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Sample records for roosmaa johannes holzner

  1. Johannes Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, Volker

    Johannes Kepler (1571 - 1630) gilt zurecht als einer der bedeutendsten Mathematiker und Astronomen der frühen Neuzeit, doch wurde das Philosophische in seinem Werk bislang kaum in angemessener Weise gewürdigt. Volker Bialas legt eine fundierte und anregende Einführung in Leben, Werk und Weltanschauung Keplers vor und setzt dabei durch die Akzentuierung des philosophisch-ganzheitlichen Denkens bewußt einen Kontrapunkt zum herkömmlichen Kepler-Bild.

  2. Johannes Kepler's Intelligent Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Paul M.

    2006-12-01

    In the last decade, the theory labeled "Intelligent Design" has exacerbated long-standing conflicts between religion and science. This issue will be addressed from the perspective of the philosophy and science of Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), whose unconventional belief in design lived in harmony with his revolutionary physical astronomy.

  3. Jakob Johannes Sederholm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eklund, O.; Korsman, K.; Scheinin, B.

    2010-05-01

    Jakob Johannes Sederholm (1863-1934) was one of the more influential pioneers in Precambrian geology having introduced some fundamental insights and concepts which are still relevant today. Towards the end of the 19th century, he demonstrated how the principle of actualism can be applied to Precambrian terranes, while during the early part of the 20th century he undertook detailed studies on deformed magmatic rocks, both defining and interpreting the enigmatic mixed rocks now known as migmatites. He acted as the head of the Geological Survey of Finland for 40 years, which developed under his leadership into a modern progressive and versatile research organization. In addition, Sederholm also served as a diplomat with a number of international assignments, including appointments with the League of Nations in missions in Albania and a supervisory role relating to sovereignty and autonomy issues in the Åland Island. Several mountains in Greenland have been named after him and his family, and he was also appointed as honorary chief of two Indian tribes in Canada. To understand the driving forces behind a man of his kind, we focus here on Sederholm the person and some of the social and cultural background that influenced his career. This text is based on the book, published in Swedish, entitled "Jakob Johannes Sederholm, Geolog, humanist och sanningssökare" (Scheinin and Korsman, 2007), and an interview with J.J. Sederholm's granddaughter Barbro Scheinin by Eklund (2008). Other references are marked in the text. The first author is responsible for all translations from Swedish, Norwegian, German and Finnish.

  4. [SS physician Johann Paul Kremer].

    PubMed

    Kucharski, J

    1998-01-01

    SS-Obersturmfuhrer Johann Paul Kremer (professor of anatomy of Munster University) in Auschwitz camp tested upon human bodies result in starvation. He carried out researches concerning liver illness (braune Atrophie). He had been a SS in Auschwitz since 30th August till 18th November 1942. During a process of Auschwitz-Birkenau SS crew he was sentenced to death 22nd December 1947 by National Tribunal in Cracow. Verdict was changed by The President of Polish Republic for life-annuity. Verdict revision in 1960 sentenced him for 10 years of prison. He died in 60's.

  5. Blindness of Johann Sebastian Bach.

    PubMed

    Tarkkanen, Ahti

    2013-03-01

    Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was one of the greatest composers of all time. Apart from performing as a brilliant organist, he composed over 1.100 works in almost every musical genre. He was known as a hardworking, deeply Christian person, who had to support his family of 20 children and many students staying at his home. At the age of 64 years, his vision started to decline. Old biographies claim that it was the result of overstressing his vision in poor illumination. By persuasion of his friends, he had his both eyes operated by a travelling British eye surgeon. A cataract couching was performed. After surgery, Bach was totally blind and unable to play an organ, compose or direct choirs and orchestras. He was confined to bed and suffering from immense pain of the eyes and the body. He died <4 months after surgery. In this paper, as the plausible diagnosis, intractable glaucoma because of pupillary block or secondary to phacoanaphylactic endophthalmitis is suggested.

  6. [Johann van Beethoven (1776-1848)].

    PubMed

    Eikermann, Erika

    2012-01-01

    The article about the life and achievements of the apothecary Johann van Beethoven, the younger brother of the composer Ludwig van Beethoven, depicts a vivid picture of life in the 18th, 19t century. Research on archived original documents in Bonn, Vienna and Linz on the Danube made it possible to reveal details about the relationship inside this famous family and describes the hurdles of life of a successful apothecary. In 1776 Johann van Beethoven was born as the fourth child of the Beethoven family, a family of Bonner musicians. In 1790 he began his apprenticeship to become an apothecary at the Bonner "Hofapotheke". Towards the end of 1795 he moved to join his older brothers Ludwig and Karl in Vienna. During his time there he worked as a "subject" in various Viennese pharmacies. However in 1808 he purchased the pharmacy "Zur Goldenen Krone" in Linz on the Danube. His new pharmacy flourished, supplying first the Napoleonic occupation troops, and later the Austrian Military with medicines and field dressing/bandage materials. When in 1812 he married his Housekeeper, his Brother Ludwig opposed harshly, on reasons of social status and on moral grounds. Four years later, in 1816 Johann sold the pharmacy in Linz and founded a new pharmacy in Urfahr, on the opposite bank of the Danube. In 1819 he became a squire (or landowner), when he purchased a manor estate in Gneixendorf, near Krems on the Danube. In spite of his numerous duties as an apothecary and squire, Johann was frequently resident in Vienna, supporting his brother both emotionally and pharmaceutically. At the end of his life Johann sold both his pharmacy and the Gneixendorf estate, and spent his last years as a private gentleman living a dazzling lifestyle in Vienna. He died on January 12th 1848 and was buried in Vienna's "Waldmüllerpark".

  7. Johann Madler's Resolution of Olber's Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipler, F. J.

    1988-09-01

    In 1861, some 40 years after Olbers' discussion of the paradox which bears his name, the German astronomer Johann Heinrich Mädler argued that a dark sky would be consistent with an infinite universe if the universe began a finite time in the past. The author shows that Mädler's resolution of Olbers' paradox is essentially the same as the resolution offered by modern cosmologists.

  8. We Do Not Forget Johannes Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wszołek, B.

    2009-12-01

    Year 2009 was announced as the International Year of Astronomy. This was to mark 400th anniversary of the first astronomical observation through a telescope by Galileo. From the other hand, this year marks 400th anniversary of Astronomia Nova, the famous work of Kepler published in Prague in 1609. Two laws of planetary motions opened human efforts to understand gravitational force; so the overall cosmic space conquest, with its great importance not only for astronomy, was developed thankful to Kepler's work. This contribution is thought to show the most inspiring ideas of Johannes Kepler, published in Astronomia Nova and in other his books.

  9. Bode, Johann Elert (1747-1826)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronomer, born in Hamburg, Germany, director of the Berlin Observatory. He drew attention to a relation among the distances of the planets from the Sun that had been discovered by JOHANN TITIUS. The law is sometimes known as the Titius-Bode law, but usually just as Bode's law. The law starts with the sequence 0, 3, 6, 12, 24…, adds 4 and divides by 10 to obtain 0.4, 0.7, 1.0, 1.6. 2.8…, which i...

  10. Johannes Geiss: Explorer of the Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    The extraordinary life and scientific achievements of Johannes Geiss span an almost impossible breadth of scientific topics, from the study of rocks to tenuous plasmas, from volcanoes to meteorites. But, his impact also extends way beyond the field of science. Professor Geiss is a well-known teacher and a highly successful science leader whose impact has been felt at the University of Bern, in Switzerland, and around the globe. We present here a brief summary of this highly successful career via a pictorial overview and a movie compiled by a former student who had the good luck to work with Professor Geiss during his years at the University of Bern.

  11. Johannes Geiss: Explorer of the Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2007-06-01

    The extraordinary life and scientific achievements of Johannes Geiss span an almost impossible breadth of scientific topics, from the study of rocks to tenuous plasmas, from volcanoes to meteorites. But, his impact also extends way beyond the field of science. Professor Geiss is a well-known teacher and a highly successful science leader whose impact has been felt at the University of Bern, in Switzerland, and around the globe. We present here a brief summary of this highly successful career via a pictorial overview and a movie compiled by a former student who had the good luck to work with Professor Geiss during his years at the University of Bern.

  12. Johann R. E. Lutjeharms (1944-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ruijter, Wilhelmus P. M.; Reason, Chris; Ansorge, Isabelle; Roman, Raymond; Gordon, Arnold L.

    2011-09-01

    Johann R. E. Lutjeharms, South Africa's leading physical oceanographer, died at the age of 67 at his home in Stellenbosch on World Oceans Day, 8 June 2011, after a 10-year battle with a complicated form of cancer. His work was central in the process of enlightening the oceanographic and climate system community to the global importance of the complex, energetic, eddy-rich environment of the Agulhas Current. He aptly referred to this current system, including the transfer of Indian Ocean water into the South Atlantic, as the “Greater Agulhas System.” Johann was born on 13 April 1944 in Bloemfontein, South Africa, where he attended Grey College. At the University of Cape Town (UCT), he completed his bachelor's degree in physics followed by a M.Sc. (cum laude) in oceanography in 1971. His work there led to his first research article (on the variability of the water movement in the southwest Indian Ocean), which appeared in Nature. Many papers would follow, covering a broad range of aspects of the oceans around South Africa. His curriculum vitae lists 177 articles published in peer-reviewed international journals, many of them in AGU's Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR) and Geophysical Research Letters, including his most frequently cited ones.

  13. Johann Baptist Spix and the "lingula mandibularis".

    PubMed

    Eramo, Stefano; De Carolis, Carlo; Pagano, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Johann Baptist Ritter von Spix (1781-1826), a German zoologist, was famous in his time and highly honored after making one of the first exploration voyages in the wildest part of Brazil. He was almost forgotten in the annals of history for nearly two centuries after his birth, at which time some enlightened biographers brought him back into prominence in both the biological and zoological fields. On the contrary though, he had never been forgotten in the science of odontostomatology thanks to his discovery of the "Lingula Mandibularis" also known as "Spine of Spix". Johannes Baptist Spix was born in Hoechstadt, Germany in 1781. He was the Conservator of the Museum of Natural History in Munich and was a distinguished Comparative Anatomist. He died Munich inl 1826. The purposes of this work are to present some biographical notes on J.B. Ritter von Spix, to explain whythe "Lingula Mandibularis" has been called by the name of Spix and why this eponym has been used as such.

  14. [Johannes Kepler's contributions to ophthalmologic optics].

    PubMed

    Jaeger, W

    1986-02-01

    Until the beginning of the 17th century it was held that an image is formed in the eye on the anterior surface of the crystalline lens. Ophthalmological optics as a scientific discipline only began with a discovery made by Johannes Kepler. Without performing new experiments, and solely by application of the laws of light refraction, he analyzed the path of light through the eye and demonstrated that an image is formed on the retina and that it is inverted. Acceptance of this discovery was impeded by contemporary prejudices which could imagine nothing but an upright image in the eye, even though this attitude could not explain certain phenomena. Kepler's discovery of the path of light in the eye made it possible to explain the following physical phenomena: central visual acuity, visual field, dark adaptation, and errors of refraction. Physiological diplopia and the mechanism of accommodation were discovered later. The law stating that the intensity of light decreases with the square of distance was also formulated by Johannes Kepler; this law, too, could only be demonstrated after the path of light through the eye had been discovered. In recent years the Keplerian telescope has assumed a practical significance in ophthalmological optics. As a reading aid for individuals with impaired vision it offers a significantly higher magnification than any other optical visual aid.

  15. Johann Leonhard Rost, "novelist" and astronomer; (German Title: Johann Leonhard Rost, "Romanist" und Astronom)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaab, Hans; Simons, Olaf

    Johann Leonhard Rost (1688-1727) of Nuremberg studied at Altdorf, Leipzig and Jena. During this time, he earned his living by writing gallant novels. In 1715, he returned to Nuremberg, where he pursued his juvenile inclination towards astronomy and became a serious astronomical observer. His introductions to astronomy, written around this time, contributed a lot to popularize astronomy. This contribution attempts to do justice to both the novelist and the astronomer Rost.

  16. Johann Christoph Sturm (1635-1703)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaab, Hans; Leich, Pierre; Löffladt, Günter

    Johann Christoph Sturm, who was born in Hilpoltstein, belonged to the most important scientists in Germany in the second half of the 17th century. He was the author of important writings in astronomy, mathematics and physics, as well as on the methodology of scientific research. As a professor at Altdorf University, Storm initiated a "collegium experimentale", which made him to one of the founders of experimental natural philosophy. His German books helped to improve the teaching of mathematics at schools, as well as mathematical knowledge in all circles of the population. This book describes Sturm's life, the different sides of his scientific activity, and includes a bibliography of his writings. All papers are written in German, and have English abstracts.

  17. Johann Philipp von Wurzelbau (1651-1725)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaab, Hans

    During the turn of the 17th to the 18th century, Johann Philipp von Wurzelbau was the best-known astronomer in Nuremberg. He was a trained merchant, who busied himself in his free hours with astronomy. In the 1680s he became known for his accurate observations of lunar and solar eclipses. At the end of the 1680s he left his trade, and from 1691, he was completely occupied with astronomy. To that end, he constructed a small octagonal observing tower on the roof of his house at Spitzenberg 4. He took the measurement of the solar path and determined the geographical coordinates of Nuremberg. The calendar reform also played a major role in his life.

  18. Harmonical cosmology: Johannes Kepler and Athanasius Kircher. (German Title: Harmonikale Kosmologie: Johannes Kepler und Athanasius Kircher)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebohm, Simon

    2011-08-01

    The connection between musical theory and astronomy is an aspect of Pythagorean cosmology, which still played a role in the 17th century, and was advanced at that time in very different ways: while Johannes Kepler conceives a proper geometrical system of harmonics and tries to connect it with accurate astronomical data, Athanasius Kircher, harshly criticising Kepler's ideas, sets a qualitative system against it, which is based on analogies. The reason for this discrepancy is not only found in the basically different systems of harmonics of both researchers, but also in the different positions that were taken by both within the controversy about the heliocentric system of the world.

  19. Johannes Kepler and the Supernova of 1604

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boner, P. J.

    2006-08-01

    The brilliant luminary that first appeared in October 1604 was considered by many contemporaries to be a new star of unrivalled magnitude. Shining forth near the historic conjunction of Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, the new star held important implications for several areas of interest, notably astrology, astronomy, chronology and theology. Addressing all of these areas in his comprehensive book, De stella nova (1606), Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) studied the new star extensively under the aegis of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II (1552-1612) in Prague. The focus of the following presentation is Kepler's theory of the new star's origins in the celestial ether. Describing the heavens poetically as a fertile expanse of "liquid fields", Kepler suggested that the new star sprung from the celestial ether much like the numerous living beings in the sublunary realm which were spontaneously generated from the Earth. As evidence for his claim, Kepler pointed to the conspicuous mathematical patterns similarly observed in earthly and celestial entities. Kepler's efficient cause for this explanation, known as the animate faculty, accounted for both the generation and form of new phenomena in the celestial and terrestrial realms. The new star of 1604 proved to be no exception.

  20. Johannes Kepler - And the New Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkel, James R.

    1999-11-01

    Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) is remembered as one of the greatest medieval astronomers in the tradition of Copernicus and Galileo, a man who made major contributions to physics, astronomy, and mathematics. Born in Germany and trained as a theologian, Kepler did not hesitate to challenge church doctrine by supporting the iconoclastic theory of a Sun-centered solar system. As Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor, he conducted careful observations of the night sky, which led to his discovery of the three Laws of Planetary Motion and the orbit of Mars. He also devised the Rudolphine Tables on planetary movements, and made key improvements to the telescope. Voelkel vividly describes the scientific achievements, providing enough background in physics and trigonometry so even beginners can enjoy this book. The author also gives us a captivating account of Kepler's tumultuous life, plagued by misery, disease, and fervent religious prosecution by the Catholic Church.Oxford Portraits in Science is an ongoing series of scientific biographies for young adults. Written by top scholars and writers, each biography examines the personality of its subject as well as the thought process leading to his or her discoveries. These illustrated biographies combine accessible technical information with compelling personal stories to portray the scientists whose work has shaped our understanding of the natural world.

  1. The Kepler problem from Newton to Johann Bernoulli.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speiser, D.

    1996-08-01

    Newton solved what was called at the time "the direct Kepler problem": given a curve (e.g., an ellipse) and the center of attraction (e.g., the focus), what is the law of attraction, if Kepler's second law holds? The "inverse problem", the determination of all possible orbit solutions for a given central force field, was systematically treated later, first by Jacob Hermann, and then thoroughly and completely by Johann Bernoulli. This paper traces the history of work on the problem and of the accompanying scientific controversies until the time of Johann Bernoulli and his pupil Leonhard Euler.

  2. Johann Gottlieb Schrader and the construction of telescopes in Lilienthal. (German Title: Johann Gottlieb Schrader und der Lilienthaler Fernrohrbau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leue, Hans-Joachim

    More than 200 years ago, the first large reflectors on the European continent were built at Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's observatory in Lilienthal near Bremen. Johann Gottlieb Friedrich Schrader, professor of physics and chemistry at Kiel University, developed a white reflecting metal alloy during his 10-month stay with Schroeter, and used it for the production of numerous telescope mirrors. The period of telescope making at Lilienthal started with Schrader. This paper describes the cooperation of the two astronomers and reports about the results of an optical and chemical analysis of three Herschel telescope mirrors.

  3. Obituary: Heinrich Johannes Wendker, 1938-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huchtmeier, Walter; Altenhoff, Wilhelm

    2009-01-01

    Heinrich Johannes Wendker, retired professor at Hamburg University, died on 3 April 2008 at the age of 69 at Reinbek near Hamburg, Germany. He was born on 30 June 1938 in Gimbte, near Munster, Westphalia, Germany. In 1958 he finished high-school and started his studies of mathematics, physics, and astronomy at Munster University. In 1960 Wendker joined the Astronomical Institute at the University and became attracted to the relatively new field of radio astronomy. In the same year he participated in a radio survey (at a wavelength of 11 cm) with the 25-m dish of Stockert observatory. In 1964 he joined the NRAO in Green Bank, Virginia, for one year and started with observations of the Cygnus area of the Galactic plane that would become a real passion for him (resulting in over twenty publications about the Cygnus X region, a deep study of the structure of the local spiral arm). Wendker was awarded the Ph.D. in 1966 (University of Munster), and in the same year he accepted an appointment at the University of Illinois at Urbana. There he participated in the All Sky Survey of the Vermilion Radio Telescope including the Cygnus region. In 1968 he joined the newly founded Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie at Bonn, Germany, where he got involved in planning the institute's new building among other things. In 1972 Wendker was appointed Professor of Astronomy at Hamburg University where he would spend most of his academic career. From 1985 to 1989 he was director of the observatory (Hamburger Sternwarte), and from 1989 to 1991 he was Dean of the physics department. Wenker's research activities concentrated on the radio structure of the Milky Way, especially on the Cygnus region, observing the radio continuum emission at different frequencies in order to separate thermal from nonthermal emission (i.e., HII-regions and SNRs). He identified foreground stars and extragalactic sources in the background. Additional observations of molecular lines and of the neutral atomic

  4. "Cosmomorphistic geometry" in the unconscious geometry of Johannes Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Adolf

    Some mathematical aspects of the Music theory by Johannes Kepler are discussed, paying a special attention to the book "De harmonice mundi". Other scientists interested in Music theory are mentioned throughout the paper: The Pythagorean school, Klaudios Ptolemaios, Leonard Euler, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Christian von Goldbach, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholz, Karl Friedrich Gauss. The relation with the ancient chinese schools of cosmography has been discussed: From the the Pythagorean to the ancient Chinese schools of cosmography we find arithmo-geometrical applications of numbers which are emblematic, hold meaning or represent the essence of things, the author writes. It was Johannes Kepler who taught us this "transconstructive method" of forming classical and ancient begginings of structuralistic thinking into a system from which deductions can readily be made.

  5. Johann Baptist von Schweitzer: the queer Marx loved to hate.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, H

    1995-01-01

    Despite his conviction on a morals charge involving a boy, the early German Social Democrat Johann Baptist von Schweitzer went on to have a successful political career. His life furnishes the context to present remarks by his political opponents Marx and Engels, which reveal their deep-seated homophobia. It is pointed out that this has been glossed over by the translations of the recently published Marx/Engels Collected Works. Some remarks on boy-love and anarchism are appended.

  6. Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833).

    PubMed

    Seidler, E

    1984-08-01

    On the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the birthday of Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833) it is appropriate to examine his contributions to the field of clinical genetics. Special emphasis is given to his laws of "diversity" and "reduction." These deal respectively with the evolutionary and developmental differences between organisms and the reasons for similarities in development of parts of an organism and the parts of different organisms. Meckel is an important pioneer of modern clinical teratology because he did not restrict his studies to normal development, but rather concentrated on its aberrations in his reflections on the history of development.

  7. Henry Cavendish, Johann von Soldner, and the deflection of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Clifford M.

    1988-05-01

    The gravitational deflection of light based on Newtonian theory and the corpuscular model of light was calculated, but never published, around 1784 by Henry Cavendish, almost 20 years earlier than the first published calculation by Johann Georg von Soldner. The two results are slightly different because, while Cavendish treated a light ray emitted from infinity, von Soldner treated a light ray emitted from the surface of the gravitating body. At the first order of approximation, they agree with each other; both are one-half the value predicted by general relativity and confirmed by experiment.

  8. [Space and medical market: Johann Friedrich Glaser's practice in Suhl].

    PubMed

    Schilling, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The diary of the town and state physician Johann Friedrich Glaser (1707-1789) of Suhl enables us to reconstruct the area where he recruted his patients. A stream of visitors consulted him regularly. They often came from places where they had to travel at least two days in order to consult the physician. A visit in his house was therefore a decision consciously planned. A comparison of the sphere of Glaser's influence as a practitioner with the spheres of influence where his relatives (executioners and barber surgeons) lived shows how narrowly both were connected. Glaser's position on the medical market was very much influenced by his family network. The same picture can be obtained by analyzing the social spectrum of Glaser's patients, which is as manifold as the topographical indications, which one can draw from his diary. These do not give a systematic picture of the clients, which Glaser tried to gain, but are following communication channels established by his family network.

  9. [Zurich physician-pharmacist family Lavater and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe].

    PubMed

    Mannetstätter, A; Friedrich, C

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the connections between Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) and the physician and pharmacist family Lavater in Zurich. The analysis of the correspondence between Johann Bartholomäus Trommsdorff (1770-1837) and the Lavater family and between the Lavater family and the government of the duchy of Weimar shows an interesting story about a picture "Goethe in Italy".

  10. Are the alleged remains of Johann Sebastian Bach authentic?

    PubMed

    Zegers, Richard H C; Maas, Mario; Koopman, A Ton G; Maat, George J R

    2009-02-16

    A skeleton alleged to be that of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was exhumed from a graveyard in Leipzig, Germany, in 1894, but its authenticity is not established. In 1895, anatomist Wilhelm His concluded from his examination of the skeleton and reconstruction of the face that it most likely belonged to Bach. In 1949, surgeon Wolfgang Rosenthal noticed exostoses on the skeleton and on x-rays of 11 living organists and proposed a condition, Organistenkrankheit, which he interpreted as evidence that the skeleton was Bach's. However, our critical assessment of the remains analysis raises doubts: the localisation of the grave was dubious, and the methods used by His to reconstruct the face are controversial. Also, our study of the pelvic x-rays of 12 living professional organists failed to find evidence for the existence of Organistenkrankheit. We believe it is unlikely that the skeleton is that of Bach; techniques such as DNA analysis might help resolve the question but, to date, church authorities have not approved their use on the skeleton.

  11. [Johann Friedrich Meckel, Jr. as founder of scientific teratology].

    PubMed

    Schierhorn, H

    1984-01-01

    n the occasion of the 150th anniversary of his death, the scientific work of the famous German anatomist Johann Friedrich Meckel (1781 to 1833) in Halle is appreciated. The Younger Meckel is counted to the most outstanding figures in the history of anatomy and medicine in the first third of 19th century. According to his founded knowledges in the normal, comparative, and pathologic anatomy and embryology he was able to give a scientific argument of malformations first of all in the history of medicine and biology. The edition of Meckel's Handbook of Pathologic Anatomy (in German language; 1st vol. 1812) is the birth of scientific teratology. Through his contributions to teratology Meckel directly participated in the raising of general pathology and pathologic anatomy to scientific disciplines. Meckel's interceding for C. F. Wolff's theory of epigenesis, not at last by translation of Wolff's paper "De formatione intestinorum" (1768 to 1769) into the German language, accelerated the development of the general and special embryology during the 19th century. In the contemporary medicine the succeeding eponyms are reminding of the imposing German physician and anatomist: the Meckel's diverticulum of ileum (1809), the Meckel's cartilage of the mandibular arch (1820) and the so-called Meckel syndrome (1822).

  12. Johann Spectrometer for High Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machek, Pavel; Welter, Edmund; Caliebe, Wolfgang; Brüggmann, Ulf; Dräger, Günter; Fröba, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A newly designed vacuum Johann spectrometer with a large focusing analyzer crystal for inelastic x-ray scattering and high resolution fluorescence spectroscopy has been installed at the DORIS III storage ring. Spherically bent crystals with a maximum diameter of 125 mm, and cylindrically bent crystals are employed as dispersive optical elements. Standard radius of curvature of the crystals is 1000 mm, however, the design of the mechanical components also facilitates measurements with smaller and larger bending radii. Up to four crystals are mounted on a revolving crystal changer which enables crystal changes without breaking the vacuum. The spectrometer works at fixed Bragg angle. It is preferably designed for the measurements in non-scanning mode with a broad beam spot, and offers a large flexibility to set the sample to the optimum position inside the Rowland circle. A deep depletion CCD camera is employed as a position sensitive detector to collect the energy-analyzed photons on the circumference of the Rowland circle. The vacuum in the spectrometer tank is typically 10-6 mbar. The sample chamber is separated from the tank either by 25 μm thick Kapton windows, which allows samples to be measured under ambient conditions, or by two gate valves. The spectrometer is currently installed at wiggler beamline W1 whose working range is 4-10.5 keV with typical flux at the sample of 5×1010photons/s/mm2. The capabilities of the spectrometer are illustrated by resonant inelastic experiments on 3d transition metals and rare earth compounds, and by chemical shift measurements on chromium compounds.

  13. Historical study: Johann Gregor Mendel 1822-1884.

    PubMed

    Weiling, F

    1991-07-01

    The life and personality of Johann Gregor Mendel (1822-1884), the founder of scientific genetics, are reviewed against the contemporary background of his times. At the end are weighed the benefits for Mendel (as charged by Sir Ronald Fisher) to have documented his results on hand of falsified data. Mendel was born into a humble farm family in the "Kuhländchen", then a predominantly German area of Northern Moravia. On the basis of great gifts Mendel was able to begin higher studies; however, he found himself in serious financial difficulties because of his father's accident and incapacitation. His hardships engendered illness which threatened continuation and completion of his studies until he was afforded the chance of absolving successfully theological studies as an Augustinian monk in the famous chapter of St. Thomas in Altbrünn (Staré Brno). Psychosomatic indisposition made Mendel unfit for practical pastoral duties. Thus, he was directed to teach but without appropriate state certification; an attempt to pass such an examination failed. At that point he was sent to the University of Vienna for a 2-year course of studies, with emphasis on physics and botany, to prepare him for the exam. His scientific and methodologic training enabled him to plan studies of the laws of inheritance, which had begun to interest him already during his theology training, and to choose the appropriate experimental plant. In 1865, after 12 years of systematic investigations on peas, he presented his results in the famous paper "Versuche über Pflanzenhybriden." Three years after his return from Vienna he failed to attain his teaching certification a second time. Only by virtue of his exceptional qualifications did he continue to function as a Supplementary Professor of Physics and Natural History in the two lowest classes of a secondary school. In 1868 he was elected Abbot of his chapter, and freed from teaching duties, was able to pursue his many scientific interests with greater

  14. On Diversity, Empathy, and Community: The Relevance of Johann Gottfried Herder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Howard M.; Durrant, Marie B.; Evans, Matthew T.; Maughan, Suzanne L.

    2008-01-01

    The writings of Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) foreshadowed several of the dominant theories of sociology, social psychology, aesthetics, linguistics and literary theory. His ideas impacted generations of thinkers, but today he is uncelebrated, mostly unknown. His writings on populism, expressionism, and pluralism are relevant to contemporary…

  15. Remembering Johann Gregor Mendel: a human, a Catholic priest, an Augustinian monk, and abbot.

    PubMed

    Richter, Father Clemens

    2015-11-01

    Johann Mendel (Gregor was the name given to him only later by his Augustinian order, Fig. 1) was born on July 20, 1822 to an ethnic German family, Anton and Rosina Mendel (Fig. 2), in Heinzendorf in the Austrian Empire at the Moravian-Silesian border (now Hynčice, Czech Republic).

  16. Educational Theory as Topological Rhetoric: The Concepts of Pedagogy of Johann Friedrich Herbart and Friedrich Schleiermacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenklies, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    The debate concerning the relation of the theory of education and the practice of education is not new. In Germany, these discussions are an integral part of the development of educational science in the eighteenth century which is closely connected to Johann Friedrich Herbart and Friedrich Schleiermacher. Their concepts illustrate different…

  17. Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach (1792-1847) pioneer in oral maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Knoener, Wibke; Schultheiss, Dirk

    2002-11-01

    After Carl Ferdinand von Graefe laid down the principles of rhinoplasty and related operations it was Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach (1792-1847) who became a pioneer of plastic surgery in the 19th century. His biography and scientific work with emphasis on craniofacial surgery are presented in this article on the history of medicine.

  18. Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach: successful use of leeches in plastic surgery in the 1820s.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, R T

    2000-04-01

    Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach (1792-1847) regularly and successfully utilised leeches in sophisticated plastic surgery in Berlin in the 1820s and 1830s, well before anaesthesia, antisepsis and antibiotics. Inexplicably, it took nearly another 150 years before the use of leeches in this context was revived.

  19. On Diversity, Empathy, and Community: The Relevance of Johann Gottfried Herder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Howard M.; Durrant, Marie B.; Evans, Matthew T.; Maughan, Suzanne L.

    2008-01-01

    The writings of Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) foreshadowed several of the dominant theories of sociology, social psychology, aesthetics, linguistics and literary theory. His ideas impacted generations of thinkers, but today he is uncelebrated, mostly unknown. His writings on populism, expressionism, and pluralism are relevant to contemporary…

  20. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi: 18th Century Swiss Educator and Correctional Reformer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Fredalene B.; Gehring, Thom

    2004-01-01

    This is the second in a series of articles on famous correctional educators. The first article introduced Mary Carpenter: 19th Century English Correctional Education Hero. (Editor's Note: See the September 2003 Issue for the first article) This article focuses on Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, 18th century Swiss educator. It begins with a summary of…

  1. The Berlin astronomer - Life and works of Johann Elert Bode (1747-1826) (German Title: Der Berliner Astronom - Leben und Werk von Johann Elert Bode (1747-1826) )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwemin, Friedhelm

    Johann Elert Bode (1747-1826), long-time director of Berlin Observatory, earned his merits by editing the “Astronomisches Jahrbuch” for many years, for producing a immaculate star atlas, and for writing a series of popular books. Today, astronomers still know the “Titius-Bode law” of planetary distances, which had been publicized by him. The author traces the life of this Hamburg-born scholar. He analyzes his works and tries to determine his place in the history of astronomy. The volume comprises texts of original documents from Bode's life, a bibliography of his works, as well as numerous historical illustrations, often published here for the first time.

  2. Interview with Johann de Bono for Future Oncology. Interviewed by Francesca Lake.

    PubMed

    de Bono, Johann

    2012-11-01

    Johann de Bono speaks to Francesca Lake, Commissioning Editor. Johann de Bono leads the prostate cancer team at the Institute of Cancer Research (London, UK). He completed his PhD at the Beatson Institute of Cancer Research (Glasgow, UK) and was awarded a scholarship in 2000 that allowed him to undergo research on statistical issues in clinical trials for targeted drugs at the Cancer Research and Biostatistics SWOG Headquarters, a National Cancer Institute-supported organization at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center (WA, USA). He then spent 3 years working in the Institute of Drug Development in San Antonio (TX, USA), and then joined The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation trust in 2003. He has since been involved in developing over 100 new drugs, some of which are currently available to patients. One of these drugs is enzalutamide, which has recently been submitted for European marketing authorization following positive clinical trials.

  3. Calculation of the Johann error for spherically bent x-ray imaging crystal spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Gu, M.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K. W.; Reinke, M.; Rice, J. E.; Podpaly, Y.

    2010-10-15

    New x-ray imaging crystal spectrometers, currently operating on Alcator C-Mod, NSTX, EAST, and KSTAR, record spectral lines of highly charged ions, such as Ar{sup 16+}, from multiple sightlines to obtain profiles of ion temperature and of toroidal plasma rotation velocity from Doppler measurements. In the present work, we describe a new data analysis routine, which accounts for the specific geometry of the sightlines of a curved-crystal spectrometer and includes corrections for the Johann error to facilitate the tomographic inversion. Such corrections are important to distinguish velocity induced Doppler shifts from instrumental line shifts caused by the Johann error. The importance of this correction is demonstrated using data from Alcator C-Mod.

  4. Johannes Scultetus (1595-1645). Urologic aspects in the 'Armamentarium chirurgicum'.

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, D; Jonas, U

    1998-12-01

    Johannes Schultheiss (Latinized to 'Scultetus') was one of the first academically trained physicians and surgeons in Germany in the 17th century. After his studies at the University of Padua under Adrian van Spieghel and Fabricius ab Aquapendente he became official physician of his home town of Ulm. His remarkable textbook on surgery, the 'Armamentarium chirurgicum' was first published 10 years after his death and passed through many editions and translations all over Europe. This work contains a complete catalogue of surgical instruments, illustrated demonstrations of a variety of operative procedures and 100 case reports. The success of Scultetus' publication was responsible for an improved standard of the education of the nonacademic barber surgeons, who were treating the majority of the population, and was a significant milestone for the development of surgery as an academic speciality. The life and work of Johannes Scultetus, with reference to urologic aspects, is outlined in this article.

  5. Post-Flight Analysis of Dynamic Data Acquired During the ATV-2 Johannes Kepler Launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meitzner, R.; Abdoly, K.; Newerla, A.

    2012-07-01

    An in-flight data acquisition system called TeleMesure Autonome (TMA) has been implemented on ATV-1 Jules Verne (launched in March 2008) and ATV-2 Johannes Kepler (launched in February 2011). The TMA served the main objective to measure dynamic responses on the ATV spacecraft for comparison with coupled load analysis predictions and to verify that the ATV mechanical flight environment has been sufficiently covered by the respective ATV design specifications. The acquired flight data included low frequency sinusoidal, random vibration and shock measurements. Whereas the TMA on ATV-1 Jules Verne failed to properly work after 17 seconds after liftoff the improved TMA on ATV-2 Johannes Kepler performed its tasks successfully for all flight phases. The flight data have been subsequently evaluated by the ATV prime contractor Astrium. As first step of the performed analyses a correction of the acquired data was necessary to remove any artificial content (spikes, mean truncation, offset correction) followed by a visual inspection of the corrected data to ensure data quality. Then standard post processing methods were applied to the data consisting of generating equivalent sinusoidal responses and transfer functions for the low frequency data, power spectral densities for the random data and shock responses for the high frequency shock data. Although it was noted that the quality of the data was limited by the available transmission bandwidth and the amplitude resolution of the data acquisition system the implementation of the TMA on ATV-2 Johannes Kepler has nevertheless turned out successful and valuable data have been acquired for all relevant flight phases.

  6. [Johannes Vermeer and Anthon van Leeuwenhoek: Delft Art and Science together during the golden Dutch century].

    PubMed

    Miranda C, Marcelo

    2009-04-01

    Johannes Vermeer and Anthon van Leeuwenhoek are among the greatest geniuses in Art and Science respectively. During the seventeenth century, they achieved innovative advances. Vermeer, in painting, created a new intimate view of people specially women, developing the treatment of light and details. Leeuwenhoek, friend of Vermeer, influenced him in the use of the obscure camera in his works. In spite of having no formal academic education, he made extremely relevant discoveries with the use of microscope. He showed for first time human spermatozoids, red blood cells, brain, nerve and muscle structures and described many living animals. These two brilliant contemporary Dutch men made a great contribution to our civilization.

  7. [Johann Sigismund Elsholtz--the forgotten pioneer and German-speaking hygiene].

    PubMed

    Fiedler, K

    1997-10-01

    In 1682, the term "hygiene" appeared for the first time in the German language, in Johann Sigismund Elsholtz's Diaeteticon. In the author's meaning this term is used to describe the tenet of the maintenance of good health. In his book, Elsholtz who was physician at the court of Frederick William, the Great Elector of Brandenburg, makes suggestions for wholesome food and drinking. He demands the availability of clean water and of a good air and draws attention to the importance of personal hygiene. Thus, Elsholtz should be referred to as a German pioneer of hygiene whose recognition has been long overdue.

  8. Johann Joseph Oppel (1855) on Geometrical–Optical Illusions: A Translation and Commentary

    PubMed Central

    Todorović, Dejan; Phillips, David; Lingelbach, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    The term geometrical–optical illusions was coined by Johann Joseph Oppel (1815–1894) in 1855 in order to distinguish spatial distortions of size and orientation from the broader illusions of the senses. We present a translation of Oppel’s article and a commentary on the material described in it. Oppel did much more than give a name to a class of visual spatial distortions. He examined a variety of figures and phenomena that were precursors of later, named illusions, and attempted to quantify and interpret them. PMID:28694957

  9. Johannes Vermeer of Delft [1632-1675] and vision in neuroendoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Waleed A.; Prevedello, Daniel M.; Carrau, Ricardo L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Johannes Vermeer of Delft [1632-1675] was one of the greatest Masters of the Dutch Golden Age who was intensely preoccupied with the behavior of light and other optical effects and was entitled “The Master of Light”. He fastidiously attended to the subtleties of visual expression through geometry, composition, and precise mastery of the rules of perspective. It has been our impression that some visual similarity does exist between neuroendoscopic images and some of Vermeer's paintings. Such a relation could be explained by the fact that optical devices are utilized in producing both types of display. Methods: We reviewed the pertinent medical and art literature, observed some video clips of our endoscopy cases, and inspected digital high resolution images of Vermeer's paintings in order to elaborate on shared optical phenomena between neuroendoscopic views and Vermeer's paintings. Results: Specific optical phenomena are indeed shared by Johannes Vermeer's works and neuroendoscopic vision, namely light and color effects as well as the rules of perspective. Conclusion: From the physical point of view, the possibility that a camera obscura inspired Vermeer's artistic creation makes the existence of a visual link between his paintings and the endoscopic views of the intracranial cavity comprehensible. PMID:25140282

  10. Contributions of Johann jacob Huber to the surface anatomy of the spinal cord and meninges.

    PubMed

    Rengachary, Setti S; Pelle, Dominic; Guthikonda, Murali

    2008-06-01

    From prehistoric times, man has been aware that injury to the spine may result in paralysis of the limbs; this is reflected in bas-relief figures found at Nineweh in ancient Mesopotamia, in a hunting scene that depicts a lioness wounded by King Ashurbanipal. The Edwin Smith papyrus gives many case illustrations of spinal cord injury resulting in paralysis, yet early physicians were unaware of the anatomy of the spinal cord. Galen performed prospective studies in animals by sectioning the spinal cord at varying levels and observing the commensurate paralysis and sensory loss. Real advances in the understanding of spinal cord anatomy did not occur until human cadaveric dissections were undertaken; even then, the knowledge of the anatomy of the spinal cord lagged behind that of other body structures. Johann Jacob Huber appears to be the first anatomist to focus on the spinal cord almost exclusively. His descriptions, and especially his illustrations that depict spinal cord surface anatomy, are impressive with regard to their accuracy and their sense of photorealism. Indeed, his illustrations seem to compare well with the anatomic drawings in contemporary anatomic texts. Yet, we were unable to find a single article in the entire English-language literature depicting his illustrations. We conclude that the description and anatomic illustrations by Johann Jacob Huber remain a hidden gem in the history of human spinal anatomy.

  11. [Dr. Johann Scheifler (1612-1671) and his library. A prosopographic study].

    PubMed

    Littger, K W

    1990-01-01

    The University Library of Eichstätt holds a private collection of about 460 volumes of the electoral Munich personal physician Dr. Johann Scheifler (1612-1671). Most likely, it was acquired from the prince bishop of Eichstätt in the early 18th century. The biography of Johann Scheifler was almost unknown until now. Some notes may be found in the medical literature of the 17th and 18th centuries. In particular, the Munich librarian A. F. von Oefele recorded some data in his manuscripts: however, many of them are incorrect. Hence it was necessary to consult archival documents as well as notes in Scheifler's own manuscripts, for example on the lectures he attended in the Jesuit College of Munich in 1633-1636, as well as in his handwritten exlibris where he left various self-portrayals. From his manuscripts we may also learn the nature of his patients. The second part of this paper discusses the origin of Scheifler's library. Scheifler never acquired larger collections, but he received many individual volumes from well known persons, especially physicians. It may well be that his library reflects the ambition of the son of a tailor who, as a "homo novus", hoped to take his place in the circle of the highest physicians. In 1656 he achieved this when he was appointed electoral personal physician, and also in 1671 when his son was appointed professor of medicine at the University of Ingolstadt.

  12. Astronomical dilettante or misunderstood genius? On Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's image in the history of science. (German Title: Astronomischer Dilettant oder verkanntes Genie? Zum Bild Johann Hieronymus Schroeters in der Wissenschaftsgeschichte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestmann, Günther

    The paper deals with contemporary assessments of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's (1745-1816) astronomical works - especially by Wilhelm Olbers and Carl Friedrich Gauß - and also later judgements of the scientific importance and significance of his observations voiced by astronomers and historians.

  13. [Johann Gottlob Leidenfrost (1715-1794). On the 275th anniversary of his birthday, 27 November 1990].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W

    1991-03-01

    The 275th anniversary of the birthday of Johann Gottlob Leidenfrost gave rise to remember life and work of this physician and university teacher. The phenomenon described by him and named after him secured the versatile Halle candidate for a doctorate and Duisburg professor in ordinary a place also in the history of physics.

  14. [Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach (1792-1847) as the founder of plastic surgery. His contribution to maxillofacial surgery].

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, D; Knöner, W; Kramer, F J; Jonas, U

    1998-11-01

    Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach (1792-1847) is generally known as the founder of modern plastic surgery. One focus of his work, apart from the physiology of transplantation and operative techniques, was reconstructive oral and maxillofacial surgery. This special aspect of plastic surgery as well as Dieffenbach's biography is presented in this historic article.

