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  1. Johannes Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, Volker

    Johannes Kepler (1571 - 1630) gilt zurecht als einer der bedeutendsten Mathematiker und Astronomen der frühen Neuzeit, doch wurde das Philosophische in seinem Werk bislang kaum in angemessener Weise gewürdigt. Volker Bialas legt eine fundierte und anregende Einführung in Leben, Werk und Weltanschauung Keplers vor und setzt dabei durch die Akzentuierung des philosophisch-ganzheitlichen Denkens bewußt einen Kontrapunkt zum herkömmlichen Kepler-Bild.

  2. Johannes Kepler's Intelligent Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Paul M.

    2006-12-01

    In the last decade, the theory labeled "Intelligent Design" has exacerbated long-standing conflicts between religion and science. This issue will be addressed from the perspective of the philosophy and science of Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), whose unconventional belief in design lived in harmony with his revolutionary physical astronomy.

  3. [SS physician Johann Paul Kremer].

    PubMed

    Kucharski, J

    1998-01-01

    SS-Obersturmfuhrer Johann Paul Kremer (professor of anatomy of Munster University) in Auschwitz camp tested upon human bodies result in starvation. He carried out researches concerning liver illness (braune Atrophie). He had been a SS in Auschwitz since 30th August till 18th November 1942. During a process of Auschwitz-Birkenau SS crew he was sentenced to death 22nd December 1947 by National Tribunal in Cracow. Verdict was changed by The President of Polish Republic for life-annuity. Verdict revision in 1960 sentenced him for 10 years of prison. He died in 60's.

  4. Blindness of Johann Sebastian Bach.

    PubMed

    Tarkkanen, Ahti

    2013-03-01

    Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was one of the greatest composers of all time. Apart from performing as a brilliant organist, he composed over 1.100 works in almost every musical genre. He was known as a hardworking, deeply Christian person, who had to support his family of 20 children and many students staying at his home. At the age of 64 years, his vision started to decline. Old biographies claim that it was the result of overstressing his vision in poor illumination. By persuasion of his friends, he had his both eyes operated by a travelling British eye surgeon. A cataract couching was performed. After surgery, Bach was totally blind and unable to play an organ, compose or direct choirs and orchestras. He was confined to bed and suffering from immense pain of the eyes and the body. He died <4 months after surgery. In this paper, as the plausible diagnosis, intractable glaucoma because of pupillary block or secondary to phacoanaphylactic endophthalmitis is suggested.

  5. [Johann van Beethoven (1776-1848)].

    PubMed

    Eikermann, Erika

    2012-01-01

    The article about the life and achievements of the apothecary Johann van Beethoven, the younger brother of the composer Ludwig van Beethoven, depicts a vivid picture of life in the 18th, 19t century. Research on archived original documents in Bonn, Vienna and Linz on the Danube made it possible to reveal details about the relationship inside this famous family and describes the hurdles of life of a successful apothecary. In 1776 Johann van Beethoven was born as the fourth child of the Beethoven family, a family of Bonner musicians. In 1790 he began his apprenticeship to become an apothecary at the Bonner "Hofapotheke". Towards the end of 1795 he moved to join his older brothers Ludwig and Karl in Vienna. During his time there he worked as a "subject" in various Viennese pharmacies. However in 1808 he purchased the pharmacy "Zur Goldenen Krone" in Linz on the Danube. His new pharmacy flourished, supplying first the Napoleonic occupation troops, and later the Austrian Military with medicines and field dressing/bandage materials. When in 1812 he married his Housekeeper, his Brother Ludwig opposed harshly, on reasons of social status and on moral grounds. Four years later, in 1816 Johann sold the pharmacy in Linz and founded a new pharmacy in Urfahr, on the opposite bank of the Danube. In 1819 he became a squire (or landowner), when he purchased a manor estate in Gneixendorf, near Krems on the Danube. In spite of his numerous duties as an apothecary and squire, Johann was frequently resident in Vienna, supporting his brother both emotionally and pharmaceutically. At the end of his life Johann sold both his pharmacy and the Gneixendorf estate, and spent his last years as a private gentleman living a dazzling lifestyle in Vienna. He died on January 12th 1848 and was buried in Vienna's "Waldmüllerpark".

  6. Johann Madler's Resolution of Olber's Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipler, F. J.

    1988-09-01

    In 1861, some 40 years after Olbers' discussion of the paradox which bears his name, the German astronomer Johann Heinrich Mädler argued that a dark sky would be consistent with an infinite universe if the universe began a finite time in the past. The author shows that Mädler's resolution of Olbers' paradox is essentially the same as the resolution offered by modern cosmologists.

  7. We Do Not Forget Johannes Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wszołek, B.

    2009-12-01

    Year 2009 was announced as the International Year of Astronomy. This was to mark 400th anniversary of the first astronomical observation through a telescope by Galileo. From the other hand, this year marks 400th anniversary of Astronomia Nova, the famous work of Kepler published in Prague in 1609. Two laws of planetary motions opened human efforts to understand gravitational force; so the overall cosmic space conquest, with its great importance not only for astronomy, was developed thankful to Kepler's work. This contribution is thought to show the most inspiring ideas of Johannes Kepler, published in Astronomia Nova and in other his books.

  8. Johannes Geiss: Explorer of the Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    The extraordinary life and scientific achievements of Johannes Geiss span an almost impossible breadth of scientific topics, from the study of rocks to tenuous plasmas, from volcanoes to meteorites. But, his impact also extends way beyond the field of science. Professor Geiss is a well-known teacher and a highly successful science leader whose impact has been felt at the University of Bern, in Switzerland, and around the globe. We present here a brief summary of this highly successful career via a pictorial overview and a movie compiled by a former student who had the good luck to work with Professor Geiss during his years at the University of Bern.

  9. Johannes Geiss: Explorer of the Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2007-06-01

    The extraordinary life and scientific achievements of Johannes Geiss span an almost impossible breadth of scientific topics, from the study of rocks to tenuous plasmas, from volcanoes to meteorites. But, his impact also extends way beyond the field of science. Professor Geiss is a well-known teacher and a highly successful science leader whose impact has been felt at the University of Bern, in Switzerland, and around the globe. We present here a brief summary of this highly successful career via a pictorial overview and a movie compiled by a former student who had the good luck to work with Professor Geiss during his years at the University of Bern.

  10. Johann R. E. Lutjeharms (1944-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ruijter, Wilhelmus P. M.; Reason, Chris; Ansorge, Isabelle; Roman, Raymond; Gordon, Arnold L.

    2011-09-01

    Johann R. E. Lutjeharms, South Africa's leading physical oceanographer, died at the age of 67 at his home in Stellenbosch on World Oceans Day, 8 June 2011, after a 10-year battle with a complicated form of cancer. His work was central in the process of enlightening the oceanographic and climate system community to the global importance of the complex, energetic, eddy-rich environment of the Agulhas Current. He aptly referred to this current system, including the transfer of Indian Ocean water into the South Atlantic, as the “Greater Agulhas System.” Johann was born on 13 April 1944 in Bloemfontein, South Africa, where he attended Grey College. At the University of Cape Town (UCT), he completed his bachelor's degree in physics followed by a M.Sc. (cum laude) in oceanography in 1971. His work there led to his first research article (on the variability of the water movement in the southwest Indian Ocean), which appeared in Nature. Many papers would follow, covering a broad range of aspects of the oceans around South Africa. His curriculum vitae lists 177 articles published in peer-reviewed international journals, many of them in AGU's Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR) and Geophysical Research Letters, including his most frequently cited ones.

  11. [Johannes Kepler's contributions to ophthalmologic optics].

    PubMed

    Jaeger, W

    1986-02-01

    Until the beginning of the 17th century it was held that an image is formed in the eye on the anterior surface of the crystalline lens. Ophthalmological optics as a scientific discipline only began with a discovery made by Johannes Kepler. Without performing new experiments, and solely by application of the laws of light refraction, he analyzed the path of light through the eye and demonstrated that an image is formed on the retina and that it is inverted. Acceptance of this discovery was impeded by contemporary prejudices which could imagine nothing but an upright image in the eye, even though this attitude could not explain certain phenomena. Kepler's discovery of the path of light in the eye made it possible to explain the following physical phenomena: central visual acuity, visual field, dark adaptation, and errors of refraction. Physiological diplopia and the mechanism of accommodation were discovered later. The law stating that the intensity of light decreases with the square of distance was also formulated by Johannes Kepler; this law, too, could only be demonstrated after the path of light through the eye had been discovered. In recent years the Keplerian telescope has assumed a practical significance in ophthalmological optics. As a reading aid for individuals with impaired vision it offers a significantly higher magnification than any other optical visual aid.

  12. Johann Leonhard Rost, "novelist" and astronomer; (German Title: Johann Leonhard Rost, "Romanist" und Astronom)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaab, Hans; Simons, Olaf

    Johann Leonhard Rost (1688-1727) of Nuremberg studied at Altdorf, Leipzig and Jena. During this time, he earned his living by writing gallant novels. In 1715, he returned to Nuremberg, where he pursued his juvenile inclination towards astronomy and became a serious astronomical observer. His introductions to astronomy, written around this time, contributed a lot to popularize astronomy. This contribution attempts to do justice to both the novelist and the astronomer Rost.

  13. Johann Philipp von Wurzelbau (1651-1725)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaab, Hans

    During the turn of the 17th to the 18th century, Johann Philipp von Wurzelbau was the best-known astronomer in Nuremberg. He was a trained merchant, who busied himself in his free hours with astronomy. In the 1680s he became known for his accurate observations of lunar and solar eclipses. At the end of the 1680s he left his trade, and from 1691, he was completely occupied with astronomy. To that end, he constructed a small octagonal observing tower on the roof of his house at Spitzenberg 4. He took the measurement of the solar path and determined the geographical coordinates of Nuremberg. The calendar reform also played a major role in his life.

  14. Johann Christoph Sturm (1635-1703)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaab, Hans; Leich, Pierre; Löffladt, Günter

    Johann Christoph Sturm, who was born in Hilpoltstein, belonged to the most important scientists in Germany in the second half of the 17th century. He was the author of important writings in astronomy, mathematics and physics, as well as on the methodology of scientific research. As a professor at Altdorf University, Storm initiated a "collegium experimentale", which made him to one of the founders of experimental natural philosophy. His German books helped to improve the teaching of mathematics at schools, as well as mathematical knowledge in all circles of the population. This book describes Sturm's life, the different sides of his scientific activity, and includes a bibliography of his writings. All papers are written in German, and have English abstracts.

  15. Harmonical cosmology: Johannes Kepler and Athanasius Kircher. (German Title: Harmonikale Kosmologie: Johannes Kepler und Athanasius Kircher)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebohm, Simon

    2011-08-01

    The connection between musical theory and astronomy is an aspect of Pythagorean cosmology, which still played a role in the 17th century, and was advanced at that time in very different ways: while Johannes Kepler conceives a proper geometrical system of harmonics and tries to connect it with accurate astronomical data, Athanasius Kircher, harshly criticising Kepler's ideas, sets a qualitative system against it, which is based on analogies. The reason for this discrepancy is not only found in the basically different systems of harmonics of both researchers, but also in the different positions that were taken by both within the controversy about the heliocentric system of the world.

  16. Johannes Kepler - And the New Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkel, James R.

    1999-11-01

    Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) is remembered as one of the greatest medieval astronomers in the tradition of Copernicus and Galileo, a man who made major contributions to physics, astronomy, and mathematics. Born in Germany and trained as a theologian, Kepler did not hesitate to challenge church doctrine by supporting the iconoclastic theory of a Sun-centered solar system. As Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor, he conducted careful observations of the night sky, which led to his discovery of the three Laws of Planetary Motion and the orbit of Mars. He also devised the Rudolphine Tables on planetary movements, and made key improvements to the telescope. Voelkel vividly describes the scientific achievements, providing enough background in physics and trigonometry so even beginners can enjoy this book. The author also gives us a captivating account of Kepler's tumultuous life, plagued by misery, disease, and fervent religious prosecution by the Catholic Church.Oxford Portraits in Science is an ongoing series of scientific biographies for young adults. Written by top scholars and writers, each biography examines the personality of its subject as well as the thought process leading to his or her discoveries. These illustrated biographies combine accessible technical information with compelling personal stories to portray the scientists whose work has shaped our understanding of the natural world.

  17. Johannes Kepler and the Supernova of 1604

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boner, P. J.

    2006-08-01

    The brilliant luminary that first appeared in October 1604 was considered by many contemporaries to be a new star of unrivalled magnitude. Shining forth near the historic conjunction of Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, the new star held important implications for several areas of interest, notably astrology, astronomy, chronology and theology. Addressing all of these areas in his comprehensive book, De stella nova (1606), Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) studied the new star extensively under the aegis of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II (1552-1612) in Prague. The focus of the following presentation is Kepler's theory of the new star's origins in the celestial ether. Describing the heavens poetically as a fertile expanse of "liquid fields", Kepler suggested that the new star sprung from the celestial ether much like the numerous living beings in the sublunary realm which were spontaneously generated from the Earth. As evidence for his claim, Kepler pointed to the conspicuous mathematical patterns similarly observed in earthly and celestial entities. Kepler's efficient cause for this explanation, known as the animate faculty, accounted for both the generation and form of new phenomena in the celestial and terrestrial realms. The new star of 1604 proved to be no exception.

  18. The Kepler problem from Newton to Johann Bernoulli.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speiser, D.

    1996-08-01

    Newton solved what was called at the time "the direct Kepler problem": given a curve (e.g., an ellipse) and the center of attraction (e.g., the focus), what is the law of attraction, if Kepler's second law holds? The "inverse problem", the determination of all possible orbit solutions for a given central force field, was systematically treated later, first by Jacob Hermann, and then thoroughly and completely by Johann Bernoulli. This paper traces the history of work on the problem and of the accompanying scientific controversies until the time of Johann Bernoulli and his pupil Leonhard Euler.

  19. Johann Gottlieb Schrader and the construction of telescopes in Lilienthal. (German Title: Johann Gottlieb Schrader und der Lilienthaler Fernrohrbau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leue, Hans-Joachim

    More than 200 years ago, the first large reflectors on the European continent were built at Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's observatory in Lilienthal near Bremen. Johann Gottlieb Friedrich Schrader, professor of physics and chemistry at Kiel University, developed a white reflecting metal alloy during his 10-month stay with Schroeter, and used it for the production of numerous telescope mirrors. The period of telescope making at Lilienthal started with Schrader. This paper describes the cooperation of the two astronomers and reports about the results of an optical and chemical analysis of three Herschel telescope mirrors.

  20. Obituary: Heinrich Johannes Wendker, 1938-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huchtmeier, Walter; Altenhoff, Wilhelm

    2009-01-01

    Heinrich Johannes Wendker, retired professor at Hamburg University, died on 3 April 2008 at the age of 69 at Reinbek near Hamburg, Germany. He was born on 30 June 1938 in Gimbte, near Munster, Westphalia, Germany. In 1958 he finished high-school and started his studies of mathematics, physics, and astronomy at Munster University. In 1960 Wendker joined the Astronomical Institute at the University and became attracted to the relatively new field of radio astronomy. In the same year he participated in a radio survey (at a wavelength of 11 cm) with the 25-m dish of Stockert observatory. In 1964 he joined the NRAO in Green Bank, Virginia, for one year and started with observations of the Cygnus area of the Galactic plane that would become a real passion for him (resulting in over twenty publications about the Cygnus X region, a deep study of the structure of the local spiral arm). Wendker was awarded the Ph.D. in 1966 (University of Munster), and in the same year he accepted an appointment at the University of Illinois at Urbana. There he participated in the All Sky Survey of the Vermilion Radio Telescope including the Cygnus region. In 1968 he joined the newly founded Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie at Bonn, Germany, where he got involved in planning the institute's new building among other things. In 1972 Wendker was appointed Professor of Astronomy at Hamburg University where he would spend most of his academic career. From 1985 to 1989 he was director of the observatory (Hamburger Sternwarte), and from 1989 to 1991 he was Dean of the physics department. Wenker's research activities concentrated on the radio structure of the Milky Way, especially on the Cygnus region, observing the radio continuum emission at different frequencies in order to separate thermal from nonthermal emission (i.e., HII-regions and SNRs). He identified foreground stars and extragalactic sources in the background. Additional observations of molecular lines and of the neutral atomic

  1. "Cosmomorphistic geometry" in the unconscious geometry of Johannes Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Adolf

    Some mathematical aspects of the Music theory by Johannes Kepler are discussed, paying a special attention to the book "De harmonice mundi". Other scientists interested in Music theory are mentioned throughout the paper: The Pythagorean school, Klaudios Ptolemaios, Leonard Euler, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Christian von Goldbach, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholz, Karl Friedrich Gauss. The relation with the ancient chinese schools of cosmography has been discussed: From the the Pythagorean to the ancient Chinese schools of cosmography we find arithmo-geometrical applications of numbers which are emblematic, hold meaning or represent the essence of things, the author writes. It was Johannes Kepler who taught us this "transconstructive method" of forming classical and ancient begginings of structuralistic thinking into a system from which deductions can readily be made.

  2. Johann Baptist von Schweitzer: the queer Marx loved to hate.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, H

    1995-01-01

    Despite his conviction on a morals charge involving a boy, the early German Social Democrat Johann Baptist von Schweitzer went on to have a successful political career. His life furnishes the context to present remarks by his political opponents Marx and Engels, which reveal their deep-seated homophobia. It is pointed out that this has been glossed over by the translations of the recently published Marx/Engels Collected Works. Some remarks on boy-love and anarchism are appended.

  3. Henry Cavendish, Johann von Soldner, and the deflection of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Clifford M.

    1988-05-01

    The gravitational deflection of light based on Newtonian theory and the corpuscular model of light was calculated, but never published, around 1784 by Henry Cavendish, almost 20 years earlier than the first published calculation by Johann Georg von Soldner. The two results are slightly different because, while Cavendish treated a light ray emitted from infinity, von Soldner treated a light ray emitted from the surface of the gravitating body. At the first order of approximation, they agree with each other; both are one-half the value predicted by general relativity and confirmed by experiment.

  4. Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833).

    PubMed

    Seidler, E

    1984-08-01

    On the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the birthday of Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833) it is appropriate to examine his contributions to the field of clinical genetics. Special emphasis is given to his laws of "diversity" and "reduction." These deal respectively with the evolutionary and developmental differences between organisms and the reasons for similarities in development of parts of an organism and the parts of different organisms. Meckel is an important pioneer of modern clinical teratology because he did not restrict his studies to normal development, but rather concentrated on its aberrations in his reflections on the history of development.

  5. [Space and medical market: Johann Friedrich Glaser's practice in Suhl].

    PubMed

    Schilling, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The diary of the town and state physician Johann Friedrich Glaser (1707-1789) of Suhl enables us to reconstruct the area where he recruted his patients. A stream of visitors consulted him regularly. They often came from places where they had to travel at least two days in order to consult the physician. A visit in his house was therefore a decision consciously planned. A comparison of the sphere of Glaser's influence as a practitioner with the spheres of influence where his relatives (executioners and barber surgeons) lived shows how narrowly both were connected. Glaser's position on the medical market was very much influenced by his family network. The same picture can be obtained by analyzing the social spectrum of Glaser's patients, which is as manifold as the topographical indications, which one can draw from his diary. These do not give a systematic picture of the clients, which Glaser tried to gain, but are following communication channels established by his family network.

  6. [Zurich physician-pharmacist family Lavater and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe].

    PubMed

    Mannetstätter, A; Friedrich, C

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the connections between Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) and the physician and pharmacist family Lavater in Zurich. The analysis of the correspondence between Johann Bartholomäus Trommsdorff (1770-1837) and the Lavater family and between the Lavater family and the government of the duchy of Weimar shows an interesting story about a picture "Goethe in Italy".

  7. [Johann Friedrich Meckel, Jr. as founder of scientific teratology].

    PubMed

    Schierhorn, H

    1984-01-01

    n the occasion of the 150th anniversary of his death, the scientific work of the famous German anatomist Johann Friedrich Meckel (1781 to 1833) in Halle is appreciated. The Younger Meckel is counted to the most outstanding figures in the history of anatomy and medicine in the first third of 19th century. According to his founded knowledges in the normal, comparative, and pathologic anatomy and embryology he was able to give a scientific argument of malformations first of all in the history of medicine and biology. The edition of Meckel's Handbook of Pathologic Anatomy (in German language; 1st vol. 1812) is the birth of scientific teratology. Through his contributions to teratology Meckel directly participated in the raising of general pathology and pathologic anatomy to scientific disciplines. Meckel's interceding for C. F. Wolff's theory of epigenesis, not at last by translation of Wolff's paper "De formatione intestinorum" (1768 to 1769) into the German language, accelerated the development of the general and special embryology during the 19th century. In the contemporary medicine the succeeding eponyms are reminding of the imposing German physician and anatomist: the Meckel's diverticulum of ileum (1809), the Meckel's cartilage of the mandibular arch (1820) and the so-called Meckel syndrome (1822).

  8. Are the alleged remains of Johann Sebastian Bach authentic?

    PubMed

    Zegers, Richard H C; Maas, Mario; Koopman, A Ton G; Maat, George J R

    2009-02-16

    A skeleton alleged to be that of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was exhumed from a graveyard in Leipzig, Germany, in 1894, but its authenticity is not established. In 1895, anatomist Wilhelm His concluded from his examination of the skeleton and reconstruction of the face that it most likely belonged to Bach. In 1949, surgeon Wolfgang Rosenthal noticed exostoses on the skeleton and on x-rays of 11 living organists and proposed a condition, Organistenkrankheit, which he interpreted as evidence that the skeleton was Bach's. However, our critical assessment of the remains analysis raises doubts: the localisation of the grave was dubious, and the methods used by His to reconstruct the face are controversial. Also, our study of the pelvic x-rays of 12 living professional organists failed to find evidence for the existence of Organistenkrankheit. We believe it is unlikely that the skeleton is that of Bach; techniques such as DNA analysis might help resolve the question but, to date, church authorities have not approved their use on the skeleton.

  9. Historical study: Johann Gregor Mendel 1822-1884.

    PubMed

    Weiling, F

    1991-07-01

    The life and personality of Johann Gregor Mendel (1822-1884), the founder of scientific genetics, are reviewed against the contemporary background of his times. At the end are weighed the benefits for Mendel (as charged by Sir Ronald Fisher) to have documented his results on hand of falsified data. Mendel was born into a humble farm family in the "Kuhländchen", then a predominantly German area of Northern Moravia. On the basis of great gifts Mendel was able to begin higher studies; however, he found himself in serious financial difficulties because of his father's accident and incapacitation. His hardships engendered illness which threatened continuation and completion of his studies until he was afforded the chance of absolving successfully theological studies as an Augustinian monk in the famous chapter of St. Thomas in Altbrünn (Staré Brno). Psychosomatic indisposition made Mendel unfit for practical pastoral duties. Thus, he was directed to teach but without appropriate state certification; an attempt to pass such an examination failed. At that point he was sent to the University of Vienna for a 2-year course of studies, with emphasis on physics and botany, to prepare him for the exam. His scientific and methodologic training enabled him to plan studies of the laws of inheritance, which had begun to interest him already during his theology training, and to choose the appropriate experimental plant. In 1865, after 12 years of systematic investigations on peas, he presented his results in the famous paper "Versuche über Pflanzenhybriden." Three years after his return from Vienna he failed to attain his teaching certification a second time. Only by virtue of his exceptional qualifications did he continue to function as a Supplementary Professor of Physics and Natural History in the two lowest classes of a secondary school. In 1868 he was elected Abbot of his chapter, and freed from teaching duties, was able to pursue his many scientific interests with greater

  10. On Diversity, Empathy, and Community: The Relevance of Johann Gottfried Herder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Howard M.; Durrant, Marie B.; Evans, Matthew T.; Maughan, Suzanne L.

    2008-01-01

    The writings of Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) foreshadowed several of the dominant theories of sociology, social psychology, aesthetics, linguistics and literary theory. His ideas impacted generations of thinkers, but today he is uncelebrated, mostly unknown. His writings on populism, expressionism, and pluralism are relevant to contemporary…

  11. Remembering Johann Gregor Mendel: a human, a Catholic priest, an Augustinian monk, and abbot.

    PubMed

    Richter, Father Clemens

    2015-11-01

    Johann Mendel (Gregor was the name given to him only later by his Augustinian order, Fig. 1) was born on July 20, 1822 to an ethnic German family, Anton and Rosina Mendel (Fig. 2), in Heinzendorf in the Austrian Empire at the Moravian-Silesian border (now Hynčice, Czech Republic).

  12. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi: 18th Century Swiss Educator and Correctional Reformer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Fredalene B.; Gehring, Thom

    2004-01-01

    This is the second in a series of articles on famous correctional educators. The first article introduced Mary Carpenter: 19th Century English Correctional Education Hero. (Editor's Note: See the September 2003 Issue for the first article) This article focuses on Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, 18th century Swiss educator. It begins with a summary of…

  13. Educational Theory as Topological Rhetoric: The Concepts of Pedagogy of Johann Friedrich Herbart and Friedrich Schleiermacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenklies, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    The debate concerning the relation of the theory of education and the practice of education is not new. In Germany, these discussions are an integral part of the development of educational science in the eighteenth century which is closely connected to Johann Friedrich Herbart and Friedrich Schleiermacher. Their concepts illustrate different…

  14. Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach (1792-1847) pioneer in oral maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Knoener, Wibke; Schultheiss, Dirk

    2002-11-01

    After Carl Ferdinand von Graefe laid down the principles of rhinoplasty and related operations it was Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach (1792-1847) who became a pioneer of plastic surgery in the 19th century. His biography and scientific work with emphasis on craniofacial surgery are presented in this article on the history of medicine.

  15. Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach: successful use of leeches in plastic surgery in the 1820s.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, R T

    2000-04-01

    Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach (1792-1847) regularly and successfully utilised leeches in sophisticated plastic surgery in Berlin in the 1820s and 1830s, well before anaesthesia, antisepsis and antibiotics. Inexplicably, it took nearly another 150 years before the use of leeches in this context was revived.

  16. Johannes Scultetus (1595-1645). Urologic aspects in the 'Armamentarium chirurgicum'.

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, D; Jonas, U

    1998-12-01

    Johannes Schultheiss (Latinized to 'Scultetus') was one of the first academically trained physicians and surgeons in Germany in the 17th century. After his studies at the University of Padua under Adrian van Spieghel and Fabricius ab Aquapendente he became official physician of his home town of Ulm. His remarkable textbook on surgery, the 'Armamentarium chirurgicum' was first published 10 years after his death and passed through many editions and translations all over Europe. This work contains a complete catalogue of surgical instruments, illustrated demonstrations of a variety of operative procedures and 100 case reports. The success of Scultetus' publication was responsible for an improved standard of the education of the nonacademic barber surgeons, who were treating the majority of the population, and was a significant milestone for the development of surgery as an academic speciality. The life and work of Johannes Scultetus, with reference to urologic aspects, is outlined in this article.

  17. Calculation of the Johann error for spherically bent x-ray imaging crystal spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Gu, M.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K. W.; Reinke, M.; Rice, J. E.; Podpaly, Y.

    2010-10-15

    New x-ray imaging crystal spectrometers, currently operating on Alcator C-Mod, NSTX, EAST, and KSTAR, record spectral lines of highly charged ions, such as Ar{sup 16+}, from multiple sightlines to obtain profiles of ion temperature and of toroidal plasma rotation velocity from Doppler measurements. In the present work, we describe a new data analysis routine, which accounts for the specific geometry of the sightlines of a curved-crystal spectrometer and includes corrections for the Johann error to facilitate the tomographic inversion. Such corrections are important to distinguish velocity induced Doppler shifts from instrumental line shifts caused by the Johann error. The importance of this correction is demonstrated using data from Alcator C-Mod.

  18. Interview with Johann de Bono for Future Oncology. Interviewed by Francesca Lake.

    PubMed

    de Bono, Johann

    2012-11-01

    Johann de Bono speaks to Francesca Lake, Commissioning Editor. Johann de Bono leads the prostate cancer team at the Institute of Cancer Research (London, UK). He completed his PhD at the Beatson Institute of Cancer Research (Glasgow, UK) and was awarded a scholarship in 2000 that allowed him to undergo research on statistical issues in clinical trials for targeted drugs at the Cancer Research and Biostatistics SWOG Headquarters, a National Cancer Institute-supported organization at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center (WA, USA). He then spent 3 years working in the Institute of Drug Development in San Antonio (TX, USA), and then joined The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation trust in 2003. He has since been involved in developing over 100 new drugs, some of which are currently available to patients. One of these drugs is enzalutamide, which has recently been submitted for European marketing authorization following positive clinical trials.

  19. Post-Flight Analysis of Dynamic Data Acquired During the ATV-2 Johannes Kepler Launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meitzner, R.; Abdoly, K.; Newerla, A.

    2012-07-01

    An in-flight data acquisition system called TeleMesure Autonome (TMA) has been implemented on ATV-1 Jules Verne (launched in March 2008) and ATV-2 Johannes Kepler (launched in February 2011). The TMA served the main objective to measure dynamic responses on the ATV spacecraft for comparison with coupled load analysis predictions and to verify that the ATV mechanical flight environment has been sufficiently covered by the respective ATV design specifications. The acquired flight data included low frequency sinusoidal, random vibration and shock measurements. Whereas the TMA on ATV-1 Jules Verne failed to properly work after 17 seconds after liftoff the improved TMA on ATV-2 Johannes Kepler performed its tasks successfully for all flight phases. The flight data have been subsequently evaluated by the ATV prime contractor Astrium. As first step of the performed analyses a correction of the acquired data was necessary to remove any artificial content (spikes, mean truncation, offset correction) followed by a visual inspection of the corrected data to ensure data quality. Then standard post processing methods were applied to the data consisting of generating equivalent sinusoidal responses and transfer functions for the low frequency data, power spectral densities for the random data and shock responses for the high frequency shock data. Although it was noted that the quality of the data was limited by the available transmission bandwidth and the amplitude resolution of the data acquisition system the implementation of the TMA on ATV-2 Johannes Kepler has nevertheless turned out successful and valuable data have been acquired for all relevant flight phases.

  20. [Johann Sigismund Elsholtz--the forgotten pioneer and German-speaking hygiene].

    PubMed

    Fiedler, K

    1997-10-01

    In 1682, the term "hygiene" appeared for the first time in the German language, in Johann Sigismund Elsholtz's Diaeteticon. In the author's meaning this term is used to describe the tenet of the maintenance of good health. In his book, Elsholtz who was physician at the court of Frederick William, the Great Elector of Brandenburg, makes suggestions for wholesome food and drinking. He demands the availability of clean water and of a good air and draws attention to the importance of personal hygiene. Thus, Elsholtz should be referred to as a German pioneer of hygiene whose recognition has been long overdue.

  1. [Johannes Vermeer and Anthon van Leeuwenhoek: Delft Art and Science together during the golden Dutch century].

    PubMed

    Miranda C, Marcelo

    2009-04-01

    Johannes Vermeer and Anthon van Leeuwenhoek are among the greatest geniuses in Art and Science respectively. During the seventeenth century, they achieved innovative advances. Vermeer, in painting, created a new intimate view of people specially women, developing the treatment of light and details. Leeuwenhoek, friend of Vermeer, influenced him in the use of the obscure camera in his works. In spite of having no formal academic education, he made extremely relevant discoveries with the use of microscope. He showed for first time human spermatozoids, red blood cells, brain, nerve and muscle structures and described many living animals. These two brilliant contemporary Dutch men made a great contribution to our civilization.

  2. Contributions of Johann jacob Huber to the surface anatomy of the spinal cord and meninges.

    PubMed

    Rengachary, Setti S; Pelle, Dominic; Guthikonda, Murali

    2008-06-01

    From prehistoric times, man has been aware that injury to the spine may result in paralysis of the limbs; this is reflected in bas-relief figures found at Nineweh in ancient Mesopotamia, in a hunting scene that depicts a lioness wounded by King Ashurbanipal. The Edwin Smith papyrus gives many case illustrations of spinal cord injury resulting in paralysis, yet early physicians were unaware of the anatomy of the spinal cord. Galen performed prospective studies in animals by sectioning the spinal cord at varying levels and observing the commensurate paralysis and sensory loss. Real advances in the understanding of spinal cord anatomy did not occur until human cadaveric dissections were undertaken; even then, the knowledge of the anatomy of the spinal cord lagged behind that of other body structures. Johann Jacob Huber appears to be the first anatomist to focus on the spinal cord almost exclusively. His descriptions, and especially his illustrations that depict spinal cord surface anatomy, are impressive with regard to their accuracy and their sense of photorealism. Indeed, his illustrations seem to compare well with the anatomic drawings in contemporary anatomic texts. Yet, we were unable to find a single article in the entire English-language literature depicting his illustrations. We conclude that the description and anatomic illustrations by Johann Jacob Huber remain a hidden gem in the history of human spinal anatomy.

  3. Johannes Vermeer of Delft [1632-1675] and vision in neuroendoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Waleed A.; Prevedello, Daniel M.; Carrau, Ricardo L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Johannes Vermeer of Delft [1632-1675] was one of the greatest Masters of the Dutch Golden Age who was intensely preoccupied with the behavior of light and other optical effects and was entitled “The Master of Light”. He fastidiously attended to the subtleties of visual expression through geometry, composition, and precise mastery of the rules of perspective. It has been our impression that some visual similarity does exist between neuroendoscopic images and some of Vermeer's paintings. Such a relation could be explained by the fact that optical devices are utilized in producing both types of display. Methods: We reviewed the pertinent medical and art literature, observed some video clips of our endoscopy cases, and inspected digital high resolution images of Vermeer's paintings in order to elaborate on shared optical phenomena between neuroendoscopic views and Vermeer's paintings. Results: Specific optical phenomena are indeed shared by Johannes Vermeer's works and neuroendoscopic vision, namely light and color effects as well as the rules of perspective. Conclusion: From the physical point of view, the possibility that a camera obscura inspired Vermeer's artistic creation makes the existence of a visual link between his paintings and the endoscopic views of the intracranial cavity comprehensible. PMID:25140282

  4. [Dr. Johann Scheifler (1612-1671) and his library. A prosopographic study].

    PubMed

    Littger, K W

    1990-01-01

    The University Library of Eichstätt holds a private collection of about 460 volumes of the electoral Munich personal physician Dr. Johann Scheifler (1612-1671). Most likely, it was acquired from the prince bishop of Eichstätt in the early 18th century. The biography of Johann Scheifler was almost unknown until now. Some notes may be found in the medical literature of the 17th and 18th centuries. In particular, the Munich librarian A. F. von Oefele recorded some data in his manuscripts: however, many of them are incorrect. Hence it was necessary to consult archival documents as well as notes in Scheifler's own manuscripts, for example on the lectures he attended in the Jesuit College of Munich in 1633-1636, as well as in his handwritten exlibris where he left various self-portrayals. From his manuscripts we may also learn the nature of his patients. The second part of this paper discusses the origin of Scheifler's library. Scheifler never acquired larger collections, but he received many individual volumes from well known persons, especially physicians. It may well be that his library reflects the ambition of the son of a tailor who, as a "homo novus", hoped to take his place in the circle of the highest physicians. In 1656 he achieved this when he was appointed electoral personal physician, and also in 1671 when his son was appointed professor of medicine at the University of Ingolstadt.

  5. Astronomical dilettante or misunderstood genius? On Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's image in the history of science. (German Title: Astronomischer Dilettant oder verkanntes Genie? Zum Bild Johann Hieronymus Schroeters in der Wissenschaftsgeschichte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestmann, Günther

    The paper deals with contemporary assessments of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's (1745-1816) astronomical works - especially by Wilhelm Olbers and Carl Friedrich Gauß - and also later judgements of the scientific importance and significance of his observations voiced by astronomers and historians.

  6. The Art of History and Eighteenth-Century Information Management: Christian Gottlieb Jocher and Johann Heinrich Zedler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Richard Glenn

    2013-01-01

    In the eighteenth century there were enough printed sources and archival materials to challenge or even overwhelm historians of that day. Two productive editors of lexicons and information management were Christian Gottlieb Jocher, who taught history at the University of Leipzig and became the chief librarian at his university, and Johann Heinrich…

  7. 17TH Century Photometric Data in the Form of Telescopic Measurements of the Apparent Diameters of Stars by Johannes Hevelius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graney, Christopher M.

    The book Mercurius in Sole Visus Gedani published in 1662 by Johannes Hevelius contains a table of magnitudes and apparent telescopic diameters of nineteen stars. The data fit to a simple model, suggesting that Hevelius produced what is essentially a table of surprisingly precise photometric data.

  8. Johann Christian Rosenmüller (1771-1820): A Historical Perspective on the Man behind the Fossa

    PubMed Central

    Amene, Chiazo; Cosetti, Maura; Ambekar, Sudheer; Guthikonda, Bharat; Nanda, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The fossa of Rosenmüller, also known as the lateral pharyngeal recess, is a well-established site of origin of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. It is located in the lateral pharyngeal wall behind the cartilaginous portion of the Eustachian tube, the torus tubarius, and is named after Johann Christian Rosenmüller (JCR). Objective We present a history on the life and extensive works of Johann Christian Rosenmüller, a German physician and anatomist. Results Johann Christian Rosenmüller was a dedicated anatomist. In addition to identifying the fossa of Rosenmüller, his influence extends to various other anatomic subjects, including the Rosenmüller gland, the palpebral portion of the lacrimal gland, and the organ of Rosenmüller (i.e., the caudal remnant of the mesonephric duct). He was also an avid speleologist, studying the composition of caves and their life forms. For his contributions to this field, he had a cave in Germany and an extinct species named after him—Rosenmüllerhöhle and Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller, respectively. Conclusion The fossa of Rosenmüller plays an important role in the growth and surgical treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We present a brief glimpse into the life of Johann Christian Rosenmüller, for whom it was named. PMID:24436911

  9. [Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach (1792-1847) as the founder of plastic surgery. His contribution to maxillofacial surgery].

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, D; Knöner, W; Kramer, F J; Jonas, U

    1998-11-01

    Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach (1792-1847) is generally known as the founder of modern plastic surgery. One focus of his work, apart from the physiology of transplantation and operative techniques, was reconstructive oral and maxillofacial surgery. This special aspect of plastic surgery as well as Dieffenbach's biography is presented in this historic article.

  10. Johann Andreas Cramer and Chemical Mineral Assay in the Eighteenth Century.

    PubMed

    Bortolotto, Andréa

    2015-01-01

    Although little studied now, the work of Johann Andreas Cramer (1710-1777) on mineralogy and metallurgy was much appreciated by his peers and influenced the development those fields throughout the eighteenth century. Well versed in the theoretical and practical problems of analysing and grouping minerals, Cramer sought to solve them by formulating a new, accurate system for identifying and classifying metals. He also developed faster and less expensive metal extraction methods than those previously available. This paper traces the chemical ideas that underpinned Cramer's novel methods, including the theories of Hermann Boerhaave and Georg Ernst Stahl, and shows where Cramer both followed and departed from these authorities in his own influential Elementa Artis Docimasticae (1739). In the process, I seek to map Cramer's scholarly network in order to contribute to a more thorough understanding of the communication of chemical ideas and procedures in eighteenth-century Europe.

  11. [Veterinary medical work of Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben, the first teacher of veterinary medicine in Germany].

    PubMed

    Weidenhöfer, V

    1999-04-01

    Erxleben could be regarded as the founder of the modern, systematic and scientific training of verterinary surgeons in Germany. Thanks to an open-minded up-bringing and a large interest in other scientific fields beyond his medical studies he acquired the ideal basis to turn veterinary medicine into a subject at university. He acquired his knowledge in veterinary medicine by reading numerous veterinary books and by visiting the Netherlands and France and the expert of horses Johann Baptist von Sind. Since 1770 he started with veterinary lessons. When planning his teaching, he tried to avoid the mistakes made by the first schools in France. In order to do so he attached a great importance to a fundamental but practical training. Erxleben also wrote two volumes about veterinary medicine, which he used as a literary basis for his lessons.

  12. Identifying the stars on Johann Bayer's Chart of the South Polar Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridpath, I.

    2014-04-01

    The first chart of the stars in the region around the south celestial pole was published in 1603 by Johann Bayer (1572-1625) as part of his monumental star atlas called Uranometria. This south polar chart depicted 12 entirely new constellations that had been created only a few years earlier from stars observed during the first Dutch expedition to the East Indies in 1595-97. Bayer's chart plotted 121 stars in the 12 newly invented constellations. Five more stars formed a southern extension of the existing constellation Eridanus, while another twelve stars were left 'unformed', i.e. unattached to any constellation. Whereas Bayer famously applied Greek or Roman letters to the stars in the 48 Ptolemaic constellations, he left the stars in the newly invented constellations unlabelled. This paper attempts to identify the stars plotted on Bayer's chart. It also discusses the source of Bayer's data and the origin of the 12 new southern constellations.

  13. [Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833) and modern teratology].

    PubMed

    Klunker, Rudyard; Göbbel, Luminita; Musil, Anette; Tönnies, Holger; Schultka, Rüdiger

    2002-11-01

    Among other special topics Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger concentrated his scientific researches on the systematic investigations of the human and animal malformations. He explored many samples which were part of his private anatomical collection. Today, the Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology possesses a number of important teratological preparations which Meckel and his graduate students minutely investigated (e.g. the individuals to the Meckel, Klippel Feil and Hanhart syndrome). The goals of our studies are to identify the samples originating from the Meckel Collections, and to reinvestigate them with modern methods. Two objects (brainless malformation, Halle I, and neural tube defect, Halle II) were analysed by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). These results obtained are published in Toennies et al. (2002).

  14. [Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833), an extremely important naturalist and scholar].

    PubMed

    Schultka, Rüdiger; Göbbel, Luminita

    2002-11-01

    Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833) belongs to the famous scientists of the 19th century. His research work is enormous. Important termini e.g. diverticulum Meckelii, cartilago Meckelii, Meckel syndrome and Meckel Serres law reflect the scientific results obtained by Meckel. He worked as a professor of anatomy, pathology and zoology at the University of Halle, a town in the Central Germany. Meckel founded the scientific teratology. In the literature he is also referred to the German Cuvier. On 8 April 1802, J. F. Meckel defended his doctoral thesis "De cordis conditionibus abnormibus". On occasion of the 200th anniversary of this event, we like to honor J. F. Meckel the famous German anatomist. Therefore, during the 97th session of the Anatomische Gesellschaft at Halle, a satellite symposium "From Meck el to genom" was held.

  15. [A town-physician in the 18th century: Johann Friedrich Glaser].

    PubMed

    Schilling, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Johann Friedrich Glaser rose from an executioner's family to the position of a town physician in Suhl. The contribution concentrates on the importance of this position for Glaser. It first looks at the position of town physicians in Suhl. They possessed due to certain historical circumstances several duties and rights. They enjoyed a remarkably high standing in the town society which made the position especially attractive for Glaser as a road to social acceptance. His interaction with the medical administration in Dresden (Suhl belonged to the jurisdiction of Electoral Saxony) further enhanced his possibilities to interact with local and territorial spheres. Altogether, Glaser's official functions gained importance over his role as a (medical) scientist, because they offered him the best way to gain social and cultural prestige.

  16. Doctor and Hobby Astronomer in Stormy Times: The Book Legacy of Dr. Johannes Häringshauser (1603-1642)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, G.

    2011-06-01

    Johannes Häringshauser (1603-1941) was born in Vienna and graduated at Padua in the faculty of medicine in 1626. He became a Hofmedicus at the court and in the field of the Thirty Years War in 1627-1630 and then a Viertelmedicus at Mistelbach in Niederoesterreich in 1630 until 1641. His purchase of books had initially concentrated on medical topics but from 1636 to 1640 he bought some ten books on astronomy, including two by Johannes Kepler and one by Michael Mästlin, Kepler's tutor at Tübingen. The fact that he acquired the books by Mästlin and Kepler so soon after Galileo's trial shows him to have been a courageous independently minded thinker with wide ranging professional and intellectual interests. In his professional medical activities he sought to balance the medical practises of Galen and Paracelsus, and in his astronomy hobby he investigated the the new arguments of Mästlin, Kepler, and Galileo.

  17. Earliest description by Johann Friedrich Meckel, Senior (1750) of what is known today as Lutembacher syndrome (1916).

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, H R

    1994-10-15

    The letter that the famous anatomist Johann Friedrich Meckel, Sr. sent from Berlin on May 5, 1750 to the great Albrecht von Haller (at that time resident in Göttingen) contains the earliest reference to an unusual observation made by the former. Even today this observation is considered in the clinical literature to be the first description of a coarctation of the aorta. In fact, it is probably the first description of what is known today as Lutembacher syndrome.

