe(2+) in tea by PT spectrophotometry. TC-SLE was carried out in two continuous steps: Fe(2+) can be completely extracted by PT-[BPy]PF₆ or back-extracted at 80 °C and the two phases were separated automatically by cooling to room temperature. Fe(2+), after back-extraction, needs 2 mol/L HNO₃ as stripping agent and the whole process was determined by PT spectrophotometry at room temperature. The extracted species was neutral Fe(PT)mCl₂ (m = 1) according to slope analysis in the Fe(2+)-[BPy]PF₆-PT TC-SLE system. The calibration curve was Y = 0.20856X - 0.000775 (correlation coefficient = 0.99991). The linear calibration range was 0.10-4.50 μg/mL and the limit of detection for Fe(2+) is 7.0 × 10(-2) μg/mL. In this method, the contents of Fe(2+) in Tieguanyin tea were determined with RSDs (n = 5) 3.05% and recoveries in range of 90.6%-108.6%.

  6. Equation Of State With Temperature Effects For Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinet, Pascal; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.; Rose, James H.

    1989-01-01

    Behavior at high temperature predicted from only four parameters. Equations derived to express thermodynamical properties of compressed solids at high temperatures. New equations based on fundamental considerations of thermodynamics, isothermal equation of state, and assumption thermal pressure independent of volume and varies linearly with temperature near and about Debye temperature. Using only four parameters (three are those of isothermal equation of state), new equations describe thermodynamic behavior of material over range of temperatures from approximately Debye temperature to melting point.

  7. Room Temperature Semiconductor-Metal Transition of MoTe2 Thin Films Engineered by Strain.

    PubMed

    Song, Seunghyun; Keum, Dong Hoon; Cho, Suyeon; Perello, David; Kim, Yunseok; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-01-13

    We demonstrate a room temperature semiconductor-metal transition in thin film MoTe2 engineered by strain. Reduction of the 2H-1T' phase transition temperature of MoTe2 to room temperature was realized by introducing a tensile strain of 0.2%. The observed first-order SM transition improved conductance ∼10 000 times and was made possible by an unusually large temperature-stress coefficient, which results from a large volume change and small latent heat. The demonstrated strain-modulation of the phase transition temperature is expected to be compatible with other TMDs enabling the 2D electronics utilizing polymorphism of TMDs along with the established materials. PMID:26713902

  8. Enhanced performance of room-temperature-grown epitaxial thin films of vanadium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Nag, Joyeeta; Payzant, E Andrew; More, Karren Leslie; HaglundJr., Richard F

    2011-01-01

    Stoichiometric vanadium dioxide in bulk, thin film and nanostructured forms exhibits an insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) accompanied by a structural phase transformation, induced by temperature, light, electric fields, doping or strain. We have grown epitaxial films of vanadium dioxide on c-plane (0001) of sapphire using two different procedures involving (1) room temperature growth followed by annealing and (2) direct high temperature growth. Strain at the film-substrate interface due to growth at different temperatures leads to interesting differences in morphologies and phase transition characteristics. Comparison of the morphologies and switching characteristics of the two films shows that contrary to conventional wisdom, the room-temperature grown films have smoother, more continuous morphologies and better switching performance, consistent with the behavior of epitaxially grown semiconductors.

  9. Superior room-temperature ductility of typically brittle quasicrystals at small sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yu; Kuczera, Pawel; Sologubenko, Alla; Sumigawa, Takashi; Kitamura, Takayuki; Steurer, Walter; Spolenak, Ralph

    2016-08-01

    The discovery of quasicrystals three decades ago unveiled a class of matter that exhibits long-range order but lacks translational periodicity. Owing to their unique structures, quasicrystals possess many unusual properties. However, a well-known bottleneck that impedes their widespread application is their intrinsic brittleness: plastic deformation has been found to only be possible at high temperatures or under hydrostatic pressures, and their deformation mechanism at low temperatures is still unclear. Here, we report that typically brittle quasicrystals can exhibit remarkable ductility of over 50% strains and high strengths of ~4.5 GPa at room temperature and sub-micrometer scales. In contrast to the generally accepted dominant deformation mechanism in quasicrystals--dislocation climb, our observation suggests that dislocation glide may govern plasticity under high-stress and low-temperature conditions. The ability to plastically deform quasicrystals at room temperature should lead to an improved understanding of their deformation mechanism and application in small-scale devices.

  10. Self-generated Local Heating Induced Nanojoining for Room Temperature Pressureless Flexible Electronic Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Peng; Hu, Anming; Gerlich, Adrian P.; Liu, Yangai; Zhou, Y. Norman

    2015-01-01

    Metallic bonding at an interface is determined by the application of heat and/or pressure. The means by which these are applied are the most critical for joining nanoscale structures. The present study considers the feasibility of room-temperature pressureless joining of copper wires using water-based silver nanowire paste. A novel mechanism of self-generated local heating within the silver nanowire paste and copper substrate system promotes the joining of silver-to-silver and silver-to-copper without any external energy input. The localized heat energy was delivered in-situ to the interfaces to promote atomic diffusion and metallic bond formation with the bulk component temperature stays near room-temperature. This local heating effect has been detected experimentally and confirmed by calculation. The joints formed at room-temperature without pressure achieve a tensile strength of 5.7 MPa and exhibit ultra-low resistivity in the range of 101.3 nOhm·m. The good conductivity of the joint is attributed to the removal of organic compounds in the paste and metallic bonding of silver-to-copper and silver-to-silver. The water-based silver nanowire paste filler material is successfully applied to various flexible substrates for room temperature bonding. The use of chemically generated local heating may become a potential method for energy in-situ delivery at micro/nanoscale. PMID:25788019

  11. Room-temperature codeposition growth technique for pinhole reduction in epitaxial CoSi2 on Si (111)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. L.; Fathauer, R. W.; Grunthaner, P. J.; D'Anterroches, C.

    1988-01-01

    A solid-phase epitaxy has been developed for the growth of CoSi2 films on Si (111) with no observable pinholes (1000/sq cm detection limit). The technique utilizes room-temperature codeposition of Co and Si in stoichiometric ratio, followed by the deposition of an amorphous Si capping layer and subsequent in situ annealing at 550-600 C. CoSi2 films grown without the Si cap are found to have pinhole densities of (1-10) x 10 to the 7th/sq cm when annealed at similar temperatures. A CF4 plasma-etching technique was used to increase the visibility of the pinholes in the silicide layer.

  12. Pressure-assisted synthesis of HKUST-1 thin film on polymer hollow fiber at room temperature toward gas separation.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yiyin; Li, Junwei; Cao, Wei; Ying, Yulong; Sun, Luwei; Peng, Xinsheng

    2014-03-26

    The scalable fabrication of continuous and defect-free metal-organic framework (MOF) films on the surface of polymeric hollow fibers, departing from ceramic supported or dense composite membranes, is a huge challenge. The critical way is to reduce the growth temperature of MOFs in aqueous or ethanol solvents. In the present work, a pressure-assisted room temperature growth strategy was carried out to fabricate continuous and well-intergrown HKUST-1 films on a polymer hollow fiber by using solid copper hydroxide nanostrands as the copper source within 40 min. These HKUST-1 films/polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber composite membranes exhibit good separation performance for binary gases with selectivity 116% higher than Knudsen values via both inside-out and outside-in modes. This provides a new way to enable for scale-up preparation of HKUST-1/polymer hollow fiber membranes, due to its superior economic and ecological advantages. PMID:24598555

  13. A simple atmospheric pressure room-temperature air plasma needle device for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, X.; Xiong, Z.; Zhao, F.; Xian, Y.; Xiong, Q.; Gong, W.; Zou, C.; Jiang, Z.; Pan, Y.

    2009-11-01

    Rather than using noble gas, room air is used as the working gas for an atmospheric pressure room-temperature plasma. The plasma is driven by submicrosecond pulsed directed current voltages. Several current spikes appear periodically for each voltage pulse. The first current spike has a peak value of more than 1.5 A with a pulse width of about 10 ns. Emission spectra show that besides excited OH, O, N2(C-B), and N2+(B-X) emission, excited NO, N2(B-A), H, and even N emission are also observed in the plasma, which indicates that the plasma may be more reactive than that generated by other plasma jet devices. Utilizing the room-temperature plasma, preliminary inactivation experiments show that Enterococcus faecalis can be killed with a treatment time of only several seconds.

  14. Effects of Water on Solvation Layers of Imidazolium-Type Room Temperature Ionic Liquids on Silica and Mica.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenichi; Okada, Kohei; Uka, Akihito; Misono, Takeshi; Endo, Takeshi; Sasaki, Shinya; Abe, Masahiko; Sakai, Hideki

    2015-06-01

    Effects of the addition of water on solvation layers of imidazolium-type room temperature ionic liquids (RT-ILs) have been studied through force curve measurements of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Two kinds of RT-ILs were employed in this study; one is a hydrophilic RT-IL (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, BmimBF4), and the other is a hydrophobic one (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, EmimTFSI). These RT-ILs form solvation layers on hydrophilic solid substances (i.e., silica and mica) in the absence of added water. The addition of water into BmimBF4 resulted in the disruption of the solvation layers and then the formation of an interfacial water phase on silica. In contrast, the formation of the interfacial water phase was not evidenced on mica because of the absence of hydrogen-bonding sites on the mica surface. Interestingly, the addition of water into EmimTFSI induced the formation of the interfacial water phase on the two solid surfaces. In the EmimTFSI system, importantly, significantly greater adhesion forces were observed on silica than on mica. This reflects the different formation mechanisms of the interfacial water phase on the two solid surfaces. We conclude that the hydrogen bonding is a key factor in determining whether water molecules can be adsorbed on the solid surfaces, but it is also necessary to take into account the hydrophilic/hydrophobic nature of the RT-ILs.

  15. Observation of direct magneto-dielectric behaviour in Lu3Fe5O12-δ above room-temperature.

    PubMed

    Manimuthu, P; Vidya, R; Ravindran, P; Fjellvåg, H; Venkateswaran, C

    2015-07-21

    The coupling of dielectric and magnetic order is highly nontrivial and seldom observed in rare-earth iron garnets. Careful investigations on polycrystalline Lu3Fe5O12-δ, prepared by the solid state route, establish a direct correlation between the magnetic and dielectric order parameters. A dielectric anomaly at the magnetic ordering temperature supports this correlation. The dielectric permittivity at various magnetic fields is measured using an indigenously developed connector setup. Lu3Fe5O12-δ exhibits a magneto-dielectric coupling of ∼6% at room temperature, which is significant in the case of a single-phase magneto-dielectric material at low fields. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction pattern, bond valence sum method, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate two different oxidation states of Fe. Complete structural optimizations performed using the density functional theory establish a ferrimagnetic ground state and provide structural parameters in agreement with experimental values. Electronic structure analysis shows that Lu3Fe5O12 exhibits insulating behavior both in ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic configurations. The capability of Lu3Fe5O12-δ to exhibit room temperature magneto-dielectric response is a key factor in designing and fabricating various electronic devices and sensors.

  16. Room temperature magnetic and dielectric properties of cobalt doped CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Chunhong; Song, Yuanqiang; Wang, Haibin; Wang, Xiaoning

    2015-05-01

    CaCu3Ti4-xCoxO12 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4) ceramics were prepared by a conventional solid state reaction, and the effects of cobalt doping on the room temperature magnetic and dielectric properties were investigated. Both X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed the presence of Cu and Co rich phase at grain boundaries of Co-doped ceramics. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs of Co-doped samples showed a striking change from regular polyhedral particle type in pure CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) to sheet-like grains with certain growth orientation. Undoped CaCu3Ti4O12 is well known for its colossal dielectric constant in a broad temperature and frequency range. The dielectric constant value was slightly changed by 5 at. % and 10 at. % Co doping, whereas the second relaxation process was clearly separated in low frequency region at room temperature. A multirelaxation mechanism was proposed to be the origin of the colossal dielectric constant. In addition, the permeability spectra measurements indicated Co-doped CCTO with good magnetic properties, showing the initial permeability (μ') as high as 5.5 and low magnetic loss (μ″ < 0.2) below 3 MHz. And the interesting ferromagnetic superexchange coupling in Co-doped CaCu3Ti4O12 was discussed.

  17. Instantaneous radioiodination of rose bengal at room temperature and a cold-kit therefor. [DOE patent application

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, H. Jr.; Hupf, H.B.; Wanek, P.M.