  15. Johann Christian Rosenmüller (1771-1820): A Historical Perspective on the Man behind the Fossa

    PubMed Central

    Amene, Chiazo; Cosetti, Maura; Ambekar, Sudheer; Guthikonda, Bharat; Nanda, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The fossa of Rosenmüller, also known as the lateral pharyngeal recess, is a well-established site of origin of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. It is located in the lateral pharyngeal wall behind the cartilaginous portion of the Eustachian tube, the torus tubarius, and is named after Johann Christian Rosenmüller (JCR). Objective We present a history on the life and extensive works of Johann Christian Rosenmüller, a German physician and anatomist. Results Johann Christian Rosenmüller was a dedicated anatomist. In addition to identifying the fossa of Rosenmüller, his influence extends to various other anatomic subjects, including the Rosenmüller gland, the palpebral portion of the lacrimal gland, and the organ of Rosenmüller (i.e., the caudal remnant of the mesonephric duct). He was also an avid speleologist, studying the composition of caves and their life forms. For his contributions to this field, he had a cave in Germany and an extinct species named after him—Rosenmüllerhöhle and Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller, respectively. Conclusion The fossa of Rosenmüller plays an important role in the growth and surgical treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We present a brief glimpse into the life of Johann Christian Rosenmüller, for whom it was named. PMID:24436911

  16. The Art of History and Eighteenth-Century Information Management: Christian Gottlieb Jocher and Johann Heinrich Zedler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Richard Glenn

    2013-01-01

    In the eighteenth century there were enough printed sources and archival materials to challenge or even overwhelm historians of that day. Two productive editors of lexicons and information management were Christian Gottlieb Jocher, who taught history at the University of Leipzig and became the chief librarian at his university, and Johann Heinrich…

  17. 17TH Century Photometric Data in the Form of Telescopic Measurements of the Apparent Diameters of Stars by Johannes Hevelius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graney, Christopher M.

    The book Mercurius in Sole Visus Gedani published in 1662 by Johannes Hevelius contains a table of magnitudes and apparent telescopic diameters of nineteen stars. The data fit to a simple model, suggesting that Hevelius produced what is essentially a table of surprisingly precise photometric data.

  18. The Art of History and Eighteenth-Century Information Management: Christian Gottlieb Jocher and Johann Heinrich Zedler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Richard Glenn

    2013-01-01

    In the eighteenth century there were enough printed sources and archival materials to challenge or even overwhelm historians of that day. Two productive editors of lexicons and information management were Christian Gottlieb Jocher, who taught history at the University of Leipzig and became the chief librarian at his university, and Johann Heinrich…

  19. [Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833) and modern teratology].

    PubMed

    Klunker, Rudyard; Göbbel, Luminita; Musil, Anette; Tönnies, Holger; Schultka, Rüdiger

    2002-11-01

    Among other special topics Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger concentrated his scientific researches on the systematic investigations of the human and animal malformations. He explored many samples which were part of his private anatomical collection. Today, the Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology possesses a number of important teratological preparations which Meckel and his graduate students minutely investigated (e.g. the individuals to the Meckel, Klippel Feil and Hanhart syndrome). The goals of our studies are to identify the samples originating from the Meckel Collections, and to reinvestigate them with modern methods. Two objects (brainless malformation, Halle I, and neural tube defect, Halle II) were analysed by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). These results obtained are published in Toennies et al. (2002).

  20. [Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833), an extremely important naturalist and scholar].

    PubMed

    Schultka, Rüdiger; Göbbel, Luminita

    2002-11-01

    Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833) belongs to the famous scientists of the 19th century. His research work is enormous. Important termini e.g. diverticulum Meckelii, cartilago Meckelii, Meckel syndrome and Meckel Serres law reflect the scientific results obtained by Meckel. He worked as a professor of anatomy, pathology and zoology at the University of Halle, a town in the Central Germany. Meckel founded the scientific teratology. In the literature he is also referred to the German Cuvier. On 8 April 1802, J. F. Meckel defended his doctoral thesis "De cordis conditionibus abnormibus". On occasion of the 200th anniversary of this event, we like to honor J. F. Meckel the famous German anatomist. Therefore, during the 97th session of the Anatomische Gesellschaft at Halle, a satellite symposium "From Meck el to genom" was held.

  1. [A town-physician in the 18th century: Johann Friedrich Glaser].

    PubMed

    Schilling, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Johann Friedrich Glaser rose from an executioner's family to the position of a town physician in Suhl. The contribution concentrates on the importance of this position for Glaser. It first looks at the position of town physicians in Suhl. They possessed due to certain historical circumstances several duties and rights. They enjoyed a remarkably high standing in the town society which made the position especially attractive for Glaser as a road to social acceptance. His interaction with the medical administration in Dresden (Suhl belonged to the jurisdiction of Electoral Saxony) further enhanced his possibilities to interact with local and territorial spheres. Altogether, Glaser's official functions gained importance over his role as a (medical) scientist, because they offered him the best way to gain social and cultural prestige.

  2. [Veterinary medical work of Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben, the first teacher of veterinary medicine in Germany].

    PubMed

    Weidenhöfer, V

    1999-04-01

    Erxleben could be regarded as the founder of the modern, systematic and scientific training of verterinary surgeons in Germany. Thanks to an open-minded up-bringing and a large interest in other scientific fields beyond his medical studies he acquired the ideal basis to turn veterinary medicine into a subject at university. He acquired his knowledge in veterinary medicine by reading numerous veterinary books and by visiting the Netherlands and France and the expert of horses Johann Baptist von Sind. Since 1770 he started with veterinary lessons. When planning his teaching, he tried to avoid the mistakes made by the first schools in France. In order to do so he attached a great importance to a fundamental but practical training. Erxleben also wrote two volumes about veterinary medicine, which he used as a literary basis for his lessons.

  3. Johann Andreas Cramer and Chemical Mineral Assay in the Eighteenth Century.

    PubMed

    Bortolotto, Andréa

    2015-01-01

    Although little studied now, the work of Johann Andreas Cramer (1710-1777) on mineralogy and metallurgy was much appreciated by his peers and influenced the development those fields throughout the eighteenth century. Well versed in the theoretical and practical problems of analysing and grouping minerals, Cramer sought to solve them by formulating a new, accurate system for identifying and classifying metals. He also developed faster and less expensive metal extraction methods than those previously available. This paper traces the chemical ideas that underpinned Cramer's novel methods, including the theories of Hermann Boerhaave and Georg Ernst Stahl, and shows where Cramer both followed and departed from these authorities in his own influential Elementa Artis Docimasticae (1739). In the process, I seek to map Cramer's scholarly network in order to contribute to a more thorough understanding of the communication of chemical ideas and procedures in eighteenth-century Europe.

  4. Identifying the stars on Johann Bayer's Chart of the South Polar Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridpath, I.

    2014-04-01

    The first chart of the stars in the region around the south celestial pole was published in 1603 by Johann Bayer (1572-1625) as part of his monumental star atlas called Uranometria. This south polar chart depicted 12 entirely new constellations that had been created only a few years earlier from stars observed during the first Dutch expedition to the East Indies in 1595-97. Bayer's chart plotted 121 stars in the 12 newly invented constellations. Five more stars formed a southern extension of the existing constellation Eridanus, while another twelve stars were left 'unformed', i.e. unattached to any constellation. Whereas Bayer famously applied Greek or Roman letters to the stars in the 48 Ptolemaic constellations, he left the stars in the newly invented constellations unlabelled. This paper attempts to identify the stars plotted on Bayer's chart. It also discusses the source of Bayer's data and the origin of the 12 new southern constellations.

  5. Johannes Muller and the beginnings of experimental neurophysiology: concepts and strategies.

    PubMed

    Lohff, B

    1999-01-01

    Between 1828 and 1838 Johannes Muller (1801-1858) published his important neurophysiological and anatomical investigations (primary fibres, cranial nerves, reflex movement, experimental proof of Charles Bell's law). Muller's strategies and concepts in neurophysiology can be used as an example for his scientific approach. An analysis of the four editions of Muller's Handbook of Physiology shows that he specified his arguments continuously by introducing clear definitions of physiological terms (stimulus, excitability, cosensual movement, reflex), which were based on his own manifold experiments and a critical review of recently published researches. Following his own epistemological view of physiological sciences he changed his fundamental belief in the incompatibility of the force of nerves and physical electricity in regard to Du Bois-Reymond's electrophysiological investigations. Muller's strategy in explaining scientific problems provides information for a historical understanding of why he had such a great influence on the development of physiology, anatomy and marine biology in the 19th century.

  6. Doctor and Hobby Astronomer in Stormy Times: The Book Legacy of Dr. Johannes Häringshauser (1603-1642)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, G.

    2011-06-01

    Johannes Häringshauser (1603-1941) was born in Vienna and graduated at Padua in the faculty of medicine in 1626. He became a Hofmedicus at the court and in the field of the Thirty Years War in 1627-1630 and then a Viertelmedicus at Mistelbach in Niederoesterreich in 1630 until 1641. His purchase of books had initially concentrated on medical topics but from 1636 to 1640 he bought some ten books on astronomy, including two by Johannes Kepler and one by Michael Mästlin, Kepler's tutor at Tübingen. The fact that he acquired the books by Mästlin and Kepler so soon after Galileo's trial shows him to have been a courageous independently minded thinker with wide ranging professional and intellectual interests. In his professional medical activities he sought to balance the medical practises of Galen and Paracelsus, and in his astronomy hobby he investigated the the new arguments of Mästlin, Kepler, and Galileo.

  7. Earliest description by Johann Friedrich Meckel, Senior (1750) of what is known today as Lutembacher syndrome (1916).

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, H R

    1994-10-15

    The letter that the famous anatomist Johann Friedrich Meckel, Sr. sent from Berlin on May 5, 1750 to the great Albrecht von Haller (at that time resident in Göttingen) contains the earliest reference to an unusual observation made by the former. Even today this observation is considered in the clinical literature to be the first description of a coarctation of the aorta. In fact, it is probably the first description of what is known today as Lutembacher syndrome.

  8. ``Planetário e Teatro Digital Johannes Kepler'' and its Institutional Pedagogical Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. Z.; Calil, M. R.; Perez, E. R.; Kanashiro, M.; Silva, L. C. P.; Calipo, F.

    2014-10-01

    This work relates the reception of schools, started on August 2012, in the astronomic laboratory of the "Planetário e Teatro Digital Johannes Kepler", located in the "Sabina - Escola Parque do Conhecimento" in Santo André, São Paulo. The idealization of this project, authorship of Marcos Calil, PhD, consists in four apprenticeship environments disposed around the planetary dome. They make reference to the System Sun - Earth - Moon (Tellurium), Solar System, Astronautic and Stars. On Tuesdays and Wednesdays the astronomic laboratory is used by Santo André municipal schools for focused lessons, being possible on Thursdays scheduling for private and public schools. On weekends and holidays is opened for the visitors. Since the inauguration to the beginning of activities with students, the monitor team was guided and trained on contents of Astronomy and Aeronautic to execute the schools service. This is done in four stages, which are: reception, course trough the astronomic laboratory, dome session and activities closure. During the reception the acquaintance rules are passed on for a better visit. Before starting the course the monitors do a survey about the previous knowledge of the students. On the astronomic laboratory resources of the environment are used to explain the contents of Astronomy and Astronautic, always considering the age group and the curriculum developed in classroom. After the course the students watch a planetary session supporting the contents seen on the astronomic laboratory. At the end a feedback is done with the students about the subject discussed. During the visit the teachers fulfill an evaluation about the place and the service. From August 2012 to November 2012 were attended between municipal, public and private schools. From the 4932 students attended, 92% belonged to the municipal network, 5% to the private network and 3% to the public network. From the 189 evaluations done by the teachers, 97.8% were satisfied, 2.1% partially

  9. [Johann Sebastian Bach: life, oeuvre and his significance for the cardiology].

    PubMed

    Trappe, H-J

    2014-12-01

    Johann Sebastian Bach was born on 1685 in Eisenach. By the time he turned 10, Bach found himself an orphan after the death of both of his parents. After working in Weimar, Arnstadt, Mühlhausen, and Köthen Bach signed a contract to become the new organist and teacher at St. Thomas Church Leipzig in 1723 and stayed there until his death. In 1749, Bach tried to fix his failing sight by having surgery the following year, but the operation ended up leaving him completely blind. Few months later, Bach suffered a stroke. He died in Leipzig on July 28, 1750. In recent years, there were some questions whether music of different styles can directly alter cardiovascular parameters, particularly by using Bach's music. In some studies it has been shown that cardiovascular parameters (blood pressure, heart rate) are influenced by music. Listening to classic music (Bach) leads to positive erffects, also music by Italian composters. In contrast, "modern" music, vocal music or songs had no positive effects on cardiovascular parameters. In addition, positive effects on cardiovascular parameters and behavioural patters have been shown in an animal study recently, by Bach's music. Recent studies showed clearly that music influences cardiovascular parameters. It is obvious that classical music (Bach) has benefitial effects, both in humans and in animals. Therefore, the music of the "Thomaskantor" will improve both, quality of life and cardiovascular health.

  10. Johann Friedrich Horner and the Repeated Discovery of Oculosympathoparesis: Whose Syndrome Is It?

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ahmed; Manjila, Sunil; Singh, Mantinderpreet; Belle, Vaijayantee; Chandar, Krishan; Miller, Jonathan P

    2015-09-01

    Disruption of cranial sympathetic tone leads to the symptom complex of miosis, ptosis, and hemifacial anhidrosis. It is widely believed that this phenomenon was discovered in 1869 by the Swiss ophthalmologist Johann Friedrich Horner, and as a result, the term Horner syndrome has become synonymous with the clinical presentation. However, the syndrome that would become Horner syndrome had actually been described several times before his report. François Pourfour du Petit documented the ocular effects of sympathetic trunk lesions in animal studies in 1727. Claude Bernard identified the full clinical triad in animal studies in 1852, and as a result, the condition is sometimes called Bernard syndrome. There were also 2 previous reports of ptosis and miosis resulting from sympathetic nerve damage in humans: 1 by Edward Selleck Hare in 1838 associated with brachial plexus tumor, and the other by Silas Weir Mitchell in 1864 associated with a gunshot wound to the neck. Although Horner was the first to objectively characterize the co-occurrence of vasomotor and ocular changes in a human patient, he did not identify the etiology of the condition, discuss its relationship to the sympathetic nervous system, or reference any of the previous studies in animals or humans. It is possible that a lack of familiarity with previous investigations delayed the full appreciation of the mechanism underlying this disorder.

  11. Idols of the psychologist: Johannes Linschoten and the demise of phenomenological psychology in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Hezewijk, René; Stam, Henderikus J

    2008-08-01

    Before and after World War II, a loose movement within Dutch psychology solidified as a nascent phenomenological psychology. Dutch phenomenological psychologists attempted to generate an understanding of psychology that was based on Husserlian interpretations of phenomenological philosophy. This movement came to a halt in the 1960s, even though it had been exported to North America and elsewhere as "phenomenological psychology." Frequently referred to as the "Utrecht school," most of the activity of the group was centered at Utrecht University. In this article, the authors examine the role played by Johannes Linschoten in both aspects of the development of a phenomenological psychology: its rise in North America and Europe, and its institutional demise. By the time of his early death in 1964, Linschoten had cast considerable doubt on the possibilities of a purely phenomenological psychology. Nonetheless, his own empirical work, especially his 1956 dissertation published in German, can be seen to be a form of empiricism inspired by phenomenology but that clearly distanced itself from the more elitist and esoteric aspects of Dutch phenomenological psychology.

  12. Facts versus theories: an everlasting struggle. The Johann Jakob Wepfer Award 2010.

    PubMed

    van Gijn, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Rather than a complete overview of the contribution of Utrecht to stroke research, I have selected a few subjects and attempt to put these in historical context. Johann Jakob Wepfer (1620-1695) was unique in that he approached 'apoplexy' through post-mortem observations, in the tradition of Padua. However, the interpretation of his findings in haemorrhagic and especially non-haemorrhagic stroke was still heavily influenced by the authority of Galen's writings. Wepfer's category of 'serous apoplexy' assumed that extravasation of blood serum might lead to compression of brain substance and blockage of 'nerve pores' through which mental 'spirit' was supposed to flow. This notion of 'cerebral congestion' or 'cerebral hyperaemia' lived on, at least to the middle of the 20th century! The pitfalls of theorizing are also evident from recent history (the facile assumption that cerebral ischaemia occurs in the same way as leg ischaemia). By implication, similar errors may well be hidden in present ideas about stroke. Probable or possible examples are the idées reçues that 30 mg of aspirin is less efficacious in the secondary prevention of stroke than 100 mg, that vasospasm is the cause of delayed ischaemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage and that perimesencephalic haemorrhage is not caused by rupture of an artery. Physicians still speculate more often than they care to admit.

  13. Ernest Everett Just, Johannes Holtfreter, and the Origin of Certain Concepts in Embryo Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    BYRNES, W. MALCOLM

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Ernest E. Just (1883–1941) is best known for his discovery of the “wave of negativity” that sweeps of the sea urchin egg during fertilization, and his elucidation of what are known as the fast and slow blocks to polyspermy. Just’s contemporary Johannes Holtfreter (1901–1992) is known for his pioneering work in amphibian morphogenesis, which helped to lay the foundation for modern vertebrate developmental biology. This paper, after briefly describing the life and scientific contributions of Just, argues that his work and ideas strongly influenced two of the concepts for which Holtfreter is best known: tissue affinity and autoneuralization (or autoinduction). Specifically, this paper argues that, first, Just’s experiments demonstrating developmental stage-specific changes in the adhesiveness of the blastomeres of cleavage embryos helped lay the foundation for Holtfreter’s concept of tissue affinity and, second, Just’s notion of the intrinsic irritability of the egg cell, which is evident in experimental parthenogenesis, strongly informed Holtfreter’s concept of the nonspecific induction of neural tissue formation in amphibian gastrula ectoderm explants, a phenomenon known as auto-induction. Acknowledgment of these contributions by Just in no way diminishes the importance of Holtfreter’s groundbreaking work. It does, however, extend the impact of Just’s work into the area of embryo morphogenesis. It connects Just to Holtfreter and positions his work as an antecedent to embryo research that continues to this day. PMID:19610071

  14. A Simultaneous Discovery: The Case of Johannes Stark and Antonino Lo Surdo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, Matteo; Paoletti, Alessandro; Robotti, Nadia

    2004-09-01

    In 1913 the German physicist Johannes Stark (1874 1957) and the Italian physicist Antonino Lo Surdo (1880 1949)discovered virtually simultaneously and independently that hydrogen spectral lines are split into components by an external electric field. Both of their discoveries ensued from studies on the same phenomenon, the Doppler effect in canal rays, but they arose in different theoretical contexts. Stark had been working within the context of the emerging quantum theory, following a research program aimed at studying the effect of an electric field on spectral lines. Lo Surdo had been working within the context of the classical theory, and his was an accidental discovery. Both discoveries, however, played important roles in the history of physics: Stark’s discovery contributed to the establishment of both the old and the new quantum theories; Lo Surdo’s discovery led Antonio Garbasso (1871 1933)to introduce research on the quantum theory into Italian physics. Ironically, soon after their discoveries, both Stark and Lo Surdo rejected developments in modern physics and allied themselves with the political and racial programs of Hitler and Mussolini.

  15. Heinrich Johann Kessels (1781-1849). An important manufacturer of chronometers and precision pendulum clocks. (German Title: Heinrich Johann Kessels (1781-1849). Ein bedeutender Verfertiger von Chronometern und Präzisionspendeluhren)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestmann, Günther

    In the first half of the 10th century, Heinrich Johann Kessels was one of the most important precision clock makers outside of England. He worked with Abraham Louis Breguet in Paris, and afterwards settled in Altona. Kessels was well known among the astronomers of his time, and he supplied numerous observatories in Europe and America with his pendulum clocks and chronometers. Besides scattered biographical information and numerous letters, some products of his workshop, which count among the big rarities of clock manufacturing, have survived upon this day. Numerous original sources, unknown until today, have been consulted for the present biography. A catalogue of his works has been established for the first time.

  16. [Johann Laurentius Bausch and Philipp Jacob Sachs of Lewenhaimb. Foundation of the Academia Naturae

    PubMed

    Müller, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The biographical notes of the two municipal physicians of Schweinfurt, Leonhard Bausch (1574 to 1636) and Johann Laurentius Bausch (1605-1665) and another three physicians (Johann Michael Fehr, Georg Balthasar Wohlfarth and Georg Balthasar Metzger) who founded the Academia Naturae Curiosorum together with the younger Bausch in 1652, show that this founding was initiated by a surprisingly homogenous group, sharing the same social, educational and professional background as well as ancestral and acquired experiences. They all had been influenced by the immigration fate of their families, the rapid rise to the politically or academically educated elite in the imperial city of Schweinfurt, worn out by war and plagues. They all had studied at universities in protestant territories of the Holy Roman Empire, finishing with an educational journey (peregrinatio academica), usually to Italy. Experience of the flourishing university life beyond the frontiers of the Holy Roman Empire laid waste by the "Teutsche Krieg", the great variety of academies in Italy, the narrowness of contemporary medicine and the inability of the individual to explore the immense variety of nature: all this leads to the founding of the Academia Naturae Curiosorum and it is the point of reference of the founding documents of 1651/1652, which were first printed in 1662 (Salve Academicum). What is innovative about this is not the establishment of an academy but the desired aim and the way of achieving this. The tenor of these documents--to medically explore the variety of the divine "res naturals" in a cooperative and regulated way for the benefit of medicine and mankind and to publish the results in monographes (utilitas by curiositas)--was condensed by the later Leopoldina to the still used motto "to explore nature for the benefit of mankind". Due to Breslau's municipal physician Philipp Jacob Sachs von Lewenhaimb (1627 - 1672) the publishing activities of the academy came into being. But before the

  17. Johann Peter Griess FRS (1829–88): Victorian brewer and synthetic dye chemist

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Edwin; Yates, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The German organic chemist Johann Peter Griess (1829–88), who first developed the diazotization of aryl amines (the key reaction in the synthesis of the azo dyes), and a major figure in the formation of the modern dye industry, worked for more than a quarter of a century at the brewery of Samuel Allsopp and Sons in Burton upon Trent, which, owing to the presence of several notable figures and an increase in the scientific approach to brewing, became a significant centre of scientific enquiry in the 1870s and 1880s. Unlike the other Burton brewing chemists, Griess paralleled his work at the brewery with significant contributions to the chemistry of synthetic dyes, managing to keep the two activities separate—to the extent that some of his inventions in dye chemistry were filed as patents on behalf of the German dye company BASF, without the involvement of Allsopp's. This seemingly unlikely situation can be explained partly by the very different attitudes to patent protection in Britain and in Germany combined with an apparent indifference to the significant business opportunity that the presence of a leading dye chemist presented to Allsopp's. Although his work for the brewery remained largely proprietary, Griess's discoveries in dye chemistry were exploited by the German dye industry, which quickly outpaced its British counterpart. One less well-known connection between brewing and synthetic dyes, and one that may further explain Allsopp's attitude, is the use of synthetic dyes in identifying microorganisms—the perennial preoccupation of brewers seeking to maintain yield and quality. Developments of Griess's original work continue to be applied to many areas of science and technology.

  18. The legacy of Johann Friedrich Meckel the Elder (1724-1774): a 4-generation dynasty of anatomists.

    PubMed

    Janjua, Rashid M; Schultka, Rüdiger; Goebbel, Luminita; Pait, T Glenn; Shields, Christopher B

    2010-04-01

    Few families have had an impact on medicine to equal that of the Meckel family. Johann Friedrich Meckel the Elder is of special interest to the neurosciences, given that his dissertation on the fifth cranial nerve included the first description of the arachnoid space investing the trigeminal nerve into the middle fossa. He was interested in neuroanatomy, along with botany and pathology of the inguinal hernia and the lymphatic system. His mentors included the eminent Albrecht von Haller (1708-1777) and August Buddaeus (1695-1753), and he extended his own influence on the work of Giovanni Morgagni and Alexander Monro II. He spent the latter part of his life in Berlin as professor of anatomy, botany, and obstetrics. His son, Philipp Friedrich Theodor Meckel (1755-1803), was one of the founders of the current collection of anatomic specimens at the University of Halle and provided important groundwork for the practice of obstetrics. Meckel the Elder's grandson, Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833), was a more prolific investigator and founder of the science of teratology. Many anatomic structures, such as Meckel's diverticulum, bear his name, and he vastly expanded the university's anatomic collection. August Albrecht Meckel (1789-1829), Meckel the Younger's brother, practiced legal medicine and investigated avian anatomy but died prematurely from tuberculosis. August's son, Johann Heinrich Meckel (1821-1856), took the instructor's position in pathologic anatomy at the University of Berlin that his great-grandfather had held at the Charité. After his untimely death from pulmonary disease, his position was filled by Rudolf Virchow. The history of this family is discussed in detail.

  19. [Halle physicians as historical witnesses and specialty chronologists. I. The autobiography of the wound physician Johann Dietz (1665-1738)].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W

    1989-09-01

    The beginnings of the autobiography and autoergography written by physicians are to be placed for the 16th and 17th century. An early example for this genre of literature which is always actual but in its valency also disputed is the self-evidence of the Halle surgeon Johann Dietz. Into the descriptions of his professional life many details of the events of his era were included. In his description chronicles of the speciality and witness of the time united themselves in a report which remained worth reading up to the present time.

  20. Doktor Johannes Häringshauser - Was seine Bücher über ihn erzählen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feola, Vittoria

    2009-06-01

    Die Bibliothek des Dr. Johannes Häringshauser (1603-1642) weist ihren Besitzer als Arzt und Gelehrten mit großem geistigen Horizont aus. Hervorzuheben ist sein Interesse für Astronomie und Astrologie. Neben Werken, die unmittelbar mit seinen Studien in Wien und Padua und den Erfordernissen eines Arztes in Zusammenhang zu bringen sind (Klassiker der Heilkunde genauso wie aktuelle medizinische Publikationen), wird in seiner Büchersammlung eine reiche Palette an Themen abgedeckt: Theologie, Philosophie, Philologie, Politik, Geschichte und Länderkunde.

  1. Johannes Amos Comenius (1592-1670) and his depiction of lenses and spectacles in the first children's picture book.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2009-01-01

    Johannes Amos Comenius (1592-1670) was a Moravian clergyman, teacher, and author. He is recognized as introducing several concepts of modern education. He advanced the views that education should be appropriate to age and development levels and that teaching should make use of everyday sensory experience. One of his many books, Orbis Pictus, followed those concepts. Orbis Pictus, first published in 1657, is hailed as the first children's picture book. Among the many commonplace objects he included in the book were a mirror, spectacles, a telescope, a magnifying lens, and a burning glass.

  2. ["I am rather satisfied with this interpretation of my dreams." -- real-life and work-related encounters between psychiatrist Johann Christian August Heinroth and poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe].

    PubMed

    Schmideler, S; Steinberg, H

    2004-09-01

    Apart from being a major pioneer of modern psychiatry, Johann Christian August Heinroth (1773 - 1843) is foremost famous as the first academic teacher, professor of this subject at Leipzig University. Despite his theoretical concepts being thoroughly investigated by medical historians, the fact that his scientific work also brought him in contact with Weimar poet and scientist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749 - 1832) has up to now not been acknowledged. This paper analyses for the first time the manifold points of contact between the two geniuses. Starting off with a retrospective on Goethe's relationship towards psychiatry in his day, this paper investigates the mutual interconnections and influences between the two. This is achieved by an analysis of yet unknown primary sources as well as Goethe's literary and scientific works. A main emphasis is also placed on Heinroth's Textbook of Anthropology of 1822 in which the psychiatrist laid out his understanding of 'relational thinking' (gegenständliches Denken), a key concept for both. This theory developed from Heinroth's dealing with Goethe's concept of "anschauung" and was to gain major importance not only for his way of gaining knowledge in general but also for his psychiatric concept. Goethe's influence on Heinroth is particularly revealed in the latter's holistic views on mental illnesses. Heinroth's visit to Goethe on 15 September 1827 can be earmarked as a sign of their mutual esteem.

  3. ATV Engineering Support Team Safety Console Preparation for the Johannes Kepler Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, R.; Oliefka, L.

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes the improvements to be implemented in the Safety console position of the Engineering Support Team(EST) at the Automated Transfer Vehicle(ATV) Control Centre(ATV-CC) for the upcoming ATV Johannes Kepler mission. The ATV missions to the International Space Station are monitored and controlled from the ATV-CC in Toulouse, France. The commanding of ATV is performed by the Vehicle Engineering Team(VET) in the main control room under authority of the Flight Director. The EST performs a monitoring function in a room beside the main control room. One of the EST positions is the Safety console, which is staffed by safety engineers from ESA and the industrial prime contractor, Astrium. The function of the Safety console is to check whether the hazard controls are available throughout the mission as required by the Hazard Reports approved by the ISS Safety Review Panel. Safety console preparation activities were limited prior to the first ATV mission due to schedule constraints, and the safety engineers involved have been working to improve the readiness for ATV 2. The following steps have been taken or are in process, and will be described in this paper: • review of the implementation of Operations Control Agreement Documents(OCADs) that record the way operational hazard controls are performed to meet the needs of the Hazard Reports(typically in Flight Rules and Crew Procedures), • crosscheck of operational control needs and implementations with respect to ATV's first flight observations and post flight evaluations, with a view to identifying additional, obsolete or revised operational hazard controls, • participation in the Flight Rule review and update process carried out between missions, • participation in the assessment of anomalies observed during the first ATV mission, to ensure that any impacts are addressed in the ATV 2 safety documentation, • preparation of a Safety console handbook to provide lists of important safety aspects to be

  4. Stubborn Mars is in search of a domicile. Johannes Kepler to Christian II. elector of Saxony - a rediscovery. (German Title: Der halsstarrige Mars sucht sich eine Wohnung. Johannes Kepler an Kurfürst Christian II. von Sachsen - Eine Wiederentdeckung)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothmann, Hella

    2011-08-01

    The rediscovery of a missing autograph of Johannes Kepler - a dedication letter presenting his "New Astronomy" to the elector of Saxony - was possible through a series of fortunate coincidences. Kepler's most important work "Astronomia Nova", in which he proclaimed the first two planetary laws, has been published at the end of 1609. According to the Latin dedication to emperor Rudolf II., Kepler compares the long period of calculations and observations as a crusade against the planet Mars. Finally he succeeds in defeating him, now he supports his opponent to find a new home. The letter is an extraordinary document of Kepler's ingenious and humorous language, it also proofs the relationship to Dresden and the Saxon court.

  5. Johann Elert Bode's history of the Berlin Observatory until the year 1811. Edition of the manuscript. (German Title: Johann Elert Bodes Geschichte der Berliner Sternwarte bis zum Jahr 1811. Edition der Handschrift.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielen, Roland; Wielen, Ute

    In this paper we present an edition of the manuscript entitled 'Entwurf einer litterarischen Geschichte der hiesigen Königl. Sternwarte bis zum Jahr 1811', written by Johann Elert Bode. The manuscript describes the history of the Berlin Observatory from its foundation in 1700 until 1811. The observatory belonged during this period to the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences at Berlin. Bode served as director of the observatory from 1787 to 1825. We have transliterated and commentated Bode's manuscript. This manuscript of 14 pages in folio format is held for more than a century in the archives of the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, which was founded in Berlin and has been moved to Heidelberg in 1945. In addition we edit the letter (Cabinet Order) of the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm III. to Bode, dated 6 November 1798, in which the king agrees to a modification of the observatory.

  6. Five-element Johann-type x-ray emission spectrometer with a single-photon-counting pixel detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kleymenov, Evgeny; Bokhoven, Jeroen A. van; David, Christian; Janousch, Markus; Studer, Marco; Willimann, Markus; Bergamaschi, Anna; Henrich, Beat; Nachtegaal, Maarten; Glatzel, Pieter; Alonso-Mori, Roberto

    2011-06-15

    A Johann-type spectrometer with five spherically bent crystals and a pixel detector was constructed for a range of hard x-ray photon-in photon-out synchrotron techniques, covering a Bragg-angle range of 60 deg. - 88 deg. The spectrometer provides a sub emission line width energy resolution from sub-eV to a few eV and precise energy calibration, better than 1.5 eV for the full range of Bragg angles. The use of a pixel detector allows fast and easy optimization of the signal-to-background ratio. A concentration detection limit below 0.4 wt% was reached at the Cu K{alpha}{sub 1} line. The spectrometer is designed as a modular mobile device for easy integration in a multi-purpose hard x-ray synchrotron beamline, such as the SuperXAS beamline at the Swiss Light Source.

  7. [The correspondence of Johann Bartholomäus Trommsdorff (1770-1837): more then a source book of pharmaceutical history].

    PubMed

    Bettin, Hartmut; Friedrich, Christoph

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the publication of the correspondence of Johann Bartholomäus Trommsdorff (1770 bis 1837) and to inform about the history of this project as well as the methodical proceedings and the content of these letters. The opportunities and limitations of the modern Trommsdorff research, based on the publication of his correspondence, will be shown. His contacts have been manifold and expansive. He corresponded with many famous scientists in pharmacy, chemistry, medicine and with important people of intellectual origin. Trommsdorff was a highly important person of the international European relationships in the field of pharmacy. Many publications certify the importance of the Trommsdorff-correspondence. The publication of these letters has opened new biographical aspects and allows to follow the connections and ways of communication in the new age of the foundation of scientific pharmacy.

  8. Five-element Johann-type x-ray emission spectrometer with a single-photon-counting pixel detector.

    PubMed

    Kleymenov, Evgeny; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A; David, Christian; Glatzel, Pieter; Janousch, Markus; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Studer, Marco; Willimann, Markus; Bergamaschi, Anna; Henrich, Beat; Nachtegaal, Maarten

    2011-06-01

    A Johann-type spectrometer with five spherically bent crystals and a pixel detector was constructed for a range of hard x-ray photon-in photon-out synchrotron techniques, covering a Bragg-angle range of 60°-88°. The spectrometer provides a sub emission line width energy resolution from sub-eV to a few eV and precise energy calibration, better than 1.5 eV for the full range of Bragg angles. The use of a pixel detector allows fast and easy optimization of the signal-to-background ratio. A concentration detection limit below 0.4 wt% was reached at the Cu Kα(1) line. The spectrometer is designed as a modular mobile device for easy integration in a multi-purpose hard x-ray synchrotron beamline, such as the SuperXAS beamline at the Swiss Light Source.

  9. [Plagiarism techniques in practice journal Johannes Franc (1649–1725) and copying practice illustrated by urology texts].

    PubMed

    Breuer, R; Winckelmann, H J

    2012-01-01

    In the seventeenth century it was customary in medicine to copy texts from other authors without citing the source. This practice is illustrated by the diary of Johannes Franc (1649–1725), a physician in the city of Ulm, who handwrote a practice journal in Latin and German Gothic script entering text passages plagiarized as follows: he reproduced them almost word for word in order to pass them off as his own experiences, used them as a model for his prescriptions and as a template for his case histories, and integrated them into his work to support his argumentation. In addition, he summarized texts from various sources, refined them by omitting portions, and incorporated his own experiences for embellishment. These plagiarism techniques and the purpose they served are analyzed and compared to some passages taken from the original texts.

  10. The neuroscience of Helmholtz and the theories of Johannes Müller. Part 2: Sensation and perception.

    PubMed

    Finger, Stanley; Wade, Nicholas J

    2002-09-01

    In this, our continuation paper on Helmholtz and Müller, we examine Helmholtz's contributions to sensation and perception, with emphasis on his extension and modification of Müller's theory of specific nerve energies. The material is again presented in biographical-chronological context. We also examine Helmholtz's views on depth and space perception, and his empirical theory of knowledge, which are also compared to Müller's views. It will be shown that Helmholtz remained stimulated by the thoughts and doctrines of Johannes Müller in the sensory-perceptual part of his career, which began early in the 1850s and ended with his death. Nevertheless, Helmholtz's own experiments and new discoveries by others sometimes led him to quite different conclusions.

  11. Facts and philosophy in neurophysiology. The 200th anniversary of Johannes Müller (1801-1858).

    PubMed

    Lohff, B

    2001-12-01

    Johannes Müller was the founder of the first school of physiology in Germany. His anatomical, morphological and physiological research as well as his epistemological view of scientific medicine opened the way to a deeper understanding of the structure and the function of the organism. With important discoveries like the law of sense energy, the reflex movement and the definition of different organic stimuli, he enriched the knowledge of neuroanatomy, neurophysiology and sensory physiology and smoothed the way to an experimental physiology. All his famous students like Hermann von Helmholtz, Emil Du Bois-Reymond, Ernst Brücke, Jakob Henle, Robert Remak, Rudolf Virchow and Ernst Haeckel solved many crucial research problems, which Müller identified and pointed out to them as open questions, due to the insufficient methods of investigation. Müller's research method, epistemological view of biological sciences, and his open-minded personal style encouraged the development of new methods adapted to particular problems.

  12. Arzt und Hobby-Astronom in stürmischen Zeiten Der Büchernachlass des Doktor Johannes Häringshauser, Viertelsmedicus in Mistelbach (1630-1641) in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, Giles; Glaßner, Gottfried

    2009-06-01

    Auf der Suche nach astronomischer Literatur stieß Giles Davison in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek auf den Namen "Doctor Johannes Häringshauser“ als Besitzer seltener und interessanter astronomischer Werke u.a. von Johannes Regiomontan, Georg von Peuerbach, Michael Mästlin, Johannes Kepler und Daniel Sennert. Weitere in den Jahren 2007-2009 durchgeführte Nachforschungen ergaben, dass es sich um den von 1630-1641 in Mistelbach, Niederösterreich, als Landschaftsarzt tätigen Vater des Melker Konventualen und Bibliothekars Sigismund Häringshauser (1631-1698) handelt. Er wurde 1603 als Sohn des aus Magdeburg stammenden Apothekers Johannes Häringshauser geboren und starb 1642 in Mistelbach. Johannes Häringshauser Sen. bekleidete von 1613-1640 eine Reihe wichtiger Ämter in der Wiener Stadtregierung und starb 1647. Der Studienaufenthalt von Dr. Johannes Häringshauser Jun. in Padua (1624-1626) dürfte das Interesse für Astronomie geweckt haben, das sich in seiner in die Bestände der Melker Stiftsbibliothek eingegangenen Privatbibliothek widerspiegelt. Der Großteil der 10 dem Fachbereich der Astronomie und Astrologie zuzuweisenden Titel wurde von ihm in den Jahren 1636 und 1637 erworben.

  13. [Fatal diseases and "imaginary" suffering. "Hypochondria" and "consumption" in the correspondence between Jean Paul and Johann Bernhard Hermann, with a perspective on Jean Paul's literature and aesthetics].

    PubMed

    Meier, Monika

    2007-01-01

    The German writerJean Paul (Johann Paul Friedrich Richter, 1763-1825) and his friendJohann Bernhard Hermann (1761-1790) became acquainted with the thoughts of late Enlightenment at the University of Leipzig. They particularly appreciated the anthropology of Ernst Platner, who taught philosophy and aesthetics as well as medicine. Their confidential correspondence contains reflections on their respective situation and well being. Both write about feeling ill and label their illness "hypochondria". In the course of the correspondence Jean Paul's understanding of hypochondria evolves from an illness of the entrails as he follows Hermann, who supports the modern concept of hypochondria as an illness of the nerves. Two important themes from this correspondence recur in Jean Paul's novels and tales: firstly, his way of expressing comfort is related to his aesthetics, and secondly, the satirical way of portraying at least certain aspects of illness as imaginary reappears in his first successful novel "The Invisible Lodge" (1793).

  14. The history of Vienna University Observatory - illustrated by its historical instruments and by a typoscript by Johann Steinmayr. (Original Title: Die Geschichte der Universitätssternwarte Wien - Dargestellt anhand ihrer historischen Instrumente und eines Typoskripts von Johann Steinmayr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen; Müller, Isolde; Posch, Thomas

    The present Institute for Astronomy of Vienna University comprises an important collection of historical instruments. They originate, among others, from the holdings of historical observatories, starting from the Jesuit observatory of the first half of the 18th century. The present volume offers a presentation of all instruments in photos and descriptions. Among those are telescopes from two centuries, angle measuring devices, clocks, globes, as well as various auxiliary instruments for positional astronomy and for astrophysical researches. Also instruments from Vienniese workshops, which document the high level of local instrument construction, are included in the collection. The second part of the book contains the first publication of the history of the Viennese observatories by Johann Steinmayr, written in 1932-1935, and preceded by a biographical essay by Nora Pärr. His text is based on an extensive study of sources and is until now the most complete of its kind, Steinmayr, who was a member of the Society of Jesus, was sentenced to death in 1944 by the national socialist People's Court because of his involvement in the Austrian resistance movement.

  15. A seven-crystal Johann-type hard x-ray spectrometer at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokaras, D.; Weng, T.-C.; Nordlund, D.; Alonso-Mori, R.; Velikov, P.; Wenger, D.; Garachtchenko, A.; George, M.; Borzenets, V.; Johnson, B.; Rabedeau, T.; Bergmann, U.

    2013-05-01

    We present a multicrystal Johann-type hard x-ray spectrometer (˜5-18 keV) recently developed, installed, and operated at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. The instrument is set at the wiggler beamline 6-2 equipped with two liquid nitrogen cooled monochromators - Si(111) and Si(311) - as well as collimating and focusing optics. The spectrometer consists of seven spherically bent crystal analyzers placed on intersecting vertical Rowland circles of 1 m of diameter. The spectrometer is scanned vertically capturing an extended backscattering Bragg angular range (88°-74°) while maintaining all crystals on the Rowland circle trace. The instrument operates in atmospheric pressure by means of a helium bag and when all the seven crystals are used (100 mm of projected diameter each), has a solid angle of about 0.45% of 4π sr. The typical resolving power is in the order of E/Δ E ˜ 10 000. The spectrometer's high detection efficiency combined with the beamline 6-2 characteristics permits routine studies of x-ray emission, high energy resolution fluorescence detected x-ray absorption and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering of very diluted samples as well as implementation of demanding in situ environments.

  16. [The anatomy of Johann Samuel Eduard d'Alton (1803-1854)--his life and work in Halle (Saale)].

    PubMed

    Zwiener, Sabine; Göbbel, Luminita; Schultka, Rüdiger

    2002-11-01

    After the death of Johann Friedrich Meckel (1781-1833), Eduard d'Alton was appointed to be his successor. From 1834 to 1854, he was Professor of Anatomy and head of the "Anatomisches Theater" at the University of Halle. In the literature we can only find little details about him. The aim is to investigate his life and work. Before he came to Halle, he was first professor at the Academy of Arts in Berlin. Then few years later he received the professorship of anatomy and physiology at the Friedrich-Wilhelm-University in Berlin. During his work as anatomist and physiologist in Halle he was rector twice, in 1845 and 1846. d'Alton worked very accurately and highly engaged. He supported the students' education very conscientiously but, since he was strict and exacting at the same time, he was not very popular. His extraordinary drawings of human and comparative anatomy earned him great recognition. In 1850, he published the "Handbuch der menschlichen Anatomie". d'Alton was mainly engaged in comparative anatomy, embryology and teratology and performed experimental embryological tests. In 1853, he published a catalogue of teratological preparations many of which can still be found in the Anatomical Collections in Halle.

  17. Celebrating 400 Years of Astronomia Nova: Johannes Kepler, the Kepler Mission, and the International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, Edna; Koch, D.; Gould, A.; Harman, P.