  18. ``Planetário e Teatro Digital Johannes Kepler'' and its Institutional Pedagogical Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. Z.; Calil, M. R.; Perez, E. R.; Kanashiro, M.; Silva, L. C. P.; Calipo, F.

    2014-10-01

    This work relates the reception of schools, started on August 2012, in the astronomic laboratory of the "Planetário e Teatro Digital Johannes Kepler", located in the "Sabina - Escola Parque do Conhecimento" in Santo André, São Paulo. The idealization of this project, authorship of Marcos Calil, PhD, consists in four apprenticeship environments disposed around the planetary dome. They make reference to the System Sun - Earth - Moon (Tellurium), Solar System, Astronautic and Stars. On Tuesdays and Wednesdays the astronomic laboratory is used by Santo André municipal schools for focused lessons, being possible on Thursdays scheduling for private and public schools. On weekends and holidays is opened for the visitors. Since the inauguration to the beginning of activities with students, the monitor team was guided and trained on contents of Astronomy and Aeronautic to execute the schools service. This is done in four stages, which are: reception, course trough the astronomic laboratory, dome session and activities closure. During the reception the acquaintance rules are passed on for a better visit. Before starting the course the monitors do a survey about the previous knowledge of the students. On the astronomic laboratory resources of the environment are used to explain the contents of Astronomy and Astronautic, always considering the age group and the curriculum developed in classroom. After the course the students watch a planetary session supporting the contents seen on the astronomic laboratory. At the end a feedback is done with the students about the subject discussed. During the visit the teachers fulfill an evaluation about the place and the service. From August 2012 to November 2012 were attended between municipal, public and private schools. From the 4932 students attended, 92% belonged to the municipal network, 5% to the private network and 3% to the public network. From the 189 evaluations done by the teachers, 97.8% were satisfied, 2.1% partially

  19. Ernest Everett Just, Johannes Holtfreter, and the Origin of Certain Concepts in Embryo Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    BYRNES, W. MALCOLM

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Ernest E. Just (1883–1941) is best known for his discovery of the “wave of negativity” that sweeps of the sea urchin egg during fertilization, and his elucidation of what are known as the fast and slow blocks to polyspermy. Just’s contemporary Johannes Holtfreter (1901–1992) is known for his pioneering work in amphibian morphogenesis, which helped to lay the foundation for modern vertebrate developmental biology. This paper, after briefly describing the life and scientific contributions of Just, argues that his work and ideas strongly influenced two of the concepts for which Holtfreter is best known: tissue affinity and autoneuralization (or autoinduction). Specifically, this paper argues that, first, Just’s experiments demonstrating developmental stage-specific changes in the adhesiveness of the blastomeres of cleavage embryos helped lay the foundation for Holtfreter’s concept of tissue affinity and, second, Just’s notion of the intrinsic irritability of the egg cell, which is evident in experimental parthenogenesis, strongly informed Holtfreter’s concept of the nonspecific induction of neural tissue formation in amphibian gastrula ectoderm explants, a phenomenon known as auto-induction. Acknowledgment of these contributions by Just in no way diminishes the importance of Holtfreter’s groundbreaking work. It does, however, extend the impact of Just’s work into the area of embryo morphogenesis. It connects Just to Holtfreter and positions his work as an antecedent to embryo research that continues to this day. PMID:19610071

  20. Facts versus theories: an everlasting struggle. The Johann Jakob Wepfer Award 2010.

    PubMed

    van Gijn, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Rather than a complete overview of the contribution of Utrecht to stroke research, I have selected a few subjects and attempt to put these in historical context. Johann Jakob Wepfer (1620-1695) was unique in that he approached 'apoplexy' through post-mortem observations, in the tradition of Padua. However, the interpretation of his findings in haemorrhagic and especially non-haemorrhagic stroke was still heavily influenced by the authority of Galen's writings. Wepfer's category of 'serous apoplexy' assumed that extravasation of blood serum might lead to compression of brain substance and blockage of 'nerve pores' through which mental 'spirit' was supposed to flow. This notion of 'cerebral congestion' or 'cerebral hyperaemia' lived on, at least to the middle of the 20th century! The pitfalls of theorizing are also evident from recent history (the facile assumption that cerebral ischaemia occurs in the same way as leg ischaemia). By implication, similar errors may well be hidden in present ideas about stroke. Probable or possible examples are the idées reçues that 30 mg of aspirin is less efficacious in the secondary prevention of stroke than 100 mg, that vasospasm is the cause of delayed ischaemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage and that perimesencephalic haemorrhage is not caused by rupture of an artery. Physicians still speculate more often than they care to admit.

  1. Idols of the psychologist: Johannes Linschoten and the demise of phenomenological psychology in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Hezewijk, René; Stam, Henderikus J

    2008-08-01

    Before and after World War II, a loose movement within Dutch psychology solidified as a nascent phenomenological psychology. Dutch phenomenological psychologists attempted to generate an understanding of psychology that was based on Husserlian interpretations of phenomenological philosophy. This movement came to a halt in the 1960s, even though it had been exported to North America and elsewhere as "phenomenological psychology." Frequently referred to as the "Utrecht school," most of the activity of the group was centered at Utrecht University. In this article, the authors examine the role played by Johannes Linschoten in both aspects of the development of a phenomenological psychology: its rise in North America and Europe, and its institutional demise. By the time of his early death in 1964, Linschoten had cast considerable doubt on the possibilities of a purely phenomenological psychology. Nonetheless, his own empirical work, especially his 1956 dissertation published in German, can be seen to be a form of empiricism inspired by phenomenology but that clearly distanced itself from the more elitist and esoteric aspects of Dutch phenomenological psychology.

  2. A Simultaneous Discovery: The Case of Johannes Stark and Antonino Lo Surdo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, Matteo; Paoletti, Alessandro; Robotti, Nadia

    2004-09-01

    In 1913 the German physicist Johannes Stark (1874 1957) and the Italian physicist Antonino Lo Surdo (1880 1949)discovered virtually simultaneously and independently that hydrogen spectral lines are split into components by an external electric field. Both of their discoveries ensued from studies on the same phenomenon, the Doppler effect in canal rays, but they arose in different theoretical contexts. Stark had been working within the context of the emerging quantum theory, following a research program aimed at studying the effect of an electric field on spectral lines. Lo Surdo had been working within the context of the classical theory, and his was an accidental discovery. Both discoveries, however, played important roles in the history of physics: Stark’s discovery contributed to the establishment of both the old and the new quantum theories; Lo Surdo’s discovery led Antonio Garbasso (1871 1933)to introduce research on the quantum theory into Italian physics. Ironically, soon after their discoveries, both Stark and Lo Surdo rejected developments in modern physics and allied themselves with the political and racial programs of Hitler and Mussolini.

  3. Johann Friedrich Horner and the Repeated Discovery of Oculosympathoparesis: Whose Syndrome Is It?

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ahmed; Manjila, Sunil; Singh, Mantinderpreet; Belle, Vaijayantee; Chandar, Krishan; Miller, Jonathan P

    2015-09-01

    Disruption of cranial sympathetic tone leads to the symptom complex of miosis, ptosis, and hemifacial anhidrosis. It is widely believed that this phenomenon was discovered in 1869 by the Swiss ophthalmologist Johann Friedrich Horner, and as a result, the term Horner syndrome has become synonymous with the clinical presentation. However, the syndrome that would become Horner syndrome had actually been described several times before his report. François Pourfour du Petit documented the ocular effects of sympathetic trunk lesions in animal studies in 1727. Claude Bernard identified the full clinical triad in animal studies in 1852, and as a result, the condition is sometimes called Bernard syndrome. There were also 2 previous reports of ptosis and miosis resulting from sympathetic nerve damage in humans: 1 by Edward Selleck Hare in 1838 associated with brachial plexus tumor, and the other by Silas Weir Mitchell in 1864 associated with a gunshot wound to the neck. Although Horner was the first to objectively characterize the co-occurrence of vasomotor and ocular changes in a human patient, he did not identify the etiology of the condition, discuss its relationship to the sympathetic nervous system, or reference any of the previous studies in animals or humans. It is possible that a lack of familiarity with previous investigations delayed the full appreciation of the mechanism underlying this disorder.

  4. [Johann Sebastian Bach: life, oeuvre and his significance for the cardiology].

    PubMed

    Trappe, H-J

    2014-12-01

    Johann Sebastian Bach was born on 1685 in Eisenach. By the time he turned 10, Bach found himself an orphan after the death of both of his parents. After working in Weimar, Arnstadt, Mühlhausen, and Köthen Bach signed a contract to become the new organist and teacher at St. Thomas Church Leipzig in 1723 and stayed there until his death. In 1749, Bach tried to fix his failing sight by having surgery the following year, but the operation ended up leaving him completely blind. Few months later, Bach suffered a stroke. He died in Leipzig on July 28, 1750. In recent years, there were some questions whether music of different styles can directly alter cardiovascular parameters, particularly by using Bach's music. In some studies it has been shown that cardiovascular parameters (blood pressure, heart rate) are influenced by music. Listening to classic music (Bach) leads to positive erffects, also music by Italian composters. In contrast, "modern" music, vocal music or songs had no positive effects on cardiovascular parameters. In addition, positive effects on cardiovascular parameters and behavioural patters have been shown in an animal study recently, by Bach's music. Recent studies showed clearly that music influences cardiovascular parameters. It is obvious that classical music (Bach) has benefitial effects, both in humans and in animals. Therefore, the music of the "Thomaskantor" will improve both, quality of life and cardiovascular health.

  5. Johann Peter Griess FRS (1829–88): Victorian brewer and synthetic dye chemist

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Edwin; Yates, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The German organic chemist Johann Peter Griess (1829–88), who first developed the diazotization of aryl amines (the key reaction in the synthesis of the azo dyes), and a major figure in the formation of the modern dye industry, worked for more than a quarter of a century at the brewery of Samuel Allsopp and Sons in Burton upon Trent, which, owing to the presence of several notable figures and an increase in the scientific approach to brewing, became a significant centre of scientific enquiry in the 1870s and 1880s. Unlike the other Burton brewing chemists, Griess paralleled his work at the brewery with significant contributions to the chemistry of synthetic dyes, managing to keep the two activities separate—to the extent that some of his inventions in dye chemistry were filed as patents on behalf of the German dye company BASF, without the involvement of Allsopp's. This seemingly unlikely situation can be explained partly by the very different attitudes to patent protection in Britain and in Germany combined with an apparent indifference to the significant business opportunity that the presence of a leading dye chemist presented to Allsopp's. Although his work for the brewery remained largely proprietary, Griess's discoveries in dye chemistry were exploited by the German dye industry, which quickly outpaced its British counterpart. One less well-known connection between brewing and synthetic dyes, and one that may further explain Allsopp's attitude, is the use of synthetic dyes in identifying microorganisms—the perennial preoccupation of brewers seeking to maintain yield and quality. Developments of Griess's original work continue to be applied to many areas of science and technology.

  6. The legacy of Johann Friedrich Meckel the Elder (1724-1774): a 4-generation dynasty of anatomists.

    PubMed

    Janjua, Rashid M; Schultka, Rüdiger; Goebbel, Luminita; Pait, T Glenn; Shields, Christopher B

    2010-04-01

    Few families have had an impact on medicine to equal that of the Meckel family. Johann Friedrich Meckel the Elder is of special interest to the neurosciences, given that his dissertation on the fifth cranial nerve included the first description of the arachnoid space investing the trigeminal nerve into the middle fossa. He was interested in neuroanatomy, along with botany and pathology of the inguinal hernia and the lymphatic system. His mentors included the eminent Albrecht von Haller (1708-1777) and August Buddaeus (1695-1753), and he extended his own influence on the work of Giovanni Morgagni and Alexander Monro II. He spent the latter part of his life in Berlin as professor of anatomy, botany, and obstetrics. His son, Philipp Friedrich Theodor Meckel (1755-1803), was one of the founders of the current collection of anatomic specimens at the University of Halle and provided important groundwork for the practice of obstetrics. Meckel the Elder's grandson, Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833), was a more prolific investigator and founder of the science of teratology. Many anatomic structures, such as Meckel's diverticulum, bear his name, and he vastly expanded the university's anatomic collection. August Albrecht Meckel (1789-1829), Meckel the Younger's brother, practiced legal medicine and investigated avian anatomy but died prematurely from tuberculosis. August's son, Johann Heinrich Meckel (1821-1856), took the instructor's position in pathologic anatomy at the University of Berlin that his great-grandfather had held at the Charité. After his untimely death from pulmonary disease, his position was filled by Rudolf Virchow. The history of this family is discussed in detail.

  7. Doktor Johannes Häringshauser - Was seine Bücher über ihn erzählen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feola, Vittoria

    2009-06-01

    Die Bibliothek des Dr. Johannes Häringshauser (1603-1642) weist ihren Besitzer als Arzt und Gelehrten mit großem geistigen Horizont aus. Hervorzuheben ist sein Interesse für Astronomie und Astrologie. Neben Werken, die unmittelbar mit seinen Studien in Wien und Padua und den Erfordernissen eines Arztes in Zusammenhang zu bringen sind (Klassiker der Heilkunde genauso wie aktuelle medizinische Publikationen), wird in seiner Büchersammlung eine reiche Palette an Themen abgedeckt: Theologie, Philosophie, Philologie, Politik, Geschichte und Länderkunde.

  8. Johannes Amos Comenius (1592-1670) and his depiction of lenses and spectacles in the first children's picture book.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2009-01-01

    Johannes Amos Comenius (1592-1670) was a Moravian clergyman, teacher, and author. He is recognized as introducing several concepts of modern education. He advanced the views that education should be appropriate to age and development levels and that teaching should make use of everyday sensory experience. One of his many books, Orbis Pictus, followed those concepts. Orbis Pictus, first published in 1657, is hailed as the first children's picture book. Among the many commonplace objects he included in the book were a mirror, spectacles, a telescope, a magnifying lens, and a burning glass.

  9. [Halle physicians as historical witnesses and specialty chronologists. I. The autobiography of the wound physician Johann Dietz (1665-1738)].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W

    1989-09-01

    The beginnings of the autobiography and autoergography written by physicians are to be placed for the 16th and 17th century. An early example for this genre of literature which is always actual but in its valency also disputed is the self-evidence of the Halle surgeon Johann Dietz. Into the descriptions of his professional life many details of the events of his era were included. In his description chronicles of the speciality and witness of the time united themselves in a report which remained worth reading up to the present time.

  10. ["I am rather satisfied with this interpretation of my dreams." -- real-life and work-related encounters between psychiatrist Johann Christian August Heinroth and poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe].

    PubMed

    Schmideler, S; Steinberg, H

    2004-09-01

    Apart from being a major pioneer of modern psychiatry, Johann Christian August Heinroth (1773 - 1843) is foremost famous as the first academic teacher, professor of this subject at Leipzig University. Despite his theoretical concepts being thoroughly investigated by medical historians, the fact that his scientific work also brought him in contact with Weimar poet and scientist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749 - 1832) has up to now not been acknowledged. This paper analyses for the first time the manifold points of contact between the two geniuses. Starting off with a retrospective on Goethe's relationship towards psychiatry in his day, this paper investigates the mutual interconnections and influences between the two. This is achieved by an analysis of yet unknown primary sources as well as Goethe's literary and scientific works. A main emphasis is also placed on Heinroth's Textbook of Anthropology of 1822 in which the psychiatrist laid out his understanding of 'relational thinking' (gegenständliches Denken), a key concept for both. This theory developed from Heinroth's dealing with Goethe's concept of "anschauung" and was to gain major importance not only for his way of gaining knowledge in general but also for his psychiatric concept. Goethe's influence on Heinroth is particularly revealed in the latter's holistic views on mental illnesses. Heinroth's visit to Goethe on 15 September 1827 can be earmarked as a sign of their mutual esteem.

  11. ATV Engineering Support Team Safety Console Preparation for the Johannes Kepler Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, R.; Oliefka, L.

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes the improvements to be implemented in the Safety console position of the Engineering Support Team(EST) at the Automated Transfer Vehicle(ATV) Control Centre(ATV-CC) for the upcoming ATV Johannes Kepler mission. The ATV missions to the International Space Station are monitored and controlled from the ATV-CC in Toulouse, France. The commanding of ATV is performed by the Vehicle Engineering Team(VET) in the main control room under authority of the Flight Director. The EST performs a monitoring function in a room beside the main control room. One of the EST positions is the Safety console, which is staffed by safety engineers from ESA and the industrial prime contractor, Astrium. The function of the Safety console is to check whether the hazard controls are available throughout the mission as required by the Hazard Reports approved by the ISS Safety Review Panel. Safety console preparation activities were limited prior to the first ATV mission due to schedule constraints, and the safety engineers involved have been working to improve the readiness for ATV 2. The following steps have been taken or are in process, and will be described in this paper: • review of the implementation of Operations Control Agreement Documents(OCADs) that record the way operational hazard controls are performed to meet the needs of the Hazard Reports(typically in Flight Rules and Crew Procedures), • crosscheck of operational control needs and implementations with respect to ATV's first flight observations and post flight evaluations, with a view to identifying additional, obsolete or revised operational hazard controls, • participation in the Flight Rule review and update process carried out between missions, • participation in the assessment of anomalies observed during the first ATV mission, to ensure that any impacts are addressed in the ATV 2 safety documentation, • preparation of a Safety console handbook to provide lists of important safety aspects to be

  12. Stubborn Mars is in search of a domicile. Johannes Kepler to Christian II. elector of Saxony - a rediscovery. (German Title: Der halsstarrige Mars sucht sich eine Wohnung. Johannes Kepler an Kurfürst Christian II. von Sachsen - Eine Wiederentdeckung)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothmann, Hella

    2011-08-01

    The rediscovery of a missing autograph of Johannes Kepler - a dedication letter presenting his "New Astronomy" to the elector of Saxony - was possible through a series of fortunate coincidences. Kepler's most important work "Astronomia Nova", in which he proclaimed the first two planetary laws, has been published at the end of 1609. According to the Latin dedication to emperor Rudolf II., Kepler compares the long period of calculations and observations as a crusade against the planet Mars. Finally he succeeds in defeating him, now he supports his opponent to find a new home. The letter is an extraordinary document of Kepler's ingenious and humorous language, it also proofs the relationship to Dresden and the Saxon court.

  13. The neuroscience of Helmholtz and the theories of Johannes Müller. Part 2: Sensation and perception.

    PubMed

    Finger, Stanley; Wade, Nicholas J

    2002-09-01

    In this, our continuation paper on Helmholtz and Müller, we examine Helmholtz's contributions to sensation and perception, with emphasis on his extension and modification of Müller's theory of specific nerve energies. The material is again presented in biographical-chronological context. We also examine Helmholtz's views on depth and space perception, and his empirical theory of knowledge, which are also compared to Müller's views. It will be shown that Helmholtz remained stimulated by the thoughts and doctrines of Johannes Müller in the sensory-perceptual part of his career, which began early in the 1850s and ended with his death. Nevertheless, Helmholtz's own experiments and new discoveries by others sometimes led him to quite different conclusions.

  14. Five-element Johann-type x-ray emission spectrometer with a single-photon-counting pixel detector.

    PubMed

    Kleymenov, Evgeny; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A; David, Christian; Glatzel, Pieter; Janousch, Markus; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Studer, Marco; Willimann, Markus; Bergamaschi, Anna; Henrich, Beat; Nachtegaal, Maarten

    2011-06-01

    A Johann-type spectrometer with five spherically bent crystals and a pixel detector was constructed for a range of hard x-ray photon-in photon-out synchrotron techniques, covering a Bragg-angle range of 60°-88°. The spectrometer provides a sub emission line width energy resolution from sub-eV to a few eV and precise energy calibration, better than 1.5 eV for the full range of Bragg angles. The use of a pixel detector allows fast and easy optimization of the signal-to-background ratio. A concentration detection limit below 0.4 wt% was reached at the Cu Kα(1) line. The spectrometer is designed as a modular mobile device for easy integration in a multi-purpose hard x-ray synchrotron beamline, such as the SuperXAS beamline at the Swiss Light Source.

  15. [Plagiarism techniques in practice journal Johannes Franc (1649–1725) and copying practice illustrated by urology texts].

    PubMed

    Breuer, R; Winckelmann, H J

    2012-01-01

    In the seventeenth century it was customary in medicine to copy texts from other authors without citing the source. This practice is illustrated by the diary of Johannes Franc (1649–1725), a physician in the city of Ulm, who handwrote a practice journal in Latin and German Gothic script entering text passages plagiarized as follows: he reproduced them almost word for word in order to pass them off as his own experiences, used them as a model for his prescriptions and as a template for his case histories, and integrated them into his work to support his argumentation. In addition, he summarized texts from various sources, refined them by omitting portions, and incorporated his own experiences for embellishment. These plagiarism techniques and the purpose they served are analyzed and compared to some passages taken from the original texts.

  16. Five-element Johann-type x-ray emission spectrometer with a single-photon-counting pixel detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kleymenov, Evgeny; Bokhoven, Jeroen A. van; David, Christian; Janousch, Markus; Studer, Marco; Willimann, Markus; Bergamaschi, Anna; Henrich, Beat; Nachtegaal, Maarten; Glatzel, Pieter; Alonso-Mori, Roberto

    2011-06-15

    A Johann-type spectrometer with five spherically bent crystals and a pixel detector was constructed for a range of hard x-ray photon-in photon-out synchrotron techniques, covering a Bragg-angle range of 60 deg. - 88 deg. The spectrometer provides a sub emission line width energy resolution from sub-eV to a few eV and precise energy calibration, better than 1.5 eV for the full range of Bragg angles. The use of a pixel detector allows fast and easy optimization of the signal-to-background ratio. A concentration detection limit below 0.4 wt% was reached at the Cu K{alpha}{sub 1} line. The spectrometer is designed as a modular mobile device for easy integration in a multi-purpose hard x-ray synchrotron beamline, such as the SuperXAS beamline at the Swiss Light Source.

  17. [The correspondence of Johann Bartholomäus Trommsdorff (1770-1837): more then a source book of pharmaceutical history].

    PubMed

    Bettin, Hartmut; Friedrich, Christoph

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the publication of the correspondence of Johann Bartholomäus Trommsdorff (1770 bis 1837) and to inform about the history of this project as well as the methodical proceedings and the content of these letters. The opportunities and limitations of the modern Trommsdorff research, based on the publication of his correspondence, will be shown. His contacts have been manifold and expansive. He corresponded with many famous scientists in pharmacy, chemistry, medicine and with important people of intellectual origin. Trommsdorff was a highly important person of the international European relationships in the field of pharmacy. Many publications certify the importance of the Trommsdorff-correspondence. The publication of these letters has opened new biographical aspects and allows to follow the connections and ways of communication in the new age of the foundation of scientific pharmacy.

  18. Arzt und Hobby-Astronom in stürmischen Zeiten Der Büchernachlass des Doktor Johannes Häringshauser, Viertelsmedicus in Mistelbach (1630-1641) in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, Giles; Glaßner, Gottfried

    2009-06-01

    Auf der Suche nach astronomischer Literatur stieß Giles Davison in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek auf den Namen "Doctor Johannes Häringshauser“ als Besitzer seltener und interessanter astronomischer Werke u.a. von Johannes Regiomontan, Georg von Peuerbach, Michael Mästlin, Johannes Kepler und Daniel Sennert. Weitere in den Jahren 2007-2009 durchgeführte Nachforschungen ergaben, dass es sich um den von 1630-1641 in Mistelbach, Niederösterreich, als Landschaftsarzt tätigen Vater des Melker Konventualen und Bibliothekars Sigismund Häringshauser (1631-1698) handelt. Er wurde 1603 als Sohn des aus Magdeburg stammenden Apothekers Johannes Häringshauser geboren und starb 1642 in Mistelbach. Johannes Häringshauser Sen. bekleidete von 1613-1640 eine Reihe wichtiger Ämter in der Wiener Stadtregierung und starb 1647. Der Studienaufenthalt von Dr. Johannes Häringshauser Jun. in Padua (1624-1626) dürfte das Interesse für Astronomie geweckt haben, das sich in seiner in die Bestände der Melker Stiftsbibliothek eingegangenen Privatbibliothek widerspiegelt. Der Großteil der 10 dem Fachbereich der Astronomie und Astrologie zuzuweisenden Titel wurde von ihm in den Jahren 1636 und 1637 erworben.

  19. [Fatal diseases and "imaginary" suffering. "Hypochondria" and "consumption" in the correspondence between Jean Paul and Johann Bernhard Hermann, with a perspective on Jean Paul's literature and aesthetics].

    PubMed

    Meier, Monika

    2007-01-01

    The German writerJean Paul (Johann Paul Friedrich Richter, 1763-1825) and his friendJohann Bernhard Hermann (1761-1790) became acquainted with the thoughts of late Enlightenment at the University of Leipzig. They particularly appreciated the anthropology of Ernst Platner, who taught philosophy and aesthetics as well as medicine. Their confidential correspondence contains reflections on their respective situation and well being. Both write about feeling ill and label their illness "hypochondria". In the course of the correspondence Jean Paul's understanding of hypochondria evolves from an illness of the entrails as he follows Hermann, who supports the modern concept of hypochondria as an illness of the nerves. Two important themes from this correspondence recur in Jean Paul's novels and tales: firstly, his way of expressing comfort is related to his aesthetics, and secondly, the satirical way of portraying at least certain aspects of illness as imaginary reappears in his first successful novel "The Invisible Lodge" (1793).

  20. [The anatomy of Johann Samuel Eduard d'Alton (1803-1854)--his life and work in Halle (Saale)].

    PubMed

    Zwiener, Sabine; Göbbel, Luminita; Schultka, Rüdiger

    2002-11-01

    After the death of Johann Friedrich Meckel (1781-1833), Eduard d'Alton was appointed to be his successor. From 1834 to 1854, he was Professor of Anatomy and head of the "Anatomisches Theater" at the University of Halle. In the literature we can only find little details about him. The aim is to investigate his life and work. Before he came to Halle, he was first professor at the Academy of Arts in Berlin. Then few years later he received the professorship of anatomy and physiology at the Friedrich-Wilhelm-University in Berlin. During his work as anatomist and physiologist in Halle he was rector twice, in 1845 and 1846. d'Alton worked very accurately and highly engaged. He supported the students' education very conscientiously but, since he was strict and exacting at the same time, he was not very popular. His extraordinary drawings of human and comparative anatomy earned him great recognition. In 1850, he published the "Handbuch der menschlichen Anatomie". d'Alton was mainly engaged in comparative anatomy, embryology and teratology and performed experimental embryological tests. In 1853, he published a catalogue of teratological preparations many of which can still be found in the Anatomical Collections in Halle.

  1. Melting experiments and field work on Komornı´ Hùrka volcano, Bohemia, by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Susanne; Kreher-Hartmann, Birgit; Heide, K.

    2001-09-01

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), eminent author, was also state minister and scientist as well as experimentalist in geology. Together with Döbereiner, a chemist in Jena during that time, he carried out melting experiments in porcelain and pottery kilns with rocks and minerals from the volcanic and pseudo-volcanic edifices in NW Bohemia. These experiments were to prove Goethe's theory, that remelting of an archetype rock would result in volcanic and pseudo-volcanic rocks. Especially the formation of the Komornı´ Hùrka (Kammerberg) volcano in NW Bohemia attracted Goethe during all his life. He visited this location 19 times in 1808, 1820 and 1822 and made very exact field observations. But the interpretation of these observations varied between volcanistic and neptunistic. In order to find arguments, he examined the effect of fire on rocks and minerals using porcelain and pottery kilns. The experiments did not provide the expected results and thus failed to explain the formation of Komornı´ Hùrka. During Goethe's geognostic work, including the "pyro-technical" experiments, the neptunism-volcanism-controversy about the formation of basalt raged in Europe, and, more general, about rock formation: neptunism-plutonism. Especially the effect of heat on rocks and minerals, i.e. the phenomenology of fire, played an important role in that discussion. Goethe swayed during his lifetime between neptunism and volcanism. He did not fully accept plutonism because he believed, that processes of nature are generally non-violent and that volcanic eruptions and other catastrophic phenomena are the exception rather than the rule. Therefore he tended to neptunistic ideas. In Goethe's notes there are many indications of this conflict. In contrast, the melting experiments are mentioned only few times. It was, however, possible to establish a picture of his experimental work and his fundamental concepts and ideas.

  2. Celebrating 400 Years of Astronomia Nova: Johannes Kepler, the Kepler Mission, and the International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devore, E. K.; Koch, D.; Gould, A.; Harman, P. K.

    2008-12-01

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 is an occasion to celebrate astronomy around the world. In addition to honoring Galileo and the invention of the astronomical telescope, 2009 is the 400th anniversary year of Kepler's publication of the Astronomia Nova containing his first two laws of planetary motion. In recognition of Kepler's accomplishment, the first NASA mission capable of detecting Earth-size and smaller planets in the habitable zone of stars has been named after Johannes Kepler. The Kepler Mission launches in the spring of 2009 and will search for evidence of extrasolar planets as they transit--pass in front of--their parent stars. Using Kepler's Laws, scientists will interpret the Mission data to characterize the planets that are discovered. The Kepler Mission is conducting several Educational and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities leading up to and during IYA. Among these are the Name In Space project which offers participants the opportunity to send their name into space along with a statement about the importance of searching for extrasolar Earths. The Kepler Star Wheel (planisphere) shows both the Kepler field of view and naked eye stars with known planetary systems. A series of StarDate programs will be broadcast in English and Spanish. Inquiry-based classroom lessons suitable for middle and high school science classes are available for download at the website, and on the Kepler Mission poster. The Kepler Mission poster will be distributed to middle and high school science teachers through the National Science Teacher's Association and other science teacher organizations. Copies will be available at AGU. The Kepler EPO team is presenting pre-launch teacher workshops at several locations around the US. Details about the workshop, and event timeline will be presented. For further information on the Kepler Mission, its E/PO program, and online resources, please visit: http://Kepler.NASA.gov.

  3. Celebrating 400 Years of Astronomia Nova: Johannes Kepler, the Kepler Mission, and the International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, Edna; Koch, D.; Gould, A.; Harman, P.

    2009-01-01

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 is an occasion to celebrate astronomy around the world. In addition to honoring Galileo and the invention of the astronomical telescope, 2009 is the 400th anniversary year of Kepler's publication of the Astronomia Nova containing his first two laws of planetary motion. In recognition of Kepler's accomplishment, the first NASA mission capable of detecting Earth-size and smaller planets in the habitable zone of stars has been named after Johannes Kepler. The Kepler Mission launches in the spring of 2009 and will search for evidence of extrasolar planets as they transit--pass in front of--their parent stars. Using Kepler's Laws, scientists will interpret the Mission data to characterize the planets that are discovered. The Kepler Mission is conducting several Educational and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities leading up to and during IYA. Among these are the "Name In Space” project which offers participants the opportunity to send their name into space along with a statement about the importance of searching for extrasolar Earths. The "Kepler Star Wheel” (planisphere) shows both the Kepler field of view and naked eye stars with known planetary systems. A series of StarDate programs will be broadcast in English and Spanish. Inquiry-based classroom lessons suitable for middle and high school science classes are available for download at the website, and on the Kepler Mission poster. The Kepler Mission poster will be distributed to middle and high school science teachers through the National Science Teacher's Association and other science teacher organizations. Copies will be available at AAS. The Kepler EPO team is presenting pre-launch teacher workshops at several locations around the US. Details about the workshop, and event timeline will be presented. For further information on the Kepler Mission, its E/PO program, and online resources, please visit: http://kepler.nasa.gov. Funded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. [Johann Misch Astrophilus' book "Medicina Pauperum" in Hungarian. Copy of a lost or hidden book from 1660].

    PubMed

    Kiss, István; Tavaszy, Mariann; Kiss, Gergely

    2011-07-03

    Doctors and pharmacies in the 15th Century only used handwritten copies of the prescription collections available in their time. At the beginning of book printing the publishing of prescription collections immediately became popular. They could be found on the pages of medical and pharmaceutical books of many various editions with different structure and origin, as the forerunner of the official pharmacopoeias. From the 16th Century onwards books with the title "Medicina Pauperum" were published which helped the educated people to tend to themselves, the household, the servants and their immediate surroundings case of an illness. The first work specifically on the topic or of genre of the "Medicina Pauperum" according to our knowledge appeared in Hungarian in the year 1660 and currently seems to survived only in fragments under the title of "Medicina Pauperum", from an unknown author. A rare incident occurred in the present days as a "book" believed to be lost for us turned up from thin air. It is a "copied" manuscript in the size of 97×139 mm attached to the ribs with hemp cord, cropped around and in an unbound state. The book known before only in fractions is now available entirety handwritten on 318 pages, distributed to seven distinct parts. The research of its origin suggests that the author lived and worked in Nagyszombat and was called Johann Misch Astrophilus. The identification of the printing office was possible thanks to the examination of the initials and the gaudily, as well as the fonts and the watermark. By these results the printing very likely occurred in the Brewer Printing Press in Lőcse. For the possibility of more extensive research and value preservation the manuscript was bounded. The facsimile edition contains the magnified and digitalized pages of the original one and is published in numbered issues.

  5. Auβ Quecksilber und Schwefel Rein: Johann Mathesius (1504-65) and Sulfur-Mercurius in the Silver Mines of Joachimstal.

    PubMed

    Norris, John A

    2014-01-01

    The Sarepta, oder Bergpostill (1562) by Johann Mathesius is a book of sermons on mining and mineral subjects in which the composition and generation of metals in ore veins are discussed in terms of the sulfur-mercurius theory. Gur was an embodiment of mercurius or of sulfur and mercurius. Sulfur was evident in the sulfurous odor of the mines, in the supposed effects of subterranean heat, and in the deposition of mineral sulfur during the roasting of the ores. The toxic smoke given off during smelting was considered to be an additional manifestation of mercurius. Mathesius's sermons offer a glimpse of the ways miners' understanding of ores overlapped with alchemists' theories.

  6. [General practice-oriented forms of education of the 18th century. On the 250th anniversary of the birth of Johann Friedrich Gottlieb Goldhagen (1742-1788)].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W

    1993-02-01

    Widely differing conditions applied to practice-oriented medical teaching at universities in the various German principalities or territorial states in the 18th century. Initially, the institutions used by professors as "collegium clinicum" belonged either to foundations or were being run on a private basis. It was only in the second half of the 18th century that these institutions became state-supervised, with the inclusion of the discipline of surgery. The results of such reorganization are demonstrated, taking Halle and the work done by Johann Friedrich Gottlieb Goldhagen as examples.

  7. The neuroscience of Helmholtz and the theories of Johannes Müller. Part 1: Nerve cell structure, vitalism, and the nerve impulse.

    PubMed

    Finger, Stanley; Wade, Nicholas J

    2002-06-01

    Hermann Helmholtz made monumental contributions to the neural sciences in the second half of the nineteenth century. Among his earliest achievements were experiments that challenged vitalism, microscopic studies on the structure of the nerve cell and its processes, and the first reasonable estimates of the speed of nerve transmission based on physiological experiments. In this, the first of a two-part article, we review Helmholtz's early contributions in biographical context and with reference to Johannes Müller's own thoughts. We reveal how Johannes Müller, considered by many to be the greatest physiologist of the first half of the nineteenth century, helped to launch and shape Helmholtz's career. We also show that Helmholtz was only willing to accept some of his mentor's theories, even though he had great admiration for Müller. The point will be made that Helmholtz owed a great debt to Müller, but even from his student days in Berlin he was an independent thinker with his own agenda, and never his strict disciple.

  8. ["Dieu et cerveau, rien que Dieu et cerveau!" Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744-1803) and the neurosciences of this time].

    PubMed

    Stahnisch, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The impact of Johann Gottfried von Herder on the broad spectrum of the history of ideas can hardly be estimated by separate categories derived from individual disciplines. It transcends the spheres of philosophy, theology, historiography and even medical anthropology--also because Herder, unlike many of his contemporary philosophers and hommes de lettres, was particularly interested in the neurophysiological and -anatomical investigations of his time. Herder's universal interest in human learning is reflected in numerous personal contacts to contemporary academic scholars and natural scientists, such as the Swiss theologian Johann Caspar Lavater, whose physiognomic doctrine mapped out a comprehensive research programme on character analysis, or the Mainz anatomist Samuel Thomas von Soemmering. Herder tightly received the latter's assumption about the interplay between the human soul and the anatomy of the brain. In this article, it shall be demonstrated that Herder's neurophilosophy was primarily influenced by a "pandynamic assumption of nature" and that it designated the brain centrally as a "working tool of God"--right between the human faculties of rationality, feeling and bodily development. The attractiveness of this concept to both basic brain research and clinical neurology was a result of his anthropological approach which combined latest developments in the natural sciences with a central perspective on the human sciences.

  9. Johannes Kepler on Christmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Martin

    2009-12-01

    Kepler's interpretation of the supernova of 1604, De Stella Nova, interwove the science of astronomy with astrology and theology in an attempt to determine the correct birthdate of Jesus, explains Martin Kemp.

  10. [Criminal process record Winckelmann (Triest, 1768). Comments on the criminal process dealing with the murder of Johann Joachim Winckelmann from the forensic historical and legal medicine viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Risse, M; Weiler, G

    2001-01-01

    Johann Joachim Winckelmann, German historian of ancient art and archaeologist, was born on 9 December 1717 in Stendal, a town in Saxony-Anhalt. At the age of 50 he was murdered on 8 June 1768 in a Trieste hotel. The voluminous original record of the criminal proceedings against his murderer, Francesco Arcangeli, was presumed lost for about 150 years. A new edition in the wording of the original text appeared in 1964. This long sought historical document gives cause for forensic-historical reflections under consideration of the autopsy protocol about Winckelmann, which is likewise a historical document. A considerable change of paradigm in comparison to current autopsy protocols is observed with regard to the evaluation of injuries and the circumstances of death.

  11. The first demonstration of lactic acid in human blood in shock by Johann Joseph Scherer (1814–1869) in January 1843

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, T. C.; van der Hoven, B.; Bakker, J.

    2007-01-01

    Lactic acid was first found and described in sour milk by Karl Wilhelm Scheele (1742–1786) in 1780. The German physician–chemist Johann Joseph Scherer (1841–1869) demonstrated the occurrence of lactic acid in human blood under pathological conditions in 1843 and 1851. In this article we honour the forgotten observations by Scherer and describe the influence of Scherer's finding on further research on lactic acid at the end of the 19th century. We conclude that Scherer's 1843 case reports should be cited as the first description of lactic acid in human blood after death and also as the first demonstration of lactic acid as a pathological finding in septic and haemorrhagic shock. Carl Folwarczny was, in 1858, the first to demonstrate lactic acid in blood in a living patient. PMID:17661014

  12. ["Purified empiricism": Johann Christian Reil's (1759-1813) attempts at a foundation of medicine in relation to its tradition, kantianism, and speculative philosophy].

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Johann Christian Reil's (1759-1813) importance lies in his theoretical approach to medicine. Following Kant in his early work, he attempts to combine medical experience with an underlying conceptual structure. This attempt is directed against both the chaotic empiricism of traditional medicine and speculative theories such as vitalism. The paper starts from his early reflections on the concept of a life force, which he interprets in the way of a non-reductive materialism. In the following, the basic outlines of his Theory of Fever will be shown. The Theory is a systematic attempt at finding a new foundation for diagnosis and therapy on the basis of the concept of fever, which is understood as modification of vital processes. The paper ends with a discussion of his later work, which has remained controversial so far. It shows that the combination of practical empiricism and scientific theory remained rather unstable in this early phase of the development of modern medicine.

  13. ["adeste omnes Logicae et Mathematicae Musae". Johannes Broscius's Apology of Aristotle and Euclid (1652) and the issue of anti-Ramism at the Academy of Cracow].

    PubMed

    Choptiany, Michał

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a largely overlooked aspect of the last work by Johannes Broscius (1585 - 1652), his Apologia pro Aristotele et Euclide contra Petrum Ramum et alios of 1652. While the past researchers focused their attention on the evaluation of Broscius's contribution to mathematics, geometry in particular, they ignored the socio-scientific aspect of his work, that is the way Peter Ramus and his followers have been presented and how did the dark legend of Ramus have been thus revived at the Central-European university in the middle of 17th century. I am showing types of rhetorical arguments employed by Broscius and analyse the way he portrayed Ramus and depicted events related to the reception of Ramism at the Academy of Cracow. The article is followed by an appendix which contains a critical edition of excerpts from the manuscript rough draft of Apologia which has been preserved until nowadays (Jagiellonian Library MS. 3205 I). In the apparatus I identify the references and show how Broscius rewrote and rearranged the original paragraphs of his anti-Ramist work.

  14. [Medicine, music, friendship and prejudices: Billroth I and Billroth II, the string quartets Opus 51, N° 1 and N° 2 by Johannes Brahms].

    PubMed

    Cabello, Felipe C

    2012-06-01

    The great German surgeon Theodor Billroth and the imaginative and creative composer Johannes Brahms had a very close friendship centered on musical activities, that lasted for more than thirty years while they lived and worked in Zurich and Vienna, during the second half of the Nineteenth Century. Billroth, besides his all-consuming medical activities, had time to be a musical enthusiast who directed orchestras, played the violin in chamber music groups, and wrote musical criticism for newspapers. The common affection between these two creative giants is documented by their abundant and effusive correspondence, by the constant requests by Brahms of Billroth's opinions regarding his compositions, and by the positive and stimulating answers that Billroth gave to these requests. Billroth opened his house for musical evenings to play Brahms chamber compositions for the first time, and Brahms dedicated his two Opus 51 string quartets Nos. 1 and 2, known in the musical milieu as Billroth I and II, to his physician friend. Unfortunately, the close bonds between these two geniuses weakened towards the end of their lives as a result of Billroth's becoming intolerant to the lack of social refinements and gruff behavior of the composer. This baffling intolerance of Billroth to his friend Brahms can be better understood after reading Billroth's writings in his book The Medical Sciences in the German Universities. A Study in the History of Civilization. There Billroth expresses strong prejudices against potential medical students of humble social origins, such as those of Brahms, coupled to a primitive anti-Semitism.

  15. [The scholarly program of Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833) and it importance for the development of life sciences].

    PubMed

    Göbbel, Luminita; Schultka, Rüdiger

    2002-11-01

    Although Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger was one of the most famous anatomists, his research work has been severely neglected in the recent historiographical literature on the German morphology. The goal of our study is to approach a general characterization of his research program. Our analysis reveals that Meckel introduced the Cuvierian empiricism in Germany, but he also considered the "Abstraktion" as a main component of the scientific knowledge. According to his epistemology on nascent organisms and transmutable species, both, variability and relatedness of the organic forms are important to the same degree. Meckel explicitly adopted the Jean-Baptiste de Lamarcks (1744-1829) evolutionary theories. Even though in Meckel's discourse about diversity the Cuvierian notion of "functional adaptation" was preserved, the main goal of his research program was to demonstrate empirically the "Allgemeinheit des Bildungstypus". For this purpose, he considered the entire variety of the animal kingdom: normal as well as abnormal organisms, adult specimens and above all embryos. Moreover, he believed that the abnormal development is due to the same laws as the normal development. He applied parallelisms to a new domain, the study of malformation. With Meckel's researches on teratology, a new era in the analyses of the anomalies was opened. They became an integral part of the natural diversity and thus a highly exploited subject of biomedical researches. Meckel's empirical and epistemological writings on the embryology, comparative embryology, teratology, pathology, systematics and comparative anatomy have largely contributed to the foundation of the biological research.

  16. ["Haemorrhoidal colic", "strong pills of stahl", and "quacks". Johann Gottwerth Müller, writer of the enlightenment, critic of medicine and his evils in letters and books].

    PubMed

    Ritter, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Johann Gottwerth Müller, a so called "independent author", was one of the most successful novelists in the German Enlightenment around 1800. Educated as a scholar and trained as a physician, although not a practicing physician, Müller was sick throughout his life and constantly reflects on his diseases, and on what he considered to be an insufficient "medical system" and a socially "sick" society. This outlook is revealed by his library (in 1828: about 13300 volumes, of which 254 volumes of medical publications), his correspondence and his novels. Letters he exchanged with the publisher Friedrich Nicolai (74 letters between 1777 and 1796) about private and business affairs show that Miller uses statements about his sickness in order to win sympathy, to document his sufferings as part of an "independent" writer's identity, as a metaphor for social health, and as a means for excuses and compulsions in business connections. The didactic novels serve the author's transformation of individual suffering into the perspective of an enlightened humanitarian development of the government, the society, and the medical system within the structured society of his day.