    The disclosure relates to the radioiodination of rose bengal at room temperature and a cold-kit therefor. A purified rose bengal tablet is stirred into acidified ethanol at or near room temperature, until a suspension forms. Reductant-free /sup 125/I/sup -/ is added and the resulting mixture stands until the exchange label reaction occurs at room temperature. A solution of sterile isotonic phosphate buffer and sodium hydroxide is added and the final resulting mixture is sterilized by filtration.

  18. Deterministic switching of ferromagnetism at room temperature using an electric field.

    PubMed

    Heron, J T; Bosse, J L; He, Q; Gao, Y; Trassin, M; Ye, L; Clarkson, J D; Wang, C; Liu, Jian; Salahuddin, S; Ralph, D C; Schlom, D G; Iñiguez, J; Huey, B D; Ramesh, R

    2014-12-18

    The technological appeal of multiferroics is the ability to control magnetism with electric field. For devices to be useful, such control must be achieved at room temperature. The only single-phase multiferroic material exhibiting unambiguous magnetoelectric coupling at room temperature is BiFeO3 (refs 4 and 5). Its weak ferromagnetism arises from the canting of the antiferromagnetically aligned spins by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction. Prior theory considered the symmetry of the thermodynamic ground state and concluded that direct 180-degree switching of the DM vector by the ferroelectric polarization was forbidden. Instead, we examined the kinetics of the switching process, something not considered previously in theoretical work. Here we show a deterministic reversal of the DM vector and canted moment using an electric field at room temperature. First-principles calculations reveal that the switching kinetics favours a two-step switching process. In each step the DM vector and polarization are coupled and 180-degree deterministic switching of magnetization hence becomes possible, in agreement with experimental observation. We exploit this switching to demonstrate energy-efficient control of a spin-valve device at room temperature. The energy per unit area required is approximately an order of magnitude less than that needed for spin-transfer torque switching. Given that the DM interaction is fundamental to single-phase multiferroics and magnetoelectrics, our results suggest ways to engineer magnetoelectric switching and tailor technologically pertinent functionality for nanometre-scale, low-energy-consumption, non-volatile magnetoelectronics. PMID:25519134

  19. Glycosylation in room temperature ionic liquid using unprotected and unactivated donors.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae-Joon; Weïwer, Michel; Yuan, Xuejun; Baytas, Sultan N; Munoz, Eva M; Murugesan, Saravanababu; Linhardt, Robert J

    2007-02-26

    Glycosylation in room temperature ionic liquid is demonstrated using unprotected and unactivated donors. Modest yields of simple benzyl glycosides and disaccharides of glucose, mannose and N-acetylgalactosamine were obtained in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium benzoate with Amberlite IR-120 (H(+)) resin or p-toluenesulfonic acid as promoters.

  20. Electrical Resistivity of Natural Diamond and Diamond Films Between Room Temperature and 1200 C: Status Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandersande, Jan W.; Zoltan, L. D.

    1993-01-01

    The electrical resistivity of diamond films has been measured between room temperature and 1200 C. The films were grown by either microwave Plasma CVD or combustion flame at three different places. The resistivities of the current films are compared to those measured for both natural IIa diamond and films grown only one to two years ago.

  1. High resolution InSb quantum well ballistic nanosensors for room temperature applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbertson, Adam; Cohen, L. F.; Lambert, C. J.; Solin, S. A.

    2013-12-04

    We report the room temperature operation of a quasi-ballistic InSb quantum well Hall sensor that exhibits a high frequency sensitivity of 560nT/√Hz at 20uA bias current. The device utilizes a partitioned buffer layer design that suppresses leakage currents through the mesa floor and can sustain large current densities.

  2. Room-Temperature Gold-Catalysed Arylation of Heteroarenes: Complementarity to Palladium Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, Alexander J; Lloyd-Jones, Guy C

    2016-08-26

    Tailoring of the pre-catalyst, the oxidant and the arylsilane enables the first room-temperature, gold-catalysed, innate C-H arylation of heteroarenes. Regioselectivity is consistently high and, in some cases, distinct from that reported with palladium catalysis. Tolerance to halides and boronic esters, in both the heteroarene and silane partners, provides orthogonality to Suzuki-Miyaura coupling. PMID:27325239

  3. GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SILVER AND PALLADIUM NANOPARTICLES AT ROOM TEMPERATURE USING COFFEE AND TEA EXTRACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An extremely simple green approach that generates bulk quantities of nanocrystals of noble metals such as silver (Ag) and palladium (Pd) using coffee and tea extract at room temperature is described. The single-pot method uses no surfactant, capping agent, and/or template. The ob...

  4. Room temperature ferromagnetism in ZnO using non-magnetic dopants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Nasir; Atri, Asha; Singh, Budhi; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2016-05-01

    We studied the magnetic properties of Ag and Cu doped ZnO thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering. Robust room temperature ferromagnetism is observed in the films. Comparative to Cu doped films Ag doped films shows significant increase in ferromagnetism. Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies are also done to see the change in band structure with different metal doping content.

  5. Extreme Sensitivity of Room-Temperature Photoelectric Effect for Terahertz Detection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhiming; Zhou, Wei; Tong, Jinchao; Huang, Jingguo; Ouyang, Cheng; Qu, Yue; Wu, Jing; Gao, Yanqing; Chu, Junhao

    2016-01-01

    Extreme sensitivity of room-temperature photoelectric effect for terahertz (THz) detection is demonstrated by generating extra carriers in an electromagnetic induced well located at the semiconductor, using a wrapped metal-semiconductor-metal configuration. The excellent performance achieved with THz detectors shows great potential to open avenues for THz detection.

  6. A Knoevenagel Initiated Annulation Reaction Using Room Temperature or Microwave Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, A. Gilbert

    2007-01-01

    An experiment is presented that has the student execute a Knoevenagel initiated annulation reaction. The reaction can be carried out either through use of a microwave reactor or by allowing the mixture to stand at room temperature for two days. The student is then challenged to identify the reaction product through a guided prelab exercise of the…

  7. Copper-catalyzed Chan-Lam coupling between sulfonyl azides and boronic acids at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Moon, Soo-Yeon; Nam, Jungsoo; Rathwell, Kris; Kim, Won-Suk

    2014-01-17

    A mild and efficient method for the synthesis of N-arylsulfonamides in the presence of 10 mol % of CuCl is demonstrated. The reaction proceeds readily at room temperature in an open flask using a variety of sulfonyl azides and boronic acids without any base, ligand, or additive.

  8. Stereoretentive Pd-Catalyzed Kumada–Corriu Couplings of Alkenyl Halides at Room Temperature

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Stereoselective palladium-catalyzed Kumada–Corriu reactions of functionalized alkenyl halides and a variety of Grignard reagents, including those bearing β-hydrogen atoms and sensitive functional groups, can be carried out at room temperature using a new combination of reagents. PMID:25102436

  9. Analysis of coal-derived products and environmental systems by synchronous fluorescence and room temperature phosphorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Vo-Dinh, T.; Gammage, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    Two simple room temperature techniques, synchronous fluorescence and phosphorescence, were utilized to determine the polynuclear aromatic (PNA) compounds in various complex systems including synthetic multicomponent mixtures and real-life samples such as workplace air particulate extracts and coal-derived samples. The results demonstrate that as many as a dozen PNA compounds can be identified and quantified by these two analytical methods.

  10. 40 CFR Table B-4 to Subpart B of... - Line Voltage and Room Temperature Test Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Conditions B Table B-4 to Subpart B of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Testing Performance Characteristics of Automated Methods for SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 Pt. 53, Subpt. B, Table B-4 Table B-4 to Subpart B of Part 53—Line Voltage and Room Temperature Test Conditions Test...

  11. 40 CFR Table B-4 to Subpart B of... - Line Voltage and Room Temperature Test Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Conditions B Table B-4 to Subpart B of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Testing Performance Characteristics of Automated Methods for SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 Pt. 53, Subpt. B, Table B-4 Table B-4 to Subpart B of Part 53—Line Voltage and Room Temperature Test Conditions Test...

  12. Homogeneous linewidths of Rhodamine 6G at room temperature from cavity-enhanced spontaneous emission rates

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.D.; Whitten, W.B.; Arnold, S.; Ramsey, J.M. )

    1992-11-15

    Fluorescence lifetimes of Rhodamine 6G in levitated micron-sized droplets have been measured using a time-correlated photon counting technique. The coupling of emission into spherical cavity modes of the droplet results in significant emission rate enhancements which allow estimation of the homogeneous linewidth at room temperature.

  13. Room-temperature ferroelectricity in hexagonal TbMnO3 thin films.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Jik; Paudel, Tula R; Lu, Haidong; Burton, John D; Connell, John G; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y; Ambrose Seo, S S; Gruverman, Alexei

    2014-12-01

    Piezoresponse force microscopy imaging in conjunction with first-principles calculations provide strong evidence for room-temperature ferroelectricity in epitaxially stabilized hexagonal TbMnO3 thin films, which in the bulk form are with orthorhombic structure. The obtained results demonstrate that new phases and functional properties of complex oxide materials can be strain-engineered using epitaxial growth. PMID:25327617

  14. Room-temperature broadband emission of an InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots laser.

    PubMed

    Djie, H S; Ooi, B S; Fang, X-M; Wu, Y; Fastenau, J M; Liu, W K; Hopkinson, M

    2007-01-01

    We report the first demonstration to our knowledge of an ultrabroad emission laser using InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots by cycled monolayer deposition. The device exhibits a lasing wavelength coverage of approximately 40 nm at an approximately 1160 nm center wavelength at room temperature. The broadband signature results from the superposition of quantized lasing states from highly inhomogeneous dots.

  15. Adhesive for polyester films cures at room temperature, has high initial tack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, C. M.; Fust, G. W.; Welchel, C. J.

    1966-01-01

    Quick room-temperature-cure adhesive bonds polyester-insulated flat electrical cables to metal surfaces and various other substrates. The bond strength of the adhesive may be considerably increased by first applying a commercially available polyamide primer to the polyester film.

  16. Copper-catalyzed Chan-Lam coupling between sulfonyl azides and boronic acids at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Moon, Soo-Yeon; Nam, Jungsoo; Rathwell, Kris; Kim, Won-Suk

    2014-01-17

    A mild and efficient method for the synthesis of N-arylsulfonamides in the presence of 10 mol % of CuCl is demonstrated. The reaction proceeds readily at room temperature in an open flask using a variety of sulfonyl azides and boronic acids without any base, ligand, or additive. PMID:24404934

  17. Stereoretentive Pd-catalyzed Kumada-Corriu couplings of alkenyl halides at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Krasovskiy, Arkady L; Haley, Stephen; Voigtritter, Karl; Lipshutz, Bruce H

    2014-08-15

    Stereoselective palladium-catalyzed Kumada-Corriu reactions of functionalized alkenyl halides and a variety of Grignard reagents, including those bearing β-hydrogen atoms and sensitive functional groups, can be carried out at room temperature using a new combination of reagents. PMID:25102436

  18. Palladium-Catalyzed Chemoselective and Biocompatible Functionalization of Cysteine-Containing Molecules at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Al-Shuaeeb, Riyadh Ahmed Atto; Kolodych, Sergii; Koniev, Oleksandr; Delacroix, Sébastien; Erb, Stéphane; Nicolaÿ, Stéphanie; Cintrat, Jean-Christophe; Brion, Jean-Daniel; Cianférani, Sarah; Alami, Mouâd; Wagner, Alain; Messaoudi, Samir

    2016-08-01

    The third generation of aminobiphenyl palladacycle pre-catalyst "G3-Xantphos" enables functionalization of peptides containing cysteine in high yields. The conjugation (bioconjugation) occurs chemoselectively at room temperature under biocompatible conditions. Extension of the method to protein functionalization allows selective bioconjugation of the trastuzumab antibody. PMID:27362372

  19. Crystal induced phosphorescence from Benz(a)anthracene microcrystals at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Samir; Mazumdar, Prativa; Shyamal, Milan; Sahoo, Gobinda Prasad; Misra, Ajay

    2016-03-01

    Pure organic compounds that are also phosphorescent at room temperature are very rare in literature. Here, we report efficient phosphorescence emission from aggregated hydrosol of Benz(a)anthracene (BaA) at room temperature. Aggregated hydrosol of BaA has been synthesized by re-precipitation method and SDS is used as morphology directing agent. Morphology of the particles is characterized using optical and scanning electronic microcopy (SEM). Photophysical properties of the aggregated hydrosol are carried out using UV-vis, steady state and time resolved fluorescence study. The large stoke shifted structured emission from aggregated hydrosol of BaA has been explained due to phosphorescence emission of BaA at room temperature. In the crystalline state, the restricted intermolecular motions (RIM) such as rotations and vibrations are activated by crystal lattice. This rigidification effect makes the chromophore phosphorescent at room temperature. The possible stacking arrangement of the neighboring BaA within the aggregates has been substantiated by computing second order Fukui parameter as local reactivity descriptors. Computational study also reveals that the neighboring BaA molecules are present in parallel slipped conformation in its aggregated crystalline form.