    2009-01-01

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 is an occasion to celebrate astronomy around the world. In addition to honoring Galileo and the invention of the astronomical telescope, 2009 is the 400th anniversary year of Kepler's publication of the Astronomia Nova containing his first two laws of planetary motion. In recognition of Kepler's accomplishment, the first NASA mission capable of detecting Earth-size and smaller planets in the habitable zone of stars has been named after Johannes Kepler. The Kepler Mission launches in the spring of 2009 and will search for evidence of extrasolar planets as they transit--pass in front of--their parent stars. Using Kepler's Laws, scientists will interpret the Mission data to characterize the planets that are discovered. The Kepler Mission is conducting several Educational and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities leading up to and during IYA. Among these are the "Name In Space” project which offers participants the opportunity to send their name into space along with a statement about the importance of searching for extrasolar Earths. The "Kepler Star Wheel” (planisphere) shows both the Kepler field of view and naked eye stars with known planetary systems. A series of StarDate programs will be broadcast in English and Spanish. Inquiry-based classroom lessons suitable for middle and high school science classes are available for download at the website, and on the Kepler Mission poster. The Kepler Mission poster will be distributed to middle and high school science teachers through the National Science Teacher's Association and other science teacher organizations. Copies will be available at AAS. The Kepler EPO team is presenting pre-launch teacher workshops at several locations around the US. Details about the workshop, and event timeline will be presented. For further information on the Kepler Mission, its E/PO program, and online resources, please visit: http://kepler.nasa.gov. Funded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  18. Celebrating 400 Years of Astronomia Nova: Johannes Kepler, the Kepler Mission, and the International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devore, E. K.; Koch, D.; Gould, A.; Harman, P. K.

    2008-12-01

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 is an occasion to celebrate astronomy around the world. In addition to honoring Galileo and the invention of the astronomical telescope, 2009 is the 400th anniversary year of Kepler's publication of the Astronomia Nova containing his first two laws of planetary motion. In recognition of Kepler's accomplishment, the first NASA mission capable of detecting Earth-size and smaller planets in the habitable zone of stars has been named after Johannes Kepler. The Kepler Mission launches in the spring of 2009 and will search for evidence of extrasolar planets as they transit--pass in front of--their parent stars. Using Kepler's Laws, scientists will interpret the Mission data to characterize the planets that are discovered. The Kepler Mission is conducting several Educational and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities leading up to and during IYA. Among these are the Name In Space project which offers participants the opportunity to send their name into space along with a statement about the importance of searching for extrasolar Earths. The Kepler Star Wheel (planisphere) shows both the Kepler field of view and naked eye stars with known planetary systems. A series of StarDate programs will be broadcast in English and Spanish. Inquiry-based classroom lessons suitable for middle and high school science classes are available for download at the website, and on the Kepler Mission poster. The Kepler Mission poster will be distributed to middle and high school science teachers through the National Science Teacher's Association and other science teacher organizations. Copies will be available at AGU. The Kepler EPO team is presenting pre-launch teacher workshops at several locations around the US. Details about the workshop, and event timeline will be presented. For further information on the Kepler Mission, its E/PO program, and online resources, please visit: http://Kepler.NASA.gov.

  19. [Johann Misch Astrophilus' book "Medicina Pauperum" in Hungarian. Copy of a lost or hidden book from 1660].

    PubMed

    Kiss, István; Tavaszy, Mariann; Kiss, Gergely

    2011-07-03

    Doctors and pharmacies in the 15th Century only used handwritten copies of the prescription collections available in their time. At the beginning of book printing the publishing of prescription collections immediately became popular. They could be found on the pages of medical and pharmaceutical books of many various editions with different structure and origin, as the forerunner of the official pharmacopoeias. From the 16th Century onwards books with the title "Medicina Pauperum" were published which helped the educated people to tend to themselves, the household, the servants and their immediate surroundings case of an illness. The first work specifically on the topic or of genre of the "Medicina Pauperum" according to our knowledge appeared in Hungarian in the year 1660 and currently seems to survived only in fragments under the title of "Medicina Pauperum", from an unknown author. A rare incident occurred in the present days as a "book" believed to be lost for us turned up from thin air. It is a "copied" manuscript in the size of 97×139 mm attached to the ribs with hemp cord, cropped around and in an unbound state. The book known before only in fractions is now available entirety handwritten on 318 pages, distributed to seven distinct parts. The research of its origin suggests that the author lived and worked in Nagyszombat and was called Johann Misch Astrophilus. The identification of the printing office was possible thanks to the examination of the initials and the gaudily, as well as the fonts and the watermark. By these results the printing very likely occurred in the Brewer Printing Press in Lőcse. For the possibility of more extensive research and value preservation the manuscript was bounded. The facsimile edition contains the magnified and digitalized pages of the original one and is published in numbered issues.

  20. Melting experiments and field work on Komornı´ Hùrka volcano, Bohemia, by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Susanne; Kreher-Hartmann, Birgit; Heide, K.

    2001-09-01

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), eminent author, was also state minister and scientist as well as experimentalist in geology. Together with Döbereiner, a chemist in Jena during that time, he carried out melting experiments in porcelain and pottery kilns with rocks and minerals from the volcanic and pseudo-volcanic edifices in NW Bohemia. These experiments were to prove Goethe's theory, that remelting of an archetype rock would result in volcanic and pseudo-volcanic rocks. Especially the formation of the Komornı´ Hùrka (Kammerberg) volcano in NW Bohemia attracted Goethe during all his life. He visited this location 19 times in 1808, 1820 and 1822 and made very exact field observations. But the interpretation of these observations varied between volcanistic and neptunistic. In order to find arguments, he examined the effect of fire on rocks and minerals using porcelain and pottery kilns. The experiments did not provide the expected results and thus failed to explain the formation of Komornı´ Hùrka. During Goethe's geognostic work, including the "pyro-technical" experiments, the neptunism-volcanism-controversy about the formation of basalt raged in Europe, and, more general, about rock formation: neptunism-plutonism. Especially the effect of heat on rocks and minerals, i.e. the phenomenology of fire, played an important role in that discussion. Goethe swayed during his lifetime between neptunism and volcanism. He did not fully accept plutonism because he believed, that processes of nature are generally non-violent and that volcanic eruptions and other catastrophic phenomena are the exception rather than the rule. Therefore he tended to neptunistic ideas. In Goethe's notes there are many indications of this conflict. In contrast, the melting experiments are mentioned only few times. It was, however, possible to establish a picture of his experimental work and his fundamental concepts and ideas.

  1. [General practice-oriented forms of education of the 18th century. On the 250th anniversary of the birth of Johann Friedrich Gottlieb Goldhagen (1742-1788)].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W

    1993-02-01

    Widely differing conditions applied to practice-oriented medical teaching at universities in the various German principalities or territorial states in the 18th century. Initially, the institutions used by professors as "collegium clinicum" belonged either to foundations or were being run on a private basis. It was only in the second half of the 18th century that these institutions became state-supervised, with the inclusion of the discipline of surgery. The results of such reorganization are demonstrated, taking Halle and the work done by Johann Friedrich Gottlieb Goldhagen as examples.

  2. Auβ Quecksilber und Schwefel Rein: Johann Mathesius (1504-65) and Sulfur-Mercurius in the Silver Mines of Joachimstal.

    PubMed

    Norris, John A

    2014-01-01

    The Sarepta, oder Bergpostill (1562) by Johann Mathesius is a book of sermons on mining and mineral subjects in which the composition and generation of metals in ore veins are discussed in terms of the sulfur-mercurius theory. Gur was an embodiment of mercurius or of sulfur and mercurius. Sulfur was evident in the sulfurous odor of the mines, in the supposed effects of subterranean heat, and in the deposition of mineral sulfur during the roasting of the ores. The toxic smoke given off during smelting was considered to be an additional manifestation of mercurius. Mathesius's sermons offer a glimpse of the ways miners' understanding of ores overlapped with alchemists' theories.

  3. The neuroscience of Helmholtz and the theories of Johannes Müller. Part 1: Nerve cell structure, vitalism, and the nerve impulse.

    PubMed

    Finger, Stanley; Wade, Nicholas J

    2002-06-01

    Hermann Helmholtz made monumental contributions to the neural sciences in the second half of the nineteenth century. Among his earliest achievements were experiments that challenged vitalism, microscopic studies on the structure of the nerve cell and its processes, and the first reasonable estimates of the speed of nerve transmission based on physiological experiments. In this, the first of a two-part article, we review Helmholtz's early contributions in biographical context and with reference to Johannes Müller's own thoughts. We reveal how Johannes Müller, considered by many to be the greatest physiologist of the first half of the nineteenth century, helped to launch and shape Helmholtz's career. We also show that Helmholtz was only willing to accept some of his mentor's theories, even though he had great admiration for Müller. The point will be made that Helmholtz owed a great debt to Müller, but even from his student days in Berlin he was an independent thinker with his own agenda, and never his strict disciple.

  4. ["Dieu et cerveau, rien que Dieu et cerveau!" Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744-1803) and the neurosciences of this time].

    PubMed

    Stahnisch, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The impact of Johann Gottfried von Herder on the broad spectrum of the history of ideas can hardly be estimated by separate categories derived from individual disciplines. It transcends the spheres of philosophy, theology, historiography and even medical anthropology--also because Herder, unlike many of his contemporary philosophers and hommes de lettres, was particularly interested in the neurophysiological and -anatomical investigations of his time. Herder's universal interest in human learning is reflected in numerous personal contacts to contemporary academic scholars and natural scientists, such as the Swiss theologian Johann Caspar Lavater, whose physiognomic doctrine mapped out a comprehensive research programme on character analysis, or the Mainz anatomist Samuel Thomas von Soemmering. Herder tightly received the latter's assumption about the interplay between the human soul and the anatomy of the brain. In this article, it shall be demonstrated that Herder's neurophilosophy was primarily influenced by a "pandynamic assumption of nature" and that it designated the brain centrally as a "working tool of God"--right between the human faculties of rationality, feeling and bodily development. The attractiveness of this concept to both basic brain research and clinical neurology was a result of his anthropological approach which combined latest developments in the natural sciences with a central perspective on the human sciences.

  5. Johannes Kepler on Christmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Martin

    2009-12-01

    Kepler's interpretation of the supernova of 1604, De Stella Nova, interwove the science of astronomy with astrology and theology in an attempt to determine the correct birthdate of Jesus, explains Martin Kemp.

  6. Johannes Ludwig Janson, professor of veterinary medicine in Tokyo in 1880-1902 - contribution to German-Japanese medical relations, part IV.

    PubMed

    Kast, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Among the German pioneers of Western medicine in Japan (8, 12) during the Meiji period (1868-1912), veterinary officer Johannes Ludwig Janson (1849-1914) was one of the most important figures. He arrived in Tokyo in October 1880 and taught at the Veterinary School in Komaba. During his tenure, the school in Komaba was integrated into the School of Agriculture of the Imperial University of Tokyo. Numerous of his graduates occupied high public offices. Among his publications, those about domestic animals and veterinary medicine in Japan deserve special attention. He married a Japanese girl and continued teaching in Komaba until 1902. He found his last resting place in Kagoshima, the native place of his wife. To this day, the Japanese consider Janson the founder of modern veterinary medicine in their country.

  7. The first demonstration of lactic acid in human blood in shock by Johann Joseph Scherer (1814–1869) in January 1843

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, T. C.; van der Hoven, B.; Bakker, J.

    2007-01-01

    Lactic acid was first found and described in sour milk by Karl Wilhelm Scheele (1742–1786) in 1780. The German physician–chemist Johann Joseph Scherer (1841–1869) demonstrated the occurrence of lactic acid in human blood under pathological conditions in 1843 and 1851. In this article we honour the forgotten observations by Scherer and describe the influence of Scherer's finding on further research on lactic acid at the end of the 19th century. We conclude that Scherer's 1843 case reports should be cited as the first description of lactic acid in human blood after death and also as the first demonstration of lactic acid as a pathological finding in septic and haemorrhagic shock. Carl Folwarczny was, in 1858, the first to demonstrate lactic acid in blood in a living patient. PMID:17661014

  8. [Proposal for a Nationwide Johann-Peter Frank Cooperation Model under the National Leopoldina Initiative for Public Health and Global Health].

    PubMed

    Teichert, U; Kaufhold, C; Rissland, J; Tinnemann, P; Wildner, M

    2016-07-01

    The discussion on the development of public health affairs was invigorated anew by the report on public health in Germany of Leopoldina/Acatech/Union of the German Academies of Sciences and Humanities of the year 2015. The report urges strengthening of public health and global health in Germany and addresses explicitly the Public Health Service (PHS). This indispensable inclusion of the PHS in further strategic planning offers for the first time an opportunity for a comprehensive and sustainable practice/policy transfer on the federal, state and community level, and also a chance for a sustainable network with modern academic public health institutions together with representation of medical specialization in public health at universities, that has been absent so far. A Johann-Peter Frank model for cooperation and stepwise modelling of this transition with the inclusion of the Academies for Public Health Service is presented. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. ["Purified empiricism": Johann Christian Reil's (1759-1813) attempts at a foundation of medicine in relation to its tradition, kantianism, and speculative philosophy].

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Johann Christian Reil's (1759-1813) importance lies in his theoretical approach to medicine. Following Kant in his early work, he attempts to combine medical experience with an underlying conceptual structure. This attempt is directed against both the chaotic empiricism of traditional medicine and speculative theories such as vitalism. The paper starts from his early reflections on the concept of a life force, which he interprets in the way of a non-reductive materialism. In the following, the basic outlines of his Theory of Fever will be shown. The Theory is a systematic attempt at finding a new foundation for diagnosis and therapy on the basis of the concept of fever, which is understood as modification of vital processes. The paper ends with a discussion of his later work, which has remained controversial so far. It shows that the combination of practical empiricism and scientific theory remained rather unstable in this early phase of the development of modern medicine.

  10. [Criminal process record Winckelmann (Triest, 1768). Comments on the criminal process dealing with the murder of Johann Joachim Winckelmann from the forensic historical and legal medicine viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Risse, M; Weiler, G

    2001-01-01

    Johann Joachim Winckelmann, German historian of ancient art and archaeologist, was born on 9 December 1717 in Stendal, a town in Saxony-Anhalt. At the age of 50 he was murdered on 8 June 1768 in a Trieste hotel. The voluminous original record of the criminal proceedings against his murderer, Francesco Arcangeli, was presumed lost for about 150 years. A new edition in the wording of the original text appeared in 1964. This long sought historical document gives cause for forensic-historical reflections under consideration of the autopsy protocol about Winckelmann, which is likewise a historical document. A considerable change of paradigm in comparison to current autopsy protocols is observed with regard to the evaluation of injuries and the circumstances of death.

  11. [The scholarly program of Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833) and it importance for the development of life sciences].

    PubMed

    Göbbel, Luminita; Schultka, Rüdiger

    2002-11-01

    Although Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger was one of the most famous anatomists, his research work has been severely neglected in the recent historiographical literature on the German morphology. The goal of our study is to approach a general characterization of his research program. Our analysis reveals that Meckel introduced the Cuvierian empiricism in Germany, but he also considered the "Abstraktion" as a main component of the scientific knowledge. According to his epistemology on nascent organisms and transmutable species, both, variability and relatedness of the organic forms are important to the same degree. Meckel explicitly adopted the Jean-Baptiste de Lamarcks (1744-1829) evolutionary theories. Even though in Meckel's discourse about diversity the Cuvierian notion of "functional adaptation" was preserved, the main goal of his research program was to demonstrate empirically the "Allgemeinheit des Bildungstypus". For this purpose, he considered the entire variety of the animal kingdom: normal as well as abnormal organisms, adult specimens and above all embryos. Moreover, he believed that the abnormal development is due to the same laws as the normal development. He applied parallelisms to a new domain, the study of malformation. With Meckel's researches on teratology, a new era in the analyses of the anomalies was opened. They became an integral part of the natural diversity and thus a highly exploited subject of biomedical researches. Meckel's empirical and epistemological writings on the embryology, comparative embryology, teratology, pathology, systematics and comparative anatomy have largely contributed to the foundation of the biological research.

  12. ["adeste omnes Logicae et Mathematicae Musae". Johannes Broscius's Apology of Aristotle and Euclid (1652) and the issue of anti-Ramism at the Academy of Cracow].

    PubMed

    Choptiany, Michał

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a largely overlooked aspect of the last work by Johannes Broscius (1585 - 1652), his Apologia pro Aristotele et Euclide contra Petrum Ramum et alios of 1652. While the past researchers focused their attention on the evaluation of Broscius's contribution to mathematics, geometry in particular, they ignored the socio-scientific aspect of his work, that is the way Peter Ramus and his followers have been presented and how did the dark legend of Ramus have been thus revived at the Central-European university in the middle of 17th century. I am showing types of rhetorical arguments employed by Broscius and analyse the way he portrayed Ramus and depicted events related to the reception of Ramism at the Academy of Cracow. The article is followed by an appendix which contains a critical edition of excerpts from the manuscript rough draft of Apologia which has been preserved until nowadays (Jagiellonian Library MS. 3205 I). In the apparatus I identify the references and show how Broscius rewrote and rearranged the original paragraphs of his anti-Ramist work.

  13. ["Haemorrhoidal colic", "strong pills of stahl", and "quacks". Johann Gottwerth Müller, writer of the enlightenment, critic of medicine and his evils in letters and books].

    PubMed

    Ritter, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Johann Gottwerth Müller, a so called "independent author", was one of the most successful novelists in the German Enlightenment around 1800. Educated as a scholar and trained as a physician, although not a practicing physician, Müller was sick throughout his life and constantly reflects on his diseases, and on what he considered to be an insufficient "medical system" and a socially "sick" society. This outlook is revealed by his library (in 1828: about 13300 volumes, of which 254 volumes of medical publications), his correspondence and his novels. Letters he exchanged with the publisher Friedrich Nicolai (74 letters between 1777 and 1796) about private and business affairs show that Miller uses statements about his sickness in order to win sympathy, to document his sufferings as part of an "independent" writer's identity, as a metaphor for social health, and as a means for excuses and compulsions in business connections. The didactic novels serve the author's transformation of individual suffering into the perspective of an enlightened humanitarian development of the government, the society, and the medical system within the structured society of his day.

  14. [Medicine, music, friendship and prejudices: Billroth I and Billroth II, the string quartets Opus 51, N° 1 and N° 2 by Johannes Brahms].

    PubMed

    Cabello, Felipe C

    2012-06-01

    The great German surgeon Theodor Billroth and the imaginative and creative composer Johannes Brahms had a very close friendship centered on musical activities, that lasted for more than thirty years while they lived and worked in Zurich and Vienna, during the second half of the Nineteenth Century. Billroth, besides his all-consuming medical activities, had time to be a musical enthusiast who directed orchestras, played the violin in chamber music groups, and wrote musical criticism for newspapers. The common affection between these two creative giants is documented by their abundant and effusive correspondence, by the constant requests by Brahms of Billroth's opinions regarding his compositions, and by the positive and stimulating answers that Billroth gave to these requests. Billroth opened his house for musical evenings to play Brahms chamber compositions for the first time, and Brahms dedicated his two Opus 51 string quartets Nos. 1 and 2, known in the musical milieu as Billroth I and II, to his physician friend. Unfortunately, the close bonds between these two geniuses weakened towards the end of their lives as a result of Billroth's becoming intolerant to the lack of social refinements and gruff behavior of the composer. This baffling intolerance of Billroth to his friend Brahms can be better understood after reading Billroth's writings in his book The Medical Sciences in the German Universities. A Study in the History of Civilization. There Billroth expresses strong prejudices against potential medical students of humble social origins, such as those of Brahms, coupled to a primitive anti-Semitism.

  15. ["Each medical practitioner and ordained physician commissioned by the city of Nuremberg shal vow ..." the structures of the public health system in Nuremberg at the beginning of the 18th century of Johann Christoph Götz].

    PubMed

    Splinter, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The medical institutions of Nuremberg were established quite early. The Collegium medicum were already founded in 1592. Though this board held responsibility for the supervision of pharmacies, the creation of Medizinalordnungen (medical legislations) and also had advisory functions, the physicians did not succeed in winning a prominent position. The spheres of competence between the different groups of medical practitioners were not yet clearly defined. Nevertheless the daily work of the practitioner Johann Christoph Götz (1688-1733) was going smoothly due to his cooperation with other doctors, surgeons, midwives and pharmacists.

  16. The sin in the aetiological concept of Johann Christian August Heinroth (1773-1843). Part 1: Between theology and psychiatry. Heinroth's concepts of 'whose being', 'freedom', 'reason' and 'disturbance of the soul'.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Holger

    2004-09-01

    Throughout his work Johann Christian August Heinroth regarded sin to be the cause of mental illness. The present two-part paper investigates what exactly Heinroth understood by sin. Based on a thorough analysis of his own texts, this study shows that on the one hand Heinroth referred to sin in a Christian-Protestant sense. On the other, however, a moral-ethical code of conduct was also involved. Thus, Heinroth did not regard sin as a singular event, but rather as a life conducted in a wrong way for years or even decades, by which he meant a steady striving towards earthly, bodily satisfaction.

  17. Supplement to Johann Elert Bode's history of the Berlin Observatory until the year 1811. Scans of the manuscript and of related documents. (German Title: Supplement zu Johann Elert Bodes Geschichte der Berliner Sternwarte bis zum Jahr 1811. Scans der Handschrift und zugehöriger Dokumente.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielen, Roland; Wielen, Ute

    As a supplement to our edition (Wielen R. and Wielen U. 2010a) of the hand-written manuscript entitled 'Entwurf einer litterarischen Geschichte der hiesigen Königl. Sternwarte bis zum Jahr 1811', authored by Johann Elert Bode, we give in this paper colour scans of the manuscript. The manuscript describes the history of the Berlin Observatory from its foundation in 1700 until 1811. This manuscript of 14 pages in folio format is held for more than a century in the archives of the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, which was founded in Berlin and has been moved to Heidelberg in 1945. In addition we give the scan of a copy of the hand-written cabinet order of the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm III., dated 6 November 1798, concerning the modification of the observatory. Both manuscripts have been transliterated and commentated by us in the publication cited above (Wielen R. and Wielen U. 2010a). For an easy comparison with Bode's manuscript, we give here also scans of the three printed versions of a shorter history of the Berlin Observatory published by him earlier.

  18. [The alphabet of nature and the alphabet of culture in the eighteenth century. botany, diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner : Botany, Diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner].

    PubMed

    Gierl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture.

  19. On the identity of some weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius (1745-1808) in the Museum of Zoology of Copenhagen (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea, Curculionoidea, Tenebrionoidea).

    PubMed

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    The types of thirty-two nominal weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for twenty-two of them. A neotype is designated for Curculiosticticus Fabricius, 1777. Protapionvaripes (Germar, 1817) is declared a nomen protectum over Curculioflavipes Fabricius, 1775. Based on a study of syntypes, Rhinomacercurculioides Fabricius, 1781 is confirmed as a member of Mycterus (Mycteridae), Bruchusundatus Fabricius, 1787 is tentatively transferred to Erotylidae, Curculiofulvirostris Fabricius, 1787 and Anthribusroboris Fabricius, 1798 are confirmed as members of Salpingus (Salpingidae), and Brachyceruscristatus Fabricius, 1798 is transferred to Tenebrionidae. Based on lectotype designation, Curculiocaninus Fabricius, 1792 is confirmed as a synonym of Sitonalineatus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Curculioinnocuus Fabricius, 1802 as a synonym of Cneorhinusbarcelonicus (Herbst, 1797). Bruchusrufipes Fabricius, 1792 is not considered an available species name, but a later use of Bruchusrufipes Olivier, 1790. Cossonusincisus Pascoe, 1885 is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Cossonusilligeri Champion, 1909 and Cossonusvulneratus Illiger, 1805 from synonymy under Cossonuscanaliculatus (Fabricius, 1792) (a primary homonym of Curculiocanaliculatus Olivier, 1791). Cossonuscanaliculatus Fabricius, 1802 is a secondary homonym of the former and is replaced with Cossonusincisus. Salpingusfulvirostris (Fabricius, 1787) is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Salpingusplanirostris (Fabricius, 1787), a primary homonym of Curculioplanirostris Piller & Mitterpacher, 1783. The following new combinations are proposed: Brachysomuserinaceus (Fabricius, 1802) (from Curculio), Bronchusferus (Gyllenhal, 1840) (from Hipporhinus), Bronchusglandifer (Fabricius, 1792) (from Curculio), Bronchusnivosus (Sparrman, 1785) (from Curculio), Bronchussparrmani (Gyllenhal, 1833) (from Hipporhinus), Coelocephalapionatrirostre (Fabricius, 1802

  20. Regiomontanus [Müller, Johann or Johannes] (1436-76)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in Königsberg (latinized in his trade name), Mainz (now Germany), a pupil of PEURBACH. Succeeded him as professor of astronomy at the University of Vienna, and became astronomer to King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary. He built an observatory and instrument workshop in Nuremberg. Observed Halley's Comet in 1472 and eclipses of the Moon. This led him to suggest that eclipse timing and techniques...

  1. Johannes Kepler and Extra Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2004-02-01

    How many dimensions are there? The answer used to be four — three spatial and one time dimension. Maybe it still is, though nowadays we hear that the answer may be more, perhaps many more. Many of our students have heard about this on television or read about it. They want to know more. Why do physicists think we need more than three spatial dimensions? What's the point of it all?

  2. Werner, Johann (1468-1522)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronomer, mathematician, instrument-maker and geographer, born in Nuremberg, Germany, follower of Regiomontanus. Regiomontanus had suggested that the timing of eclipses and the orbits of comets could be used as clocks to determine longitude. Werner developed a practical version of this idea with the method of lunar distances (i.e. measuring the angle of the Moon from the Sun). He published this...

  3. On the identity of some weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius (1745–1808) in the Museum of Zoology of Copenhagen (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea, Curculionoidea, Tenebrionoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The types of thirty-two nominal weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for twenty-two of them. A neotype is designated for Curculio sticticus Fabricius, 1777. Protapion varipes (Germar, 1817) is declared a nomen protectum over Curculio flavipes Fabricius, 1775. Based on a study of syntypes, Rhinomacer curculioides Fabricius, 1781 is confirmed as a member of Mycterus (Mycteridae), Bruchus undatus Fabricius, 1787 is tentatively transferred to Erotylidae, Curculio fulvirostris Fabricius, 1787 and Anthribus roboris Fabricius, 1798 are confirmed as members of Salpingus (Salpingidae), and Brachycerus cristatus Fabricius, 1798 is transferred to Tenebrionidae. Based on lectotype designation, Curculio caninus Fabricius, 1792 is confirmed as a synonym of Sitona lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Curculio innocuus Fabricius, 1802 as a synonym of Cneorhinus barcelonicus (Herbst, 1797). Bruchus rufipes Fabricius, 1792 is not considered an available species name, but a later use of Bruchus rufipes Olivier, 1790. Cossonus incisus Pascoe, 1885 is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Cossonus illigeri Champion, 1909 and Cossonus vulneratus Illiger, 1805 from synonymy under Cossonus canaliculatus (Fabricius, 1792) (a primary homonym of Curculio canaliculatus Olivier, 1791). Cossonus canaliculatus Fabricius, 1802 is a secondary homonym of the former and is replaced with Cossonus incisus. Salpingus fulvirostris (Fabricius, 1787) is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Salpingus planirostris (Fabricius, 1787), a primary homonym of Curculio planirostris Piller & Mitterpacher, 1783. The following new combinations are proposed: Brachysomus erinaceus (Fabricius, 1802) (from Curculio), Bronchus ferus (Gyllenhal, 1840) (from Hipporhinus), Bronchus glandifer (Fabricius, 1792) (from Curculio), Bronchus nivosus (Sparrman, 1785) (from Curculio), Bronchus sparrmani (Gyllenhal, 1833) (from Hipporhinus

  4. The Alphabet of Nature and the Alphabet of Culture in the Eighteenth Century. Botany, Diplomatics, and Ethno-Linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture. PMID:20665241

  5. Doppler, Johann Christian Andreas (1803-53)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in Salzburg, Austria, Doppler studied and taught mathematics in Vienna. On the verge, because of economic hardship, of emigrating to America, he was offered posts in Prague. Despite huge teaching loads, he was able to carry out some research of his own (in the face of complaints of neglect by his students). In 1842 read a paper to the Royal Bohemian Society `On the colored light of the doubl...

  6. Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr (1677-1750)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaab, Hans

    J. G. Doppelmayr, who did scientific work in different fields, was one of the most influential scholars in the Germany of his time. His atlases and descriptions of instruments, his various translations of scientific works from English and French, his biographical studies of Nuremberg scholars, as well as his studies on electricity prove to be of special importance.

  7. Doppelmayr, Johann Gabriel (1671-1750)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in Nuremberg, Germany. Widely traveled, he wrote on astronomy, spherical trigonometry, sundials and mathematical instruments, as well as biography and history. He made no discoveries himself, but successfully disseminated the work of others....

  8. Palitzsch, Johann Georg (1723-88)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    German farmer-astronomer in Dresden who recovered Halley's Comet at its predicted reappearance in 1758. During the 1761 transit of Venus across the Sun, he observed a black band linking Venus to the edge of the Sun at the beginning and end of the transit (the `tear-drop effect') and correctly interpreted this as an effect of Venus' atmosphere....

  9. Hevelius, Johannes [Jan Hewelcke] (1611-87)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    German astronomer and instrument-maker, born in Danzig, now Gdansk, Poland. Hevelius was an accomplished instrument-maker and engraver. Influenced by TYCHO BRAHE in subject and instrumentation, he erected in Danzig what must have been then the world's finest observatory Stellaburgum (cf Brahe's Uraniborg), destroyed by fire in 1679. He made several large telescopes and some of the last large, ...

  10. Johann von Lamont: A Pioneer in Geomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffel, Heinrich

    2006-06-01

    The 200th birthday of John Lamont (1805-1879, Figure 1), a pioneer in the study of geomagnetism, was marked on 13 December 2005. Lamont founded the Munich Geomagnetic Observatory in 1840 and was a member of the group of scientists including Carl Friedrich Gauss, Alexander von Humboldt, Eduard Sabine, Jonas Angstrøm, Humphret Lloyd, Adolf Kupffer, Karl Kreil, and Adolphe Quetelet who composed the Göttingen Magnetic Union. They organized an international network of geomagnetic observatories [Barraclough et al., 1992]. The present knowledge of the geomagnetic field and its secular variation is largely based on the data collected by the global network of geomagnetic observatories during the last 170 years. Lamont's talents and his dedication and enthusiasm for discovery are reflected in the depth and scope of his contributions to a broad variety of natural sciences such as astronomy, meteorology, geomagnetism, and geodesy. However, this article just touches on his merits in geomagnetism.

  11. Johann Christoph Sturm's universal mathematics and metaphysics (German Title: Universalmathematik und Metaphysik bei Johann Christoph Sturm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinsle, Ulrich G.

    In order to understand Sturm's concept of a universal mathematics as a replacement or complement of metaphysics, one first has to examine the evolution of the idea of a mathesis universalis up to Sturm, and his concept of metaphysics. According to the understanding of those times, natural theology belongs to metaphysics. The last section is concerned with Sturm's statements on the existence of God and his assessments for a physico-theology.

  12. Hilpoltstein at Johann Christoph Sturm's times (German Title: Hilpoltstein zu Zeiten Johann Christoph Sturms)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platz, Kai Thomas

    After an overview on the foundations of research, the conditions inside the town of Hilpoltstein in the first half of the 17th century are described. Since Hilpoltstein was situated at the road from Nuremberg to Munich, and thus at one of the most important north-south trading routes of medieval times, the town florished in economic terms at the beginning of the 17th century. Afterwards, however, the inhabitants had to suffer religious troubles, since the count palatine Wolfgang Wilhelm converted to catholicism. We collect the traces of the Sturm family in Hilpoltstein that still exist today, and complete the picture by giving an overview of the architectural, commercial and social conditions of those times.

  13. Johannes Kepler in Prague - and a new museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKim, R.

    2010-06-01

    Four centuries ago in 1610, the Kepler family were living in their last place of residence in Prague, in a house in a courtyard off Karlova Street (Karlova ulice), very close to the east end of Charles Bridge (Karluv most). The house is No.188, U Francouzske koruny (French Crown House), and has a passage through to Anenska Street. Kepler spent 12 years in the city, publishing his most important works including Astronomia Nova.

  14. Magnenus [Magnen, Magnien], Johann Chrysostom (c. 1590-c. 1679)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Physician, born in Luxeuil, Burgundy, became professor of medicine and philosophy at Pavia, Italy, an astrologer, who revived atomism, establishing a viable alternative to Aristotelian philosophy and paving the way for the modern scientific view as expressed by GALILEO....

  15. Zöllner, Johann Karl [Carl] Friedrich (1834-82)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    German astronomer, born in Leipzig, was a pioneer solar astronomer, classifying solar prominences. He first suggested that the spectral types of stars represent an evolutionary sequence, starting hot and cooling. This idea was taken up with variations by H C VOGEL and NORMAN LOCKYER....

  16. Johann Friedrich Meckel, the Younger (1781-1833).

    PubMed

    Gluecklich, B

    1976-09-01

    Meckel's name is well known in the medical world because of the intestinal abnormality that carries his eponym. We are less familiar with his personal life and his far-reaching achievement as a prominent anatomist. Also described is his complex personality as well as the indelible impression he made on his contemporaries.

  17. Schall von Bell, Johann Adam (1592-1666)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronomer, born in Cologne, Germany, became a Jesuit and studied astronomy in Rome. He was one of numerous Jesuit missionaries sent to China, and was the first European ever to be a member of the court bureaucracy in Peking, becoming head of the Imperial Board of Astronomy, and adviser to the young emperor Shun-chih (ruled 1644-61). He produced a large six-part cosmological map, accompanied by p...

  18. Annals of scientific publishing: Johannes Petreius's letter to Rheticus.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swerdlow, N. M.

    1992-06-01

    In the early 16th century Nuremberg had become the center of scholarly publishing in Germany, and Petreius was then its most distinguished printer. His letter has a naive humor and charm, particularly in its timeless commonplaces about riches and learning, its good humanist (and Lutheran) dismissal of scholasticism, and its pride in the culture and learning of Nuremberg. It is here translated in its entirety. While known slightly for its remarks on Copernicus, it is also of interest for its no doubt deliberate depiction of a discerning publisher, encouraging and rewarding learning, and always looking out to publish worthy books by learned men. Indeed, even today Petreius, in his own way a predecessor of Breitkopf, Teubner, and Springer, provides and admirable model of the scholarly and scientific publisher, promoting higher standards and willing to take more risks, not the least of them financial, than most modern publishers.

  19. The elusive Johann Joseph Oppel (1815-1894).

    PubMed

    Phillips, David; Wade, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Oppel is frequently cited for coining the term 'geometrical optical illusions' in 1855, but portrayals of him have rarely been sighted. We present a portrait of him and a brief description of his contributions to the study of illusions as well as other areas of sound and vision, particularly stereoscopy, colour, and motion. Despite the citations in the context of illusions, Oppel remains an elusive figure in the history of science.

  20. Johann Gaspar Spurzheim: A Life Dedicated to Phrenology

    PubMed Central

    Bilal, Mohammad; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R. Shane

    2017-01-01

    Loved for his empathetic nature but admired for his analytical mind, Gaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832) was a prominent contributor to phrenology, a field of neuroscience focused on studying the shapes of the skulls in relation to the activity levels of certain functional areas of the brain. This curiosity about the connection between physical characteristics and brain function was seeded in the young mind of Spurzheim when he observed that classmates with seemingly superb memories also appeared to have bright eyes. It launched Spurzheim on a journey to study the shape and function of the brain, which eventually led him to his mentor Franz Gall. Together, they classified many functional areas of the brain while touring Europe, describing their findings to audiences that filled lecture theaters to the brim. During their lectures, Gall focused on explaining findings while Spurzheim focused on dissections and demonstrations. After spending significant time with his mentor, captivating audiences and spreading the ideas of phrenology through several books and journal publications, Spurzheim left their fruitful partnership and started lecturing on his own. He toured the UK, giving lectures and dissections in London and Edinburgh, gaining universal respect for his dissection methods, writing several books and publishing articles in what were then major journals. With the aid of his wife’s artistic skills in painting and sketching many of dissections, Spurzheim’s popularity extended beyond the phrenological community. It eventually led him to Boston, where he opened this field of science in America before his death in 1832. Although phrenology has lost its popularity, Spurzheim’s contributions to our anatomical understanding of the brain survive. PMID:28680783

  1. Automated Assessment of Squadron Enlisted Manpower, Training and Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    designed hand- in-hand with the XML classes in the .NET Framework—both components of a single architecture. ( Holzner , p. 19) ADO.NET and the XML...DCOM) technology has been replaced by the .NET framework. ( Holzner , p. 19) The ADO.NET core components have been designed to factor data access...Cycle Processes – Implementation Considerations, Industry Implementation of International Industry Standard ISO/IEC 12207.2, 1997. 7. Holzner

  2. Elucidation of Chromatin Remodeling Machinery Involved in Regulation of Estrogen Receptor Alpha Expression in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine. Cancer Res. 62:6456-6461 35. Widschwendter M, Siegmund KD, Muller HM, Fiegl H, Marth C, Muller- Holzner E, Jones PA, and Laird...his- Marth C, Muller- Holzner E, Jones PA, Laird PW 2004 tone H3 methyltransferases. Nature 406:593-599 Association of breast cancer DNA methylation

  3. Dynamic Scalable Network Area of Interest Mangement for Virtual Worlds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    uses the instanceof operator ( Holzner 2000) to check if each entity supports dynamic data fidelity. If the entity supports it then the appropriate...Monterey CA., pp. 85-92. Holzner , S. (2000). Java Black Book. Scottsdale, AZ: Coriolis Group. Macedonia, M., et al. (1995). Exploiting

  4. Role of Mammary Adenocarcinoma Cell Transterrin Response In Breast Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-21

    for identifying dividing cells. Int. J. Cancer, 27::329-334. 13. Wrba, F., Ritzinger, E., Reiner, A., and Holzner , J.H. Transferrin receptor (TrfR...A., and Holzner , J.H. Transferrin receptor (TrfR) expression in breast carcinoma and its possible relationship to prognosis. An immunohistochemical

  5. Common Operational Picture (COP) and Common Tactical Picture (CTP) Management via a Consistent Networked Information Stream (CNIS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    technology • Control of information sources via flexible Java Based GUI • Common Protocols and representations using XML [ Holzner , 1998] The auxiliary...Protocol., MacMillan Technical Publishing. [ Holzner , 1998] XML Complete., McGraw Hill. [Uhlmann and Julier, 1998] Decentralized Data Fusion FY99 Test

  6. Umgang mit Gedichten: Bemerkungen zu funf Gedichten von Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (Dealing with Poetry: Observations on Five Poems by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nethersole, Reingard

    1972-01-01

    The lyric poem is the most concentrated form of literary communication. The formulation of an approach to interpretation can be a useful tool for the instructor. The poem to be interpreted should be examined in six aspects: (1) information provided in the title, (2) the sound of the poem as read aloud, (3) the clear understanding of the meaning of…

  7. Internationalizing the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBiaggio, John A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Articles include: "A Case for Internationalizing the Curriculum" (John A. DiBiaggio); "Internationalizing the Curriculum: Higher Education Institutions in the United States" (Ralph Smuckler and Lawrence Sommers); "Economic Competitiveness and International Education" (Burkart Holzner); and "Foreign Language and…

  8. Highlights from Fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oddone, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    DISCUSSION by CHAIRMAN: P.J. ODDONE, Scientific Secretaries: W. Fisher, A. Holzner Note from Publisher: The Slides of the Lecture: "Highlights from Fermilab" can be found at http://www.ccsem.infn.it/issp2007/

  9. [Criticism of physicians by Johannes Gregorius Macer Szepsius (1530-after 1579)].

    PubMed

    František, Šimon; Magyar, László András

    2016-02-07

    Humanist author J. G. Macer Szepsius (1530-after 1579) born in Szepsi, Upper Hungary (today Slovakia, Moldava and Bodvou) lived in Krakow and was a typical author of Latin occasional poetry. In a part of his work De vera gloria libellus (Booklet on the true glory) published in 1562 he deals with certain professions and criticizes them. Physicians are described as being garrulus (loquacious), mendicus (beggar), and having a big belly due to a luxury. The Physician doesn´t read books, is lazy and not characterized by his knowledge, but rather by ignorance, arrogance and pride. Physicians prescribe medications without knowing their effects. Such a criticism is surprising, because Macer Szepsius was probably closely related to medicine.

  10. Johannes Phocylides Holwarda and the Interpretation of New Stars in the Dutch Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermij, Rienk

    Seen from the perspective of Kepler or Galileo, the new star of 1604 was an important event. It helped them in formulating and defending new views of the cosmos. However, Kepler and Galileo were exceptional individuals. To many other people, the cosmological significance of the nova was not that clear. New stars might be wondrous or even terrifying phenomena, but in themselves they did not raise any questions about the constitution of the universe. The meaning attributed to new stars would depend on people's general world-views, which in its turn would be greatly influenced by the local circumstances. It makes sense, therefore, to study the debate on new stars in a variety of specific contexts.

  11. Johannes Kepler and David Fabricius: Their Discussion on the Nova of 1604

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granada, Miguel A.

    David Fabricius (1564-1617) was one of the most important astronomers in the period between 1596, the year of publication of Kepler's Mysterium cosmographicum, and 1609, the year of publication of the Astronomia nova.1 Kepler praised Fabricius as the most accurate observational astronomer after Tycho Brahe's death in 1601.2 Fabricius was a Reformed pastor in Ostfriesland (East Frisia), his remote natal region, and a vocational astronomer. He published nothing in the field of astronomy except for the short treatises between 1604 and 1606 concerning the nova that appeared in October 1604 in Serpentarius.

  12. 2D photonic crystals on the Archimedean lattices (tribute to Johannes Kepler (1571 1630))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajić, R.; class="cross-out">D. Jovanović,

    2008-03-01

    Results of our research on 2D Archemedean lattice photonic crystals are presented. This involves the calculations of the band structures, band-gap maps, equifrequency contours and FDTD simulations of electromagnetic propagation through the structures as well as an experimental verification of negative refraction at microwaves. The band-gap dependence on dielectric contrast is established both for dielectric rods in air and air-holes in dielectric materials. A special emphasis is placed on possibilities of negative refraction and left-handedness in these structures. Together with the familiar Archimedean lattices like square, triangular, honeycomb and Kagome' ones, we consider also, the less known, (3 2, 4, 3, 4) (ladybug) and (3, 4, 6, 4) (honeycomb-ring) structures.

  13. The Method of Anschauung: From Johann H. Pestalozzi to Herbert Spencer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takaya, Keiichi

    2003-01-01

    One of the major inventions of modern education is the instructional use of "Anschauung," an experience-based learning technique that was influential both as a method of instruction (more effective than mere book-learning and rote memorization) and as a rejection of old social arrangements that inculcated traditional values through deductive and…

  14. Johann Christian August Heinroth (1773–1843): the first professor of psychiatry as a psychotherapist.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Holger; Himmerich, Hubertus

    2012-06-01

    Heinroth is known as the first professor of psychiatry. His chair was established 200 years ago on the 21st of October 1811. His major importance for the history of psychotherapy has not yet been acknowledged. Heinroth regarded restriction as well as activation as fundamental remedies for mental illnesses. Restriction meant making a voluntary decision to live a life based on religious faith and to abstain from earthly satisfaction. Within his specific psychotherapeutical module—the ‘‘direct-psychic’’method—he utilized the patient’s mental powers—mood, mind and will, but also his spirituality. His therapeutic approach additionally contained elements of cognitive,behavioral and conversational therapy.

  15. The Method of Anschauung: From Johann H. Pestalozzi to Herbert Spencer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takaya, Keiichi

    2003-01-01

    One of the major inventions of modern education is the instructional use of "Anschauung," an experience-based learning technique that was influential both as a method of instruction (more effective than mere book-learning and rote memorization) and as a rejection of old social arrangements that inculcated traditional values through deductive and…

  16. Opera in the Foreign Language Classroom: Learning German with Mozart, Wagner, Weber, and Johann Strauss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Solveig M.