  17. ["Each medical practitioner and ordained physician commissioned by the city of Nuremberg shal vow ..." the structures of the public health system in Nuremberg at the beginning of the 18th century of Johann Christoph Götz].

    PubMed

    Splinter, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The medical institutions of Nuremberg were established quite early. The Collegium medicum were already founded in 1592. Though this board held responsibility for the supervision of pharmacies, the creation of Medizinalordnungen (medical legislations) and also had advisory functions, the physicians did not succeed in winning a prominent position. The spheres of competence between the different groups of medical practitioners were not yet clearly defined. Nevertheless the daily work of the practitioner Johann Christoph Götz (1688-1733) was going smoothly due to his cooperation with other doctors, surgeons, midwives and pharmacists.

  18. The sin in the aetiological concept of Johann Christian August Heinroth (1773-1843). Part 1: Between theology and psychiatry. Heinroth's concepts of 'whose being', 'freedom', 'reason' and 'disturbance of the soul'.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Holger

    2004-09-01

    Throughout his work Johann Christian August Heinroth regarded sin to be the cause of mental illness. The present two-part paper investigates what exactly Heinroth understood by sin. Based on a thorough analysis of his own texts, this study shows that on the one hand Heinroth referred to sin in a Christian-Protestant sense. On the other, however, a moral-ethical code of conduct was also involved. Thus, Heinroth did not regard sin as a singular event, but rather as a life conducted in a wrong way for years or even decades, by which he meant a steady striving towards earthly, bodily satisfaction.

  19. [The alphabet of nature and the alphabet of culture in the eighteenth century. botany, diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner : Botany, Diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner].

    PubMed

    Gierl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture.

  20. On the identity of some weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius (1745-1808) in the Museum of Zoology of Copenhagen (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea, Curculionoidea, Tenebrionoidea).

    PubMed

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    The types of thirty-two nominal weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for twenty-two of them. A neotype is designated for Curculiosticticus Fabricius, 1777. Protapionvaripes (Germar, 1817) is declared a nomen protectum over Curculioflavipes Fabricius, 1775. Based on a study of syntypes, Rhinomacercurculioides Fabricius, 1781 is confirmed as a member of Mycterus (Mycteridae), Bruchusundatus Fabricius, 1787 is tentatively transferred to Erotylidae, Curculiofulvirostris Fabricius, 1787 and Anthribusroboris Fabricius, 1798 are confirmed as members of Salpingus (Salpingidae), and Brachyceruscristatus Fabricius, 1798 is transferred to Tenebrionidae. Based on lectotype designation, Curculiocaninus Fabricius, 1792 is confirmed as a synonym of Sitonalineatus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Curculioinnocuus Fabricius, 1802 as a synonym of Cneorhinusbarcelonicus (Herbst, 1797). Bruchusrufipes Fabricius, 1792 is not considered an available species name, but a later use of Bruchusrufipes Olivier, 1790. Cossonusincisus Pascoe, 1885 is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Cossonusilligeri Champion, 1909 and Cossonusvulneratus Illiger, 1805 from synonymy under Cossonuscanaliculatus (Fabricius, 1792) (a primary homonym of Curculiocanaliculatus Olivier, 1791). Cossonuscanaliculatus Fabricius, 1802 is a secondary homonym of the former and is replaced with Cossonusincisus. Salpingusfulvirostris (Fabricius, 1787) is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Salpingusplanirostris (Fabricius, 1787), a primary homonym of Curculioplanirostris Piller & Mitterpacher, 1783. The following new combinations are proposed: Brachysomuserinaceus (Fabricius, 1802) (from Curculio), Bronchusferus (Gyllenhal, 1840) (from Hipporhinus), Bronchusglandifer (Fabricius, 1792) (from Curculio), Bronchusnivosus (Sparrman, 1785) (from Curculio), Bronchussparrmani (Gyllenhal, 1833) (from Hipporhinus), Coelocephalapionatrirostre (Fabricius, 1802

  1. Regiomontanus [Müller, Johann or Johannes] (1436-76)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in Königsberg (latinized in his trade name), Mainz (now Germany), a pupil of PEURBACH. Succeeded him as professor of astronomy at the University of Vienna, and became astronomer to King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary. He built an observatory and instrument workshop in Nuremberg. Observed Halley's Comet in 1472 and eclipses of the Moon. This led him to suggest that eclipse timing and techniques...

  2. Johannes Kepler and Extra Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2004-02-01

    How many dimensions are there? The answer used to be four — three spatial and one time dimension. Maybe it still is, though nowadays we hear that the answer may be more, perhaps many more. Many of our students have heard about this on television or read about it. They want to know more. Why do physicists think we need more than three spatial dimensions? What's the point of it all?

  3. Werner, Johann (1468-1522)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronomer, mathematician, instrument-maker and geographer, born in Nuremberg, Germany, follower of Regiomontanus. Regiomontanus had suggested that the timing of eclipses and the orbits of comets could be used as clocks to determine longitude. Werner developed a practical version of this idea with the method of lunar distances (i.e. measuring the angle of the Moon from the Sun). He published this...

  4. On the identity of some weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius (1745–1808) in the Museum of Zoology of Copenhagen (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea, Curculionoidea, Tenebrionoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The types of thirty-two nominal weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for twenty-two of them. A neotype is designated for Curculio sticticus Fabricius, 1777. Protapion varipes (Germar, 1817) is declared a nomen protectum over Curculio flavipes Fabricius, 1775. Based on a study of syntypes, Rhinomacer curculioides Fabricius, 1781 is confirmed as a member of Mycterus (Mycteridae), Bruchus undatus Fabricius, 1787 is tentatively transferred to Erotylidae, Curculio fulvirostris Fabricius, 1787 and Anthribus roboris Fabricius, 1798 are confirmed as members of Salpingus (Salpingidae), and Brachycerus cristatus Fabricius, 1798 is transferred to Tenebrionidae. Based on lectotype designation, Curculio caninus Fabricius, 1792 is confirmed as a synonym of Sitona lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Curculio innocuus Fabricius, 1802 as a synonym of Cneorhinus barcelonicus (Herbst, 1797). Bruchus rufipes Fabricius, 1792 is not considered an available species name, but a later use of Bruchus rufipes Olivier, 1790. Cossonus incisus Pascoe, 1885 is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Cossonus illigeri Champion, 1909 and Cossonus vulneratus Illiger, 1805 from synonymy under Cossonus canaliculatus (Fabricius, 1792) (a primary homonym of Curculio canaliculatus Olivier, 1791). Cossonus canaliculatus Fabricius, 1802 is a secondary homonym of the former and is replaced with Cossonus incisus. Salpingus fulvirostris (Fabricius, 1787) is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Salpingus planirostris (Fabricius, 1787), a primary homonym of Curculio planirostris Piller & Mitterpacher, 1783. The following new combinations are proposed: Brachysomus erinaceus (Fabricius, 1802) (from Curculio), Bronchus ferus (Gyllenhal, 1840) (from Hipporhinus), Bronchus glandifer (Fabricius, 1792) (from Curculio), Bronchus nivosus (Sparrman, 1785) (from Curculio), Bronchus sparrmani (Gyllenhal, 1833) (from Hipporhinus

  5. The Alphabet of Nature and the Alphabet of Culture in the Eighteenth Century. Botany, Diplomatics, and Ethno-Linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture. PMID:20665241

  6. Johann von Lamont: A Pioneer in Geomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffel, Heinrich

    2006-06-01

    The 200th birthday of John Lamont (1805-1879, Figure 1), a pioneer in the study of geomagnetism, was marked on 13 December 2005. Lamont founded the Munich Geomagnetic Observatory in 1840 and was a member of the group of scientists including Carl Friedrich Gauss, Alexander von Humboldt, Eduard Sabine, Jonas Angstrøm, Humphret Lloyd, Adolf Kupffer, Karl Kreil, and Adolphe Quetelet who composed the Göttingen Magnetic Union. They organized an international network of geomagnetic observatories [Barraclough et al., 1992]. The present knowledge of the geomagnetic field and its secular variation is largely based on the data collected by the global network of geomagnetic observatories during the last 170 years. Lamont's talents and his dedication and enthusiasm for discovery are reflected in the depth and scope of his contributions to a broad variety of natural sciences such as astronomy, meteorology, geomagnetism, and geodesy. However, this article just touches on his merits in geomagnetism.

  7. Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr (1677-1750)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaab, Hans

    J. G. Doppelmayr, who did scientific work in different fields, was one of the most influential scholars in the Germany of his time. His atlases and descriptions of instruments, his various translations of scientific works from English and French, his biographical studies of Nuremberg scholars, as well as his studies on electricity prove to be of special importance.

  8. Doppelmayr, Johann Gabriel (1671-1750)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in Nuremberg, Germany. Widely traveled, he wrote on astronomy, spherical trigonometry, sundials and mathematical instruments, as well as biography and history. He made no discoveries himself, but successfully disseminated the work of others....

  9. Palitzsch, Johann Georg (1723-88)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    German farmer-astronomer in Dresden who recovered Halley's Comet at its predicted reappearance in 1758. During the 1761 transit of Venus across the Sun, he observed a black band linking Venus to the edge of the Sun at the beginning and end of the transit (the `tear-drop effect') and correctly interpreted this as an effect of Venus' atmosphere....

  10. Hevelius, Johannes [Jan Hewelcke] (1611-87)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    German astronomer and instrument-maker, born in Danzig, now Gdansk, Poland. Hevelius was an accomplished instrument-maker and engraver. Influenced by TYCHO BRAHE in subject and instrumentation, he erected in Danzig what must have been then the world's finest observatory Stellaburgum (cf Brahe's Uraniborg), destroyed by fire in 1679. He made several large telescopes and some of the last large, ...

  11. Hilpoltstein at Johann Christoph Sturm's times (German Title: Hilpoltstein zu Zeiten Johann Christoph Sturms)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platz, Kai Thomas

    After an overview on the foundations of research, the conditions inside the town of Hilpoltstein in the first half of the 17th century are described. Since Hilpoltstein was situated at the road from Nuremberg to Munich, and thus at one of the most important north-south trading routes of medieval times, the town florished in economic terms at the beginning of the 17th century. Afterwards, however, the inhabitants had to suffer religious troubles, since the count palatine Wolfgang Wilhelm converted to catholicism. We collect the traces of the Sturm family in Hilpoltstein that still exist today, and complete the picture by giving an overview of the architectural, commercial and social conditions of those times.

  12. Johann Christoph Sturm's universal mathematics and metaphysics (German Title: Universalmathematik und Metaphysik bei Johann Christoph Sturm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinsle, Ulrich G.

    In order to understand Sturm's concept of a universal mathematics as a replacement or complement of metaphysics, one first has to examine the evolution of the idea of a mathesis universalis up to Sturm, and his concept of metaphysics. According to the understanding of those times, natural theology belongs to metaphysics. The last section is concerned with Sturm's statements on the existence of God and his assessments for a physico-theology.

  13. Schall von Bell, Johann Adam (1592-1666)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronomer, born in Cologne, Germany, became a Jesuit and studied astronomy in Rome. He was one of numerous Jesuit missionaries sent to China, and was the first European ever to be a member of the court bureaucracy in Peking, becoming head of the Imperial Board of Astronomy, and adviser to the young emperor Shun-chih (ruled 1644-61). He produced a large six-part cosmological map, accompanied by p...

  14. Magnenus [Magnen, Magnien], Johann Chrysostom (c. 1590-c. 1679)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Physician, born in Luxeuil, Burgundy, became professor of medicine and philosophy at Pavia, Italy, an astrologer, who revived atomism, establishing a viable alternative to Aristotelian philosophy and paving the way for the modern scientific view as expressed by GALILEO....

  15. The elusive Johann Joseph Oppel (1815-1894).

    PubMed

    Phillips, David; Wade, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Oppel is frequently cited for coining the term 'geometrical optical illusions' in 1855, but portrayals of him have rarely been sighted. We present a portrait of him and a brief description of his contributions to the study of illusions as well as other areas of sound and vision, particularly stereoscopy, colour, and motion. Despite the citations in the context of illusions, Oppel remains an elusive figure in the history of science.

  16. Johannes Kepler in Prague - and a new museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKim, R.

    2010-06-01

    Four centuries ago in 1610, the Kepler family were living in their last place of residence in Prague, in a house in a courtyard off Karlova Street (Karlova ulice), very close to the east end of Charles Bridge (Karluv most). The house is No.188, U Francouzske koruny (French Crown House), and has a passage through to Anenska Street. Kepler spent 12 years in the city, publishing his most important works including Astronomia Nova.

  17. Annals of scientific publishing: Johannes Petreius's letter to Rheticus.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swerdlow, N. M.

    1992-06-01

    In the early 16th century Nuremberg had become the center of scholarly publishing in Germany, and Petreius was then its most distinguished printer. His letter has a naive humor and charm, particularly in its timeless commonplaces about riches and learning, its good humanist (and Lutheran) dismissal of scholasticism, and its pride in the culture and learning of Nuremberg. It is here translated in its entirety. While known slightly for its remarks on Copernicus, it is also of interest for its no doubt deliberate depiction of a discerning publisher, encouraging and rewarding learning, and always looking out to publish worthy books by learned men. Indeed, even today Petreius, in his own way a predecessor of Breitkopf, Teubner, and Springer, provides and admirable model of the scholarly and scientific publisher, promoting higher standards and willing to take more risks, not the least of them financial, than most modern publishers.

  18. Zöllner, Johann Karl [Carl] Friedrich (1834-82)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    German astronomer, born in Leipzig, was a pioneer solar astronomer, classifying solar prominences. He first suggested that the spectral types of stars represent an evolutionary sequence, starting hot and cooling. This idea was taken up with variations by H C VOGEL and NORMAN LOCKYER....

  19. Johann Friedrich Meckel, the Younger (1781-1833).

    PubMed

    Gluecklich, B

    1976-09-01

    Meckel's name is well known in the medical world because of the intestinal abnormality that carries his eponym. We are less familiar with his personal life and his far-reaching achievement as a prominent anatomist. Also described is his complex personality as well as the indelible impression he made on his contemporaries.

  20. Automated Assessment of Squadron Enlisted Manpower, Training and Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    designed hand- in-hand with the XML classes in the .NET Framework—both components of a single architecture. ( Holzner , p. 19) ADO.NET and the XML...DCOM) technology has been replaced by the .NET framework. ( Holzner , p. 19) The ADO.NET core components have been designed to factor data access...Cycle Processes – Implementation Considerations, Industry Implementation of International Industry Standard ISO/IEC 12207.2, 1997. 7. Holzner

  1. Elucidation of Chromatin Remodeling Machinery Involved in Regulation of Estrogen Receptor Alpha Expression in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine. Cancer Res. 62:6456-6461 35. Widschwendter M, Siegmund KD, Muller HM, Fiegl H, Marth C, Muller- Holzner E, Jones PA, and Laird...his- Marth C, Muller- Holzner E, Jones PA, Laird PW 2004 tone H3 methyltransferases. Nature 406:593-599 Association of breast cancer DNA methylation

  2. Dynamic Scalable Network Area of Interest Mangement for Virtual Worlds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    uses the instanceof operator ( Holzner 2000) to check if each entity supports dynamic data fidelity. If the entity supports it then the appropriate...Monterey CA., pp. 85-92. Holzner , S. (2000). Java Black Book. Scottsdale, AZ: Coriolis Group. Macedonia, M., et al. (1995). Exploiting

  3. Role of Mammary Adenocarcinoma Cell Transterrin Response In Breast Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-21

    for identifying dividing cells. Int. J. Cancer, 27::329-334. 13. Wrba, F., Ritzinger, E., Reiner, A., and Holzner , J.H. Transferrin receptor (TrfR...A., and Holzner , J.H. Transferrin receptor (TrfR) expression in breast carcinoma and its possible relationship to prognosis. An immunohistochemical

  4. Common Operational Picture (COP) and Common Tactical Picture (CTP) Management via a Consistent Networked Information Stream (CNIS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    technology • Control of information sources via flexible Java Based GUI • Common Protocols and representations using XML [ Holzner , 1998] The auxiliary...Protocol., MacMillan Technical Publishing. [ Holzner , 1998] XML Complete., McGraw Hill. [Uhlmann and Julier, 1998] Decentralized Data Fusion FY99 Test

  5. Pastoral Typography: Sigmund von Birken and the "Picture-Rhymes" of Johann Helwig.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Jeremy

    1986-01-01

    Argues that European figured poetry is a distinctive art form that combined aspects of Greek and Latin art to produce a specifically typographical style of literature exemplified in the work of Birken and Helwig. (FL)

  6. [Criticism of physicians by Johannes Gregorius Macer Szepsius (1530-after 1579)].

    PubMed

    František, Šimon; Magyar, László András

    2016-02-07

    Humanist author J. G. Macer Szepsius (1530-after 1579) born in Szepsi, Upper Hungary (today Slovakia, Moldava and Bodvou) lived in Krakow and was a typical author of Latin occasional poetry. In a part of his work De vera gloria libellus (Booklet on the true glory) published in 1562 he deals with certain professions and criticizes them. Physicians are described as being garrulus (loquacious), mendicus (beggar), and having a big belly due to a luxury. The Physician doesn´t read books, is lazy and not characterized by his knowledge, but rather by ignorance, arrogance and pride. Physicians prescribe medications without knowing their effects. Such a criticism is surprising, because Macer Szepsius was probably closely related to medicine.

  7. Opera in the Foreign Language Classroom: Learning German with Mozart, Wagner, Weber, and Johann Strauss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Solveig M.

    2010-01-01

    Content-based instruction (CBI) has been part of the foreign language curriculum for many years at US colleges, leading to courses that combine language instruction with specific content domains, such as film, literature, politics, sports and many others. This article presents a rather unusual choice of content domain for a second-year language…

  8. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi in the 1990s; Implications for Today's Multicultural Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nel, Johanna; Seckinger, Donald S.

    1993-01-01

    Pestalozzi's conception of effective learning arising from personal observation and experience can be applied to the education of diverse students. His notions of empathy and caring, understanding the child's own culture, and equality without conformity are cornerstones of multicultural education. (SK)

  9. 2D photonic crystals on the Archimedean lattices (tribute to Johannes Kepler (1571 1630))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajić, R.; class="cross-out">D. Jovanović,

    2008-03-01

    Results of our research on 2D Archemedean lattice photonic crystals are presented. This involves the calculations of the band structures, band-gap maps, equifrequency contours and FDTD simulations of electromagnetic propagation through the structures as well as an experimental verification of negative refraction at microwaves. The band-gap dependence on dielectric contrast is established both for dielectric rods in air and air-holes in dielectric materials. A special emphasis is placed on possibilities of negative refraction and left-handedness in these structures. Together with the familiar Archimedean lattices like square, triangular, honeycomb and Kagome' ones, we consider also, the less known, (3 2, 4, 3, 4) (ladybug) and (3, 4, 6, 4) (honeycomb-ring) structures.

  10. The Method of Anschauung: From Johann H. Pestalozzi to Herbert Spencer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takaya, Keiichi

    2003-01-01

    One of the major inventions of modern education is the instructional use of "Anschauung," an experience-based learning technique that was influential both as a method of instruction (more effective than mere book-learning and rote memorization) and as a rejection of old social arrangements that inculcated traditional values through deductive and…

  11. Vivat Comenius: A Commemorative Essay on Johann Amos Comenius, 1592-1670.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundem, Bjorg, B.

    1992-01-01

    A conference commemorating the 400th anniversary of Comenius's birth was held in Prague in March 1992. The Czech scholar's basic premise was the panharmony of the universe (among nature, humankind, and the divine world). He integrated the elements of methodological, philosophical, theological, political, and social reform by stressing their…

  12. Johannes Kepler and David Fabricius: Their Discussion on the Nova of 1604

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granada, Miguel A.

    David Fabricius (1564-1617) was one of the most important astronomers in the period between 1596, the year of publication of Kepler's Mysterium cosmographicum, and 1609, the year of publication of the Astronomia nova.1 Kepler praised Fabricius as the most accurate observational astronomer after Tycho Brahe's death in 1601.2 Fabricius was a Reformed pastor in Ostfriesland (East Frisia), his remote natal region, and a vocational astronomer. He published nothing in the field of astronomy except for the short treatises between 1604 and 1606 concerning the nova that appeared in October 1604 in Serpentarius.

  13. Johannes Phocylides Holwarda and the Interpretation of New Stars in the Dutch Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermij, Rienk

    Seen from the perspective of Kepler or Galileo, the new star of 1604 was an important event. It helped them in formulating and defending new views of the cosmos. However, Kepler and Galileo were exceptional individuals. To many other people, the cosmological significance of the nova was not that clear. New stars might be wondrous or even terrifying phenomena, but in themselves they did not raise any questions about the constitution of the universe. The meaning attributed to new stars would depend on people's general world-views, which in its turn would be greatly influenced by the local circumstances. It makes sense, therefore, to study the debate on new stars in a variety of specific contexts.

  14. [Medicine, natural philosophy and magic. Johann Laurentius Bausch from the medical history viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Schott, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    The Bausch reception created a double image: On the one hand he is appreciated as the outstanding founder of the Academy (later called Leopoldina) with its most important impact on the history of science, on the other hand he appears as a rather mediocre doctor and natural scientist, an "uninteresting man", whose scientific ideas soon turned out to be obsolete. This contribution tries to illuminate especially the neglected shady side of Bausch. For this purpose, four of his major writings are analysed: the "Apothecken Tax" and the monographs on the blood stone, the eagle stone and the unicorn. Here, the author intended a synopsis as broad as possible; in his opinion, the collecting of historical documents was as valid as own observations and experiments. Although Bausch again and again alludes to ideas of natural philosophy and magic he does not follow a specific doctrine and particularly keeps out of the controversy between galenism and paracelsianism.

  15. Johannes Hevelius, nova CK Vulpeculae (1670) and the "hibernation" model of cataclysmic variables.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smak, J.

    The author reviews the basic properties of cataclysmic variables and the thermonuclear runaway (TNR) theory of the outbursts of novae, including the "hibernation" model of cataclysmic variables. The TNR theory, while remarkably successful in explaining a number of observational properties of novae, met also with some difficulties related to (1) excessive mass-transfer rates in old novae, and (2) conflicting estimates of their space density. Both are estimated from absolute magnitudes of novae as observed within decades before, or after, their outbursts. Nova CK Vulpeculae (1670), the oldest recorded nova, was observed in 1670 - 1672 by Hevelius, whose observations - together with those by Anthelme and Cassini - were sufficiently numerous and accurate to permit a modern reconstruction of the light curve and its classification as a very slow nova.

  16. Johann Christian August Heinroth (1773–1843): the first professor of psychiatry as a psychotherapist.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Holger; Himmerich, Hubertus

    2012-06-01

    Heinroth is known as the first professor of psychiatry. His chair was established 200 years ago on the 21st of October 1811. His major importance for the history of psychotherapy has not yet been acknowledged. Heinroth regarded restriction as well as activation as fundamental remedies for mental illnesses. Restriction meant making a voluntary decision to live a life based on religious faith and to abstain from earthly satisfaction. Within his specific psychotherapeutical module—the ‘‘direct-psychic’’method—he utilized the patient’s mental powers—mood, mind and will, but also his spirituality. His therapeutic approach additionally contained elements of cognitive,behavioral and conversational therapy.

  17. Analogical Reasoning and Conceptual Change: A Case Study of Johannes Kepler

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    and (d) restructuring . We present these four mechanisms within the context of structure-mapping theory and its computational implementation. the...structure-mapping engine- We exemplify these mechanisms using the extended analogies Kepler used in developing a causal theory of planetary motion. The...detailed analyses of the analogies used by Faraday and Maxwell provide evidence that analogy was useful in the development of electromagnetic field theory

  18. Fabricius, David (1564-1617) and Fabricius, Johannes (1587-1616)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Lutheran pastor and astronomer in Osteel, East Frisia (northwest Germany), discoverer (1596) of the first known variable star, mira stella (`wonderful star'), now simply Mira (Omicron Ceti). Fabricius observed the star at its brightest and thought it was a nova, after which Holwarda noticed that a star in Cetus cataloged by PTOLEMY and TYCHO was missing but then it reappeared. Eventually the long...

  19. Internationalizing the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBiaggio, John A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Articles include: "A Case for Internationalizing the Curriculum" (John A. DiBiaggio); "Internationalizing the Curriculum: Higher Education Institutions in the United States" (Ralph Smuckler and Lawrence Sommers); "Economic Competitiveness and International Education" (Burkart Holzner); and "Foreign Language and…

  20. Highlights from Fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oddone, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    DISCUSSION by CHAIRMAN: P.J. ODDONE, Scientific Secretaries: W. Fisher, A. Holzner Note from Publisher: The Slides of the Lecture: "Highlights from Fermilab" can be found at http://www.ccsem.infn.it/issp2007/

  1. orbis (sphaera), circulus, via, iter, orbita -- on the terminological identification of the essential paradigm change in astronomy by Johannes Kepler. (German Title: orbis (sphaera), circulus, via, iter, orbita} -- zur terminologischen Kennzeichnung des wesentlichsten Paradigmawechsels in der Astronomie durch Johannes Kepler)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafft, Fritz

    2011-08-01

    The use of modern terminology hinders to understand historical astronomical texts and often misleads the reader. Therefore, this study tries to reconstruct the ideas of the way the planets seem to move against the sphere of fixed stars in a non-teleological manner, that means in the original view and with original terms. The study proceeds historically and explains: (1) Aristotle's system of homocentric spheres being hollow spheres of ether turning equally round the earth in the centre of the world, a number of which makes the apparatus of the movement of a planet which produces its apparently unequal motion. (2) Ptolemy's reductionistic system of geometric circles (eccentric deferents, epicycles etc.), which are indeed great circles on non-concentric hollow spheres, whereupon they turn around equally. The space which they take up in all is surrounded by an inner and an outer concentric spherical surface and makes the sphere of the planet. (3) John's of Sacrobosco transferring of the geometric astronomy to the Latin of Middle Ages and the commentators' precision of the Greek-Latin terms. (4) The tradition of the "Theorica planetarum" which makes this geometry physics by allotting every partial moving to a partial material hollow sphere (with spherical surfaces of different centricity) or full sphere of an epicycle (orbes particulares or partialis), a number of which makes the entire sphere of each planet (orbis totalis or totus). - Copernicus also stood within this tradition, except that his entire spheres differ from the earlier ones in size or thickness (because he eliminated the partly very big synodic epicycles and allocated their effect as a mere parallactic one to the yearly moving of the earth) and in the great intervening spaces between each other (a result of measuring the true distances of the planets on the basis of these parallactic effects). (5) Tycho Brahe's refutation of the unchangingness and unpermeableness and therefore solidity of all etherial spheres, what had been the fundamental condition for creating the indirect ways of the planets in all astronomical systems with partial or entire spheres engaging one another. It was particularly Kepler who recognizes that as a result celestial physics requires a complete change. (6) Kepler's replacement of celestial physics. He did not think any more that the apparent (unequal) way of a planet indirectly results from the combination of several equal movements of etherial partial and entire spheres. His planets move their true and real way caused directly by the joint effect of two corporal forces moving the planets both around the sun and to and from it, which latter makes the planet's speed indeed naturally unequal. For this "real way" he coins in late 1604 the specific term "orbita" (the modern "orbit", the German "Bahn". This term then little by little replaced the former non-specific, general description of the apparent or real way (as "via, iter, ambitus, circulus, circuitus" etc.), and Kepler used it increasingly from its introduction (initially frequently joined to a describing definition of this "way") up to the exclusive use in the fifth book of the "Epitome", after this "orbita" had changed its shape from a perfect eccentric circle to an oval and finally an elliptic form. This way Kepler marks the paradigm change of astronomy caused by himself also terminologically.

  2. [Psychiatrist Johann Christian August Heinroth's (1773-1843) practical work at St George's prison, orphanage and madhouse in Leipzig].

    PubMed

    Schmideler, Sebastian; Steinberg, Holger

    2004-01-01

    This paper ventures to give insights into and evaluate HEINROTH's practical work as a doctor at Leipzig's Georgenhaus on the basis of primary sources found at Leipzig and other Saxony archives. The analysis shows that HEINROTH took up this post because of financial needs. Hence there arose a conflict between this job at the city's orphanage and madhouse and HEINROTH's real ambition of becoming a professor of psychiatry at Leipzig University. THis continued for the whole of his time there. HEINROTH undertook an extremely responsible role and worked energetically at St George's from 1814 until 1834; almost the entire medical care of the 600 inmate lay in his hands. HEINROTH cannot be held responsible for the failure to reform the mental health care system, though urgently needed. On the contrary, he made every effort to ease his patients' mental anguish and life at St George's. However, it must be pointed out that HEINROTH entrusted to his assistants a great part of his duties. HEINROTH did not always fulfil his duties at the local prison to the agreed extent. Increased tensions between him and authorities led to mutual recriminations which ultimately resulted in HEINROTH's dismissal at Christmas 1833. No final judgement can be made as to what extent the arguments propounded by both parties were justified.

  3. Preparing Adolescents for the Twenty-First Century. Challenges Facing Europe and the United States. Johann Jacobs Foundation Conference Series, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takanishi, Ruby, Ed.; Hamburg, David A., Ed.

    This book contains 11 papers based on presentations at a 1994 conference held in Marbach, Germany, and a 1995 conference in Geneva, Switzerland, focusing on frontiers in the education of young adolescents in European countries and the United States. The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Klaus J. Jacobs); "Meeting the…

  4. Fathers of orthopaedics in Germany (eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries): Lorenz Heister in Helmsted; Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach in Berlin; Heine and family in Würzburg.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    In orthopaedic medicine in Germany, Lorenz Heister, practicing in the eighteenth century, is considered one of the fathers of German surgery and is renowned for his books on management of hemorrhage, wounds, fractures, bandaging, instrumentation and surgery. After Heister, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, orthopaedic medicine in Germany developed uniformly. In a period when few doctors were interested in a separate discipline of orthopaedics, Germany led in this field. Heine devoted himself to the development of the new profession of orthopaedics, and in 1816, he opened the first orthopaedic institute on German soil in the former monastery of St. Stephen, which later became known as the Karolinen-Institut. Along with Heine and his family, the special development of orthopaedics in Berlin may be attributed to the work of Dieffenbach who, in 1832, became professor at the University of Berlin and in 1840 director of the Clinical Institute for Surgery at Charité Hospital.

  5. [Two editors in dialog. The example of Justus von Liebig (1803-1873) and Johann Bartholomäus Trommsdorff (1770-1837) and their letters].

    PubMed

    Staiger, C; Friedrich, C

    2003-04-01

    Today, scientists willing to publish results face a wide range of requirements (instructions for authors, peer review procedure). During the 18th and 19th century manuscripts were treated in a less formal way. However, the scientific discussion was vital and implemented intensely via various means, especially by letters. This study analyses the dialog of two distinguished contributors to chemical and pharmaceutical sciences, both experienced journal editors, from January 1828 to February 1837.

  6. [Johann Jaroslaw Marcinowski (1868-1935) and his sanatorium "Haus Sielbeck" at lake Uklei. Psychoanalysis in an in-patient setting].

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Heike

    2011-01-01

    Marcinowski came from an aristocratic family. He first joined the army as a lieutenant and later worked as a medical doctor. From 1908 to 1920, Marcinowski was a follower of Freud, additionally influenced by Oskar Vogt. This article describes his restless life in Breslau, Berlin, Sielbeck, Bad Heilbrunn, and Tübingen, with a special focus on his psychoanalytic activities. Freud had high expectations of Marcinowski. In his sanatorium "Haus Sielbeck", Marcinowski treated patients psychoanalytically and published the results in medical journals. This application of psychoanalysis in a sanatorium was virtually unique at that time. Even though Marcinowski could not fulfill Freud's expectations in the long term, he is still one of the pioneers who described phenomena of transference in inpatient settings.--The article is complemented by Freud's letters to Marcinowski, edited by G. Fichtner and M. Schröter. These are mainly concerned with the conflict between Freud and Wilhelm Stekel who was and remained a good friend of Marcinowski.

  7. Johann Gottfried Köhler - inspector at the Mathematical-Physical Salon in Dresden - an active observer of the starry sky in the last quarter of the 18th century (German Title: Johann Gottfried Köhler - Inspektor am Mathematisch-Physikalischen Salon Dresden - aktiver Beobachter des gestirnten Himmels im letzten Viertel des 18. Jahrhunderts )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillinger, Klaus

    In 1777, J. G. Köhler, an academician trained in mathematics and the sciences and with a deep interest in astronomy, was appointed inspector of the Mathematical-Physical Salon. He was lucky to find, in the person of the Saxonian electoral prince and later king, August the Righteous, a ruler who was open-minded to science, and thus he could combine his private interests with those of the sovereign. While the files of the Mathematical-Physical Salon from his time were lost during World War II, his actions can be reconstructed from a few archival sources and notes in the diaries of his successors. The Saxonian residence did not have an astronomical observatory. Köhler used the instruments from the collection of the Mathematical-Physical Salon for numerous celestial observations. He was in close contact with a number of other astronomers like Bode and Zach. They took care of his results, sometimes after editing them. Time determinations based on longitude and latitude determinations, as well as other astronomical observations, led to the development of a time service, which was carried out for about 150 years. Köhler himself constructed the clocks. Because of his responsibilities as an inspector, as well as due to local and material constraints, he was not able to carry out systematic and reproducible measurements over a long time span. His improvement of the circular micrometer and his stop-down photometer are of special interest. He also had considerable talent in drawing, as is shown in his drawings of lunar mountains. A number of instruments used by Köhler are still to be found in the Mathematical-Physical Salon.

  8. On the size of the ptolemaic system of the world - a study based on two figures by Johannes Kepler. (German Title: Über die Gröszlig;e des ptolemäischen Weltsystems - Eine Studie, veranlasst durch zwei Bilder bei Johannes Kepler)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberschelp, Arnold

    It is well known that the geocentric system according to Ptolemy is almost twice as large as the heliocentric planetary system of Copernicus. There are, however, two pictures, given by Kepler in his «Mysterium Cosmographicum» of 1596 which - at first glance - seem to contradict this. The first picture of the heliocentric system is drawn to scale. The second picture shows a geocentric system, which seems to be too small. The puzzle about the size is solved rather trivially by the fact - which is not mentioned by Kepler and which may be overlooked - that the geocentric picture is not drawn to scale and that the angles do not correspond to the degrees noted at them. In order to get a geocentric picture drawn to scale - taking Kepler's degrees for granted - it is necessary to discuss some details of the ptolemaic system. The result is, however, a geocentric system which is too big. The solution of this new puzzle is not obvious. It turns out that one of Keplers degrees (for Mars) does not correspond to the parameters of Ptolemy. Actually, in his book of 1596, Kepler's topic is not the ptolemaic system nor the copernican distances, but his heliocentric model with the five regular polyhedra. While it is interesting to note all these facts, Kepler's pictures and degrees, for the size of the ptolemaic system, lead to a dead end. Using the parameters from the «Almagest» and the principle of nested spheres from the «Planetary Hypotheses» a distance scale (Tab. 10) for the geocentric system is derived. This distance scale, however, is somewhat different from the well known ptolemaic distance scale (Tab. 1). This puzzle is not resolved, but due to the fact that different sources («Almagest» and «Planetary Hypotheses») of Ptolemy are involved. The distances of Tab. 10 correspond better to the ptolemaic system, since the relative thickness of the spheres is computed from the rather precise parameters (eccentricities and epicycle radii) of the «Almagest». The distances of Tab. I, given in the «Planetary Hypotheses», use values for the relative thicknesses of the spheres which are rounded off. Since the pictures of Kepler, when viewed together, are misleading, two new pictures of the copernican and ptolemaic planetary systems are given drawn to the same scale. A final remark is about the radius of the «tychonic system».

  9. Normal and Differential SAR Interferometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    Geudtner, B. Schättler, P. Vachon, U. Steinbrecher, J. Holzner, J. Mittermayer , H. Breit, A. Moreira. RADARSAT ScanSAR interferometry. In: Proc.IGARSS’99...IV, Ottawa, Vol. XXXIV, part 4, pp. 470-475 Krieger, G., Wendler, M., Fiedler, H., Mittermayer , J., Moreira, A., 2002. Performance analysis for...bistatic interferometric SAR configurations. In: Proc.IGARSS 2002, Toronto, Canada, vol. 1, pp. 650-652. Krieger, G., Fiedler, H., Mittermayer , J

  10. Normal and Differential SAR Interferometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    Geudtner, B. Schättler, P. Vachon, U. Steinbrecher, J. Holzner, J. Mittermayer , H. Breit, A. Moreira. RADARSAT ScanSAR interferometry. In: Proceedings of...part 4, pp. 470-475 Krieger, G., Wendler, M., Fiedler, H., Mittermayer , J., Moreira, A., 2002. Performance analysis for bistatic interferometric...SAR configurations. In: Proceedings of IGARSS 2002, Toronto, Canada, vol. 1, pp. 650-652. Krieger, G., Fiedler, H., Mittermayer , J., Papathanassiou, K

  11. A Framework for Retargeting Radio Designs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    criteria and target architectures, and (c) elicit through formal methods properties concerning an application and their implementation. A key...University Press, 2000. [7] S. Holzner, Eclipse, O’Reilly Media, Inc., 2004. [8] D. A. Huffman, "A Method for the Construction of Minimum-Redundancy...qpsk_mod_function[D,R::type](i::input D; o::output R; f::real) * modulator_control(go::input bit; ready::input bit); // An alternate aproach

  12. Cooperation and Integration: Keeping Austria’s Forces Relevant for 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    December, 12, 2012). 59 Johann Frank Johann Pucher, “Strategie Und Sicherheit 2012” (Anton Pelinka: Die Oesterreichische Aussen- und...Sicherheitspolitik), Boehlau Verlag, 2012, 637. 60 Johann Frank Johann Pucher, “Strategie Und Sicherheit 2012” (Thomas Mayer, Sicherheitspolitik nach dem Psst...Proposal, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, Berlinn 2010, http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/id/ipa/07075.pdf, (accessed September 20, 2012), 55. 65 European

  13. Multiparticle Entanglement and Spatial Addressability of Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Immanuel F. Bloch Stefan Kuhr Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz Institute Fuer Physik/Quantum Mainz, Germany 55099 EOARD GRANT 07-3090...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz Institute Fuer Physik/Quantum Mainz, Germany 55099 8...Entanglement and Spatial Addressability of Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices Prof. Dr. Immanuel Bloch Dr. Stefan Kuhr Johannes

  14. Countering the Effects of Violent Transnational Crime: Major Findings of the Technical Seminar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    187 Richard Lowe (SOCA) – The Economics of the Opiate Trade ..................... 213 Friedrich Schneider ( Johannes Kepler ...Francisco Vice President, República de Colombia TBD Schneider, Prof. Dr. Friedrich Johannes Kepler University of Linz Yes Semesky, Mr. Don Drug...statistics. The morning session ended with a presentation by Professor Friedrich Schneider, Johannes Kepler University of Linz, on money laundering. He

  15. European Science Notes Information Bulletin Reports on Current European and Middle Eastern Science.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Sebastian Bach , and Georg Fried- has occurred even faster than I expected. rich Handel will re-emerge from the ashes and will again play a leading role in...place for giants like Martin Luther, Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Johann Friedrich They have, but the transformation and adaptation Schiller, Johann

  16. [Medical publications within private libraries of the European enlightenment. About the medically learned German novelist Johann Gottwerth Müller (1743-1828) and his stock of medical books].

    PubMed

    Ritter, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The German novelist J. G. Müller is one of the popular writers of the late 18th century. The encyclopaedically educated scholar, from his point of view, is obliged to support publicly the welfare of state and society. Although Müller studied medicine he did not practise making his living from his novels which dealt critically with absolutist society. Medical studies and serious illness caused a lifelong interest in medical affairs ranging from the treatment of patients, the organisation of healthcare, the distribution of medicines, charlatanism, to everybody's responsibility for health. For him the syndrome of health/illness/medical science became part of the general status of science and a metaphor for the present and future conditions of class society. This engagement led to the compliation of approximately 280 medical books as part of his library which contained more than 13,000 volumes documented in the catalogue printed for public sale in 1829: "Verzeichnib der von dem Herrn Dr. Ph. Joh. Gottw. Müller in Itzehoe hinterlassenen Bibliothek, [...]/Contents of Joh. Gottw. Müller, Ph.D., library left behind in Itzehoe [...]."The essay comprises an introduction to Müller's collection of medical books and a complete bibliographical documentation. His books cover the medical discourse from the 17th to early 19th century focusing on publications of the 18th century. They offer information on medical bibliographies, catalogues, biographies, history of medical science, reference, specific publications on a large variety of actual topics such as medical science, treatment, politics, appliances, and social as well as hygienic questions. This stock of publications reveals itself as an additional source for an understanding of book-collecting in the 18th century, the history of privately organised medical libraries, and the discourse of medical science and treatment at a time of transition from a humoral-pathological to a firmer understanding of pathological concepts around 1800.

  17. Singular Hopf bifurcation to unstable periodic solutions in a NMR laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braza, Peter A.; Erneux, Thomas

    1989-09-01

    We apply recent developments in the study of singular Hopf bifurcations to describe the complete bifurcation diagram of a simple NMR laser with an injected signal. The branch of periodic solutions appears at a Hopf bifurcation point and may or may not disappear at a homoclinic point. The bifurcation is always subcritical, which suggests that the periodic solutions are all unstable. Our asymptotic analysis is based on the relative values of the fixed parameters in the problem. Our results complement earlier investigations by Holzner et al. [Phys. Rev. A 36, 1280 (1987)] and by Baugher, Hammack, and Lin [Phys. Rev. A 39, 1549 (1989)] on the subcritical Hopf bifurcation in a NMR laser.

  18. Sword or Ploughshare? New Roles for NATO and the Changing Nature of Transatlantic Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    International Organization, Vol. 54, No. 4, Autumn 2000, pp. 705-735. 10 Gustav E. Gustenau and Johann Frank, “Divergenz oder Komplementarität...by Gustav E. Gustenau and Johann Frank in “Divergenz oder Komplementarität?” [Divergent or Complementary?], p. 5. It should be borne in mind however...Anspruch und Wirklichkeit [European Security and Defense Policy between Demands and Reality], p. 68. 29 Gustav E. Gustenau and Johann Frank, “Divergenz

  19. Application of Symmetry Analysis to a PDE Arising in the Car Windscreen Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-03

    NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Johannes Kepler ...equations With application to the manufacture of car Windscreen s, Ph.D. Thesis, Institute for Industrial Mathematics, Johannes Kepler University, Linz...Kügler Institute for Industrial Mathematics, Johannes Kepler Univer- sity, Austria Prof Peter Olver School of Mathematics, Institute of Technology, University of Minnesota, USA

  20. L1C Signal Design Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Award, GPS JPO, The Johannes Kepler Award, ION, 2004. BEE, Syracuse University, 1949; MEE, Syracuse University, 1951; PhD in Electrical...was a recipient of the 1998 ION Early Achievement Award and the 2005 Johannes Kepler Award. He currently serves the ION as Editor of NAVIGATION...Kershner (PLANS-2000), GPS JPO Navstar Award (2002), and Johannes Kepler (2003). He was technical chair (’84, ’86, and ’88) and general chair (’94

  1. JPRS Report West Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    with the public that it has started to worry the Conservatives. "But we have not peaked yet," says Johannes Sorensen, national chairman of the...second place in Danish politics. "We have acquired a friendlier image," explains national chairman Johannes Sorensen. But so far the support of...soccer teams—many people want to participate when things are going well." The national chairman of the Progress Party, Johannes Sorensen, has

  2. Solvable continuous-time random walk model of the motion of tracer particles through porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouxon, Itzhak; Holzner, Markus

    2016-08-01

    We consider the continuous-time random walk (CTRW) model of tracer motion in porous medium flows based on the experimentally determined distributions of pore velocity and pore size reported by Holzner et al. [M. Holzner et al., Phys. Rev. E 92, 013015 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.013015]. The particle's passing through one channel is modeled as one step of the walk. The step (channel) length is random and the walker's velocity at consecutive steps of the walk is conserved with finite probability, mimicking that at the turning point there could be no abrupt change of velocity. We provide the Laplace transform of the characteristic function of the walker's position and reductions for different cases of independence of the CTRW's step duration τ , length l , and velocity v . We solve our model with independent l and v . The model incorporates different forms of the tail of the probability density of small velocities that vary with the model parameter α . Depending on that parameter, all types of anomalous diffusion can hold, from super- to subdiffusion. In a finite interval of α , ballistic behavior with logarithmic corrections holds, which was observed in a previously introduced CTRW model with independent l and τ . Universality of tracer diffusion in the porous medium is considered.