  20. LDA-Mediated Synthesis of Triarylmethanes by Arylation of Diarylmethanes with Fluoroarenes at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xinfei; Huang, Tao; Wu, Wei; Liang, Fang; Cao, Song

    2015-10-16

    A practical and convenient approach for the secondary C(sp(3))-H arylation of diarylmethanes with various fluoroarenes is described. The reaction proceeds smoothly in the presence of LDA (lithium diisopropylamide) at room temperature and affords triarylmethanes in moderate to high yields.

  1. Extreme Sensitivity of Room-Temperature Photoelectric Effect for Terahertz Detection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhiming; Zhou, Wei; Tong, Jinchao; Huang, Jingguo; Ouyang, Cheng; Qu, Yue; Wu, Jing; Gao, Yanqing; Chu, Junhao

    2016-01-01

    Extreme sensitivity of room-temperature photoelectric effect for terahertz (THz) detection is demonstrated by generating extra carriers in an electromagnetic induced well located at the semiconductor, using a wrapped metal-semiconductor-metal configuration. The excellent performance achieved with THz detectors shows great potential to open avenues for THz detection. PMID:26542882

  2. Red-light-emitting laser diodes operating CW at room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kressel, H.; Hawrylo, F. Z.

    1976-01-01

    Heterojunction laser diodes of AlGaAs have been prepared with threshold current densities substantially below those previously achieved at room temperature in the 7200-8000-A spectral range. These devices operate continuously with simple oxide-isolated stripe contacts to 7400 A, which extends CW operation into the visible (red) portion of the spectrum.

  3. Mechanochemical synthesis of maghemite/silica nanocomposites: advanced materials for aqueous room-temperature catalysis.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Manuel; Pineda, Antonio; Romero, Antonio A; Barrón, Vidal; Luque, Rafael

    2014-07-01

    A simple, environmentally friendly, and highly reproducible protocol has been developed for the mechanochemical preparation of advanced nanocatalytic materials in a one-pot process. The materials proved to have unprecedented activities in aqueous Suzuki couplings at room temperature, paving the way for a new generation of highly active and stable advanced nanocatalysts.

  4. Structure determination of an integral membrane protein at room temperature from crystals in situ

    SciTech Connect

    Axford, Danny; Foadi, James; Hu, Nien-Jen; Choudhury, Hassanul Ghani; Iwata, So; Beis, Konstantinos; Evans, Gwyndaf; Alguel, Yilmaz

    2015-05-14

    The X-ray structure determination of an integral membrane protein using synchrotron diffraction data measured in situ at room temperature is demonstrated. The structure determination of an integral membrane protein using synchrotron X-ray diffraction data collected at room temperature directly in vapour-diffusion crystallization plates (in situ) is demonstrated. Exposing the crystals in situ eliminates manual sample handling and, since it is performed at room temperature, removes the complication of cryoprotection and potential structural anomalies induced by sample cryocooling. Essential to the method is the ability to limit radiation damage by recording a small amount of data per sample from many samples and subsequently assembling the resulting data sets using specialized software. The validity of this procedure is established by the structure determination of Haemophilus influenza TehA at 2.3 Å resolution. The method presented offers an effective protocol for the fast and efficient determination of membrane-protein structures at room temperature using third-generation synchrotron beamlines.

  5. Room-Temperature Palladium-Catalyzed Direct 2-Arylation of Benzoxazoles with Aryl and Heteroaryl Bromides†

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Feng; Kim, Byeong-Seon; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    An efficient room-temperature palladium-catalyzed direct 2-arylation of benzoxazoles with aryl bromides is presented. The Pd(OAc)2/NiXantphos-based catalyst enables the introduction of various aryl and heteroaryl groups, via a deprotonative cross-coupling process (DCCP) in good to excellent yields (75–99%). PMID:25078988

  6. Room temperature ferromagnetism in non-magnetic doped TiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Polo, C.; Larumbe, S.; Pastor, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    Room-temperature ferromagnetism in non-magnetic doped TiO2 semiconductor nanoparticles is analyzed in the present work. Undoped and N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were obtained employing sol-gel procedure using urea as the nitrogen source. The obtained gels were first dried at 70 °C and afterwards calcined in air at 300 °C. A residual carbon concentration was retained in the samples as a consequence of the organic decomposition process. Post-annealing treatments at 300 °C under air and vacuum conditions were also performed. The crystallographic structure of nanoparticles was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, obtaining a single anatase crystalline phase after the calcinations (mean nanoparticle diameters around 5-8 nm). SQUID magnetometry was employed to analyze the magnetic response of the samples. Whereas for the undoped samples synthesized with hydrolysis rate h = 6, paramagnetic like behavior is observed at room temperature, the N-doped nanoparticles (h = 3) show a weak ferromagnetic response (saturation magnetization ≈10-3 emu/g). Moreover, a clear reinforcement of the room-temperature ferromagnetism response is found with the post-annealing treatments, in particular that performed in vacuum. Thus, the results indicate the dominant role of the oxygen stoichiometry and the oxygen vacancies in the room temperature ferromagnetic response of these TiO2 nanoparticles.

  7. Room-Temperature Gold-Catalysed Arylation of Heteroarenes: Complementarity to Palladium Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, Alexander J; Lloyd-Jones, Guy C

    2016-08-26

    Tailoring of the pre-catalyst, the oxidant and the arylsilane enables the first room-temperature, gold-catalysed, innate C-H arylation of heteroarenes. Regioselectivity is consistently high and, in some cases, distinct from that reported with palladium catalysis. Tolerance to halides and boronic esters, in both the heteroarene and silane partners, provides orthogonality to Suzuki-Miyaura coupling.

  8. Room-temperature steady-state optomechanical entanglement on a chip

    SciTech Connect

    Zou Changling; Zou Xubo; Sun Fangwen; Han Zhengfu; Guo Guangcan

    2011-09-15

    A potential experimental system, based on high-stress stoichiometric silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), is proposed to generate steady-state optomechanical entanglement at room temperature. In the proposed structure, a nanostring interacts dispersively and reactively with a microdisk cavity via the evanescent field. We study the role of both dispersive and reactive couplings in generating optomechanical entanglement, and show that the room-temperature entanglement can be effectively obtained through the dispersive couplings under the reasonable experimental parameters. In particular, in the limits of high temperature (T) and high mechanical quality factor (Q{sub m}), we find that the logarithmic entanglement depends only on the ratio T/Q{sub m}. This indicates that improvements of the material quantity and structure design may lead to more efficient generation of stationary high-temperature entanglement.

  9. Room-temperature magnetism on the zigzag edges of phosphorene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Xu, Shenglong; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Tianxing; Wu, Congjun

    2016-08-01

    Searching for room-temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors has evolved into a broad field of material science and spintronics for decades, nevertheless, these novel states remain rare. Phosphorene, a monolayer black phosphorus with a puckered honeycomb lattice structure possessing a finite band gap and high carrier mobility, has been synthesized recently. Here we show, by means of two different large-scale quantum Monte Carlo methods, that relatively weak interactions can lead to remarkable edge magnetism in the phosphorene nanoribbons. The ground state constrained path quantum Monte Carlo simulations reveal strong ferromagnetic correlations along the zigzag edges, and the finite temperature determinant quantum Monte Carlo calculations show a high Curie temperature up to room temperature.

  10. Mechanical properties and constitutive behaviors of as-cast 7050 aluminum alloy from room temperature to above the solidus temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Qing-ling; Li, Hong-xiang; Du, Qiang; Zhang, Ji-shan; Zhuang, Lin-zhong

    2016-08-01

    The mechanical properties and constitutive behaviors of as-cast AA7050 in both the solid and semi-solid states were determined using the on-cooling and in situ solidification approaches, respectively. The results show that the strength in the solid state tends to increase with decreasing temperature. The strain rate plays an important role in the stress-strain behaviors at higher temperatures, whereas the influence becomes less pronounced and irregular when the temperature is less than 250°C. The experimental data were fitted to the extended Ludwik equation, which is suitable to describe the mechanical behavior of the materials in the as-cast state. In the semi-solid state, both the strength and ductility of the alloy are high near the solidus temperature and decrease drastically with decreasing solid fraction. As the solid fraction is less than 0.97, the maximum strength only slightly decreases, whereas the post-peak ductility begins to increase. The experimental data were fitted to the modified creep law, which is used to describe the mechanical behavior of semi-solid materials, to determine the equivalent parameter f GBWL, i.e., the fraction of grain boundaries covered by liquid phase.

  11. A high temperature EMAT sensor for semi-solid metalworking

    SciTech Connect

    Maxfield, B.; Yu, C.J.; Dax, F.R.

    1995-12-31

    The relationship between solid fraction and temperature for aluminum alloys A356 and A357 were developed by Backerud et al. In the material`s semi-solid state, there are five distinct chemical reactions within the microstructure which change the amount of solid fraction. Reference 1 gives tables that summarize these reactions in the microstructure, the corresponding temperature and the resulting solid fraction. For these two SSM alloys (A356 and A357), approximately 50% of the solid is the primary alpha phase and the rest is the eutectic phase with different constituents. The characteristic temperatures represent the formation of each reaction. These temperatures are observed and confirmed for the SSM material during the laboratory heat tests, these reaction temperatures are 550 C, 555 C, 567 C and 575 C. The corresponding solid fraction for each reaction is 95--100%, 90--95%, 70--90% and 50--70%. A rapid change in solid fraction takes place between 567 to 575 C. Above 575 C, melting of the primary {alpha} phase occurs. It is necessary to monitor the SSM material temperature during heating which is done via an induction coil that surrounds the material. One good means of accomplishing this task is to generate a burst of ultrasound at the top of the cylindrical material using a pulsed laser and detecting the resulting ultrasonic pulse at the bottom surface using an EMAT receiver. This talk describes the EMAT receiver that was used and presents some of the result that they obtained.

  12. Room temperature phosphorimetric determination of bromate in flour based on energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Menendez-Miranda, Mario; Fernandez-Argüelles, Maria T; Costa-Fernandez, Jose M; Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2013-11-15

    Determination of bromate ions in contaminated flour samples by using a room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) optosensor is described. The optosensor is based on the non-radiative energy transfer from α-bromonaphthalene (a phosphorescent molecule insensitive to the presence of the analyte) acting as donor, to an energy acceptor bromate-sensitive molecule (trifluoperazine hydrochloride). The RTP emission of the selected donor greatly overlaps with the absorption spectrum of the acceptor, resulting in a decrease of the measured signal as the concentration of bromate ions increases. A simple and general procedure is proposed to carry out the incorporation of both the donor and acceptor molecules in an appropriate solid material (sensing phase) through the co-immobilization of the species in a sol-gel inorganic matrix. The optimum amounts of the sol-gel precursors, including silica precursors, type of catalysis, and concentrations of donor and acceptor molecules, have been evaluated in order to obtain the best analytical features of the proposed optosensor for bromate determination. The highly stable developed sensing phase shows a selective and reversible response towards bromate even in presence of dissolved oxygen (a well-known quencher of the RTP). The calibration graphs were linear up to 200 mg L(-1), with a detection limit for bromate dissolved in aqueous medium of 0.2 mg L(-1). Sample throughput of the proposed optosensor was about 18 measurements h(-1). Application of the developed sensing phase was successfully proved for the detection of bromate ions in commercial flours, obtaining good recoveries.