    2010-01-01

    Content-based instruction (CBI) has been part of the foreign language curriculum for many years at US colleges, leading to courses that combine language instruction with specific content domains, such as film, literature, politics, sports and many others. This article presents a rather unusual choice of content domain for a second-year language…

  17. [Medicine, natural philosophy and magic. Johann Laurentius Bausch from the medical history viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Schott, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    The Bausch reception created a double image: On the one hand he is appreciated as the outstanding founder of the Academy (later called Leopoldina) with its most important impact on the history of science, on the other hand he appears as a rather mediocre doctor and natural scientist, an "uninteresting man", whose scientific ideas soon turned out to be obsolete. This contribution tries to illuminate especially the neglected shady side of Bausch. For this purpose, four of his major writings are analysed: the "Apothecken Tax" and the monographs on the blood stone, the eagle stone and the unicorn. Here, the author intended a synopsis as broad as possible; in his opinion, the collecting of historical documents was as valid as own observations and experiments. Although Bausch again and again alludes to ideas of natural philosophy and magic he does not follow a specific doctrine and particularly keeps out of the controversy between galenism and paracelsianism.

  18. Fabricius, David (1564-1617) and Fabricius, Johannes (1587-1616)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Lutheran pastor and astronomer in Osteel, East Frisia (northwest Germany), discoverer (1596) of the first known variable star, mira stella (`wonderful star'), now simply Mira (Omicron Ceti). Fabricius observed the star at its brightest and thought it was a nova, after which Holwarda noticed that a star in Cetus cataloged by PTOLEMY and TYCHO was missing but then it reappeared. Eventually the long...

  19. Outstanding personalities in German-speaking mycology : Dedicated to Professor Dr. Johannes Müller.

    PubMed

    Seebacher, Claus; Lotti, Torello; Roccia, Maria Grazia; Fioranelli, Massimo; Wollina, Uwe

    2017-02-23

    The history of medical and veterinary mycology in general has been reviewed in the excellent monography by G.C. Ainsworth (1905-1998) published in 1986. Here, we will focus on German-speaking mycology and their outstanding personalities. We will start with the early years when medical mycology was in its infancy. Microscopy was a most valuable tool for the identification of fungi followed by cultivation and staining methods. Human pathologies became linked to fungi. After World War I, medical mycology flourished as an integral part of dermatology at universities and in private institutes. The development was interrupted by World War II, which divided Germany. In both parts of Germany, medical mycology had to be re-established. After re-unification the two different medical societies joined together. The development of DMyK (Deutschsprachigen Mykologischen Gesellschaft - Mykologie) is illustrated. Important personalities and some of their achievements are mentioned. Mycology has attracted other fields of medicine including internal medicine, pediatrics, microbiology, and veterinary medicine.

  20. Pastoral Typography: Sigmund von Birken and the "Picture-Rhymes" of Johann Helwig.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Jeremy

    1986-01-01

    Argues that European figured poetry is a distinctive art form that combined aspects of Greek and Latin art to produce a specifically typographical style of literature exemplified in the work of Birken and Helwig. (FL)

  1. Johannes Hevelius, nova CK Vulpeculae (1670) and the "hibernation" model of cataclysmic variables.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smak, J.

    The author reviews the basic properties of cataclysmic variables and the thermonuclear runaway (TNR) theory of the outbursts of novae, including the "hibernation" model of cataclysmic variables. The TNR theory, while remarkably successful in explaining a number of observational properties of novae, met also with some difficulties related to (1) excessive mass-transfer rates in old novae, and (2) conflicting estimates of their space density. Both are estimated from absolute magnitudes of novae as observed within decades before, or after, their outbursts. Nova CK Vulpeculae (1670), the oldest recorded nova, was observed in 1670 - 1672 by Hevelius, whose observations - together with those by Anthelme and Cassini - were sufficiently numerous and accurate to permit a modern reconstruction of the light curve and its classification as a very slow nova.

  2. Vivat Comenius: A Commemorative Essay on Johann Amos Comenius, 1592-1670.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundem, Bjorg, B.

    1992-01-01

    A conference commemorating the 400th anniversary of Comenius's birth was held in Prague in March 1992. The Czech scholar's basic premise was the panharmony of the universe (among nature, humankind, and the divine world). He integrated the elements of methodological, philosophical, theological, political, and social reform by stressing their…

  3. Opera in the Foreign Language Classroom: Learning German with Mozart, Wagner, Weber, and Johann Strauss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Solveig M.

    2010-01-01

    Content-based instruction (CBI) has been part of the foreign language curriculum for many years at US colleges, leading to courses that combine language instruction with specific content domains, such as film, literature, politics, sports and many others. This article presents a rather unusual choice of content domain for a second-year language…

  4. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi in the 1990s; Implications for Today's Multicultural Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nel, Johanna; Seckinger, Donald S.

    1993-01-01

    Pestalozzi's conception of effective learning arising from personal observation and experience can be applied to the education of diverse students. His notions of empathy and caring, understanding the child's own culture, and equality without conformity are cornerstones of multicultural education. (SK)

  5. Analogical Reasoning and Conceptual Change: A Case Study of Johannes Kepler

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    and (d) restructuring . We present these four mechanisms within the context of structure-mapping theory and its computational implementation. the...structure-mapping engine- We exemplify these mechanisms using the extended analogies Kepler used in developing a causal theory of planetary motion. The...detailed analyses of the analogies used by Faraday and Maxwell provide evidence that analogy was useful in the development of electromagnetic field theory

  6. orbis (sphaera), circulus, via, iter, orbita -- on the terminological identification of the essential paradigm change in astronomy by Johannes Kepler. (German Title: orbis (sphaera), circulus, via, iter, orbita} -- zur terminologischen Kennzeichnung des wesentlichsten Paradigmawechsels in der Astronomie durch Johannes Kepler)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafft, Fritz

    2011-08-01

    The use of modern terminology hinders to understand historical astronomical texts and often misleads the reader. Therefore, this study tries to reconstruct the ideas of the way the planets seem to move against the sphere of fixed stars in a non-teleological manner, that means in the original view and with original terms. The study proceeds historically and explains: (1) Aristotle's system of homocentric spheres being hollow spheres of ether turning equally round the earth in the centre of the world, a number of which makes the apparatus of the movement of a planet which produces its apparently unequal motion. (2) Ptolemy's reductionistic system of geometric circles (eccentric deferents, epicycles etc.), which are indeed great circles on non-concentric hollow spheres, whereupon they turn around equally. The space which they take up in all is surrounded by an inner and an outer concentric spherical surface and makes the sphere of the planet. (3) John's of Sacrobosco transferring of the geometric astronomy to the Latin of Middle Ages and the commentators' precision of the Greek-Latin terms. (4) The tradition of the "Theorica planetarum" which makes this geometry physics by allotting every partial moving to a partial material hollow sphere (with spherical surfaces of different centricity) or full sphere of an epicycle (orbes particulares or partialis), a number of which makes the entire sphere of each planet (orbis totalis or totus). - Copernicus also stood within this tradition, except that his entire spheres differ from the earlier ones in size or thickness (because he eliminated the partly very big synodic epicycles and allocated their effect as a mere parallactic one to the yearly moving of the earth) and in the great intervening spaces between each other (a result of measuring the true distances of the planets on the basis of these parallactic effects). (5) Tycho Brahe's refutation of the unchangingness and unpermeableness and therefore solidity of all etherial spheres, what had been the fundamental condition for creating the indirect ways of the planets in all astronomical systems with partial or entire spheres engaging one another. It was particularly Kepler who recognizes that as a result celestial physics requires a complete change. (6) Kepler's replacement of celestial physics. He did not think any more that the apparent (unequal) way of a planet indirectly results from the combination of several equal movements of etherial partial and entire spheres. His planets move their true and real way caused directly by the joint effect of two corporal forces moving the planets both around the sun and to and from it, which latter makes the planet's speed indeed naturally unequal. For this "real way" he coins in late 1604 the specific term "orbita" (the modern "orbit", the German "Bahn". This term then little by little replaced the former non-specific, general description of the apparent or real way (as "via, iter, ambitus, circulus, circuitus" etc.), and Kepler used it increasingly from its introduction (initially frequently joined to a describing definition of this "way") up to the exclusive use in the fifth book of the "Epitome", after this "orbita" had changed its shape from a perfect eccentric circle to an oval and finally an elliptic form. This way Kepler marks the paradigm change of astronomy caused by himself also terminologically.

  7. Neotype designations and nomenclatural actions for Apionidae described by Johann Ludwig Christian Carl Gravenhorst in 1807 (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea).

    PubMed

    Giusto, Carlo

    2015-07-21

    In accordance with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature with the express purpose of clarifying the systematic status of some species, neotypes are designated for Apion atratum Gravenhorst, 1807, Apion chloris Gravenhorst, 1807, Apion longirostre Gravenhorst, 1807 and Apion pilosellum Gravenhorst, 1807. Three new synonymies are proposed: Perapion hydrolapathi (Marsham, 1802) = Apion atratum Gravenhorst, 1807, syn. n., Ischnopterapion virens (Herbst, 1797) = Apion chloris Gravenhorst, 1807, syn. n. and Eutrichapion vorax (Herbst, 1797) = Apion longirostre Gravenhorst, 1807, syn. n. The junior primary homonym Apion atratum Wagner, 1908 (non Gravenhorst, 1807) is replaced by Pseudopiezotrachelus gravenhorsti nom. n.

  8. [Psychiatrist Johann Christian August Heinroth's (1773-1843) practical work at St George's prison, orphanage and madhouse in Leipzig].

    PubMed

    Schmideler, Sebastian; Steinberg, Holger

    2004-01-01

    This paper ventures to give insights into and evaluate HEINROTH's practical work as a doctor at Leipzig's Georgenhaus on the basis of primary sources found at Leipzig and other Saxony archives. The analysis shows that HEINROTH took up this post because of financial needs. Hence there arose a conflict between this job at the city's orphanage and madhouse and HEINROTH's real ambition of becoming a professor of psychiatry at Leipzig University. THis continued for the whole of his time there. HEINROTH undertook an extremely responsible role and worked energetically at St George's from 1814 until 1834; almost the entire medical care of the 600 inmate lay in his hands. HEINROTH cannot be held responsible for the failure to reform the mental health care system, though urgently needed. On the contrary, he made every effort to ease his patients' mental anguish and life at St George's. However, it must be pointed out that HEINROTH entrusted to his assistants a great part of his duties. HEINROTH did not always fulfil his duties at the local prison to the agreed extent. Increased tensions between him and authorities led to mutual recriminations which ultimately resulted in HEINROTH's dismissal at Christmas 1833. No final judgement can be made as to what extent the arguments propounded by both parties were justified.

  9. [The Leopoldina--a terra incognita in German academic historiography. Johann Laurentius Bausch on his 400th birthday].

    PubMed

    Toellner, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the stupendous and strange fact, that up to now the general history was not been noticing the oldest European Academy of Sciences, the Academia Naturae Curiosorum, which was founded in 1652 and has been continuously active since their establishment. In the most cases the Leopoldina is not named at all, but if the Academy is mentioned--mostly in short--it will be entirely misjudged in its nature, its essence and its importance.

  10. The ischemic penumbra: correlates in imaging and implications for treatment of ischemic stroke. The Johann Jacob Wepfer award 2011.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Wolf-Dieter

    2011-01-01

    The concept of the ischemic penumbra was formulated 30 years ago based on experiments in animal models showing functional impairment and electrophysiological disturbances with decreasing flow to the brain below defined values (the threshold for function) and irreversible tissue damage with the blood supply further decreased (the threshold for infarction). The perfusion range between these thresholds was termed 'penumbra', and restitution of flow above the functional threshold was able to reverse the deficits without permanent damage. However, in further experiments, the dependency of the development of irreversible lesions on the interaction of the severity and duration of critically reduced blood flow was established - proving that the lower the flow, the shorter the time for efficient reperfusion. Therefore, infarction develops from the core of ischemia to the areas of less severe hypoperfusion. The propagation of irreversible tissue damage is characterized by a complex cascade of interconnected electrophysiological, molecular, metabolic and perfusional disturbances. Waves of depolarizations, the peri-infarct spreading depression-like depolarizations, inducing activation of ion pumps and liberation of excitatory transmitters, have dramatic consequences as drastically increased metabolic demand cannot be satisfied in regions with critically reduced blood supply. The translation of experimental concept into the basis for efficient treatment of stroke requires non-invasive methods by which regional flow and energy metabolism can be repeatedly investigated to demonstrate penumbra tissue that can benefit from therapeutic interventions. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows the quantification of regional cerebral blood flow, the regional metabolic rate for oxygen and the regional oxygen extraction fraction. From these variables, clear definitions of irreversible tissue damage and critically perfused but potentially salvageable tissue (i.e. the penumbra) can be achieved in animal models and stroke patients. Additionally, further tracers can be used for early detection of irreversible tissue damage, e.g. by the central benzodiazepine receptor ligand flumazenil. However, PET is a research tool and its complex logistics limit clinical routine applications. As a widely applicable clinical tool, perfusion/diffusion-weighted (PW/DW) MRI is used, and the 'mismatch' between the PW and the DW abnormalities serve as an indicator of the penumbra. However, comparative studies of PW/DW-MRI and PET have pointed to an overestimation of the core of irreversible infarction as well as of the penumbra by MRI modalities. Some of these discrepancies can be explained by unselective application of relative perfusion thresholds, which might be improved by more complex analytical procedures. Heterogeneity of the MRI signatures used for the definition of the mismatch are also responsible for disappointing results in the application of PW/DW-MRI for the selection of patients for clinical trials. As long as a validation of the mismatch selection paradigm is lacking, its use as a surrogate marker of outcome is limited. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Fathers of orthopaedics in Germany (eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries): Lorenz Heister in Helmsted; Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach in Berlin; Heine and family in Würzburg.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    In orthopaedic medicine in Germany, Lorenz Heister, practicing in the eighteenth century, is considered one of the fathers of German surgery and is renowned for his books on management of hemorrhage, wounds, fractures, bandaging, instrumentation and surgery. After Heister, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, orthopaedic medicine in Germany developed uniformly. In a period when few doctors were interested in a separate discipline of orthopaedics, Germany led in this field. Heine devoted himself to the development of the new profession of orthopaedics, and in 1816, he opened the first orthopaedic institute on German soil in the former monastery of St. Stephen, which later became known as the Karolinen-Institut. Along with Heine and his family, the special development of orthopaedics in Berlin may be attributed to the work of Dieffenbach who, in 1832, became professor at the University of Berlin and in 1840 director of the Clinical Institute for Surgery at Charité Hospital.

  12. [Two editors in dialog. The example of Justus von Liebig (1803-1873) and Johann Bartholomäus Trommsdorff (1770-1837) and their letters].

    PubMed

    Staiger, C; Friedrich, C

    2003-04-01

    Today, scientists willing to publish results face a wide range of requirements (instructions for authors, peer review procedure). During the 18th and 19th century manuscripts were treated in a less formal way. However, the scientific discussion was vital and implemented intensely via various means, especially by letters. This study analyses the dialog of two distinguished contributors to chemical and pharmaceutical sciences, both experienced journal editors, from January 1828 to February 1837.

  13. Battling the un-dead: the status of the Diptera genus-group names originally proposed in Johann Wilhelm Meigen's 1800 pamphlet.

    PubMed

    Evenhuis, Neal L; Pape, Thomas

    2017-06-08

    The work of Meigen 1800 was suppressed by the ICZN Commission in 1963 for the purposes of zoological nomenclature. The work as such is still to be treated as having been published and it remains available as a source of published descriptions and illustrations. Therefore, while the names in Meigen (1800) are deemed unavailable, a subsequent usage of any of the names may be considered a novel proposal. We review the first post-Meigen 1800 occurrence of each name, its first date of availability and authorship, and determine status and synonymy.        Designations of type species are given for the following genus-group names: Coryneta Hendel, 1908 [Hybotidae]; Cyanea Hendel, 1908 [Hippoboscidae].        Acting as First Reviser, we select the following as the correct original spelling from multiple original spellings: Calirrhoe Hendel, 1908.        New synonymies are proposed for the following: Ablabesmyia Johannsen, 1905 under Pelopia Latreille, 1802, n. syn. [Limoniidae]; Amasia Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Penthetria Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Bibionidae]; Amphinome Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Limonia Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Limoniidae]; Antiopa Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Chrysotoxum Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Syrphidae]; Apivora Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Volucella Geoffroy, 1762, n. syn. [Syrphidae]; Atalanta Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Clinocera Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Empididae]; Calirrhoe Meigen & Hendel in Hendel, 1908 under Prosena Le Peletier & Audinet-Serville, 1828, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Chrysozona Hendel, 1903 under Haematopota Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Tabanidae]; Cinxia Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Sericomyia Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Syrphidae]; Cleona Meigen in Hendel 1908 under Callomyia Meigen, 1804, n. syn. [Platypezidae]; Clythia Hendel, 1903 under Platypeza Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Platypezidae]; Coryneta Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Tachydromia Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Hybotidae]; Crocuta Bezzi, 1907 under Siphona Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Cyanea Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Melophagus Latreille, 1802, n. syn. [Hippoboscidae]; Cypsela Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Sphaerocera Latreille, 1804, n. syn. [Sphaeroceridae]; Dionnaea Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Rhamphomyia Meigen, 1822, n. syn. [Empididae]; Dorilas Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Pipunculus Latreille, 1802, n. syn. [Pipunculidae]; Echinodes Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Eriothrix Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Erinna Hendel, 1903 under Xylophagus Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Xylophagidae]; Eulalia Hendel, 1903 under Odontomyia Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Stratiomyidae]; Euphrosyne Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Macrocera Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Keroplatidae]; Flabellifera Osten Sacken, 1882 under Tanyptera Latreille, 1804, n. syn. [Tipulidae]; Fungivora Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Mycetophila Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Mycetophilidae]; Helea Osten Sacken, 1882 under Ceratopogon Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Ceratopogonidae]; Hermione Bezzi, 1908 under Oxycera Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Stratiomyidae]; Itonida Bezzi, 1908 under Cecidomyia Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Cecidomyiidae]; Lampetia Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Merodon Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Syrphidae]; Laphria Bezzi, 1907 under Laphria Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Asilidae]; Lapria Bezzi, 1907 under Laphria Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Asilidae]; Larvaevora Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Tachina Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Liriope Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Ptychoptera Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Ptychopteridae]; Lycoria Latreille, 1802 under Sylvicola Harris, 1776, n. syn. [Anisopodidae]; Melusina Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Trichocera Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Trichoceridae]; Musidora Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Lonchoptera Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Lonchopteridae]; Noeza Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Hybos Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Hybotidae]; Omphrale Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Scenopinus Latreille, 1802, n. syn. [Scenopinidae]; Pales Bezzi, 1906 under Nephrotoma Meigen, 1803, n. syn . [Tipulidae]; Penthesilea Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Blera Billberg, 1820, n. syn. [Syrphidae]; Petaurista Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Trichocera Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Trichoceridae]; Phalaenula Desmarest, 1818 under Psychoda Latreille, 1797, n. syn. [Psychodidae]; Philia Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Dilophus Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Bibionidae]; Phryne Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Sylvicola Harris, 1776, n. syn. [Anisopodidae]; Polymeda Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Erioptera Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Limoniidae]; Polyxena Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Cordyla Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Mycetophilidae]; Potamida Hendel, 1903 under Clitellaria Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Stratiomyidae]; Rhodogyne Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Gymnosoma Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Salmacia Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Gonia Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Scathophaga Meigen, 1803 under Scopeuma Latreille, 1802, n. syn. [Scathophagidae]; Coremacera Rondani, 1856 under Statinia Latreille, 1802, n. syn. [Sciomyzidae]; Tendipes Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Chironomus Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Chironomidae]; Titania Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Chlorops Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Chloropidae]; Trepidaria Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Calobata Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Micropezidae]; Tritonia Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Temnostoma Le Peletier & Audinet-Serville, 1828, n. syn. [Syrphidae]; Tubifera Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Eristalis Latreille, 1804, n. syn. [Syrphidae]; Urophora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 under Euribia Latreille, 1802, n. syn. [Tephritidae]; Zelima Hendel, 1903 under Xylota Meigen, 1822, n. syn. [Syrphidae]; Zelmira Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Orfelia Costa, 1857, n. syn. [Keroplatidae].        The following three names have not been found to be synonymous with any other taxon, and are treated here as nomina dubia: Orithea Meigen in Hendel, 1908; Salpyga Meigen in Hendel, 1908; Titia Meigen in Hendel, 1908 (preoccupied).      The following four names are found to be senior synonyms of more commonly used genus-group names: Euribia Latreille, 1802 of Urophora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, n. syn. [Tephritidae]; Pelopia Latreille, 1802 of Ablabesmyia Johannsen, 1905, n. syn.; Scopeuma Latreille, 1802 of Scathophaga Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Scathophagidae]; Statinia Latreille, 1802 of Coremacera Rondani, 1856, n. syn. [Sciomyzidae]. If they are construed as threatening stability of nomenclature and/or taxonomy, applications to the ICZN Commission may be warranted to request suppression of these names in favor of their junior synonyms.

  14. Preparing Adolescents for the Twenty-First Century. Challenges Facing Europe and the United States. Johann Jacobs Foundation Conference Series, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takanishi, Ruby, Ed.; Hamburg, David A., Ed.

    This book contains 11 papers based on presentations at a 1994 conference held in Marbach, Germany, and a 1995 conference in Geneva, Switzerland, focusing on frontiers in the education of young adolescents in European countries and the United States. The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Klaus J. Jacobs); "Meeting the…

  15. Preparing Adolescents for the Twenty-First Century. Challenges Facing Europe and the United States. Johann Jacobs Foundation Conference Series, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takanishi, Ruby, Ed.; Hamburg, David A., Ed.

    This book contains 11 papers based on presentations at a 1994 conference held in Marbach, Germany, and a 1995 conference in Geneva, Switzerland, focusing on frontiers in the education of young adolescents in European countries and the United States. The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Klaus J. Jacobs); "Meeting the…

  16. [Johann Jaroslaw Marcinowski (1868-1935) and his sanatorium "Haus Sielbeck" at lake Uklei. Psychoanalysis in an in-patient setting].

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Heike

    2011-01-01

    Marcinowski came from an aristocratic family. He first joined the army as a lieutenant and later worked as a medical doctor. From 1908 to 1920, Marcinowski was a follower of Freud, additionally influenced by Oskar Vogt. This article describes his restless life in Breslau, Berlin, Sielbeck, Bad Heilbrunn, and Tübingen, with a special focus on his psychoanalytic activities. Freud had high expectations of Marcinowski. In his sanatorium "Haus Sielbeck", Marcinowski treated patients psychoanalytically and published the results in medical journals. This application of psychoanalysis in a sanatorium was virtually unique at that time. Even though Marcinowski could not fulfill Freud's expectations in the long term, he is still one of the pioneers who described phenomena of transference in inpatient settings.--The article is complemented by Freud's letters to Marcinowski, edited by G. Fichtner and M. Schröter. These are mainly concerned with the conflict between Freud and Wilhelm Stekel who was and remained a good friend of Marcinowski.

  17. Normal and Differential SAR Interferometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    Geudtner, B. Schättler, P. Vachon, U. Steinbrecher, J. Holzner, J. Mittermayer , H. Breit, A. Moreira. RADARSAT ScanSAR interferometry. In: Proceedings of...part 4, pp. 470-475 Krieger, G., Wendler, M., Fiedler, H., Mittermayer , J., Moreira, A., 2002. Performance analysis for bistatic interferometric...SAR configurations. In: Proceedings of IGARSS 2002, Toronto, Canada, vol. 1, pp. 650-652. Krieger, G., Fiedler, H., Mittermayer , J., Papathanassiou, K

  18. A Framework for Retargeting Radio Designs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    criteria and target architectures, and (c) elicit through formal methods properties concerning an application and their implementation. A key...University Press, 2000. [7] S. Holzner, Eclipse, O’Reilly Media, Inc., 2004. [8] D. A. Huffman, "A Method for the Construction of Minimum-Redundancy...qpsk_mod_function[D,R::type](i::input D; o::output R; f::real) * modulator_control(go::input bit; ready::input bit); // An alternate aproach

  19. On the size of the ptolemaic system of the world - a study based on two figures by Johannes Kepler. (German Title: Über die Gröszlig;e des ptolemäischen Weltsystems - Eine Studie, veranlasst durch zwei Bilder bei Johannes Kepler)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberschelp, Arnold

    It is well known that the geocentric system according to Ptolemy is almost twice as large as the heliocentric planetary system of Copernicus. There are, however, two pictures, given by Kepler in his «Mysterium Cosmographicum» of 1596 which - at first glance - seem to contradict this. The first picture of the heliocentric system is drawn to scale. The second picture shows a geocentric system, which seems to be too small. The puzzle about the size is solved rather trivially by the fact - which is not mentioned by Kepler and which may be overlooked - that the geocentric picture is not drawn to scale and that the angles do not correspond to the degrees noted at them. In order to get a geocentric picture drawn to scale - taking Kepler's degrees for granted - it is necessary to discuss some details of the ptolemaic system. The result is, however, a geocentric system which is too big. The solution of this new puzzle is not obvious. It turns out that one of Keplers degrees (for Mars) does not correspond to the parameters of Ptolemy. Actually, in his book of 1596, Kepler's topic is not the ptolemaic system nor the copernican distances, but his heliocentric model with the five regular polyhedra. While it is interesting to note all these facts, Kepler's pictures and degrees, for the size of the ptolemaic system, lead to a dead end. Using the parameters from the «Almagest» and the principle of nested spheres from the «Planetary Hypotheses» a distance scale (Tab. 10) for the geocentric system is derived. This distance scale, however, is somewhat different from the well known ptolemaic distance scale (Tab. 1). This puzzle is not resolved, but due to the fact that different sources («Almagest» and «Planetary Hypotheses») of Ptolemy are involved. The distances of Tab. 10 correspond better to the ptolemaic system, since the relative thickness of the spheres is computed from the rather precise parameters (eccentricities and epicycle radii) of the «Almagest». The distances of Tab. I, given in the «Planetary Hypotheses», use values for the relative thicknesses of the spheres which are rounded off. Since the pictures of Kepler, when viewed together, are misleading, two new pictures of the copernican and ptolemaic planetary systems are given drawn to the same scale. A final remark is about the radius of the «tychonic system».

  20. Johann Gottfried Köhler - inspector at the Mathematical-Physical Salon in Dresden - an active observer of the starry sky in the last quarter of the 18th century (German Title: Johann Gottfried Köhler - Inspektor am Mathematisch-Physikalischen Salon Dresden - aktiver Beobachter des gestirnten Himmels im letzten Viertel des 18. Jahrhunderts )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillinger, Klaus

    In 1777, J. G. Köhler, an academician trained in mathematics and the sciences and with a deep interest in astronomy, was appointed inspector of the Mathematical-Physical Salon. He was lucky to find, in the person of the Saxonian electoral prince and later king, August the Righteous, a ruler who was open-minded to science, and thus he could combine his private interests with those of the sovereign. While the files of the Mathematical-Physical Salon from his time were lost during World War II, his actions can be reconstructed from a few archival sources and notes in the diaries of his successors. The Saxonian residence did not have an astronomical observatory. Köhler used the instruments from the collection of the Mathematical-Physical Salon for numerous celestial observations. He was in close contact with a number of other astronomers like Bode and Zach. They took care of his results, sometimes after editing them. Time determinations based on longitude and latitude determinations, as well as other astronomical observations, led to the development of a time service, which was carried out for about 150 years. Köhler himself constructed the clocks. Because of his responsibilities as an inspector, as well as due to local and material constraints, he was not able to carry out systematic and reproducible measurements over a long time span. His improvement of the circular micrometer and his stop-down photometer are of special interest. He also had considerable talent in drawing, as is shown in his drawings of lunar mountains. A number of instruments used by Köhler are still to be found in the Mathematical-Physical Salon.

  1. Cooperation and Integration: Keeping Austria’s Forces Relevant for 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    December, 12, 2012). 59 Johann Frank Johann Pucher, “Strategie Und Sicherheit 2012” (Anton Pelinka: Die Oesterreichische Aussen- und...Sicherheitspolitik), Boehlau Verlag, 2012, 637. 60 Johann Frank Johann Pucher, “Strategie Und Sicherheit 2012” (Thomas Mayer, Sicherheitspolitik nach dem Psst...Proposal, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, Berlinn 2010, http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/id/ipa/07075.pdf, (accessed September 20, 2012), 55. 65 European

  2. Countering the Effects of Violent Transnational Crime: Major Findings of the Technical Seminar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    187 Richard Lowe (SOCA) – The Economics of the Opiate Trade ..................... 213 Friedrich Schneider ( Johannes Kepler ...Francisco Vice President, República de Colombia TBD Schneider, Prof. Dr. Friedrich Johannes Kepler University of Linz Yes Semesky, Mr. Don Drug...statistics. The morning session ended with a presentation by Professor Friedrich Schneider, Johannes Kepler University of Linz, on money laundering. He

  3. Multiparticle Entanglement and Spatial Addressability of Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Immanuel F. Bloch Stefan Kuhr Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz Institute Fuer Physik/Quantum Mainz, Germany 55099 EOARD GRANT 07-3090...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz Institute Fuer Physik/Quantum Mainz, Germany 55099 8...Entanglement and Spatial Addressability of Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices Prof. Dr. Immanuel Bloch Dr. Stefan Kuhr Johannes

  4. [Medical publications within private libraries of the European enlightenment. About the medically learned German novelist Johann Gottwerth Müller (1743-1828) and his stock of medical books].

    PubMed

    Ritter, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The German novelist J. G. Müller is one of the popular writers of the late 18th century. The encyclopaedically educated scholar, from his point of view, is obliged to support publicly the welfare of state and society. Although Müller studied medicine he did not practise making his living from his novels which dealt critically with absolutist society. Medical studies and serious illness caused a lifelong interest in medical affairs ranging from the treatment of patients, the organisation of healthcare, the distribution of medicines, charlatanism, to everybody's responsibility for health. For him the syndrome of health/illness/medical science became part of the general status of science and a metaphor for the present and future conditions of class society. This engagement led to the compliation of approximately 280 medical books as part of his library which contained more than 13,000 volumes documented in the catalogue printed for public sale in 1829: "Verzeichnib der von dem Herrn Dr. Ph. Joh. Gottw. Müller in Itzehoe hinterlassenen Bibliothek, [...]/Contents of Joh. Gottw. Müller, Ph.D., library left behind in Itzehoe [...]."The essay comprises an introduction to Müller's collection of medical books and a complete bibliographical documentation. His books cover the medical discourse from the 17th to early 19th century focusing on publications of the 18th century. They offer information on medical bibliographies, catalogues, biographies, history of medical science, reference, specific publications on a large variety of actual topics such as medical science, treatment, politics, appliances, and social as well as hygienic questions. This stock of publications reveals itself as an additional source for an understanding of book-collecting in the 18th century, the history of privately organised medical libraries, and the discourse of medical science and treatment at a time of transition from a humoral-pathological to a firmer understanding of pathological concepts around 1800.

  5. Singular Hopf bifurcation to unstable periodic solutions in a NMR laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braza, Peter A.; Erneux, Thomas

    1989-09-01

    We apply recent developments in the study of singular Hopf bifurcations to describe the complete bifurcation diagram of a simple NMR laser with an injected signal. The branch of periodic solutions appears at a Hopf bifurcation point and may or may not disappear at a homoclinic point. The bifurcation is always subcritical, which suggests that the periodic solutions are all unstable. Our asymptotic analysis is based on the relative values of the fixed parameters in the problem. Our results complement earlier investigations by Holzner et al. [Phys. Rev. A 36, 1280 (1987)] and by Baugher, Hammack, and Lin [Phys. Rev. A 39, 1549 (1989)] on the subcritical Hopf bifurcation in a NMR laser.

  6. Solvable continuous-time random walk model of the motion of tracer particles through porous media.

    PubMed

    Fouxon, Itzhak; Holzner, Markus

    2016-08-01

    We consider the continuous-time random walk (CTRW) model of tracer motion in porous medium flows based on the experimentally determined distributions of pore velocity and pore size reported by Holzner et al. [M. Holzner et al., Phys. Rev. E 92, 013015 (2015)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.92.013015]. The particle's passing through one channel is modeled as one step of the walk. The step (channel) length is random and the walker's velocity at consecutive steps of the walk is conserved with finite probability, mimicking that at the turning point there could be no abrupt change of velocity. We provide the Laplace transform of the characteristic function of the walker's position and reductions for different cases of independence of the CTRW's step duration τ, length l, and velocity v. We solve our model with independent l and v. The model incorporates different forms of the tail of the probability density of small velocities that vary with the model parameter α. Depending on that parameter, all types of anomalous diffusion can hold, from super- to subdiffusion. In a finite interval of α, ballistic behavior with logarithmic corrections holds, which was observed in a previously introduced CTRW model with independent l and τ. Universality of tracer diffusion in the porous medium is considered.

  7. Solvable continuous-time random walk model of the motion of tracer particles through porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouxon, Itzhak; Holzner, Markus

    2016-08-01

    We consider the continuous-time random walk (CTRW) model of tracer motion in porous medium flows based on the experimentally determined distributions of pore velocity and pore size reported by Holzner et al. [M. Holzner et al., Phys. Rev. E 92, 013015 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.013015]. The particle's passing through one channel is modeled as one step of the walk. The step (channel) length is random and the walker's velocity at consecutive steps of the walk is conserved with finite probability, mimicking that at the turning point there could be no abrupt change of velocity. We provide the Laplace transform of the characteristic function of the walker's position and reductions for different cases of independence of the CTRW's step duration τ , length l , and velocity v . We solve our model with independent l and v . The model incorporates different forms of the tail of the probability density of small velocities that vary with the model parameter α . Depending on that parameter, all types of anomalous diffusion can hold, from super- to subdiffusion. In a finite interval of α , ballistic behavior with logarithmic corrections holds, which was observed in a previously introduced CTRW model with independent l and τ . Universality of tracer diffusion in the porous medium is considered.

  8. L1C Signal Design Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Award, GPS JPO, The Johannes Kepler Award, ION, 2004. BEE, Syracuse University, 1949; MEE, Syracuse University, 1951; PhD in Electrical...was a recipient of the 1998 ION Early Achievement Award and the 2005 Johannes Kepler Award. He currently serves the ION as Editor of NAVIGATION...Kershner (PLANS-2000), GPS JPO Navstar Award (2002), and Johannes Kepler (2003). He was technical chair (’84, ’86, and ’88) and general chair (’94

  9. Bio Organic-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (BioFET) Based on Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Gate Dielectric

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-31

    ADDRESS(ES) Johannes Kepler University of Linz Altenbergerstr. 69 Linz A-4040 Austria 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER N/A 9...Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci Experimental studies done by: Philipp Stadler and Dr. Birendra Singh Linz, Oktober 2009 Johannes Kepler Universität A...Organic Solar Cells (LIOS) at the Johannes Kepler University in Linz, Austria (Prof. Sariciftci). This process using CTMA enhances solubility and

  10. Application of Symmetry Analysis to a PDE Arising in the Car Windscreen Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-03

    NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Johannes Kepler ...equations With application to the manufacture of car Windscreen s, Ph.D. Thesis, Institute for Industrial Mathematics, Johannes Kepler University, Linz...Kügler Institute for Industrial Mathematics, Johannes Kepler Univer- sity, Austria Prof Peter Olver School of Mathematics, Institute of Technology, University of Minnesota, USA

  11. JPRS Report West Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    with the public that it has started to worry the Conservatives. "But we have not peaked yet," says Johannes Sorensen, national chairman of the...second place in Danish politics. "We have acquired a friendlier image," explains national chairman Johannes Sorensen. But so far the support of...soccer teams—many people want to participate when things are going well." The national chairman of the Progress Party, Johannes Sorensen, has

  12. Sword or Ploughshare? New Roles for NATO and the Changing Nature of Transatlantic Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    International Organization, Vol. 54, No. 4, Autumn 2000, pp. 705-735. 10 Gustav E. Gustenau and Johann Frank, “Divergenz oder Komplementarität...by Gustav E. Gustenau and Johann Frank in “Divergenz oder Komplementarität?” [Divergent or Complementary?], p. 5. It should be borne in mind however...Anspruch und Wirklichkeit [European Security and Defense Policy between Demands and Reality], p. 68. 29 Gustav E. Gustenau and Johann Frank, “Divergenz

  13. 77 FR 27508 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Designation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... (``Cook Letter''); James Johannes, dated November 27, 2011 (``Johannes Letter''); Ken Voorhies, dated..., dated November 28, 2011 (``PairCo Letter''); James Angel, Associate Professor of Finance, McDonough... Trading, dated November 29, 2011 (``Koch Letter''); Kurt Schact, CFA, Managing Director, and James Allen...

  14. Swarm Based Implementation of a Virtal Distributed Database System in a Sensor Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    Bonnet, Philippe, Johannes Gehrke , and Praveen Shshadri. Towards Sensor Database Systems. In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on...Mobile Data Management. Hong Kong, January 2001. [5] Bonnet, Philippe, Johannes Gehrke , and Praveen Shshadri. Querying the Physical World. [6...George, Jean Dollimore, and Tim Kindberg. Distributed Systems Concepts and Design. Third Edition, 2001. Addison-Wesley. pp.387-409. [17

  15. Development of a Robust Optical Image Registration Algorithm for Negating Speckle Noise Effects in Coherent Images Generated by a Laser Imaging System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    future students of AFIT with this to ponder: ! The great German scientist and mathematician, Johann Kepler , discov- erer of the three laws for...December 2001. 3. Curtis, K., B. Jacobson, D. Severance, A.T. Snyder, and D. Graves. “ Johann Ke- pler: Letting the Heavens Declare the Glory of God

  16. A Planar IC-Compatible Transferred Electron Device for Millimeter-Wave Operation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-31

    RD-RI92 702 R PLRNAR IC-COMPRTIBLE TRANSFERRED ELECTRONI DEVICE FOR III MILLIMETER-UMV OPERRTION(U) JOHANNES KEPLER UNIV LINZ (AUSTRIA...lower in a shorter gate region. Personnel Dr. Kurt Lubke, Helmut Scheiber, Thomas Neugebauer, Christoph Schonherr, Gabriele Roitmayr and Johann

  17. Test Reduction in Open Architecture via Dependency Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-30

    System; and (2) Oberon slicing tool for Oberon system, developed by the Johannes Kepler University. For these tools, the lack or limitation of...Tool (OST) for Oberon system, developed by the Johannes Kepler University. (Oberon is a modern version of Pascal and not widely use in the defense

  18. An Integrated Suite of Text and Data Mining Tools - Phase II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Japan 2 1 1 1 5 University of Zaragoza, Spain 3 2 5 Monash University 1 2 2 5 Iwate Prefectural University 2 1 2 5 Johannes Kepler University Linz...University of Zaragoza, Spain 2 5 Monash University 3 5 Iwate Prefectural University 2 2 2 5 Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria 2 4 Fukuoka Institute

  19. The Long and the Short of It: Telescopes of the Seventeenth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudd, M. Eugene

    An historical review of telescope makers and users, and the state of telescopes in the 1600s. Mentioned are: Jean Dominique Cassini, Hans Lippershey, Galileo, Johannes Kepler, Scheiner, Francesco Fontana, Evangelista Torricelli, Eustachio Divini, William Gascoigne, Adrien Auzout, Jean Picard, Christian Huygens, Johannes Hevelius, Edmund Halley, and Isaac Newton.

  20. Dynamic Weighted Data Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    van "j Beethoven, Igor Stravinsky, Glan-Carlo Menotti, and Johann Sebastian Bach . Dynamic Weighted Data Structures Samuel W. Bent This thesis discusses...and Bonnie Hampton, who taught me much more than how to play the cello. Finally, for hours of artistic satisfaction, I thank Johannes Brahms, Ludwig

  1. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Granada, Miguel A; Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    We report on a newly discovered letter by Christoph Rothmann, dated July 1st 1584, and addressed to Johann Ernst of Anhalt. The letter supports the earlier assumption that Johann Ernst recommended Rothmann to Landgrave Wilhelm of Hesse, as Rothmann asks for Johann Ernst's help on the matter in this new source. More importantly Rothmann refers to his attempts to make Copernicus' calculations compatible with the Ptolomean model, which demonstrates that already at this stage of his career he was working on such a compromise, and not only after being influenced by Raimarus Ursus or Tycho Brahe, as has been argued by some authors.

  2. Microfilming of the Bach Manuscripts in the Staatsbibliothek Berlin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penzold, Leonhard

    1998-01-01

    Describes a microfilming project to preserve music manuscripts of Johann Sebastian Bach at the Staatsbibliothek Berlin (Germany), highlighting project goals, problems and peculiarities encountered filming the collection, color micrography, and black-and-white filming. (PEN)

  3. 77 FR 57921 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List 14 Aquatic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... marked differences in shell morphology among its various populations, indicates that shell morphology is... ] algae, protozoa, and bacteria growing underwater on stones (Frest and Johannes 1995b, p. 81; Furnish...

  4. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey PEN & INK DRAWING BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey PEN & INK DRAWING BY FRANCIS H. CRUESS (original drawing & full-size reproducible on file) after and oil painting of ca. 1860 - Johannes Luyster House, Laurel Avenue & Middleton Road, Holland, Monmouth County, NJ

  5. The Fruits of Kepler's Struggle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belonuchkin, B. E.

    1992-01-01

    Presents six learning activities dealing with planetary motion, the launching of satellites, and Halley's comet, all of which utilize the three laws of Johannes Kepler. These three laws are discussed in detail, and answers to the activities are provided. (KR)

  6. Black Scholars in Europe during the Renaissance and the Enlightenment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fikes, Robert, Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the accomplishments of Juan Latino (1516-1599), Jacobus Eliza Johannes Capitein (1717-1747), and Anton Wilhelm Amo (1703-1753), Blacks who were educated in Europe and became important intellectual and literary figures. (GC)

  7. Too Little too Soon: The Literature of Deaf Education in 17th-Century Britain (Part II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoolihan, Christopher

    1985-01-01

    The article describes the growth in literature on deaf education in 17th century Britain. Noted is the work of John Wallis, William Holder, George Dalgarno, Anton Deusing, and Johann Conrad Amman. (CL)

  8. Problemes et methodes de la lexicographie quebecoise (Problems and Methods of Quebec Lexicography).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Monique C., Ed.; Francoeur, Aline, Ed.

    Papers on lexicographic research in Quebec (Canada) include: "Indications semantiques dans les dictionnaires bilingues" ("Semantic Indications in Bilingual Dictionaries) (Johanne Blais, Roda P. Roberts); "Definitions predictionnairiques de 'maison, batiment, et pavillon'" ("Pre-dictionary definitions of 'house,…

  9. The Bronsted-Lowery Acid-Base Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, George B.

    1988-01-01

    Gives the background history of the simultaneous discovery of acid-base relationships by Johannes Bronsted and Thomas Lowry. Provides a brief biographical sketch of each. Discusses their concept of acids and bases in some detail. (CW)

  10. Microfilming of the Bach Manuscripts in the Staatsbibliothek Berlin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penzold, Leonhard

    1998-01-01

    Describes a microfilming project to preserve music manuscripts of Johann Sebastian Bach at the Staatsbibliothek Berlin (Germany), highlighting project goals, problems and peculiarities encountered filming the collection, color micrography, and black-and-white filming. (PEN)

  11. The Fruits of Kepler's Struggle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belonuchkin, B. E.

    1992-01-01

    Presents six learning activities dealing with planetary motion, the launching of satellites, and Halley's comet, all of which utilize the three laws of Johannes Kepler. These three laws are discussed in detail, and answers to the activities are provided. (KR)

  12. ATV2 Interview with Michael Suffredini

    NASA Image and Video Library

    International Space Station Manager Michael Suffredini answers questions about the European Space Agency’s second Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV2), Johannes Kepler, set to launch from a launch p...