  3. Solvable continuous-time random walk model of the motion of tracer particles through porous media.

    PubMed

    Fouxon, Itzhak; Holzner, Markus

    2016-08-01

    We consider the continuous-time random walk (CTRW) model of tracer motion in porous medium flows based on the experimentally determined distributions of pore velocity and pore size reported by Holzner et al. [M. Holzner et al., Phys. Rev. E 92, 013015 (2015)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.92.013015]. The particle's passing through one channel is modeled as one step of the walk. The step (channel) length is random and the walker's velocity at consecutive steps of the walk is conserved with finite probability, mimicking that at the turning point there could be no abrupt change of velocity. We provide the Laplace transform of the characteristic function of the walker's position and reductions for different cases of independence of the CTRW's step duration τ, length l, and velocity v. We solve our model with independent l and v. The model incorporates different forms of the tail of the probability density of small velocities that vary with the model parameter α. Depending on that parameter, all types of anomalous diffusion can hold, from super- to subdiffusion. In a finite interval of α, ballistic behavior with logarithmic corrections holds, which was observed in a previously introduced CTRW model with independent l and τ. Universality of tracer diffusion in the porous medium is considered.

  4. Calusewitz and German Idealism: The Influence of G. W. F. Hegel on ’On War’

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-03

    influenced by the educational views and theories of men such as Johann Fichte (1762-1814) and the Swiss educationalist Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1756...1827). Pestalozzi had made positive and concrete the negative and general educational principles enunciated by Rousseau. His definition of education as

  5. An Integrated Suite of Text and Data Mining Tools - Phase II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Japan 2 1 1 1 5 University of Zaragoza, Spain 3 2 5 Monash University 1 2 2 5 Iwate Prefectural University 2 1 2 5 Johannes Kepler University Linz...University of Zaragoza, Spain 2 5 Monash University 3 5 Iwate Prefectural University 2 2 2 5 Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria 2 4 Fukuoka Institute

  6. A Planar IC-Compatible Transferred Electron Device for Millimeter-Wave Operation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-31

    RD-RI92 702 R PLRNAR IC-COMPRTIBLE TRANSFERRED ELECTRONI DEVICE FOR III MILLIMETER-UMV OPERRTION(U) JOHANNES KEPLER UNIV LINZ (AUSTRIA...lower in a shorter gate region. Personnel Dr. Kurt Lubke, Helmut Scheiber, Thomas Neugebauer, Christoph Schonherr, Gabriele Roitmayr and Johann

  7. The Long and the Short of It: Telescopes of the Seventeenth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudd, M. Eugene

    An historical review of telescope makers and users, and the state of telescopes in the 1600s. Mentioned are: Jean Dominique Cassini, Hans Lippershey, Galileo, Johannes Kepler, Scheiner, Francesco Fontana, Evangelista Torricelli, Eustachio Divini, William Gascoigne, Adrien Auzout, Jean Picard, Christian Huygens, Johannes Hevelius, Edmund Halley, and Isaac Newton.

  8. Dynamic Weighted Data Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    van "j Beethoven, Igor Stravinsky, Glan-Carlo Menotti, and Johann Sebastian Bach . Dynamic Weighted Data Structures Samuel W. Bent This thesis discusses...and Bonnie Hampton, who taught me much more than how to play the cello. Finally, for hours of artistic satisfaction, I thank Johannes Brahms, Ludwig

  9. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Granada, Miguel A; Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    We report on a newly discovered letter by Christoph Rothmann, dated July 1st 1584, and addressed to Johann Ernst of Anhalt. The letter supports the earlier assumption that Johann Ernst recommended Rothmann to Landgrave Wilhelm of Hesse, as Rothmann asks for Johann Ernst's help on the matter in this new source. More importantly Rothmann refers to his attempts to make Copernicus' calculations compatible with the Ptolomean model, which demonstrates that already at this stage of his career he was working on such a compromise, and not only after being influenced by Raimarus Ursus or Tycho Brahe, as has been argued by some authors.

  10. ATV2 Interview with Michael Suffredini

    NASA Video Gallery

    International Space Station Manager Michael Suffredini answers questions about the European Space Agency’s second Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV2), Johannes Kepler, set to launch from a launch p...

  11. Zur Vorgeschichte der Padagogischen Konzepte Pestalozzis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterwalder, Fritz

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the major concepts of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi's work, emphasizing the ways that other contemporary theorists influenced his work. Examines the application of his comprehensive philosophical systems to questions of pedagogy. (RW)

  12. The Bronsted-Lowery Acid-Base Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, George B.

    1988-01-01

    Gives the background history of the simultaneous discovery of acid-base relationships by Johannes Bronsted and Thomas Lowry. Provides a brief biographical sketch of each. Discusses their concept of acids and bases in some detail. (CW)

  13. Black Scholars in Europe during the Renaissance and the Enlightenment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fikes, Robert, Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the accomplishments of Juan Latino (1516-1599), Jacobus Eliza Johannes Capitein (1717-1747), and Anton Wilhelm Amo (1703-1753), Blacks who were educated in Europe and became important intellectual and literary figures. (GC)

  14. Too Little too Soon: The Literature of Deaf Education in 17th-Century Britain (Part II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoolihan, Christopher

    1985-01-01

    The article describes the growth in literature on deaf education in 17th century Britain. Noted is the work of John Wallis, William Holder, George Dalgarno, Anton Deusing, and Johann Conrad Amman. (CL)

  15. The Fruits of Kepler's Struggle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belonuchkin, B. E.

    1992-01-01

    Presents six learning activities dealing with planetary motion, the launching of satellites, and Halley's comet, all of which utilize the three laws of Johannes Kepler. These three laws are discussed in detail, and answers to the activities are provided. (KR)

  16. Microfilming of the Bach Manuscripts in the Staatsbibliothek Berlin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penzold, Leonhard

    1998-01-01

    Describes a microfilming project to preserve music manuscripts of Johann Sebastian Bach at the Staatsbibliothek Berlin (Germany), highlighting project goals, problems and peculiarities encountered filming the collection, color micrography, and black-and-white filming. (PEN)

  17. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenhall, Clive

    2011-09-01

    Townsend Observatory destroyed; BAA Lunar Section archives; Astro-Cymru; Royal star identified; Formation of Johannes Kepler Working Group; Tycho Brahe exhumed; Ancient observatory discovered in Iran...; ... and in Mexico; Calling all ex-occupants of interplanetary craft.

  18. Problemes et methodes de la lexicographie quebecoise (Problems and Methods of Quebec Lexicography).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Monique C., Ed.; Francoeur, Aline, Ed.

    Papers on lexicographic research in Quebec (Canada) include: "Indications semantiques dans les dictionnaires bilingues" ("Semantic Indications in Bilingual Dictionaries) (Johanne Blais, Roda P. Roberts); "Definitions predictionnairiques de 'maison, batiment, et pavillon'" ("Pre-dictionary definitions of 'house,…

  19. Special Forces Command and Control in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Johann Price, in a web site article, provides a detailed account of the chain of command from the beginning of Operation Enduring Freedom to 1 June 2002...soldiers who were nothing but successful. The song, The Green Beret by SGT Barry Sadler, was a hit on the top music charts. The first Medal of Honor...DC: National Defense University Press. Price, Johann , ed. 2002. Operation Enduring Freedom Chain of Command. Center of Defense information, 26 June

  20. Stateful Publish-Subscribe for XML Data Streams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-11

    White: Cayuga: a high-performance event processing engine . SIGMOD Conference 2007: 1100-1102 • Walker M. White, Mirek Riedewald, Johannes Gehrke...2009) • Alin Dobra , Minos N. Garofalakis, Johannes Gehrke, Rajeev Rastogi: Multi-query optimization for sketch-based estimation. Inf. Syst. 34(2...parallelization of the system. • Mohit Tatte was a Master of Engineering student in the Department of Computer Science; he worked on the Cayuga System. • Dr

  1. Optimal Trajectory Generation for Multiple Asteroid Rendezvous

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    distinguishable ways. For this research, the lack of perturbations to the orbits permits the simple use of the equations generated by Johannes Kepler and Isaac...on careful observations. Kepler used the data collected throughout Tycho Brahe’s life to come up with his three laws; 1) the orbits of the planets...these problems, Isaac Newton invented calculus of variations.7 Johannes Bernoulli was also instrumental in the initial surge for optimization as he

  2. The first use of Kepler's Rudolphine Tables for the production of a writing calendar. (German Title: Die erstmalige Benutzung von Keplers Rudolphinischen Tafeln für die Herstellung eines Schreibkalenders)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Klaus-Dieter

    The Rudolphine Tables count among Johannes Kepler's eminent astronomical works. During the 17th century, astronomers and calendar-makers, who carried out their own calculations, rated them more and more as the most trustworthy astronomical base. We show in this contribution that this new set of tables relatively quickly found entrance into the astronomical praxis of calculation among several calendar makers. A correspondent and friend of Kepler, the writing-calendar maker Johannes Remus Quietanus, became the target of our considerations.

  3. A New Guidance Method for a Delta V and Re-entry Constrained Orbit Transfer Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    velocity, and time for these paths was first determined by Johannes Kepler in the year 1619. Rendezvous is a similar class of problem. Instead of a...orbit defined by these values would satisfy the boundary conditions if two-body ( Kepler ) propagation of the state (r1,v1) for ∆t results in a final 34...It was first characterized by Johannes Lambert in 1761. Lambert discovered a relationship between the geometry of the orbit transfer and the transfer

  4. Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. 9; (German Title: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Duerbeck, H. W.; Hamel, Jürgen

    The contributions deal with astronomical events of the past 1000 years. We elucidate the person of the single European observer of the supernova of 1006, and the views of Christoph Scheiner and Otto von Guericke on the structure and substance of the cosmos. A study of the development of the Copernican and the cosmological principles conclude this group of themes. Biographical investigations were carried out on the clockmaker Nikolaus Lilienfeld, the astronomers Johann Wurzelbau, Friedrich Wilhelm Toennies and Boris Karpov as well as the “panbabylonist” Alfred Jeremias. Astronomers can be active also in poetry and fiction. This is shown in the studies of Johann Leonard Rost and Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel. Finally, Johannes Hevelius' Observatory in Danzig/Gdansk, destroyed by a fire in 1679, is reconstructed by means of printed sources, old maps and photographs. The book concludes by short communications, obituaries and book reviews.

  5. [The formation of medical knowledges in Russia before 1800: contributions of German speaking physicians].

    PubMed

    Henning, Aloys

    2004-01-01

    Under the Moscovian grand duke VASILIJ III (1505-1533) the physician NICOLAUS BüLOW from Lübeck translated into Russian "Gaerde der Suntheit" (The garden of health), printed at Lübeck in 1492. Many German oral and literal medical transfers to Russia are documented since, amongst those from whole Europe, which SABINE DUMSCHAT has actually investigates (1998; 2003). At the end of the 16th century the German translation fo JOHANN REMMELINS (1583-1632) "catoptron microcosmicum" (1661) was translated into Russian for teaching the first Russian military surgeons (fel'dshery). JOSIAS WEITBRECHT (1702-1747) from Württemberg, member of the Imperial Academy of Science at St Petersburg since 1725, created a catalog of the anatomical preparations in the Petersburg Chamber of Arts, which Peter I let buy from FREDERIK RUYSCH in 1717 at Amersterdamn. WEITBRECHT lectured on anatomy and physiology at the Academy since 1730, what DANIEL BERNOULLI (1700-1782) had done there before. JOHANN BLATHASAR HANHART (1704-1739) from Winterthur, surgeon since 1733 at the new Petersburg Admiralty's hospital was ordered to create the Latin terminology for the first anatomical atlas, ever printed in Russia (1744). When HANHART had died, the surgeon from Petersburg Army's hospital CHRISTOPH JAKOB VON MELLEN (1705-1765) from Lübeck finished his work. In 1757 and 1761 the chief-surgeon at the Admiralty's hospital MARTIN SHEIN (1712-1762) published the first textbooks on anatomy and surgery in Russian, having translated JOHANN ZACHARIAS PLATNERS 'Institutiones chirurgicae", Lipsiae 1745. In 1764 the accoucheur-surgeon JOHANN PAGENKAMPF, Personal surgeon of EKATERINA II, translated and published a German textbook from JOHANN HORN for accoucheuses into Russian for teaching at the Moscow school for accoucheuses under JOHANN FRIEDRICH ERASMUS from Strasburg, founded in 1757.

  6. Die Keplersche Supernova - Entdeckung vor 400 Jahren [Kepler's supernova: its discovery 400 years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, Thomas; Maitzen, Hans Michael

    2004-10-01

    We summarize the early observations of SN 1604 made by Johannes Brunowsky and Johannes Kepler in Prague in October 1604. Quoting from Kepler's two books on this subject ("Gründlicher Bericht" and "De stella nova"), we point out that he compared the supernova with respect to its twinkling with an "exquisite multifaceted diamond" and that he thought this object to be rather something like a newly born (proto-)star than a star in its final phase of evolution, as we would call it today. The twinkling of the star was interpreted by Kepler as intrinsic to it rather than an effect of the Earth's atmosphere.

  7. [The private institute of Franz Wilhelm Schweigger-Seidel (1795-1838) in Halle].

    PubMed

    Friedrich, C; Bettin, H; Schulz, A K

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the development of the chemical-pharmacist institute of Franz Wilhelm Schweigger-Seidel (1795-1838) in Halle. The institute was founded in 1829. Six letters by Johann Salomo Christoph Schweigger (1779-1857) and Franz Wilhelm Schweigger-Seidel to Johann Bartholomäus Trommsdorff (1770-1837) present new detailed information on the institute of Schweigger-Seidel and on his biography, especially on his descent and on his work as a pharmacist. Besides it was possible to show the family links between him and J. S. Chr. Schweigger resulting from adoptation in a correct way for the first time.

  8. COMMITTEES: SQM2006 Organising and International Advisory Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Organising Committee Kenneth Barish Huan Zhong Huang Joseph Kapusta Grazyna Odyniec Johann Rafelski Charles A Whitten Jr International Advisory Committee Jörg Aichelin Federico Antinori Tamas Biró Jean Cleymans Lazlo Csernai Tim Hallman Ulrich Heinz Sonja Kabana Rob Lacey Yu-Gang Ma Jes Madsen Yasuo Miake Berndt Mueller Grazyna Odyniec Helmut Oeschler Apostolos Panagiotou Johann Rafelski Hans Ritter Karel Safarik Jack Sandweiss Jürgen Schaffner-Bielich Wen-Qing Shen Georges Stephans Horst Stöcker Thomas Ullrich Bill Zajc

  9. Chebyshev matrix product state approach for time evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halimeh, Jad C.; Kolley, Fabian; McCulloch, Ian P.

    2015-09-01

    We present and test a new algorithm for time-evolving quantum many-body systems initially proposed by Holzner et al. [Phys. Rev. B 83, 195115 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevB.83.195115]. The approach is based on merging the matrix product state (MPS) formalism with the method of expanding the time-evolution operator in Chebyshev polynomials. We calculate time-dependent observables of a system of hardcore bosons quenched under the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian on a one-dimensional lattice. We compare the new algorithm to more standard methods using the MPS architecture. We find that the Chebyshev method gives numerically exact results for small times. However, the reachable times are smaller than the ones obtained with the other state-of-the-art methods. We further extend the new method using a spectral-decomposition-based projective scheme that utilizes an effective bandwidth significantly smaller than the full bandwidth, leading to longer evolution times than the nonprojective method and more efficient information storage, data compression, and less computational effort.

  10. Physics For Dummies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzner, Steve; Ph., D.

    2005-11-01

    The fun and easy way to understand the basic principles of physics How does gravity work? What does e=mc2 really mean? And what's a charm quark? Physics For Dummies answers these questions and more, explaining the basics of physical science and its importance in our everyday lives in a simple, clear, and entertaining fashion. Whether readers are taking a class, helping kids with homework, or are simply interested in how the world works, this plain-English guide gives them the knowledge they need to understand basic physics. Through real-world examples and problems, it covers such key topics as motion, energy, and waves (sound, light, wave-particle); solids, liquids, and gases; thermodynamics; electromagnetism; relativity; atomic and nuclear structures; and the Big Bang and stars. Steven Holzner, PhD (Ithaca, NY), is the author of more than 40 books and a former contributing editor at PC Magazine. He has been on the faculty of MIT and taught Physics 101 and 102 at Cornell for over ten years.

  11. Public-database enabled analysis of Lagrangian dynamics of isotropic turbulence near the Vieillefosse tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huidan; Meneveau, Charles

    2010-11-01

    We study the Lagrangian time evolution of velocity gradient dynamics near the Vieillefosse tail. The data are obtained from fluid particle tracking through the 1024^4 space-time DNS of forced isotropic turbulence at Reλ=433, using a web-based public database (http://turbulence.pha.jhu.edu). Examination of individual time-series of velocity gradient invariants R and Q show that they are punctuated by strong peaks of negative Q and positive R. Most of these occur very close to the Viellefosse tail along Q = - (3/2^2/3) R^2/3. It is found there that the magnitude of pressure Hessian has positive Lagrangian time-derivative, meaning that it increases in order to resist the rapid growth. We also observe a "phase delay" of the pressure Hessian signals compared to those of R and Q, indicative of an "overshoot" of the controlling mechanism. We also examine the trajectories in the recently proposed 3-D extension of the R-Q plane (see Lüthi B, Holzner M, Tsinober A. 2009, J. Fluid Mech. 641, 497-507). Finally, Lagrangian models of the velocity gradient tensor are examined in the same light to identify similarities and differences with the observed dynamics. Such comparisons supply informative guidance to model improvements.

  12. Kafka: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Ronald, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Ronald Gray, Edwin Muir, Friedrich Beissner, R. O. C. Winkler, Johannes Pfeiffer, Caroline Gordon, Idris Parry, Edmund Wilson, Erich Heller, Austin Warren, Eliseo Vivas, Albert Camus, Martin Buber, and H. S. Reiss--all…

  13. Euler and His Contribution Number Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Len, Amy; Scott, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Born in 1707, Leonhard Euler was the son of a Protestant minister from the vicinity of Basel, Switzerland. With the aim of pursuing a career in theology, Euler entered the University of Basel at the age of thirteen, where he was tutored in mathematics by Johann Bernoulli (of the famous Bernoulli family of mathematicians). He developed an interest…

  14. Development of a Robust Optical Image Registration Algorithm for Negating Speckle Noise Effects in Coherent Images Generated by a Laser Imaging System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    future students of AFIT with this to ponder: ! The great German scientist and mathematician, Johann Kepler , discov- erer of the three laws for...5 II. Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.1 Laser Image Registration Historical Research... telescope which feeds a CCD detector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.3. Image Signal Processing Architecture. A notional example of signal

  15. Jan Komensky--The Teacher of Nations. Occasional Papers, 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Eric

    The speech, given to commemorate the tercentenary of the visit of Jan Komensky (Johann Amos Comenius--the latinised form of his name) to England, outlines the educational reforms suggested by him and chronicles his life. Komeny, born in 1652 in southeast Moravia, was personally affected throughout his life by war and disease and traveled about…

  16. Franklin's Philadelphia Academy and Basedow's Dessau Philanthropine: Two Models of Non-Denominational Schooling in Eighteenth-Century America and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overhoff, Jurgen

    2007-01-01

    The Academy of Philadelphia (today known as the University of Pennsylvania), founded through Benjamin Franklin's influence in 1751, and the Dessau Philanthropine, founded by Johann Bernhard Basedow in 1774, were arguably the first non-denominational schools in the eighteenth century. Yet, the congenial educational ideas of their founders have…

  17. A HISTORY OF THE CARE AND STUDY OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KANNER, LEO

    THE HISTORY AND CARE OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED IS TRACED FROM ANTIQUITY TO THE PRESENT. A REVIEW OF MEN WHO ORIGINATED EDUCATIONAL AND INSTITUTIONAL WORK WITH THE FEEBLEMINDED INCLUDES JACOB PEREIRE, JEAN ITARD, JOHANN GUGGENBUEHL, EDOUARD SEGUIN, AND SAMUEL HOWE. PUBLICATIONS BY AND ABOUT THESE MEN ARE LISTED. THE DEVELOPMENT OF INSTITUTIONS IS…

  18. Sources of Kant's Cosmopolitanism: Basedow, Rousseau, and Cosmopolitan Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallar, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this essay is to analyse the influence of Johann Bernhard Basedow and Rousseau on Kant's cosmopolitanism and concept of cosmopolitan education. It argues that both Basedow and Kant defined cosmopolitan education as non-denominational moral formation or "Bildung", encompassing--in different forms--a thin version of moral…

  19. Looking to Mars for Mathematics Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

    2010-01-01

    Each year a high school math club selects an applications topic for a year-long study. This year the club members chose the study of Mars in its orbit from the perspective of Johannes Kepler's laws of orbital motion, which they applied to data available on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Horizons Web site. Although not apparent at the time, the math…

  20. Measures of Residual Risk with Connections to Regression, Risk Tracking, Surrogate Models, and Ambiguity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-07

    Measures of Residual Risk with Connections to Regression, Risk Tracking, Surrogate Models, and Ambiguity1 R. Tyrrell Rockafellar Johannes O. Royset...insights and a new class of distributionally robust optimization models. Keywords: risk measures, residual risk, generalized regression, surrogate ...Measures of Residual Risk with Connections to Regression, Risk Tracking, Surrogate Models, and Ambiguity 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  1. Schooling as a Means of Popular Education: Pestalozzi's Method as a Popular Education Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horlacher, Rebekka

    2011-01-01

    Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi promised his Method as a means of education for all that was easily manageable by mothers at home for early childhood, leading eventually to a wholesome person characterised by morality. In order to develop this Method, Pestalozzi published "Wie Gertrud ihre Kinder lehrt" (How Gertrud Teaches her Children) in…

  2. Pestalozzi's Influence on Manual Training in Nineteenth-Century Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culver, Steven M.

    1986-01-01

    Recounts the life and work of the Swiss educator, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, who believed all students, regardless of social class, should have some vocational training. His ideas were the basis for the 1880s training schools in the United States. (Author/CH)

  3. The Origins of Progressive Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, William J.

    2001-01-01

    Explains that in the United States, child-centered progressivism was part of a larger humanitarian movement led by the northern middle classes in the antebellum and postbellum periods. States that games, stories, play time and informal learning experiences became part of a broader educational discourse due to the writings of Johann Pestalozzi and…

  4. Mastery Learning in Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perko, F. Michael

    Seen in its strictest sense, mastery learning is a recent phenomenon. Viewed in terms of its constituent elements, however, it has roots deep in the Western tradition of education. Elements of mastery learning theory can be found in the work of the Sophists; early Jesuit educators; John Amos Comenius, a Moravian pastor; John Locke; Johann Heinrich…

  5. Outdoor Education--The Past Is Prologue to the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    Although educators and philosophers such as Johann Amos Comenius, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Pestalozzi, and Froebel stressed the study of nature, outdoor education really began with the first teaching-learning act which occurred outdoors. The human being, physiologically and psychologically adapted for outdoor existence, has only been indoors for…

  6. Pestalozzi and James Pierrepont Greaves: A Shared Educational Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Jackie E. M.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on Johann H. Pestalozzi, James Pierrepont Greaves, and Reverend Charles Mayo. States that Greaves and Mayo disseminated Pestalozzi's ideas and techniques in England. Explains that Pestalozzi and Greaves trained elementary teachers to view students' talents and personal growth as a whole person concept. Argues less effort would limit…

  7. Pestalozzi: Foster Father of Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewes, Dorothy W.

    In tracing the spread of the educational philosophy of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, it is useful to understand educators' emphasis on an internal or external locus of control. Pestalozzi was an individual with an internal locus of control, and this trait was reflected in his educational philosophy of self-learning and free investigation. However,…

  8. Overview of Stueckelberg's Life as a Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanders, Gérard

    Ernst Carl Gerlach Stueckelberg was born in Basel on February 1, 1905. His full name was: Johann Melchior Ernst Karl Gerlach Stueckelberg, Freiherr von Breidenbach zu Breidenstein und Melsbach. He inherited his German title from his mother's family. His father was a lawyer and his paternal grandfather was a well-known swiss painter.

  9. Bilingualism as a Kind of Therapy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulk, Aafke; Unsworth, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    In her very interesting Keynote Article, Johanne Paradis gives a clear overview of recent research at the interface of bilingual development and child language disorders, and highlights its theoretical and clinical implications. She raises the challenging question of "whether bilingualism can be viewed as a kind of "therapy" for SLI." At first…

  10. Education, Fair Competition, and Concern for the Worst Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesinger, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, Johannes Giesinger comments on the current philosophical debate on educational justice. He observes that while authors like Elizabeth Anderson and Debra Satz develop a so-called adequacy view of educational justice, Harry Brighouse and Adam Swift defend an egalitarian principle. Giesinger focuses his analysis on the main objection…

  11. Predicting the Atomic Weights of the Trans-Lawrencium Elements: A Novel Application of Dobereiner's Triads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Sami A.

    2005-01-01

    Johann Wolfgang Dobereiner, in 1829, made the first significant attempt to reveal a relation between the properties of the chemical elements and their atomic weights. His groupings remain useful for providing reasonable estimates for the properties and the atomic weights of the trans-lawrencium elements.

  12. Engineering Decisions Under Risk-Averseness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-19

    Systems, Part A: Civil Engineering , to appear. 14. ABSTRACT Engineering decisions are invariably made under substantial uncertainty about current and...optimization analysis. ASCE Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering , 27(1):8798, 2013. R. Minguez, E. Castillo, and J.L. Lara. Iterative scenario... ENGINEERING DECISIONS UNDER RISK-AVERSENESS∗ R. Tyrrell Rockafellar Johannes O. Royset Department of Mathematics Operations Research Department

  13. Adams, John Couch (1819-92)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in Laneast, Cornwall, England, he became fellow and mathematical tutor at Cambridge. He developed a procedure for numerical integration of differential equations and, inspired by MARY SOMERVILLE, he deduced mathematically the existence and location of the planet Neptune from its perturbations on the planet Uranus. Neptune was discovered by JOHANN GALLE in Berlin, in September 1846, using URB...

  14. We Can No Longer Afford a Monolingual Norm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurer-Pearson, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In her Keynote Article, Johanne Paradis does a service for the research and the clinical communities with this comprehensive review of the literature encompassing bilingualism and specific language impairment (SLI). Her work and the work of her colleagues for more than a decade have been persistent in bringing these two threads together: using…

  15. Adaptive, Hands-Off Stream Mining

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    using histogram summaries to approximate aggre- gates. Dobra et. al. [DGGR02] present a method for approximate answers to aggregate multi-join queries... Dobra , Minos N. Garofalakis, Johannes Gehrke, and Rajeev Rastogi. Processing complex aggregate queries over data streams. In Proc. SIGMOD, 2002. [DGI

  16. Political and Cultural Nationalism in Education. The Ideas of Rousseau and Herder Concerning National Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiborg, Susanne

    2000-01-01

    Jean Jacques Rousseau in France and Johann Gottfied Herder in Germany both emphasized the role of education in building the nation-state. However, Rousseau focused on shaping the national character through citizenship education and political socialization in public schools, while Herder saw a national identity evolving from a common culture and…

  17. Expansion or Marginalization: How Effects-Based Organization Could Determine the Future of Air Force Space Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    be protected and controlled) levels of war. . . . The second doctrinal * Johannes Kepler (57–630) was the first to describe mathematically the...FUTURE OF AIR FORCE SPACE COMMAND. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Domain versus Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kepler Only...command could be with the appropriate effects-based focus, mediocre is an appropriate description. Kepler Only One concrete example of the command’s

  18. Breaking barriers.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    Johanne Tomlinson detected connections between high anxiety levels, confrontational behaviour and self-harm in offenders in her care at a men's prison. Her observations led to the launch of an anxiety management service, which she now runs alongside her regular nursing work. Her commitment has resulted in her being named Nursing Standard's nurse of the year 2012.

  19. System Accreditation: An Innovative Approach to Assure and Develop the Quality of Study Programmes in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Management and Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "System accreditation" is a new approach developed for German universities to conduct the mandatory accreditation of all their study programmes. A pilot project at Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz is playing an important role in paving the way for this alternative to prevailing programme accreditation. This article describes how…

  20. Faulhaber's Triangle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi-Dashti, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Like Pascal's triangle, Faulhaber's triangle is easy to draw: all you need is a little recursion. The rows are the coefficients of polynomials representing sums of integer powers. Such polynomials are often called Faulhaber formulae, after Johann Faulhaber (1580-1635); hence we dub the triangle Faulhaber's triangle.

  1. Multivariate Epi-splines and Evolving Function Identification Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-15

    MULTIVARIATE EPI- SPLINES AND EVOLVING FUNCTION IDENTIFICATION PROBLEMS∗ Johannes O. Royset Roger J-B Wets Operations Research Department Department...fitting, and estimation. The paper develops piecewise polynomial functions, called epi- splines , that approximate any lsc function to an arbitrary...level of accuracy. Epi- splines provide the foundation for the solution of a rich class of function identification problems that incorporate general

  2. Wave Processes in Arctic Seas, Observed from TerraSAR-X

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Johannes Gemmrich University of Victoria Physics & Astronomy PO Box 1700 Victoria, BC V8W 2Y2, Canada phone: (250)472-5573 fax: (250)721...University of Victoria,Physics & Astronomy ,PO Box 1700,Victoria, BC V8W 2Y2, Canada, 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING

  3. Conceptual Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ram, Ashwin, Ed.; Nersessian, Nancy J., Ed.; Keil, Frank C., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This special issue includes four articles that address issues concerning conceptual change. Topics include analogical reasoning and a case study of Johannes Kepler; conceptual change and wine expertise; the role of extreme case reasoning in instruction for conceptual change; and dynamic science assessment: a new approach for investigating…

  4. The Transition from Latin to German in the Natural Sciences--And Its Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porksen, Uwe

    Little is known about the transition from the use of Latin to the use of German in scientific literature. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Latin texts by Albrecht Durer and Johannes Kepler were bestsellers while the German versions were unpopular. German mathematics became acceptable only after 1700, with the work of Christian Wolff.…

  5. 77 FR 25780 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Gold, Jasper, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Gold, Jasper, and Carnelian: Johann... April 15, 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Gold,...

  6. Education Matters, July 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckner, Gary, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Education Matters" is the monthly newsletter of the Association of American Educators (AAE), an organization dedicated to advancing the American teaching profession through personal growth, professional development, teacher advocacy and protection. This issue of the newsletter includes: (1) How to Avoid Burnout (Kate Johanns); and (2)…

  7. Political "Bildung" in the Context of Discipline, Instruction, and Moral Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841) is considered the founding father of the science of education. In this article, I will try to show that Herbart sees the promotion of political "Bildung" as the task of discipline, instruction, and moral guidance, and that his work presents important components of a theory of political…

  8. Revitalising "Bildsamkeit"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeverot, Herner

    2016-01-01

    In the book "Forgotten Connections. On Culture and Upbringing," originally from 1983, the late German educator Klaus Mollenhauer interprets Johann Friedrich Herbart's educational concept of "Bildsamkeit", i.e., the ability and willingness to be educated. Furthermore, Mollenhauer conceives "Bildsamkeit" as growing out…

  9. Optimizing Coverage and Revisit Time in Sparse Military Satellite Constellations: A Comparison of Traditional Approaches and Genetic Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    2 3. Kepler ....................................................................................... 2 4. Newton...26 Figure 5. SAR Effective Antenna Length [From 12]........................................... 28 Figure 6. SAR/GMTI Composite [From 14...work. 3. Kepler Johann Kepler (1571-1630) determined how to relate mean and true anomalies in the orbit to time in order to predict future

  10. Sextans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Sextant; abbrev. Sex, gen. Sextantis; area 314 sq. deg.) An equatorial constellation which lies between Leo and Hydra, and culminates at midnight in late February. It was introduced as Sextans Uraniae (Urania's Sextant) to commemorate the astronomical sextant (which is larger than the later marine sextant) by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87) of Danzig (Gdansk), who included it in h...

  11. Goethe's "Delicate Empiricism": Assessing Its Value for Australian Ecologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, recognised as a seminal German polymath, developed a unique approach for investigating nature, termed "delicate empiricism". Goethe's approach uses empathy, imagination and intuition to promote a participatory engagement with the world. It goes beyond the dualistic-rationalism that defines…

  12. Mental Maps and Ethnocentrism: Geographic Characterizations in the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Harold M.

    1979-01-01

    Reexamines geographic thought regarding ethnocentrism as expressed in the writings including Ellen Churchill Semple, Hendrick Willem Van Loon, Ellsworth Huntington, Roswell C. Smith, J. Olney, Henry Thomas Buckle, Georg Friedrich Hegel, Johann Gottfried Von Herder, Charles de Montesquieu, Ibn Khaldun, and Hippocrates. (DB)

  13. Leo Minor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Lesser Lion; abbrev. LMi, gen. Leonis Minoris; area 232 sq.deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Ursa Major and Leo, and culminates at midnight in late February. It was introduced by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87) of Danzig (Gdansk), who included it in his atlas Firmamentum Sobiescianum sive Uranographia of 1687....

  14. Vulpecula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Fox; abbrev. Vul, gen. Vulpeculae; area 268 sq. deg.) a northern constellation which lies between Cygnus and Sagitta-Delphinus, and culminates at midnight in late July. It was introduced as Vulpecula cum Ansere (the Fox and Goose) by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87) of Danzig (Gdansk), who included it in his atlas Firmamentum Sobiescianum sive Uranographia of 1687....

  15. Lacerta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Lizard; abbrev. Lac, gen. Lacertae; area 201 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Cygnus and Andromeda, and culminates at midnight in late August. It was introduced by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87) of Danzig (Gdansk), who included it in his atlas Firmamentum Sobiescianum sive Uranographia of 1687. Hevelius also gave it the alternative name of Stellio (the Stelli...

  16. Lynx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Lynx; abbrev. Lyn, gen. Lyncis; area 545 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Ursa Major and Auriga, and culminates at midnight in late January. It was introduced by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87) of Danzig (Gdansk), who included it in his atlas Firmamentum Sobiescianum sive Uranographia of 1687. An inconspicuous constellation, Hevelius (who distrusted telescopic...

  17. Scutum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Shield; abbrev. Sct, gen. Scuti; area 109 sq. deg.) A southern constellation which lies to the south-west of Aquila, and culminates at midnight in early July. It was introduced as Scutum Sobiescianum (Sobieski's Shield) by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87) of Danzig (Gdansk) in 1684 in honor of Jan Sobieski III, king of Poland....

  18. Notes on the Nature of Bilingual Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Johanne Paradis' Keynote Article can be read as a concise critical review of the research that focuses on the sometimes strained relationship between bilingualism and specific language impairment (SLI). In my comments I will add some thoughts based on our own research on the learning of Dutch as a second language (L2) by children with SLI.

  19. 76 FR 44566 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Frigid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... unreliable aid in systematic analyses. Currently, features of the male and female reproductive tract, the... reproductive organ morphology, which is rarely preserved in the fossil record.'' In 2002, Frest and Johannes... size and development of the male Catinella genital appendix can vary with age. Because of...

  20. Explorers with a Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Patricia James

    1991-01-01

    Offers brief summaries of contributions made by several of Christopher Columbus's contemporaries, including Nicholas Cusa, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo Buonarroti, Nicholas Copernicus, Johannes Gutenberg, Sir Thomas More, Desiderius Erasmus, and John Colet. Urges modern Catholic educators to learn from these risk takers and visionaries. (DMM)

  1. ["A magical atmosphere was our vision when we founded the institution". The sanatorium "Schloss Tegel" in statu nascendi (1904-1907)].

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Heike

    2011-01-01

    This contribution addresses the early years of the sanatorium, founded by the medical doctor and later psychoanalyst Johann Jaroslaw Marcinowski. His approach to therapy, his ideas about interior design as well as landscape gardening were of significant influence on the sanatorium in which Ernst Simmel opened his psychoanalytical clinic in 1927.

  2. The Visual Memory-Based Memorization Techniques in Piano Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yucetoker, Izzet

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Johann Sebastian Bach is one of the leading composers of the baroque period. In addition to his huge contributions in the artistic dimension, he also served greatly in the field of education. This study has been done for determining the impact of visual memory-based memorization practices in the piano education on the visual…

  3. Idea Bank: Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Denise; Watkins, Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    In 1609, Galileo Galilei turned his telescope to the night sky and began a series of observations of the cosmos. These observations, together with the work of Johannes Kepler and other scientists of the time, revolutionized our understanding of the universe and the process by which we do science. The United Nations General Assembly has proclaimed…

  4. Gestural Enthymemes: Delivering Movement in 18th- and 19th-Century Medical Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sara

    2009-01-01

    This article contributes to recent efforts to add life and movement to rhetorical studies by focusing on the representation of movement in medical texts. More specifically, this study examines medical texts, illustrations, and photographs involving movement by Johann Casper Lavater, G. B. Duchenne de Bologne, Charles Darwin, and Etienne-Jules…

  5. Planning, Decisions, and Human Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, George

    1998-01-01

    Brings the perspectives of five individuals (Sigmund Freud, Karl Marx, Charles Darwin, Johann von Herder, James Madison) to the question of why humans behave as they do when faced with the need for decision making and change in higher education. Argues that effecting change is easier if leaders attend to the concerns and fears of those affected by…

  6. Satellite-Based Fusion of Image/Inertial Sensors for Precise Geolocation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    scientists, astronomers , and engineers were eager to harness the vast capabilities of the space environment. These efforts paved the way for space-based...Kepler’s three laws of planetary motion: orbital ellipse, law of equal areas, and orbits with equal periods [22]. man astronomer Johannes Kepler (1571-1630

  7. Who Solved the Bernoulli Differential Equation and How Did They Do It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Adam E.

    2013-01-01

    The Bernoulli brothers, Jacob and Johann, and Leibniz: Any of these might have been first to solve what is called the Bernoulli differential equation. We explore their ideas and the chronology of their work, finding out, among other things, that variation of parameters was used in 1697, 78 years before 1775, when Lagrange introduced it in general.

  8. Doubt, Despair and Hope in Western Thought: Unamuno and the Promise of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the importance of doubt in Western philosophy, with particular attention to the work of Søren Kierkegaard and Miguel de Unamuno. Kierkegaard's pseudonymous author Johannes Climacus ventures down the pathway of doubt, finds it perplexing and difficult and discovers that he is unable to return to his pre-doubting self. In…

  9. From Mendel’s discovery on pea to today´s plant genetics and breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2015 we celebrated the 150th anniversary of the presentation of the seminal work of Gregor Johann Mendel. While Darwin's theory was based on differential survival and differential reproductive success, Mendel's on equality throughout all stages of the life cycle. Darwin's concepts were continuou...

  10. Kant on Dignity and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesinger, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, Johannes Giesinger discusses the educational significance of Immanuel Kant's conception of human dignity. According to Kant, Giesinger claims, children can and should be educated for dignity: on the one hand, children realize their dignity by developing the capacity for moral autonomy; on the other hand, this capacity can only…

  11. The National Cryptologic Museum Library

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    libri sex of the Benedictine monk and mystic Johannes Trithemius. For those who pursue that history, the museum library has proven to be a mother ... lode of valuable resources. Perhaps first among these are the declassified oral histories of such cryptologic pioneers as Frank Rowlett, the “foreman

  12. Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) was arguably the most innovative astronomical theorist in the millennium and a half from Claudius PTOLEMY's Almagest (c. AD 150) to Isaac NEWTON's Principia (1687). Before Kepler, planetary and lunar theory had consisted in combining circular motions, either strictly uniform or angularly uniform about an off-center `equant' point, so as to `save the appearances'. T...

  13. The telescopes of Duke Ernst I, the Pious, of Saxony-Gotha. (German Title: Die Fernrohre von Herzog Ernst I., dem Frommen, von Sachsen-Gotha)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Inge

    Already in the 17th century, there was an interest in astronomy at the court of Gotha, where Duke Ernst I hold one of the largest collections of telescopes at his times, with instruments made by the Augsburg optician Johann Wiesel, by Baruch Spinoza and others. By the help of the inventory of the Kunstkammer the holdings may be documentarily demonstrated.

  14. A Convenient Model for the Evolution of Early Psychology as a Scientific Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Robert

    1981-01-01

    To help college students understand psychology, the article suggests that instructors develop curriculum based on the relationship between scientific and technological advances and the development of early psychology. Views of many nineteenth century psychologists are summarized, including Johann Friedrich Herbart, Hermann Lotze, and Georg…

  15. The Particularities and the Research Missions of the Educational Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gang, Wu

    2006-01-01

    Starting from the analysis of the theoretical drawbacks of classical pedagogy stretching from Johann Friedrich Herbart to John Dewey, this paper advocates that educational research in China in the new century should take on a theory mission that calls for the classification of the knowledge of educational theory and the definition of its…

  16. Home Teaching and Herbart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Val D.; Reed, Frances

    1979-01-01

    Viewing the growing disenchantment with state-controlled schooling, the authors predict that home teaching will become an established educational alternative within a short time, and they reflect on the teachings and writings of Johann Friedrich Herbart, an eighteenth-century advocate of educating children at home. (Editor/SJL)

  17. Play as Education in the School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Friedrich Froebel, an early advocate of the use of play in kindergarten teaching, argued that the ultimate goal of education was developing the creative person. According to Froebel, teachers could promote creativity through play by using gifts, occupations, and mother play songs. By contrast, Johann Herbart called for a subject centered…

  18. Carl Friedrich Gauss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kathryn; Scott, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a brief biography of Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss. Gauss was born on April 30, 1777, in the German city of Braunschweig (Brunswick). He was the only child of Gebhard Dietrich Gauss and Dorothea Benze. Neither of Gauss's parents had much education, his father could read and write, but earned his living doing menial jobs such as…

  19. "Dancing Cannot Start Too Soon": Spiritual Education in the Thought of Jean Paul Friedrich Richter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridmore, John

    2004-01-01

    Johann Paul Friedrich Richter (1763-1825) adopted the pen-name "Jean Paul" in honour of Jean Jaques Rousseau. His "Levana or the doctrine of education" ("Levana oder Erziehlehre") was once a standard text and required reading in teacher education. Outside Germany the name of Jean Paul is now little known and the…

  20. Reprint Series: Memorable Personalities in Mathematics: Nineteenth Century. RS-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaf, William L., Ed.

    This is one in a series of SMSG supplementary and enrichment pamphlets for high school students. This series makes available expository articles which appeared in a variety of mathematical periodicals. Topics covered include: (1) Laplace; (2) Carl Friedrich Gauss; (3) Wolfgang and Johann Bolyai; (4) Evariste Galois; and (5) Josiah Willard Gibbs.…

  1. Effect of Instruction in Appropriate Rubato Usage on the Onset Timings of Musicians in Performances of Bach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effect of instruction in the use of specific rhythmic nuances on the timings of a musical performance. Forty volunteer upper-division and graduate students performed Johann Sebastian Bach's Suite no. 3 for Violoncello solo, Bouree no. 1, using a computer software program. Discusses the results. (CMK)

  2. History of Baroque Music in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators Journal, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The year 1985 marks the 300th birthday of three masters of Baroque music: Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frederic Handel, and Dominico Scarlatti. A summary of the history of Baroque music and a profile of the three composers, which can be used to teach secondary students about the period, are provided. (RM)

  3. Positive Feed-Bach: A Motivation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, William G.

    1984-01-01

    Classroom scrip emblazoned with a picture of Johann Sebastian Bach is used to motivate junior high school students. Students are paid for cooperation and performance. Two auctions are held during the school year, at which students can spend the scrip on musical items. (CS)

  4. Folk Literature of the Warao Indians; Narrative Material and Motif Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbert, Johannes

    The Latin American Center, University of California at Los Angeles, presents a collection of the folk literature of the "boat people," the Warao Indians of the Orinoco Delta of Venezuela and Guyana. According to Professor Johannes Wilbert and other anthropologists, "the inaccessibility of their habitat has preserved their tribal…

  5. Technological Effects on Aesthetic Evaluation: Vermeer and the Camera Obscura

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, Donald A.; Sudduth, Mary Margaret; Clabaugh, Alison

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether an artist's use of technology to create art results in a detectable aesthetic difference was investigated in the case of Dutch realist painter Johannes Vermeer and his use of the camera obscura. In Experiment 1, participants evaluated 20 Vermeer paintings on 6 aesthetic dimensions and preferred paintings created with the…

  6. Attosecond nanoscale physics of solids in strong ultrafast optical fields (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockman, Mark I.