  13. Direct measurement of osmotic pressure of glycosaminoglycan solutions by membrane osmometry at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Chahine, Nadeen O; Chen, Faye H; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2005-09-01

    Articular cartilage is a hydrated soft tissue composed of negatively charged proteoglycans fixed within a collagen matrix. This charge gradient causes the tissue to imbibe water and swell, creating a net osmotic pressure that enhances the tissue's ability to bear load. In this study we designed and utilized an apparatus for directly measuring the osmotic pressure of chondroitin sulfate, the primary glycosaminoglycan found in articular cartilage, in solution with varying bathing ionic strength (0.015 M, 0.15 M, 0.5 M, 1 M, and 2 M NaCl) at room temperature. The osmotic pressure (pi) was found to increase nonlinearly with increasing chondroitin sulfate concentration and decreasing NaCl ionic bath environment. Above 1 M NaCl, pi changes negligibly with further increases in salt concentration, suggesting that Donnan osmotic pressure is negligible above this threshold, and the resulting pressure is attributed to configurational entropy. Results of the current study were also used to estimate the contribution of osmotic pressure to the stiffness of cartilage based on theoretical and experimental considerations. Our findings indicate that the osmotic pressure resulting from configurational entropy is much smaller in cartilage (based on an earlier study on bovine articular cartilage) than in free solution. The rate of change of osmotic pressure with compressive strain is found to contribute approximately one-third of the compressive modulus (H(A)(eff)) of cartilage (Pi approximately H(A)(eff)/3), with the balance contributed by the intrinsic structural modulus of the solid matrix (i.e., H(A) approximately 2H(A)(eff)/3). A strong dependence of this intrinsic modulus on salt concentration was found; therefore, it appears that proteoglycans contribute structurally to the magnitude of H(A), in a manner independent of osmotic pressure. PMID:15980166

  14. Room temperature phosphorimetric determination of bromate in flour based on energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Menendez-Miranda, Mario; Fernandez-Argüelles, Maria T; Costa-Fernandez, Jose M; Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2013-11-15

    Determination of bromate ions in contaminated flour samples by using a room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) optosensor is described. The optosensor is based on the non-radiative energy transfer from α-bromonaphthalene (a phosphorescent molecule insensitive to the presence of the analyte) acting as donor, to an energy acceptor bromate-sensitive molecule (trifluoperazine hydrochloride). The RTP emission of the selected donor greatly overlaps with the absorption spectrum of the acceptor, resulting in a decrease of the measured signal as the concentration of bromate ions increases. A simple and general procedure is proposed to carry out the incorporation of both the donor and acceptor molecules in an appropriate solid material (sensing phase) through the co-immobilization of the species in a sol-gel inorganic matrix. The optimum amounts of the sol-gel precursors, including silica precursors, type of catalysis, and concentrations of donor and acceptor molecules, have been evaluated in order to obtain the best analytical features of the proposed optosensor for bromate determination. The highly stable developed sensing phase shows a selective and reversible response towards bromate even in presence of dissolved oxygen (a well-known quencher of the RTP). The calibration graphs were linear up to 200 mg L(-1), with a detection limit for bromate dissolved in aqueous medium of 0.2 mg L(-1). Sample throughput of the proposed optosensor was about 18 measurements h(-1). Application of the developed sensing phase was successfully proved for the detection of bromate ions in commercial flours, obtaining good recoveries. PMID:24148398

  15. All-solid-state lithium-oxygen battery with high safety in wide ambient temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaura, Hirokazu; Zhou, Haoshen

    2015-08-01

    There is need to develop high energy storage devices with high safety to satisfy the growing industrial demands. Here, we show the potential to realize such batteries by assembling a lithium-oxygen cell using an inorganic solid electrolyte without any flammable liquid or polymer materials. The lithium-oxygen battery using Li1.575Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3 solid electrolyte was examined in the pure oxygen atmosphere from room temperature to 120 °C. The cell works at room temperature and first full discharge capacity of 1420 mAh g-1 at 10 mA g-1 (based on the mass of carbon material in the air electrode) was obtained. The charge curve started from 3.0 V, and that the majority of it lay below 4.2 V. The cell also safely works at high temperature over 80 °C with the improved battery performance. Furthermore, fundamental data of the electrochemical performance, such as cyclic voltammogram, cycle performance and rate performance was obtained and this work demonstrated the potential of the all-solid-state lithium-oxygen battery for wide temperature application as a first step.

  16. All-solid-state lithium-oxygen battery with high safety in wide ambient temperature range

    PubMed Central

    Kitaura, Hirokazu; Zhou, Haoshen

    2015-01-01

    There is need to develop high energy storage devices with high safety to satisfy the growing industrial demands. Here, we show the potential to realize such batteries by assembling a lithium-oxygen cell using an inorganic solid electrolyte without any flammable liquid or polymer materials. The lithium-oxygen battery using Li1.575Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3 solid electrolyte was examined in the pure oxygen atmosphere from room temperature to 120 °C. The cell works at room temperature and first full discharge capacity of 1420 mAh g−1 at 10 mA g−1 (based on the mass of carbon material in the air electrode) was obtained. The charge curve started from 3.0 V, and that the majority of it lay below 4.2 V. The cell also safely works at high temperature over 80 °C with the improved battery performance. Furthermore, fundamental data of the electrochemical performance, such as cyclic voltammogram, cycle performance and rate performance was obtained and this work demonstrated the potential of the all-solid-state lithium-oxygen battery for wide temperature application as a first step. PMID:26293134

  17. All-solid-state lithium-oxygen battery with high safety in wide ambient temperature range.

    PubMed

    Kitaura, Hirokazu; Zhou, Haoshen

    2015-08-21

    There is need to develop high energy storage devices with high safety to satisfy the growing industrial demands. Here, we show the potential to realize such batteries by assembling a lithium-oxygen cell using an inorganic solid electrolyte without any flammable liquid or polymer materials. The lithium-oxygen battery using Li1.575Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3 solid electrolyte was examined in the pure oxygen atmosphere from room temperature to 120 °C. The cell works at room temperature and first full discharge capacity of 1420 mAh g(-1) at 10 mA g(-1) (based on the mass of carbon material in the air electrode) was obtained. The charge curve started from 3.0 V, and that the majority of it lay below 4.2 V. The cell also safely works at high temperature over 80 °C with the improved battery performance. Furthermore, fundamental data of the electrochemical performance, such as cyclic voltammogram, cycle performance and rate performance was obtained and this work demonstrated the potential of the all-solid-state lithium-oxygen battery for wide temperature application as a first step.

  18. All-solid-state lithium-oxygen battery with high safety in wide ambient temperature range.

    PubMed

    Kitaura, Hirokazu; Zhou, Haoshen

    2015-01-01

    There is need to develop high energy storage devices with high safety to satisfy the growing industrial demands. Here, we show the potential to realize such batteries by assembling a lithium-oxygen cell using an inorganic solid electrolyte without any flammable liquid or polymer materials. The lithium-oxygen battery using Li1.575Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3 solid electrolyte was examined in the pure oxygen atmosphere from room temperature to 120 °C. The cell works at room temperature and first full discharge capacity of 1420 mAh g(-1) at 10 mA g(-1) (based on the mass of carbon material in the air electrode) was obtained. The charge curve started from 3.0 V, and that the majority of it lay below 4.2 V. The cell also safely works at high temperature over 80 °C with the improved battery performance. Furthermore, fundamental data of the electrochemical performance, such as cyclic voltammogram, cycle performance and rate performance was obtained and this work demonstrated the potential of the all-solid-state lithium-oxygen battery for wide temperature application as a first step. PMID:26293134

  19. Analysis of a workplace air particulate sample by synchronous luminescence and room-temperature phosphorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Vo-Dinh, T.; Gammage, R.B.; Martinez, P.R.

    1981-02-01

    An analysis of a XAD-2 resin extract of a particulate air sample collected at an industrial environment was conducted by use of two simple spectroscopic methods performed at ambient temperature, the synchronous luminescence and room-temperature phosphorescence techniques. Results of the analysis of 13 polynuclear aromatic compounds including anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, 2,3-benzofluorene, chrysene, 1,2,5,6-dibenzanthracene, dibenzthiophene, fluoranthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, perylene, pyrene, and tetracene were reported.

  20. Experimental data of the static behavior of reinforced concrete beams at room and low temperature.

    PubMed

    Mirzazadeh, M Mehdi; Noël, Martin; Green, Mark F

    2016-06-01

    This article provides data on the static behavior of reinforced concrete at room and low temperature including, strength, ductility, and crack widths of the reinforced concrete. The experimental data on the application of digital image correlation (DIC) or particle image velocimetry (PIV) in measuring crack widths and the accuracy and precision of DIC/PIV method with temperature variations when is used for measuring strains is provided as well.

  1. A high-energy room-temperature sodium-sulfur battery.

    PubMed

    Xin, Sen; Yin, Ya-Xia; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wan, Li-Jun

    2014-02-26

    Employing small sulfur molecules as the active cathode component for room-temperature Na-S batteries, reveals a novel mechanism that is verified for the batteries' electrochemistry. The sulfur cathode enables a complete two-electron reaction to form Na2 S, bringing a tripled specific capacity and an increased specific energy compared with traditional high-temperature Na-S batteries. At the same time, it offers better cycling stability endowing the batteries with a longer lifespan.

  2. Experimental data of the static behavior of reinforced concrete beams at room and low temperature

    PubMed Central

    Mirzazadeh, M. Mehdi; Noël, Martin; Green, Mark F.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides data on the static behavior of reinforced concrete at room and low temperature including, strength, ductility, and crack widths of the reinforced concrete. The experimental data on the application of digital image correlation (DIC) or particle image velocimetry (PIV) in measuring crack widths and the accuracy and precision of DIC/PIV method with temperature variations when is used for measuring strains is provided as well. PMID:27158650

  3. Room temperature broadband terahertz gains in graphene heterostructures based on inter-layer radiative transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Linlong; Du, Jinglei; Shi, Haofei Wei, Dongshan; Du, Chunlei

    2014-10-15

    We exploit inter-layer radiative transitions to provide gains to amplify terahertz waves in graphene heterostructures. This is achieved by properly doping graphene sheets and aligning their energy bands so that the processes of stimulated emissions can overwhelm absorptions. We derive an expression for the gain estimation and show the gain is insensitive to temperature variation. Moreover, the gain is broadband and can be strong enough to compensate the free carrier loss, indicating graphene based room temperature terahertz lasers are feasible.

  4. Experimental data of the static behavior of reinforced concrete beams at room and low temperature.

    PubMed

    Mirzazadeh, M Mehdi; Noël, Martin; Green, Mark F

    2016-06-01

    This article provides data on the static behavior of reinforced concrete at room and low temperature including, strength, ductility, and crack widths of the reinforced concrete. The experimental data on the application of digital image correlation (DIC) or particle image velocimetry (PIV) in measuring crack widths and the accuracy and precision of DIC/PIV method with temperature variations when is used for measuring strains is provided as well. PMID:27158650

  5. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Ruka, Roswell J.; Zymboly, Gregory E.

    1985-01-01

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  6. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1986-01-01

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  7. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1987-01-01

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  8. MICROSPECTROPHOTOMETRY OF CYTOCHROMES IN THE SINGLE CELL AT ROOM AND LIQUID NITROGEN TEMPERATURES

    PubMed Central

    Thorell, B.; Chance, B.; Legallais, V.

    1965-01-01

    By increasing further the sensitivity of microspectrophotometry, it is now possible to measure, under favorable conditions, the smaller absorption bands of the respiratory pigments of single cells in the visible region of the spectrum. A considerable aid in the distinction between cytochromes is afforded by liquid nitrogen microspectrophotometry. Under favorable conditions, the height of the peaks is increased over 8-fold at low temperatures. In diploid yeast, characteristically sharpened components not resolvable at room temperature are observed at low temperature; and in pentaploid yeast, a hitherto unrecognized pigment is observed at 583 mµ. These preliminary results indicate the feasibility and the value of low temperature microspectrophotometry of biological materials. PMID:19866677

  9. Certification of NIST Room Temperature Low-Energy and High-Energy Charpy Verification Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Lucon, Enrico; McCowan, Chris N.; Santoyo, Ray L.

    2015-01-01

    The possibility for NIST to certify Charpy reference specimens for testing at room temperature (21 °C ± 1 °C) instead of −40 °C was investigated by performing 130 room-temperature tests from five low-energy and four high-energy lots of steel on the three master Charpy machines located in Boulder, CO. The statistical analyses performed show that in most cases the variability of results (i.e., the experimental scatter) is reduced when testing at room temperature. For eight out of the nine lots considered, the observed variability was lower at 21 °C than at −40 °C. The results of this study will allow NIST to satisfy requests for room-temperature Charpy verification specimens that have been received from customers for several years: testing at 21 °C removes from the verification process the operator’s skill in transferring the specimen in a timely fashion from the cooling bath to the impact position, and puts the focus back on the machine performance. For NIST, it also reduces the time and cost for certifying new verification lots. For one of the low-energy lots tested with a C-shaped hammer, we experienced two specimens jamming, which yielded unusually high values of absorbed energy. For both specimens, the signs of jamming were clearly visible. For all the low-energy lots investigated, jamming is slightly more likely to occur at 21 °C than at −40 °C, since at room temperature low-energy samples tend to remain in the test area after impact rather than exiting in the opposite direction of the pendulum swing. In the evaluation of a verification set, any jammed specimen should be removed from the analyses. PMID:26958453

  10. Low and room temperature magnetic features of the traffic related urban airborne PM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, A.; Sagnotti, L.