  13. THE SORROWS OF YOUNG WERTHER AND GOETHE'S UNDERSTANDING OF MELANCHOLIA.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Martin A

    2016-01-01

    The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774). By Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, translated by Elizabeth Mayer and Louise Bogan. 167 pp. In The Sorrows of Young Werther, and Novella. New York: Random House, 1971. © 2016 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  14. Goethe and the Aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    2008-05-01

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) was deeply interested in many aspects of natural science, including geology and meteorology. Thus, it is not surprising that his works include frequent references to natural phenomena.

  15. The Bronsted-Lowery Acid-Base Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, George B.

    1988-01-01

    Gives the background history of the simultaneous discovery of acid-base relationships by Johannes Bronsted and Thomas Lowry. Provides a brief biographical sketch of each. Discusses their concept of acids and bases in some detail. (CW)

  16. Zur Vorgeschichte der Padagogischen Konzepte Pestalozzis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterwalder, Fritz

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the major concepts of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi's work, emphasizing the ways that other contemporary theorists influenced his work. Examines the application of his comprehensive philosophical systems to questions of pedagogy. (RW)

  17. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenhall, Clive

    2011-09-01

    Townsend Observatory destroyed; BAA Lunar Section archives; Astro-Cymru; Royal star identified; Formation of Johannes Kepler Working Group; Tycho Brahe exhumed; Ancient observatory discovered in Iran...; ... and in Mexico; Calling all ex-occupants of interplanetary craft.

  18. The first use of Kepler's Rudolphine Tables for the production of a writing calendar. (German Title: Die erstmalige Benutzung von Keplers Rudolphinischen Tafeln für die Herstellung eines Schreibkalenders)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Klaus-Dieter

    The Rudolphine Tables count among Johannes Kepler's eminent astronomical works. During the 17th century, astronomers and calendar-makers, who carried out their own calculations, rated them more and more as the most trustworthy astronomical base. We show in this contribution that this new set of tables relatively quickly found entrance into the astronomical praxis of calculation among several calendar makers. A correspondent and friend of Kepler, the writing-calendar maker Johannes Remus Quietanus, became the target of our considerations.

  19. A New Guidance Method for a Delta V and Re-entry Constrained Orbit Transfer Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    velocity, and time for these paths was first determined by Johannes Kepler in the year 1619. Rendezvous is a similar class of problem. Instead of a...orbit defined by these values would satisfy the boundary conditions if two-body ( Kepler ) propagation of the state (r1,v1) for ∆t results in a final 34...It was first characterized by Johannes Lambert in 1761. Lambert discovered a relationship between the geometry of the orbit transfer and the transfer

  20. Optimal Trajectory Generation for Multiple Asteroid Rendezvous

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    distinguishable ways. For this research, the lack of perturbations to the orbits permits the simple use of the equations generated by Johannes Kepler and Isaac...on careful observations. Kepler used the data collected throughout Tycho Brahe’s life to come up with his three laws; 1) the orbits of the planets...these problems, Isaac Newton invented calculus of variations.7 Johannes Bernoulli was also instrumental in the initial surge for optimization as he

  1. Bode's Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A numerical sequence which is roughly in proportion to the distances of the major planets from the Sun. It is named after Johann Bode, who announced it in 1772; it is more properly referred to as the Titius-Bode law, as it was first put forward by Johann Titius six years previously. The sequence is formed by taking 0 and 3, doubling 3 to give 6, doubling 6 to give 12, and so on, then adding 4 to ...

  2. Stateful Publish-Subscribe for XML Data Streams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-11

    White: Cayuga: a high-performance event processing engine . SIGMOD Conference 2007: 1100-1102 • Walker M. White, Mirek Riedewald, Johannes Gehrke...2009) • Alin Dobra , Minos N. Garofalakis, Johannes Gehrke, Rajeev Rastogi: Multi-query optimization for sketch-based estimation. Inf. Syst. 34(2...parallelization of the system. • Mohit Tatte was a Master of Engineering student in the Department of Computer Science; he worked on the Cayuga System. • Dr

  3. Special Forces Command and Control in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Johann Price, in a web site article, provides a detailed account of the chain of command from the beginning of Operation Enduring Freedom to 1 June 2002...soldiers who were nothing but successful. The song, The Green Beret by SGT Barry Sadler, was a hit on the top music charts. The first Medal of Honor...DC: National Defense University Press. Price, Johann , ed. 2002. Operation Enduring Freedom Chain of Command. Center of Defense information, 26 June

  4. Erratum: Histological criteria for atypical pituitary adenomas--data from the German pituitary adenoma registry suggests modifications.

    PubMed

    Miermeister, Christian P; Petersenn, Stephan; Buchfelder, Michael; Fahlbusch, Rudolf; Lüdecke, Dieter K; Hölsken, Annett; Bergmann, Markus; Knappe, Ulrich Johannes; Hans, Volkmar H; Flitsch, Jörg; Saeger, Wolfgang; Buslei, Rolf

    2016-02-29

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in the author list. The name of one co-author is written wrong in the final version of the article; Dr Hans Ulrich Knappe should be Ulrich Johannes Knappe. The updated author list is provided below: Christian P. Miermeister, Stephan Petersenn, Michael Buchfelder, Rudolf Fahlbusch, Dieter K.Lüdecke, Annett Hölsken, Markus Bergmann, Ulrich Johannes Knappe, Volkmar H. Hans, Jörg Flitsch, Wolfgang Saeger and Rolf Buslei.

  5. Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. 9; (German Title: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Duerbeck, H. W.; Hamel, Jürgen

    The contributions deal with astronomical events of the past 1000 years. We elucidate the person of the single European observer of the supernova of 1006, and the views of Christoph Scheiner and Otto von Guericke on the structure and substance of the cosmos. A study of the development of the Copernican and the cosmological principles conclude this group of themes. Biographical investigations were carried out on the clockmaker Nikolaus Lilienfeld, the astronomers Johann Wurzelbau, Friedrich Wilhelm Toennies and Boris Karpov as well as the “panbabylonist” Alfred Jeremias. Astronomers can be active also in poetry and fiction. This is shown in the studies of Johann Leonard Rost and Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel. Finally, Johannes Hevelius' Observatory in Danzig/Gdansk, destroyed by a fire in 1679, is reconstructed by means of printed sources, old maps and photographs. The book concludes by short communications, obituaries and book reviews.

  6. Physics For Dummies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzner, Steve; Ph., D.

    2005-11-01

    The fun and easy way to understand the basic principles of physics How does gravity work? What does e=mc2 really mean? And what's a charm quark? Physics For Dummies answers these questions and more, explaining the basics of physical science and its importance in our everyday lives in a simple, clear, and entertaining fashion. Whether readers are taking a class, helping kids with homework, or are simply interested in how the world works, this plain-English guide gives them the knowledge they need to understand basic physics. Through real-world examples and problems, it covers such key topics as motion, energy, and waves (sound, light, wave-particle); solids, liquids, and gases; thermodynamics; electromagnetism; relativity; atomic and nuclear structures; and the Big Bang and stars. Steven Holzner, PhD (Ithaca, NY), is the author of more than 40 books and a former contributing editor at PC Magazine. He has been on the faculty of MIT and taught Physics 101 and 102 at Cornell for over ten years.

  7. Chebyshev matrix product state approach for time evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halimeh, Jad C.; Kolley, Fabian; McCulloch, Ian P.

    2015-09-01

    We present and test a new algorithm for time-evolving quantum many-body systems initially proposed by Holzner et al. [Phys. Rev. B 83, 195115 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevB.83.195115]. The approach is based on merging the matrix product state (MPS) formalism with the method of expanding the time-evolution operator in Chebyshev polynomials. We calculate time-dependent observables of a system of hardcore bosons quenched under the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian on a one-dimensional lattice. We compare the new algorithm to more standard methods using the MPS architecture. We find that the Chebyshev method gives numerically exact results for small times. However, the reachable times are smaller than the ones obtained with the other state-of-the-art methods. We further extend the new method using a spectral-decomposition-based projective scheme that utilizes an effective bandwidth significantly smaller than the full bandwidth, leading to longer evolution times than the nonprojective method and more efficient information storage, data compression, and less computational effort.

  8. Public-database enabled analysis of Lagrangian dynamics of isotropic turbulence near the Vieillefosse tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huidan; Meneveau, Charles

    2010-11-01

    We study the Lagrangian time evolution of velocity gradient dynamics near the Vieillefosse tail. The data are obtained from fluid particle tracking through the 1024^4 space-time DNS of forced isotropic turbulence at Reλ=433, using a web-based public database (http://turbulence.pha.jhu.edu). Examination of individual time-series of velocity gradient invariants R and Q show that they are punctuated by strong peaks of negative Q and positive R. Most of these occur very close to the Viellefosse tail along Q = - (3/2^2/3) R^2/3. It is found there that the magnitude of pressure Hessian has positive Lagrangian time-derivative, meaning that it increases in order to resist the rapid growth. We also observe a "phase delay" of the pressure Hessian signals compared to those of R and Q, indicative of an "overshoot" of the controlling mechanism. We also examine the trajectories in the recently proposed 3-D extension of the R-Q plane (see Lüthi B, Holzner M, Tsinober A. 2009, J. Fluid Mech. 641, 497-507). Finally, Lagrangian models of the velocity gradient tensor are examined in the same light to identify similarities and differences with the observed dynamics. Such comparisons supply informative guidance to model improvements.

  9. [The formation of medical knowledges in Russia before 1800: contributions of German speaking physicians].

    PubMed

    Henning, Aloys

    2004-01-01

    Under the Moscovian grand duke VASILIJ III (1505-1533) the physician NICOLAUS BüLOW from Lübeck translated into Russian "Gaerde der Suntheit" (The garden of health), printed at Lübeck in 1492. Many German oral and literal medical transfers to Russia are documented since, amongst those from whole Europe, which SABINE DUMSCHAT has actually investigates (1998; 2003). At the end of the 16th century the German translation fo JOHANN REMMELINS (1583-1632) "catoptron microcosmicum" (1661) was translated into Russian for teaching the first Russian military surgeons (fel'dshery). JOSIAS WEITBRECHT (1702-1747) from Württemberg, member of the Imperial Academy of Science at St Petersburg since 1725, created a catalog of the anatomical preparations in the Petersburg Chamber of Arts, which Peter I let buy from FREDERIK RUYSCH in 1717 at Amersterdamn. WEITBRECHT lectured on anatomy and physiology at the Academy since 1730, what DANIEL BERNOULLI (1700-1782) had done there before. JOHANN BLATHASAR HANHART (1704-1739) from Winterthur, surgeon since 1733 at the new Petersburg Admiralty's hospital was ordered to create the Latin terminology for the first anatomical atlas, ever printed in Russia (1744). When HANHART had died, the surgeon from Petersburg Army's hospital CHRISTOPH JAKOB VON MELLEN (1705-1765) from Lübeck finished his work. In 1757 and 1761 the chief-surgeon at the Admiralty's hospital MARTIN SHEIN (1712-1762) published the first textbooks on anatomy and surgery in Russian, having translated JOHANN ZACHARIAS PLATNERS 'Institutiones chirurgicae", Lipsiae 1745. In 1764 the accoucheur-surgeon JOHANN PAGENKAMPF, Personal surgeon of EKATERINA II, translated and published a German textbook from JOHANN HORN for accoucheuses into Russian for teaching at the Moscow school for accoucheuses under JOHANN FRIEDRICH ERASMUS from Strasburg, founded in 1757.

  10. Die Keplersche Supernova - Entdeckung vor 400 Jahren [Kepler's supernova: its discovery 400 years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, Thomas; Maitzen, Hans Michael

    2004-10-01

    We summarize the early observations of SN 1604 made by Johannes Brunowsky and Johannes Kepler in Prague in October 1604. Quoting from Kepler's two books on this subject ("Gründlicher Bericht" and "De stella nova"), we point out that he compared the supernova with respect to its twinkling with an "exquisite multifaceted diamond" and that he thought this object to be rather something like a newly born (proto-)star than a star in its final phase of evolution, as we would call it today. The twinkling of the star was interpreted by Kepler as intrinsic to it rather than an effect of the Earth's atmosphere.

  11. [The private institute of Franz Wilhelm Schweigger-Seidel (1795-1838) in Halle].

    PubMed

    Friedrich, C; Bettin, H; Schulz, A K

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the development of the chemical-pharmacist institute of Franz Wilhelm Schweigger-Seidel (1795-1838) in Halle. The institute was founded in 1829. Six letters by Johann Salomo Christoph Schweigger (1779-1857) and Franz Wilhelm Schweigger-Seidel to Johann Bartholomäus Trommsdorff (1770-1837) present new detailed information on the institute of Schweigger-Seidel and on his biography, especially on his descent and on his work as a pharmacist. Besides it was possible to show the family links between him and J. S. Chr. Schweigger resulting from adoptation in a correct way for the first time.

  12. COMMITTEES: SQM2006 Organising and International Advisory Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Organising Committee Kenneth Barish Huan Zhong Huang Joseph Kapusta Grazyna Odyniec Johann Rafelski Charles A Whitten Jr International Advisory Committee Jörg Aichelin Federico Antinori Tamas Biró Jean Cleymans Lazlo Csernai Tim Hallman Ulrich Heinz Sonja Kabana Rob Lacey Yu-Gang Ma Jes Madsen Yasuo Miake Berndt Mueller Grazyna Odyniec Helmut Oeschler Apostolos Panagiotou Johann Rafelski Hans Ritter Karel Safarik Jack Sandweiss Jürgen Schaffner-Bielich Wen-Qing Shen Georges Stephans Horst Stöcker Thomas Ullrich Bill Zajc

  13. System Accreditation: An Innovative Approach to Assure and Develop the Quality of Study Programmes in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Management and Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "System accreditation" is a new approach developed for German universities to conduct the mandatory accreditation of all their study programmes. A pilot project at Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz is playing an important role in paving the way for this alternative to prevailing programme accreditation. This article describes how…

  14. Gestural Enthymemes: Delivering Movement in 18th- and 19th-Century Medical Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sara

    2009-01-01

    This article contributes to recent efforts to add life and movement to rhetorical studies by focusing on the representation of movement in medical texts. More specifically, this study examines medical texts, illustrations, and photographs involving movement by Johann Casper Lavater, G. B. Duchenne de Bologne, Charles Darwin, and Etienne-Jules…

  15. Planning, Decisions, and Human Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, George

    1998-01-01

    Brings the perspectives of five individuals (Sigmund Freud, Karl Marx, Charles Darwin, Johann von Herder, James Madison) to the question of why humans behave as they do when faced with the need for decision making and change in higher education. Argues that effecting change is easier if leaders attend to the concerns and fears of those affected by…

  16. The Visual Memory-Based Memorization Techniques in Piano Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yucetoker, Izzet

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Johann Sebastian Bach is one of the leading composers of the baroque period. In addition to his huge contributions in the artistic dimension, he also served greatly in the field of education. This study has been done for determining the impact of visual memory-based memorization practices in the piano education on the visual…

  17. Franklin's Philadelphia Academy and Basedow's Dessau Philanthropine: Two Models of Non-Denominational Schooling in Eighteenth-Century America and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overhoff, Jurgen

    2007-01-01

    The Academy of Philadelphia (today known as the University of Pennsylvania), founded through Benjamin Franklin's influence in 1751, and the Dessau Philanthropine, founded by Johann Bernhard Basedow in 1774, were arguably the first non-denominational schools in the eighteenth century. Yet, the congenial educational ideas of their founders have…

  18. Mastery Learning in Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perko, F. Michael

    Seen in its strictest sense, mastery learning is a recent phenomenon. Viewed in terms of its constituent elements, however, it has roots deep in the Western tradition of education. Elements of mastery learning theory can be found in the work of the Sophists; early Jesuit educators; John Amos Comenius, a Moravian pastor; John Locke; Johann Heinrich…

  19. Faulhaber's Triangle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi-Dashti, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Like Pascal's triangle, Faulhaber's triangle is easy to draw: all you need is a little recursion. The rows are the coefficients of polynomials representing sums of integer powers. Such polynomials are often called Faulhaber formulae, after Johann Faulhaber (1580-1635); hence we dub the triangle Faulhaber's triangle.

  20. Effect of Instruction in Appropriate Rubato Usage on the Onset Timings of Musicians in Performances of Bach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effect of instruction in the use of specific rhythmic nuances on the timings of a musical performance. Forty volunteer upper-division and graduate students performed Johann Sebastian Bach's Suite no. 3 for Violoncello solo, Bouree no. 1, using a computer software program. Discusses the results. (CMK)

  1. History of Baroque Music in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators Journal, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The year 1985 marks the 300th birthday of three masters of Baroque music: Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frederic Handel, and Dominico Scarlatti. A summary of the history of Baroque music and a profile of the three composers, which can be used to teach secondary students about the period, are provided. (RM)

  2. Positive Feed-Bach: A Motivation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, William G.

    1984-01-01

    Classroom scrip emblazoned with a picture of Johann Sebastian Bach is used to motivate junior high school students. Students are paid for cooperation and performance. Two auctions are held during the school year, at which students can spend the scrip on musical items. (CS)

  3. The telescopes of Duke Ernst I, the Pious, of Saxony-Gotha. (German Title: Die Fernrohre von Herzog Ernst I., dem Frommen, von Sachsen-Gotha)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Inge

    Already in the 17th century, there was an interest in astronomy at the court of Gotha, where Duke Ernst I hold one of the largest collections of telescopes at his times, with instruments made by the Augsburg optician Johann Wiesel, by Baruch Spinoza and others. By the help of the inventory of the Kunstkammer the holdings may be documentarily demonstrated.

  4. Features described and illustrated in 1684 suggesting Meckel-Gruber syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kompanje, Erwin J O

    2003-01-01

    In 1684, Mr. Christopher Krahe described a monstrous child, born in Denmark on Friday, February 29, 1684. The description is suggestive of a diagnosis of Meckel-Gruber syndrome (dysencephalia splanchnocystica). This may represent the oldest description and illustration of the syndrome, of which the first detailed description is attributed to Johann Friedrich der Jüngere in 1822.

  5. 77 FR 25780 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Gold, Jasper, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Gold, Jasper, and Carnelian: Johann... April 15, 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Gold,...

  6. Mental Maps and Ethnocentrism: Geographic Characterizations in the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Harold M.

    1979-01-01

    Reexamines geographic thought regarding ethnocentrism as expressed in the writings including Ellen Churchill Semple, Hendrick Willem Van Loon, Ellsworth Huntington, Roswell C. Smith, J. Olney, Henry Thomas Buckle, Georg Friedrich Hegel, Johann Gottfried Von Herder, Charles de Montesquieu, Ibn Khaldun, and Hippocrates. (DB)

  7. Political and Cultural Nationalism in Education. The Ideas of Rousseau and Herder Concerning National Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiborg, Susanne

    2000-01-01

    Jean Jacques Rousseau in France and Johann Gottfied Herder in Germany both emphasized the role of education in building the nation-state. However, Rousseau focused on shaping the national character through citizenship education and political socialization in public schools, while Herder saw a national identity evolving from a common culture and…

  8. "Dancing Cannot Start Too Soon": Spiritual Education in the Thought of Jean Paul Friedrich Richter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridmore, John

    2004-01-01

    Johann Paul Friedrich Richter (1763-1825) adopted the pen-name "Jean Paul" in honour of Jean Jaques Rousseau. His "Levana or the doctrine of education" ("Levana oder Erziehlehre") was once a standard text and required reading in teacher education. Outside Germany the name of Jean Paul is now little known and the…

  9. Outdoor Education--The Past Is Prologue to the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    Although educators and philosophers such as Johann Amos Comenius, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Pestalozzi, and Froebel stressed the study of nature, outdoor education really began with the first teaching-learning act which occurred outdoors. The human being, physiologically and psychologically adapted for outdoor existence, has only been indoors for…

  10. Doubt, Despair and Hope in Western Thought: Unamuno and the Promise of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the importance of doubt in Western philosophy, with particular attention to the work of Søren Kierkegaard and Miguel de Unamuno. Kierkegaard's pseudonymous author Johannes Climacus ventures down the pathway of doubt, finds it perplexing and difficult and discovers that he is unable to return to his pre-doubting self. In…

  11. The Transition from Latin to German in the Natural Sciences--And Its Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porksen, Uwe

    Little is known about the transition from the use of Latin to the use of German in scientific literature. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Latin texts by Albrecht Durer and Johannes Kepler were bestsellers while the German versions were unpopular. German mathematics became acceptable only after 1700, with the work of Christian Wolff.…

  12. Satellite-Based Fusion of Image/Inertial Sensors for Precise Geolocation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Kepler’s three laws of planetary motion: orbital ellipse, law of equal areas, and orbits with equal periods [22]. man astronomer Johannes Kepler (1571-1630... Kepler devised the three fundamental laws of planetary motion as follows [22]: • Planets follow an elliptical orbit with the sun at one of its foci

  13. Conceptual Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ram, Ashwin, Ed.; Nersessian, Nancy J., Ed.; Keil, Frank C., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This special issue includes four articles that address issues concerning conceptual change. Topics include analogical reasoning and a case study of Johannes Kepler; conceptual change and wine expertise; the role of extreme case reasoning in instruction for conceptual change; and dynamic science assessment: a new approach for investigating…

  14. Beaming Electricity via Relay Satellites in Support of Deployed Combat Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    the predictions of Nicolaus Copernicus and the meticulous observations of Tycho Brahe as his basis Johannes Kepler was able to concisely describe...Wertz, 2005). While Kepler did succeed in describing celestial mechanics it was Newton that synthesized Kepler’s work with terrestrial dynamics

  15. Bode's Berlin Astronomisches Jahrbuch as a biographical source (German Title: Bodes Berliner Astronomisches Jahrbuch als biographische Quelle)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwemin, Friedhelm

    2010-12-01

    The appendices of the first 54 volumes (1776-1829) of the Berliner Astronomisches Jahrbuch (BAJ), edited by Johann Elert Bode, contain a plethora of biographically relevant notes, which are listed here, alphabetically sorted, in short versions. In parts, the listing possesses the quality of a primary source, and contains information on 771 persons. Many of them are poorly known or unknown.

  16. 76 FR 18684 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... months (Weaver 2006, p. 9). They survive colder conditions at higher elevations by burrowing underground... is a common cause of land snail death, especially in arid areas (Frest and Johannes 1995, p. 18...). Substantial variation in shell morphology within a particular Oreohelix colony is common (Pilsbry 1916, p. 340...

  17. Legacy Chlordane in Soils from Housing Areas Treated with Organochlorine Pesticides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    because of concern about cancer risks and canceled all uses after 1988 (USEPA/IRIS 2008). There- fore, all chlordane present in soil in Air Force housing...and T. F. Meiller. 2004. Fungal biofilms and drug resistance. Emerging Infectious Diseases (www.cdc.gov/eid) 10:14–19. Johannes, C., and A

  18. Explorers with a Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Patricia James

    1991-01-01

    Offers brief summaries of contributions made by several of Christopher Columbus's contemporaries, including Nicholas Cusa, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo Buonarroti, Nicholas Copernicus, Johannes Gutenberg, Sir Thomas More, Desiderius Erasmus, and John Colet. Urges modern Catholic educators to learn from these risk takers and visionaries. (DMM)

  19. A Convenient Model for the Evolution of Early Psychology as a Scientific Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Robert

    1981-01-01

    To help college students understand psychology, the article suggests that instructors develop curriculum based on the relationship between scientific and technological advances and the development of early psychology. Views of many nineteenth century psychologists are summarized, including Johann Friedrich Herbart, Hermann Lotze, and Georg…

  20. The Particularities and the Research Missions of the Educational Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gang, Wu

    2006-01-01

    Starting from the analysis of the theoretical drawbacks of classical pedagogy stretching from Johann Friedrich Herbart to John Dewey, this paper advocates that educational research in China in the new century should take on a theory mission that calls for the classification of the knowledge of educational theory and the definition of its…

  1. Home Teaching and Herbart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Val D.; Reed, Frances

    1979-01-01

    Viewing the growing disenchantment with state-controlled schooling, the authors predict that home teaching will become an established educational alternative within a short time, and they reflect on the teachings and writings of Johann Friedrich Herbart, an eighteenth-century advocate of educating children at home. (Editor/SJL)

  2. Play as Education in the School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Friedrich Froebel, an early advocate of the use of play in kindergarten teaching, argued that the ultimate goal of education was developing the creative person. According to Froebel, teachers could promote creativity through play by using gifts, occupations, and mother play songs. By contrast, Johann Herbart called for a subject centered…

  3. Carl Friedrich Gauss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kathryn; Scott, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a brief biography of Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss. Gauss was born on April 30, 1777, in the German city of Braunschweig (Brunswick). He was the only child of Gebhard Dietrich Gauss and Dorothea Benze. Neither of Gauss's parents had much education, his father could read and write, but earned his living doing menial jobs such as…

  4. "Dancing Cannot Start Too Soon": Spiritual Education in the Thought of Jean Paul Friedrich Richter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridmore, John

    2004-01-01

    Johann Paul Friedrich Richter (1763-1825) adopted the pen-name "Jean Paul" in honour of Jean Jaques Rousseau. His "Levana or the doctrine of education" ("Levana oder Erziehlehre") was once a standard text and required reading in teacher education. Outside Germany the name of Jean Paul is now little known and the…

  5. Reprint Series: Memorable Personalities in Mathematics: Nineteenth Century. RS-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaf, William L., Ed.

    This is one in a series of SMSG supplementary and enrichment pamphlets for high school students. This series makes available expository articles which appeared in a variety of mathematical periodicals. Topics covered include: (1) Laplace; (2) Carl Friedrich Gauss; (3) Wolfgang and Johann Bolyai; (4) Evariste Galois; and (5) Josiah Willard Gibbs.…

  6. Sources of Kant's Cosmopolitanism: Basedow, Rousseau, and Cosmopolitan Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallar, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this essay is to analyse the influence of Johann Bernhard Basedow and Rousseau on Kant's cosmopolitanism and concept of cosmopolitan education. It argues that both Basedow and Kant defined cosmopolitan education as non-denominational moral formation or "Bildung", encompassing--in different forms--a thin version of moral…

  7. Planning, Decisions, and Human Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, George

    1998-01-01

    Brings the perspectives of five individuals (Sigmund Freud, Karl Marx, Charles Darwin, Johann von Herder, James Madison) to the question of why humans behave as they do when faced with the need for decision making and change in higher education. Argues that effecting change is easier if leaders attend to the concerns and fears of those affected by…

  8. Gestural Enthymemes: Delivering Movement in 18th- and 19th-Century Medical Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sara

    2009-01-01

    This article contributes to recent efforts to add life and movement to rhetorical studies by focusing on the representation of movement in medical texts. More specifically, this study examines medical texts, illustrations, and photographs involving movement by Johann Casper Lavater, G. B. Duchenne de Bologne, Charles Darwin, and Etienne-Jules…

  9. Notes on the Nature of Bilingual Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Johanne Paradis' Keynote Article can be read as a concise critical review of the research that focuses on the sometimes strained relationship between bilingualism and specific language impairment (SLI). In my comments I will add some thoughts based on our own research on the learning of Dutch as a second language (L2) by children with SLI.

  10. The King and the Shah: Modernization, Dependence and Regime Stability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    Morocco’s. Galtung describes dependency as an unequal exchange between center and peripheral nations in the following five categories: economic, political...Israeli Conflict, University of California, 1977. 171 15. Galtung , Johann, "A Structural Theory of Imperialism," in Modelski, ed., Transnational

  11. Political and Cultural Nationalism in Education. The Ideas of Rousseau and Herder Concerning National Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiborg, Susanne

    2000-01-01

    Jean Jacques Rousseau in France and Johann Gottfied Herder in Germany both emphasized the role of education in building the nation-state. However, Rousseau focused on shaping the national character through citizenship education and political socialization in public schools, while Herder saw a national identity evolving from a common culture and…

  12. Positive Feed-Bach: A Motivation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, William G.

    1984-01-01

    Classroom scrip emblazoned with a picture of Johann Sebastian Bach is used to motivate junior high school students. Students are paid for cooperation and performance. Two auctions are held during the school year, at which students can spend the scrip on musical items. (CS)

  13. History of Baroque Music in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators Journal, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The year 1985 marks the 300th birthday of three masters of Baroque music: Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frederic Handel, and Dominico Scarlatti. A summary of the history of Baroque music and a profile of the three composers, which can be used to teach secondary students about the period, are provided. (RM)

  14. Effect of Instruction in Appropriate Rubato Usage on the Onset Timings of Musicians in Performances of Bach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effect of instruction in the use of specific rhythmic nuances on the timings of a musical performance. Forty volunteer upper-division and graduate students performed Johann Sebastian Bach's Suite no. 3 for Violoncello solo, Bouree no. 1, using a computer software program. Discusses the results. (CMK)

  15. We Can No Longer Afford a Monolingual Norm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurer-Pearson, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In her Keynote Article, Johanne Paradis does a service for the research and the clinical communities with this comprehensive review of the literature encompassing bilingualism and specific language impairment (SLI). Her work and the work of her colleagues for more than a decade have been persistent in bringing these two threads together: using…

  16. Breaking barriers.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    Johanne Tomlinson detected connections between high anxiety levels, confrontational behaviour and self-harm in offenders in her care at a men's prison. Her observations led to the launch of an anxiety management service, which she now runs alongside her regular nursing work. Her commitment has resulted in her being named Nursing Standard's nurse of the year 2012.

  17. Faulhaber's Triangle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi-Dashti, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Like Pascal's triangle, Faulhaber's triangle is easy to draw: all you need is a little recursion. The rows are the coefficients of polynomials representing sums of integer powers. Such polynomials are often called Faulhaber formulae, after Johann Faulhaber (1580-1635); hence we dub the triangle Faulhaber's triangle.

  18. Folk Literature of the Warao Indians; Narrative Material and Motif Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbert, Johannes

    The Latin American Center, University of California at Los Angeles, presents a collection of the folk literature of the "boat people," the Warao Indians of the Orinoco Delta of Venezuela and Guyana. According to Professor Johannes Wilbert and other anthropologists, "the inaccessibility of their habitat has preserved their tribal…

  19. Idea Bank: Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Denise; Watkins, Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    In 1609, Galileo Galilei turned his telescope to the night sky and began a series of observations of the cosmos. These observations, together with the work of Johannes Kepler and other scientists of the time, revolutionized our understanding of the universe and the process by which we do science. The United Nations General Assembly has proclaimed…

  20. Who Solved the Bernoulli Differential Equation and How Did They Do It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Adam E.

    2013-01-01

    The Bernoulli brothers, Jacob and Johann, and Leibniz: Any of these might have been first to solve what is called the Bernoulli differential equation. We explore their ideas and the chronology of their work, finding out, among other things, that variation of parameters was used in 1697, 78 years before 1775, when Lagrange introduced it in general.

  1. Expansion or Marginalization: How Effects-Based Organization Could Determine the Future of Air Force Space Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    be protected and controlled) levels of war. . . . The second doctrinal * Johannes Kepler (57–630) was the first to describe mathematically the...FUTURE OF AIR FORCE SPACE COMMAND. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Domain versus Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kepler Only...command could be with the appropriate effects-based focus, mediocre is an appropriate description. Kepler Only One concrete example of the command’s

  2. Conceptual Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ram, Ashwin, Ed.; Nersessian, Nancy J., Ed.; Keil, Frank C., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This special issue includes four articles that address issues concerning conceptual change. Topics include analogical reasoning and a case study of Johannes Kepler; conceptual change and wine expertise; the role of extreme case reasoning in instruction for conceptual change; and dynamic science assessment: a new approach for investigating…

  3. The Transition from Latin to German in the Natural Sciences--And Its Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porksen, Uwe

    Little is known about the transition from the use of Latin to the use of German in scientific literature. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Latin texts by Albrecht Durer and Johannes Kepler were bestsellers while the German versions were unpopular. German mathematics became acceptable only after 1700, with the work of Christian Wolff.…

  4. Doubt, Despair and Hope in Western Thought: Unamuno and the Promise of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the importance of doubt in Western philosophy, with particular attention to the work of Søren Kierkegaard and Miguel de Unamuno. Kierkegaard's pseudonymous author Johannes Climacus ventures down the pathway of doubt, finds it perplexing and difficult and discovers that he is unable to return to his pre-doubting self. In…

  5. From Mendel’s discovery on pea to today´s plant genetics and breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2015 we celebrated the 150th anniversary of the presentation of the seminal work of Gregor Johann Mendel. While Darwin's theory was based on differential survival and differential reproductive success, Mendel's on equality throughout all stages of the life cycle. Darwin's concepts were continuou...

  6. Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) was arguably the most innovative astronomical theorist in the millennium and a half from Claudius PTOLEMY's Almagest (c. AD 150) to Isaac NEWTON's Principia (1687). Before Kepler, planetary and lunar theory had consisted in combining circular motions, either strictly uniform or angularly uniform about an off-center `equant' point, so as to `save the appearances'. T...

  7. Political "Bildung" in the Context of Discipline, Instruction, and Moral Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841) is considered the founding father of the science of education. In this article, I will try to show that Herbart sees the promotion of political "Bildung" as the task of discipline, instruction, and moral guidance, and that his work presents important components of a theory of political…

  8. Predicting the Atomic Weights of the Trans-Lawrencium Elements: A Novel Application of Dobereiner's Triads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Sami A.

    2005-01-01

    Johann Wolfgang Dobereiner, in 1829, made the first significant attempt to reveal a relation between the properties of the chemical elements and their atomic weights. His groupings remain useful for providing reasonable estimates for the properties and the atomic weights of the trans-lawrencium elements.

  9. Mental Maps and Ethnocentrism: Geographic Characterizations in the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Harold M.

    1979-01-01

    Reexamines geographic thought regarding ethnocentrism as expressed in the writings including Ellen Churchill Semple, Hendrick Willem Van Loon, Ellsworth Huntington, Roswell C. Smith, J. Olney, Henry Thomas Buckle, Georg Friedrich Hegel, Johann Gottfried Von Herder, Charles de Montesquieu, Ibn Khaldun, and Hippocrates. (DB)

  10. Importance Sampling in the Evaluation and Optimization of Buffered Failure Probability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    Importance Sampling in the Evaluation and Optimization of Buffered Failure Probability Marwan M. Harajli Graduate Student, Dept. of Civil and Environ...Seattle, USA Johannes O. Royset Associate Professor, Operations Research Dept., Naval Postgraduate School , Monterey, USA ABSTRACT: Engineering design is...criterion is usually the failure probability. In this paper, we examine the buffered failure probability as an attractive alternative to the failure

  11. Sources of Kant's Cosmopolitanism: Basedow, Rousseau, and Cosmopolitan Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallar, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this essay is to analyse the influence of Johann Bernhard Basedow and Rousseau on Kant's cosmopolitanism and concept of cosmopolitan education. It argues that both Basedow and Kant defined cosmopolitan education as non-denominational moral formation or "Bildung", encompassing--in different forms--a thin version of moral…

  12. Goethe's "Delicate Empiricism": Assessing Its Value for Australian Ecologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, recognised as a seminal German polymath, developed a unique approach for investigating nature, termed "delicate empiricism". Goethe's approach uses empathy, imagination and intuition to promote a participatory engagement with the world. It goes beyond the dualistic-rationalism that defines…

  13. Explorers with a Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Patricia James

    1991-01-01

    Offers brief summaries of contributions made by several of Christopher Columbus's contemporaries, including Nicholas Cusa, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo Buonarroti, Nicholas Copernicus, Johannes Gutenberg, Sir Thomas More, Desiderius Erasmus, and John Colet. Urges modern Catholic educators to learn from these risk takers and visionaries. (DMM)

  14. Preface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-13

    J Optim Theory Appl (2016) 169:713–718 DOI 10.1007/s10957-016-0937-7 PREFACE Preface Johannes O. Royset1 Published online : 3 May 2016 © Springer...guidance about “slower is faster,” places to shop , and even recipes for ratatouille. His explanation of optimal control started with the question “do you

  15. Franklin's Philadelphia Academy and Basedow's Dessau Philanthropine: Two Models of Non-Denominational Schooling in Eighteenth-Century America and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overhoff, Jurgen

    2007-01-01

    The Academy of Philadelphia (today known as the University of Pennsylvania), founded through Benjamin Franklin's influence in 1751, and the Dessau Philanthropine, founded by Johann Bernhard Basedow in 1774, were arguably the first non-denominational schools in the eighteenth century. Yet, the congenial educational ideas of their founders have…

  16. A HISTORY OF THE CARE AND STUDY OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KANNER, LEO

    THE HISTORY AND CARE OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED IS TRACED FROM ANTIQUITY TO THE PRESENT. A REVIEW OF MEN WHO ORIGINATED EDUCATIONAL AND INSTITUTIONAL WORK WITH THE FEEBLEMINDED INCLUDES JACOB PEREIRE, JEAN ITARD, JOHANN GUGGENBUEHL, EDOUARD SEGUIN, AND SAMUEL HOWE. PUBLICATIONS BY AND ABOUT THESE MEN ARE LISTED. THE DEVELOPMENT OF INSTITUTIONS IS…

  17. Jan Komensky--The Teacher of Nations. Occasional Papers, 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Eric

    The speech, given to commemorate the tercentenary of the visit of Jan Komensky (Johann Amos Comenius--the latinised form of his name) to England, outlines the educational reforms suggested by him and chronicles his life. Komeny, born in 1652 in southeast Moravia, was personally affected throughout his life by war and disease and traveled about…

  18. Kant on Dignity and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesinger, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, Johannes Giesinger discusses the educational significance of Immanuel Kant's conception of human dignity. According to Kant, Giesinger claims, children can and should be educated for dignity: on the one hand, children realize their dignity by developing the capacity for moral autonomy; on the other hand, this capacity can only…

  19. Bilingualism as a Kind of Therapy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulk, Aafke; Unsworth, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    In her very interesting Keynote Article, Johanne Paradis gives a clear overview of recent research at the interface of bilingual development and child language disorders, and highlights its theoretical and clinical implications. She raises the challenging question of "whether bilingualism can be viewed as a kind of "therapy" for SLI." At first…

  20. Predicting the Atomic Weights of the Trans-Lawrencium Elements: A Novel Application of Dobereiner's Triads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Sami A.

    2005-01-01

    Johann Wolfgang Dobereiner, in 1829, made the first significant attempt to reveal a relation between the properties of the chemical elements and their atomic weights. His groupings remain useful for providing reasonable estimates for the properties and the atomic weights of the trans-lawrencium elements.

  1. Engineering Decisions Under Risk-Averseness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-19

    Systems, Part A: Civil Engineering , to appear. 14. ABSTRACT Engineering decisions are invariably made under substantial uncertainty about current and...optimization analysis. ASCE Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering , 27(1):8798, 2013. R. Minguez, E. Castillo, and J.L. Lara. Iterative scenario... ENGINEERING DECISIONS UNDER RISK-AVERSENESS∗ R. Tyrrell Rockafellar Johannes O. Royset Department of Mathematics Operations Research Department

  2. Education, Fair Competition, and Concern for the Worst Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesinger, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, Johannes Giesinger comments on the current philosophical debate on educational justice. He observes that while authors like Elizabeth Anderson and Debra Satz develop a so-called adequacy view of educational justice, Harry Brighouse and Adam Swift defend an egalitarian principle. Giesinger focuses his analysis on the main objection…

  3. Euler and His Contribution Number Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Len, Amy; Scott, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Born in 1707, Leonhard Euler was the son of a Protestant minister from the vicinity of Basel, Switzerland. With the aim of pursuing a career in theology, Euler entered the University of Basel at the age of thirteen, where he was tutored in mathematics by Johann Bernoulli (of the famous Bernoulli family of mathematicians). He developed an interest…

  4. Who Solved the Bernoulli Differential Equation and How Did They Do It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Adam E.

    2013-01-01

    The Bernoulli brothers, Jacob and Johann, and Leibniz: Any of these might have been first to solve what is called the Bernoulli differential equation. We explore their ideas and the chronology of their work, finding out, among other things, that variation of parameters was used in 1697, 78 years before 1775, when Lagrange introduced it in general.

  5. Looking to Mars for Mathematics Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

    2010-01-01

    Each year a high school math club selects an applications topic for a year-long study. This year the club members chose the study of Mars in its orbit from the perspective of Johannes Kepler's laws of orbital motion, which they applied to data available on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Horizons Web site. Although not apparent at the time, the math…

  6. Revitalising "Bildsamkeit"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeverot, Herner

    2016-01-01

    In the book "Forgotten Connections. On Culture and Upbringing," originally from 1983, the late German educator Klaus Mollenhauer interprets Johann Friedrich Herbart's educational concept of "Bildsamkeit", i.e., the ability and willingness to be educated. Furthermore, Mollenhauer conceives "Bildsamkeit" as growing out…

  7. Goethe's "Metamorphosis of the Plants" and the Art of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Alan P.

    1982-01-01

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's views on children, adults, and nature complement and redeem the one-sided attitude of our present-day habits of thought. Goethe's writings about natural history and the relationship between the individual and society illustrate how teaching can be less a branch of technology than an art. (PP)

  8. Goethe's Phenomenological Optics: The Point Where Language Ends and Experience Begins in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junker, Kirk

    This paper explores whether phenomenology, in general, and the case of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's phenomenological optics in particular, provides a case and a location for "minimal realism," located between the extreme positions of absolute scientific realists and "radical rhetoricians." The paper begins with a description of…

  9. ATV 2 Approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-24

    ISS026-E-029470 (24 Feb. 2011) --- Surrounded by the blackness of space, the European Space Agency's "Johannes Kepler" Automated Transfer Vehicle-2 (ATV-2) approaches the International Space Station. Docking of the two spacecraft occurred at 10:59 a.m. (EST) on Feb. 24, 2011.

  10. ATV 2 Approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-24

    ISS026-E-029343 (24 Feb. 2011) --- Backdropped by the blackness of space and Earth’s horizon, the European Space Agency's "Johannes Kepler" Automated Transfer Vehicle-2 (ATV-2) appears very small as it approaches the International Space Station. Docking of the two spacecraft occurred at 10:59 a.m. (EST) on Feb. 24, 2011.

  11. ATV 2 Approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-24

    ISS026-E-029435 (24 Feb. 2011) --- Backdropped by a cloud-covered part of Earth, the European Space Agency's "Johannes Kepler" Automated Transfer Vehicle-2 (ATV-2) approaches the International Space Station. Docking of the two spacecraft occurred at 10:59 a.m. (EST) on Feb. 24, 2011.

  12. Education Matters, July 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckner, Gary, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Education Matters" is the monthly newsletter of the Association of American Educators (AAE), an organization dedicated to advancing the American teaching profession through personal growth, professional development, teacher advocacy and protection. This issue of the newsletter includes: (1) How to Avoid Burnout (Kate Johanns); and (2)…

  13. Kant on Dignity and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesinger, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, Johannes Giesinger discusses the educational significance of Immanuel Kant's conception of human dignity. According to Kant, Giesinger claims, children can and should be educated for dignity: on the one hand, children realize their dignity by developing the capacity for moral autonomy; on the other hand, this capacity can only…

  14. Leo Minor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Lesser Lion; abbrev. LMi, gen. Leonis Minoris; area 232 sq.deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Ursa Major and Leo, and culminates at midnight in late February. It was introduced by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87) of Danzig (Gdansk), who included it in his atlas Firmamentum Sobiescianum sive Uranographia of 1687....