    2016-09-01

    We present our latest results for a new class of phenomena in condensed matter nanooptics when a strong optical field 1-3 V/Å changes a solid within optical cycle [1-7]. Such a pulse drives ampere-scale currents in dielectrics and adiabatically controls their properties, including optical absorption and reflection, extreme UV absorption, and generation of high harmonics [8] in a non-perturbative manner on a 100-as temporal scale. Applied to a metal, such a pulse causes an instantaneous and, potentially, reversible change from the metallic to semimetallic properties. We will also discuss our latest theoretical results on graphene that in a strong ultrashort pulse field exhibits unique behavior [9, 10]. New phenomena are predicted for buckled two-dimensional solids, silicene and germanine [11]. These are fastest phenomena in optics unfolding within half period of light. They offer potential for petahertz-bandwidth signal processing, generation of high harmonics on a nanometer spatial scale, etc. References 1. M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. F. Kling, and M. I. Stockman, Metallization of Nanofilms in Strong Adiabatic Electric Fields, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 086803-1-4 (2010). 2. M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. F. Kling, and M. I. Stockman, Predicted Ultrafast Dynamic Metallization of Dielectric Nanofilms by Strong Single-Cycle Optical Fields, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 086602-1-5 (2011). 3. A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Muhlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, Optical-Field-Induced Current in Dielectrics, Nature 493, 70-74 (2013). 4. M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, Controlling Dielectrics with the Electric Field of Light, Nature 493, 75-78 (2013). 5. V. Apalkov and M. I. Stockman, Metal Nanofilm

  7. [The records of the Medical Faculty of the University of Leipzig on the Woyzeck case, discovered again after 180 years].

    PubMed

    Steinberg, H; Schmideler, S

    2005-05-01

    Through Georg Büchner's drama the case of Johann Christian Woyzeck gained worldwide fame. For the first time ever this study presents the testimonial drawn up by the Medical Faculty of Leipzig University, which until now had been regarded as having been lost. Now, however, the first-named author rediscovered it in the files of the Leipzig University Archives. The testimonial proved to be a decisive importance, as it sealed Woyzeck's execution in 1824. Before presenting major passages from the testimonial this study give an overview of the chronology of the Woyzeck case and the other medico-psychiatric testimonials drawn up by Leipzig municipal physician Johann Christian August Clarus. It also reveals which professors of Leipzig Medical Faculty were involved in drawing up the final testimonial which confirmed Clarus's findings and rejected the objections raised by Woyzeck's counsel - remarkably without examining the offender himself first-hand, but merely relying on and evaluating the testimonials drawn up by Clarus.

  8. Phrenology and physiognomy in Victorian literature.

    PubMed

    Boshears, Rhonda; Whitaker, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Phrenology evolved from the work of Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) and Johann Gaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832), becoming a fixture in Victorian culture, arts and letters as well as medicine. Writers such as Thomas Love Peacock (1785-1866) and Thomas Hood (1799-1845) initially satirized phrenology, as did playwright and composer William S. Gilbert (1836-1911). On the other hand, novelists such as Charlotte Brontë (1816-1855), Charles Dickens (1812-1870), George Eliot (1819-1880), and the poet and essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) not only accepted the principles of this brain-based personality theory but exploited it in their characters. The popularity of phrenology in the Victorian period should in part be attributed to the popularity of physiognomy which, thanks in large part to Johann Christian Lavater (1741-1801), has been thoroughly embedded in Western culture since the end of the eighteenth century.

  9. Historical analyses by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusko, B. H.; Schwab, R. N.

    1987-03-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is ideally suited for the elemental analysis of the papers, parchment, and inks of books, manuscripts, and other historical documents. This paper will describe the general kinds of historical and bibliographical issues that can be addressed by PIXE, and it discusses two specific historical applications of the technique: to the Gutenberg Bible and the Calov Bible owned by Johann Sebastian Bach.

  10. Philosophical Foundations of Zwicky's Morphological Approach in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnicki, Konrad

    Fritz Zwicky as a conscious Goetheanist. Johann Wolfgang Goethe as a natural philosopher and methodologist. Goetheanist theory of knowledge — a theory essentially different from the theory of Kant, from which the contemporary concept of paradigms has originated. Pre-scientific character of theory of knowledge. The principal thought experiment. The role of thinking in Goetheanism. Fundamental phenomena. Morphological approach. The shape (µo ) of a problem. Morphological box. Individual hypothesis versus classes of hypotheses. Theory and reality.

  11. Superquantile/CVaR Risk Measures: Second-Order Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-31

    Springer, 2001. [11] H. Mausser and D. Rosen. Efficient risk /return frontiers for credit risk . Algo. Research Quarterly, 2(4):35–47, 1998. [12] N...Superquantile/CVaR Risk Measures: Second-Order Theory1 R. Tyrrell Rockafellar Johannes O. Royset Department of Mathematics Operations Research...Department University of Washington Naval Postgraduate School rtr@uw.edu joroyset@nps.edu Abstract. Superquantiles, which refer to conditional value-at- risk

  12. Real-Time Dispatching of Rubber Tired Gantry Cranes in Container Terminals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    OF RUBBER TIRED GANTRY CRANES IN CONTAINER TERMINALS by Bradley S. McNary March 2008 Thesis Advisor: Johannes O. Royset Second Reader...AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Real-Time Dispatching of Rubber Tired Gantry Cranes in Container Terminals 6. AUTHOR(S...Efficiently managing of rubber tired gantry cranes and planning container placement within the terminal are two ways to increase the overall

  13. Fusion of Hard and Soft Information in Nonparametric Density Estimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-10

    Fusion of Hard and Soft Information in Nonparametric Density Estimation∗ Johannes O. Royset Roger J-B Wets Department of Operations Research...univariate density estimation in situations when the sample ( hard information) is supplemented by “soft” information about the random phenomenon. These... hard and soft information, and give rates of convergence. Numerical examples illustrate the value of soft information, the ability to generate a

  14. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-19

    of five years has been asked, even if awarded a lighter sentence, is barred from voting by law. Human Rights Lawyer Johannes Princen called the...agreed on a number of new initiatives and approaches in human resources development, science and technology, energy and drugs. Both sides agreed to...political motive. Bishop Fortich is known for advocating human rights and land reform. Some quarters have accused him of being a leftist sympathizer

  15. Electromagnetic Calorimeter for HADES Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Ramos, P.; Chlad, L.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Galatyuk, T.; Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Hlaváč, S.; Ivashkin, A.; Kajetanowic, M.; Kardan, B.; Koenig, W.; Korcyl, G.; Kugler, A.; Lapidus, K.; Linev, S.; Lisowski, E.; Neiser, A.; Ott, O.; Otte, O.; Pethukov, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Reshetin, A.; Rost, A.; Salabura, P.; Sobolev, Y. G.; Svoboda, O.; Thomas, A.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.

    2014-11-01

    Electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is being developed to complement dilepton spectrometer HADES. ECAL will enable the HADES@FAIR experiment to measure data on neutral meson production in heavy ion collisions at the energy range of 2-10 AGeV on the beam of future accelerator SIS100@FAIR. We will report results of the last beam test with quasi-monoenergetic photons carried out in MAMI facility at Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz.

  16. Science, fiction and the age of discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brake, Mark; Hook, Neil

    2007-05-01

    This article suggests that the age of discovery and enlightenment of the Scientific Revolution and the universe of Copernicus was responsible for a new way of imagining, which we now call science fiction. This history is important for an understanding of the evolution of the physics, and shows how scientists, such as Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei, and philosophers, such as the Bishop of Llandaff, Francis Godwin, and Cyrano de Bergerac, used the fictional imagination to help visualise the unknown.

  17. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-30

    this progress. (© AFP 2012, Johannes Eisele) Afghans gather at the Sakhi Shrine in Kabul on March 20 to celebrate Nowruz, the Afghan new year. Once...NANGARHAR FARAH NIMROZ HELMAND KANDAHAR URUZGAN ZABUL GHOR GHAZNI BALKH BADGHIS KABUL KAPISA PAKTIYA LOGAR LAGHMAN JOWZJAN PARWAN SAR-E PUL HERAT DAYKUNDI...During my visit to Kabul this quarter, I met with U.S. and Afghan officials to discuss and assess their anti-corruption efforts. I also shared with them

  18. Measures of Residual Risk with Connections to Regression, Risk Tracking, Surrogate Models, and Ambiguity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-20

    Measures of Residual Risk with Connections to Regression, Risk Tracking, Surrogate Models, and Ambiguity1 R. Tyrrell Rockafellar Johannes O. Royset... Measures of residual risk are developed as extension of measures of risk. They view a random variable of interest in concert with an auxiliary random...forecasting and generalized regression. We establish the fundamental properties in this framework and show that measures of residual risk along with

  19. Canes Venatici

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Hunting Dogs; abbrev. CVn, gen. Canum Venaticorum; area 465 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Ursa Major and Boötes, and culminates at midnight in early April. It was named by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87) of Danzig (Gdansk), who included it in his atlas Firmamentum Sobiescianum sive Uranographia though the celestial figure had been shown in earlier charts da...

  20. Did Cook's sailors have Tapanui 'flu? --chronic fatigue syndrome on the Resolution.

    PubMed

    St George, I M

    1996-01-26

    The 1982 publication of the Resolution journal of Johann George Reinhold Forster provided justification for his recognition as a scientist, and gave a remarkable insight into his character. It also included an account of an illness suffered by many of the sloop's crew, including Forster, after a period ashore at Queen Charlotte Sound. The symptoms of the illness were remarkably similar to those now clustered as the chronic fatigue syndrome.

  1. Information Management and the Biological Warfare Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    identification of genes for cystic fibrosis, breast cancer, hereditary deafness , hereditary skeletal disorders, and a form of diabetes--just to name a...Oswald Avery. In 1869 Johann Miescher discovered molecular DNA, in 1928 Fred Griffith revealed that hereditary molecules could be isolated, in 1944...Oswald Avery correlated DNA with hereditary properties. These revelations are the basis for which the normal science of biotechnology (solidified

  2. Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry 2015: Meet the Experts of MedChem near the Cradle of Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wegscheid-Gerlach, Christof; Gerber, Hans-Dieter; Diederich, Wibke E

    2015-07-01

    Pioneering inspiration: Right next to the former laboratories of Johannes Hartmann, the first so-called "Professor of Chymiatrie", the 2015 Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry meeting was held last March at Philipps University in Marburg, Germany. Herein we give readers an idea of what it was like to attend the conference, which was organized jointly by the DPhG, GDCh, and SCS. Along with the lectures, we also describe the poster sessions, social program, and awards.

  3. Online Mapping and Perception Algorithms for Multi-robot Teams Operating in Urban Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Online mapping and perception algorithms for multi-robot teams operating in urban environments by Johannes H. Strom A dissertation submitted in...REPORT DATE 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Online Mapping and Perception Algorithms for...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This thesis investigates some of the sensing and perception challenges faced by multi-robot teams equipped with

  4. Operational Leadership: A Case of General Helmuth von Moltke (The Younger)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    makes his decision too late to have an impact. II. Historical Framework Helmuth Johannes Ludwig von Moltke, known as von Moltke (The Younger) to distin...T. N. Dupuy, A Genius for War (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentis-Hall, Inc. 1977) 140. 1 Otto Friedrich , Blood and Iron: From Bismarck to Hitler the von...Press, 1996) 160. 1 Tuchman, The Guns of August, 73. 1 Friedrich , Blood and Iron, 229. 1 Holmes, “The Schlieffen Plan,” 13. ii

  5. In the footsteps of astronomers in Bremen and Lilienthal. (German Title: Auf den Spuren von Astronomen in Bremen und Lilienthal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langkavel, Arno

    When Bremen and Lilienthal are mentioned, people interested in the history of astronomy will first of all remember Wilhelm Olbers (1785-1840) and Johann Hieronymus Schroeter (1745-1816). In addition to them, Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846) and Carl Friedrich Gauß (1777-1855) have also left their traces. Two walks describe the main memorial sites, which are all outdoors and easily accessible to the general public.

  6. [Kastner and Trommsdorff].

    PubMed

    Friedrich, C

    1998-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the connection between Karl Wilhelm Gottlob Kastner (1783-1857) and Johann Bartholomäus Trommsdorff (1770-1837). Kastner was the teacher of Justus Liebig (1803-1873) in Bonn and Erlangen. The correspondence, which includes unpublished letters from Kastner to Trommsdorff, presents a wealth of detailed information for the biographies of Kastner and Trommsdorff.

  7. In Vitro Intracellular Trafficking of Virulence Antigen during Infection by Yersinia pestis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-17

    movement of Salmonella typhi in infected cells appears to involve a pattern of vesicular trafficking via endosome and lysosomes [77]. This infection...the Yersinia spp . Observations reported using an in vitro model of gastric epithelial cell infection indicate that, like V, H. pylori exhibits a... Salmonella - induced caspase-2 activation in macrophages: a novel mechanism in pathogen- mediated apoptosis. J Exp Med 192: 1035–1046. 59. Johannes L

  8. Astronomy Video Contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, John

    2008-05-01

    One of Galileo's staunchest supporters during his lifetime was Johannes Kepler, Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor. Johannes Kepler will be in St. Louis to personally offer a tribute to Galileo. Set Galileo's astronomy discoveries to music and you get the newest song by the well known acappella group, THE CHROMATICS. The song, entitled "Shoulders of Giants” was written specifically for IYA-2009 and will be debuted at this conference. The song will also be used as a base to create a music video by synchronizing a person's own images to the song's lyrics and tempo. Thousands of people already do this for fun and post their videos on YOU TUBE and other sites. The ASTRONOMY VIDEO CONTEST will be launched as a vehicle to excite, enthuse and educate people about astronomy and science. It will be an annual event administered by the Johannes Kepler Project and will continue to foster the goals of IYA-2009 for years to come. The Astronomy Video poster will contain all the basic information about the contest including: categories, rules, prizes, web address for more info and how to download the new song, "Shoulders of Giants.”

  9. Astronomy Video Contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, John

    2008-05-01

    During Galileo's lifetime his staunchest supporter was Johannes Kepler, Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor. Johannes Kepler will be in St. Louis to personally offer a tribute to Galileo. Set Galileo's astronomy discoveries to music and you get the newest song by the well known acappella group, THE CHROMATICS. The song, entitled "Shoulders of Giants” was written specifically for IYA-2009 and will be debuted at this conference. The song will also be used as a base to create a music video by synchronizing a person's own images to the song's lyrics and tempo. Thousands of people already do this for fun and post their videos on YOU TUBE and other sites. The ASTRONOMY VIDEO CONTEST will be launched as a vehicle to excite, enthuse and educate people about astronomy and science. It will be an annual event administered by the Johannes Kepler Project and will continue to foster the goals of IYA-2009 for years to come. During this presentation the basic categories, rules, and prizes for the Astronomy Video Contest will be covered and finally the new song "Shoulders of Giants” by THE CHROMATICS will be unveiled

  10. Relationship between recent cave temperatures and noble gas temperatures derived from fluid inclusions of modern soda straw stalactites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palcsu, Laszlo; Papp, Laszlo; Major, Zoltan; Molnar, Mihaly

    2010-05-01

    reliable palaeotemperature information on the time range from present back to hundred thousand years. [1] Kluge T., Marx T., Scholz D., Niggermann S., Mangini A., Aeschbach-Hertig W., 2008. A new tool for palaeoclimate reconstruction: Noble gas temperatures from fluid inclusions in speleothems. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 269, 408-415. [2] Brennwald M.S., Scheidegger Y., Tomonaga Y., Holzner C.P., Wieler R., Kipfer R., 2006. New applications of noble gases as environmental proxies in unusual aquatic environments. Geochimica et Csomochimica Acta 70, Supplement, A66.

  11. Preface: phys. stat. sol. (a) 202/12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Wolfgang; Stutzmann, Martin; Hildebrandt, Stefan

    2005-09-01

    The present special issue contains a collection of Original Papers dedicated to Professor Johannes Heydenreich on the occasion of his 75th birthday.Johannes Heydenreich, born on 20 June 1930 in Plauen/Vogtland near Dresden, studied physics at the Pädagogische Hochschule Potsdam, where he obtained his first academic degree Dipl. Phys. in 1958. He received his doctoral degree at the Martin Luther University in Halle in 1961 and the Habilitation degree in 1969. Already during his studies in Potsdam, he showed an interest in electron microscopy due to the influence of his teacher and supervisor Prof. Picht, one of the pioneers in electron optics. His interests were strengthened when Johannes Heydenreich did the experimental work for his Diploma degree at the Institute for Experimental Physics of the University of Halle, where he met Prof. Heinz Bethge for the first time. This was the beginning of a fruitful and longstanding collaboration. In 1962 Johannes Heydenreich joined the team of the later Institute for Solid State Physics and Electron Microscopy of the Academy of Sciences of the GDR, in Halle, for which the basis was laid by Prof. Bethge in 1960.Heydenreich has been working as Assistant Director for many years and played a decisive role in introducing and organising the various techniques of electron microscopy in the institute.The research activities of Prof. Heydenreich covered a broad spectrum over the years. At the beginning of his career he made significant contributions in the field of electron mirror microscopy. After that, his main interests were focused on transmission electron microscopy, ranging from diffraction contrast analysis of crystal defects to high-resolution electron microscopy and image processing. His favourite field was studies of defect-induced phenomena in advanced materials. The so-called Bethge-Heydenreich, the book Electron Microscopy in Solid State Physics, published at first in a German edition in 1982 and later in a revised

  12. Some Historical Points of Interest in Göttingen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Klaus

    The Georgia Augusta University of Göttingen, founded in 1737, was a child of the Enlightenment, and the new sciences have always played a major role here.1 Among the teachers of physics, physical chemistry, astronomy, and related subjects we find Johann Christian Polykarp Erxleben, Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, Johann Tobias Mayer, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Johann B. Listing, Wilhelm Eduard Weber, Woldemar Voigt, Friedrich Kohlrausch, Eduard Riecke, Walther Nernst and Peter Debye — the last two subsequently moved on to Berlin. In the 1920s, physics students were jestingly referred to as “Frankierte, Bornierte und Polierte” (loosely translated as stamped, limited and polished), in allusion to their teachers, the theoretical physicist Max Born and the experimentalists James Franck and Robert Wichard Pohl, the first two being important figures in the history of quantum theory, the third, one of the founding fathers of experimental solid state physics.2 The National Socialist’s rise to power had a devastating effect on this world-renowned center for physics and mathematics. Most of its high-caliber scientists either were dismissed on the basis of the racist “Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service” or themselves felt compelled to emigrate: About a dozen members of the physics faculty, including Born and Franck, and ten from the mathematics faculty left Göttingen.3 After the war, Richard Becker, who in 1936 had received a compulsory order to take the chair for theoretical physics vacant since Born’s emigration, and Friedrich Hund, who was also an enthusiastic historian of science, distinguished themselves as physics teachers there but the university as a whole never recovered its international standing of before 1933 (see Figs. 1 and 2).

  13. Musician's and physicist's view on tuning keyboard instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubenow, Martin; Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2007-01-01

    The simultaneous sound of several voices or instruments requires proper tuning to achieve consonance for certain intervals and chords. Most instruments allow enough frequency variation to enable pure tuning while being played. Keyboard instruments such as organ and piano have given frequencies for individual notes and the tuning must be based on a compromise. The equal temperament is not the only solution, but a special choice. Unequal temperaments produce better results in many cases, because important major thirds and triads are improved. Equal temperament was not propagated by Johann Sebastian Bach, as is often stated in introductory literature on this topic.

  14. Image, text and Observatio: the Codex Kentmanus.

    PubMed

    Kusukawa, Sachiko

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the inter-relationship between image, text and object in the Codex Kentmanus, which is one of the earliest records of the plants in the botanical garden at Padua, studied by Johannes Kentmann (1518-77). The manuscript shows that "observation" for Kentmann involved a gradual process of assimilating knowledge from other physicians, apothecaries, and books in order to make the plants which were originally encountered at a specific time and place into a more generalised object of study for learned physicians.

  15. [Johana Filipa Neumanna].

    PubMed

    Juznic, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Johann Philipp Neumann's work is put into the limelight. He was the very first professor of physics with chemistry, who was not previously a Jesuit. The textbooks for chemistry which Neumann used for his lectures in Ljubljana are discussed. The paragraphs about chemistry of his own textbook published soon after he left Ljubljana for Graz Lyceum are analyzed. The chemical ideas in his paper on measurement of heat and temperature published a decade later are presented. The archival documents of Neumann's work in Ljubljana are published for the first time.

  16. The Proceedings of the Conference on Assessment of Ecological Impacts of Oil Spills Held 14-17 Jun 1978, Keystone, Colorado.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    11735 , the Counc il on Env iron - mental Quality (CEO) was charged with the responsibility of preparing a National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution...Odum , W .E. and R.E . Johannes . 1975 • The Response of Nangroves to Man- induced Environmental Stress. Pages 52-62 in E.J . Ferguson Wood and R.E...concern. Lab - oratory tests should be made at concentrations which are realistic and with mean- —911— ingful test mat erials such as water dispersed

  17. Synthesis and characterization of conducting polymer inserted carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, A. Jeong; Nam, Young Woo; Park, Yung Woo

    2008-03-01

    The carbon nanotubes filled with the photo-conducting polymer poly(N-vinyl carbazole) and the conducting polymer polypyrrole were prepared by polymerizing the monomers inside the nanotubes using the supercritical carbon dioxide. The endohedral nanotubes were characterized by HRTEM and ^1H NMR, which confirmed that the inserted material was indeed the conducting polymer [1]. I-V characteristics of the polymer inserted carbon nanotubes are presented. [1] Johannes Steinmetz, Soyoung Kwon, Hyun-Jung Lee, Edy Abou-Hamad, Robert Almairac, Christophe Goze-Bac, Hwayong Kim, Yung-Woo Park,, Chem. Phys. Lett., 431, 139 (2006)

  18. Robert Boyle, Transmutation, and the History of Chemistry before Lavoisier: A Response to Kuhn.

    PubMed

    Newman, William R

    2014-01-01

    In an influential article of 1952, Thomas Kuhn argued that Robert Boyle had little or no influence on the subsequent development of chemistry. This essay challenges Kuhn's view on two fronts. First, it shows that Johann Joachim Becher developed his hierarchical matter theory under the influence of Boyle and then transmitted it to the founder of the phlogiston theory, G. E. Stahl. Second, this essay argues that transmutational matter theories were not necessarily opposed to the existence of stable chemical species, pace Kuhn. Boyle's corpuscular theory descended largely from the tradition of "chymical atomism," which often advocated both chrysopoeia and the reality of robust chemical substances.

  19. The surgical journal of the future: how will it appear?

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Ronald K

    2006-01-01

    Not since the invention of the printing press in 1440 by Johannes Gutenberg has there been such a revolution in the methods of dissemination of knowledge as is now being seen in the electronic media. The time-honored printed journal is becoming obsolete and open-access electronic journals and other technological innovations are rapidly reshaping the field of scientific publication. This paper will explore some of the forces driving these changes and what lies in store for the surgical journal of the future.

  20. Treatment of severe bilateral nerve pain after Pfannenstiel incision.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Kadir; Schäfer, Georg; Leonhartsberger, Nicolai; Herwig, Ralf; Pinggera, Germar-Michael; Bartsch, Georg; Rehder, Peter

    2006-03-01

    The lower transverse abdominal incision, as described by Hermann Johannes Pfannenstiel, cutting both skin and fascia in a transverse fashion was popularized in 1900. Nerve pain syndromes included invalidating pain involving neuroma formation or scar encasement of the ilioinguinal or iliohypogastric nerves. We report a case of a female patient who developed severe pain at the lateral wound edges of a Pfannenstiel incision. The diagnosis of pain of nerve origin was made by infiltration of local anesthetic, after which the pain immediately vanished temporarily. Only complete excision of the scar and involved part of the nerve stopped the pain.

  1. All that glitters: fool's gold in the early-modern era.

    PubMed

    Roos, Anna Marie

    2008-12-01

    Natural philosophers of the early-modern period perceived fool's gold or iron pyrites as a substance required for the formation of metals, and chemists such as Johann Glauber speculated the vitriol produced from pyrites was the source of the legendary philosopher's stone. The sulphurous exhalations of fool's gold were also thought by members of the early Royal Society to be the basis of a variety of meteorological, geological and medical effects, including the production of thunder, lightning, earthquakes and volcanoes, fossilisation and petrifaction, as well as the principal cause of bladder and gallstones.

  2. Marking the 400th Anniversary of Kepler's Astronomia nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, T. J.

    2010-11-01

    Special Session 9 of the XXVII General Assembly (11-14 August 2009, Rio de Janeiro) was devoted to the topic “Marking the 400th Anniversary of Kepler's Astronomia nova”. During the two-and-a-half day meeting (spread over four days), there were nine invited and three contributed talks, a round-table discussion on the future of Kepler studies and an open session to propose the setting up of a Johannes Kepler Working Group under the aegis of the IAU.

  3. In Galileo's footsteps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Matin

    2009-03-01

    Astronomy can lay rightful claim to being the oldest science, with its foundations dating back even further than those of mathematics. From the ancient Babylonians who observed the regular motions of Venus to medieval Islamic scholars who had the first inklings of heliocentrism, the study of the skies has fascinated humankind. But 2009 - the International Year of Astronomy - commemorates an event central to the development of Western science: Galileo Galilei's first observations with a telescope in 1609. This year also marks the 400th anniversary of Johannes Kepler's Astronomia Nova, in which he outlined his laws of planetary motion.

  4. Astronomical kaleidoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    2005-10-01

    The entry contains two Moon eclipses (a picture of a total eclipse and a photo of a penumbral one), photographs of monuments of few greatest astronomers: Nikolay Kopernik, Tiho Brahe and Johannes Kepler, a photo from the JENAM-1995 (Catania, Sicily) as well as photographs of few astronomers related with Moldova and Romania: V. Grigorevskii, N. Donitch, V.Nadolschi, D. Mangeron, two nice clocks in Prague, as well as a map of the Sanctuary in Orheiul -Vechi (Bessarabia) with an supposed ancient calendar.

  5. Theodore J. Simons 1939-1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, Raj

    Theodore Johannes Simons was born in the Netherlands in 1939. He graduated from the Technological University of Delft, where he majored in theoretical fluid dynamics. He was subsequently associated with the North Sea Storm Surge Research of the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute and served as a meteorological officer in the Royal Netherlands Air Force.In 1966, Simons came to the United States as a research student at the Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University (Fort Collins), where he studied atmospheric instability and numerical modeling of atmospheric development. He received his Ph.D. in 1970 for his study of the nonlinear dynamics of cyclone waves.

  6. Aerospace Power: The Case for Indivisible Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Edgar Ulsamer’s article "The New Five-Year Defense Plan," Air ForceMagazine 67 (April 1984) : 81 . 6. Johannes Steinhoff, "The Scope and Direction of...and Alvin J . Cottrell, "In the Wake of the Falklands Battle," StrategicReview 10 (Summer 1982) : 23-28 . 25 . Col Clyde E . Bodenheimer , Impact ofNew...LESSONS 28 . Correll, "Deterrence Today," 41 . 29 . Bodenheimer , Impact ofNew Technology Weapons, 2 . 30. This argument is strongly mace in Moorer and

  7. COMMITTEES: SQM2004 Organising and International Advisory Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-06-01

    Organising Committee Jean Cleymans (Chairman) Zeblon Vilakazi Roger Fearick Peter Steinberg Rory Adams Bruce Becker Sarah Blyth Gareth de Vaux Heather Gray Mark Horner Nawahl Razak Artur Szostak Spencer Wheaton International Advisory Committee Federico Antinori Tim Hallman John Harris Tetsuo Hatsuda Ulrich Heinz Huan Z Huang Sonja Kabana Volker Koch Rob Lacey Jes Madsen Yasuo Miake Maurizio Morando Berndt Mueller Grazyna Odyniec Helmut Oeschler Apostolos Panagiotou Josef Pochodzalla Johann Rafelski Karel Safarik Jack Sandweiss Jürgen Schaffner-Bielich Georges Stephans Horst Stoecker Herbert Stroebele Thomas Ullrich Orlando Villalobos-Baillie Bill Zajc Joseph Zimanyi

  8. 10. Photocopy of an engraving of a stained glass window ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of an engraving of a stained glass window design by Johann Friedrich Overbeck (1789-1869) on which two of the chancel windows in the Church of the Holy Cross are thought to have been based. This copy is of a photocopy obtained from the Treasury of Notre Dame de Paris, Paris, France, by the late Mrs. Walter C. White of Stateburg, South Carolina. Mrs. White's photocopy is in the possession of Mrs. Richard K. Anderson of the Borough House at Stateburg. - Church of the Holy Cross, State Route 261, Stateburg, Sumter County, SC

  9. Simulating Statistical Power in Latent Growth Curve Modeling: A Strategy for Evaluating Age-Based Changes in Cognitive Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Oertzen, Timo; Ghisletta, Paolo; Lindenberger, Ulman

    Variability across and within individuals is a fundamental property of adult age changes in behavior [20, 21, 24]. Some people seem young for their age, others seem old; shining examples of older individuals who maintained high levels of intellectual functioning well into very old age, such as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe or Sophocles, stand in contrast to individuals whose cognitive resources are depleted by the time they reach later adulthood. A similar contrast exists between different intellectual abilities. For example, if one looks at the speed needed to identify and discriminate between different percepts, one is likely to find monotonic decline after late adolescence and early adulthood.

  10. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion in Copper and Nickel Seawater Piping Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Ambiente , pp. 163-170. product structure on the corrosion rate of Cu-Ni alloys. Stover, H. E. 1961. Premature failure of copper-nickel alloys...Sons Ltd. 441 pp. Quimica . Verink, E.D. and Pourbaix, M. 1971. Use of electrochemical Pope, D. H., Duquette, D. J., Johannes, A. H., and Wayner...Bacteria. 2nd Ed. Workshop on Biodeterioration (CONICET-NSF), pp. 43-63, 144pp. London: Cambridge University Press. Sao Paulo, Brazil: Aquatec Quimica . MTS Journal • Vol. 24, No. 3 • 17

  11. [The debate on the generation of imperfect plants in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Alessandro

    2003-01-01

    18th-century discussions on the generation of imperfect plants were often linked with the question of their position in the natural world, namely as whether they were part of the vegetable or mineral realm. As attested by the work of Joseph Gaertner, Johann Jakob Dillen, Pier Antonio Micheli and René-Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, as well as of Antonio Vallisneri, and Lazzaro Spallanzani, the different images of nature - continuity and discontinuity - adopted by naturalists influenced their solution to this question.

  12. The discoveries of Neptune and Triton.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, P.

    The story of the tracking-down of Neptune has been told many times, but even today there are still discrepancies in the various accounts, to say nothing of conflicting opinions. To some people, John Couch Adams is a shining hero and George Biddell Airy a black villain; to others it is Le Verrier who is the hero, and Adams an unimportant member of the supporting cast. Of course, all this is absurd. In the author's view, the true discoverers of Neptune were Johann Gottfried Galle and Heinrich D'Arrest.

  13. Astrometric observations of Hevelius and derived values of ΔT (dynamical time - universal time).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wünsch, J.

    About 1500 meridian altitudes of the Sun observed by Johannes Hevelius (1611 - 1687) at Danzig in the years 1652 - 1679 and about 1160 distances of fixed stars from the lunar limb obtained in 1658 - 1679 as well as 48 occultations of stars by the Moon were analyzed with the aim to obtain a value of the time difference ΔT = ET - UT between ephemeris time and universal time for the period of Hevelius' observations. This time difference is a measure of the "clock error" of the rotation of the Earth, caused mainly by secular deceleration due to tidal friction.

  14. William Crabtree's Venus transit observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollerstrom, Nicholas

    2005-04-01

    The close collaboration between the two North-country astronomers Jeremiah Horrocks and William Crabtree gave them special insight into the new astronomy published by the recently-deceased Kepler, whereby Horrocks became the only person to apprehend that the Rudolphine tables were in fact predicting a Venus transit in 1639. This paper focuses especially upon William Crabtree's role and contribution. A comparison is made with an earlier, unsuccessful endeavour by these two concerning a possible transit of Mercury. Much of the record of their work was lost during the civil war. Finally, thanks to Christiaan Huygens, Horrock's manuscript was published by Johannes Hevelius in Danzig, in 1662.

  15. The study of the wonderful: the first topographical mapping of vision in the brain.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Ronald S

    2008-12-01

    The conception by René Descartes of the human brain, notorious as it is for placing the soul or mind in the pineal gland, had yet within it the basic idea of the brain as a highly organized mechanism with topographical sensory mapping and different functions localized in specific areas. Descartes was directly led to this idea by his appreciation of what the retinal image conceived by Johannes Kepler implied, not only for the nature of vision, but for the operation of the brain in general. The linkage between Kepler and Descartes is not widely appreciated but is one of the best examples of synergism in the history of science.

  16. Leonardo da Vinci and Kethem-Kiveris vena.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Antonín; Skorepova-Honzlova, Zita; Jelen, Karel

    2012-01-01

    In the drawing of coitus by Leonardo da Vinci are pictured the contemporary hypotheses regarding this act. The authors analyze the mamillaruteral connection depicted by the artist and grow up to believe that this is a hypothetical kiveris vena, female vein described by Anatomist Master Nicolai Physicus from the Salerno School. The Hebrew roots were found in the name. The connection is described also by Mondino in The Anathomia. The same connection can be found in the picture of the pregnant woman in Fasciculus Medicinæ by Johannes De Ketham.

  17. "It is wisest here, as always, to maintain a balance": the medical dissertations of Friedrich Schiller.

    PubMed

    Albury, W R; Weisz, G M

    2004-11-01

    Johann Christoph Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805) is remembered today for his contributions to literature and aesthetic theory-it is less well known that his first career was in medicine (an army appointment). Scholars have generally held that his primary interest lay in psychology and the psychological aspects of medicine, and that his commitment to other aspects of medicine was perfunctory at best. The present paper argues that a study of Schiller's three medical dissertations-two on psychological aspects of medicine and one on fevers-reveals his attempt "to maintain a balance" between the mind and the body in his approach to medicine.

  18. Friedrich Paschen and the Mecklenburg ordnance survey 1853 to 1873. (German Title: Friedrich Paschen und die mecklenburgische Landesvermessung 1853 bis 1873 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Bernhard

    At the suggestion of the Prussian military geodesist Johann Jacob Baeyer, the government of Mecklenburg decided in 1853 to undertake an ordnance survey on a trigonometric basis. It appointed Friedrich Paschen (1804-1873) as the scientific and technical head of this survey. Paschen was a lawyer, but visited Gauss' lectures on mathematics, astronomy and geodesy during his student years in Göttingen. This paper gives an account of the astronomical-geodetic works. For the first time also parts of Paschen's correspondence with Gauss and other scientists is published.

  19. Identification of skulls by video superimposition.

    PubMed

    Iten, P X

    1987-01-01

    A method of matching skulls with photographic portraits or impressions of the face in clay by video superimposition is described. Two different practical cases are presented. The first one deals with the identification of a skull of a six-year-old girl, the second with the identification of the skull of the famous Swiss Pedagogue Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, who died about 160 years ago. The advantages and versatility of this method are shown; also the setup of the equipment and the working technique.

  20. Bach and His.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Wyn

    2014-12-01

    This paper examines the career of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) and the role played by Wilhelm His I (who was, with Albert von Haller, a noted pioneer of physiology) in the exhumation of Bach's remains in 1894. His's examination of these remains allowed the sculptor Carl Seffner to produce the celebrated statue of Bach which stands outside the church of St Thomas in Leipzig, where the composer was employed from 1723 until his death. Modern forensic techniques have recently enabled Bach's image to be reconstructed in even more spectacular detail.

  1. Seeing the B-A-C-H motif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catravas, Palmyra

    2005-09-01

    Musical compositions can be thought of as complex, multidimensional data sets. Compositions based on the B-A-C-H motif (a four-note motif of the pitches of the last name of Johann Sebastian Bach) span several centuries of evolving compositional styles and provide an intriguing set for analysis since they contain a common feature, the motif, buried in dissimilar contexts. We will present analyses which highlight the content of this unusual set of pieces, with emphasis on visual display of information.

  2. Guillaume Rondelet (1507-1566): Cardinal physician and anatomist who dissected his own son.

    PubMed

    Mian, Asma; Watanabe, Koichi; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-04-01

    The 16th century French anatomist Guillaume Rondelet will be remembered as a great naturalist and a founder of ichthyology. Little known to most is that Rondelet was a proficient anatomist and contemporary to Vesalius and in fact, both studied anatomy under Johannes Guinter. Even less known is that he established the first dissecting theatre at Montpellier and it was here that he would dissect his infant son in an attempt to identify the cause of death. In this article, we review the life and contributions to anatomy of Rondelet.

  3. EFFECT OF LASER LIGHT ON MATTER. LASER PLASMAS: Spectra of multiply charged nickel and copper ions in an X-pinch plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingaleev, A. R.; Pikuz, S. A.; Romanova, V. M.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Faenov, A. Ya; Érmatov, Sh A.; Nilsen, J.

    1993-05-01

    The L spectra of Ni and Cu ions produced in an X-pinch plasma have been recorded. A fast-optics Johann spectrograph and detection with spatial resolution were used to observe these spectra both in the hot, dense plasma and in the relatively cold recombining plasma expanding outward from the "hot spot." The wavelengths of a number of spectral lines of multiply charged nickel and copper ions were measured with relative error Δλ/λ ~ 10-4. A number of new lines of Na-like satellite lines were identified in the spectra of these ions.

  4. Development of a Hydrogen Møller Polarimeter for Precision Parity-Violating Electron Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Valerie M.

    2013-10-01

    Parity-violating electron scattering experiments allow for testing the Standard Model at low energy accelerators. Future parity-violating electron scattering experiments, like the P2 experiment at the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany, and the MOLLER and SoLID experiments at Jefferson Lab will measure observables predicted by the Standard Model to high precision. In order to make these measurements, we will need to determine the polarization of the electron beam to sub-percent precision. The present way of measuring the polarization, with Møller scattering in iron foils or using Compton laser backscattering, will not easily be able to reach this precision. The novel Hydrogen Møller Polarimeter presents a non-invasive way to measure the electron polarization by scattering the electron beam off of atomic hydrogen gas polarized in a 7 Tesla solenoidal magnetic trap. This apparatus is expected to be operational by 2016 in Mainz. Currently, simulations of the polarimeter are used to develop the detection system at College of William & Mary, while the hydrogen trap and superconducting solenoid magnet are being developed at the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz. I will discuss the progress of the design and development of this novel polarimeter system. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1206053.

  5. The history and illustration of anatomy in the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Gurunluoglu, Aslin; Williams, Susan A; Cavdar, Safiye

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews the influence of key figures on the pictorial representation of anatomy and the evolution of anatomical illustration during the Middle Ages until the time of the Renaissance, based on medical history books, journals and ancient medical books. During the early period in the Middle Ages, most illustrations were traditional drawings of emblematic nature, oftentimes unrealistic, not only because the precise knowledge of anatomy was lacking but also because the objective was to elucidate certain principles for teaching purposes. Five figure-series that came down to us through ancient manuscripts and textbooks represent the best examples of such traditional illustrations. With the advent of human dissection in the 13th and 14th centuries, a significant transformation in the depiction of anatomy began to project the practice of human dissection, as we see in the works of Mondino de Luzzi, Henri de Mondeville and Guido de Vigevano. After the invention of book printing in the second half of the 15th century, the reproduction of books was commonly practised and the woodcut made multiplication of pictures easier. Peter of Abano, Hieronymous Brunschwig, Johannes de Ketham, Johannes Peyligk, Gregory Reisch, Magnus Hundt, Laurentius Phryesen and many more included several anatomical illustrations in their treatises that demonstrated the development of anatomical illustration during the later Middle Ages.

  6. The A2 Experiment Program at MAMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, William; A2 Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The Mainz Microtron MAMI is an accelerator for electron beams run by the Institut für Kernphysik of the Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz used for hadron physics experiments. Of it's three active experimental halls, the A2 facility, which features the presence of the SLAC Crystal Ball detector, has produced a plethora of experimental results, which has contributed to the understanding of the structure of the nucleon. An overview and update of the current A2 program will be presented. The Mainz Microtron MAMI is an accelerator for electron beams run by the Institut für Kernphysik of the Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz used for hadron physics experiments. Of it's three active experimental halls, the A2 facility, which features the presence of the SLAC Crystal Ball detector, has produced a plethora of experimental results, which has contributed to the understanding of the structure of the nucleon. An overview and update of the current A2 program will be presented. Funded in part by SFB 1044. US collaborators funded by USDOE and USNSF.

  7. Vítězslav Orel (1926-2015): Gregor Mendel's biographer and the rehabilitation of genetics in the Communist Bloc.

    PubMed

    Paleček, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    At almost 90 years of age, we have lost the author of the founding historical works on Johann Gregor Mendel. Vítězslav Orel served for almost 30 years as the editor of the journal Folia Mendeliana. His work was beset by the wider problems associated with Mendel's recognition in the Communist Bloc, and by the way in which narratives of the history of science could be co-opted into the service of Cold War and post-Cold War political agendas. Orel played a key role in the organization of the Mendel symposium of 1965 in Brno, and has made a strong contribution to the rehabilitation of genetics generally, and to championing the work of Johann Gregor Mendel in particular. With Jaroslav Kříženecký, he cofounded the Mendelianum in Brno, which for decades has served as an intellectual bridge between the East and West. Orel's involvement with this institution exposed him to dangers both during and after the Cold War.

  8. Experiences with the magnetism of conducting loops: Historical instruments, experimental replications, and productive confusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavicchi, Elizabeth

    2003-02-01

    This study investigates nineteenth century laboratory work on electromagnetism through historical accounts and experimental replications. Oersted found that when a magnetic needle was placed in varying positions around a conducting wire, its orientation changed: in moving from a spot above the wire to one below, its sense inverted. This behavior was confusing and provocative. Early experimenters such as Johann Schweigger, Johann Poggendorff, and James Cumming engaged it by bending wire into loops. These loops, which increased the magnetic effect on a compass placed within, also provided evidence of their understanding and confusion. Coiling conducting wires around iron magnetized it, but when some wires coiled oppositely from others, the effect diminished. This effect confused contemporaries of Joseph Henry who made electromagnets, and amateurs later in the century who constructed multisection induction coils. I experienced these confusions myself while working with multilayer coils and induction coils that I made to replicate the historical instruments. This study shows how confusion can be a productive element in learning, by engaging learners to ask questions and invent experiments. By providing space for learners' confusions, teachers can support the development of their students' physical understandings.

  9. Galileo's eye: a new vision of the senses in the work of Galileo Galilei.

    PubMed

    Piccolino, Marco; Wade, Nicholas J

    2008-01-01

    Reflections on the senses, and particularly on vision, permeate the writings of Galileo Galilei, one of the main protagonists of the scientific revolution. This aspect of his work has received scant attention by historians, in spite of its importance for his achievements in astronomy, and also for the significance in the innovative scientific methodology he fostered. Galileo's vision pursued a different path from the main stream of the then contemporary studies in the field; these were concerned with the dioptrics and anatomy of the eye, as elaborated mainly by Johannes Kepler and Christoph Scheiner. Galileo was more concerned with the phenomenology rather than with the mechanisms of the visual process. His general interest in the senses was psychological and philosophical; it reflected the fallacies and limits of the senses and the ways in which scientific knowledge of the world could be gathered from potentially deceptive appearances. Galileo's innovative conception of the relation between the senses and external reality contrasted with the classical tradition dominated by Aristotle; it paved the way for the modern understanding of sensory processing, culminating two centuries later in Johannes Müller's elaboration of the doctrine of specific nerve energies and in Helmholtz's general theory of perception.

  10. From Gauß to Biermann: Highlights from the first 117 years of publications in Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Berlepsch, R.; Strassmeier, K. G.

    2009-06-01

    We present facsimiles of some of the scientifically and historically most relevant papers published in Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes (AN) between 1821 and 1938. Almost all of these papers were written and printed in German and it is sometimes not completely straightforward to find these original works and then to cite the historically correct version, e.g. in case of a series of articles or editorial letters. It was common during the early years that many contributions were made in form of letters to the editor. We present a summary for these original works with an English translation of their titles. Among the highlights are the originals of the discovery of stellar parallaxes by Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel, the discovery of the solar cycle by Heinrich Schwabe, the discovery of the planet Neptune by Johann Gottfried Galle, the first ever measured stellar radial velocity by Hermann Vogel, the discovery of radio emission from the Sun by Wilsing and Scheiner, the first ever conducted photoelectric photometry of stars by Paul Guthnick and up to the pioneering work by Karl Schwarzschild, Ejnar Hertzsprung, Erwin Finlay Freundlich and others. As a particular gimmick we present the still world record holding shortest paper ever published; by Johannes Hartmann in AN 226, 63 (1926) on Nova Pictoris. Our focus is on contributions in the early years and published until 1938 near the verge of the second world war.