    2012-04-01

    We used magnetic measurements and analyses - such as hysteresis loops and FORCs both at room temperature and at 10K, isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) vs temperature curves (from 10K to 293K) and IRM vs time decay curves - to characterize the magnetic properties of the traffic related airborne particulate matter (PM) in Rome. This study was specifically addressed to the identification of the ultrafine superparamagnetic (SP) particles, which are particularly sensitive to thermal relaxation effects, and on the eventual detection of low temperature phase transitions which may affect various magnetic minerals. We compared the magnetic properties at 10K and at room temperature of Quercus ilex leaves, disk brakes, diesel and gasoline exhaust pipes powders collected from vehicles circulating in Rome. The magnetic properties of the investigated powders significantly change upon cooling, and no clear phase transition occurs, suggesting that the thermal dependence is mainly triggered by the widespread presence of ultrafine SP particles. The contribution of the SP fraction to the total remanence of traffic related PM samples was quantified at room temperature measuring the decay of a IRM 100 s after the application of a saturation magnetic field. This same method has been also tested at 10K to investigate the temperature dependence of the observed time decay.

  11. Dispersion interactions in room-temperature ionic liquids: Results from a non-empirical density functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohanoff, Jorge; Pinilla, Carlos; Youngs, Tristan G. A.; Artacho, Emilio; Soler, José M.

    2011-10-01

    The role of dispersion or van de Waals (VDW) interactions in imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids is studied within the framework of density functional theory, using a recently developed non-empirical functional [M. Dion, H. Rydberg, E. Schröder, D. C. Langreth, and B. I. Lundqvist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 246401 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.246401], as efficiently implemented in the SIESTA code [G. Román-Pérez and J. M. Soler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 096102 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.096102]. We present results for the equilibrium structure and lattice parameters of several crystalline phases, finding a general improvement with respect to both the local density (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximations (GGA). Similar to other systems characterized by VDW bonding, such as rare gas and benzene dimers as well as solid argon, equilibrium distances and volumes are consistently overestimated by ≈7%, compared to -11% within LDA and 11% within GGA. The intramolecular geometries are retained, while the intermolecular distances and orientations are significantly improved relative to LDA and GGA. The quality is superior to that achieved with tailor-made empirical VDW corrections ad hoc [M. G. Del Pópolo, C. Pinilla, and P. Ballone, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 144705 (2007), 10.1063/1.2715571]. We also analyse the performance of an optimized version of this non-empirical functional, where the screening properties of the exchange have been tuned to reproduce high-level quantum chemical calculations [J. Klimes, D. Bowler, and A. Michaelides, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22, 074203 (2010), 10.1088/0953-8984/22/7/074203]. The results for solids are even better with volumes and geometries reproduced within 2% of experimental data. We provide some insight into the issue of polymorphism of [bmim][Cl] crystals, and we present results for the geometry and energetics of [bmim][Tf] and [mmim][Cl] neutral and charged clusters, which validate the use of empirical force

  12. Impact of Seasonal Variant Temperatures and Laboratory Room Ambient Temperature on Mortality of Rats with Ischemic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishanan, Sivakumar; Babu, Mg. Ramesh; Thangarajan, Rajesh; Punja, Dhiren; Jaganath, Vidyadhara Devarunda; Kanth, Akriti B.; Rao, Mohandas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A popular rat model for hypoperfusion ischemic brain injury is bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO). BCCAO surgery when performed in varying geographical locations and during different seasons of the year is reported to have variable mortality rates. Studies have also documented the diminishing influence of Ketamine-Xylazine (KT-XY) on thermoregulatory functions in rodents. Aim To explore the impact of seasonal variant temperatures and laboratory room ambient temperatures on mortality of rats following BCCAO surgery. Materials and Methods The study has two parts: 1 The first part is an analysis of a three year retrospective data to explore the association between the geographical season (hot summer and cold winter) induced laboratory room ambient temperature variations and the mortality rate in KT-XY anaesthetized BCCAO rats. 2. The second part investigated the effect of conditioned laboratory room ambient temperature (CAT) (23-250C) in KT-XY anaesthetized BCCAO group of rats. Rats were divided into 4 groups(n =8/group) as-Normal control, BCCAO and Sham BCCAO where they were all exposed to unconditioned ambient temperature (UCAT) during their surgery and postoperative care. And finally fourth group rats exposed to CAT during the BCCAO surgery and postoperative care. Results Pearson’s chi-square test indicates a significantly high association (p<0.006) between post-BCCAO mortality and hot season of the year. CAT during the hot season reduced the mortality rate (24% less) in post- BCCAO rats compared to the rats of UCAT. Conclusion Despite seasonal variations in temperature, conditioning the laboratory room ambient temperatures to 23–250C, induces hypothermia in KT-XY anaesthetized ischemic brain injured rodents and improves their survival rate. PMID:27190796

  13. High temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell configurations and interconnections

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.

    1984-01-01

    High temperature fuel cell configurations and interconnections are made including annular cells having a solid electrolyte sandwiched between thin film electrodes. The cells are electrically interconnected along an elongated axial outer surface.

  14. A new hypercrosslinked supermicroporous polymer, with scope for sulfonation, and its catalytic potential for the efficient synthesis of biodiesel at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Bhunia, Subhajit; Banerjee, Biplab; Bhaumik, Asim

    2015-03-25

    We have designed a new hypercrosslinked supermicroporous polymer (HMP-1) with a BET surface area of 913 m(2) g(-1) by FeCl3 via a catalyzed Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction between carbazole and α,α'-dibromo-p-xylene. Upon sulfonation HMP-1 yielded a very efficient solid acid catalyst for the production of biodiesels via esterification/transesterification of free fatty acids (FFA)/esters at room temperature. PMID:25702885

  15. Low-Temperature Photochemically Activated Amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc Oxide for Highly Stable Room-Temperature Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Jaisutti, Rawat; Kim, Jaeyoung; Park, Sung Kyu; Kim, Yong-Hoon

    2016-08-10

    We report on highly stable amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) gas sensors for ultraviolet (UV)-activated room-temperature detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The IGZO sensors fabricated by a low-temperature photochemical activation process and exhibiting two orders higher photocurrent compared to conventional zinc oxide sensors, allowed high gas sensitivity against various VOCs even at room temperature. From a systematic analysis, it was found that by increasing the UV intensity, the gas sensitivity, response time, and recovery behavior of an IGZO sensor were strongly enhanced. In particular, under an UV intensity of 30 mW cm(-2), the IGZO sensor exhibited gas sensitivity, response time and recovery time of 37%, 37 and 53 s, respectively, against 750 ppm concentration of acetone gas. Moreover, the IGZO gas sensor had an excellent long-term stability showing around 6% variation in gas sensitivity over 70 days. These results strongly support a conclusion that a low-temperature solution-processed amorphous IGZO film can serve as a good candidate for room-temperature VOCs sensors for emerging wearable electronics. PMID:27430635

  16. Low-Temperature Photochemically Activated Amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc Oxide for Highly Stable Room-Temperature Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Jaisutti, Rawat; Kim, Jaeyoung; Park, Sung Kyu; Kim, Yong-Hoon

    2016-08-10

    We report on highly stable amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) gas sensors for ultraviolet (UV)-activated room-temperature detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The IGZO sensors fabricated by a low-temperature photochemical activation process and exhibiting two orders higher photocurrent compared to conventional zinc oxide sensors, allowed high gas sensitivity against various VOCs even at room temperature. From a systematic analysis, it was found that by increasing the UV intensity, the gas sensitivity, response time, and recovery behavior of an IGZO sensor were strongly enhanced. In particular, under an UV intensity of 30 mW cm(-2), the IGZO sensor exhibited gas sensitivity, response time and recovery time of 37%, 37 and 53 s, respectively, against 750 ppm concentration of acetone gas. Moreover, the IGZO gas sensor had an excellent long-term stability showing around 6% variation in gas sensitivity over 70 days. These results strongly support a conclusion that a low-temperature solution-processed amorphous IGZO film can serve as a good candidate for room-temperature VOCs sensors for emerging wearable electronics.

  17. Room temperature spin valve effect in NiFe/WS2/Co junctions

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Siddique, Salma; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Ramay, Shahid Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) layered electronic materials of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have been recently proposed as an emerging canddiate for spintronic applications. Here, we report the exfoliated single layer WS2-intelayer based spin valve effect in NiFe/WS2/Co junction from room temperature to 4.2 K. The ratio of relative magnetoresistance in spin valve effect increases from 0.18% at room temperature to 0.47% at 4.2 K. We observed that the junction resistance decreases monotonically as temperature is lowered. These results revealed that semiconducting WS2 thin film works as a metallic conducting interlayer between NiFe and Co electrodes. PMID:26868638

  18. Iron-aluminum alloys having high room-temperature and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, Vinod K.; McKamey, Claudette G.

    1993-01-01

    Iron-aluminum alloys having selectable room-temperature ductilities of greater than 20%, high resistance to oxidation and sulfidation, resistant pitting and corrosion in aqueous solutions, and possessing relatively high yield and ultimate tensile strengths are described. These alloys comprise 8 to 9.5% aluminum, up to 7% chromium, up to 4% molybdenum, up to 0.05% carbon, up to 0.5% of a carbide former such as zirconium, up to 0.1 yttrium, and the balance iron. These alloys in wrought form are annealed at a selected temperature in the range of 700.degree. C. to about 1100.degree. C. for providing the alloys with selected room-temperature ductilities in the range of 20 to about 29%.

  19. Optically induced strong intermodal coupling in mechanical resonators at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, R.; Okamoto, H.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hey, R.; Friedland, K. J.

    2015-08-31

    Strong parametric mode coupling in mechanical resonators is demonstrated at room temperature by using the photothermal effect in thin membrane structures. Thanks to the large stress modulation by laser irradiation, the coupling rate of the mechanical modes, defined as half of the mode splitting, reaches 2.94 kHz, which is an order of magnitude larger than electrically induced mode coupling. This large coupling rate exceeds the damping rates of the mechanical resonators and results in the strong coupling regime, which is a signature of coherent mode interaction. Room-temperature coherent mode coupling will enable us to manipulate mechanical motion at practical operation temperatures and provides a wide variety of applications of integrated mechanical systems.

  20. Stable room-temperature ferromagnetic phase at the FeRh(100) surface

    PubMed Central

    Pressacco, Federico; Uhlίř, Vojtěch; Gatti, Matteo; Bendounan, Azzedine; Fullerton, Eric E.; Sirotti, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Interfaces and low dimensionality are sources of strong modifications of electronic, structural, and magnetic properties of materials. FeRh alloys are an excellent example because of the first-order phase transition taking place at ~400 K from an antiferromagnetic phase at room temperature to a high temperature ferromagnetic one. It is accompanied by a resistance change and volume expansion of about 1%. We have investigated the electronic and magnetic properties of FeRh(100) epitaxially grown on MgO by combining spectroscopies characterized by different probing depths, namely X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and photoelectron spectroscopy. We find that the symmetry breaking induced at the Rh-terminated surface stabilizes a surface ferromagnetic layer involving five planes of Fe and Rh atoms in the nominally antiferromagnetic phase at room temperature. First-principles calculations provide a microscopic description of the structural relaxation and the electron spin-density distribution that support the experimental findings. PMID:26935274

  1. Cu-Cu direct bonding achieved by surface method at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Utsumi, Jun; Ichiyanagi, Yuko

    2014-02-20

    The metal bonding is a key technology in the processes for the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and the semiconductor devices to improve functionality and higher density integration. Strong adhesion between surfaces at the atomic level is crucial; however, it is difficult to achieve close bonding in such a system. Cu films were deposited on Si substrates by vacuum deposition, and then, two Cu films were bonded directly by means of surface activated bonding (SAB) at room temperature. The two Cu films, with the surface roughness Ra about 1.3nm, were bonded by using SAB at room temperature, however, the bonding strength was very weak in this method. In order to improve the bonding strength between the Cu films, samples were annealed at low temperatures, between 323 and 473 K, in air. As the result, the Cu-Cu bonding strength was 10 times higher than that of the original samples without annealing.

  2. Room temperature strong light-matter coupling in three dimensional terahertz meta-atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulillo, B.; Manceau, J.-M.; Li, L. H.; Davies, A. G.; Linfield, E. H.; Colombelli, R.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate strong light-matter coupling in three dimensional terahertz meta-atoms at room temperature. The intersubband transition of semiconductor quantum wells with a parabolic energy potential is strongly coupled to the confined circuital mode of three-dimensional split-ring metal-semiconductor-metal resonators that have an extreme sub-wavelength volume (λ/10). The frequency of these lumped-element resonators is controlled by the size and shape of the external antenna, while the interaction volume remains constant. This allows the resonance frequency to be swept across the intersubband transition and the anti-crossing characteristic of the strong light-matter coupling regime to be observed. The Rabi splitting, which is twice the Rabi frequency (2ΩRabi), amounts to 20% of the bare transition at room temperature, and it increases to 28% at low-temperature.