  15. Vulpecula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Fox; abbrev. Vul, gen. Vulpeculae; area 268 sq. deg.) a northern constellation which lies between Cygnus and Sagitta-Delphinus, and culminates at midnight in late July. It was introduced as Vulpecula cum Ansere (the Fox and Goose) by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87) of Danzig (Gdansk), who included it in his atlas Firmamentum Sobiescianum sive Uranographia of 1687....

  16. Lacerta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Lizard; abbrev. Lac, gen. Lacertae; area 201 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Cygnus and Andromeda, and culminates at midnight in late August. It was introduced by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87) of Danzig (Gdansk), who included it in his atlas Firmamentum Sobiescianum sive Uranographia of 1687. Hevelius also gave it the alternative name of Stellio (the Stelli...

  17. Lynx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Lynx; abbrev. Lyn, gen. Lyncis; area 545 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Ursa Major and Auriga, and culminates at midnight in late January. It was introduced by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87) of Danzig (Gdansk), who included it in his atlas Firmamentum Sobiescianum sive Uranographia of 1687. An inconspicuous constellation, Hevelius (who distrusted telescopic...

  18. Scutum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Shield; abbrev. Sct, gen. Scuti; area 109 sq. deg.) A southern constellation which lies to the south-west of Aquila, and culminates at midnight in early July. It was introduced as Scutum Sobiescianum (Sobieski's Shield) by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87) of Danzig (Gdansk) in 1684 in honor of Jan Sobieski III, king of Poland....

  19. Sextans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Sextant; abbrev. Sex, gen. Sextantis; area 314 sq. deg.) An equatorial constellation which lies between Leo and Hydra, and culminates at midnight in late February. It was introduced as Sextans Uraniae (Urania's Sextant) to commemorate the astronomical sextant (which is larger than the later marine sextant) by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87) of Danzig (Gdansk), who included it in h...

  20. Adams, John Couch (1819-92)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in Laneast, Cornwall, England, he became fellow and mathematical tutor at Cambridge. He developed a procedure for numerical integration of differential equations and, inspired by MARY SOMERVILLE, he deduced mathematically the existence and location of the planet Neptune from its perturbations on the planet Uranus. Neptune was discovered by JOHANN GALLE in Berlin, in September 1846, using URB...

  1. Goethe's "Delicate Empiricism": Assessing Its Value for Australian Ecologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, recognised as a seminal German polymath, developed a unique approach for investigating nature, termed "delicate empiricism". Goethe's approach uses empathy, imagination and intuition to promote a participatory engagement with the world. It goes beyond the dualistic-rationalism that defines…

  2. Kafka: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Ronald, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Ronald Gray, Edwin Muir, Friedrich Beissner, R. O. C. Winkler, Johannes Pfeiffer, Caroline Gordon, Idris Parry, Edmund Wilson, Erich Heller, Austin Warren, Eliseo Vivas, Albert Camus, Martin Buber, and H. S. Reiss--all…

  3. A HISTORY OF THE CARE AND STUDY OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KANNER, LEO

    THE HISTORY AND CARE OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED IS TRACED FROM ANTIQUITY TO THE PRESENT. A REVIEW OF MEN WHO ORIGINATED EDUCATIONAL AND INSTITUTIONAL WORK WITH THE FEEBLEMINDED INCLUDES JACOB PEREIRE, JEAN ITARD, JOHANN GUGGENBUEHL, EDOUARD SEGUIN, AND SAMUEL HOWE. PUBLICATIONS BY AND ABOUT THESE MEN ARE LISTED. THE DEVELOPMENT OF INSTITUTIONS IS…

  4. Kafka: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Ronald, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Ronald Gray, Edwin Muir, Friedrich Beissner, R. O. C. Winkler, Johannes Pfeiffer, Caroline Gordon, Idris Parry, Edmund Wilson, Erich Heller, Austin Warren, Eliseo Vivas, Albert Camus, Martin Buber, and H. S. Reiss--all…

  5. Education, Fair Competition, and Concern for the Worst Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesinger, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, Johannes Giesinger comments on the current philosophical debate on educational justice. He observes that while authors like Elizabeth Anderson and Debra Satz develop a so-called adequacy view of educational justice, Harry Brighouse and Adam Swift defend an egalitarian principle. Giesinger focuses his analysis on the main objection…

  6. Projects in Computer Aided Climatology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    Always blank 17 Cbservation herder column (blank or 9) if ŝ" the scope is clear Always blank 19 Azimuth angle 1 header (blank or 9) if ŝ" there are no...optional. SUBSECTION I-A THE EQUATIONS OF TRANSFORMATION The mapping procedure used was originally proposed by the Swiss mathematician, Johann Heinrich

  7. Reconciling Nationalism and Stability in Eurasia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-10

    recent invention. The German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder is credited with having first articulated the concept in the early 19 th century. He... Herder argued, each people was unique and important, possessing a collective spirit (Volksgeist) which was embodied in its language, customs

  8. Schooling as a Means of Popular Education: Pestalozzi's Method as a Popular Education Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horlacher, Rebekka

    2011-01-01

    Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi promised his Method as a means of education for all that was easily manageable by mothers at home for early childhood, leading eventually to a wholesome person characterised by morality. In order to develop this Method, Pestalozzi published "Wie Gertrud ihre Kinder lehrt" (How Gertrud Teaches her Children) in…

  9. Pestalozzi's Influence on Manual Training in Nineteenth-Century Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culver, Steven M.

    1986-01-01

    Recounts the life and work of the Swiss educator, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, who believed all students, regardless of social class, should have some vocational training. His ideas were the basis for the 1880s training schools in the United States. (Author/CH)

  10. The Origins of Progressive Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, William J.

    2001-01-01

    Explains that in the United States, child-centered progressivism was part of a larger humanitarian movement led by the northern middle classes in the antebellum and postbellum periods. States that games, stories, play time and informal learning experiences became part of a broader educational discourse due to the writings of Johann Pestalozzi and…

  11. Mastery Learning in Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perko, F. Michael

    Seen in its strictest sense, mastery learning is a recent phenomenon. Viewed in terms of its constituent elements, however, it has roots deep in the Western tradition of education. Elements of mastery learning theory can be found in the work of the Sophists; early Jesuit educators; John Amos Comenius, a Moravian pastor; John Locke; Johann Heinrich…

  12. Outdoor Education--The Past Is Prologue to the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    Although educators and philosophers such as Johann Amos Comenius, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Pestalozzi, and Froebel stressed the study of nature, outdoor education really began with the first teaching-learning act which occurred outdoors. The human being, physiologically and psychologically adapted for outdoor existence, has only been indoors for…

  13. Pestalozzi and James Pierrepont Greaves: A Shared Educational Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Jackie E. M.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on Johann H. Pestalozzi, James Pierrepont Greaves, and Reverend Charles Mayo. States that Greaves and Mayo disseminated Pestalozzi's ideas and techniques in England. Explains that Pestalozzi and Greaves trained elementary teachers to view students' talents and personal growth as a whole person concept. Argues less effort would limit…

  14. Pestalozzi: Foster Father of Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewes, Dorothy W.

    In tracing the spread of the educational philosophy of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, it is useful to understand educators' emphasis on an internal or external locus of control. Pestalozzi was an individual with an internal locus of control, and this trait was reflected in his educational philosophy of self-learning and free investigation. However,…

  15. Kepler-Astronomer in Astrology and Astrologer in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fempl-Madarevic, Jasna

    The author is discussing the role of astrology and mysticism in the scientific work by Johannes Kepler. This subject is as more important as the astrology and mysticism are actually very widespread. The author is separating the mathematical proofs in the Kepler's writings from astrological beliefs.

  16. Technological Effects on Aesthetic Evaluation: Vermeer and the Camera Obscura

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, Donald A.; Sudduth, Mary Margaret; Clabaugh, Alison

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether an artist's use of technology to create art results in a detectable aesthetic difference was investigated in the case of Dutch realist painter Johannes Vermeer and his use of the camera obscura. In Experiment 1, participants evaluated 20 Vermeer paintings on 6 aesthetic dimensions and preferred paintings created with the…

  17. Folk Literature of the Warao Indians; Narrative Material and Motif Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbert, Johannes

    The Latin American Center, University of California at Los Angeles, presents a collection of the folk literature of the "boat people," the Warao Indians of the Orinoco Delta of Venezuela and Guyana. According to Professor Johannes Wilbert and other anthropologists, "the inaccessibility of their habitat has preserved their tribal…

  18. Technological Effects on Aesthetic Evaluation: Vermeer and the Camera Obscura

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, Donald A.; Sudduth, Mary Margaret; Clabaugh, Alison

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether an artist's use of technology to create art results in a detectable aesthetic difference was investigated in the case of Dutch realist painter Johannes Vermeer and his use of the camera obscura. In Experiment 1, participants evaluated 20 Vermeer paintings on 6 aesthetic dimensions and preferred paintings created with the…

  19. Revitalising "Bildsamkeit"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeverot, Herner

    2016-01-01

    In the book "Forgotten Connections. On Culture and Upbringing," originally from 1983, the late German educator Klaus Mollenhauer interprets Johann Friedrich Herbart's educational concept of "Bildsamkeit", i.e., the ability and willingness to be educated. Furthermore, Mollenhauer conceives "Bildsamkeit" as growing out…

  20. Looking to Mars for Mathematics Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

    2010-01-01

    Each year a high school math club selects an applications topic for a year-long study. This year the club members chose the study of Mars in its orbit from the perspective of Johannes Kepler's laws of orbital motion, which they applied to data available on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Horizons Web site. Although not apparent at the time, the math…

  1. Overview of Stueckelberg's Life as a Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanders, Gérard

    Ernst Carl Gerlach Stueckelberg was born in Basel on February 1, 1905. His full name was: Johann Melchior Ernst Karl Gerlach Stueckelberg, Freiherr von Breidenbach zu Breidenstein und Melsbach. He inherited his German title from his mother's family. His father was a lawyer and his paternal grandfather was a well-known swiss painter.

  2. Idea Bank: Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Denise; Watkins, Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    In 1609, Galileo Galilei turned his telescope to the night sky and began a series of observations of the cosmos. These observations, together with the work of Johannes Kepler and other scientists of the time, revolutionized our understanding of the universe and the process by which we do science. The United Nations General Assembly has proclaimed…

  3. On the role of the tree in relation to colonization by Ips typographus L.

    Treesearch

    S. Bombosch

    1991-01-01

    For roughly 200 years it was assumed that trap trees attracted the bark beetle Ips typographus by means of specific chemical compounds produced by the tree. After the aggregation pheromone was discovered, the importance of tree volatiles was at first more or less totally denied (Vité 1980). Since Johann succeeded in proving that the...

  4. ["A magical atmosphere was our vision when we founded the institution". The sanatorium "Schloss Tegel" in statu nascendi (1904-1907)].

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Heike

    2011-01-01

    This contribution addresses the early years of the sanatorium, founded by the medical doctor and later psychoanalyst Johann Jaroslaw Marcinowski. His approach to therapy, his ideas about interior design as well as landscape gardening were of significant influence on the sanatorium in which Ernst Simmel opened his psychoanalytical clinic in 1927.

  5. Nanosystems in ultrafast and superstrong fields: attosecond phenomena (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockman, Mark I.

    2017-02-01

    We present our latest results for a new class of phenomena in condensed matter nanooptics when a strong optical field ˜1-3 V/Å changes a solid within optical cycle [1-8]. Such a pulse drives ampere-scale currents in dielectrics and adiabatically controls their properties, including optical absorption and reflection, extreme UV absorption, and generation of high harmonics [9] in a non-perturbative manner on a 100-as temporal scale. Applied to a metal, such a pulse causes an instantaneous and, potentially, reversible change from the metallic to semimetallic properties. We will also discuss our latest theoretical results on graphene that in a strong ultrashort pulse field exhibits unique behavior [10-12]. New phenomena are predicted for buckled two-dimensional solids, silicene and germanene [13]. These are fastest phenomena in optics unfolding within half period of light. They offer potential for petahertz-bandwidth signal processing, generation of high harmonics on a nanometer spatial scale, etc. References 1. M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. F. Kling, and M. I. Stockman, Metallization of Nanofilms in Strong Adiabatic Electric Fields, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 086803-1-4 (2010). 2. M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. F. Kling, and M. I. Stockman, Predicted Ultrafast Dynamic Metallization of Dielectric Nanofilms by Strong Single-Cycle Optical Fields, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 086602-1-5 (2011). 3. A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Muhlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, Optical-Field-Induced Current in Dielectrics, Nature 493, 70-74 (2013). 4. M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, Controlling Dielectrics with the Electric Field of Light, Nature 493, 75-78 (2013). 5. V. Apalkov and M. I. Stockman, Metal Nanofilm

  6. Attosecond nanoscale physics of solids in strong ultrafast optical fields (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockman, Mark I.

    2016-09-01

    We present our latest results for a new class of phenomena in condensed matter nanooptics when a strong optical field 1-3 V/Å changes a solid within optical cycle [1-7]. Such a pulse drives ampere-scale currents in dielectrics and adiabatically controls their properties, including optical absorption and reflection, extreme UV absorption, and generation of high harmonics [8] in a non-perturbative manner on a 100-as temporal scale. Applied to a metal, such a pulse causes an instantaneous and, potentially, reversible change from the metallic to semimetallic properties. We will also discuss our latest theoretical results on graphene that in a strong ultrashort pulse field exhibits unique behavior [9, 10]. New phenomena are predicted for buckled two-dimensional solids, silicene and germanine [11]. These are fastest phenomena in optics unfolding within half period of light. They offer potential for petahertz-bandwidth signal processing, generation of high harmonics on a nanometer spatial scale, etc. References 1. M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. F. Kling, and M. I. Stockman, Metallization of Nanofilms in Strong Adiabatic Electric Fields, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 086803-1-4 (2010). 2. M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. F. Kling, and M. I. Stockman, Predicted Ultrafast Dynamic Metallization of Dielectric Nanofilms by Strong Single-Cycle Optical Fields, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 086602-1-5 (2011). 3. A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Muhlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, Optical-Field-Induced Current in Dielectrics, Nature 493, 70-74 (2013). 4. M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, Controlling Dielectrics with the Electric Field of Light, Nature 493, 75-78 (2013). 5. V. Apalkov and M. I. Stockman, Metal Nanofilm

  7. The stochastic dynamics of intermittent porescale particle motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentz, Marco; Morales, Veronica; Puyguiraud, Alexandre; Gouze, Philippe; Willmann, Matthias; Holzner, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Numerical and experimental data for porescale particle dynamics show intermittent patterns in Lagrangian velocities and accelerations, which manifest in long time intervals of low and short durations of high velocities [1, 2]. This phenomenon is due to the spatial persistence of particle velocities on characteristic heterogeneity length scales. In order to systematically quantify these behaviors and extract the stochastic dynamics of particle motion, we focus on the analysis of Lagrangian velocities sampled equidistantly along trajectories [3]. This method removes the intermittency observed under isochrone sampling. The space-Lagrangian velocity series can be quantified by a Markov process that is continuous in distance along streamline. It is fully parameterized in terms of the flux-weighted Eulerian velocity PDF and the characteristic pore-length. The resulting stochastic particle motion describes a continuous time random walk (CTRW). This approach allows for the process based interpretation of experimental and numerical porescale velocity, acceleration and displacement data. It provides a framework for the characterization and upscaling of particle transport and dispersion from the pore to the Darcy-scale based on the medium geometry and Eulerian flow attributes. [1] P. De Anna, T. Le Borgne, M. Dentz, A.M. Tartakovsky, D. Bolster, and P. Davy, "Flow intermittency, dispersion, and correlated continuous time random walks in porous media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 184502 (2013). [2] M. Holzner, V. L. Morales, M. Willmann, and M. Dentz, "Intermittent Lagrangian velocities and accelerations in three- dimensional porous medium flow," Phys. Rev. E 92, 013015 (2015). [3] M. Dentz, P. K. Kang, A. Comolli, T. Le Borgne, and D. R. Lester, "Continuous time random walks for the evolution of Lagrangian velocities," Phys. Rev. Fluids (2016).

  8. [The records of the Medical Faculty of the University of Leipzig on the Woyzeck case, discovered again after 180 years].

    PubMed

    Steinberg, H; Schmideler, S

    2005-05-01

    Through Georg Büchner's drama the case of Johann Christian Woyzeck gained worldwide fame. For the first time ever this study presents the testimonial drawn up by the Medical Faculty of Leipzig University, which until now had been regarded as having been lost. Now, however, the first-named author rediscovered it in the files of the Leipzig University Archives. The testimonial proved to be a decisive importance, as it sealed Woyzeck's execution in 1824. Before presenting major passages from the testimonial this study give an overview of the chronology of the Woyzeck case and the other medico-psychiatric testimonials drawn up by Leipzig municipal physician Johann Christian August Clarus. It also reveals which professors of Leipzig Medical Faculty were involved in drawing up the final testimonial which confirmed Clarus's findings and rejected the objections raised by Woyzeck's counsel - remarkably without examining the offender himself first-hand, but merely relying on and evaluating the testimonials drawn up by Clarus.

  9. Electromagnetic Calorimeter for HADES Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Ramos, P.; Chlad, L.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Galatyuk, T.; Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Hlaváč, S.; Ivashkin, A.; Kajetanowic, M.; Kardan, B.; Koenig, W.; Korcyl, G.; Kugler, A.; Lapidus, K.; Linev, S.; Lisowski, E.; Neiser, A.; Ott, O.; Otte, O.; Pethukov, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Reshetin, A.; Rost, A.; Salabura, P.; Sobolev, Y. G.; Svoboda, O.; Thomas, A.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.

    2014-11-01

    Electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is being developed to complement dilepton spectrometer HADES. ECAL will enable the HADES@FAIR experiment to measure data on neutral meson production in heavy ion collisions at the energy range of 2-10 AGeV on the beam of future accelerator SIS100@FAIR. We will report results of the last beam test with quasi-monoenergetic photons carried out in MAMI facility at Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz.

  10. The Evolution of Al Qaeda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-15

    www.carleton.ca/cciss/res_docs/itac/gendron_e.pdf; Internet. 26Muhammad Abd al-salam Faraj, Al-Farīdah al-Ghā’ibah, trans. Johannes J.G. Jansen and... Theo Van Gogh.91 Hoffman also supports the idea proposed by other experts like Benjamin Orbach and Keith Blanchard of the Congressional Research...religious intolerance over cartoons in Danish newspapers, the assassination of Theo Van Goeh, and increasing discontent among disassociated Muslim

  11. Delegitimizing Al-Qaeda: A Jihad-Realist Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    intellectual, ideological, or dogmatic- theo - logical concepts and narratives. 28 8. Cronin, based on data trends ending c. 2008, severely un- derestimates...Counterideological Work against Terrorist Ideology,” pp. 537-538, advocates a “ theo - logical and juristic approach” virtually identical to that developed...takfiris responsible for Anwar Sadat’s assassination, see Johannes J.G. Jansen , The Neglected Duty: The Creed of Sadat’s Assassins and Islamic

  12. Online Mapping and Perception Algorithms for Multi-robot Teams Operating in Urban Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Online mapping and perception algorithms for multi-robot teams operating in urban environments by Johannes H. Strom A dissertation submitted in...REPORT DATE 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Online Mapping and Perception Algorithms for...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This thesis investigates some of the sensing and perception challenges faced by multi-robot teams equipped with

  13. AFRL/Cornell Information Assurance Institute

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-11-13

    systems, database replication, and algorithms. Johannes Gehrke : Database systems and data mining. Joseph Y. Halpern: Reasoning about knowledge and...local schedules, • the creation of formal courseware, and • the translation of formal proofs into natural language. Databases and Data Mining ( Gehrke ...Environment. 33rd ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education (SIGCSE) (Cincinnati, Ohio, February 2002). (4) J. Ayres, J. E. Gehrke , T. Yiu and

  14. Adaptive, Hands-Off Stream Mining

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    Gehrke et. al. [GKS01] presents a comprehensive approach for answering correlated aggregate queries (e.g., “find points below the (current) average...Statistics for Long-Memory Processes. Chapman & Hall, 1994. [BGS01] Philippe Bonnet, Johannes E. Gehrke , and Praveen Seshadri. Towards sensor...model selection process. [Bol86] Tim Bollerslev. Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity. Journal of Econometrics, 31:307–327, 1986

  15. Data Triage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Many thanks to Tim , Meryl, Ally, Roehl, Mark, Helen, Lara, and Susan. And of course to my fiance Dorit, who more than anyone else has helped me get... Gehrke , and Mirek Riedewald. Approximate join processing over data streams. In SIGMOD. ACM Press, 2003. 2.2.1 [28] A. Demers, S. Keshav, and S...84] Raghu Ramakrishnan and Johannes Gehrke . Database Management Systems. McGraw-Hill, 2002. 1.6.1.1 [85] K. Ramamritham and J. Stankovic. Dynamic

  16. Covering Numbers for Semicontinuous Functions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-29

    Covering Numbers for Semicontinuous Functions Johannes O. Royset Operations Research Department Naval Postgraduate School joroyset@nps.edu Abstract...Considering the metric space of extended real-valued lower semicontinuous functions under the epi-distance, the paper gives an upper bound on the...covering numbers of bounded subsets of such functions . No assumptions about continuity, smoothness, variation, and even finiteness of the functions are

  17. Development of Envelope Curves for Predicting Void Dimensions from Overturned Trees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    ER D C/ G SL T R- 14 -2 7 Development of Envelope Curves for Predicting Void Dimensions from Overturned Trees G eo te ch ni ca l a nd...14-27 July 2014 Development of Envelope Curves for Predicting Void Dimensions from Overturned Trees Bryant A. Robbins, Johannes L. Wibowo, Kevin...Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 ERDC/GSL TR-14-27 ii Abstract To evaluate the potential influence of a tree on embankment stability, it is

  18. Science, fiction and the age of discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brake, Mark; Hook, Neil

    2007-05-01

    This article suggests that the age of discovery and enlightenment of the Scientific Revolution and the universe of Copernicus was responsible for a new way of imagining, which we now call science fiction. This history is important for an understanding of the evolution of the physics, and shows how scientists, such as Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei, and philosophers, such as the Bishop of Llandaff, Francis Godwin, and Cyrano de Bergerac, used the fictional imagination to help visualise the unknown.

  19. Information Management and the Biological Warfare Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    identification of genes for cystic fibrosis, breast cancer, hereditary deafness , hereditary skeletal disorders, and a form of diabetes--just to name a...Oswald Avery. In 1869 Johann Miescher discovered molecular DNA, in 1928 Fred Griffith revealed that hereditary molecules could be isolated, in 1944...Oswald Avery correlated DNA with hereditary properties. These revelations are the basis for which the normal science of biotechnology (solidified

  20. Alfred Thayor Mahan and Space: A Necessary Unity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    Tycho Brahe and Johanne Keppler laid the foundations of orbital mechanics as we know it [Ref. 28:pp. 1-23. Tycho , the noble aristocratic Dane, was...Strateau, and Maritime Power", ed. Simpson, B.M., Rutgers University Press, pp. 63-65, 1977. 42. Corbett, J., S ., "Some Principles of Naval Stratequ...NUMBER( S ) S . MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) % 6a. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION Naval

  1. Astronomy and the camera obscura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feist, M.

    2000-02-01

    The camera obscura (from Latin meaning darkened chamber) is a simple optical device with a long history. In the form considered here, it can be traced back to 1550. It had its heyday during the Victorian era when it was to be found at the seaside as a tourist attraction or sideshow. It was also used as an artist's drawing aid and, in 1620, the famous astronomer-mathematician, Johannes Kepler used a small tent camera obscura to trace the scenery.

  2. Operational Leadership: A Case of General Helmuth von Moltke (The Younger)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    makes his decision too late to have an impact. II. Historical Framework Helmuth Johannes Ludwig von Moltke, known as von Moltke (The Younger) to distin...T. N. Dupuy, A Genius for War (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentis-Hall, Inc. 1977) 140. 1 Otto Friedrich , Blood and Iron: From Bismarck to Hitler the von...Press, 1996) 160. 1 Tuchman, The Guns of August, 73. 1 Friedrich , Blood and Iron, 229. 1 Holmes, “The Schlieffen Plan,” 13. ii

  3. In the footsteps of astronomers in Bremen and Lilienthal. (German Title: Auf den Spuren von Astronomen in Bremen und Lilienthal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langkavel, Arno

    When Bremen and Lilienthal are mentioned, people interested in the history of astronomy will first of all remember Wilhelm Olbers (1785-1840) and Johann Hieronymus Schroeter (1745-1816). In addition to them, Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846) and Carl Friedrich Gauß (1777-1855) have also left their traces. Two walks describe the main memorial sites, which are all outdoors and easily accessible to the general public.

  4. [Kastner and Trommsdorff].

    PubMed

    Friedrich, C

    1998-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the connection between Karl Wilhelm Gottlob Kastner (1783-1857) and Johann Bartholomäus Trommsdorff (1770-1837). Kastner was the teacher of Justus Liebig (1803-1873) in Bonn and Erlangen. The correspondence, which includes unpublished letters from Kastner to Trommsdorff, presents a wealth of detailed information for the biographies of Kastner and Trommsdorff.

  5. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 21, Number 7

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    of declaration and not much design or confidence. What’s an engineer to do? Sit back, relax, pop in the ear buds, and crank up Johann Sebastian...you ramp up on the world’s wide web of information? Me neither. With identity theft, scams , downtime, and data loss it’s no won- der there is a push...Security Strategic Advisory Council, the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures Senior Advisory Council, and the Federal Electronic Commerce Coalition

  6. Expertise in Problem Solving.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-18

    use at each step of the solution process. By contrast, both Issac and Newton contain separate representations of the same physics knowledge for each...representation. Issac . Issac by Gordon Novak (1977) is a program that can read the problem statement. It does this for statics problems only. The key feature of...problem does not generate an efficient solution. Newton . Newton by Johann de Kleer (1977) does not have any language translation facility. It solves

  7. Naval Special Warfare: Identifying and Prioritizing Core Attributes of the Profession

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    14 Tim L. Bosiljevac, SEALs: UDT/SEAL operations in Vietnam (New York, NY: Ballantine Books, 1990), 3. 15 Thomas K . Adams, U.S...radical change in policy to the Prussian General Gerhard Johann David Waitz von Scharnhorst.52 Although not as famous as his student Carl von...05 and 06 echelon eon~tder both Command and Op•rat lons Teams. 30 Way Ahead: Improving preparation for 0 -5 and 0-6 Ta• k Force echelon leadarthlp

  8. Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry 2015: Meet the Experts of MedChem near the Cradle of Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wegscheid-Gerlach, Christof; Gerber, Hans-Dieter; Diederich, Wibke E

    2015-07-01

    Pioneering inspiration: Right next to the former laboratories of Johannes Hartmann, the first so-called "Professor of Chymiatrie", the 2015 Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry meeting was held last March at Philipps University in Marburg, Germany. Herein we give readers an idea of what it was like to attend the conference, which was organized jointly by the DPhG, GDCh, and SCS. Along with the lectures, we also describe the poster sessions, social program, and awards.

  9. The Large -scale Distribution of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flin, Piotr

    A review of the Large-scale structure of the Universe is given. A connection is made with the titanic work by Johannes Kepler in many areas of astronomy and cosmology. A special concern is made to spatial distribution of Galaxies, voids and walls (cellular structure of the Universe). Finaly, the author is concluding that the large scale structure of the Universe can be observed in much greater scale that it was thought twenty years ago.

  10. Historical analyses by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusko, B. H.; Schwab, R. N.

    1987-03-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is ideally suited for the elemental analysis of the papers, parchment, and inks of books, manuscripts, and other historical documents. This paper will describe the general kinds of historical and bibliographical issues that can be addressed by PIXE, and it discusses two specific historical applications of the technique: to the Gutenberg Bible and the Calov Bible owned by Johann Sebastian Bach.

  11. Did Cook's sailors have Tapanui 'flu? --chronic fatigue syndrome on the Resolution.

    PubMed

    St George, I M

    1996-01-26

    The 1982 publication of the Resolution journal of Johann George Reinhold Forster provided justification for his recognition as a scientist, and gave a remarkable insight into his character. It also included an account of an illness suffered by many of the sloop's crew, including Forster, after a period ashore at Queen Charlotte Sound. The symptoms of the illness were remarkably similar to those now clustered as the chronic fatigue syndrome.

  12. A Swiss Manufacturer Sees the Industrial Revolution in England*

    PubMed Central

    Buess, Heinrich

    1962-01-01

    I have recently come across the diaries of Johann Conrad Fischer. These diaries span six decades and cover the years of social, economic, and technological upheaval which marked the industrial revolution in England. The reader is given a picture of these years through the eyes of a Swiss manufacturer with a good perception of history, and his notes are of some value to historians. PMID:13874462

  13. Philosophical Foundations of Zwicky's Morphological Approach in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnicki, Konrad

    Fritz Zwicky as a conscious Goetheanist. Johann Wolfgang Goethe as a natural philosopher and methodologist. Goetheanist theory of knowledge — a theory essentially different from the theory of Kant, from which the contemporary concept of paradigms has originated. Pre-scientific character of theory of knowledge. The principal thought experiment. The role of thinking in Goetheanism. Fundamental phenomena. Morphological approach. The shape (µo ) of a problem. Morphological box. Individual hypothesis versus classes of hypotheses. Theory and reality.

  14. Real-Time Dispatching of Rubber Tired Gantry Cranes in Container Terminals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    OF RUBBER TIRED GANTRY CRANES IN CONTAINER TERMINALS by Bradley S. McNary March 2008 Thesis Advisor: Johannes O. Royset Second Reader...AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Real-Time Dispatching of Rubber Tired Gantry Cranes in Container Terminals 6. AUTHOR(S...Efficiently managing of rubber tired gantry cranes and planning container placement within the terminal are two ways to increase the overall

  15. Brunner's missing 'Aha experience' delayed progress in diabetes research by 200 years.

    PubMed

    Keck, Fritz S; Duntas, Leonidas H

    2007-01-01

    In 1889, the pancreatectomy performed on a dog by Joseph von Mehring and Oskar Minkowski led to the discovery of the pancreatic origin of diabetes disease. Already 200 years before, Johann Conrad Brunner had successfully performed eight pancreatectomies on dogs and had precisely described the symptoms of polyphagia, polyuria, and polydipsia. He did not, however, recognize the association with the diabetes disease and thus missed an opportunity to accelerate the course of diabetes research by 200 years.

  16. West Europe Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-18

    building of new research institutes in fields from genetic engineering to optoelectronics to polymer research. Johann Loehn, who as Spaeth’s official...which would have devastating effects in a country as dependent on Sports as Sweden. Therefore, Olof Palme answers the ^^^^ demands and the wildcat ...and began wildcat strikes at the beginning of May to push their demands for higher wages. But here again, the government finally asserted itself to

  17. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-19

    of five years has been asked, even if awarded a lighter sentence, is barred from voting by law. Human Rights Lawyer Johannes Princen called the...agreed on a number of new initiatives and approaches in human resources development, science and technology, energy and drugs. Both sides agreed to...political motive. Bishop Fortich is known for advocating human rights and land reform. Some quarters have accused him of being a leftist sympathizer

  18. [Medical topics of the Goethe period as reflected in the Goethe Dictionary].

    PubMed

    Schlaps, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with some medical topics which were mentioned or discussed by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and can thus be found in the dictionary which lists and explains all the words he used, the Goethe Dictionary. The author makes a case for the use of this primarily literary and linguistic work e. g. as source material for historians of medicine and shows some of its possible uses.

  19. Nespoli and Kaleri at ATV/BRTK Control Panel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-24

    ISS026-E-029257 (24 Feb. 2011) --- European Space Agency astronaut Paolo Nespoli (left) and Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri, both Expedition 26 flight engineers, monitor the approach and docking of the European Space Agency's "Johannes Kepler" Automated Transfer Vehicle-2 (ATV-2). The ATV2 automatically docked with the aft end of the International Space Station's Zvezda Service Module at 10:59 a.m. (EST) on Feb. 24, 2011.

  20. Nespoli and Kaleri at ATV/BRTK Control Panel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-24

    ISS026-E-029210 (24 Feb. 2011) --- European Space Agency astronaut Paolo Nespoli (foreground) and Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri, both Expedition 26 flight engineers, monitor the approach and docking of the European Space Agency's "Johannes Kepler" Automated Transfer Vehicle-2 (ATV-2). The ATV2 automatically docked with the aft end of the International Space Station's Zvezda Service Module at 10:59 a.m. (EST) on Feb. 24, 2011.

  1. Nespoli and Kaleri at ATV/BRTK Control Panel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-24

    ISS026-E-029266 (24 Feb. 2011) --- European Space Agency astronaut Paolo Nespoli (left) and Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri, both Expedition 26 flight engineers, monitor the approach and docking of the European Space Agency's "Johannes Kepler" Automated Transfer Vehicle-2 (ATV-2). The ATV2 automatically docked with the aft end of the International Space Station's Zvezda Service Module at 10:59 a.m. (EST) on Feb. 24, 2011.

  2. Canes Venatici

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Hunting Dogs; abbrev. CVn, gen. Canum Venaticorum; area 465 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Ursa Major and Boötes, and culminates at midnight in early April. It was named by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87) of Danzig (Gdansk), who included it in his atlas Firmamentum Sobiescianum sive Uranographia though the celestial figure had been shown in earlier charts da...

  3. Comet Encke (2P/Encke)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The short-period comet with the shortest known period at around 3.3 years. It was discovered independently by Pierre Méchain in 1786, by Caroline Herschel in 1795, and by Jean-Louis Pons in 1805 and again in 1818. In 1821 Johann Encke calculated the orbit of Pons's 1818 comet and predicted its return to perihelion in 1821 to an accuracy of one day. Two years later he established this comet's iden...

  4. Approximations and Solution Estimates in Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-06

    Approximations and Solution Estimates in Optimization Johannes O. Royset Operations Research Department Naval Postgraduate School joroyset@nps.edu...Abstract. Approximation is central to many optimization problems and the supporting theory pro- vides insight as well as foundation for algorithms. In...functions quantifies epi-convergence, we are able to obtain estimates of optimal solutions and optimal values through estimates of that distance. In

  5. Kepler's Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosser, B.; Murdin, P.

    2001-10-01

    Johannes KEPLER published his three laws in 1609 and 1618 (table 1). Based on the very precise observations of Mars' orbit made by Tycho Brahe, and developed in the Copernican system, they describe the shape of the orbit of the planets around the Sun as an ellipse (first law), explain how the planets move around the Sun (second law) and give a relationship between the extent of the orbit and its ...

  6. Asteroid Discovery in History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, G.; Murdin, P.

    2001-10-01

    The discovery of five of the major planets (other than Earth) in the solar system is lost to antiquity. With the acceptance of Copernicus' heliocentric model for the solar system an apparent anomaly in the spacing of the planets was noted. JOHANNES KEPLER believed that the gap between Mars and Jupiter was too large in proportion to the gaps between other pairs of neighboring planets. He concluded...

  7. Astronomy Video Contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, John

    2008-05-01

    One of Galileo's staunchest supporters during his lifetime was Johannes Kepler, Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor. Johannes Kepler will be in St. Louis to personally offer a tribute to Galileo. Set Galileo's astronomy discoveries to music and you get the newest song by the well known acappella group, THE CHROMATICS. The song, entitled "Shoulders of Giants” was written specifically for IYA-2009 and will be debuted at this conference. The song will also be used as a base to create a music video by synchronizing a person's own images to the song's lyrics and tempo. Thousands of people already do this for fun and post their videos on YOU TUBE and other sites. The ASTRONOMY VIDEO CONTEST will be launched as a vehicle to excite, enthuse and educate people about astronomy and science. It will be an annual event administered by the Johannes Kepler Project and will continue to foster the goals of IYA-2009 for years to come. The Astronomy Video poster will contain all the basic information about the contest including: categories, rules, prizes, web address for more info and how to download the new song, "Shoulders of Giants.”

  8. Astronomy Video Contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, John

    2008-05-01

    During Galileo's lifetime his staunchest supporter was Johannes Kepler, Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor. Johannes Kepler will be in St. Louis to personally offer a tribute to Galileo. Set Galileo's astronomy discoveries to music and you get the newest song by the well known acappella group, THE CHROMATICS. The song, entitled "Shoulders of Giants” was written specifically for IYA-2009 and will be debuted at this conference. The song will also be used as a base to create a music video by synchronizing a person's own images to the song's lyrics and tempo. Thousands of people already do this for fun and post their videos on YOU TUBE and other sites. The ASTRONOMY VIDEO CONTEST will be launched as a vehicle to excite, enthuse and educate people about astronomy and science. It will be an annual event administered by the Johannes Kepler Project and will continue to foster the goals of IYA-2009 for years to come. During this presentation the basic categories, rules, and prizes for the Astronomy Video Contest will be covered and finally the new song "Shoulders of Giants” by THE CHROMATICS will be unveiled

  9. Relationship between recent cave temperatures and noble gas temperatures derived from fluid inclusions of modern soda straw stalactites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palcsu, Laszlo; Papp, Laszlo; Major, Zoltan; Molnar, Mihaly

    2010-05-01

    reliable palaeotemperature information on the time range from present back to hundred thousand years. [1] Kluge T., Marx T., Scholz D., Niggermann S., Mangini A., Aeschbach-Hertig W., 2008. A new tool for palaeoclimate reconstruction: Noble gas temperatures from fluid inclusions in speleothems. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 269, 408-415. [2] Brennwald M.S., Scheidegger Y., Tomonaga Y., Holzner C.P., Wieler R., Kipfer R., 2006. New applications of noble gases as environmental proxies in unusual aquatic environments. Geochimica et Csomochimica Acta 70, Supplement, A66.

  10. Preface: phys. stat. sol. (a) 202/12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Wolfgang; Stutzmann, Martin; Hildebrandt, Stefan

    2005-09-01

    The present special issue contains a collection of Original Papers dedicated to Professor Johannes Heydenreich on the occasion of his 75th birthday.Johannes Heydenreich, born on 20 June 1930 in Plauen/Vogtland near Dresden, studied physics at the Pädagogische Hochschule Potsdam, where he obtained his first academic degree Dipl. Phys. in 1958. He received his doctoral degree at the Martin Luther University in Halle in 1961 and the Habilitation degree in 1969. Already during his studies in Potsdam, he showed an interest in electron microscopy due to the influence of his teacher and supervisor Prof. Picht, one of the pioneers in electron optics. His interests were strengthened when Johannes Heydenreich did the experimental work for his Diploma degree at the Institute for Experimental Physics of the University of Halle, where he met Prof. Heinz Bethge for the first time. This was the beginning of a fruitful and longstanding collaboration. In 1962 Johannes Heydenreich joined the team of the later Institute for Solid State Physics and Electron Microscopy of the Academy of Sciences of the GDR, in Halle, for which the basis was laid by Prof. Bethge in 1960.Heydenreich has been working as Assistant Director for many years and played a decisive role in introducing and organising the various techniques of electron microscopy in the institute.The research activities of Prof. Heydenreich covered a broad spectrum over the years. At the beginning of his career he made significant contributions in the field of electron mirror microscopy. After that, his main interests were focused on transmission electron microscopy, ranging from diffraction contrast analysis of crystal defects to high-resolution electron microscopy and image processing. His favourite field was studies of defect-induced phenomena in advanced materials. The so-called Bethge-Heydenreich, the book Electron Microscopy in Solid State Physics, published at first in a German edition in 1982 and later in a revised

  11. Some Historical Points of Interest in Göttingen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Klaus

    The Georgia Augusta University of Göttingen, founded in 1737, was a child of the Enlightenment, and the new sciences have always played a major role here.1 Among the teachers of physics, physical chemistry, astronomy, and related subjects we find Johann Christian Polykarp Erxleben, Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, Johann Tobias Mayer, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Johann B. Listing, Wilhelm Eduard Weber, Woldemar Voigt, Friedrich Kohlrausch, Eduard Riecke, Walther Nernst and Peter Debye — the last two subsequently moved on to Berlin. In the 1920s, physics students were jestingly referred to as “Frankierte, Bornierte und Polierte” (loosely translated as stamped, limited and polished), in allusion to their teachers, the theoretical physicist Max Born and the experimentalists James Franck and Robert Wichard Pohl, the first two being important figures in the history of quantum theory, the third, one of the founding fathers of experimental solid state physics.2 The National Socialist’s rise to power had a devastating effect on this world-renowned center for physics and mathematics. Most of its high-caliber scientists either were dismissed on the basis of the racist “Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service” or themselves felt compelled to emigrate: About a dozen members of the physics faculty, including Born and Franck, and ten from the mathematics faculty left Göttingen.3 After the war, Richard Becker, who in 1936 had received a compulsory order to take the chair for theoretical physics vacant since Born’s emigration, and Friedrich Hund, who was also an enthusiastic historian of science, distinguished themselves as physics teachers there but the university as a whole never recovered its international standing of before 1933 (see Figs. 1 and 2).

  12. Absence, ambiguity, and the representation of creativity in Vermeer's The Art of Painting.

    PubMed

    Baudry, Francis

    2007-04-01

    This paper examines The Art of Painting, by Johannes Vermeer, to demonstrate how a great artist portrays the realm of imagination and creativity. The crucial points of entry for psychoanalysis reside in two sets of details in the painting that have generally been neglected by art historians: first, the contrast between the realistic rendering of certain parts of the work and the fuzzy, ambiguous nature of other elements; and second, the pervasiveness of the theme of absence in the manifest content. The author refers to some of Winnicott's and Lacan's concepts, particularly the connection between absence and desire as a spur to creativity.

  13. Simulating Statistical Power in Latent Growth Curve Modeling: A Strategy for Evaluating Age-Based Changes in Cognitive Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Oertzen, Timo; Ghisletta, Paolo; Lindenberger, Ulman

    Variability across and within individuals is a fundamental property of adult age changes in behavior [20, 21, 24]. Some people seem young for their age, others seem old; shining examples of older individuals who maintained high levels of intellectual functioning well into very old age, such as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe or Sophocles, stand in contrast to individuals whose cognitive resources are depleted by the time they reach later adulthood. A similar contrast exists between different intellectual abilities. For example, if one looks at the speed needed to identify and discriminate between different percepts, one is likely to find monotonic decline after late adolescence and early adulthood.

  14. Analysis of Visual Illusions Using Gabor Filters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    Zeitschrigt fiir Psychologie, 150, 83-91. Copyright 1941 by Verlag von Johann Am- brosius Barth. 11. Gabor , Dennis . "Theory of Communication," Journal of...Ohio 91 1 3 141 Uo AFIT/GE/ENG/90D-47 D I .CSELECTE JAN 0 8 1991 ANALYSIS OF VISUAL ILLUSIONS USING GABOR FILTERS THESIS Richard A. Oberndorf Captain...USAF AFIT/GE/ENG/90D-47 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited AFIT/GE/ENG/90D-47 ANALYSIS OF VISUAL ILLUSIONS USING GABOR FILTERS THESIS

  15. Bach and His.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Wyn

    2014-12-01

    This paper examines the career of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) and the role played by Wilhelm His I (who was, with Albert von Haller, a noted pioneer of physiology) in the exhumation of Bach's remains in 1894. His's examination of these remains allowed the sculptor Carl Seffner to produce the celebrated statue of Bach which stands outside the church of St Thomas in Leipzig, where the composer was employed from 1723 until his death. Modern forensic techniques have recently enabled Bach's image to be reconstructed in even more spectacular detail.