  11. Comment on ``Electronic structure of spin- (1)/(2) Heisenberg antiferromagnetic systems: Ba2Cu(PO4)2 and Sr2Cu(PO4)2 ''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosner, H.; Schmitt, M.; Kasinathan, D.; Ormeci, A.; Richter, J.; Drechsler, S.-L.; Johannes, M. D.

    2009-03-01

    Recently S. S. Salunke [Phys. Rev. B 76, 085104 (2007)] reinvestigated the electronic and magnetic properties of the low-dimensional spin-1/2 materials Sr2Cu(PO4)2 and Ba2Cu(PO4)2 . Based on a NMTO downfolding methodology their main result is a considerably reduced transfer term along the magnetic chains compared to an earlier study [M. D. Johannes , Phys. Rev. B 74, 174435 (2006)]. The discrepancy is assigned to the N th-order muffin-tin orbital mapping procedure that is suggested to be more accurate than the tight-binding approach taken by Johannes Here, we demonstrate that in contrast to the suggestion of Salunke , the discrepancy arises solely from the employment of the atomic-sphere approximation in the underlying band-structure calculation rather than from the mapping scheme used. By comparison of the bandwidths of Salunke to those obtained using three different full-potential methods we find that the full-potential methods are all in nearly exact agreement with one another and yield an about 30% larger bandwidth compared to the results in Salunke . In general, our results emphasize the need for a full-potential description especially for strongly anisotropic structures as a precondition for a subsequent accurate modeling. Furthermore, we comment on the exact diagonalization results given by Salunke .

  12. [A historical review of the therapeutic use of wood creosote. Part II: Original plant source of crude drug wood creosote].

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Nobuaki; Sato, Akane; Shibata, Takashi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    Wood creosote is a medicine that has been listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) since the first edition published in 1886. Medicines containing wood creosote and other natural ingredients have been very popular in Japan and Southeast Asian countries. In Japan, one such medicine, named Seirogan, has been used for more than 100 years. In this paper, we report the results of our examination on the historical aspects of wood creosote. One finding was that creosote, called "kereosote" at that time, was imported to Japan for the first time to Nagasaki by Johann Erdewin Niemann, who was the Director of the Dutch Mercantile House, and prescribed by Johannes Lijdius Catharinus Pompe van Meerdervoort and Anthonius Franciscus Bauduin. From our findings, we concluded that wood creosote was one of the essential medicines for the successful introduction and progression of Western medicine in Japan. Furthermore, we found that Dutch physicians introduced wood creosote to Japanese physicians, including Taizen Sato, Dokai Hayashi, and Jun Matsumoto, and that wood creosote was subsequently popularized by Rintaro (Ogai) Mori during the Russo-Japanese war. In addition, we examined the original plant for wood creosote, and consequently confirmed that the 15th edition of the JP, Supplement Two, clarifying the original plant for wood creosote, matches the pharmaceutical and historical facts. We also provide drug information relating to distinguishing between wood creosote and the creosote bush.

  13. Helgoland und die Erforschung der marinen Benthosalgen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollenhauer, D.; Lüning, K.

    1988-09-01

    Early phycological research on the island of Helgoland was performed by amateur phycologists from the adjacent coastal regions of Germany (Bremen, Hamburg, Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein). These pioneers were followed by professionals, and by collectors from the mainland universities, particularly from Berlin. This second phase group includes the naturalist Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg, the zoologists Johannes Müller, Ernst Haeckel and Anton Dohrn, and the botanists Alexander Braun, Nathanael Pringsheim, and Ferdinand Cohn. The leading marine phycologist in Germany, towards the end of the 19th century, was Johannes Reinke, who finally worked at the University of Kiel. Paul Kuckuck's doctoral thesis had been supervised by Reinke who recommended him for the post of the first curator of botany at the Biological Station of Helgoland, which was founded in 1892. Kuckuck worked on the island from 1892 to 1914. After World War I, and after Kuckuck's untimely death, Wilhelm Nienburg became the second curator of botany on Helgoland, from 1921 to 1923. The next permanent phycologist on the island, from 1925 to 1936, was Ernst Schreiber. He was followed in 1936 by Peter Kornmann, who retired in 1972 but still continues as a research worker, together with Paul-Heinz Sahling, who started to work as a technical assistant under the guidance of Ernst Schreiber in 1927.

  14. Acrofacial dysostosis (AFD) with preaxial limb hypoplasia (Nager AFD) and club foot diagnosed in a fetus from 1812 in the anatomical collections at the University of Halle, Germany.

    PubMed

    Göbbel, Luminita; Schultka, Rüdiger; Klunker, Rudyard; Stock, Karsten; Wand, Dorothee; Olsson, Lennart; Gerlach, Antje; Tönnies, Holger

    2005-09-01

    The Anatomical Collections of the Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology at the University of Halle, Germany, comprise more than 8,000 specimens, about 600 of them congenital anomalies. The collection of abnormal human and animal specimens began with the private collections of Johann Friedrich Meckel the Elder (1724-1774), his son Philipp Friedrich Theodor Meckel (1755-1803), and his grandson Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833). Meckel the Younger founded the science of developmental pathology in Germany. Radiographical techniques, computer tomographic methods (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and molecular cytogenetic techniques, for example, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) were used to diagnose abnormal human fetuses in the Meckel Collection. On examination of one of the human fetuses, originally described by JF Meckel the Younger in 1812 or earlier, we found striking clinical manifestations including mandibulofacial defects and preaxially malformed limbs. With respect to external findings, we propose that the condition is acrofacial dysostosis (AFD) with preaxial limb hypoplasia (Nager AFD) in combination with club foot, tibial torsion, and single umbilical artery. We used genetic analyses to test whether the observed limb malformations could be caused by aneuploidy. CGH-ratio profiles of all chromosomes were apparently normal. It is likely that Meckel's specimen is the earliest known fetus with Nager AFD.

  15. [The Helvetius dynasty].

    PubMed

    Van Heiningen, Teunis Willem

    2014-01-01

    The Helvetius dynasty originates from the Principality of Anhalt, in Germany. George Vigelius, one of its ancestors, was born in the Palatinate (Germany) and studied theology in the town of Basel (Switzerland), after which he was given the surname Swietser. In 1649, his eldest son, Johann Friedrich Swietser, moved to the United Provinces and changed his name into Johan Frederik Helvétius. In 1656, he took his doctorate of medicine at the university of Harderwyck Guelderland). He settled in Amsterdam and moved later to The Hague, where he had a lightning career. Three of his four sons studied medicine in Leyden: Jean-Balthasar, Philippe-Maximilien, and Joseph-Jean. Jean-Adrien, the second son of Johann-Friedrich, settled in Paris and took his doctorate of medicine at the university of Reims, using the pseudonym of Christian-Lebrecht Helvétius. He had a prosperous career. He was the father of Jean-Claude-Adrien Helvétius, who became also a successful physician and first physician to the queen of France. His grandson was Claude-Adrien Helvétius, who became a leading philosopher and writer.

  16. Nuchal cystic hygroma in five fetuses from 1819 to 1826 in the Meckel-anatomical collections at the University of Halle, Germany.

    PubMed

    Göbbel, Luminita; Schultka, Rüdiger; Klunker, Rudyard; Stock, Karsten; Helm, Jürgen; Olsson, Lennart; Opitz, John M; Gerlach, Antje; Tönnies, Holger

    2007-01-15

    The Anatomical collection of the Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical School of the University of Halle, Germany, comprises more than 8,000 specimens. Around 600 of them show congenital anomalies. The collection of abnormal human and animal fetuses began as the private collection of Johann Friedrich Meckel the Elder (1724-1774), his son Philipp Friedrich Theodor Meckel (1755-1803) and his grandson Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833). Meckel the Younger founded the systematic science of developmental pathology. Radiographical techniques, computer tomographic (CT) methods, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) were used to diagnose abnormal human fetuses in the Meckel-anatomical collections. Cystic hygroma colli was found in five of the human fetuses originally described by JF Meckel the Younger in 1826 and one of his students in 1819 [Hencke, 1819]. CGH analyses were used to test whether the observed cystic hygroma colli could be caused by chromosomal aneuploidies. CGH-ratio profiles of all chromosomes were apparently normal. PCR-based sex determination tests on ancient DNA were used to determine the fetal gonosomal constitution. It is likely that the Meckel specimens are among the oldest fetuses in which Ullrich-Turner "phenotype" has been diagnosed.

  17. [Billroth and Brahms: personal encounter of medicine and music].

    PubMed

    Hadaschik, B A; Hadaschik, E N; Hohenfellner, M

    2012-02-01

    Theodor Billroth and Johannes Brahms shared a decades long personal friendship. The music-loving Billroth influenced the work of the famous composer and in turn Brahms also left traces within Billroth's lifetime achievements. To shed light on the close relationship of medicine and music, this manuscript describes both Billroth's life and surgical career as they were influenced and stimulated by his close friendship to Brahms.Theodor Billroth and Johannes Brahms first met in 1865 in Zurich, Switzerland. After Billroth accepted the chair of surgery at the University of Vienna in 1867, Brahms moved to Vienna in 1869. During the following years, Billroth analyzed most of Brahms' compositions prior to publication. Similar to his effective way of teaching medical students and assistants, Billroth stimulated Brahms to publish many of his later compositions. Brahms on the other hand supported Billroth in writing his essay"Who is musical?". Furthermore, music helped Billroth to cope with the demanding working life of a surgeon.Music and surgery share both structural and emotional analogies. While both professions require meticulous techniques, personal interaction is a prerequisite for success. "Science and art scoop from the same well."

  18. [Steadiness and progress. Medicine in Würzburg in the mirror of the centuries - a contribution to the foundation of the University of Würzburg 600 years ago].

    PubMed

    Vollmuth, Ralf; Keil, Gundolf

    2003-01-01

    In the year 1402 one of the first German universities was founded by bishop Johann von Egloffstein, but it had last in its full composition for only a few decades. Nevertheless, the 600th anniversary has a great importance, because in the 16th century, during the second foundation, there was an adequate tradition of university in Würzburg to lean on and go back to.Although, in a medical-history view, in 1402 this university had been without a greater importance, the medicine in Würzburg in the Middle Ages and the Early modern Times had been on a high level, what is shown by representatives like Ortolf von Baierland (13th century) and Berthold Blumentrost (14th century) or by documents like the 'Würzburger Wundarznei' at the end of the 15th century and the 'Nüttzlicher Bericht' by Walther Hermann Ryff, printed 1548 in Würzburg, as one of the first dental mongraphies.A lasting success was finally the university opened in the year 1582. In 1575/6 bishop Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn had reached, using the traditions of the university of 1402, a new privilege by the pope and the emperor. The medical faculty which was functional deeply connected with the Juliusspital as a kind of hospital right from the beginning, was determined by Wilhelm Schefferlein, Gottfriedt van der Steighe and Adriaen van Roomen. In the beginning of the 17th century the medical faculty turned pale, but two representatives of the philosophic faculty, Athanasius Kircher and Caspar Schott, accomplished remarkable outcomes in medical fields. Heavily stricken by the Thirty Years' War the medicine at the University of Würzburg was changed by the prince-bishops to the model of the University of Leiden, in order to improve the feeble position of the medical faculty. After not being successful in the beginning, the foundation of the blossom and of its worldwide importance had been laid in the last third of the 18th century. Karl Kaspar Siebold had, with the help of some of his fellows, students, and

  19. [Obstetrics--a gear in the machinery of history].

    PubMed

    Schaller, A

    1998-01-01

    It was not Julius Caesar who was born by Caesarean section, as generally assumed, but Scipio Cornelius Africanus, who subdued Spain 100 years before Caesar's time. In chambers with walls of porphyrite, the Byzantine empresses used to give birth to the heirs to the throne. In England, the infertility of Queen Anne, who suffered from porphyria, led to the succession of the Protestant House of Hannover following the Catholic Stuarts. Christina of Sweden, called 'queen of baroque, rebel and scholar', was born in the 'caul'. At the age of 39 years, Johanna of Pfirt, married to Albrecht the Lame, secured the continuation of the Habsburg dynasty by giving birth to Rudolf the Founder. Maria Theresia, who had 16 children, was called 'mother-in-law of Europe'. She was delivered of her first child at the age of 19. The death of her sister Maria-Anna in childbed was one of the reasons why Gerard van Swieten was called to Vienna. Elisabeth of Württemberg, first wife of Franz I of Austria, died, not as a consequence of. but after a forceps operation carried out by Johann Lukas Boër. In England, Princess Charlotte, daughter of George IV, and her baby son died at the delivery; Sir Richard Croft, who had not used the forceps, committed suicide after this tragic incident. Being the next in succession, Victoria ascended the throne. The term 'narcose au chloroforme' (first used by James Young Simpson) was changed to 'narcose à la reine' after this method had been used at the birth of Victoria's eighth child by John Snow. It was Queen Victoria, who passed on haemophilia in European dynasties. When Marie Louise of Habsburg had her first child, Napoleon's son, the later Duke of Reichstadt, Antoine Dubois had to perform a turning of the transverse presentation and use the forceps on the head following after. The birth of Napoleon himself was a case of precipitate labour. Johann Klein, the successor of Boër, applied the forceps when Archduchess Sophie was delivered of her first child

  20. TFTR horizontal high-resolution Bragg x-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.; Tavernier, M.; Diesso, M.; von Goeler, S.; Johnson, G.; Johnson, L.C.; Sauthoff, N.R.; Schechtman, N.; Sesnic, S.; Tenney, F.; Young, K.M.

    1984-11-01

    A bent quartz crystal spectrometer of the Johann type with a spectral resolution of lambda/..delta..lambda = 10,000 to 25,000 is used on TFTR to determine central plasma parameters from the spectra of heliumlike and lithiumlike metal impurity ions (Ti, Cr, Fe, and Ni). The spectra are observed along a central radial chord and are recorded by a position sensitive multiwire proportional counter with a spatial resolution of 250. Standard delay-line time-difference readout is employed. The data are histogrammed and stored in 64k of memory providing 128 time groups of 512-channel spectra. The central ion temperature and the toroidal plasma rotation are inferred from the Doppler broadening and Doppler shift of the K lines. The central electron temperature, the distribution of ionization states, and dielectronic recombination rates are obtained from satellite-to-resonance line ratios. The performance of the spectrometer is demonstrated by measurements of the Ti XXI K radiation.

  1. Kepler's mathematization of Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Judith V.

    The paper concerns with mathematical knowledge of Johannes Kepler. A part of the paper describes the mathematical education of Kepler which includes the Euclidean geometry and texts by Ptolemy. The first He knew from the Proclus' Commentary which was published in 1533. The author is pointing out that Kepler's epistemology was close to Plato's. The "polyhedral archetype" is discussed in detail. The greatest error was in the case of Mercury (~20%) Kepler's reaction was otherwise absolutely what one would exopect of a theoretician in the twentieth century: he suggested that better observations would imoprouve matter. The author make an analogy with modern discussions on metal abundances in the outer layers of old stars. The author is mentioning also that the Kepler's version of Copernicus' system is noticeably different from Copernicus' original one, including important improvements.

  2. [The mentally ill artist in the work of E. T. A. Hoffmann in relation to psychological theories at that time].

    PubMed

    Ziegler, V

    1991-01-01

    The work of one of the greatest writers of German Romanticism, E.T.A. Hoffmann, incorporates a great deal of current medical knowledge, which Hoffmann used in a skillful and detailed manner in the portrayal of his characters and their motives. Immersed as he was in contemporary medical practice, an interest fuelled by his own deep-seated hypochondria, he was particularly taken with the works of Philippe Pinel, Johann Christoph Reil, Carl A.F. Kluge, and Gotthelf Heinrich Schubert, who were all interested in the working of the mind. This article demonstrates how attention to Hoffmans's medical reading list offers insights useful for critical understanding of his work, using as an example the analysis of the mad goldsmith Cardillac in one of Hoffmann's most famous stories, 'Das Fräulein von Scuderi'.

  3. The Surprising History of Claims for Life on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, Michael J.

    2011-11-01

    Because astronomers are now convinced that it is impossible for life, especially intelligent life, to exist on the Sun and stars, it might be assumed that astronomers have always held this view. This paper shows that throughout most of the history of astronomy, some intellectuals, including a number of well-known astronomers, have advocated the existence of intelligent life on our Sun and thereby on stars. Among the more prominent figures discussed are Nicolas of Cusa, Giordano Bruno, William Whiston, Johann Bode, Roger Boscovich, William Herschel, Auguste Comte, Carl Gauss, Thomas Dick, John Herschel, and François Arago. One point in preparing this paper is to show differences between the astronomy of the past and that of the present.

  4. Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) and astronomy in Berlin in the 18th century. Contributions of the colloquium held in Berlin-Treptow on March 6, 2010 (German Title: Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) und die Berliner Astronomie im 18. Jahrhundert.) Beiträge des Kolloquiums am 6. März 2010 in Berlin-Treptow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    2010-12-01

    The contributions of this volume are dedicated to Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710), the first Berlin astronomer, on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of his death. They deal with the astronomy of his times and developments in later times, which are connected to his work. The papers deal with the following topics: The instrumental equipment of Berlin Observatory at the time of G. Kirch and its modernisation up to around 1780; the instruments of Johann Makob Marioni's Viennese observatory around 1730; the heraldic celestial globe by Kirch's teacher Erhard Weigel. In addition, they deal with Kirch's share in the propagation of ideas of the Enlightenment, and with the Berlin meteorological record and its consequences for the investigation of anthropogenous climatic changes. They also deal with astronomical topics in the exchange of letters between Leonhard Euler and Daniel Bernoulli, and with the Berlin "Astronomisches Jahrbuch", which is based on Kirch's activities, as a biographical source.

  5. Metaphysics for an enlightened public: The controversy over monads in Germany, 1746-1748.

    PubMed

    Broman, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    This essay analyzes the controversy that attended the prize essay question on monads proposed by the Berlin Academy of Sciences in 1746. The controversy was first touched off by an anonymous pamphlet published by the mathematician Leonhard Euler, the academy's most well known member, that attacked the doctrine of monads. It peaked with the awarding of the prize to Johann Heinrich Gottlob Justi, whose winning essay closely followed Euler's arguments. This essay discusses the controversy as one instance in a broader quarrel in the German academic community over the suitability of Christian Wolff's philosophy as the foundation for a broad range of academic disciplines, including natural philosophy. It also analyzes the controversy as displaying the central role of the periodical press in the emergent German public sphere.

  6. Georg Friedrich Kordenbusch and astronomy in Nuremberg in the second half of the 18th century. (German Title: Georg Friedrich Kordenbusch und die Astronomie in Nürnberg in der zweiten Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaab, Hans

    In the second half of the 18th century, Georg Friedrich Kordenbusch (1731 - 1802) was the best-known living mathematician and astronomer in Nuremberg. Being a physician by training, he obtained, in 1769, the post of lecturer in mathematics and physics at the Egidien secondary school. Subsequently, he tried in vain to re-erect the observatory, torn down in 1751. In the early 1770s, he became famous for preparing the second edition of Johann Leonhard Rost's Astronomisches Handbuch that was, in its first edition of 1718, the first compendium of astronomy written in German, and which had a wide circulation. In 1790, Kordenbusch was raised to the nobility for his achievements.

  7. Zöllner's Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragh, Helge

    2012-12-01

    The idea that space is not Euclidean by necessity, and that there are other kinds of "curved" spaces, diffused slowly to the physical and astronomical sciences. Until Einstein's general theory of relativity, only a handful of astronomers contemplated a connection between non-Euclidean geometry and real space. One of them, the German astrophysicist Johann Carl Friedrich Zöllner (1834-1882), suggested in 1872 a remarkable cosmological model describing a finite universe in closed space. I examine Zöllner's little-known contribution to cosmology and also his even more unorthodox speculations of a four-dimensional space including both physical and spiritual phenomena. I provide an overview of Zöllner's scientific work, of his status in the German scientific community, and of the controversies caused by his polemical style of science. Zöllner's cosmology was effectively forgotten, but there is no reason why it should remain an unwritten chapter in the history of science.

  8. Encyclopedia as Textbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palló, Gábor

    2006-11-01

    Textbooks and encyclopedias represent different genres of scientific literature. Textbooks help the students to prepare for their examinations in various subjects taught at schools, such as logic, metaphysic, chemistry. In the 17th Century some Calvinist professors, mostly in Germany, thought that a universal wholeness should be taught for the students. Encyclopedias adequately expressed this vision. Some of these professors, including Johannes Alsted, were invited to Hungary, Transylvania, to introduce the encyclopedic spirit to the local schools. This act fostered the first textbook in Hungarian language written by János Apáczai Csere. This book was an encyclopedia born mostly in the Netherlands where the author studied. The Cartesian philosophy combined with a Ramist system served as the basis of the book. Its history shows how the local conditions influence the content of knowledge incorporated into a textbook.

  9. Medical police and the nanny state: public health versus private autonomy.

    PubMed

    Baron, Jeremy Hugh

    2006-07-01

    Rome tried to increase both the numbers of its people and their well-being, and hence their wealth, but it was not until the 16th century that European rulers were urged to achieve these aims by the power of the state to enforce public health. By the 17th century, absolutist states such as France, Austria and especially Germany had created an administrative profession of enlightened despotism, with medical police to encourage healthy and thus wealth-producing citizens. Johann Peter Frank (1745-1821) was the profession's exemplar with his 6,262 page System einer vollstländigen medischiner Polizey, leading to comprehensive public health legislation in German-speaking states, followed by more libertarian countries such as Britain and the United States. However, controversy continues on the role of government in trying to save its citizens, and especially their children, from harming themselves and/or others by their actions and omissions.

  10. Fisher's contributions to genetics and heredity, with special emphasis on the Gregor Mendel controversy.

    PubMed

    Piegorsch, W W

    1990-12-01

    R. A. Fisher is widely respected for his contributions to both statistics and genetics. For instance, his 1930 text on The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection remains a watershed contribution in that area. Fisher's subsequent research led him to study the work of (Johann) Gregor Mendel, the 19th century monk who first developed the basic principles of heredity with experiments on garden peas. In examining Mendel's original 1865 article, Fisher noted that the conformity between Mendel's reported and proposed (theoretical) ratios of segregating individuals was unusually good, "too good" perhaps. The resulting controversy as to whether Mendel "cooked" his data for presentation has continued to the current day. This review highlights Fisher's most salient points as regards Mendel's "too good" fit, within the context of Fisher's extensive contributions to the development of genetical and evolutionary theory.

  11. Kepler's winding Path to true Heliocentrism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, Volker

    The paper concerns the evolution of concepts by Johannes Kepler from Aristotelian conception of the Universe to Heliocentrism. Already as young Magister in Tubingen Kepler has taken an active part in Physical disputations of the candidates and has defended the doctrines of Copernik (1). In the Mysterium Cosmographicum he refers the planetary distances no longer to the center of the earth's orbit, but to the center of the true sun. But just by working out his Astronomia Nova Kepler succeeds in creating a strictly heliocentric astronomy as his handwriting Manuscripts give detailed information (2). Notes: 1) fragmentum orations de motu terrae. In Keppler Gesammelte werke Vol. 20.1, Munich 1988, p. 147-149 2) Commentaria in Theoriam Martis. Edition in: Kepler Gessamelete Werke Vol. 20.2 (in preparation)

  12. Kepler's Use of Archetypes in his defence against Aristotelian Scepticism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Rhonda M.

    In 1621, looking back over an impresive career, Johannes Kepler commented that "almost every book on astronomy which I have published since that time could be referred to one or another of the important chapters set out in this little book (the Mysterium Cosmographicum) and would contain either an illustration or a completion of it". Kepler viewed the Mysterium, his first book, as the genesis of hist later works; Here the author is focusing on the conceptual foundations it provided for his approach to physical astronomy and the Aristotelian dominant during his time. It turns out that despite Kepler's arowedly Platonic and Pythagorean sympathies, his physical astronomy comports with Aristotle's directives in the Posterior Analytics. Perhaps paradoxically, his arhetypal cosmology as expressed in the Mysterium enabled the merging Platonic and Aristotelian intuitions in his construction of the new astronomy.

  13. Jan Šindel and his treatise "Canones pro eclipsibus Solis et Lune"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadravová, Alena

    Already in the first few decades after its foundation in 1348, the Charles University in Prague achieved remarkable results in astronomy. One of outstanding persons of this period, professor and rector of Prague University Iohannes Andreae, called Šindel (c. 1375-1456/8), will be briefly introduced. M. Jan Šindel is known as the astronomer in collaboration with whom the clockmaker Nicolaus of Kadaň constructed in 1410 the famous astronomical Clock of Prague. The most important Šindel's astronomical treatise "Canones pro eclipsibus Solis et Lune" is added to several manuscripts copies of Albion by Richard of Wallingford (c. 1292-1335), enlarged by M. Johann von Gmunden (1380-1442). This illustrates the connections between Prague and Vienna astronomical schools. In this treatise Šindel describes his version of eclipse instrument, a nomogram for calculation of eclipses of the Moon and Sun, which is a simplification of the more general Wallingford's instrument.

  14. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    PubMed

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.

  15. SOLEX: a tunable monochromatic X-ray source in the 1-20 keV energy range for metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnelle, C.; Jonnard, P.; André, J.-M.; Avila, A.; Laporte, D.; Ringuenet, H.; Lépy, M. C.; Plagnard, J.; Ferreux, L.; Protas, J. C.

    2004-01-01

    A tunable monochromatic X-ray source covering the 1-20 keV energy range is described. The initial X-ray beam is obtained from a dedicated windowless X-ray tube. The energy selection is performed through a cylindrically bent crystal, used either in the reflection (Johann geometry) or in the transmission (Cauchois geometry) mode, by rotating the crystal holder by a 90° angle. Contrary to conventional geometries where the X-ray tube is fixed, here the direction of the exit beam impinging the X-ray detector is fixed. This setup is shown to be useful for various studies: high-resolution spectrometry, characterization of the response function and the efficiency of detectors and optical components, determination of transmission characteristics of different materials. Observations of the Lα line and Kα doublet from a copper anode are presented, that demonstrate the performance of this new setup.

  16. ["Could not therefore the earth globe also be a large tourmaline?" A crystal, Lichtenberg and the polarity discussion before 1800].

    PubMed

    Wiesenfeldt, Gerhard; Breidbach, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the debate on one particular phenomenon of the research into electrical charge distribution prior to 1800: the description and interpretation of polarities observed on the tourmaline. We show that in the second half of the eighteenth century this crystal became a model to distinguish and categorize different qualities of charges (electric and magnetic fluids). It will become clear that the polarity detected on the tourmaline became a key concept for eighteenth century natural philosophy, which relied on analogizing operations. We illustrate this concentrating on Lichtenbergs first lecture at the Göttingen academy of science in 1778. Thus the concept of polarity is already a central ordering category before the beginnings of the speculative enterprise of idealistic Naturphilosophy. Consequently, the physicist Johann Wilhelm Ritter, who can be positioned in that context, consciously adheres to the experimental research tradition of polarities portrayed in this paper.

  17. Voluntarism in early psychology: the case of Hermann von Helmholtz.

    PubMed

    De Kock, Liesbet

    2014-05-01

    The failure to recognize the programmatic similarity between (post-)Kantian German philosophy and early psychology has impoverished psychology's historical self-understanding to a great extent. This article aims to contribute to recent efforts to overcome the gaps in the historiography of contemporary psychology, which are the result of an empiricist bias. To this end, we present an analysis of the way in which Hermann von Helmholtz's theory of perception resonates with Johann Gottlieb Fichte's Ego-doctrine. It will be argued that this indebtedness is particularly clear when focusing on the foundation of the differential awareness of subject and object in perception. In doing so, the widespread reception of Helmholtz's work as proto-positivist or strictly empiricist is challenged, in favor of the claim that important elements of his theorizing can only be understood properly against the background of Fichte's Ego-doctrine.

  18. [On the ancient and magical lesions in the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries].

    PubMed

    Hach, W; Hach-Wunderle, V

    2014-11-01

    At the beginning of the Renaissance magical, witchcraft and demonological medicine still played a large role in the poor healing ability of chronic leg ulcers. This included the general administration of magical potions and topical application. An example of the manipulation of the whole body by the devil was the Abracadabra text from Johann Christoph Bitterkraut in the year 1677. The use of bewitched ointments was particularly propagated by Paracelsus in 1622; however, even as early as the beginning of the seventeenth century, the invocation of supernatural powers was slowly diminishing until at the beginning of the nineteenth century the medical schools on chronic leg ulcers could be cultivated at the universities and by specialized wound healers.

  19. Zabór Palace in the Light of the Latest Discoveries - Interior of the Elevation using Sgraffito Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielinis-Kopeć, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    The property in Zabór from the fifteenth century belonged, among others, to families: von Tschammer, von Dyhrn, Montani, von Dünnewald, von Cosel and von Schönaich-Carolath. The testimony of its magnificence is a palace built by Count Johann Heinrich von Dünnewald in the 4th quarter of the seventeenth century, in the type of early baroque French residence, which, after 1745 was expanded in a magnificent baroque residence by Count Friedrich August von Cosel. In 2014 during the renovation of the monument one encountered a mannerist sgraffito, and facades of the old previously unknown buildings, were decorated with it, dating back probably to the early seventeenth century, which sheds a new light on the history of the monument and its construction phases.

  20. Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. 7 (German Title: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Hamel, Jürgen

    The topics of this volume extend from the work of the islamic scienticst al-Tusi in the 13th century to the development of astronomical instrumentation at the Carl Zeiss Jena Company in the second half of the 20th century. The contents of the remaining articles are found between these limits: the well-known textbooks of Johannes de Sacrobosco, Tycho Brahe's stays in Augsburg, Gottfried Kirch's calendars, published around 1700, a portrait of Bessel, made during his Königsberg time, Fraunhofer's successors at the Munich Optical Institute, and Einstein's cosmological ideas in his ``Four lectures on the Theory of Relativity''. The earliest disputation of the learned Jesuit Christoph Scheiner is printed for the first time in a German translation. The volume is concluded by a bibliographical overview on historical Venus transits, additional short notes, an obituary of Jerzy Dobrzycki, and book reviews. Most papers are written in German. Main papers have English abstracts.

  1. Kepler's teacher Michael Mästlin and his textbook of astronomy (1582). (German Title: Keplers Lehrer Michael Mästlin und sein Lehrbuch der Astronomie (1582))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rex, Friedemann

    In contrast to Andreas Libavius, Mästlin's contemporary in the field of chemistry, whose importance lies less in his ``Spiritus fumans Libavii'' (tin tetrachloride), and rather in his authorship of the first highly regarded chemical textbook, Michael Mästlin's renown as a convinced Copernican certainly does not rest upon his role as the author of a traditional astronomical textbook. Nevertheless, Mästlin convincingly demonstrates his didactic skills in his textbook, which not without reason ran through seven editions within a timespan of 42 years. To the benefit of all conscientious readers he readily fulfils the promises made in his opening comments, and an initiation in Mästlin's ``catechism'' of astronomy may indeed serve as a direct introduction of this esteemed teacher of Johannes Kepler.

  2. The Transits of Venus and New Technologies: A Time to Reflect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brashear, Ron

    2005-01-01

    In the recent history of astronomy there have been occasions where `New Astronomies' have been introduced. In the spirit of the recent excitement of the 2004 transit of Venus, I have used the periods around the historical transits to reflect on the `New Astronomies' of those eras. Johannes Kepler's Astronomia Nova is a fine representation of the New Astronomy of the 1631-1639 transit pair and Pierre Simon, Marquis de Laplace's Traité de Mécanique Céleste reflects the New Astronomy of the 1761-1769 transit pair. A combination of Samuel P. Langley's The New Astronomy and James E. Keeler's 1897 paper on astrophysics have been chosen as the exemplars of the New Astronomy of the 1874-1882 transit pair. I am open to suggestions for the works that best represent the 2004-2012 transit pairs.

  3. Kepler's "War on Mars"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, William; Orchiston, W.; Stephenson, F. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an interpretation of how Johannes Kepler changed the study of astronomy. We propose that in his metaphorical "War on Mars,” the Astronomia Nova, Kepler used a revolutionary rhetoric to bring about the usurpation of seventeenth-century astronomy. We discuss how Kepler approached the well-established conceptual framework within which the hypotheses of Ptolemy, Copernicus and Tycho Brahe functioned, and how he sought comprehensive physical principles that could determine the true cause and form of the known Universe. We examine Kepler's need to redefine reality and his use of rhetoric in shaping his astronomical argument for a new astronomy, and we show that his new `laws’ represent a fusion of physics and geometry based upon astronomical observations. We suggest that although Kepler may have believed in and defended some Copernican ideas, his innovative Astronomia Nova opened up a whole new vista for international astronomy.

  4. Soft-Stowed Approach: Safe Transportation to ISS for Experiments, Spares & New Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itta, Antonietta; Quagliotti, Francesco

    2012-07-01

    The ISS operational and logistic scenario relies on the regular upload of new experiments and maintenance hardware. The extension of the ISS lifetime places even more emphasis on a resupply policy based on safe, cheap and flexible transportation solutions to ISS. A transportation method suitable for all available carriers is represented by foam packaged items put inside bags or containers. This flight condition can now be analyzed thanks to the results derived from an extensive test campaign performed by Boeing in 2009 under NASA sponsorship. Data and guidelines are provided for the calculation of the attenuated flight environments due to the soft packaging conditions. The paper also reports a real life application: the uploading to ISS of the Columbus PDU (some 90 kg) inside ATV II Johannes Kepler, wrapped in 1” of zotek and put inside a M01 bag. The mission was successful: PDU is today safely stored inside a Columbus Rack.

  5. Assessment of the ATV-1 Re-Entry Observation Campaign for Future Re-Entry Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lips, T.; Lohle, S.; Marynowsky, T.; Rees, D.; Stenbeak-Nielsen, H. C.; Beks, M. L.; Hatton, J.

    2010-09-01

    This paper summarizes the midterm results of the currently ongoing ESA study “Assessment of the ATV-1 Reentry Observation Campaign for Future Re-entry Missions”. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the data obtained during a joint ESA/NASA airborne observation campaign of the destructive re-entry of ATV-1 Jules Verne which occurred on September 29, 2008. The presented results are focused on spectroscopic fragment characterization(material identification), frame-by-frame fragment tracking(manual and automatic) for various video recordings, 3D triangulation of the tracked fragments, and fragment propagation until complete demise or ground impact, including the actual size and location of the ATV-1 debris footprint. Fragment propagation analyses comprise also the derivation of aerodynamic fragment properties and potential delta velocities. These parameters are of high importance for the re-entry safety analysis for ATV-2 Johannes Kepler.

  6. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boner, Patrick J.

    The history of cosmology in medieval and early modern Europe involves an interdisciplinary array of scholars who redefined the nature and knowability of the world. The papers in this volume focus primarily on astronomers who put forward new ways of relating the heavens and earth and our role as cosmic actors. Together, they represent a rich variety of views that brought the heavens and earth closer together as new forms of cosmic continuity reflected new forms of knowledge.1 More than a monolithic response to scholastic philosophy, these views suggest a growing number of voices that spoke to the essence and structure of the cosmos as a whole. Johannes Kepler, among "a new breed of astronomers" who studied the science of the stars in concert with cosmology,2 is a radical example of this emerging enterprise of cosmic synthesis.

  7. From Cosmos to Confession: Kepler and the Connection Between Astronomical and Religious Truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothman, Aviva

    In October of 1595, Johannes Kepler joyfully conveyed to Tübingen the news that he had completed his first book, the Mysterium cosmographicum. "I truly desire," he wrote to Michael Maestlin, his former professor of mathematics, "that these things are published as quickly as possible for the glory of God, who wants to be known from the Book of Nature […]. I wanted to be a theologian; for a long time I was distressed: behold God is now celebrated too in my astronomical work."1 Unable to devote himself to the Book of Scripture directly,2 Kepler had turned his focus to God's other book - the Book of Nature - which, he believed, also revealed God's providential plan.

  8. Mechanical effects of light on material media: radiation pressure and the linear and angular momenta of photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2014-09-01

    Electromagnetic waves carry energy as well as linear and angular momenta. Interactions between light and material media typically involve the exchange of all three entities. In all such interactions energy and momentum (both linear and angular) are conserved. Johannes Kepler seems to have been the first person to notice that the pressure of sunlight is responsible for the tails of the comets pointing away from the Sun. Modern applications of radiation pressure and photon momentum include solar sails, optical tweezers for optical trapping and micro-manipulation, and optically-driven micro-motors and actuators. This paper briefly describes certain fundamental aspects underlying the mechanical properties of light, and examines several interesting phenomena involving the linear and angular momenta of photons.

  9. French Crossings: III. The Smile of the Tiger

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Colin

    2016-01-01

    This article continues the theme of ‘French Crossings’ explored in other Presidential Addresses by focussing on the border zone between the human and the animal. The focus is on the allegedly tiger-like character attributed to Maimilien Robespierre, particularly after his fall from power and his execution in 1794. This theme is explored in terms of Thermidorian propaganda, French Revolutionary historiography and the ancient discipline of physiognomy, which was reactivated by Johann-Caspar Lavater in the late eighteenth century and still influential through much of the nineteenth. Robespierre’s animal rather than human status was also held to emerge in his inability to smile or laugh, a significant point also in that the meaning of the smile was changing in the same period. PMID:27630376

  10. A Newtonian Description of the Linear Stark Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodyard, James; Espinosa, James

    2010-10-01

    After the discovery of the magnetic effect on spectral lines by Zeeman, it was only natural that physicists should look for a similar effect when an electric field was applied. A nonlinear model of the hydrogen atom developed by Woldemar Voigt was investigated and predicted a second order effect that would require huge electric fields in the ten of millions of volts per centimeter. Fortunately, Johannes Stark ignored this ominous prediction by a leading theoretician and discovered a linear electric effect that would quickly be named after himself. Soon after Bohr introduced his quantum theory of the Hydrogen Atom, Schwarzschild and Epstein independently utilized Sommerfeld's extension of Bohr's theory to arrive at an empirically correct formula. We will show how our classical theory of the hydrogen atom can account for the linear Stark effect.

  11. Training the intelligent eye: understanding illustrations in early modern astronomy texts.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Kathleen M; Barker, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Throughout the early modern period, the most widely read astronomical textbooks were Johannes de Sacrobosco's De sphaera and the Theorica planetarum, ultimately in the new form introduced by Georg Peurbach. This essay argues that the images in these texts were intended to develop an "intelligent eye." Students were trained to transform representations of specific heavenly phenomena into moving mental images of the structure of the cosmos. Only by learning the techniques of mental visualization and manipulation could the student "see" in the mind's eye the structure and motions of the cosmos. While anyone could look up at the heavens, only those who had acquired the intelligent eye could comprehend the divinely created order of the universe. Further, the essay demonstrates that the visual program of the Sphaera and Theorica texts played a significant and hitherto unrecognized role in later scientific work. Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler all utilized the same types of images in their own texts to explicate their ideas about the cosmos.

  12. Coronellis Cosmos in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaßner, Gottfried; Pärr, Nora

    2009-06-01

    Die Melker Stiftsbibliothek besitzt ein Globenpaar des berühmten venezianischen Globenbauers Vincenzo Coronelli (1650-1718), einen Erdglobus von 1688 und einen Himmelsglobus von 1693. Wie und wann die beiden Globen nach Melk gekommen sind, ist nicht bekannt. Dass sie zur ursprünglichen Ausstattung der 1735 fertig gestellten Barockbibliothek gehörten, wird aber aus der zentralen Stellung deutlich, die dem Globus (Erdglobus und Armillarphäre) in dem von Paul Troger 1732 gemalten Deckenfresko zukommt. Mehrfach begegnet das Motiv des Globus als Attribut der Weisheit bzw. Philosophie, der Geographie bzw. Geometrie und der Astronomie in den beiden Hauptsälen wie auch in der Deckenmalerei von Johann Bergl in der Oberen Bibliothek (1768) und in der Kuppel des Gartenpavillons (1764).

  13. Chromatic modulation in visual art: a computational perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agahchen, Anissa; Albu, Alexandra Branzan

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a computational approach for analyzing and visualizing the aesthetics of color from the perspective of color theory. Our study is grounded in the works of Johannes Itten, one of the most remarkable theorists of color aesthetics. Our focus lies on the computational analysis of a specific aspect of color usage in paintings, namely modulation. We, therefore, propose the three-dimensional (3-D) color palette, a visualization of the chromatic information of an image in the hue-saturation-lightness space. Using the proposed palette, we derive a set of simple hue-specific descriptors for color modulation. Our experimental results involve a selection of digital reproductions of paintings discussed extensively by Itten. They show that the proposed modulation measures yield results that are consistent with Itten's comments and explanations. Future work involves further exploration of the proposed 3-D color palette, in terms of its ability to discriminate between different artists and painting styles.

  14. How fingerprints came into use for personal identification.

    PubMed

    Caplan, R M

    1990-07-01

    The use of fingerprints for personal identification became widespread early in this century. How the fingerprints slowly became standardized involves many persons, including Nathaniel Grew, Johannes Purkinje, William Herschel, Henry Faulds, Charles Darwin, Francis Galton, Mark Twain, Juan Vucetich, Edward Henry, and J. Edgar Hoover. Although fingerprints have been noted and used since antiquity, a 25-year burst of activity that secured adoption of their use for identification began in about 1880. New modifications and applications have continued to the present. The history of fingerprints offers an excellent example of how society adopts innovations. This story also includes a bitter struggle for appropriate credit for various crucial steps in developing and adopting this important tool. More recent technical advances, including computers and molecular biology, now supplement the ease and usefulness of fingerprints, although the word fingerprinting continues in use by metaphoric extension.

  15. Kepler's Copernican Campaign and the New Star of 1604

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boner, Patrick J.

    In a letter of 27 October 1604, David Fabricius (1564-1617) eagerly reported to Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) his observations of a brilliant new luminary in the constellation of Sagittarius. Fabricius had first observed the new luminary "near the location of the great conjunction,"1 which had occurred just 10 months earlier. His eyes had been drawn to the area by the proximity of the three superior planets when "Mars and Jupiter were conjoined and Saturn had by then returned directly to the location of the great conjunction."2 There, Fabricius had identified "a new star, with no motion of its own," in the outer sphere encasing the cosmos.3 The star had surpassed Jupiter "in diameter and silvery splendor,"4 and its scintillation had proven incomparably swift.

  16. The History of Acromegaly.

    PubMed

    de Herder, Wouter W

    2016-01-01

    Pierre Marie coined the term 'acromegaly' in 1886 and linked it to a distinct clinical disease with a characteristic clinical picture. However, Pierre Marie was not the first physician to give a full record of the clinical picture of acromegaly; others had preceded him, like the Dutch physician Johannes Wier. After Marie, pituitary enlargement was noted in almost all patients with acromegaly. Subsequently it was discovered that pituitary hyperfunction caused by a pituitary tumour was indeed the cause of acromegaly. The cause of acromegaly could be further determined after the discovery of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and after demonstrating an association with GH hypersecretion and elevated circulating IGF-I. From the beginning of the 20th century, acromegaly could be treated by pituitary surgery and/or radiotherapy. After 1970, medical therapies were introduced that could control acromegaly. First, dopamine agonists were introduced, followed by somatostatin analogues and GH receptor blockers.

  17. Sunspots During the Maunder Minimum from Machina Coelestis by Hevelius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, V. M. S.; Álvarez, J. Villalba; Vaquero, J. M.

    2015-10-01

    We revisited the sunspot observations published by Johannes Hevelius in his book Machina Coelestis (1679) corresponding to the period of 1653 - 1675 (just in the middle of the Maunder Minimum). We show detailed translations of the original Latin texts describing the sunspot records and provide the general context of these sunspot observations. From this source, we present an estimate of the annual values of the group sunspot number based only on the records that explicitly inform us of the presence or absence of sunspots. Although we obtain very low values of the group sunspot number, in accordance with a grand minimum of solar activity, these values are significantly higher in general than the values provided by Hoyt and Schatten ( Solar Phys. 179, 189, 1998) for the same period.