  3. Stable room-temperature ferromagnetic phase at the FeRh(100) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressacco, Federico; Uhlίř, Vojtěch; Gatti, Matteo; Bendounan, Azzedine; Fullerton, Eric E.; Sirotti, Fausto

    2016-03-01

    Interfaces and low dimensionality are sources of strong modifications of electronic, structural, and magnetic properties of materials. FeRh alloys are an excellent example because of the first-order phase transition taking place at ~400 K from an antiferromagnetic phase at room temperature to a high temperature ferromagnetic one. It is accompanied by a resistance change and volume expansion of about 1%. We have investigated the electronic and magnetic properties of FeRh(100) epitaxially grown on MgO by combining spectroscopies characterized by different probing depths, namely X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and photoelectron spectroscopy. We find that the symmetry breaking induced at the Rh-terminated surface stabilizes a surface ferromagnetic layer involving five planes of Fe and Rh atoms in the nominally antiferromagnetic phase at room temperature. First-principles calculations provide a microscopic description of the structural relaxation and the electron spin-density distribution that support the experimental findings.

  4. Room temperature continuous wave operation of InAs-based quantum cascade lasers at 15 µm.

    PubMed

    Baranov, Alexei N; Bahriz, Michael; Teissier, Roland

    2016-08-01

    We report low threshold InAs/AlSb quantum cascade lasers emitting near 15 µm. The devices are based on a vertical design similar to those employed previously in far infrared InAs-based QCLs, whereas the doping level of the active core is considerably decreased. The lasers exhibit a threshold current density as low as 730 A/cm2 in pulsed mode at room temperature and can operate in this regime up to 410K. The continuous wave regime of operation has been achieved in these devices at temperatures up to 20°C. The cw regime is demonstrated for InAs-based QCLs for the first time at room temperature.

  5. Exchange bias and room-temperature magnetic order in molecular layers.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Manuel; Ibrahim, Fatima; Boukari, Samy; Isshiki, Hironari; Joly, Loïc; Peter, Moritz; Studniarek, Michał; Da Costa, Victor; Jabbar, Hashim; Davesne, Vincent; Halisdemir, Ufuk; Chen, Jinjie; Arabski, Jacek; Otero, Edwige; Choueikani, Fadi; Chen, Kai; Ohresser, Philippe; Wulfhekel, Wulf; Scheurer, Fabrice; Weber, Wolfgang; Alouani, Mebarek; Beaurepaire, Eric; Bowen, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Molecular semiconductors may exhibit antiferromagnetic correlations well below room temperature. Although inorganic antiferromagnetic layers may exchange bias single-molecule magnets, the reciprocal effect of an antiferromagnetic molecular layer magnetically pinning an inorganic ferromagnetic layer through exchange bias has so far not been observed. We report on the magnetic interplay, extending beyond the interface, between a cobalt ferromagnetic layer and a paramagnetic organic manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc) layer. These ferromagnetic/organic interfaces are called spinterfaces because spin polarization arises on them. The robust magnetism of the Co/MnPc spinterface stabilizes antiferromagnetic ordering at room temperature within subsequent MnPc monolayers away from the interface. The inferred magnetic coupling strength is much larger than that found in similar bulk, thin or ultrathin systems. In addition, at lower temperature, the antiferromagnetic MnPc layer induces an exchange bias on the Co film, which is magnetically pinned. These findings create new routes towards designing organic spintronic devices.

  6. Room temperature preparation of cuprous oxide hollow microspheres by a facile wet-chemical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning; He, Hongcai; Han, Li

    2010-09-01

    Cuprous oxide hollow spheres have potential applications in drug-delivery carriers, biomedical diagnosis agents, and cell imaging. From a commercial point of view, the low-temperature, template-free, facile method is widely popular synthetic method for the synthesis of cuprous oxide hollow spheres. In this letter, we describe a novel facile template-free wet-chemical route to prepare crystallized cuprous oxide microspheres at room temperature. XRD patterns and SEM images revealed that pure crystallized cuprous oxide hollow microspheres were successfully obtained at room temperature. The diameter of cuprous oxide hollow sphere can be adjusted (0.7-7 μm) by concentration control of hydrazine hydrate. Generated N 2 gas bubbles in the aqueous solution, serving as "soft" templates, play a key role in the formation of hollow microspheres.

  7. A novel lipid extraction method from wet microalga Picochlorum sp. at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fangfang; Xiang, Wenzhou; Sun, Xiumei; Wu, Hualian; Li, Tao; Long, Lijuan

    2014-03-01

    A novel method using ethanol was proposed for extracting lipids from wet microalga Picochlorum sp. at room temperature and pressure. In this study, Central Composite design (CCD) was applied to investigate the optimum conditions of lipid extraction. The results revealed that the solvent to biomass ratio had the largest effect on lipid extraction efficiency, followed by extraction time and temperature. A high lipid extraction yield (33.04% of the dry weight) was obtained under the following extraction conditions: 5 mL solvents per gram of wet biomass for 37 min with gentle stirring at room temperature. The extraction yield was comparable to that obtained by the widely used Bligh-Dyer method. Furthermore, no significant differences in the distribution of lipid classes and fatty acid composition were observed according to different extraction methods. In conclusion, these results indicated that the proposed procedure using ethanol could extract lipids from wet biomass efficiently and had giant potential for lipid extraction at large scale.

  8. Room temperature spin valve effect in NiFe/WS2/Co junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Siddique, Salma; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Ramay, Shahid Mahmood

    2016-02-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) layered electronic materials of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have been recently proposed as an emerging canddiate for spintronic applications. Here, we report the exfoliated single layer WS2-intelayer based spin valve effect in NiFe/WS2/Co junction from room temperature to 4.2 K. The ratio of relative magnetoresistance in spin valve effect increases from 0.18% at room temperature to 0.47% at 4.2 K. We observed that the junction resistance decreases monotonically as temperature is lowered. These results revealed that semiconducting WS2 thin film works as a metallic conducting interlayer between NiFe and Co electrodes.

  9. Room temperature spin valve effect in NiFe/WS₂/Co junctions.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Siddique, Salma; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Ramay, Shahid Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) layered electronic materials of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have been recently proposed as an emerging canddiate for spintronic applications. Here, we report the exfoliated single layer WS2-intelayer based spin valve effect in NiFe/WS2/Co junction from room temperature to 4.2 K. The ratio of relative magnetoresistance in spin valve effect increases from 0.18% at room temperature to 0.47% at 4.2 K. We observed that the junction resistance decreases monotonically as temperature is lowered. These results revealed that semiconducting WS2 thin film works as a metallic conducting interlayer between NiFe and Co electrodes. PMID:26868638

  10. Room Temperature Electrical Detection of Spin Polarized Currents in Topological Insulators.

    PubMed

    Dankert, André; Geurs, Johannes; Kamalakar, M Venkata; Charpentier, Sophie; Dash, Saroj P

    2015-12-01

    Topological insulators (TIs) are a new class of quantum materials that exhibit a current-induced spin polarization due to spin-momentum locking of massless Dirac Fermions in their surface states. This helical spin polarization in three-dimensional (3D) TIs has been observed using photoemission spectroscopy up to room temperatures. Recently, spin polarized surface currents in 3D TIs were detected electrically by potentiometric measurements using ferromagnetic detector contacts. However, these electric measurements are so far limited to cryogenic temperatures. Here we report the room temperature electrical detection of the spin polarization on the surface of Bi2Se3 by employing spin sensitive ferromagnetic tunnel contacts. The current-induced spin polarization on the Bi2Se3 surface is probed by measuring the magnetoresistance while switching the magnetization direction of the ferromagnetic detector. A spin resistance of up to 70 mΩ is measured at room temperature, which increases linearly with current bias, reverses sign with current direction, and decreases with higher TI thickness. The magnitude of the spin signal, its sign, and control experiments, using different measurement geometries and interface conditions, rule out other known physical effects. These findings provide further information about the electrical detection of current-induced spin polarizations in 3D TIs at ambient temperatures and could lead to innovative spin-based technologies.

  11. Ratchetting behavior of type 304 stainless steel at room and elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggles, M.; Krempl, E.

    1988-01-01

    The zero-to-tension ratchetting behavior was investigated under uniaxial loading at room temperature and at 550, 600 and 650/degree/ C. In History I the maximum stress level of ratchetting was equal to the stress reached in a tensile test at one percent strain. For History II the maximum stress level was established as the stress reached after a 2100 s relaxation at one percent strain. Significant ratchetting was observed for History I at room temperature but not at the elevated temperatures. The accumulated ratchet strain increases with decreasing stress rate. Independent of the stress rates used insignificant ratchet strain was observed at room temperature for History II. This observation is explained in the context of the viscoplasticity theory based on overstress by the exhaustion of the viscous contribution to the stress during relaxation. The viscous part of the stress is the driving force for the ratchetting in History I. Strain aging is presumably responsible for the lack of short-time inelastic deformation resulting in a nearly rate-independent behavior at the elevated temperatures. 26 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Room temperature table-like magnetocaloric effect in amorphous Gd50Co45Fe5 ribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G. L.; Zhao, D. Q.; Bai, H. Y.; Wang, W. H.; Pan, M. X.

    2016-02-01

    Gd50Co45Fe5 amorphous alloy ribbon with a table-like magnetocaloric effect (MCE) suitable for the ideal Ericsson cycle at room temperature has been developed. In addition to a high magnetic transition temperature of 289 K very close to that of Gd (294 K), a relatively large value of refrigerant capacity (~521 J kg-1) has been achieved under a field change of 5 T. This value of refrigerant capacity (RC) is about 27% and 70% larger than those of Gd (~410 J kg-1) and Gd5Si2Ge2 (~306 J kg-1). More importantly, the peak value of magnetic entropy change (-Δ S\\text{M}\\max ) approaches a nearly constant value of ~3.8 J  ṡ  kg-1  ṡ  K-1 under an applied field change of 0~5 T in a wide temperature span over 40 K around room temperature, which could be used as the candidate working material in the Ericsson-cycle magnetic regenerative refrigerator around room temperature.

  13. A general route toward complete room temperature processing of printed and high performance oxide electronics.

    PubMed

    Baby, Tessy T; Garlapati, Suresh K; Dehm, Simone; Häming, Marc; Kruk, Robert; Hahn, Horst; Dasgupta, Subho

    2015-03-24

    Critical prerequisites for solution-processed/printed field-effect transistors (FETs) and logics are excellent electrical performance including high charge carrier mobility, reliability, high environmental stability and low/preferably room temperature processing. Oxide semiconductors can often fulfill all the above criteria, sometimes even with better promise than their organic counterparts, except for their high process temperature requirement. The need for high annealing/curing temperatures renders oxide FETs rather incompatible to inexpensive, flexible substrates, which are commonly used for high-throughput and roll-to-roll additive manufacturing techniques, such as printing. To overcome this serious limitation, here we demonstrate an alternative approach that enables completely room-temperature processing of printed oxide FETs with device mobility as large as 12.5 cm(2)/(V s). The key aspect of the present concept is a chemically controlled curing process of the printed nanoparticle ink that provides surprisingly dense thin films and excellent interparticle electrical contacts. In order to demonstrate the versatility of this approach, both n-type (In2O3) and p-type (Cu2O) oxide semiconductor nanoparticle dispersions are prepared to fabricate, inkjet printed and completely room temperature processed, all-oxide complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) invertors that can display significant signal gain (∼18) at a supply voltage of only 1.5 V. PMID:25693653

  14. Humidity-resistant ambient-temperature solid-electrolyte amperometric sensing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Zaromb, S.

    1994-06-21

    Apparatus and methods for detecting selected chemical compounds in air or other gas streams at room or ambient temperature includes a liquid-free humidity-resistant amperometric sensor comprising a sensing electrode and a counter and reference electrode separated by a solid electrolyte. The sensing electrode preferably contains a noble metal, such as Pt black. The electrolyte is water-free, non-hygroscopic, and substantially water-insoluble, and has a room temperature ionic conductivity [>=]10[sup [minus]4] (ohm-cm)[sup [minus]1], and preferably [>=]0.01 (ohm-cm)[sup [minus]1]. The conductivity may be due predominantly to Ag[sup +] ions, as in Ag[sub 2]WO[sub 4], or to F[sup [minus

  15. The Strongest Brønsted Acid: Protonation of Alkanes by H(CHB11F11) at Room Temperature**

    PubMed Central

    Nava, Matthew; Stoyanova, Irina V.; Cummings, Steven; Stoyanov, Evgenii S.