  16. Marking the 400th Anniversary of Kepler's Astronomia nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, T. J.

    2010-11-01

    Special Session 9 of the XXVII General Assembly (11-14 August 2009, Rio de Janeiro) was devoted to the topic “Marking the 400th Anniversary of Kepler's Astronomia nova”. During the two-and-a-half day meeting (spread over four days), there were nine invited and three contributed talks, a round-table discussion on the future of Kepler studies and an open session to propose the setting up of a Johannes Kepler Working Group under the aegis of the IAU.

  17. In Galileo's footsteps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Matin

    2009-03-01

    Astronomy can lay rightful claim to being the oldest science, with its foundations dating back even further than those of mathematics. From the ancient Babylonians who observed the regular motions of Venus to medieval Islamic scholars who had the first inklings of heliocentrism, the study of the skies has fascinated humankind. But 2009 - the International Year of Astronomy - commemorates an event central to the development of Western science: Galileo Galilei's first observations with a telescope in 1609. This year also marks the 400th anniversary of Johannes Kepler's Astronomia Nova, in which he outlined his laws of planetary motion.

  18. Astronomical kaleidoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    2005-10-01

    The entry contains two Moon eclipses (a picture of a total eclipse and a photo of a penumbral one), photographs of monuments of few greatest astronomers: Nikolay Kopernik, Tiho Brahe and Johannes Kepler, a photo from the JENAM-1995 (Catania, Sicily) as well as photographs of few astronomers related with Moldova and Romania: V. Grigorevskii, N. Donitch, V.Nadolschi, D. Mangeron, two nice clocks in Prague, as well as a map of the Sanctuary in Orheiul -Vechi (Bessarabia) with an supposed ancient calendar.

  19. Introduction & Overview to Symposium 240: Binary Stars as Critical Tools and Tests in Contemporary Astrophysics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Johannes Kepler . It is noteworthy that Tycho carried out the first accurate astrometric measurements, while Kepler’s laws of orbital motion play such an...ms + planet) (120+ known) 2.4 hrs 2.7 yrs 27 yrs ORBITAL PERIOD (in days) accretion processes e.g. HD 209458, HD 189733 (10+ known) KEPLER / COROT...components. of additional exoplanets (some with diameters as small as the Earth) are expected to be discovered by the CoRot and Kepler missions. 2.1

  20. William Crabtree's Venus transit observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollerstrom, Nicholas

    2005-04-01

    The close collaboration between the two North-country astronomers Jeremiah Horrocks and William Crabtree gave them special insight into the new astronomy published by the recently-deceased Kepler, whereby Horrocks became the only person to apprehend that the Rudolphine tables were in fact predicting a Venus transit in 1639. This paper focuses especially upon William Crabtree's role and contribution. A comparison is made with an earlier, unsuccessful endeavour by these two concerning a possible transit of Mercury. Much of the record of their work was lost during the civil war. Finally, thanks to Christiaan Huygens, Horrock's manuscript was published by Johannes Hevelius in Danzig, in 1662.

  1. Leonardo da Vinci and Kethem-Kiveris vena.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Antonín; Skorepova-Honzlova, Zita; Jelen, Karel

    2012-01-01

    In the drawing of coitus by Leonardo da Vinci are pictured the contemporary hypotheses regarding this act. The authors analyze the mamillaruteral connection depicted by the artist and grow up to believe that this is a hypothetical kiveris vena, female vein described by Anatomist Master Nicolai Physicus from the Salerno School. The Hebrew roots were found in the name. The connection is described also by Mondino in The Anathomia. The same connection can be found in the picture of the pregnant woman in Fasciculus Medicinæ by Johannes De Ketham.

  2. COMMITTEES: SQM2004 Organising and International Advisory Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-06-01

    Organising Committee Jean Cleymans (Chairman) Zeblon Vilakazi Roger Fearick Peter Steinberg Rory Adams Bruce Becker Sarah Blyth Gareth de Vaux Heather Gray Mark Horner Nawahl Razak Artur Szostak Spencer Wheaton International Advisory Committee Federico Antinori Tim Hallman John Harris Tetsuo Hatsuda Ulrich Heinz Huan Z Huang Sonja Kabana Volker Koch Rob Lacey Jes Madsen Yasuo Miake Maurizio Morando Berndt Mueller Grazyna Odyniec Helmut Oeschler Apostolos Panagiotou Josef Pochodzalla Johann Rafelski Karel Safarik Jack Sandweiss Jürgen Schaffner-Bielich Georges Stephans Horst Stoecker Herbert Stroebele Thomas Ullrich Orlando Villalobos-Baillie Bill Zajc Joseph Zimanyi

  3. "It is wisest here, as always, to maintain a balance": the medical dissertations of Friedrich Schiller.

    PubMed

    Albury, W R; Weisz, G M

    2004-11-01

    Johann Christoph Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805) is remembered today for his contributions to literature and aesthetic theory-it is less well known that his first career was in medicine (an army appointment). Scholars have generally held that his primary interest lay in psychology and the psychological aspects of medicine, and that his commitment to other aspects of medicine was perfunctory at best. The present paper argues that a study of Schiller's three medical dissertations-two on psychological aspects of medicine and one on fevers-reveals his attempt "to maintain a balance" between the mind and the body in his approach to medicine.

  4. Friedrich Paschen and the Mecklenburg ordnance survey 1853 to 1873. (German Title: Friedrich Paschen und die mecklenburgische Landesvermessung 1853 bis 1873 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Bernhard

    At the suggestion of the Prussian military geodesist Johann Jacob Baeyer, the government of Mecklenburg decided in 1853 to undertake an ordnance survey on a trigonometric basis. It appointed Friedrich Paschen (1804-1873) as the scientific and technical head of this survey. Paschen was a lawyer, but visited Gauss' lectures on mathematics, astronomy and geodesy during his student years in Göttingen. This paper gives an account of the astronomical-geodetic works. For the first time also parts of Paschen's correspondence with Gauss and other scientists is published.

  5. Identification of skulls by video superimposition.

    PubMed

    Iten, P X

    1987-01-01

    A method of matching skulls with photographic portraits or impressions of the face in clay by video superimposition is described. Two different practical cases are presented. The first one deals with the identification of a skull of a six-year-old girl, the second with the identification of the skull of the famous Swiss Pedagogue Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, who died about 160 years ago. The advantages and versatility of this method are shown; also the setup of the equipment and the working technique.

  6. The study of the wonderful: the first topographical mapping of vision in the brain.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Ronald S

    2008-12-01

    The conception by René Descartes of the human brain, notorious as it is for placing the soul or mind in the pineal gland, had yet within it the basic idea of the brain as a highly organized mechanism with topographical sensory mapping and different functions localized in specific areas. Descartes was directly led to this idea by his appreciation of what the retinal image conceived by Johannes Kepler implied, not only for the nature of vision, but for the operation of the brain in general. The linkage between Kepler and Descartes is not widely appreciated but is one of the best examples of synergism in the history of science.

  7. All that glitters: fool's gold in the early-modern era.

    PubMed

    Roos, Anna Marie

    2008-12-01

    Natural philosophers of the early-modern period perceived fool's gold or iron pyrites as a substance required for the formation of metals, and chemists such as Johann Glauber speculated the vitriol produced from pyrites was the source of the legendary philosopher's stone. The sulphurous exhalations of fool's gold were also thought by members of the early Royal Society to be the basis of a variety of meteorological, geological and medical effects, including the production of thunder, lightning, earthquakes and volcanoes, fossilisation and petrifaction, as well as the principal cause of bladder and gallstones.

  8. Language Combinations, Subtypes, and Severity in the Study of Bilingual Children with Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Laurence B.

    2013-01-01

    I commend Johanne Paradis not only for her interesting keynote article but also for the careful research that she has conducted along with her collaborators in the area of bilingual language development and disorders. Her contributions have been significant and are sure to shape our theoretical as well as clinical understanding of specific language impairment (SLI). In this commentary, I focus on three issues. The first stems quite directly from ideas raised in the keynote article; the second and third deal with factors that we need to consider when conducting research involving comparison groups of bilingual and monolingual children with SLI. PMID:23576828

  9. The discoveries of Neptune and Triton.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, P.

    The story of the tracking-down of Neptune has been told many times, but even today there are still discrepancies in the various accounts, to say nothing of conflicting opinions. To some people, John Couch Adams is a shining hero and George Biddell Airy a black villain; to others it is Le Verrier who is the hero, and Adams an unimportant member of the supporting cast. Of course, all this is absurd. In the author's view, the true discoverers of Neptune were Johann Gottfried Galle and Heinrich D'Arrest.

  10. The Instrumental Function of the new X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer on Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Mikkelson, D.; Scott, S.; Ince-Cushman, A.; Reinke, M.; Rice, J. E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Gu, M. F.

    2007-11-01

    A new high-resolution X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer was installed on Alcator C-Mod to determine the radial profiles of the ion temperature and toroidal plasma rotation velocity from the Doppler widths and Doppler shifts of spectral lines from He- and H-like argon. The instrument consists of two spherically bent crystals and high count rate, semi-conductor diode arrays, so-called PILATUS II detector modules, which are arranged in the Johann configuration. The poster will present analytical and numerical calculations of the instrumental function and the observed spectral line profiles. The results obtained from these calculations will be compared with the experimental data.

  11. Aerospace Power: The Case for Indivisible Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Edgar Ulsamer’s article "The New Five-Year Defense Plan," Air ForceMagazine 67 (April 1984) : 81 . 6. Johannes Steinhoff, "The Scope and Direction of...and Alvin J . Cottrell, "In the Wake of the Falklands Battle," StrategicReview 10 (Summer 1982) : 23-28 . 25 . Col Clyde E . Bodenheimer , Impact ofNew...LESSONS 28 . Correll, "Deterrence Today," 41 . 29 . Bodenheimer , Impact ofNew Technology Weapons, 2 . 30. This argument is strongly mace in Moorer and

  12. Theodore J. Simons 1939-1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, Raj

    Theodore Johannes Simons was born in the Netherlands in 1939. He graduated from the Technological University of Delft, where he majored in theoretical fluid dynamics. He was subsequently associated with the North Sea Storm Surge Research of the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute and served as a meteorological officer in the Royal Netherlands Air Force.In 1966, Simons came to the United States as a research student at the Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University (Fort Collins), where he studied atmospheric instability and numerical modeling of atmospheric development. He received his Ph.D. in 1970 for his study of the nonlinear dynamics of cyclone waves.

  13. The fascinating germ theories on cancer pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tsoucalas, G; Laios, K; Karamanou, M; Gennimata, V; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    For more than 100 years, the germ theory of cancer, proposing that microorganisms were at the origin of the disease, dominated medicine. Several eminent scientists like Etienne Burnet, Mikhail Stepanovich Voronin, Charles-Louis Malassez, and Francis-Peyton Rous argued on the pathogenesis presenting their theories that implicated cocci, fungi and parasites. The impact of these theories was culminated by the Nobel Prize in 1926 that was attributed to the Danish scientist Johannes Fibiger for his work on the nematode Spiroptera as a causative agent in cancer. Even if those theories were the result of fantasy and misinterpretation, they paved the way for the scientific research in oncology.

  14. Kepler on Light and Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Alistair

    The works by Johannes Kepler on light ("Paralipomena ad Vitelionem" and "Dioptrice") and sound ("Harmonices Mundi") are reviewed. The author underlines that the "Harmonices Mundi" represents a dissertation on musical theory. Kepler assumed, that the human soul got pleasure from musical harmonies received through the ear, and indeed a succession of notes at melodic intervals, because the human mind perceived the ordained mathematically harmonic relationships between the notes. The contribution of Kepler in the understanding of the phenomenon of resonance is pointed out. Some mistakes by Kepler are also examined.

  15. Musician's and physicist's view on tuning keyboard instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubenow, Martin; Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2007-01-01

    The simultaneous sound of several voices or instruments requires proper tuning to achieve consonance for certain intervals and chords. Most instruments allow enough frequency variation to enable pure tuning while being played. Keyboard instruments such as organ and piano have given frequencies for individual notes and the tuning must be based on a compromise. The equal temperament is not the only solution, but a special choice. Unequal temperaments produce better results in many cases, because important major thirds and triads are improved. Equal temperament was not propagated by Johann Sebastian Bach, as is often stated in introductory literature on this topic.

  16. [Johana Filipa Neumanna].

    PubMed

    Juznic, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Johann Philipp Neumann's work is put into the limelight. He was the very first professor of physics with chemistry, who was not previously a Jesuit. The textbooks for chemistry which Neumann used for his lectures in Ljubljana are discussed. The paragraphs about chemistry of his own textbook published soon after he left Ljubljana for Graz Lyceum are analyzed. The chemical ideas in his paper on measurement of heat and temperature published a decade later are presented. The archival documents of Neumann's work in Ljubljana are published for the first time.

  17. [The debate on the generation of imperfect plants in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Alessandro

    2003-01-01

    18th-century discussions on the generation of imperfect plants were often linked with the question of their position in the natural world, namely as whether they were part of the vegetable or mineral realm. As attested by the work of Joseph Gaertner, Johann Jakob Dillen, Pier Antonio Micheli and René-Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, as well as of Antonio Vallisneri, and Lazzaro Spallanzani, the different images of nature - continuity and discontinuity - adopted by naturalists influenced their solution to this question.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of conducting polymer inserted carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, A. Jeong; Nam, Young Woo; Park, Yung Woo

    2008-03-01

    The carbon nanotubes filled with the photo-conducting polymer poly(N-vinyl carbazole) and the conducting polymer polypyrrole were prepared by polymerizing the monomers inside the nanotubes using the supercritical carbon dioxide. The endohedral nanotubes were characterized by HRTEM and ^1H NMR, which confirmed that the inserted material was indeed the conducting polymer [1]. I-V characteristics of the polymer inserted carbon nanotubes are presented. [1] Johannes Steinmetz, Soyoung Kwon, Hyun-Jung Lee, Edy Abou-Hamad, Robert Almairac, Christophe Goze-Bac, Hwayong Kim, Yung-Woo Park,, Chem. Phys. Lett., 431, 139 (2006)

  19. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion in Copper and Nickel Seawater Piping Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Ambiente , pp. 163-170. product structure on the corrosion rate of Cu-Ni alloys. Stover, H. E. 1961. Premature failure of copper-nickel alloys...Sons Ltd. 441 pp. Quimica . Verink, E.D. and Pourbaix, M. 1971. Use of electrochemical Pope, D. H., Duquette, D. J., Johannes, A. H., and Wayner...Bacteria. 2nd Ed. Workshop on Biodeterioration (CONICET-NSF), pp. 43-63, 144pp. London: Cambridge University Press. Sao Paulo, Brazil: Aquatec Quimica . MTS Journal • Vol. 24, No. 3 • 17

  20. 10. Photocopy of an engraving of a stained glass window ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of an engraving of a stained glass window design by Johann Friedrich Overbeck (1789-1869) on which two of the chancel windows in the Church of the Holy Cross are thought to have been based. This copy is of a photocopy obtained from the Treasury of Notre Dame de Paris, Paris, France, by the late Mrs. Walter C. White of Stateburg, South Carolina. Mrs. White's photocopy is in the possession of Mrs. Richard K. Anderson of the Borough House at Stateburg. - Church of the Holy Cross, State Route 261, Stateburg, Sumter County, SC

  1. FLSR - The Frankfurt low energy storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiebing, K. E.; Alexandrov, V.; Dörner, R.; Enz, S.; Kazarinov, N. Yu.; Kruppi, T.; Schempp, A.; Schmidt Böcking, H.; Völp, M.; Ziel, P.; Dworak, M.; Dilfer, W.

    2010-02-01

    An electrostatic storage ring for low-energy ions with a design energy of 50 keV is presently being set up at the Institut für Kernphysik der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Germany (IKF). This new device will provide a basis for new experiments on the dynamics of ionic and molecular collisions, as well as for high precision and time resolved laser spectroscopy. In this article, the design parameters of this instrument are reported.

  2. Astrometric observations of Hevelius and derived values of ΔT (dynamical time - universal time).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wünsch, J.

    About 1500 meridian altitudes of the Sun observed by Johannes Hevelius (1611 - 1687) at Danzig in the years 1652 - 1679 and about 1160 distances of fixed stars from the lunar limb obtained in 1658 - 1679 as well as 48 occultations of stars by the Moon were analyzed with the aim to obtain a value of the time difference ΔT = ET - UT between ephemeris time and universal time for the period of Hevelius' observations. This time difference is a measure of the "clock error" of the rotation of the Earth, caused mainly by secular deceleration due to tidal friction.

  3. Image, text and Observatio: the Codex Kentmanus.

    PubMed

    Kusukawa, Sachiko

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the inter-relationship between image, text and object in the Codex Kentmanus, which is one of the earliest records of the plants in the botanical garden at Padua, studied by Johannes Kentmann (1518-77). The manuscript shows that "observation" for Kentmann involved a gradual process of assimilating knowledge from other physicians, apothecaries, and books in order to make the plants which were originally encountered at a specific time and place into a more generalised object of study for learned physicians.

  4. Robert Boyle, Transmutation, and the History of Chemistry before Lavoisier: A Response to Kuhn.

    PubMed

    Newman, William R

    2014-01-01

    In an influential article of 1952, Thomas Kuhn argued that Robert Boyle had little or no influence on the subsequent development of chemistry. This essay challenges Kuhn's view on two fronts. First, it shows that Johann Joachim Becher developed his hierarchical matter theory under the influence of Boyle and then transmitted it to the founder of the phlogiston theory, G. E. Stahl. Second, this essay argues that transmutational matter theories were not necessarily opposed to the existence of stable chemical species, pace Kuhn. Boyle's corpuscular theory descended largely from the tradition of "chymical atomism," which often advocated both chrysopoeia and the reality of robust chemical substances.

  5. [Phyllodes tumor in an 11 years-old girl: Report of a case].

    PubMed

    Lewitan, Graciela; Goldberg, Carolina; Serro, Rubén De Sousa; Cabaleiro, Cristina; Espora, Stella Maris

    2010-04-01

    Phyllodes tumor represents only about 1% of breast tumors and it is very rare in young women. Johannes Müller described it for the first time in 1893. Its name is derived from the Greek words phyllon, meaning leaf and eîdos, appearance; meaning that it takes on a leaflike appearance Our aim was to report a case in an 11 year old girl with a phyllodes tumor in her right breast. We made a revision and we only found 2 cases reported.

  6. Herder and ethnography.

    PubMed

    Broce, G

    1986-04-01

    The source and nature of the ethnography of the important eighteenth century thinker Johann Gottfried Herder can in large part be understood through his relationship to his own society and especially through his part in the German cultural nationalist movement of the day. Herder's long involvement with the literature of travel led him to an understanding of many ideas now associated with cultural anthropology; he often recounts ethnographic information in a plain and impartial way. He also gives frequent moral judgements of native cultures. These judgements, often favorable and occasionally negative, may be traced to his announced political sympathies.

  7. Kepler-Astronomer in Astrology and Astrologer in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fempl-Madjarevic, Jasna

    The author is discussing a very complicated subject: the astrological aspects in the scientific activity of Johannes Kepler. Sometimes Kepler is considered the last astronomer which confused astrology with astronomy. In fact he composed horoscopes, but he was conscious finally that the astrology was a confusion. The author is discussing also the mistic aspects of the scientifc creation by Kepler. Particularly she emphasized that the "Mysterium Cosmographicum" is one of such works. Meanwhile, that work led to discovery of famous third laws of planets motion.

  8. Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. 5 (German Title: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Hamel, Jürgen

    This book contains articles on 16th century horoscopes, on Athanasius Kircher's ``Organum Mathematicum'', on Gottfried Kirch's idea of an astronomical society, on a stellar photometer dating from 1786, on Bessel's review of Gauss' ``Theoria Motus'', on letters by F.X. von Zach, on the discovery of the minor planet Eros, as well as on the astronomers Christoph Scheiner, Johann Philipp von Wurzelbau, Georg Koch and Felix Linke. Short contributions and book reviews conclude this volume. Most papers are written in German. Main papers have English abstracts.

  9. EFFECT OF LASER LIGHT ON MATTER. LASER PLASMAS: Spectra of multiply charged nickel and copper ions in an X-pinch plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingaleev, A. R.; Pikuz, S. A.; Romanova, V. M.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Faenov, A. Ya; Érmatov, Sh A.; Nilsen, J.

    1993-05-01

    The L spectra of Ni and Cu ions produced in an X-pinch plasma have been recorded. A fast-optics Johann spectrograph and detection with spatial resolution were used to observe these spectra both in the hot, dense plasma and in the relatively cold recombining plasma expanding outward from the "hot spot." The wavelengths of a number of spectral lines of multiply charged nickel and copper ions were measured with relative error Δλ/λ ~ 10-4. A number of new lines of Na-like satellite lines were identified in the spectra of these ions.

  10. Guillaume Rondelet (1507-1566): Cardinal physician and anatomist who dissected his own son.

    PubMed

    Mian, Asma; Watanabe, Koichi; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-04-01

    The 16th century French anatomist Guillaume Rondelet will be remembered as a great naturalist and a founder of ichthyology. Little known to most is that Rondelet was a proficient anatomist and contemporary to Vesalius and in fact, both studied anatomy under Johannes Guinter. Even less known is that he established the first dissecting theatre at Montpellier and it was here that he would dissect his infant son in an attempt to identify the cause of death. In this article, we review the life and contributions to anatomy of Rondelet.

  11. Seeing the B-A-C-H motif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catravas, Palmyra

    2005-09-01

    Musical compositions can be thought of as complex, multidimensional data sets. Compositions based on the B-A-C-H motif (a four-note motif of the pitches of the last name of Johann Sebastian Bach) span several centuries of evolving compositional styles and provide an intriguing set for analysis since they contain a common feature, the motif, buried in dissimilar contexts. We will present analyses which highlight the content of this unusual set of pieces, with emphasis on visual display of information.

  12. The surgical journal of the future: how will it appear?

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Ronald K

    2006-01-01

    Not since the invention of the printing press in 1440 by Johannes Gutenberg has there been such a revolution in the methods of dissemination of knowledge as is now being seen in the electronic media. The time-honored printed journal is becoming obsolete and open-access electronic journals and other technological innovations are rapidly reshaping the field of scientific publication. This paper will explore some of the forces driving these changes and what lies in store for the surgical journal of the future.

  13. Helgoland und die Erforschung der marinen Benthosalgen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollenhauer, D.; Lüning, K.

    1988-09-01

    Early phycological research on the island of Helgoland was performed by amateur phycologists from the adjacent coastal regions of Germany (Bremen, Hamburg, Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein). These pioneers were followed by professionals, and by collectors from the mainland universities, particularly from Berlin. This second phase group includes the naturalist Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg, the zoologists Johannes Müller, Ernst Haeckel and Anton Dohrn, and the botanists Alexander Braun, Nathanael Pringsheim, and Ferdinand Cohn. The leading marine phycologist in Germany, towards the end of the 19th century, was Johannes Reinke, who finally worked at the University of Kiel. Paul Kuckuck's doctoral thesis had been supervised by Reinke who recommended him for the post of the first curator of botany at the Biological Station of Helgoland, which was founded in 1892. Kuckuck worked on the island from 1892 to 1914. After World War I, and after Kuckuck's untimely death, Wilhelm Nienburg became the second curator of botany on Helgoland, from 1921 to 1923. The next permanent phycologist on the island, from 1925 to 1936, was Ernst Schreiber. He was followed in 1936 by Peter Kornmann, who retired in 1972 but still continues as a research worker, together with Paul-Heinz Sahling, who started to work as a technical assistant under the guidance of Ernst Schreiber in 1927.

  14. [Billroth and Brahms: personal encounter of medicine and music].

    PubMed

    Hadaschik, B A; Hadaschik, E N; Hohenfellner, M

    2012-02-01

    Theodor Billroth and Johannes Brahms shared a decades long personal friendship. The music-loving Billroth influenced the work of the famous composer and in turn Brahms also left traces within Billroth's lifetime achievements. To shed light on the close relationship of medicine and music, this manuscript describes both Billroth's life and surgical career as they were influenced and stimulated by his close friendship to Brahms.Theodor Billroth and Johannes Brahms first met in 1865 in Zurich, Switzerland. After Billroth accepted the chair of surgery at the University of Vienna in 1867, Brahms moved to Vienna in 1869. During the following years, Billroth analyzed most of Brahms' compositions prior to publication. Similar to his effective way of teaching medical students and assistants, Billroth stimulated Brahms to publish many of his later compositions. Brahms on the other hand supported Billroth in writing his essay"Who is musical?". Furthermore, music helped Billroth to cope with the demanding working life of a surgeon.Music and surgery share both structural and emotional analogies. While both professions require meticulous techniques, personal interaction is a prerequisite for success. "Science and art scoop from the same well."

  15. Acrofacial dysostosis (AFD) with preaxial limb hypoplasia (Nager AFD) and club foot diagnosed in a fetus from 1812 in the anatomical collections at the University of Halle, Germany.

    PubMed

    Göbbel, Luminita; Schultka, Rüdiger; Klunker, Rudyard; Stock, Karsten; Wand, Dorothee; Olsson, Lennart; Gerlach, Antje; Tönnies, Holger

    2005-09-01

    The Anatomical Collections of the Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology at the University of Halle, Germany, comprise more than 8,000 specimens, about 600 of them congenital anomalies. The collection of abnormal human and animal specimens began with the private collections of Johann Friedrich Meckel the Elder (1724-1774), his son Philipp Friedrich Theodor Meckel (1755-1803), and his grandson Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833). Meckel the Younger founded the science of developmental pathology in Germany. Radiographical techniques, computer tomographic methods (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and molecular cytogenetic techniques, for example, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) were used to diagnose abnormal human fetuses in the Meckel Collection. On examination of one of the human fetuses, originally described by JF Meckel the Younger in 1812 or earlier, we found striking clinical manifestations including mandibulofacial defects and preaxially malformed limbs. With respect to external findings, we propose that the condition is acrofacial dysostosis (AFD) with preaxial limb hypoplasia (Nager AFD) in combination with club foot, tibial torsion, and single umbilical artery. We used genetic analyses to test whether the observed limb malformations could be caused by aneuploidy. CGH-ratio profiles of all chromosomes were apparently normal. It is likely that Meckel's specimen is the earliest known fetus with Nager AFD.

  16. [The Helvetius dynasty].

    PubMed

    Van Heiningen, Teunis Willem

    2014-01-01

    The Helvetius dynasty originates from the Principality of Anhalt, in Germany. George Vigelius, one of its ancestors, was born in the Palatinate (Germany) and studied theology in the town of Basel (Switzerland), after which he was given the surname Swietser. In 1649, his eldest son, Johann Friedrich Swietser, moved to the United Provinces and changed his name into Johan Frederik Helvétius. In 1656, he took his doctorate of medicine at the university of Harderwyck Guelderland). He settled in Amsterdam and moved later to The Hague, where he had a lightning career. Three of his four sons studied medicine in Leyden: Jean-Balthasar, Philippe-Maximilien, and Joseph-Jean. Jean-Adrien, the second son of Johann-Friedrich, settled in Paris and took his doctorate of medicine at the university of Reims, using the pseudonym of Christian-Lebrecht Helvétius. He had a prosperous career. He was the father of Jean-Claude-Adrien Helvétius, who became also a successful physician and first physician to the queen of France. His grandson was Claude-Adrien Helvétius, who became a leading philosopher and writer.

  17. Nuchal cystic hygroma in five fetuses from 1819 to 1826 in the Meckel-anatomical collections at the University of Halle, Germany.

    PubMed

    Göbbel, Luminita; Schultka, Rüdiger; Klunker, Rudyard; Stock, Karsten; Helm, Jürgen; Olsson, Lennart; Opitz, John M; Gerlach, Antje; Tönnies, Holger

    2007-01-15

    The Anatomical collection of the Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical School of the University of Halle, Germany, comprises more than 8,000 specimens. Around 600 of them show congenital anomalies. The collection of abnormal human and animal fetuses began as the private collection of Johann Friedrich Meckel the Elder (1724-1774), his son Philipp Friedrich Theodor Meckel (1755-1803) and his grandson Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833). Meckel the Younger founded the systematic science of developmental pathology. Radiographical techniques, computer tomographic (CT) methods, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) were used to diagnose abnormal human fetuses in the Meckel-anatomical collections. Cystic hygroma colli was found in five of the human fetuses originally described by JF Meckel the Younger in 1826 and one of his students in 1819 [Hencke, 1819]. CGH analyses were used to test whether the observed cystic hygroma colli could be caused by chromosomal aneuploidies. CGH-ratio profiles of all chromosomes were apparently normal. PCR-based sex determination tests on ancient DNA were used to determine the fetal gonosomal constitution. It is likely that the Meckel specimens are among the oldest fetuses in which Ullrich-Turner "phenotype" has been diagnosed.

  18. Comment on ``Electronic structure of spin- (1)/(2) Heisenberg antiferromagnetic systems: Ba2Cu(PO4)2 and Sr2Cu(PO4)2 ''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosner, H.; Schmitt, M.; Kasinathan, D.; Ormeci, A.; Richter, J.; Drechsler, S.-L.; Johannes, M. D.

    2009-03-01

    Recently S. S. Salunke [Phys. Rev. B 76, 085104 (2007)] reinvestigated the electronic and magnetic properties of the low-dimensional spin-1/2 materials Sr2Cu(PO4)2 and Ba2Cu(PO4)2 . Based on a NMTO downfolding methodology their main result is a considerably reduced transfer term along the magnetic chains compared to an earlier study [M. D. Johannes , Phys. Rev. B 74, 174435 (2006)]. The discrepancy is assigned to the N th-order muffin-tin orbital mapping procedure that is suggested to be more accurate than the tight-binding approach taken by Johannes Here, we demonstrate that in contrast to the suggestion of Salunke , the discrepancy arises solely from the employment of the atomic-sphere approximation in the underlying band-structure calculation rather than from the mapping scheme used. By comparison of the bandwidths of Salunke to those obtained using three different full-potential methods we find that the full-potential methods are all in nearly exact agreement with one another and yield an about 30% larger bandwidth compared to the results in Salunke . In general, our results emphasize the need for a full-potential description especially for strongly anisotropic structures as a precondition for a subsequent accurate modeling. Furthermore, we comment on the exact diagonalization results given by Salunke .

  19. Spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectroscopy for magnetically confined fusion plasmas (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Ince-Cushman, A.; Rice, J. E.; Reinke, M. L.; Podpaly, Y.; Marmar, E. S.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Scott, S.; Gu, M. F.; Eikenberry, E.; Broennimann, Ch.; Lee, S. G.

    2008-10-15

    The use of high resolution x-ray crystal spectrometers to diagnose fusion plasmas has been limited by the poor spatial localization associated with chord integrated measurements. Taking advantage of a new x-ray imaging spectrometer concept [M. Bitter et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3660 (2004)], and improvements in x-ray detector technology [Ch. Broennimann et al., J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13, 120 (2006)], a spatially resolving high resolution x-ray spectrometer has been built and installed on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. This instrument utilizes a spherically bent quartz crystal and a set of two dimensional x-ray detectors arranged in the Johann configuration [H. H. Johann, Z. Phys. 69, 185 (1931)] to image the entire plasma cross section with a spatial resolution of about 1 cm. The spectrometer was designed to measure line emission from H-like and He-like argon in the wavelength range 3.7 and 4.0 A with a resolving power of approximately 10 000 at frame rates up to 200 Hz. Using spectral tomographic techniques [I. Condrea, Phys. Plasmas 11, 2427 (2004)] the line integrated spectra can be inverted to infer profiles of impurity emissivity, velocity, and temperature. From these quantities it is then possible to calculate impurity density and electron temperature profiles. An overview of the instrument, analysis techniques, and example profiles are presented.

  20. Vítězslav Orel (1926-2015): Gregor Mendel's biographer and the rehabilitation of genetics in the Communist Bloc.

    PubMed

    Paleček, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    At almost 90 years of age, we have lost the author of the founding historical works on Johann Gregor Mendel. Vítězslav Orel served for almost 30 years as the editor of the journal Folia Mendeliana. His work was beset by the wider problems associated with Mendel's recognition in the Communist Bloc, and by the way in which narratives of the history of science could be co-opted into the service of Cold War and post-Cold War political agendas. Orel played a key role in the organization of the Mendel symposium of 1965 in Brno, and has made a strong contribution to the rehabilitation of genetics generally, and to championing the work of Johann Gregor Mendel in particular. With Jaroslav Kříženecký, he cofounded the Mendelianum in Brno, which for decades has served as an intellectual bridge between the East and West. Orel's involvement with this institution exposed him to dangers both during and after the Cold War.

  1. Galileo's eye: a new vision of the senses in the work of Galileo Galilei.

    PubMed

    Piccolino, Marco; Wade, Nicholas J

    2008-01-01

    Reflections on the senses, and particularly on vision, permeate the writings of Galileo Galilei, one of the main protagonists of the scientific revolution. This aspect of his work has received scant attention by historians, in spite of its importance for his achievements in astronomy, and also for the significance in the innovative scientific methodology he fostered. Galileo's vision pursued a different path from the main stream of the then contemporary studies in the field; these were concerned with the dioptrics and anatomy of the eye, as elaborated mainly by Johannes Kepler and Christoph Scheiner. Galileo was more concerned with the phenomenology rather than with the mechanisms of the visual process. His general interest in the senses was psychological and philosophical; it reflected the fallacies and limits of the senses and the ways in which scientific knowledge of the world could be gathered from potentially deceptive appearances. Galileo's innovative conception of the relation between the senses and external reality contrasted with the classical tradition dominated by Aristotle; it paved the way for the modern understanding of sensory processing, culminating two centuries later in Johannes Müller's elaboration of the doctrine of specific nerve energies and in Helmholtz's general theory of perception.

  2. The A2 Experiment Program at MAMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, William; A2 Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The Mainz Microtron MAMI is an accelerator for electron beams run by the Institut für Kernphysik of the Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz used for hadron physics experiments. Of it's three active experimental halls, the A2 facility, which features the presence of the SLAC Crystal Ball detector, has produced a plethora of experimental results, which has contributed to the understanding of the structure of the nucleon. An overview and update of the current A2 program will be presented. The Mainz Microtron MAMI is an accelerator for electron beams run by the Institut für Kernphysik of the Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz used for hadron physics experiments. Of it's three active experimental halls, the A2 facility, which features the presence of the SLAC Crystal Ball detector, has produced a plethora of experimental results, which has contributed to the understanding of the structure of the nucleon. An overview and update of the current A2 program will be presented. Funded in part by SFB 1044. US collaborators funded by USDOE and USNSF.

  3. Experiences with the magnetism of conducting loops: Historical instruments, experimental replications, and productive confusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavicchi, Elizabeth

    2003-02-01

    This study investigates nineteenth century laboratory work on electromagnetism through historical accounts and experimental replications. Oersted found that when a magnetic needle was placed in varying positions around a conducting wire, its orientation changed: in moving from a spot above the wire to one below, its sense inverted. This behavior was confusing and provocative. Early experimenters such as Johann Schweigger, Johann Poggendorff, and James Cumming engaged it by bending wire into loops. These loops, which increased the magnetic effect on a compass placed within, also provided evidence of their understanding and confusion. Coiling conducting wires around iron magnetized it, but when some wires coiled oppositely from others, the effect diminished. This effect confused contemporaries of Joseph Henry who made electromagnets, and amateurs later in the century who constructed multisection induction coils. I experienced these confusions myself while working with multilayer coils and induction coils that I made to replicate the historical instruments. This study shows how confusion can be a productive element in learning, by engaging learners to ask questions and invent experiments. By providing space for learners' confusions, teachers can support the development of their students' physical understandings.

  4. [A historical review of the therapeutic use of wood creosote. Part II: Original plant source of crude drug wood creosote].

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Nobuaki; Sato, Akane; Shibata, Takashi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    Wood creosote is a medicine that has been listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) since the first edition published in 1886. Medicines containing wood creosote and other natural ingredients have been very popular in Japan and Southeast Asian countries. In Japan, one such medicine, named Seirogan, has been used for more than 100 years. In this paper, we report the results of our examination on the historical aspects of wood creosote. One finding was that creosote, called "kereosote" at that time, was imported to Japan for the first time to Nagasaki by Johann Erdewin Niemann, who was the Director of the Dutch Mercantile House, and prescribed by Johannes Lijdius Catharinus Pompe van Meerdervoort and Anthonius Franciscus Bauduin. From our findings, we concluded that wood creosote was one of the essential medicines for the successful introduction and progression of Western medicine in Japan. Furthermore, we found that Dutch physicians introduced wood creosote to Japanese physicians, including Taizen Sato, Dokai Hayashi, and Jun Matsumoto, and that wood creosote was subsequently popularized by Rintaro (Ogai) Mori during the Russo-Japanese war. In addition, we examined the original plant for wood creosote, and consequently confirmed that the 15th edition of the JP, Supplement Two, clarifying the original plant for wood creosote, matches the pharmaceutical and historical facts. We also provide drug information relating to distinguishing between wood creosote and the creosote bush.

  5. [Historic treasures of Swiss horse breeding].

    PubMed

    Meier, H

    2017-01-01

    Both a mandate of the Bernese Government (1705) and statements in the Georgica Helvetica of 1706 prove that Swiss horse breeding was lucrative and of good quality at that time. However, the political turmoil at the transition from the 18th to 19th century and excessive sales to France and Italy led to a severe drop in quantity as well in quality. The exhibition of horses in Aarau in 1865 showed a wretched state of the material. In the same year, Rudolf Zangger wrote a guide for the discussion of horse breeding in Switzerland. In the following year (1866), Johann Jakob Rychner published a report on horse breeding, and a further treatise on Swiss horse breeding by Johann Heinrich Hirzel followed in 1883. These publications created good and comprehensive fundamentals, which can still be considered valid. However history shows that the results and recommendations of these analyses barely led to improvements. Todays genomics with their possibilities open up a new era of animal breeding and raise bigger demands than ever.

  6. Phrenology and physiognomy in Victorian literature.

    PubMed

    Boshears, Rhonda; Whitaker, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Phrenology evolved from the work of Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) and Johann Gaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832), becoming a fixture in Victorian culture, arts and letters as well as medicine. Writers such as Thomas Love Peacock (1785-1866) and Thomas Hood (1799-1845) initially satirized phrenology, as did playwright and composer William S. Gilbert (1836-1911). On the other hand, novelists such as Charlotte Brontë (1816-1855), Charles Dickens (1812-1870), George Eliot (1819-1880), and the poet and essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) not only accepted the principles of this brain-based personality theory but exploited it in their characters. The popularity of phrenology in the Victorian period should in part be attributed to the popularity of physiognomy which, thanks in large part to Johann Christian Lavater (1741-1801), has been thoroughly embedded in Western culture since the end of the eighteenth century. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The history and illustration of anatomy in the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Gurunluoglu, Aslin; Williams, Susan A; Cavdar, Safiye

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews the influence of key figures on the pictorial representation of anatomy and the evolution of anatomical illustration during the Middle Ages until the time of the Renaissance, based on medical history books, journals and ancient medical books. During the early period in the Middle Ages, most illustrations were traditional drawings of emblematic nature, oftentimes unrealistic, not only because the precise knowledge of anatomy was lacking but also because the objective was to elucidate certain principles for teaching purposes. Five figure-series that came down to us through ancient manuscripts and textbooks represent the best examples of such traditional illustrations. With the advent of human dissection in the 13th and 14th centuries, a significant transformation in the depiction of anatomy began to project the practice of human dissection, as we see in the works of Mondino de Luzzi, Henri de Mondeville and Guido de Vigevano. After the invention of book printing in the second half of the 15th century, the reproduction of books was commonly practised and the woodcut made multiplication of pictures easier. Peter of Abano, Hieronymous Brunschwig, Johannes de Ketham, Johannes Peyligk, Gregory Reisch, Magnus Hundt, Laurentius Phryesen and many more included several anatomical illustrations in their treatises that demonstrated the development of anatomical illustration during the later Middle Ages.

  8. From Gauß to Biermann: Highlights from the first 117 years of publications in Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Berlepsch, R.; Strassmeier, K. G.

    2009-06-01

    We present facsimiles of some of the scientifically and historically most relevant papers published in Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes (AN) between 1821 and 1938. Almost all of these papers were written and printed in German and it is sometimes not completely straightforward to find these original works and then to cite the historically correct version, e.g. in case of a series of articles or editorial letters. It was common during the early years that many contributions were made in form of letters to the editor. We present a summary for these original works with an English translation of their titles. Among the highlights are the originals of the discovery of stellar parallaxes by Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel, the discovery of the solar cycle by Heinrich Schwabe, the discovery of the planet Neptune by Johann Gottfried Galle, the first ever measured stellar radial velocity by Hermann Vogel, the discovery of radio emission from the Sun by Wilsing and Scheiner, the first ever conducted photoelectric photometry of stars by Paul Guthnick and up to the pioneering work by Karl Schwarzschild, Ejnar Hertzsprung, Erwin Finlay Freundlich and others. As a particular gimmick we present the still world record holding shortest paper ever published; by Johannes Hartmann in AN 226, 63 (1926) on Nova Pictoris. Our focus is on contributions in the early years and published until 1938 near the verge of the second world war.

  9. Development of a Hydrogen Møller Polarimeter for Precision Parity-Violating Electron Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Valerie M.

    2013-10-01

    Parity-violating electron scattering experiments allow for testing the Standard Model at low energy accelerators. Future parity-violating electron scattering experiments, like the P2 experiment at the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany, and the MOLLER and SoLID experiments at Jefferson Lab will measure observables predicted by the Standard Model to high precision. In order to make these measurements, we will need to determine the polarization of the electron beam to sub-percent precision. The present way of measuring the polarization, with Møller scattering in iron foils or using Compton laser backscattering, will not easily be able to reach this precision. The novel Hydrogen Møller Polarimeter presents a non-invasive way to measure the electron polarization by scattering the electron beam off of atomic hydrogen gas polarized in a 7 Tesla solenoidal magnetic trap. This apparatus is expected to be operational by 2016 in Mainz. Currently, simulations of the polarimeter are used to develop the detection system at College of William & Mary, while the hydrogen trap and superconducting solenoid magnet are being developed at the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz. I will discuss the progress of the design and development of this novel polarimeter system. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1206053.

  10. [Steadiness and progress. Medicine in Würzburg in the mirror of the centuries - a contribution to the foundation of the University of Würzburg 600 years ago].

    PubMed

    Vollmuth, Ralf; Keil, Gundolf

    2003-01-01

    In the year 1402 one of the first German universities was founded by bishop Johann von Egloffstein, but it had last in its full composition for only a few decades. Nevertheless, the 600th anniversary has a great importance, because in the 16th century, during the second foundation, there was an adequate tradition of university in Würzburg to lean on and go back to.Although, in a medical-history view, in 1402 this university had been without a greater importance, the medicine in Würzburg in the Middle Ages and the Early modern Times had been on a high level, what is shown by representatives like Ortolf von Baierland (13th century) and Berthold Blumentrost (14th century) or by documents like the 'Würzburger Wundarznei' at the end of the 15th century and the 'Nüttzlicher Bericht' by Walther Hermann Ryff, printed 1548 in Würzburg, as one of the first dental mongraphies.A lasting success was finally the university opened in the year 1582. In 1575/6 bishop Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn had reached, using the traditions of the university of 1402, a new privilege by the pope and the emperor. The medical faculty which was functional deeply connected with the Juliusspital as a kind of hospital right from the beginning, was determined by Wilhelm Schefferlein, Gottfriedt van der Steighe and Adriaen van Roomen. In the beginning of the 17th century the medical faculty turned pale, but two representatives of the philosophic faculty, Athanasius Kircher and Caspar Schott, accomplished remarkable outcomes in medical fields. Heavily stricken by the Thirty Years' War the medicine at the University of Würzburg was changed by the prince-bishops to the model of the University of Leiden, in order to improve the feeble position of the medical faculty. After not being successful in the beginning, the foundation of the blossom and of its worldwide importance had been laid in the last third of the 18th century. Karl Kaspar Siebold had, with the help of some of his fellows, students, and

  11. [Obstetrics--a gear in the machinery of history].