  18. Solar rotation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziembowski, W.

    Sunspot observations made by Johannes Hevelius in 1642 - 1644 are the first ones providing significant information about the solar differential rotation. In modern astronomy the determination of the rotation rate is done in a routine way by measuring positions of various structures on the solar surface as well as by studying the Doppler shifts of spectral lines. In recent years a progress in helioseismology enabled determination of the rotation rate in the layers inaccessible for direct observations. There are still uncertainties concerning, especially, the temporal variations of the rotation rate and its behaviour in the radiative interior. We are far from understanding the observations. Theoretical works have not yet resulted in a satisfactory model for the angular momentum transport in the convective zone.

  19. How History Helped Einstein in Special Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Alberto

    2013-04-01

    I will discuss how the German intellectual movement known as ``critical history'' motivated several physicists in the late 1900s to radically analyze the fundamental principles of mechanics, leading eventually to Einstein's special theory of relativity. Eugen Karl Dühring, Johann Bernhard Stallo, Ludwig Lange, and Ernst Mach wrote critical histories of mechanics, some of which emphasized notions of relativity and observation, in opposition to old metaphysical concepts that seemed to infect the foundations of physics. This strand of critical history included the ``genetic method'' of analyzing how concepts develop over time, in our minds, by way of ordinary experiences, which by 1904 was young Albert Einstein's favorite approach for examining fundamental notions. Thus I will discuss how history contributed in Einstein's path to relativity, as well as comment more generally on Einstein's views on history.

  20. Kaspar Schott's "encyclopedia of all mathematical sciences"

    PubMed

    Knobloch, Eberhard

    2011-06-01

    In 1661, Kaspar Schott published his comprehensive textbook "Cursus mathematicus" in Würzburg for the first time, his "Encyclopedia of all mathematical sciences". It was so successful that it was published again in 1674 and 1677. In its 28 books, Schott gave an introduction for beginners in 22 mathematical disciplines by means of 533 figures and numerous tables. He wanted to avoid the shortness and the unintelligibility of his predecessors Alsted and Hérigone. He cited or recommended far more than hundred authors, among them Protestants like Michael Stifel and Johannes Kepler, but also Catholics like Nicolaus Copernicus. The paper gives a survey of this work and explains especially interesting aspects: The dedication to the German emperor Leopold I., Athanasius Kircher's letter of recommendation as well as Schott's classification of sciences, explanations regarding geometry, astronomy, and algebra.

  1. The role of tone sensation and musical stimuli in early experimental psychology.

    PubMed

    Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the role of music in early experimental psychology is examined. Initially, the research of Wilhelm Wundt is considered, as tone sensation and musical elements appear as dominant factors in much of his work. It is hypothesized that this approach was motivated by an understanding of psychology that dates back to Christian Wolff 's focus on sensation in his empirical psychology of 1732. Wolff, however, had built his systematization of psychology on Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, who combined perception with mathematics,and referred to music as the area in which sensation is united with numerical exactitude. Immanuel Kant refused to accept empirical psychology as a science, whereas Johann Friedrich Herbart reintroduced the scientific basis of empirical psychology by, among other things, referring to music.

  2. Plasma diagnostics for x-ray driven foils at Z

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R F; Bailey, J E; Cuneo, M E; Emig, J; Foord, M E; Springer, P T; Thoe, R S

    2000-06-17

    We report the development of techniques to diagnose plasmas produced by X-ray photoionization of thin foils placed near the Z-pinch on the Sandia Z Machine. The development of 100+ TW X-ray sources enables access to novel plasma regimes, such as the photoionization equilibrium. To diagnose these plasmas one must simultaneously characterize both the foil and the driving pinch. The desired photoionized plasma equilibrium is only reached transiently for a 2-ns window, placing stringent requirements on diagnostic synchronization. We have adapted existing Sandia diagnostics and fielded an additional gated 3-crystal Johann spectrometer with dual lines of sight to meet these requirements. We present sample data from experiments in which 1 cm, 180 eV tungsten pinches photoionized foils composed of 200{angstrom} Fe and 300{angstrom} NaF co-mixed and sandwiched between 1000{angstrom} layers of Lexan (CHO), and discuss the application of this work to benchmarking astrophysical models.

  3. [The architect Heino Schmieden and his merits regarding the construction of hospitals in Berlin].

    PubMed

    Peters, Oleg

    The architect Johann Heino Schmieden (1835-1913) in research today is primarily perceived, if perceived at all, as the partner of Martin Gropius (1824-1880), with whom he maintained a joint architectural firm for 15 years. So far, not much has been published about his life and his achievements. The author proves that Schmieden's life's accomplishments deserve better appreciation and that he belonged to the leading representatives of his profession. Citing numerous examples in the Berlin area, the author presents Heino Schmieden as a nationally and internationally sought-after and leading hospital architect, without forgetting to mention that he discusses only one, albeit the most important, aspect of his work in the present article.

  4. Pyroelectricity in Polycrystalline Ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, R.; Jiménez, B.

    The first reference to pyroelectric effect is by Theophrastus in 314 BC, who noted that tourmaline becomes charged because it attracted bits of straw and ash when heated. Tourmaline's properties were reintroduced in Europe in 1707 by Johann George Schmidt, who also noted the attractive properties of the mineral when heated. Pyroelectricity was first described by Louis Lemery in 1717. In 1747, Linnaeus first related the phenomenon to electricity, although this was not proven until 1756 by Franz Ulrich Thodor Aepinus. In 1824, Sir David Brewster gave the effect the name it has today. William Thomson in 1878 and Voight in 1897 helped develop a theory for the processes behind pyroelectricity. Pierre Curie and his brother, Jacques Curie, studied pyroelectricity in the 1880s, leading to their discovery of some of the mechanisms behind piezoelectricity.

  5. The astronomical revolution. Copernicus - Kepler - Borelli.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyré, A.

    The work was originally published in 1961 under the title "La révolution astronomique" as part of the series, Histoire de la pensée. This book is an unabridged and unaltered republication of the English translation, by R. E. W. Maddison, originally published in 1973 (see 10.003.074). The author elucidates, precisely and in stages, the revolutionary ideas of Nicolaus Copernicus as well as the work of two other thinkers who made major contributions to the astronomical revolution: Johannes Kepler and Giovanni Borelli. He illuminates the exact contribution of each man, placing his work in its historical context and dispelling a host of misconceptions about it. In order to effectively recapture the ferment and flavor of the times, the author, whenever possible, has allowed Copernicus, Kepler and Borelli to speak for themselves by quoting key passages from their writings. Many of these passages were here translated for the first time.

  6. Franz Selety (1893-1933?). His cosmological investigations and the correspondence with Einstein (German Title: Franz Selety (1893-1933?). Seine kosmologischen Arbeiten und der Briefwechsel mit Einstein)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Tobias

    In 1922, Franz Selety, university-bred philosopher and self-educated physicist and cosmologist, developed a molecular hierarchical, spatially infinite, Newtonian cosmological model. His considerations were based on his earlier philosophical work published in 1914 as well as on the early correspondence with Einstein in 1917. Historically, the roots of hierarchical models can be seen in 18th century investigations by Thomas Wright of Durham, Immanuel Kant and Johann Heinrich Lambert. Those investigations were taken up by Edmund Fournier d'Albe and Carl Charlier at the beginning of the 20th century. Selety's cosmological model was criticized by Einstein mainly due to its spatial infiniteness which in Einstein's opinion seemed to contradict Mach's principle. This criticism sheds light on Einstein's conviction that with his first cosmological model, namely the static, spatially infinite, though unbounded Einstein Universe of 1917, the appropriate cosmological theory already had been established.

  7. Waldemar Wilhelm: father of oral and maxillofacial surgery in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castro-Núñez, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Waldemar Wilhelm (1913-1994) was honored by the Asociación Colombiana de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial (Colombian Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery) as the Father of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Colombia. Born in Karlsruhe, Germany, Wilhelm graduated as a dentist from Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in 1936. He emigrated shortly thereafter to Colombia, receiving his dental license there in 1943. He completed his oral and maxillofacial surgery training at Nordwestdeutsche Kieferklinic, under the tutelage of Prof. Dr. Dr. Karl Schuchardt in Hamburg. In 1950, he settled in Bogotá, where he joined the Universidad Nacional School of Dentistry, opened Colombia's first oral and maxillofacial surgery department at Hospital San José, and trained the first maxillofacial surgeons in Colombia in 1958.

  8. The Lenticular Process of the Incus

    PubMed Central

    Graboyes, Evan M.; Hullar, Timothy E.; Chole, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    17th century anatomists, including Franciscus Sylvius, identified a small bony structure between the distal end of the incus and the stapes that they believed was a separate and thus additional ossicle. The existence of the ossicle at the distal portion of the long process of the incus was controversial for the next two hundred years. In the 19th century, anatomists including Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, Henry Jones Shrapnell, Eduard Hagenbach, and Joseph Hyrtl provided numerous arguments to demonstrate why the so-called additional ossicle was actually attached to the incus by a thin strut, and thus not a separate bone. Since then, the ovoid end of the incus has been referred to as the “lenticular process” of the incus. The best nomenclature for the bony connection between the lenticular process and the rest of the incus remains uncertain, but the term “lenticular process” should not include its connecting pedicle. PMID:21986927

  9. Early descriptions of acromegaly and gigantism and their historical evolution as clinical entities.

    PubMed

    Mammis, Antonios; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Liu, James K

    2010-10-01

    Giants have been a subject of fascination throughout history. Whereas descriptions of giants have existed in the lay literature for millennia, the first attempt at a medical description was published by Johannes Wier in 1567. However, it was Pierre Marie, in 1886, who established the term "acromegaly" for the first time and established a distinct clinical diagnosis with clear clinical descriptions in 2 patients with the characteristic presentation. Multiple autopsy findings revealed a consistent correlation between acromegaly and pituitary enlargement. In 1909, Harvey Cushing postulated a “hormone of growth" as the underlying pathophysiological trigger involved in pituitary hypersecretion in patients with acromegaly. This theory was supported by his observations of clinical remission in patients with acromegaly in whom he had performed hypophysectomy. In this paper, the authors present some of the early accounts of acromegaly and gigantism, and describe its historical evolution as a medical and surgical entity.

  10. Meckel-Gruber syndrome (dysencephalia splanchnocystica).

    PubMed

    Shetty, B Prasanna; Alva, Nandakishore; Patil, Shankargouda; Shetty, Rohit

    2012-09-01

    Meckel-Gruber syndrome is a rare lethal autosomal recessive condition which was first described by Johann Friedrich Meckel in 1822 and GB Gruber in 1934. More than 200 cases have been reported worldwide with an incidence ranging from 1:13,250 to 1:140,000 live births. A 21-year-old female with G3 A2 L0, presented with twin pregnancy with history of previous two anencephalic pregnancies. The present pregnancy was a preterm vaginal delivery of female twins by face presentation at 35 weeks of gestation (diamniotic dichorionic twin gestation). Neonatal autopsy revealed classical triad of occipital encephalocele, polycystic kidneys and lungs with postaxial polydactyly. This case is presented for its rarity and its documented occurrence in Gujarati Indians.

  11. Form--a matter of generation: the relation of generation, form, and function in the epigenetic theory of Caspar F. Wolff.

    PubMed

    Witt, Elke

    2008-12-01

    The question, how organisms obtain their specific complex and functional forms, was widely discussed during the eighteenth century. The theory of preformation, which was the dominant theory of generation, was challenged by different alternative epigenetic theories. By the end of the century it was the vitalist approach most famously advocated by Johann Friedrich Blumenbach that prevailed. Yet the alternative theory of generation brought forward by Caspar Friedrich Wolff was an important contribution to the treatment of this question. He turned his attention from the properties of matter and the forces acting on it towards the level of the processes of generation in order to explain the constitution of organismic forms. By regarding organic structures and forms to be the result of the lawfulness of ongoing processes, he opened up the possibility of a functional but non-teleological explanation of generation, and thereby provided an important complement to materialist and vitalist approaches.

  12. Fetus-in-fetu: a pediatric rarity.

    PubMed

    Narayanasamy, Jeyanthi N; Nallusamy, Mohan Arunasalam; Baharuddin, Nur Daliza

    2014-02-01

    Fetus-in-fetu (FIF) is a rare entity resulting from abnormal embryogenesis in diamniotic monochorionic twins, being first described by Johann Friedrich Meckel (1800s). This occurs when a vertebrate fetus is enclosed in a normally growing fetus. Clinical manifestations vary. Detection is most often in infancy, the oldest reported age being 47. We report the case of a 4-day-old girl who was referred postnatally following a prenatal fetal scan which had revealed the presence of a multi-loculated retroperitoneal mass lesion with calcifications within. A provisional radiological diagnosis of FIF was made. Elective laparotomy revealed a well encapsulated retroperitoneal mass containing among other structures a skull vault and rudimentary limb buds. Recovery was uneventful. Here we discuss the difference between FIF and teratomas, risks of non-operative therapy and the role of serology in surveillance and detection of malignant change.

  13. BOOK REVIEW: Astronomie von Olbers bis Schwarzschild. Nationale Entwicklungen und internationale Beziehungen im 19. Jahrhundert (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 16)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    The 14th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is the Proceedings of a Colloquium International Relationships in Astronomy (in German) organised by the History of Astronomy Section of the Astronomische Gesellschaft held on September 18 in Lilienthal, Germany. The book contains 13 articles on astronomical topics covering the 19th and 20th centuries. The first paper is by Guenther Oestmann and deals with contemporary assessments of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's (1745-1816) astronomical works and with later judgements of the scientific importance and significance of his observations as seen by astronomers and historians. This report is complemented by a second article on Schroeter's 25-ft reflector in Lilienthal near Bremen. To this end, author Felix Luehning has constructed a scale model of the telescope, and shows how the building of a model brings a deeper understanding of function and handling of this instrument. This brings us to a third paper on telescope building in Lilienthal: Hans-Joachim Leue describes the cooperation of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter and Johann Gottlieb Schrader in developing a white reflecting metal alloy for use as telescope mirror. The fourth article, by Klaus Schillinger, describes on the basis of archival documents the aquisition history of the Herschel telescopes, including telescope quality check, repair and building. Memorial sites referring to Wilhelm Olbers, Johann Hieronymus Schroeter, Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel and Carl Friedrich Gauss are described by Arno Langkavel in two walks outlined in the very last paper of this book. Peter Brosche, in the fifth paper, discusses the rediscovery of Ceres in December1801, a discovery that was the result of the combined efforts of a theoretician (Gauss) and an observer (Zach). Juergen Hamel's paper is based on previously unused archival sources and discusses the outstanding role played by H. C. Schumacher (1780-1850, editor of the Astronomische Nachrichten) in the communication between

  14. [Schiller and the history of medicine].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Daniel; Neuhausen, Karl August

    2014-01-01

    Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805), one of the most renowned German poets, also received a professional training (1776-80) as surgeon at the military academy at Stuttgart. It is almost unknown that Schiller received a formal education in medical history during the first year of his academic curriculum. His exam in medical history included the public defense of 38 Latin theses presenting historical interpretations, philological criticism and an evaluation of 18th century medicine side by side. These theses had been compiled by his teacher Johann Friedrich Consbruch, who recommended an eclectic use of contemporary knowledge and was an adherent of Haller's experimental medicine. This paper presents a thorough examination of these doctrines in historical perspective. As our investigation shows, at Schiller's time medical history as an academic discipline was primarily used to emphasize medicine's significance as a healing art and to ascertain the practicing physician's professional identity.

  15. The Internet & Healthcare Education: HELIX.

    PubMed

    Roy, R T; Merril, J R

    1996-11-01

    With the advent of the World Wide Web (WWW), we are now on the cusp of a revolution in computer technology that will dramatically enhance medical education. An historical analogy might be Johann Gutenberg's invention of movable type in the 1400's-radically decreasing the cost, time, and expertise required to reproduce printed materials. Now, the WWW can decrease the cost of disseminating medical educational materials. When an educational module is authored for the Web, it can be placed on a computer "server" which in turn, distributes the program on the WWW to anyone with a computer and Internet access. Rapidly emerging standards are being developed to allow increasingly rich educational experiences on the Internet. With the introduction of HTML (hypertext markup language), a standardized method of placing text and graphics, as well as the connections between them, was created.

  16. [A brief history of the anatomy and physiology of a mysterious and hidden gland called the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Navarro, Salvador

    2014-11-01

    Because of its retrogastric location and appearance, which is similar to mesenteric fat, for centuries the pancreas has been a mysterious, hidden organ that has received little attention. However, its importance was intuited and described by Herophilus, Ruphos of Ephesus and Galen. This gland began to appearin distinct medical treatises from the 16th century. There are two important scientists in the history of the pancreas. The fist, Johann Georg Wirsung, described the main pancreatic duct in 1642, a date considered by many to be the start of Pancreatology. The second, Claude Bernard, described pancreatic exocrine function between 1849 and 1856 and is considered the father of pancreatic physiology. Besides these two outstanding figures, there is a constellation of personalities who contributed to improving knowledge of this enigmatic gland with the results of their studies. The aim of this article is to call attention to some of the most notable findings that have enhanced knowledge of this gland over the years.

  17. The mechanical career of Councillor Orffyreus, confidence man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Alejandro

    2013-06-01

    In the early 18th century, J. E. E. Bessler, known as Orffyreus, constructed several wheels that he claimed could keep turning forever, powered only by gravity. He never revealed the details of his invention, but he conducted demonstrations (with the machine's inner workings covered) that persuaded competent observers that he might have discovered the secret of perpetual motion. Among Bessler's defenders were Gottfried Leibniz, Johann Bernoulli, Professor Willem 's Gravesande of Leiden University (who wrote to Isaac Newton on the subject), and Prince Karl, ruler of the German state of Hesse-Kassel. We review Bessler's work, placing it within the context of the intellectual debates of the time about mechanical conservation laws and the (im)possibility of perpetual motion. We also mention Bessler's long career as a confidence man, the details of which were discussed in popular 19th-century German publications but have remained unfamiliar to authors in other languages.

  18. [The Leipzig Magistrates Court's death sentences in the Woyzeck case].

    PubMed

    Steinberg, H; Schmideler, S

    2006-10-01

    The trial of Johann Christian Woyzeck for murder is among the most significant for forensic psychiatry in the 19 (th) century. The case gained worldwide fame, not only because of Georg Büchner's eponymous drama. A thorough analysis and reconstruction of the proceedings would allow more light to be shed on one of the major events in the evolution of modern psychiatric positions regarding criminal responsibility. To support this effort, this paper presents two original sources that have just been rediscovered in the archives, and which are of major importance in respect of both the Woyzeck case and the history of forensic psychiatry. Until now only transcripts had been available. The two documents in question relate to the death sentences issued by the Leipzig magistrates court (Schöppenstuhl). They clearly show the ruling feudal and municipal authorities' efforts to exploit both the general rules of procedure as well as the forensic testimony given by Leipzig's medical officer and professor, Johann Christian August Clarus, for their own restorative political interests. This is revealed by the fact, among others, that the legal procedures are interpreted in the narrowest possible way and the crux of the problem, namely the culprit's criminal responsibility, is not really the focus of attention. The defence does not really have a chance, the more so since it makes pleas that are both contradictory and amateurist from a psychiatric point of view. Moreover, its efforts to garner support from reformist forces, above all among scholars, are undermined by the defence team's manipulation of the facts.

  19. Carl Ludwig: the man, his time, his influence.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, H G

    1996-01-01

    Carl Ludwig (1816-1895) was the driving force in the foundation and development of scientifically based and experimentally oriented physiology against natural philosophy and vitalism that prevailed during the first quarter of the 19th century in Germany. He was the representative of a small group of young, highly talented and dynamic physiologists aiming at implementing the laws of physics and chemistry as the only active forces in physiologic processes. These "organic physicists" included Emil du Bois-Reymond (1818-1896), Ernst Brücke (1819-1892), and Hermann Helmholz (1821-1894). Carl Ludwig wrote the program of this group in the form of a textbook of physiology that was considered revolutionary, provocative and premature. His academic life, his inventions and discoveries, his scientific achievements, his influence and his personality are reviewed. Since every person can be viewed only in the context of his time, the political background, the economic and social situation, the conditions for science and research as well as the cultural climate that were characteristic for the decisive years of Carl Ludwig are described to some extent. It is shown that Carl Ludwig and his contemporary organic physicists lived and grew into a science- and research-oriented period which had been prepared and paved by men like Johannes Evangelista Purkinje (1787-1869), Ernst Heinrich Weber (1795-1878), Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann (1800-1877), Johannes Müller (1801-1858) and Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887). They benefited from this enormous scientific development and contributed to it to a large and significant extent so that it ultimately turned out to be the most productive and influential period in the history of German physiology. Some of the numerous scholars who had studied with Carl Ludwig carried his approach to physiology into the 20th century: Adolf Fick (1829-1901), Otto Frank (1865-1944), Iwan Petrowitsch Pawlow (1849-1936) and Henry Pickering Browditch (1840-1911).

  20. ["Fiction and Truth": Goethe's anatomical research at the University of Jena].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, H H; Sivukhina, E; Dölz, W; Oehring, H

    2012-12-01

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was one of the most renowned German poets of the late Age of Enlightenment. However, his engagement went far beyond literature especially relating to politics and natural science. Goethe, primarily trained as a lawyer, developed his own theory of colors and even challenged the concepts of Isaac Newton. His discovery of the human intermaxilary bone questioned all the dogmas of the religious-minded world of the 18th century. Together with the anatomy professor Justus Christian Loder, Goethe performed comparative anatomy and proved the conceptual uniformity of humans and animals on 27 March 1784. Even though, Félix Vicq d'Azyr described the intermaxilary bone simultaneously in Catholic France, Goethe's findings were politically accepted due to the liberal Protestantism of the Duchy of Weimar. Nevertheless, leading anatomists of the century (Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, Petrus Camper and Samuel Thomas v. Soemmerring) mainly rejected Goethe's postulates which led to a delayed publication in 1820; almost 36 years after writing his original manuscript. Today, Goethe's discovery is known to be a fundamental basis for the development of Charles Darwin's theory of phylogenetic evolution. Nowadays, the Department of Anatomy contains the Museum Anatomicum Jenense which was founded by the Duke of Weimar, Carl August and Goethe and entails Goethe's premaxillary bones as its main attraction. The University values the cultural heritage of Goethe's contribution to Medicine and provides access to the collection to the public and generations of medical students. Still today Goethe's legacy is noticeable in the halls of the Alma Mater Jenensis.

  1. X-ray line emission from highly ionised argon and sulphur in tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinnity, Paul

    Observations of H-like and He-like argon line emission and associated satellite spectra have been made on the JET (Joint European Torus) tokamak by a Bragg rotorspectrometer and a double crystal monochromator. Similar He-like sulphur measurements have been made on the COMPASS-D (Compact Assembly) tokamak by a Johann curved crystal spectrometer. Recently calculated electron impact excitation rates for He-like ions were used in the derivation of the electron temperature sensitive line ratio G=(Ix+Iy+Iz)/Iw and the electron density sensitive ratio R=Iz/(Ix+Iy), where w, x, y and z are the He-like resonance line, intercombination lines and forbidden line respectively. For S XV the ratios Ik/Iw and Iq/Iw were also calculated, where k and q are Li-like dielectronic satellites to the w line formed by dielectronic recombination and inner shell excitation respectively. Both are electron temperature dependent, the latter also being sensitive to changes in the ionisation balance. The fine structure ratios Ix/Iy and /beta = Ly/alpha 2/Lyα1 were calculated for He-like S XV and H-like Ar XVIII respectively, where Ly/alpha/sb[1,2] are the fine structure components of the H-like Lyman alpha line. Transport modelling was carried out to account for non-coronal conditions in the JET plasma while a near-coronal equilibrium was assumed in the COMPASS-D plasma. Calculated ratios were compared with experimental measurements obtained from JET and COMPASS-D. For higher temperatures, such as during additional heating, the Ar XVII emission shell was found to move of axis, with a subsequent reduction in the G ratio. For S XV good agreement with calculations was found between the measured G and Iq/Iw ratios, indicating that the assumption of near-coronal equilibrium was valid. Lower than expected values of the S XV R ratio were found. After investigation of the atomic physics processes it was concluded that this was due to an unidentified instrumental effect of the Johann spectrometer. An

  2. Determining the Shape of the Orbit of Mars in the High School. (Spanish Title: Determinación de la Forma de la Órbita de Marte en la Escuela Secundaria.) Determinando a Forma da Órbita de Marte no Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, Carlos Maximiliano; Rossini Goulart, Andressa

    2014-12-01

    In the present work, in order to supply the lacks of practical activities related to the content of Kepler's Laws in high school physics textbooks, we present a practical activity to determine the shape of the orbit of Mars. In this activity the student can experience the discovery the shape of the orbit of Mars in a way similar to that realized by Johannes Kepler combining the physical concepts with geometry. We applied the activity to eighteen high school teachers participating in a Postgraduate Course in Science Education. After two hours of work the group obtained the shape of the orbit of Mars and estimated its orbital parameters with a relative error less than 14%. En el presente trabajo y con el objetivo de reducir la escasez de actividades prácticas relacionadas con el contenido de las leyes de Kepler en libros de texto de física de la escuela secundaria, se presenta una actividad práctica para determinar la forma de la órbita de Marte. En esta actividad el estudiante puede vivir la experiencia de descubrir la forma de la órbita de Marte de una manera similar a la realizada por Johannes Kepler combinando los conceptos físicos con la geometría. Aplicamos la actividad a dieciocho maestros de escuelas secundarias en un Curso de Especialización en Enseñanza de las Ciencias. Después de dos horas de trabajo el grupo obtuvo la forma de la órbita de Marte com error inferior al 14% en los parámetros orbitales. No presente trabalho, visando suprir a deficiência de atividades práticas relacionadas ao conteúdo de Leis de Kepler nos livros-textos de Física do 1º ano do Ensino Médio, apresentamos uma atividade prática de determinação da órbita de Marte. O aluno, combinando conceitos físicos com a geometria poderá vivenciar a experiência da descoberta da forma da órbita de Marte de modo similar ao realizado por Johannes Kepler. Aplicamos a metodologia proposta junto a dezoito professores do Curso de Especialização em Educação em Ciências e

  3. [John Flamsteed's horoscope for laying the groundwork of Greenwich astronomy and astrology].

    PubMed

    Oestmann, Günther

    2002-01-01

    The paper deals with the astronomical and astrological contents of a horoscope cast by John Flamsteed in 1675 for the foundation of Greenwich Observatory. So far no analysis of its astronomical contents has been made. It can be shown that the chart has been drawn correctly, as is to be expected from a competent astronomer. For calculating the planetary positions he most likely used tables issued by Johann Hecker, a pupil of Hevelius, based on Kepler's "Tabulae Rudolphinae" in 1627. The cusps of the twelve astrological houses Flamsteed calculated trigonometrically; so he used no table of houses. Flamsteed employed a method of house division (domification) which was commonly used in the 16th and 17th century and connected with the name of Johannes Regiomontanus. Positional circles joining in the north and south points of the observer's horizon are laid through distances of 30 degrees on the celestial equator, thus giving unequal sections of the ecliptic. By consulting contemporary sources for the interpretation of the chart (Ramesey's Astrologia Restaurata, 1653) it appears that the time for laying the foundation stone was well chosen from the astrological point of view. There were precursors in this practice, e.g. the Italian astrologer Luca Gaurico, who was commissioned to submit an astrological report for the foundation for the Franse Wing in the Vatican in 1543, and Tycho Brahe, who performed a solemn ceremony on the island of Hven in 1576 at the laying of the foundation stone of his observatory in an astrologically propitious moment. This leads to the question whether Flamsteed believed in astrology. Michael Hunter has already given evidence that Flamsteed was indeed well-versed with astrological techniques and supplied astrologers with data. But at the same time he expressed hostility towards astrological interpretations issued frequently by different parties during Civil War in England. In an unpublished preface for Hecker's Tables (edited by Hunter) Flamsteed

  4. Innovation Concepts in Healthcare

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-06

    AbstractDemographic change and advances in medical science pose increased challenges to healthcare systems globally: The economic basis is aging and thus health is becoming more and more a productivity factor. At the same time, with today’s new communication possibilities the demand and expectations of effective medical treatment have been increased. This presentation will illustrate the need for the “industrialization” of healthcare in order to achieve highest results at limited budgets. Thereby, industrialization is not meaning the medical treatment based on the assembly line approach. Rather it is to recognize the cost of medical care as an investment with respective expectations on the return of the investment. Innovations in imaging and pharmaceutical products as well as in processes - that lead to similar medical results, but with lower efforts - are keys in such scenarios.BiographyProf. Dr. Hermann Requardt, 54, is a member of the Managing Board of Siemens AG and Chief Executive Officer of the Healthcare Sector. In addition he is the CTO of Siemens AG and Head of Corporate Technology, the central research department at Siemens.After completing his studies in physics and philosophy at the Darmstadt University of Technology and Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt and receiving a doctorate in biophysics, he worked at the Institute of Aerospace Medicine at the German Aerospace Center.In 1984 he joined the Medical Technology Group of Siemens AG, where he was responsible for projects in the Magnetic Resonance (MR) division. He was appointed head of the division in 1995. From 2001 to 2006, as a member of the Executive Management of the Medical Solutions Group, he was responsible for several areas, including technological development.In 2006 he became a Member of the Siemens’ Managing Board and head of Corporate Technology. He was additionally appointed as the Sector Healthcare CEO in 2008.Since 2006 he is an honorary professor in physics of the

  5. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Information and Many-Body Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisert, Jens; Plenio, Martin B.

    2010-02-01

    and F Verstraete SIMULATION AND DYNAMICS A quantum differentiation of k-SAT instances B Tamir and G Ortiz Classical Ising model test for quantum circuits Joseph Geraci and Daniel A Lidar Exact matrix product solutions in the Heisenberg picture of an open quantum spin chain S R Clark, J Prior, M J Hartmann, D Jaksch and M B Plenio Exact solution of Markovian master equations for quadratic Fermi systems: thermal baths, open XY spin chains and non-equilibrium phase transition Tomaž Prosen and Bojan Žunkovič Quantum kinetic Ising models R Augusiak, F M Cucchietti, F Haake and M Lewenstein ENTANGLEMENT AND SPECTRAL PROPERTIES Ground states of unfrustrated spin Hamiltonians satisfy an area law Niel de Beaudrap, Tobias J Osborne and Jens Eisert Correlation density matrices for one-dimensional quantum chains based on the density matrix renormalization group W Münder, A Weichselbaum, A Holzner, Jan von Delft and C L Henley The invariant-comb approach and its relation to the balancedness of multipartite entangled states Andreas Osterloh and Jens Siewert Entanglement scaling of fractional quantum Hall states through geometric deformations Andreas M Läuchli, Emil J Bergholtz and Masudul Haque Entanglement versus gap for one-dimensional spin systems Daniel Gottesman and M B Hastings Entanglement spectra of critical and near-critical systems in one dimension F Pollmann and J E Moore Macroscopic bound entanglement in thermal graph states D Cavalcanti, L Aolita, A Ferraro, A García-Saez and A Acín Entanglement at the quantum phase transition in a harmonic lattice Elisabeth Rieper, Janet Anders and Vlatko Vedral Multipartite entanglement and frustration P Facchi, G Florio, U Marzolino, G Parisi and S Pascazio Entropic uncertainty relations—a survey Stephanie Wehner and Andreas Winter Entanglement in a spin system with inverse square statistical interaction D Giuliano, A Sindona, G Falcone, F Plastina and L Amico APPLICATIONS Time-dependent currents of one-dimensional bosons

  6. A Marble Embryo: Meanings of a Portrait from 1900

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Portraits of scientists use attributes of discovery to construct identities; portraits that include esoteric accessories may fashion identities for these too. A striking example is a marble bust of the anatomist Wilhelm His by the Leipzig sculptor Carl Seffner. Made in 1900, it depicts the founder of modern human embryology looking down at a model embryo in his right hand. This essay reconstructs the design and viewing of this remarkable portrait in order to shed light on private and public relations between scientists, research objects and audiences. The bust came out of a collaboration to model the face of the composer Johann Sebastian Bach and embodies a shared commitment to anatomical exactitude in three dimensions. His’s research agendas and public character explain the contemplative pose and unprecedented embryo model, which he had laboriously constructed from material a midwife supplied. The early contexts of display in the His home and art exhibitions suggest interpretive resources for viewers and hence likely meanings. Seffner’s work remains exceptional, but has affinities to portraits of human embryologists and embryos produced since 1960. Embryo images have acquired such controversial prominence that the model may engage us more strongly now than it did exhibition visitors around 1900. PMID:22606754

  7. Quark Matter 2011 (QM11) Quark Matter 2011 (QM11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    International Advisory Committee Antinori, FedericoPaic, Guy Braun-Munzinger, PeterPajares, Carlos Cifarelli, LuisaPeitzmann, Thomas Erazmus, BarbaraRedlich, Krzysztof Eskola, KariRiccati, Lodovico Gaardhøje, Jens JørgenRoland, Gunther Gale, CharlesRoy, Christelle Gelis, FrancoisSchukraft, Jürgen Giubellino, PaoloSinha, Bikash Greiner, CarstenSrivastava, Dinesh Gyulassy, MiklosStachel, Johanna Harris, JohnSteinberg, Peter Hatsuda, TetsuoStroth, Joachim Heinz, UlrichSugitate, Toru Jacak, BarbaraTserruya, Itzhak Karsch, FrithjofVelkovska, Julia Kharzeev, DimaWang, Enke Kodama, TakeshiWang, Xin, Nian Lévai, PéterWessels, Johannes Manko, VladislavXu, Nu Müller, BerndtZajc, William Ollitrault, Jean-Yves Organizing Committee Arleo, FrancoisDupieux, Pascal Bastid, NicoleFurget, Christophe Bourgeois, Marie-LaureGranier de Cassagnac, Raphael Bregant, MarcoGuernane, Rachid Carminati, FedericoHervet, Carnita Castillo, JavierKuhn, Christian Cheynis, BrigitteOlivier, Nathalie Conesa, DelValle, Zaida Connor, MichelleRenshall, Lucy Crochet, PhilippeSuire, Christophe Delagrange, HuguesTihinen, Ulla Program Committee Schutz, Yves (Chair)Baldisseri, Alberto Wiedemann, Urs (co-Chair)Safarik, Karel Aurenche, Patrick

  8. Forensic psychiatry in nineteenth-century Saxony: the case of Woyzeck.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Holger; Schmidt-Recla, Adrian; Schmideler, Sebastian

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to other areas of psychiatry, little work has been done on the history of forensic psychiatry, and such work is especially scarce regarding the first half of the 19th century, when forensic psychiatry began to develop together with the neurosciences. One newly discovered archival source bears immediate witness to the genesis of forensic psychiatry and is presented for the first time in this study. That source helps us to better understand, in particular, one of the most important cases in 19th-century German forensic psychiatry - namely, that of Johann Christian Woyzeck, the murderer who became the lead figure and the decisive model for the famous eponymous drama by German poet Georg Büchner. Duke Friedrich August, the heir to the throne of the German kingdom of Saxony, submitted a separately recorded special vote (or, very roughly speaking, a brief) that denied the criminal responsibility of the murderer since he had committed his crime out of jealousy and in an emotionally agitated state of mind that eliminated the offender's free will. Though possessing no relevant professional training, the duke applied, and argued in support of, a syndrome - partial mania - that was then the subject of ongoing controversy in general psychiatry. In that context, his vote and analysis can be seen a part of the conceptual development not only of forensic psychiatry, but also of German psychiatry and criminal law.

  9. [The medical literature of the Egyptian campaign].

    PubMed

    Hutin, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Bonaparte's Egyptian Campaign (1798 - 1801), like all other episodes from the Napoleonic era, gave rise to an extensive literature on the subject, but most of all a significant medical literature. This fact is due to many reasons:--an important health service for this expeditionary corps of more than 36.000 men, with two main figures at its hea, Desgenettes and Larrey--but also with valuable subordinates like Assalini, Savaresi, Balme, Pugnet or Barbès.--A Commission for Science and Art, of which a few doctors and surgeons were members, but most of all pharmacists like Boudet or Rouyer--The presence in the field of Ludwig Frank, the nephew of the famous Johann Peter Frank.--The creation in Cairo of an Egyptian Institute and the publication of the masterly Description of Egypt and the establishment of printing houses.--The emergence of the myth of the Orient and its mysteries.--An extensive array of indigenous pathologies, which is characteristic of those countries. For instance: plague, dysentery, yellow fever, Egyptian ophthalmia, as well as more common diseases like tetanus, scurvy or venereal diseases. The main medical works that cover this period and its pathologies are skimmed.

  10. John Herschel's Graphical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankins, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    In 1833 John Herschel published an account of his graphical method for determining the orbits of double stars. He had hoped to be the first to determine such orbits, but Felix Savary in France and Johann Franz Encke in Germany beat him to the punch using analytical methods. Herschel was convinced, however, that his graphical method was much superior to analytical methods, because it used the judgment of the hand and eye to correct the inevitable errors of observation. Line graphs of the kind used by Herschel became common only in the 1830s, so Herschel was introducing a new method. He also found computation fatiguing and devised a "wheeled machine" to help him out. Encke was skeptical of Herschel's methods. He said that he lived for calculation and that the English would be better astronomers if they calculated more. It is difficult to believe that the entire Scientific Revolution of the 17th century took place without graphs and that only a few examples appeared in the 18th century. Herschel promoted the use of graphs, not only in astronomy, but also in the study of meteorology and terrestrial magnetism. Because he was the most prominent scientist in England, Herschel's advocacy greatly advanced graphical methods.

  11. From Keplerian Orbits to Precise Planetary Predictions: the Transits of the 1630s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorvaldsen, Steinar

    2013-05-01

    The first transits of Mercury and Venus ever observed were important for quite different reasons than were the transit of Venus observed in the eighteenth century. Good data of planetary orbits are necessary for the prediction of planetary transits. Under the assumption of the central position of the Sun, Johannes Kepler published the theory of elliptical orbital motion of the planets in 1609; this new astronomy made it possible to compute noticeably improved ephemerides for the planets. In 1627 Kepler published the Tabulae Rudolphinae, and thanks to these tables he was able to publish a pamphlet announcing the rare phenomenon of Mercury and Venus transiting the Sun. Although the 1631 transit of Mercury was only observed by three astronomers in France and in Switzerland, and the 1639 transit of Venus was only predicted and observed by two self-taught astronomers in the English countryside, their observation would hardly been possible without the revolutionary theories and calculations of Kepler. The Tabulae Rudolphinae count among Kepler's outstanding astronomical works, and during the seventeenth century they gradually found entrance into the astronomical praxis of calculation among mathematical astronomers and calendar makers who rated them more and more as the most trustworthy astronomical foundation.

  12. [Chemistry of life: ferments and fermentation in 17th-century iatrochemistry].

    PubMed

    Clericuzio, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    The concepts of ferment and fermentation played an important, though heretofore neglected, role in 17th-century physiology. Though these notions can be found in ancient philosophy and medicine, as well as in medieval medicine, they became integral part of the chemical medicine that was advocated by Paracelsus and his school. Paracelsians made fermentation a central concept in their successful effort to give chemical foundation to medicine. Jean Baptiste van Helmont and Sylvius used the concepts of ferment and fermentation to explain a variety of physiological processes in human body. Corpuscular philosophers like Robert Boyle and Thomas Willis reinterpreted these notions in corpuscular terms and separated the concept of ferment from that of fermentation. In the second half of the seventeenth century, physiologist tried to explain fermentation by means of chemical reactions, as for instance acid -alkali, and ruled out the notion of ferment as superfluous to their investigations. At the end of hte seventeenth century fermentation attracted the interest of physicists like Johannes Bernoulli and Isaac Newton, who tried to explain fermentative processes in terms of matter and motion (Bernoulli) and short-range forces (Newton). George Ernst Stahl devoted a work to fermentation: the Zymotechnia. He explained fermentation as the outcome of the reactions of molecules formed of saline, oily and earthy corpuscles with particles of water. He saw fermentation as a mechanical process, i.e. as collision of different kinds of corpuscles.

  13. Proton milliprobe analyses of the Gutenberg Bible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusko, Bruce H.; Cahill, Thomas A.; Eldred, Robert A.; Schwab, Richard N.

    1984-04-01

    The advent of printing with movable type is properly regarded as the most important technological event in modern cultural history, yet its earliest history is shrouded in mystery. The Davis proton milliprobe has enabled scientists and humanist scholars to collaborate in unlocking the secrets of earliest print, focusing on the contribution of Johannes Gutenberg. The 42-line Gutenberg Bible is not only the first book printed by movable type, it is considered by many to be the finest book every printed. Unfortunately very little is known about the materials and techniques used in this first large scale printing operation. In October 1982 we had the unprecedented opportunity to examine page-by-page the inks, papers, illuminations and binding of volume I of the Doheny Gutenberg Bible. A similar study of the Lilly New Testament (most of volume II) was undertaken in March 1983. The results, some wholly unexpected and very exciting, add a large new body of information about this great work, and give us new enlightenment on the day-to-day production of this first and most important printed book. Moreover, the discovery of the uniqueness of the ink in Gutenberg's Bible, combined with our ability to taken minutely detailed and non-destructive elemental "fingerprints" with the milliprobe beam of all man-made papers and inks, gives us a weapon that has never been available before to investigate some of the controversial basic questions in the history of the origins of printing technology.

  14. Detailed Hydrodynamic and X-Ray Spectroscopic Analysis of a Laser-Produced Rapidly-Expanding Aluminum Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D M; Glenzer, S H; Hawreliak, J; Wolfrum, E; Gouveia, A; Lee, R W; Marjoribanks, R S; Renner, O; Sondhauss, P; Topping, S; Young, P E; Pinto, P A; Wark, J S

    2001-04-03

    We present a detailed analysis of K-shell emission from laser-produced rapidly-expanding aluminum plasmas. This work forms part of a series of experiments performed at the Vulcan laser facility of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK. 1-D planar expansion was obtained by over-illuminating Al-microdot targets supported on CH plastic foils. The small size of the Al-plasma ensured high spatial and frequency resolution of the spectra, obtained with a single crystal spectrometer, two vertical dispersion variant double crystal spectrometers, and a vertical dispersion variant Johann Spectrometer. The hydrodynamic properties of the plasma were measured independently by spatially and temporally resolved Thomson scattering, utilizing a 4{omega} probe beam. This enabled sub- and super- critical densities to be probed relative to the 1{omega} heater beams. The deduced plasma hydrodynamic conditions are compared with those generated from the 1-D hydro-code Medusa, and the significant differences found in the electron temperature discussed. Synthetic spectra generated from the detailed term collisional radiative non-LTE atomic physics code Fly are compared with the experimental spectra for the measured hydrodynamic parameters, and for those taken from Medusa. Excellent agreement is only found for both the H- and He-like Al series when careful account is taken of the temporal evolution of the electron temperature.

  15. [Contribution of Aleksander Sapieha (1773-1812) into European galvanization therapy].

    PubMed

    Gorski, P; Goetz, W

    1996-01-01

    For the development of the therapy using electricity as agent two tracks can be identified. On the one side, the indication for applying this therapy was handled more careful, simultaneously the technical equipment was improved. The Polish noble man Alexander Sapieha (1773-1812), the leading natural scientist of the Granddukedom of Warsaw, cooperated with excellent European scientists in order to improve the galvanic battery technologically. Among these scientists were Alexander Volta (1745-1827), the inventor of the battery, and Johann Bartholomaeus Trommsdorff (1770-1837), who is considered as one of the founders of scientific pharmacy in Europe. A. Sapieha supported the publication of galvanic experiences, e.g. in the case of Alexander of Humboldt (1769-1859) by publishing his paper about electric fishes. Sapiehas connections with the scientific centers in Turin and Bologna, Erfurt, Warszaw and Paris accelerated the exchange of information about galvanism. Later the resulting mini-batteries were employed in diathermie, in defibrillators and pacemakers. Details about these connections are presented in the lecture resp. full paper.

  16. A Note on the Height of Auroras by Leonhard Euler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    In former times, mostly before the end of the 19th century, many speculations were made about the height of the Earth's atmosphere. Scientists also discussed the height of the auroras, which were often observed in middle Europe. Mostly, people thought the auroras were manifestations of the lower Earth's atmosphere, and that they formed a circle inside of it. Only a few speculations were devoted to the exact height and nature of these phenomena. They were thought to be signs from God, until the appearance of the aurora on 17 March 1716 (for detail, see Schröder [2001]). An interesting letter written by Leonhard Euler (1707-1783), a Swiss mathematician and member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences, to the theologian and scholar Johann Esaias Silberschlag (1716-1791)-also a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences- gives some insight into the discussion that took place in the 18th century. Euler wrote in his letter that the auroras, similar to the great meteors or fireballs, must be placed in the high atmosphere, mostly above the height of the meteors. For Euler, it was clear that meteors, fireballs, and auroras were all objects associated with the Earth's atmosphere. In those days, the idea that the auroral phenomena were caused in the atmosphere and were part of its constitution was new. Following the 17 March 1716 event, scientists of the day concluded that the height of the aurora was above that of the normally observed clouds.