    2016-01-01

    What is the strongest acid? Can a simple Brønsted acid be prepared that can protonate an alkane at room temperature? Can that acid be free of the complicating effects of added Lewis acids that are typical of common, difficult-to-handle superacid mixtures? The carborane superacid H-(CHB11F11) is that acid. It is an extremely moisture-sensitive solid, prepared by treatment of anhydrous HCl with [Et3Si–H–SiEt3][CHB11F11]. It adds H2O to form [H3O][CHB11F11] and benzene to form the benzenium ion salt [C6H7][CHB11F11]. It reacts with butane to form a crystalline tBu+ salt and with n-hexane to form an isolable hexyl carbocation salt. Carbocations, which are thus no longer transient intermediates, react with NaH either by hydride addition to re-form an alkane or by deprotonation to form an alkene and H2. By protonating alkanes at room temperature, the reactivity of H(CHB11F11) opens up new opportunities for the easier study of acid-catalyzed hydrocarbon reforming. PMID:24339386

  16. Band-gap narrowing in Mn-doped GaAs probed by room-temperature photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prucnal, S.; Gao, K.; Skorupa, I.; Rebohle, L.; Vines, L.; Schmidt, H.; Khalid, M.; Wang, Y.; Weschke, E.; Skorupa, W.; Grenzer, J.; Hübner, R.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.

    2015-12-01

    The electronic band structure of the (Ga,Mn)As system has been one of the most intriguing problems in solid state physics over the past two decades. Determination of the band structure evolution with increasing Mn concentration is a key issue to understand the origin of ferromagnetism. Here, we present room-temperature photoluminescence and ellipsometry measurements of G a100 %-xM nxAs alloy. The upshift of the valence band is proven by the redshift of the room temperature near band-gap emission from the G a100 %-xM nxAs alloy with increasing Mn content. It is shown that even a doping by 0.02% of Mn affects the valence-band edge, and it merges with the impurity band for a Mn concentration as low as 0.6%. Both x-ray diffraction pattern and high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images confirmed full recrystallization of the implanted layer and GaMnAs alloy formation.

  17. Molecular dynamics investigations of mechanical behaviours in monocrystalline silicon due to nanoindentation at cryogenic temperatures and room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiancheng; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Yihan; Xu, Hailong; Fu, Haishuang; Li, Lijia

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of nanoindentation tests on monocrystalline silicon (010) surface were conducted to investigate the mechanical properties and deformation mechanism from cryogenic temperature being 10 K to room temperature being 300 K. Furthermore, the load-displacement curves were obtained and the phase transformation was investigated at different temperatures. The results show that the phase transformation occurs both at cryogenic temperatures and at room temperature. By searching for the presence of the unique non-bonded fifth neighbour atom, the metastable phases (Si-III and Si-XII) with fourfold coordination could be distinguished from Si-I phase during the loading stage of nanoindentation process. The Si-II, Si-XIII, and amorphous phase were also found in the region beneath the indenter. Moreover, through the degree of alignment of the metastable phases along specific crystal orientation at different temperatures, it was found that the temperature had effect on the anisotropy of the monocrystalline silicon, and the simulation results indicate that the anisotropy of monocrystalline silicon is strengthened at low temperatures. PMID:26537978

  18. Selective on/off switching at room temperature of a magnetic bistable {Fe2Co2} complex with single crystal-to-single crystal transformation via intramolecular electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Cao, Li; Tao, Jun; Gao, Qian; Liu, Tao; Xia, Zhengcai; Li, Dongfeng

    2014-02-18

    A cyano-bridged {Fe2Co2} complex shows reversible single crystal-to-single crystal transformation between diamagnetic and paramagnetic states switched specifically by losing and absorbing methanol at room temperature in the solid state. And the solvent loss form presents temperature- and pressure-induced intramolecular electron transfer behaviour.

  19. Quantized thermal conductance of nanowires at room temperature due to Zenneck surface-phonon polaritons.

    PubMed

    Ordonez-Miranda, José; Tranchant, Laurent; Kim, Beomjoon; Chalopin, Yann; Antoni, Thomas; Volz, Sebastian

    2014-02-01

    Based on the Landauer formalism, we demonstrate that the thermal conductance due to the propagation of Zenneck surface-phonon polaritons along a polar nanowire is independent of the material characteristics and is given by π2kB2T/3h. The giant propagation length of these energy carriers establishes that this quantization holds not only for a temperature much smaller than 1 K, as is the case for electrons and phonons, but also for temperatures comparable to room temperature, which can significantly facilitate its observation and application in the thermal management of nanoscale electronics and photonics.

  20. Diode-end-pumped Tm, Ho:YVO4 microchip laser at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, B. Q.; Chen, F.; Wu, C. T.; Wang, Q.; Li, G.; Zhang, C. H.; Wang, Y. Z.; Ju, Y. L.

    2011-04-01

    Room temperature Tm, Ho:YVO4 microchip laser operated around 2 μm was demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge. At a heat sink temperature of 283 K, a maximum output power of 47 mW was obtained by using a 0.25 mm length crystal at an absorbed pump power of 912 mW, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 9.1%. Increasing the temperature to 288 K, as much as 16.5 mW 2052.3 nm single-longitudinal-mode laser was achieved. The M 2 factor was measured to be 1.4.

  1. Diode-End-Pumped Tm:Ho:GdVO4 Microchip Laser at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Bao-Quan; Chen, Fang; Wang, Qiang; Wu, Chun-Ting; Li, Gang; Zhang, Chao-Hui; Wang, Yue-Zhu; Ju, You-Lun

    2011-02-01

    Room-temperature Tm:Ho:GdVO4 microchip laser operated around 2 μm is demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge. At a heat sink temperature of 283 K, maximum output power of 29.7 mW is obtained by using a 0.25-mm-long crystal at an absorbed pump power of 912 mW, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 5.0%. At the temperature to 283 K, a single-longitudinal-mode laser as much as 8mW at 2048.5 nm is achieved. The M 2 factor is measured to be 1.4.

  2. Epitaxy of nanocrystalline silicon carbide on Si(111) at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Verucchi, Roberto; Aversa, Lucrezia; Nardi, Marco V; Taioli, Simone; a Beccara, Silvio; Alfè, Dario; Nasi, Lucia; Rossi, Francesca; Salviati, Giancarlo; Iannotta, Salvatore

    2012-10-24

    Silicon carbide (SiC) has unique chemical, physical, and mechanical properties. A factor strongly limiting SiC-based technologies is the high-temperature synthesis. In this work, we provide unprecedented experimental and theoretical evidence of 3C-SiC epitaxy on silicon at room temperature by using a buckminsterfullerene (C(60)) supersonic beam. Chemical processes, such as C(60) rupture, are activated at a precursor kinetic energy of 30-35 eV, far from thermodynamic equilibrium. This result paves the way for SiC synthesis on polymers or plastics that cannot withstand high temperatures.

  3. Size-controlled stabilization of the superionic phase to room temperature in polymer-coated AgI nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Makiura, Rie; Yonemura, Takayuki; Yamada, Teppei; Yamauchi, Miho; Ikeda, Ryuichi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Kato, Kenichi; Takata, Masaki

    2009-06-01

    Solid-state ionic conductors are actively studied for their large application potential in batteries and sensors. From the view of future nanodevices, nanoscaled ionic conductors are attracting much interest. Silver iodide (AgI) is a well-known ionic conductor for which the high-temperature alpha-phase shows a superionic conductivity greater than 1 Omega(-1) cm(-1). Below 147 degrees C, alpha-AgI undergoes a phase transition into the poorly conducting beta- and gamma-polymorphs, thereby limiting its applications. Here, we report the facile synthesis of variable-size AgI nanoparticles coated with poly-N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (PVP) and the controllable tuning of the alpha- to beta-/gamma-phase transition temperature (Tc). Tc shifts considerably to lower temperatures with decreasing nanoparticle size, leading to a progressively enlarged thermal hysteresis. Specifically, when the size approaches 10-11 nm, the alpha-phase survives down to 30 degrees C--the lowest temperature for any AgI family material. We attribute the suppression of the phase transition not only to the increase of the surface energy, but also to the presence of defects and the accompanying charge imbalance induced by PVP. Moreover, the conductivity of as-prepared 11 nm beta-/gamma-AgI nanoparticles at 24 degrees C is approximately 1.5 x 10(-2) Omega(-1) cm(-1)--the highest ionic conductivity for a binary solid at room temperature. The stabilized superionic phase and the remarkable transport properties at a practical temperature reported here suggest promising applications in silver-ion-based electrochemical devices.

  4. Size-controlled stabilization of the superionic phase to room temperature in polymer-coated AgI nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makiura, Rie; Yonemura, Takayuki; Yamada, Teppei; Yamauchi, Miho; Ikeda, Ryuichi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Kato, Kenichi; Takata, Masaki

    2009-06-01

    Solid-state ionic conductors are actively studied for their large application potential in batteries and sensors. From the view of future nanodevices, nanoscaled ionic conductors are attracting much interest. Silver iodide (AgI) is a well-known ionic conductor for which the high-temperature α-phase shows a superionic conductivity greater than 1Ω-1cm-1 (ref. 6). Below 147∘C, α-AgI undergoes a phase transition into the poorly conducting β- and γ-polymorphs, thereby limiting its applications. Here, we report the facile synthesis of variable-size AgI nanoparticles coated with poly-N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (PVP) and the controllable tuning of the α- to β-/γ-phase transition temperature (Tc↓). Tc↓ shifts considerably to lower temperatures with decreasing nanoparticle size, leading to a progressively enlarged thermal hysteresis. Specifically, when the size approaches 10-11nm, the α-phase survives down to 30∘C-the lowest temperature for any AgI family material. We attribute the suppression of the phase transition not only to the increase of the surface energy, but also to the presence of defects and the accompanying charge imbalance induced by PVP. Moreover, the conductivity of as-prepared 11nm β-/γ-AgI nanoparticles at 24∘C is ~1.5×10-2Ω-1cm-1-the highest ionic conductivity for a binary solid at room temperature. The stabilized superionic phase and the remarkable transport properties at a practical temperature reported here suggest promising applications in silver-ion-based electrochemical devices.

  5. Solid oxide fuel cell operable over wide temperature range

    DOEpatents

    Baozhen, Li; Ruka, Roswell J.; Singhal, Subhash C.

    2001-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

  6. [Flame temperature distribution measurement of solid propellants].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-hua; Zhu, Shu-guang; Li, Yan; Fang, Zhong-yan; Yang, Rong-jie; Li, Yu-ping; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Yun-fei

    2004-09-01

    Many high temperature bodies such as flame, in which chemical reactions are very complex, emit their own spectra. These emission spectra usually consist of the spectral lines, spectral bands and the continuous spectra. In some cases, the spectral lines gather together. It is very difficult to find the right single spectral line when the spectral line intensity method is used. To deal with this problem, the idea that the single spectral line intensity is replaced by the total intensity of many spectral lines to measure the temperature is mentioned. And the relative intensity method is also changed to deal with this idea. The measurement of the temperature distribution based on this improved method is successful, and the measurement results are compared with the results of the thermocouple method.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of nano crystalline nickel zinc ferrite for chlorine gas sensor at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Pawar, C. S.; Gujar, M. P.; Mathe, V. L.

    2015-06-24

    Nano crystalline Nickel Zinc ferrite (Ni{sub 0.25}Zn{sub 0.75}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) thin films were synthesized by Sol Gel method for gas response. The phase and microstructure of the obtained Ni{sub 0.25}Zn{sub 0.75}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The nanostructured Ni{sub 0.25}Zn{sub 0.75}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin film shows single spinel phase. Magnetic study was obtained with the help of VSM. The effects of working temperature on the gas response were studied. The results reveal that the Ni{sub 0.25}Zn{sub 0.75}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin film gas sensor shows good selectivity to chlorine gas at room temperature. The sensor shows highest sensitivity (∼50%) at room temperature, indicating its application in detecting chlorine gas at room temperature in the future.