    PubMed

    Schaller, A

    1998-01-01

    It was not Julius Caesar who was born by Caesarean section, as generally assumed, but Scipio Cornelius Africanus, who subdued Spain 100 years before Caesar's time. In chambers with walls of porphyrite, the Byzantine empresses used to give birth to the heirs to the throne. In England, the infertility of Queen Anne, who suffered from porphyria, led to the succession of the Protestant House of Hannover following the Catholic Stuarts. Christina of Sweden, called 'queen of baroque, rebel and scholar', was born in the 'caul'. At the age of 39 years, Johanna of Pfirt, married to Albrecht the Lame, secured the continuation of the Habsburg dynasty by giving birth to Rudolf the Founder. Maria Theresia, who had 16 children, was called 'mother-in-law of Europe'. She was delivered of her first child at the age of 19. The death of her sister Maria-Anna in childbed was one of the reasons why Gerard van Swieten was called to Vienna. Elisabeth of Württemberg, first wife of Franz I of Austria, died, not as a consequence of. but after a forceps operation carried out by Johann Lukas Boër. In England, Princess Charlotte, daughter of George IV, and her baby son died at the delivery; Sir Richard Croft, who had not used the forceps, committed suicide after this tragic incident. Being the next in succession, Victoria ascended the throne. The term 'narcose au chloroforme' (first used by James Young Simpson) was changed to 'narcose à la reine' after this method had been used at the birth of Victoria's eighth child by John Snow. It was Queen Victoria, who passed on haemophilia in European dynasties. When Marie Louise of Habsburg had her first child, Napoleon's son, the later Duke of Reichstadt, Antoine Dubois had to perform a turning of the transverse presentation and use the forceps on the head following after. The birth of Napoleon himself was a case of precipitate labour. Johann Klein, the successor of Boër, applied the forceps when Archduchess Sophie was delivered of her first child

  12. [The architect Heino Schmieden and his merits regarding the construction of hospitals in Berlin].

    PubMed

    Peters, Oleg

    The architect Johann Heino Schmieden (1835-1913) in research today is primarily perceived, if perceived at all, as the partner of Martin Gropius (1824-1880), with whom he maintained a joint architectural firm for 15 years. So far, not much has been published about his life and his achievements. The author proves that Schmieden's life's accomplishments deserve better appreciation and that he belonged to the leading representatives of his profession. Citing numerous examples in the Berlin area, the author presents Heino Schmieden as a nationally and internationally sought-after and leading hospital architect, without forgetting to mention that he discusses only one, albeit the most important, aspect of his work in the present article.

  13. Pyroelectricity in Polycrystalline Ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, R.; Jiménez, B.

    The first reference to pyroelectric effect is by Theophrastus in 314 BC, who noted that tourmaline becomes charged because it attracted bits of straw and ash when heated. Tourmaline's properties were reintroduced in Europe in 1707 by Johann George Schmidt, who also noted the attractive properties of the mineral when heated. Pyroelectricity was first described by Louis Lemery in 1717. In 1747, Linnaeus first related the phenomenon to electricity, although this was not proven until 1756 by Franz Ulrich Thodor Aepinus. In 1824, Sir David Brewster gave the effect the name it has today. William Thomson in 1878 and Voight in 1897 helped develop a theory for the processes behind pyroelectricity. Pierre Curie and his brother, Jacques Curie, studied pyroelectricity in the 1880s, leading to their discovery of some of the mechanisms behind piezoelectricity.

  14. TFTR horizontal high-resolution Bragg x-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.; Tavernier, M.; Diesso, M.; von Goeler, S.; Johnson, G.; Johnson, L.C.; Sauthoff, N.R.; Schechtman, N.; Sesnic, S.; Tenney, F.; Young, K.M.

    1984-11-01

    A bent quartz crystal spectrometer of the Johann type with a spectral resolution of lambda/..delta..lambda = 10,000 to 25,000 is used on TFTR to determine central plasma parameters from the spectra of heliumlike and lithiumlike metal impurity ions (Ti, Cr, Fe, and Ni). The spectra are observed along a central radial chord and are recorded by a position sensitive multiwire proportional counter with a spatial resolution of 250. Standard delay-line time-difference readout is employed. The data are histogrammed and stored in 64k of memory providing 128 time groups of 512-channel spectra. The central ion temperature and the toroidal plasma rotation are inferred from the Doppler broadening and Doppler shift of the K lines. The central electron temperature, the distribution of ionization states, and dielectronic recombination rates are obtained from satellite-to-resonance line ratios. The performance of the spectrometer is demonstrated by measurements of the Ti XXI K radiation.

  15. The astronomical revolution. Copernicus - Kepler - Borelli.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyré, A.

    The work was originally published in 1961 under the title "La révolution astronomique" as part of the series, Histoire de la pensée. This book is an unabridged and unaltered republication of the English translation, by R. E. W. Maddison, originally published in 1973 (see 10.003.074). The author elucidates, precisely and in stages, the revolutionary ideas of Nicolaus Copernicus as well as the work of two other thinkers who made major contributions to the astronomical revolution: Johannes Kepler and Giovanni Borelli. He illuminates the exact contribution of each man, placing his work in its historical context and dispelling a host of misconceptions about it. In order to effectively recapture the ferment and flavor of the times, the author, whenever possible, has allowed Copernicus, Kepler and Borelli to speak for themselves by quoting key passages from their writings. Many of these passages were here translated for the first time.

  16. The Surprising History of Claims for Life on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, Michael J.

    2011-11-01

    Because astronomers are now convinced that it is impossible for life, especially intelligent life, to exist on the Sun and stars, it might be assumed that astronomers have always held this view. This paper shows that throughout most of the history of astronomy, some intellectuals, including a number of well-known astronomers, have advocated the existence of intelligent life on our Sun and thereby on stars. Among the more prominent figures discussed are Nicolas of Cusa, Giordano Bruno, William Whiston, Johann Bode, Roger Boscovich, William Herschel, Auguste Comte, Carl Gauss, Thomas Dick, John Herschel, and François Arago. One point in preparing this paper is to show differences between the astronomy of the past and that of the present.

  17. Metaphysics for an enlightened public: The controversy over monads in Germany, 1746-1748.

    PubMed

    Broman, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    This essay analyzes the controversy that attended the prize essay question on monads proposed by the Berlin Academy of Sciences in 1746. The controversy was first touched off by an anonymous pamphlet published by the mathematician Leonhard Euler, the academy's most well known member, that attacked the doctrine of monads. It peaked with the awarding of the prize to Johann Heinrich Gottlob Justi, whose winning essay closely followed Euler's arguments. This essay discusses the controversy as one instance in a broader quarrel in the German academic community over the suitability of Christian Wolff's philosophy as the foundation for a broad range of academic disciplines, including natural philosophy. It also analyzes the controversy as displaying the central role of the periodical press in the emergent German public sphere.

  18. [A brief history of the anatomy and physiology of a mysterious and hidden gland called the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Navarro, Salvador

    2014-11-01

    Because of its retrogastric location and appearance, which is similar to mesenteric fat, for centuries the pancreas has been a mysterious, hidden organ that has received little attention. However, its importance was intuited and described by Herophilus, Ruphos of Ephesus and Galen. This gland began to appearin distinct medical treatises from the 16th century. There are two important scientists in the history of the pancreas. The fist, Johann Georg Wirsung, described the main pancreatic duct in 1642, a date considered by many to be the start of Pancreatology. The second, Claude Bernard, described pancreatic exocrine function between 1849 and 1856 and is considered the father of pancreatic physiology. Besides these two outstanding figures, there is a constellation of personalities who contributed to improving knowledge of this enigmatic gland with the results of their studies. The aim of this article is to call attention to some of the most notable findings that have enhanced knowledge of this gland over the years.

  19. From Cosmos to Confession: Kepler and the Connection Between Astronomical and Religious Truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothman, Aviva

    In October of 1595, Johannes Kepler joyfully conveyed to Tübingen the news that he had completed his first book, the Mysterium cosmographicum. "I truly desire," he wrote to Michael Maestlin, his former professor of mathematics, "that these things are published as quickly as possible for the glory of God, who wants to be known from the Book of Nature […]. I wanted to be a theologian; for a long time I was distressed: behold God is now celebrated too in my astronomical work."1 Unable to devote himself to the Book of Scripture directly,2 Kepler had turned his focus to God's other book - the Book of Nature - which, he believed, also revealed God's providential plan.

  20. Soft-Stowed Approach: Safe Transportation to ISS for Experiments, Spares & New Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itta, Antonietta; Quagliotti, Francesco

    2012-07-01

    The ISS operational and logistic scenario relies on the regular upload of new experiments and maintenance hardware. The extension of the ISS lifetime places even more emphasis on a resupply policy based on safe, cheap and flexible transportation solutions to ISS. A transportation method suitable for all available carriers is represented by foam packaged items put inside bags or containers. This flight condition can now be analyzed thanks to the results derived from an extensive test campaign performed by Boeing in 2009 under NASA sponsorship. Data and guidelines are provided for the calculation of the attenuated flight environments due to the soft packaging conditions. The paper also reports a real life application: the uploading to ISS of the Columbus PDU (some 90 kg) inside ATV II Johannes Kepler, wrapped in 1” of zotek and put inside a M01 bag. The mission was successful: PDU is today safely stored inside a Columbus Rack.

  1. The Transits of Venus and New Technologies: A Time to Reflect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brashear, Ron

    2005-01-01

    In the recent history of astronomy there have been occasions where `New Astronomies' have been introduced. In the spirit of the recent excitement of the 2004 transit of Venus, I have used the periods around the historical transits to reflect on the `New Astronomies' of those eras. Johannes Kepler's Astronomia Nova is a fine representation of the New Astronomy of the 1631-1639 transit pair and Pierre Simon, Marquis de Laplace's Traité de Mécanique Céleste reflects the New Astronomy of the 1761-1769 transit pair. A combination of Samuel P. Langley's The New Astronomy and James E. Keeler's 1897 paper on astrophysics have been chosen as the exemplars of the New Astronomy of the 1874-1882 transit pair. I am open to suggestions for the works that best represent the 2004-2012 transit pairs.

  2. Kepler's Copernican Campaign and the New Star of 1604

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boner, Patrick J.

    In a letter of 27 October 1604, David Fabricius (1564-1617) eagerly reported to Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) his observations of a brilliant new luminary in the constellation of Sagittarius. Fabricius had first observed the new luminary "near the location of the great conjunction,"1 which had occurred just 10 months earlier. His eyes had been drawn to the area by the proximity of the three superior planets when "Mars and Jupiter were conjoined and Saturn had by then returned directly to the location of the great conjunction."2 There, Fabricius had identified "a new star, with no motion of its own," in the outer sphere encasing the cosmos.3 The star had surpassed Jupiter "in diameter and silvery splendor,"4 and its scintillation had proven incomparably swift.

  3. Mechanical effects of light on material media: radiation pressure and the linear and angular momenta of photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2014-09-01

    Electromagnetic waves carry energy as well as linear and angular momenta. Interactions between light and material media typically involve the exchange of all three entities. In all such interactions energy and momentum (both linear and angular) are conserved. Johannes Kepler seems to have been the first person to notice that the pressure of sunlight is responsible for the tails of the comets pointing away from the Sun. Modern applications of radiation pressure and photon momentum include solar sails, optical tweezers for optical trapping and micro-manipulation, and optically-driven micro-motors and actuators. This paper briefly describes certain fundamental aspects underlying the mechanical properties of light, and examines several interesting phenomena involving the linear and angular momenta of photons.

  4. Kepler's "War on Mars"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, William; Orchiston, W.; Stephenson, F. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an interpretation of how Johannes Kepler changed the study of astronomy. We propose that in his metaphorical "War on Mars,” the Astronomia Nova, Kepler used a revolutionary rhetoric to bring about the usurpation of seventeenth-century astronomy. We discuss how Kepler approached the well-established conceptual framework within which the hypotheses of Ptolemy, Copernicus and Tycho Brahe functioned, and how he sought comprehensive physical principles that could determine the true cause and form of the known Universe. We examine Kepler's need to redefine reality and his use of rhetoric in shaping his astronomical argument for a new astronomy, and we show that his new `laws’ represent a fusion of physics and geometry based upon astronomical observations. We suggest that although Kepler may have believed in and defended some Copernican ideas, his innovative Astronomia Nova opened up a whole new vista for international astronomy.

  5. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boner, Patrick J.

    The history of cosmology in medieval and early modern Europe involves an interdisciplinary array of scholars who redefined the nature and knowability of the world. The papers in this volume focus primarily on astronomers who put forward new ways of relating the heavens and earth and our role as cosmic actors. Together, they represent a rich variety of views that brought the heavens and earth closer together as new forms of cosmic continuity reflected new forms of knowledge.1 More than a monolithic response to scholastic philosophy, these views suggest a growing number of voices that spoke to the essence and structure of the cosmos as a whole. Johannes Kepler, among "a new breed of astronomers" who studied the science of the stars in concert with cosmology,2 is a radical example of this emerging enterprise of cosmic synthesis.

  6. The role of tone sensation and musical stimuli in early experimental psychology.

    PubMed

    Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the role of music in early experimental psychology is examined. Initially, the research of Wilhelm Wundt is considered, as tone sensation and musical elements appear as dominant factors in much of his work. It is hypothesized that this approach was motivated by an understanding of psychology that dates back to Christian Wolff 's focus on sensation in his empirical psychology of 1732. Wolff, however, had built his systematization of psychology on Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, who combined perception with mathematics,and referred to music as the area in which sensation is united with numerical exactitude. Immanuel Kant refused to accept empirical psychology as a science, whereas Johann Friedrich Herbart reintroduced the scientific basis of empirical psychology by, among other things, referring to music.

  7. Ephemerides and information: Investigations on the content of Berlin calendars up to Bode's Astronomisches Jahrbuch. (German Title: Ephemeriden und Informationen: Inhaltliche Untersuchungen Berliner Kalender bis zu Bodes Astronomischem Jahrbuch)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    This contributions investigates a line of tradition which started already with the oldest calenders, i.e. to add an `educating' appendix. As a wide-spread medium, calendars were suitable for the dissemination of astrological views, the explanation of astronomical facts, of important activities for the home and the stable, for health protection, agriculture, and social connections. The calendars of the Berlin Academy, authored by Gottfried Kirch and his successors, fit well into this picture: also astrology played an important role. Kirch had added to his ephemerides of 1681 to 1692 own and other observations and contributions. This lead to a form, which superseded `normal' calenders, a form in which also Johann Elert Bode's Berliner Astronomisches Jahrbuch appeared from 1776 to 1829.

  8. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    PubMed

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.

  9. Waldemar Wilhelm: father of oral and maxillofacial surgery in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castro-Núñez, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Waldemar Wilhelm (1913-1994) was honored by the Asociación Colombiana de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial (Colombian Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery) as the Father of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Colombia. Born in Karlsruhe, Germany, Wilhelm graduated as a dentist from Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in 1936. He emigrated shortly thereafter to Colombia, receiving his dental license there in 1943. He completed his oral and maxillofacial surgery training at Nordwestdeutsche Kieferklinic, under the tutelage of Prof. Dr. Dr. Karl Schuchardt in Hamburg. In 1950, he settled in Bogotá, where he joined the Universidad Nacional School of Dentistry, opened Colombia's first oral and maxillofacial surgery department at Hospital San José, and trained the first maxillofacial surgeons in Colombia in 1958.

  10. Plasma diagnostics for x-ray driven foils at Z

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R F; Bailey, J E; Cuneo, M E; Emig, J; Foord, M E; Springer, P T; Thoe, R S

    2000-06-17

    We report the development of techniques to diagnose plasmas produced by X-ray photoionization of thin foils placed near the Z-pinch on the Sandia Z Machine. The development of 100+ TW X-ray sources enables access to novel plasma regimes, such as the photoionization equilibrium. To diagnose these plasmas one must simultaneously characterize both the foil and the driving pinch. The desired photoionized plasma equilibrium is only reached transiently for a 2-ns window, placing stringent requirements on diagnostic synchronization. We have adapted existing Sandia diagnostics and fielded an additional gated 3-crystal Johann spectrometer with dual lines of sight to meet these requirements. We present sample data from experiments in which 1 cm, 180 eV tungsten pinches photoionized foils composed of 200{angstrom} Fe and 300{angstrom} NaF co-mixed and sandwiched between 1000{angstrom} layers of Lexan (CHO), and discuss the application of this work to benchmarking astrophysical models.

  11. Zabór Palace in the Light of the Latest Discoveries - Interior of the Elevation using Sgraffito Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielinis-Kopeć, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    The property in Zabór from the fifteenth century belonged, among others, to families: von Tschammer, von Dyhrn, Montani, von Dünnewald, von Cosel and von Schönaich-Carolath. The testimony of its magnificence is a palace built by Count Johann Heinrich von Dünnewald in the 4th quarter of the seventeenth century, in the type of early baroque French residence, which, after 1745 was expanded in a magnificent baroque residence by Count Friedrich August von Cosel. In 2014 during the renovation of the monument one encountered a mannerist sgraffito, and facades of the old previously unknown buildings, were decorated with it, dating back probably to the early seventeenth century, which sheds a new light on the history of the monument and its construction phases.

  12. Biosignatures of Exoplanets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Nancy Y.

    2017-01-01

    Are we alone? Ancient astronomers across the continents knew the existence of five Solar System planets visible to the naked eye. They could tell that these celestial wanderers were unlike stars in that they only reflected light from the Sun. In the early 1600s, Galileo developed the first telescopes able to observe spots moving across the Sun and the passage of moons across the face of Jupiter. He verified the theory of Aristarchus (3rd c. BC), and refined by Nicolaus Copernicus (mid 16th c.) and Johannes Kepler (late 16th c.), that the Earth and the other planets, in fact, orbit the Sun and not the other way around. Around the same time, Dominican friar Giordano Bruno wondered about the possibility of life on other worlds orbiting other suns (and was burned at the stake for this and other heresies).

  13. Early descriptions of acromegaly and gigantism and their historical evolution as clinical entities.

    PubMed

    Mammis, Antonios; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Liu, James K

    2010-10-01

    Giants have been a subject of fascination throughout history. Whereas descriptions of giants have existed in the lay literature for millennia, the first attempt at a medical description was published by Johannes Wier in 1567. However, it was Pierre Marie, in 1886, who established the term "acromegaly" for the first time and established a distinct clinical diagnosis with clear clinical descriptions in 2 patients with the characteristic presentation. Multiple autopsy findings revealed a consistent correlation between acromegaly and pituitary enlargement. In 1909, Harvey Cushing postulated a “hormone of growth" as the underlying pathophysiological trigger involved in pituitary hypersecretion in patients with acromegaly. This theory was supported by his observations of clinical remission in patients with acromegaly in whom he had performed hypophysectomy. In this paper, the authors present some of the early accounts of acromegaly and gigantism, and describe its historical evolution as a medical and surgical entity.

  14. Kepler's mathematization of Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Judith V.

    The paper concerns with mathematical knowledge of Johannes Kepler. A part of the paper describes the mathematical education of Kepler which includes the Euclidean geometry and texts by Ptolemy. The first He knew from the Proclus' Commentary which was published in 1533. The author is pointing out that Kepler's epistemology was close to Plato's. The "polyhedral archetype" is discussed in detail. The greatest error was in the case of Mercury (~20%) Kepler's reaction was otherwise absolutely what one would exopect of a theoretician in the twentieth century: he suggested that better observations would imoprouve matter. The author make an analogy with modern discussions on metal abundances in the outer layers of old stars. The author is mentioning also that the Kepler's version of Copernicus' system is noticeably different from Copernicus' original one, including important improvements.

  15. Meckel-Gruber syndrome (dysencephalia splanchnocystica).

    PubMed

    Shetty, B Prasanna; Alva, Nandakishore; Patil, Shankargouda; Shetty, Rohit

    2012-09-01

    Meckel-Gruber syndrome is a rare lethal autosomal recessive condition which was first described by Johann Friedrich Meckel in 1822 and GB Gruber in 1934. More than 200 cases have been reported worldwide with an incidence ranging from 1:13,250 to 1:140,000 live births. A 21-year-old female with G3 A2 L0, presented with twin pregnancy with history of previous two anencephalic pregnancies. The present pregnancy was a preterm vaginal delivery of female twins by face presentation at 35 weeks of gestation (diamniotic dichorionic twin gestation). Neonatal autopsy revealed classical triad of occipital encephalocele, polycystic kidneys and lungs with postaxial polydactyly. This case is presented for its rarity and its documented occurrence in Gujarati Indians.

  16. Form--a matter of generation: the relation of generation, form, and function in the epigenetic theory of Caspar F. Wolff.

    PubMed

    Witt, Elke

    2008-12-01

    The question, how organisms obtain their specific complex and functional forms, was widely discussed during the eighteenth century. The theory of preformation, which was the dominant theory of generation, was challenged by different alternative epigenetic theories. By the end of the century it was the vitalist approach most famously advocated by Johann Friedrich Blumenbach that prevailed. Yet the alternative theory of generation brought forward by Caspar Friedrich Wolff was an important contribution to the treatment of this question. He turned his attention from the properties of matter and the forces acting on it towards the level of the processes of generation in order to explain the constitution of organismic forms. By regarding organic structures and forms to be the result of the lawfulness of ongoing processes, he opened up the possibility of a functional but non-teleological explanation of generation, and thereby provided an important complement to materialist and vitalist approaches.

  17. Fetus-in-fetu: a pediatric rarity.

    PubMed

    Narayanasamy, Jeyanthi N; Nallusamy, Mohan Arunasalam; Baharuddin, Nur Daliza

    2014-02-01

    Fetus-in-fetu (FIF) is a rare entity resulting from abnormal embryogenesis in diamniotic monochorionic twins, being first described by Johann Friedrich Meckel (1800s). This occurs when a vertebrate fetus is enclosed in a normally growing fetus. Clinical manifestations vary. Detection is most often in infancy, the oldest reported age being 47. We report the case of a 4-day-old girl who was referred postnatally following a prenatal fetal scan which had revealed the presence of a multi-loculated retroperitoneal mass lesion with calcifications within. A provisional radiological diagnosis of FIF was made. Elective laparotomy revealed a well encapsulated retroperitoneal mass containing among other structures a skull vault and rudimentary limb buds. Recovery was uneventful. Here we discuss the difference between FIF and teratomas, risks of non-operative therapy and the role of serology in surveillance and detection of malignant change.

  18. BOOK REVIEW: Astronomie von Olbers bis Schwarzschild. Nationale Entwicklungen und internationale Beziehungen im 19. Jahrhundert (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 16)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    The 14th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is the Proceedings of a Colloquium International Relationships in Astronomy (in German) organised by the History of Astronomy Section of the Astronomische Gesellschaft held on September 18 in Lilienthal, Germany. The book contains 13 articles on astronomical topics covering the 19th and 20th centuries. The first paper is by Guenther Oestmann and deals with contemporary assessments of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's (1745-1816) astronomical works and with later judgements of the scientific importance and significance of his observations as seen by astronomers and historians. This report is complemented by a second article on Schroeter's 25-ft reflector in Lilienthal near Bremen. To this end, author Felix Luehning has constructed a scale model of the telescope, and shows how the building of a model brings a deeper understanding of function and handling of this instrument. This brings us to a third paper on telescope building in Lilienthal: Hans-Joachim Leue describes the cooperation of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter and Johann Gottlieb Schrader in developing a white reflecting metal alloy for use as telescope mirror. The fourth article, by Klaus Schillinger, describes on the basis of archival documents the aquisition history of the Herschel telescopes, including telescope quality check, repair and building. Memorial sites referring to Wilhelm Olbers, Johann Hieronymus Schroeter, Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel and Carl Friedrich Gauss are described by Arno Langkavel in two walks outlined in the very last paper of this book. Peter Brosche, in the fifth paper, discusses the rediscovery of Ceres in December1801, a discovery that was the result of the combined efforts of a theoretician (Gauss) and an observer (Zach). Juergen Hamel's paper is based on previously unused archival sources and discusses the outstanding role played by H. C. Schumacher (1780-1850, editor of the Astronomische Nachrichten) in the communication between

  19. Kepler's Use of Archetypes in his defence against Aristotelian Scepticism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Rhonda M.

    In 1621, looking back over an impresive career, Johannes Kepler commented that "almost every book on astronomy which I have published since that time could be referred to one or another of the important chapters set out in this little book (the Mysterium Cosmographicum) and would contain either an illustration or a completion of it". Kepler viewed the Mysterium, his first book, as the genesis of hist later works; Here the author is focusing on the conceptual foundations it provided for his approach to physical astronomy and the Aristotelian dominant during his time. It turns out that despite Kepler's arowedly Platonic and Pythagorean sympathies, his physical astronomy comports with Aristotle's directives in the Posterior Analytics. Perhaps paradoxically, his arhetypal cosmology as expressed in the Mysterium enabled the merging Platonic and Aristotelian intuitions in his construction of the new astronomy.

  20. ["Could not therefore the earth globe also be a large tourmaline?" A crystal, Lichtenberg and the polarity discussion before 1800].

    PubMed

    Wiesenfeldt, Gerhard; Breidbach, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the debate on one particular phenomenon of the research into electrical charge distribution prior to 1800: the description and interpretation of polarities observed on the tourmaline. We show that in the second half of the eighteenth century this crystal became a model to distinguish and categorize different qualities of charges (electric and magnetic fluids). It will become clear that the polarity detected on the tourmaline became a key concept for eighteenth century natural philosophy, which relied on analogizing operations. We illustrate this concentrating on Lichtenbergs first lecture at the Göttingen academy of science in 1778. Thus the concept of polarity is already a central ordering category before the beginnings of the speculative enterprise of idealistic Naturphilosophy. Consequently, the physicist Johann Wilhelm Ritter, who can be positioned in that context, consciously adheres to the experimental research tradition of polarities portrayed in this paper.

  1. Georg Friedrich Kordenbusch and astronomy in Nuremberg in the second half of the 18th century. (German Title: Georg Friedrich Kordenbusch und die Astronomie in Nürnberg in der zweiten Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaab, Hans

    In the second half of the 18th century, Georg Friedrich Kordenbusch (1731 - 1802) was the best-known living mathematician and astronomer in Nuremberg. Being a physician by training, he obtained, in 1769, the post of lecturer in mathematics and physics at the Egidien secondary school. Subsequently, he tried in vain to re-erect the observatory, torn down in 1751. In the early 1770s, he became famous for preparing the second edition of Johann Leonhard Rost's Astronomisches Handbuch that was, in its first edition of 1718, the first compendium of astronomy written in German, and which had a wide circulation. In 1790, Kordenbusch was raised to the nobility for his achievements.

  2. A Newtonian Description of the Linear Stark Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodyard, James; Espinosa, James

    2010-10-01

    After the discovery of the magnetic effect on spectral lines by Zeeman, it was only natural that physicists should look for a similar effect when an electric field was applied. A nonlinear model of the hydrogen atom developed by Woldemar Voigt was investigated and predicted a second order effect that would require huge electric fields in the ten of millions of volts per centimeter. Fortunately, Johannes Stark ignored this ominous prediction by a leading theoretician and discovered a linear electric effect that would quickly be named after himself. Soon after Bohr introduced his quantum theory of the Hydrogen Atom, Schwarzschild and Epstein independently utilized Sommerfeld's extension of Bohr's theory to arrive at an empirically correct formula. We will show how our classical theory of the hydrogen atom can account for the linear Stark effect.

  3. How fingerprints came into use for personal identification.

    PubMed

    Caplan, R M

    1990-07-01

    The use of fingerprints for personal identification became widespread early in this century. How the fingerprints slowly became standardized involves many persons, including Nathaniel Grew, Johannes Purkinje, William Herschel, Henry Faulds, Charles Darwin, Francis Galton, Mark Twain, Juan Vucetich, Edward Henry, and J. Edgar Hoover. Although fingerprints have been noted and used since antiquity, a 25-year burst of activity that secured adoption of their use for identification began in about 1880. New modifications and applications have continued to the present. The history of fingerprints offers an excellent example of how society adopts innovations. This story also includes a bitter struggle for appropriate credit for various crucial steps in developing and adopting this important tool. More recent technical advances, including computers and molecular biology, now supplement the ease and usefulness of fingerprints, although the word fingerprinting continues in use by metaphoric extension.

  4. Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. 7 (German Title: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Hamel, Jürgen

    The topics of this volume extend from the work of the islamic scienticst al-Tusi in the 13th century to the development of astronomical instrumentation at the Carl Zeiss Jena Company in the second half of the 20th century. The contents of the remaining articles are found between these limits: the well-known textbooks of Johannes de Sacrobosco, Tycho Brahe's stays in Augsburg, Gottfried Kirch's calendars, published around 1700, a portrait of Bessel, made during his Königsberg time, Fraunhofer's successors at the Munich Optical Institute, and Einstein's cosmological ideas in his ``Four lectures on the Theory of Relativity''. The earliest disputation of the learned Jesuit Christoph Scheiner is printed for the first time in a German translation. The volume is concluded by a bibliographical overview on historical Venus transits, additional short notes, an obituary of Jerzy Dobrzycki, and book reviews. Most papers are written in German. Main papers have English abstracts.

  5. The Lenticular Process of the Incus

    PubMed Central

    Graboyes, Evan M.; Hullar, Timothy E.; Chole, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    17th century anatomists, including Franciscus Sylvius, identified a small bony structure between the distal end of the incus and the stapes that they believed was a separate and thus additional ossicle. The existence of the ossicle at the distal portion of the long process of the incus was controversial for the next two hundred years. In the 19th century, anatomists including Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, Henry Jones Shrapnell, Eduard Hagenbach, and Joseph Hyrtl provided numerous arguments to demonstrate why the so-called additional ossicle was actually attached to the incus by a thin strut, and thus not a separate bone. Since then, the ovoid end of the incus has been referred to as the “lenticular process” of the incus. The best nomenclature for the bony connection between the lenticular process and the rest of the incus remains uncertain, but the term “lenticular process” should not include its connecting pedicle. PMID:21986927

  6. Nostalgia: a conceptual history.

    PubMed

    Fuentenebro de Diego, Filiberto; Valiente Ots, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    The term nostalgia was first proposed in 1688 by Johannes Hofer as equivalent to the German term Heimweh. It referred to a state of moral pain associated with the forced separation from family and social environment. Consecutive clinical descriptions from the seventeenth century up to the present day have been subjected to the aetiopathogenic and clinical paradigms of each period. Golden-age descriptions of nostalgia that are of particular interest were derived from the observation of conscript soldiers in Napoleonic campaigns by authors such as Gerbois and Larrey. In 1909 Jaspers devoted his doctoral thesis to this topic (Nostalgia und Verbrechen). From a cultural history point of view, it could be considered today as an example of 'transient illness'. The nosological relay has taken place through clinical pictures such as the pathology associated with exile, forced displacements and psychosis of captivity. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. [On the ancient and magical lesions in the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries].

    PubMed

    Hach, W; Hach-Wunderle, V

    2014-11-01

    At the beginning of the Renaissance magical, witchcraft and demonological medicine still played a large role in the poor healing ability of chronic leg ulcers. This included the general administration of magical potions and topical application. An example of the manipulation of the whole body by the devil was the Abracadabra text from Johann Christoph Bitterkraut in the year 1677. The use of bewitched ointments was particularly propagated by Paracelsus in 1622; however, even as early as the beginning of the seventeenth century, the invocation of supernatural powers was slowly diminishing until at the beginning of the nineteenth century the medical schools on chronic leg ulcers could be cultivated at the universities and by specialized wound healers.

  8. Training the intelligent eye: understanding illustrations in early modern astronomy texts.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Kathleen M; Barker, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Throughout the early modern period, the most widely read astronomical textbooks were Johannes de Sacrobosco's De sphaera and the Theorica planetarum, ultimately in the new form introduced by Georg Peurbach. This essay argues that the images in these texts were intended to develop an "intelligent eye." Students were trained to transform representations of specific heavenly phenomena into moving mental images of the structure of the cosmos. Only by learning the techniques of mental visualization and manipulation could the student "see" in the mind's eye the structure and motions of the cosmos. While anyone could look up at the heavens, only those who had acquired the intelligent eye could comprehend the divinely created order of the universe. Further, the essay demonstrates that the visual program of the Sphaera and Theorica texts played a significant and hitherto unrecognized role in later scientific work. Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler all utilized the same types of images in their own texts to explicate their ideas about the cosmos.

  9. How History Helped Einstein in Special Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Alberto

    2013-04-01

    I will discuss how the German intellectual movement known as ``critical history'' motivated several physicists in the late 1900s to radically analyze the fundamental principles of mechanics, leading eventually to Einstein's special theory of relativity. Eugen Karl Dühring, Johann Bernhard Stallo, Ludwig Lange, and Ernst Mach wrote critical histories of mechanics, some of which emphasized notions of relativity and observation, in opposition to old metaphysical concepts that seemed to infect the foundations of physics. This strand of critical history included the ``genetic method'' of analyzing how concepts develop over time, in our minds, by way of ordinary experiences, which by 1904 was young Albert Einstein's favorite approach for examining fundamental notions. Thus I will discuss how history contributed in Einstein's path to relativity, as well as comment more generally on Einstein's views on history.

  10. Study of high resolution x-ray spectrometer concepts for NIF experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Efthimion, P.; Gao, L.; Maddox, J.; Pablant, N. A.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Coppari, F.; Ma, T.; Nora, R.; Scott, H.; Schneider, M.; Mancini, R.

    2015-11-01

    Options have been investigated for DIM-insertable (Diagnostic Instrument Manipulator) high resolution (E/ ΔE ~ 3000 - 5000) Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometers for experiments on the NIF. Of interest are time integrated Cu K- and Ta L-edge absorption spectra and time resolved Kr He- β emission from compressed symcaps for inference of electron temperature from dielectronic satellites and electron density from Stark broadening. Cylindrical and conical von Hamos, Johann, and advanced high throughput designs have been studied. Predicted x-ray intensities, spectrometer throughputs, spectral resolution, and spatial focusing properties, as well as lab evaluations of some spectrometer candidates will be presented. Performed under the auspices of the US DOE by PPPL under contract DE-AC02-09CH11466 and by LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. Assessment of the ATV-1 Re-Entry Observation Campaign for Future Re-Entry Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lips, T.; Lohle, S.; Marynowsky, T.; Rees, D.; Stenbeak-Nielsen, H. C.; Beks, M. L.; Hatton, J.

    2010-09-01

    This paper summarizes the midterm results of the currently ongoing ESA study “Assessment of the ATV-1 Reentry Observation Campaign for Future Re-entry Missions”. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the data obtained during a joint ESA/NASA airborne observation campaign of the destructive re-entry of ATV-1 Jules Verne which occurred on September 29, 2008. The presented results are focused on spectroscopic fragment characterization(material identification), frame-by-frame fragment tracking(manual and automatic) for various video recordings, 3D triangulation of the tracked fragments, and fragment propagation until complete demise or ground impact, including the actual size and location of the ATV-1 debris footprint. Fragment propagation analyses comprise also the derivation of aerodynamic fragment properties and potential delta velocities. These parameters are of high importance for the re-entry safety analysis for ATV-2 Johannes Kepler.

  12. Evaluation of the Department of Neurosurgery of the Seoul National University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Neurosurgery (DNS) of the Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH), belongs to the largest and oldest such institutions in Korea. Because of its growing reputation it is hardly surprising that the DNS draws visitor and scholars for clinical education and academic exchange from far beyond Korea. I myself visited the SNUH in February and March 2013. During this time I composed this evaluation in which I compare the DNS to my home Department at the Johannes Gutenberg-University in Mainz/Germany, as well as the situation of Neurosurgery in Korea and Germany in general. In the first part this evaluation summarizes data concerning equipment, staff and organizational structure, as well as educational and scientific issues of the DNS. In the second part some issues of interest are discussed in special regard to the corresponding practices in Germany. PMID:23908698

  13. French Crossings: III. The Smile of the Tiger

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Colin

    2016-01-01

    This article continues the theme of ‘French Crossings’ explored in other Presidential Addresses by focussing on the border zone between the human and the animal. The focus is on the allegedly tiger-like character attributed to Maimilien Robespierre, particularly after his fall from power and his execution in 1794. This theme is explored in terms of Thermidorian propaganda, French Revolutionary historiography and the ancient discipline of physiognomy, which was reactivated by Johann-Caspar Lavater in the late eighteenth century and still influential through much of the nineteenth. Robespierre’s animal rather than human status was also held to emerge in his inability to smile or laugh, a significant point also in that the meaning of the smile was changing in the same period. PMID:27630376

  14. Coronellis Cosmos in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaßner, Gottfried; Pärr, Nora

    2009-06-01

    Die Melker Stiftsbibliothek besitzt ein Globenpaar des berühmten venezianischen Globenbauers Vincenzo Coronelli (1650-1718), einen Erdglobus von 1688 und einen Himmelsglobus von 1693. Wie und wann die beiden Globen nach Melk gekommen sind, ist nicht bekannt. Dass sie zur ursprünglichen Ausstattung der 1735 fertig gestellten Barockbibliothek gehörten, wird aber aus der zentralen Stellung deutlich, die dem Globus (Erdglobus und Armillarphäre) in dem von Paul Troger 1732 gemalten Deckenfresko zukommt. Mehrfach begegnet das Motiv des Globus als Attribut der Weisheit bzw. Philosophie, der Geographie bzw. Geometrie und der Astronomie in den beiden Hauptsälen wie auch in der Deckenmalerei von Johann Bergl in der Oberen Bibliothek (1768) und in der Kuppel des Gartenpavillons (1764).

  15. Chromatic modulation in visual art: a computational perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agahchen, Anissa; Albu, Alexandra Branzan

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a computational approach for analyzing and visualizing the aesthetics of color from the perspective of color theory. Our study is grounded in the works of Johannes Itten, one of the most remarkable theorists of color aesthetics. Our focus lies on the computational analysis of a specific aspect of color usage in paintings, namely modulation. We, therefore, propose the three-dimensional (3-D) color palette, a visualization of the chromatic information of an image in the hue-saturation-lightness space. Using the proposed palette, we derive a set of simple hue-specific descriptors for color modulation. Our experimental results involve a selection of digital reproductions of paintings discussed extensively by Itten. They show that the proposed modulation measures yield results that are consistent with Itten's comments and explanations. Future work involves further exploration of the proposed 3-D color palette, in terms of its ability to discriminate between different artists and painting styles.

  16. Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) and astronomy in Berlin in the 18th century. Contributions of the colloquium held in Berlin-Treptow on March 6, 2010 (German Title: Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) und die Berliner Astronomie im 18. Jahrhundert.) Beiträge des Kolloquiums am 6. März 2010 in Berlin-Treptow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    2010-12-01

    The contributions of this volume are dedicated to Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710), the first Berlin astronomer, on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of his death. They deal with the astronomy of his times and developments in later times, which are connected to his work. The papers deal with the following topics: The instrumental equipment of Berlin Observatory at the time of G. Kirch and its modernisation up to around 1780; the instruments of Johann Makob Marioni's Viennese observatory around 1730; the heraldic celestial globe by Kirch's teacher Erhard Weigel. In addition, they deal with Kirch's share in the propagation of ideas of the Enlightenment, and with the Berlin meteorological record and its consequences for the investigation of anthropogenous climatic changes. They also deal with astronomical topics in the exchange of letters between Leonhard Euler and Daniel Bernoulli, and with the Berlin "Astronomisches Jahrbuch", which is based on Kirch's activities, as a biographical source.

  17. Fisher's contributions to genetics and heredity, with special emphasis on the Gregor Mendel controversy.

    PubMed

    Piegorsch, W W

    1990-12-01

    R. A. Fisher is widely respected for his contributions to both statistics and genetics. For instance, his 1930 text on The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection remains a watershed contribution in that area. Fisher's subsequent research led him to study the work of (Johann) Gregor Mendel, the 19th century monk who first developed the basic principles of heredity with experiments on garden peas. In examining Mendel's original 1865 article, Fisher noted that the conformity between Mendel's reported and proposed (theoretical) ratios of segregating individuals was unusually good, "too good" perhaps. The resulting controversy as to whether Mendel "cooked" his data for presentation has continued to the current day. This review highlights Fisher's most salient points as regards Mendel's "too good" fit, within the context of Fisher's extensive contributions to the development of genetical and evolutionary theory.

  18. [Picture metamorphosis. The transformation of insects from the end of the seventeenth to the beginning of the nineteenth century].

    PubMed

    Wellmann, Janina

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses the history of research into the problem of insect metamorphosis from the middle of the seventeenth century to the beginning of the nineteenth century. In particular, the work of three central figures is discussed: Jan Swammerdam (1637-1680), Pierre Lyonet (1706-1789) and Johann Moritz David Herold (1790-1862). It is argued that an understanding of the history of the problem of metamorphosis requires a careful analysis of its pictorial dimension. For Swammerdam, the central aim was a visualisation of the mechanical process by which, as he assumed, the butterfly is enfolding out of the larva. Lyonet's aim was a schematic representation of the structure of the organs, layer by layer, in order to understand the inner changes that the organs are undergoing throughout metamorphosis. Herold, working in the context of epigenetic embryology, took a very different strategy: the developmental series became the central pictorial means by which development as a gradual process of transformation was depicted.

  19. Measuring Curved Crystal Performance for a High Resolution, Imaging X-ray Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Haugh and Richard Stewart

    2010-06-07

    This paper describes the design, crystal selection, and crystal testing for a vertical Johann spectrometer operating in the 13 keV range to measure ion Doppler broadening in inertial confinement plasmas. The spectrometer is designed to use thin, curved, mica crystals to achieve a resolving power of E/ΔE>2000. A number of natural mica crystals were screened for flatness and X-ray diffraction width to find samples of sufficient perfection for use in the instrument. Procedures to select and mount high quality mica samples are discussed. A diode-type X-ray source coupled to a dual goniometer arrangement was used to measure the crystal reflectivity curve. A procedure was developed for evaluating the goniometer performance using a set of diffraction grade Si crystals. This goniometer system was invaluable for identifying the best original crystals for further use and developing the techniques to select satisfactory curved crystals for the spectrometer.

  20. Encountering the shadow in rites of passage: a study in activations.

    PubMed

    Casement, Ann

    2003-02-01

    Jung's concept of the shadow is explored in this paper through his writings on its realization and assimilation in which he says the shadow may be experienced as the regressed and denied 'other self' in each individual. However, this is not the whole picture, and he also points to the fact that the shadow contains more than something merely negative. While in no way treating them as 'patients', the paper will also touch on the experience of the anthropologist, Bronislaw Malinowski, and the writer, Joseph Conrad, in their personal encounters with the shadow. All three encountered the shadow whilst going through rites of passage of their own and each owes much to the Romantic Movement. In this context, attention is directed to the writings of the philosopher and theologian, Johann Gottfried von Herder, who discovered a deeper understanding of his destiny in the course of a sea voyage.