  8. Protolytic decomposition of n-octane on graphite at near room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Yasushi; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2016-01-01

    Graphite basal surface is inert, and decomposition of n-alkanes on the graphite surface has not been discovered. We here report the evidence of decomposition of n-octanes on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface, heat-treated up to 1200 °C under high vacuum (10−7 Pa), at near room temperatures. Using a temperature programmed desorption apparatus equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer showed the production of hydrogen molecules, methane, and ethane, suggesting that the protonation of n-octane takes place on graphite surface at near room temperature. It is known that acidic functional groups are terminated at edges on the air-cleaved HOPG surface and they increase their acidity via reactions with water. However, it is most unlikely that they protonate n-alkanes at near room temperature such as superacids. We anticipate that superacidic protons, which can protonate n-octanes, are produced on the graphite surface through a novel reaction mechanism. PMID:27335263

  9. Ultra-High Sensitivity Zinc Oxide Nanocombs for On-Chip Room Temperature Carbon Monoxide Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaofang; Zhao, Xiaojin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report an on-chip gas sensor based on novel zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocombs for carbon monoxide (CO) sensing. With ZnO gas sensing nanocombs fully integrated on a single silicon chip, the concept of low cost complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) microsensor capable of on-chip gas sensing and processing is enabled. Compared with all previous implementations, the proposed ZnO nanocombs feature much larger effective sensing area and exhibit ultra-high sensitivity even at the room temperature. Specifically, at room temperature, we demonstrate peak sensitivities as high as 7.22 and 8.93 for CO concentrations of 250 ppm and 500 ppm, respectively. As a result, by operating the proposed ZnO-nanocomb-based gas sensor at the room temperature, the widely adopted power consuming heating components are completely removed. This leads to not only great power saving, but also full compatibility between the gas sensor and the on-chip circuitry in term of acceptable operating temperature. In addition, the reported fast response/recovery time of ~200 s/~50 s (250 ppm CO) makes it well suited to real-life applications. PMID:25894935

  10. Protolytic decomposition of n-octane on graphite at near room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Yasushi; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2016-06-01

    Graphite basal surface is inert, and decomposition of n-alkanes on the graphite surface has not been discovered. We here report the evidence of decomposition of n-octanes on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface, heat-treated up to 1200 °C under high vacuum (10-7 Pa), at near room temperatures. Using a temperature programmed desorption apparatus equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer showed the production of hydrogen molecules, methane, and ethane, suggesting that the protonation of n-octane takes place on graphite surface at near room temperature. It is known that acidic functional groups are terminated at edges on the air-cleaved HOPG surface and they increase their acidity via reactions with water. However, it is most unlikely that they protonate n-alkanes at near room temperature such as superacids. We anticipate that superacidic protons, which can protonate n-octanes, are produced on the graphite surface through a novel reaction mechanism.

  11. Protolytic decomposition of n-octane on graphite at near room temperature.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Yasushi; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2016-06-23

    Graphite basal surface is inert, and decomposition of n-alkanes on the graphite surface has not been discovered. We here report the evidence of decomposition of n-octanes on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface, heat-treated up to 1200 °C under high vacuum (10(-7) Pa), at near room temperatures. Using a temperature programmed desorption apparatus equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer showed the production of hydrogen molecules, methane, and ethane, suggesting that the protonation of n-octane takes place on graphite surface at near room temperature. It is known that acidic functional groups are terminated at edges on the air-cleaved HOPG surface and they increase their acidity via reactions with water. However, it is most unlikely that they protonate n-alkanes at near room temperature such as superacids. We anticipate that superacidic protons, which can protonate n-octanes, are produced on the graphite surface through a novel reaction mechanism.

  12. High performance hydrogen storage from Be-BTB metal-organic framework at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wei-Xian; Thornton, Aaron W; Hill, Anita J; Cox, Barry J; Hill, James M; Hill, Matthew R

    2013-07-01

    The metal-organic framework beryllium benzene tribenzoate (Be-BTB) has recently been reported to have one of the highest gravimetric hydrogen uptakes at room temperature. Storage at room temperature is one of the key requirements for the practical viability of hydrogen-powered vehicles. Be-BTB has an exceptional 298 K storage capacity of 2.3 wt % hydrogen. This result is surprising given that the low adsorption enthalpy of 5.5 kJ mol(-1). In this work, a combination of atomistic simulation and continuum modeling reveals that the beryllium rings contribute strongly to the hydrogen interaction with the framework. These simulations are extended with a thermodynamic energy optimization (TEO) model to compare the performance of Be-BTB to a compressed H2 tank and benchmark materials MOF-5 and MOF-177 in a MOF-based fuel cell. Our investigation shows that none of the MOF-filled tanks satisfy the United States Department of Energy (DOE) storage targets within the required operating temperatures and pressures. However, the Be-BTB tank delivers the most energy per volume and mass compared to the other material-based storage tanks. The pore size and the framework mass are shown to be contributing factors responsible for the superior room temperature hydrogen adsorption of Be-BTB.

  13. Protolytic decomposition of n-octane on graphite at near room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Yasushi; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2016-06-01

    Graphite basal surface is inert, and decomposition of n-alkanes on the graphite surface has not been discovered. We here report the evidence of decomposition of n-octanes on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface, heat-treated up to 1200 °C under high vacuum (10‑7 Pa), at near room temperatures. Using a temperature programmed desorption apparatus equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer showed the production of hydrogen molecules, methane, and ethane, suggesting that the protonation of n-octane takes place on graphite surface at near room temperature. It is known that acidic functional groups are terminated at edges on the air-cleaved HOPG surface and they increase their acidity via reactions with water. However, it is most unlikely that they protonate n-alkanes at near room temperature such as superacids. We anticipate that superacidic protons, which can protonate n-octanes, are produced on the graphite surface through a novel reaction mechanism.

  14. Highly efficient sulfated Zr-doped titanoniobate nanoplates for the alcoholysis of styrene epoxide at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lihong; Hu, Chenhui; Mei, Weigang; Zhang, Junfeng; Cheng, Liyuan; Xue, Nianhua; Ding, Weiping; Chen, Jing; Hou, Wenhua

    2015-12-01

    Sulfated Zr-doped titanoniobate nanoplates were prepared and evaluated as a solid acid catalyst in the alcoholysis of styrene epoxide at room temperature. Compared with undoped and Zr-doped nanosheets, the resulting sulfated catalyst exhibited an excellent catalytic performance to afford corresponding β-alkoxyalcohols (99% yield with methanol as nucleophile in only 10 min) due to the high dispersion of zirconia species on nanosheets, appropriate Lewis acid strength and amount from the strong interaction between zirconia and sulfate species, and greatly increased surface area arisen from the exfoliation and house-of-cards restacking of nanosheets. The corresponding catalytic mechanism was proposed and discussed. The obtained material may act as a promising catalyst in many acid catalyzed reactions.

  15. Facile production of stable silicon nanoparticles: laser chemistry coupled to in situ stabilization via room temperature hydrosilylation.

    PubMed

    Malumbres, A; Martínez, G; Hueso, J L; Gracia, J; Mallada, R; Ibarra, A; Santamaría, J

    2015-05-14

    Stable, alkyl-terminated, light-emitting silicon nanoparticles have been synthesized in a continuous process by laser pyrolysis of a liquid trialkyl-silane precursor selected as a safer alternative to gas silane (SiH4). Stabilization was achieved by in situ reaction using a liquid collection system instead of the usual solid state filtration. The alkene contained in the collection liquid (1-dodecene) reacted with the newly formed silicon nanoparticles in an unusual room-temperature hydrosilylation process. It was achieved by the presence of fluoride species, also produced during laser pyrolysis from the decomposition of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) selected as a laser sensitizer. This process directly rendered alkyl-passivated silicon nanoparticles with consistent morphology and size (<3 nm), avoiding the use of costly post-synthetic treatments. PMID:25898392

  16. Room temperature performance of mid-wavelength infrared InAsSb nBn detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soibel, Alexander; Hill, Cory J.; Keo, Sam A.; Hoglund, Linda; Rosenberg, Robert; Kowalczyk, Robert; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Fisher, Anita; Ting, David Z.-Y.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2015-05-01

    In this work we investigate the high temperature performance of mid-wavelength infrared InAsSb-AlAsSb nBn detectors with cut-off wavelengths near 4.5 μm. The quantum efficiency of these devices is 35% without antireflection coatings and does not change with temperature in the 77-325 K temperature range, indicating potential for room temperature operation. The device dark current stays diffusion limited in the 150-325 K temperature range and becomes dominated by generation-recombination processes at lower temperatures. Detector detectivities of D*(λ) = 1 × 109 (cm Hz0.5/W) at T = 300 K and D*(λ) = 5 × 109 (cm Hz0.5/W) at T = 250 K, which is easily achievable with a one stage TE cooler.

  17. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Mn-doped NiO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layek, Samar; Verma, H. C.

    2016-01-01

    Mn-doped NiO nanoparticles of the series Ni1-xMnxO (x=0.00, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06) are successfully synthesized using a low temperature hydrothermal method. Samples up to 6% Mn-doping are single phase in nature as observed from powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. Rietveld refinement of the XRD data shows that all the single phase samples crystallize in the NaCl like fcc structure with space group Fm-3m. Unit cell volume decreases with increasing Mn-doping. Pure NiO nanoparticles show weak ferromagnetism, may be due to nanosize nature. Introduction of Mn within NiO lattice improves the magnetic properties significantly. Room temperature ferromagnetism is found in all the doped samples whereas the magnetization is highest for 2% Mn-doping and then decreases with further doping. The ZFC and FC branches in the temperature dependent magnetization separate well above 350 K indicating transition temperature well above room temperature for 2% Mn-doped NiO Nanoparticle. The ferromagnetic Curie temperature is found to be 653 K for the same sample as measured by temperature dependent magnetization study using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) in high vacuum.

  18. High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating for High Temperature Wear Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor); Edmonds, Brian J (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A self-lubricating, friction and wear reducing composite useful over a wide temperature range is described herein. The composite includes metal bonded chromium oxide dispersed in a metal binder having a substantial amount of nickel. The composite contains a fluoride of at least one Group I, Group II, or rare earth metal, and optionally a low temperature lubricant metal.

  19. FINAL REPORT: Room Temperature Hydrogen Storage in Nano-Confined Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    VAJO, JOHN

    2014-06-12

    DOE continues to seek solid-state hydrogen storage materials with hydrogen densities of ≥6 wt% and ≥50 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at room temperature and moderate pressures enabling widespread use in transportation applications. Meanwhile, development including vehicle engineering and delivery infrastructure continues for compressed-gas hydrogen storage systems. Although compressed gas storage avoids the materials-based issues associated with solid-state storage, achieving acceptable volumetric densities has been a persistent challenge. This project examined the possibility of developing storage materials that would be compatible with compressed gas storage technology based on enhanced hydrogen solubility in nano-confined liquid solvents. These materials would store hydrogen in molecular form eliminating many limitations of current solid-state materials while increasing the volumetric capacity of compressed hydrogen storage vessels. Experimental methods were developed to study hydrogen solubility in nano-confined liquids. These methods included 1) fabrication of composites comprised of volatile liquid solvents for hydrogen confined within the nano-sized pore volume of nanoporous scaffolds and 2) measuring the hydrogen uptake capacity of these composites without altering the composite composition. The hydrogen storage capacities of these nano-confined solvent/scaffold composites were compared with bulk solvents and with empty scaffolds. The solvents and scaffolds were varied to optimize the enhancement in hydrogen solubility that accompanies confinement of the solvent. In addition, computational simulations were performed to study the molecular-scale structure of liquid solvent when confined within an atomically realistic nano-sized pore of a model scaffold. Confined solvent was compared with similar simulations of bulk solvent. The results from the simulations were used to formulate a mechanism for the enhanced solubility and to guide the

  20. Quantum dot made in metal oxide silicon-nanowire field effect transistor working at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Lavieville, Romain; Triozon, François; Barraud, Sylvain; Corna, Andrea; Jehl, Xavier; Sanquer, Marc; Li, Jing; Abisset, Antoine; Duchemin, Ivan; Niquet, Yann-Michel

    2015-05-13

    We report the observation of an atomic like behavior from T = 4.2 K up to room temperature in n- and p-type Ω-gate silicon nanowire (NW) transistors. For that purpose, we modified the design of a NW transistor and introduced long spacers between the source/drain and the channel in order to separate the channel from the electrodes. The channel was made extremely small (3.4 nm in diameter with 10 nm gate length) with a thick gate oxide (7 nm) in order to enhance the Coulomb repulsion between carriers, which can be as large as 200 meV when surface roughness promotes charge confinement. Parasitic stochastic Coulomb blockade effect can be eliminated in our devices by choosing proper control voltages. Moreover, the quantum dot can be tuned so that the resonant current at T = 4.2 K exceeds that at room temperature.