  17. [Goethe's philosophical-medical masks, in Faust].

    PubMed

    de Castro-Peredo, Hugo Fernandez

    2006-01-01

    At the beginning of the XXI century the health profession is engaged in a medical ethical and moral crisis and society, hurt by the pandemic of violence and impunity, feels the effect of a state of legal crisis unable to find a viable scientific or humanistic answer. This manuscript, is the result of an investigation into the Johann Wolfgang Goethe's tragedy of the nineteenth century, Faust. It demonstrates the coincidence of real life subjects and objects with literary subjects and objects represented, by means of the interpretation of the paradigms, problems, dilemmas and identified cases of medical ethical-morals: dáimon, reflection-solitude, free will, good-evil, Eros, learned ignorance, genes, epistemology, medical etiquette, paternalism, anatomy of the personality, Hyppocratism, will, good sense of humor, bubonic plague. Faust can be construed as a new path for change--towards the common good--of the physician if traced by their will and recovering the represented real objects, decides to meditate free and lonely on its professional exercise, medical knowledge and the doctor-patient relationship.

  18. [From lens to retina. The historical survey on the search of the receptive part of the eye].

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Witczak, Włodzimierz

    2008-01-01

    In the historical context, theories of vision reflected gradual recognition of human anatomy, physiology and histology, including also the development of optics. Ancient Greeks and Romans believed that the lens is the part of the eye responsible for light reception. It was followed by misconception of the central localization of the lens within the eye. This approach outlasted until the 16th century. Then, due to such scholars as Leonardo da Vinci, Felix Platter, Hieronymus Fabricius d'Aquapendente, Johannes Kepler and Christopher Schemer, the previous concepts concerning the role of the lens were gradually questioned, and finally its role was limited to light refraction and focusing the light beam to the bottom of the eye. In the 17th century appeared a controversy concerning the two membranes--retina and choroidea--and question which one of them is responsible for the reception of light. Finally, it was only at the onset of the 19th century when the true function of retina was confirmed.

  19. [The Tractatus de austuribus and its adoption by Albertus Magnus].

    PubMed

    Giese, Martina

    2009-01-01

    Probably in the 60s of the 13th century Albert the Great (dagger 1280) terminated his De animalibus libri XXVI, mainly a commentary on Aristotle's Animals but a milestone in medieval zoology. In the extensive chapter De falconibus of the 23rd book, which was written around 1250 and is probably the oldest part of the whole treatise, Albert used medieval tracts on birds of prey as source material. In the article one of these tracts, the anonymous Tractatus de austuribus on the healing of hawks, is analysed and for the first time presented in a critical synoptic edition (after the Codex unicus Bethesda [MD, USA], National Library of Medicine, 73, fol. 1ra-8ra) together with the insert in Albert's De animalibus and the modern German translation of Johann Erhard Pacius (1715-1796). Pacius' German translation of De falconibus was printed as an appendix together with his translation of Frederick's II famous De arte venandi cum avibus in the year 1756. It was partly based on the German translation of book 22-26 of De animalibus published by Walther Ryff in Frankfurt/M. in 1545.

  20. The Wolffian roots of Kant's teleology.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Hein

    2013-12-01

    Kant's teleology as presented in the Critique of Judgment is commonly interpreted in relation to the late eighteenth-century biological research of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach. In the present paper, I show that this interpretative perspective is incomplete. Understanding Kant's views on teleology and biology requires a consideration of the teleological and biological views of Christian Wolff and his rationalist successors. By reconstructing the Wolffian roots of Kant's teleology, I identify several little known sources of Kant's views on biology. I argue that one of Kant's main contributions to eighteenth-century debates on biology consisted in demarcating biology from metaphysics. Kant rejected Wolffian views on the hierarchy of sciences, according to which propositions specifying the functions of organisms are derived from theological truths. In addition, Kant argued that organic self-organization necessitates a teleological description in order to show that self-organization does not support materialism. By demarcating biology and metaphysics, Kant made a small yet important contribution to establishing biology as a science.

  1. Science Signaling Podcast for 24 January 2017: Tissue-specific regulation of L-type calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Hell, Johannes W; Navedo, Manuel F; VanHook, Annalisa M

    2017-01-24

    This Podcast features an interview with Johannes Hell and Manuel Navedo, senior authors of two Research Articles that appear in the 24 January 2017 issue of Science Signaling, about tissue-specific regulation of the L-type calcium channel CaV1.2. This channel is present in many tissues, including the heart, vasculature, and brain, and allows calcium to flow into cells when it is activated. Signaling through the β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) stimulates CaV1.2 activity in heart cells and neurons to accelerate heart rate and increase neuronal excitability, respectively. Using mouse models, Qian et al found that βAR-mediated enhancement of CaV1.2 activity in the brain required phosphorylation of Ser(1928), whereas βAR-mediated enhancement of CaV1.2 activity in the heart did not require phosphorylation of this residue. In a related study, Nystoriak et al demonstrated that phosphorylation of Ser(1928) in arterial myocytes was required for vasoconstriction during acute hyperglycemia and in diabetic mice. These findings demonstrate tissue-specific differences in CaV1.2 regulation and suggest that it may be possible to design therapies to target this channel in specific tissues.Listen to Podcast.

  2. [out of scope].

    PubMed

    Woitkowitz, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    This article sheds light onto life and work of the German land surveyor, cartographer, astronomer, and mechanic Johannes Humelius (1518-1562), paying special attention to the situation of the University of Leipzig in the middle of the 16th century. At this scientific institution, the scholar Humelius--born in the imperial town of Memmingen and highly regarded by the emperor Charles V and by Melanchthon--assumed the main chair of mathematics in 1551, succeeding Georg Joachim Rheticus as professor on this position. Humelius became an intimate friend of the Saxon elector August and laid the foundations of cartography, land surveying and engineering of measurement instruments in the electorate of Saxony. The relations of Humelius to the important professor of Greek and Latin at the Leipzig University, Joachim Camerarius, deepened after his marriage to a daughter of Camerarius' in 1558. Not only with respect to astronomical topics, Camerarius apparently was an important partner for Humelius, who precisely observed the movement of planets and hence, critically opposed Copernican theories. Since Humelius did not publish his scientific results, his fame soon faded in later times. However, two scholars continued his research and reached unforgotten importance: in the area of cartography, his student and assistant Bartholomäus Scultetus, and in the area of astronomy, his indirect student Tycho Brahe. This is an example of the scientific importance of the University of Leipzig in the mid 16th century, and demonstrates its abilitiy to drive scientific momentum.

  3. Mineral Analysis of Pine Nuts (Pinus spp.) Grown in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Vanhanen, Leo P; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2013-04-03

    Mineral analysis of seven Pinus species grown in different regions of New Zealand; Armand pine (Pinus armandii Franch), Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.), Mexican pinyon (Pinus cembroides Zucc. var. bicolor Little), Coulter pine (Pinus coulteri D. Don), Johann's pine (Pinus johannis M.F. Robert), Italian stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) and Torrey pine (Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière), was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) analysis. Fourteen different minerals (Al, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S and Zn) were identified in all seven varieties, except that no Al or Na was found in Pinus coulteri D. Don. New Zealand grown pine nuts are a good source of Cu, Mg, Mn, P and Zn, meeting or exceeding the recommended RDI for these minerals (based on an intake of 50 g nuts/day) while they supplied between 39%-89% of the New Zealand RDI for Fe. Compared to other commonly eaten tree-nuts New Zealand grown pine nuts are an excellent source of essential minerals.

  4. Constructive neutral evolution: exploring evolutionary theory’s curious disconnect

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Constructive neutral evolution (CNE) suggests that neutral evolution may follow a stepwise path to extravagance. Whether or not CNE is common, the mere possibility raises provocative questions about causation: in classical neo-Darwinian thinking, selection is the sole source of creativity and direction, the only force that can cause trends or build complex features. However, much of contemporary evolutionary genetics departs from the conception of evolution underlying neo-Darwinism, resulting in a widening gap between what formal models allow, and what the prevailing view of the causes of evolution suggests. In particular, a mutationist conception of evolution as a 2-step origin-fixation process has been a source of theoretical innovation for 40 years, appearing not only in the Neutral Theory, but also in recent breakthroughs in modeling adaptation (the “mutational landscape” model), and in practical software for sequence analysis. In this conception, mutation is not a source of raw materials, but an agent that introduces novelty, while selection is not an agent that shapes features, but a stochastic sieve. This view, which now lays claim to important theoretical, experimental, and practical results, demands our attention. CNE provides a way to explore its most significant implications about the role of variation in evolution. Reviewers Alex Kondrashov, Eugene Koonin and Johann Peter Gogarten reviewed this article. PMID:23062217

  5. The Political Future of Social Medicine: Reflections on Physicians as Activists.

    PubMed

    Geiger, H Jack

    2017-03-01

    The academic discipline of social medicine has always had a political and policy advocacy component, in addition to its core functions of research and teaching. Its origins lie in the 18th and 19th centuries, in the work of Johann Peter Frank and Rudolph Virchow, among others. Virchow's dictum that "politics is nothing else but medicine on a large scale" highlights that most social determinants of health are politically determined and shape population health. Yet despite intense epidemiological and sociological research on the social determinants of health, less attention has been paid to this political and policy dimension.During the 1960s, the author and many other clinicians were directly involved in attempts to use health care institutions to foster structural change. However, the author argues that efforts to assist individual patients and more effectively manage their interactions with the health care system, as described in the articles in this issue's special collection on "structural competency," while worthy and useful, do not confront root causes. Going forward, efforts to effect structural change must take place outside the arena of the clinical encounter and involve interprofessional teams and collaborations with nongovernmental organizations. They should intervene directly on the structures that contribute to illness such as poor housing, income and wealth inequality, inferior education, racism and residential segregation, and toxic concentrations of extreme poverty in urban areas. Collectively, these efforts-within and outside the spheres of medicine-represent the real operative form of structural competency.

  6. [The influence of music on pictorial expression of young women--a comparative study of different music styles].

    PubMed

    Schiltz, L; Maugendre, M; Brytek-Matera, A

    2010-01-01

    Questing one's personal identity and developing a coherent representation of oneself, the other and the world are major tasks in adolescence. Research showed that a satisfactory resolution of the crisis of adolescence can be favoured by psychological counselling based on artistic mediations. The objective of this study consisted in exploring the effect of music on the pictorial expression of a non clinical sample of female adolescents (N=157) aged from 17 to 28 years. We analysed free drawings realised by the test group with the help of a rating scale constructed in a phenomenological and structural perspective (Schiltz, 2006). The adolescents painted under musical induction. We proposed three different styles of music, i.e. baroque music (Georg Friedrich Händel and Johann Sebastian Bach), classical music (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven) and polish ethnical music (Kapela ze Wsi Warszawa-Warsaw Village Band). By using non parametric inferential and multi dimensional statistics, we could show that structural characteristics of music styles lead to differences in formal and content variables on the rating scales for the pictures. The results of our exploratory study open some tracks for future research. It would be pertinent to enlarge the population to other categories of age and to investigate the influence of gender.

  7. The Origins of the Field Concept in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullin, Ernan

    The term, ``field,'' made its first appearance in physics as a technical term in the mid-nineteenth century. But the notion of what later came to be called a field had been a long time in gestation. Early discussions of magnetism and of the cause of the ocean tides had long ago suggested the idea of a ``zone of influence'' surrounding certain bodies. Johannes Kepler's mathematical rendering of the orbital motion of Mars encouraged him to formulate what he called ``a true theory of gravity'' involving the notion of attraction. Isaac Newton went on to construct an eminently effective dynamics, with attraction as its primary example of force. Was his a field theory? Historians of science disagree. Much depends on whether a theory consistent with the notion of action at a distance ought qualify as a ``field'' theory. Roger Boscovich and Immanuel Kant later took the Newtonian concept of attraction in new directions. It was left to Michael Faraday to propose the ``physical existence'' of lines of force and to James Clerk Maxwell to add as criterion the presence of energy as the ontological basis for a full-blown ``field theory'' of electromagnetic phenomena.

  8. Interferometry at the PTB Nanometer Comparator: design, status and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flügge, J.; Weichert, Ch.; Hu, H.; Köning, R.; Bosse, H.; Wiegmann, A.; Schulz, M.; Elster, C.; Geckeler, R. D.

    2008-10-01

    To minimize the measurement uncertainty of one dimensional length measurements on line scales, linear encoders and interferometers the PTB in cooperation with the Dr. Johannes Heidenhain GmbH had built up a new length comparator. The Nanometer Comparator [1,2] has already proven its performance during the measurements of incremental encoders and line scales with an expanded measurement uncertainty of below 5 nm [3,4,5]. Due to the introduction of double and multiple exposure in advanced lithography techniques the overlay and registration metrology requirements will drastically increase so that reference metrology tools need to be developed further to be able to follow the resulting decrease of the specifications. Therefore, the PTB further develops the new 1D vacuum comparator to add a measurement possibility for straightness and to reach a measurement accuracy in the sub nanometer range [6]. One key development will be the interferometric measurement of all six degrees of freedom of the measurement slide of the comparator. A new multi axis heterodyne interferometer electronics and optical interferometer designs minimizing nonlinearities by spatially separated beams are under development.

  9. Solar Sailing is not Science Fiction Anymore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C.

    2010-01-01

    Over 400 years ago Johannes Kepler envisioned the use of sunlight to propel a spacecraft. Just this year, a solar sail was deployed in orbit for the first time and proved that a spacecraft could effectively use a solar sail for propulsion. NASA's first nano-class solar sail satellite, NanoSail-D was designed and developed in only four months. Although the first unit was lost during the Falcon 1 rocket failure in 2008, the second flight unit has been refurbished and is waiting to be launched later this year. NanoSail-D will further the research into solar sail enabled spacecraft. It will be the first of several more sail enabled spacecraft to be launch in the next few years. FeatherSail is the next generation nano-class sail spacecraft being designed with the goal to prove low earth orbit operational capabilities. Future solar sail spacecraft will require novel ideas and innovative research for the continued development of space systems. One such pioneering idea is the Small Multipurpose Advanced Reconfigurable Technology (SMART) project. The SMART technology has the potential to revolutionize spacecraft avionics. Even though solar sailing is currently in its infancy, the next decade will provide great opportunities for research into sailing in outer space.

  10. Maestlin's teaching of Copernicus. The evidence of his university textbook and disputations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Methuen, C.

    1996-06-01

    Michael Maestlin (1550 - 1631), professor of mathematics at the University of Tübingen from 1584 until his death, is probably best known as the teacher of Johannes Kepler. As such he has merited more attention from historians than most other sixteenth-century German professors of mathematics. While Maestlin's own achievements (for instance, his correct description of earthshine, his observation and identification of the nova of 1572, and his attempt to determine the orbit of the comet of 1577 - 1578) have been noted, Kepler's testimony that he learned the Copernican system from Maestlin has meant that attention has been focused on Maestlin's attitude toward the Copernican hypothesis. Central to the ensuing discussion has been the question, and particularly the light shed on it by such of Maestlin's teaching materials as survive, that forms the subject of this paper. Copernicus's planetary hypothesis was probably not taught to every student in the University of Tübingen, but Maestlin seems always to have made the new hypothesis available who had the interest and ability to pursue it.

  11. Cosmic Magnetic Fields - An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielebinski, Richard; Beck, Rainer

    Magnetic fields have been known in antiquity. Aristotle attributes the first of what could be called a scientific discussion on magnetism to Thales, who lived from about 625 BC. In China “magnetic carts” were in use to help the Emperor in his journeys of inspection. Plinius comments that in the Asia Minor province of Magnesia shepherds' staffs get at times “glued” to a stone, a alodestone. In Europe the magnetic compass came through the Arab sailors who met the Portuguese explorers. The first scientific treatise on magnetism, “De Magnete”, was published by William Gilbert who in 1600 described his experiments and suggested that the Earth was a huge magnet. Johannes Kepler was a correspondent of Gilbert and at times suggested that planetary motion was due to magnetic forces. Alas, this concept was demolished by Isaac Newton,who seeing the falling apple decided that gravity was enough. This concept of dealing with gravitational forces only remains en vogue even today. The explanations why magnetic effects must be neglected go from “magnetic energy is only 1% of gravitation” to “magnetic fields only complicate the beautiful computer solutions”. What is disregarded is the fact that magnetic effects are very directional(not omni-directional as gravity) and also the fact that magnetic fields are seen every where in our cosmic universe.

  12. [Stent, endovascular prosthesis, net or strut? What would British dentist Charles Stent (1807-1885) have to say on all this?].

    PubMed

    Lukenda, Josip; Biocina-Lukenda, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    The word stent appears in the Index Medicus as of 1952, while in Croatian articles as of 1993. The origin of the word has been attributed to British dentist Charles. T. Stent (1807-1885), maker of the compound for dental impressions (Stent's compound). Viennese surgeon, Johannes F. S. Esser (1877-1946) used the compound in plastic surgery of the face calling it an eponym Stent's mould. During the 1950's, William H. ReMine and John H. Grindlay used Stent's principle for omentum lined plastic tubes in the bile duct of a dog. The development of today's vascular stents began in 1912 when French Nobel Prize winner Alexis Carrel (1873-1944) implanted glass tubes in the arteries of dogs. The first metal spirals were implanted in the arteries of dogs by Charles T. Dotter (1920-1985), while the first stents in human arteries were implanted by French doctors Ulrich Sigwart and Jacques Puel in Toulouse in 1986. Some authors claim that the origin of the word stent is associated with the Scotish word stynt or stent, meaning stretched out river fishing nets.

  13. [Thoracopagus symmetricus. On the separation of Siamese twins in the 10th century A. D. by Byzantine physicians].

    PubMed

    Geroulanos, S; Jaggi, F; Wydler, J; Lachat, M; Cakmakci, M

    1993-01-01

    The byzantine author, Leon Diakonos, mentions in 974/975 A.D. a pair of "siamese twins", e.g., a thoracopagus symmetricus. He had seen them personally several times in Asia Minor when they were about 30 years old. This pair is possibly the same that was "successfully" surgically separated after the death of one of the twins in the second half of the 10th century in Constantinople. This operation is mentioned by two historiographs, Leon Grammatikos and Theodoros Daphnopates. Although the second twin survived the operation, he died three days later. In spite of its lethal outcome, the operation left a long-lasting impression on the historians of that time and was even mentioned 150 years later by Johannes Skylitzes. Furthermore, the manuscript of Skylitzes, now in the library of Madrid, contains a miniature illuminating this operation. This is likely to be the earliest written report of a separation of siamese twins illustrating the high standard of byzantine medicine of that time.

  14. The Beginnings of Pancreatology as a Field of Experimental and Clinical Medicine.

    PubMed

    Ceranowicz, Piotr; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Dembiński, Artur

    2015-01-01

    This review presents the history of discoveries concerning the pancreas. In antiquity and the Middle Ages knowledge about the anatomy of the pancreas was very limited and its function was completely unknown. Significant progress was first made in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Johann Georg Wirsüng, the prosector of the University of Padua, discovered the main pancreatic duct, and Giovanni Santorini discovered the accessory duct. Regnier de Graaf was the first to perform pancreatic exocrine studies, and Paul Langerhans's 1869 discovery of pancreatic islets was the first step toward recognizing the pancreas as an endocrine gland. The twentieth century brought the discovery of insulin and other pancreatic hormones. To date, histochemical staining, transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry enabled the discovery of five cell types with identified hormonal products in adult human pancreatic islets. Twentieth-century pancreatic studies led to crucial advances in scientific knowledge and were recognized, among other things, with seven Nobel Prizes. The first of these went to Ivan Pavlov in 1904 for his work on the physiology of digestion. The most recent was awarded to Günter Blobel in 1999 for discovering signaling mechanisms that govern the transport and localization of proteins within pancreatic acinar cells.

  15. CNS repair and axon regeneration: Using genetic variation to determine mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Andrea; Omura, Takao; Costigan, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The importance of genetic diversity in biological investigation has been recognized since the pioneering studies of Gregor Johann Mendel and Charles Darwin. Research in this area has been greatly informed recently by the publication of genomes from multiple species. Genes regulate and create every part and process in a living organism, react with the environment to create each living form and morph and mutate to determine the history and future of each species. The regenerative capacity of neurons differs profoundly between animal lineages and within the mammalian central and peripheral nervous systems. Here, we discuss research that suggests that genetic background contributes to the ability of injured axons to regenerate in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), by controlling the regulation of specific signaling cascades. We detail the methods used to identify these pathways, which include among others Activin signaling and other TGF-β superfamily members. We discuss the potential of altering these pathways in patients with CNS damage and outline strategies to promote regeneration and repair by combinatorial manipulation of neuron-intrinsic and extrinsic determinants.

  16. Description of Pseudomonas gregormendelii sp. nov., a Novel Psychrotrophic Bacterium from James Ross Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Kosina, Marcel; Švec, Pavel; Černohlávková, Jitka; Barták, Miloš; Snopková, Kateřina; De Vos, Paul; Sedláček, Ivo

    2016-07-01

    During the microbiological research performed within the scope of activities of Czech expeditions based at the Johann Gregor Mendel Station at James Ross Island, Antarctica, two psychrotrophic gram-stain negative non-fluorescent strains CCM 8506T and CCM 8507 from soil were extensively characterized using genotypic and phenotypic methods. Initial characterization using ribotyping with HindIII restriction endonuclease and phenotyping implies that both isolates belong to a single Pseudomonas species. Sequencing of rrs, rpoB, rpoD and glnA genes of strain CCM 8506(T) confirmed affiliation of investigated strains within the genus Pseudomonas. Further investigation using automated ribotyping with EcoRI (RiboPrinter(®) Microbial Characterisation System), whole-cell protein profiling using the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer system, extensive biochemical testing and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed that both investigated strains are members of a single taxon which is clearly separated from all hitherto described Pseudomonas spp. Based on all findings, we describe a novel species Pseudomonas gregormendelii sp. nov. with the type strain CCM 8506(T) (=LMG 28632T).

  17. The MAMI source of polarized electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulenbacher, K.; Nachtigall, Ch.; Andresen, H. G.; Bermuth, J.; Dombo, Th.; Drescher, P.; Euteneuer, H.; Fischer, H.; Harrach, D. V.; Hartmann, P.; Hoffmann, J.; Jennewein, P.; Kaiser, K. H.; Köbis, S.; Kreidel, H. J.; Langbein, J.; Petri, M.; Plützer, S.; Reichert, E.; Schemies, M.; Schöpe, H.-J.; Steffens, K.-H.; Steigerwald, M.; Trautner, H.; Weis, Th.

    1997-02-01

    The present work describes the source of polarized electrons that is run at the 855 MeV race track microtron MAMI at the Johannes Gutenberg Universität in Mainz. The source is based on photoelectron emission from (III-V)-semiconductors. Presently strained layer InGaP- or GaAsP-cathodes are used, which are processed to negative electron affinity by coverage of the surface with a submonolayer of caesium and oxygen. Electron beams spin-polarized up to a degree of P = 55% at a quantum efficiency of QE = 2% or P = 75% at QE = 0.4%, respectively, are obtained. The well-known but hitherto unsolved problem of limited cathode lifetime has been sidestepped by the attachment of an UHV load lock system to the source electron gun. It allows quick replacement of cathodes without breaking the gun vacuum. Availabilities in excess of 85% are obtained regularly in beamtimes longer than 100h. The source was mainly applied in measurements of nucleon form factors via the reactions 1H(ē, e' p¯), 2D(ē, e' p¯), 2D(ē, e' n¯), and 3H¯e(ē, e' n). More than 1600 h beamtime have been accomplished in physics experiments with polarized electron beams at MAMI up to now.

  18. Early American Strabismus Surgery: 1840-1845.

    PubMed

    Currie, Benjamin D; Feibel, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of effective surgical therapy for strabismus was one of the outstanding triumphs of the first half of 19th-century ophthalmology, just prior to the invention of the ophthalmoscope in 1850. Although priority for the development of strabismus surgery belongs to Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach of Germany, who first reported his surgical results in 1839, 4 cases of tenotomy of the medial rectus muscle had been performed in the United States by William Gibson in 1818 but never published. By 1840, the reports of surgery in Europe had rapidly spread to America where surgeons immediately began using these procedures. The first American surgeon to perform eye muscle surgery and publish his results was John Dix of Boston, and other surgeons were soon reporting their cases as well. We discuss 8 American pioneers in this field during the time (1840-1845) of the first burst of enthusiasm for this surgery. Although these surgeons were active in performing a large number of cases and carefully reporting their experiences and results, they did not make any major advances in the field.

  19. The color of complexes and UV-vis spectroscopy as an analytical tool of Alfred Werner's group at the University of Zurich.

    PubMed

    Fox, Thomas; Berke, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Two PhD theses (Alexander Gordienko, 1912; Johannes Angerstein, 1914) and a dissertation in partial fulfillment of a PhD thesis (H. S. French, Zurich, 1914) are reviewed that deal with hitherto unpublished UV-vis spectroscopy work of coordination compounds in the group of Alfred Werner. The method of measurement of UV-vis spectra at Alfred Werner's time is described in detail. Examples of spectra of complexes are given, which were partly interpreted in terms of structure (cis ↔ trans configuration, counting number of bands for structural relationships, and shift of general spectral features by consecutive replacement of ligands). A more complete interpretation of spectra was hampered at Alfred Werner's time by the lack of a light absorption theory and a correct theory of electron excitation, and the lack of a ligand field theory for coordination compounds. The experimentally difficult data acquisitions and the difficult spectral interpretations might have been reasons why this method did not experience a breakthrough in Alfred Werner's group to play a more prominent role as an important analytical method. Nevertheless the application of UV-vis spectroscopy on coordination compounds was unique and novel, and witnesses Alfred Werner's great aptitude and keenness to always try and go beyond conventional practice.

  20. Dipolar Effects in an Ultracold Gas of LiCs Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidemueller, Matthias

    2011-05-01

    Recently, there has been important progress in the investigation of ultracold polar molecules in the absolute ground state, thus opening intriguing perspectives for strongly correlated quantum systems under the influence of long-range dipolar forces. We have studied the formation of LiCs molecules via photoassociation (PA) in a double-species magneto-optical trap. The LiCs dimer is a particularly promising candidate for observing dipolar effects, as it possesses the largest dipole moment of all alkali dimers (5.5 Debye in the ground state). Ultracold LiCs molecules in the absolute rovibrational ground state are formed by a single photo-association step. The dipole moment of ground state levels is determined by Stark spectroscopy and was found to be in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. Vibrational redistribution due to spontaneous emission and blackbody radiation is observed and compared a rate-equation model.In collaboration with Johannes Deiglmayr, Marc Repp, University of Heidelberg; Roland Wester, University of Innsbruck; and Olivier Dulieu, Laboratoire Aime Cotton. Work was supported by DFG and ESF in the framework of the Eurocores EuroQUAM as well as the Heidelberg Center for Quantum Dynamics.

  1. Kepler's theory of force and his medical sources.

    PubMed

    Regier, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) makes extensive use of souls and spiritus in his natural philosophy. Recent studies have highlighted their importance in his accounts of celestial generation and astrology. In this study, I would like to address two pressing issues. The first is Kepler's context. The biological side of his natural philosophy is not naively Aristotelian. Instead, he is up to date with contemporary discussions in medically flavored natural philosophy. I will examine his relationship to Melanchthon's anatomical-theological Liber de anima (1552) and to Jean Femel's very popular Physiologia (1567), two Galenic sources with a noticeable impact on how he understands the functions of life. The other issue that will direct my article is force at a distance. Medical ideas deeply inform Kepler's theories of light and solar force (virtus motrix). It will become clear that they are not a hindrance even to the hardcore of his celestial physics. Instead, he makes use of soul and spiritus in order to develop a fully mathematized dynamics.

  2. High-resolution Bent-crystal Spectrometer for the Ultra-soft X-ray Region

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Beiersdorfer, P.; von Goeler, S.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Hulse, R. A.; Walling, R. S.

    1988-10-01

    A multichannel vacuum Brag-crystal spectrometer has been developed for high-resolution measurements of the line emission from tokamak plasmas in the wavelength region between 4 and 25 angstrom. The spectrometer employs a bent crystal in Johann geometry and a microchannel-plate intensified photodiode array. The instrument is capable of measuring high-resolution spectra (lambda/..delta..lambda approx. 3000) with fast time resolution (4 msec per spectrum) and good spatial resolution (3 cm). The spectral bandwidth is ..delta..lambda/lambda{sub 0} = 8 angstrom. A simple tilt mechanism allows access to different wavelength intervals. In order to illustrate the utility of the new spectrometer, time- and space-resolved measurements of the n = 3 to n = 2 spectrum of selenium from the Princeton Large Torus tokamak plasmas are presented. The data are used to determine the plasma transport parameters and to infer the radial distribution of fluorinelike, neonlike, and sodiumlike ions of selenium in the plasma. The new ultra-soft x-ray spectrometer has thus enabled us to demonstrate the utility of high-resolution L-shell spectroscopy of neonlike ions as a fusion diagnostic.

  3. Chapter 42: neurology and the neurological sciences in the German-speaking countries.

    PubMed

    Isler, Hansruedi

    2010-01-01

    Early neurology in German-speaking countries evolved aside from mainstream medicine. Animists like Stahl in the 18th century saw the soul as the cause of health and disease, and the later Vitalists insisted on life-force as the specific property of living beings, contrary to skeptics like Albrecht von Haller, whose neurophysiology they left behind. Following Willis, they studied brain tracts and speculated about reflex action. They experimented with electrotherapy, and later devised early theories of electric nerve action. The controversial medical theories of animal magnetism and phrenology also advanced brain research and clinical neurology together with their sectarian programs, which seem absurd today. The impact on natural science and medicine of the last great Vitalist, Johannes Müller, and his mechanistic students such as Remak, Schwann, Schleiden, Helmholtz, Ludwig, Brücke, Virchow, Koelliker, and Wundt was unparalleled. They provided the anatomical and physiological infrastructure for the growth of neurology. From 1845 far into the 20th century, psychiatry and neurology evolved together. Neuropsychiatrists cared for their mental patients during the day, and studied their brain tissue slides at night, as in the case of Alzheimer and Nissl. Major advances in brain research were achieved by the hypnotists Forel and Vogt, and modern psychiatry was launched by the typical neuropsychiatrists Kraepelin, Moebius, Bleuler, and Adolf Meyer.

  4. Spectra of heliumlike krypton from tokamak fusion test reactor plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, M.; Hsuan, H.; Bush, C.; Cohen, S.; Cummings, C.J.; Grek, B.; Hill, K.W.; Schivell, J.; Zarnstorff, M.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Osterheld, A.; Smith, A.; Fraenkel, B.

    1993-04-01

    Krypton has been injected into ohmically-heated TFTR plasmas with peak electron temperatures of 6 key to study the effects of krypton on the plasma performance and to investigate the emitted krypton line radiation, which is of interest for future-generation tokamaks such as ITER, both as a diagnostic of the central ion temperature and for the control of energy release from the plasma by radiative cooling. The emitted radiation was monitored with a bolometer array, an X-ray pulse height analysis system, and a high-resolution Johann-type crystal spectrometer; and it was found to depend very sensitively on the electron temperature profile. Satellite spectra of heliumlike krypton, KrXXXV, near 0.95 {Angstrom} including lithiumlike, berylliumlike and boronlike features were recorded in second order Bragg reflection. Radiative cooling and reduced particle recycling at the plasma edge region were observed as a result of the krypton injection for all investigated discharges. The observations are in reasonable agreement with modeling calculations of the krypton ion charge state distribution including radial transport.

  5. Spectra of heliumlike krypton from tokamak fusion test reactor plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, M.; Hsuan, H.; Bush, C.; Cohen, S.; Cummings, C.J.; Grek, B.; Hill, K.W.; Schivell, J.; Zarnstorff, M. . Plasma Physics Lab.); Beiersdorfer, P.; Osterheld, A. ); Smith, A. ); Fraenkel, B. )

    1993-04-01

    Krypton has been injected into ohmically-heated TFTR plasmas with peak electron temperatures of 6 key to study the effects of krypton on the plasma performance and to investigate the emitted krypton line radiation, which is of interest for future-generation tokamaks such as ITER, both as a diagnostic of the central ion temperature and for the control of energy release from the plasma by radiative cooling. The emitted radiation was monitored with a bolometer array, an X-ray pulse height analysis system, and a high-resolution Johann-type crystal spectrometer; and it was found to depend very sensitively on the electron temperature profile. Satellite spectra of heliumlike krypton, KrXXXV, near 0.95 [Angstrom] including lithiumlike, berylliumlike and boronlike features were recorded in second order Bragg reflection. Radiative cooling and reduced particle recycling at the plasma edge region were observed as a result of the krypton injection for all investigated discharges. The observations are in reasonable agreement with modeling calculations of the krypton ion charge state distribution including radial transport.

  6. Notes made by Thomas Harriot on the treatises of François Viète

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stedall, Jacqueline

    2008-03-01

    In the Archive for History of Exact Sciences in 1979 Johannes Lohne published "A survey of Harriot's scientific writings". This has remained until now the only survey of the surviving manuscripts of Thomas Harriot (ca. 1560-1621). Lohne's paper is still a useful resource but it touches only very sketchily on Harriot's debt to François Viète (1540-1603), even though dozens of Harriot's manuscript sheets are filled with re-workings of problems or theorems from Viète's various treatises. Many of these sheets carry overt references to page or proposition numbers in Viète's publications, while others reveal themselves through inspection of the problem they contain. The primary aim of the present paper is to offer a new survey, of precisely those sheets where Harriot can be seen working on the mathematics of Viète. In doing so, it also offers an insight into the reception of Viète's work within his own lifetime at the hands of one of his most astute and able readers.

  7. Clinical application of amniotic membranes on a patient with epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Martínez Pardo, M E; Reyes Frías, M L; Ramos Durón, L E; Gutiérrez Salgado, E; Gómez, J C; Marín, M A; Luna Zaragoza, D

    1999-01-01

    The case of a patient with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa treated with radiosterilised amniotic membranes is presented. The disorder is a congenital disease characterised by a poor desmosomal junction in the keratinocyte membrane. After proper donor screening, amnios were collected at Hospital Central Sur de Alta Especialidad (HCSAE), PEMEX and microbiological analysis was performed at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, FQUNAM, (Biology Dept. of the Chemistry Faculty, National Autonomous University of Mexico), before and after radiation sterilisation. Processing, packaging and sterilisation were performed at Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, ININ, (National Nuclear Research Institute). The patient, a ten-year-old boy with severe malnutrition, extensive loss of skin and pseudomonad infection in the whole body, was treated with gentle debridement in a Hubbard bath. Later amnion application was performed with sterilised amnios by using two different processes, in one of which the amnion was sterilised with paracetic acid, preserved in glycerol, kindly donated by the German Institute for Tissue and Cell Replacement and applied by Dr. Johannes C. Bruck, IAEA visiting expert, and the other amnion was processed at ININ: air dried and sterilised by gamma radiation at dose of 30 kGy. After spontaneous epithelisation was successfully promoted for seven days, the pain was alleviated and mobility was improved in a few hours and the patient's general condition was so improved that in a month he was discharged. Unfortunately, because this disease is revertive and has malignant degeneration, the prognosis is not good.

  8. The German Physical Society in the Third Reich: Local Conservatism between Co-optation and Autonomy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyler, Richard

    2006-05-01

    During the National Socialism regime the German Physical Society (GPS), like many other German professional organizations, faced difficult choices along the spectrum of co-optation into the Nazi power structure and autonomy from the regime. This paper examines several examples of the Society's actions which shown an seeking to maintain traditional disciplinary standards while at the same time selectively cooperating with some of the regime's expectations. The successful riposte to ardent Nazi Johannes Stark's effort to become GPS chair in 1933 showed that the GPS was able to assert its traditional disciplinary authority structure even in the face of efforts to subsume the Society under the leadership principle favored by the Nazis. The Society's later election of industrial physicist Carl Ramsauer showed the GPS emphsizing the strategic (also military) importance of physics--and also willing to accommodate the regime's demand for the exclusion of non-Aryans. Finally, the choices behind the GPS's awarding of its presitigious Max Planck Medal in the late 1930's and early 40's show that both achievement in physics and political considerations--favoring scientists sympathetic to the regime, avoiding those antagonistic to it--were taken into account. Taken together, these examples demonstrate a kind of ``local conservativism'' that was at some times at odds with Nazi ideology but which nevertheless avoided open confrontation and indeed selectively cooperated with the regime's agenda.

  9. On the Use of Piezoelectric Sensors in Structural Mechanics: Some Novel Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Irschik, Hans; Krommer, Michael; Vetyukov, Yury

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper, a review on piezoelectric sensing of mechanical deformations and vibrations of so-called smart or intelligent structures is given. After a short introduction into piezoelectric sensing and actuation of such controlled structures, we pay special emphasis on the description of some own work, which has been performed at the Institute of Technical Mechanics of the Johannes Kepler University of Linz (JKU) in the last years. Among other aspects, this work has been motivated by the fact that collocated control of smart structures requires a sensor output that is work-conjugated to the input by the actuator. This fact in turn brings into the play the more general question of how to measure mechanically meaningful structural quantities, such as displacements, slopes, or other quantities, which form the work-conjugated quantities of the actuation, by means piezoelectric sensors. At least in the range of small strains, there is confidence that distributed piezoelectric sensors or sensor patches in smart structures do measure weighted integrals over their domain. Therefore, there is a need of distributing or shaping the sensor activity in order to be able to re-interpret the sensor signals in the desired mechanical sense. We sketch a general strategy that is based on a special application of work principles, more generally on displacement virials. We also review our work in the past on bringing this concept to application in smart structures, such as beams, rods and plates. PMID:22219679

  10. One- and two-dimensional density and temperature measurements of an argon-neon Z-pinch plasma at stagnation

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, K.L.; Springer, P.T.; Hammer, J.H.; Iglesias, C.A.; Osterheld, A.L.; Foord, M.E.; Bruns, H.C.; Emig, J.A.; Deeney, C.

    1996-10-01

    In order to benchmark and improve current 2D radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of Z-pinch plasmas, we have performed experiments which characterize the plasma -conditions at stagnation. In the experiments the SATURN pulsed power facility at Sandia National Laboratory was used to create an imploding -Ar-Ne plasma. An absolutely calibrated, high resolution space- and time- resolving Johann crystal spectrometer was used to infer the electron temperature Te from the slope of the hydrogenlike Ne free-bound continuum, and the ion density ni from the Stark broadening of the Ar heliunlike Rydberg series. 2D electron temperature profiles of the plasma are obtained from a set of imaging crystals also focused on the Ne free-bound continuum. We shot two types of gas nozzles in the experiment, annular and uniform fill which varies the amount of mass in the plasma. 2D local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE MM models predict a radiating region denser and cooler than measured.

  11. [The art cabinet and its current significance. Museum establishment of natural history in early modern times].

    PubMed

    Felfe, Robert

    2008-01-01

    For some time a hightened interest in so-called "curiosity cabinets" of the 16th to 18th century has surfaced in the historical sciences as well as in exhibitions with popular appeal, the arts and literature. Johann Laurentius Bausch was among those who assembled such a collection of natural history objects and artefacts. His curiosity cabinet was closely connected to his far more famous library and in his last will Bausch attempted to safeguard the coherence of the two. Against this background the article accentuates some of the aspects of his work from a perspective of a history of collections. One focus will thereby be on the practice of collecting as seemingly contradictory, being characterised on the one hand by the preservation of ancient knowledge as well as by scientific research based on specific objects. Another focus will be on curiosity cabinets as important platforms of exchange and means of social advancement. For the Academia Naturae Curiosorum exhibition objects and their publication were an important device of achieving recognition and protection from the Emperor's Court.

  12. [Assessment of a Bullterrier bloodline in the temperament test of Lower Saxony--comparison with six dog breeds affected by breed specific legislation and a control group of Golden Retrievers].

    PubMed

    Ott, Stefanie; Schalke, Esther; Hirschfeld, Jennifer; Hackbarth, Hansjoachim

    2009-04-01

    The expertise on the interpretation of section 11b TierSchG implies a hypertrophy of aggressive behaviour in some bloodlines of Bullterriers, American Staffordshire Terriers, and Pitbull type dogs. This study aimed at finding out whether a hypertrophy of aggressive behaviour occurred in a certain Bullterrier bloodline. Dogs of this line were tested according to the guidelines of the Dangerous Animals Act of Lower Saxony, Germany (GefTVO) enacted on July 5th 2000. The Bullterriers' test results towards humans and environment were compared to those of 415 dogs affected by the legislation (Mittmann, 2002) and those of 70 Golden Retrievers (Johann, 2004) in order to detect possible differences in the occurrence of inadequate or disturbed aggressive behaviour. Of 38 Bullterriers, ten showed no aggressive behaviour towards humans and the environment. 27 dogs displayed visual or acoustic threats at most. Only one dog reacted by "biting or attacking with preceding threatening behaviour". Thus, according to the test guidelines, 37 dogs (97.37%) reacted appropriately in all test situations. Only one dog (2.63%) displayed inadequate agressive behaviour. No indication for inadequate or disturbed aggressive behaviour in this Bullterrier bloodline was found. Furthermore, no significant differences were found when comparing Bullterriers and dogs of the two others studies concerning inadequate or disturbed aggressive towards humans and the environment. On the contrary, throughout the entire study the broad majority of dogs proved to possess excellent social skills as well as the ability to communicate competently and to solve conflicts appropriately.

  13. [Ludwig von Riediger (Ludwik Rydygier). A great surgeon forgotten in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zajaczkowski, T; Döhler, R; Zamann, A M

    2013-07-01

    Riediger was born in West Prussia and studied medicine in Greifswald under Carl Hueter. Having accomplished his surgical training in Gdańsk, Greifswald and Jena in 1879 he built an outstanding private hospital in Chełmno where he wrote important publications in the Polish language. In 1887 he polonized his name to Rydygier to obtain Bavarian citizenship and succeeded Johann von Mikulicz as the chair of surgery at the Jagiellonian University. In 1897 he was given the chair in surgery at the University of Lviv and in 1901/02 he became rector. In World War I he served in the Austrian and Polish Armies. In the Polish-Soviet War (1920) he played an active role against the invading Bolshevic (Soviet) army as head of the medical service for the Polish army in Pomerania. After 23 years in Lviv he became professor emeritus. Before returning to West Prussia he lost his fortune due to the stock market crash in 1920 and died at 70 years old. Riediger founded the Polish Society of Surgeons and was cofounder of the German Association of Urology. His descendents formed a dynasty of surgeons in Brazil.

  14. Historical vignettes of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Lydiatt, Daniel D; Bucher, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    Although "glands" in the neck corresponding to the thyroid were known for thousands of years, they were mainly considered pathological when encountered. Recognition of the thyroid gland as an anatomical and physiological entity required human dissection, which began in earnest in the 16th century. Leonardo Da Vinci is generally credited as the first to draw the thyroid gland as an anatomical organ. The drawings were subsequently "lost" to medicine for nearly 260 years. The drawings were probably of a nonhuman specimen. Da Vinci vowed to produce an anatomical atlas, but it was never completed. Michelangelo Buonarroti promised to complete drawings for the anatomical work of Realdus Columbus, De Re Anatomica, but these were also never completed. Andreas Vesalius established the thyroid gland as an anatomical organ with his description and drawings in the Fabrica. The thyroid was still depicted in a nonhuman form during this time. The copper etchings of Bartholomew Eustachius made in the 1560s were obviously of humans, but were not actually published until 1714 with a description by Johannes Maria Lancisius. These etchings also depicted some interesting anatomy, which we describe. The Adenographia by Thomas Wharton in 1656 named the thyroid gland for the first time and more fully described it. The book also attempted to assign a function to the gland. The thyroid gland's interesting history thus touches a number of famous men from diverse backgrounds.

  15. Advances in random matrix theory, zeta functions, and sphere packing.

    PubMed

    Hales, T C; Sarnak, P; Pugh, M C

    2000-11-21

    Over four hundred years ago, Sir Walter Raleigh asked his mathematical assistant to find formulas for the number of cannonballs in regularly stacked piles. These investigations aroused the curiosity of the astronomer Johannes Kepler and led to a problem that has gone centuries without a solution: why is the familiar cannonball stack the most efficient arrangement possible? Here we discuss the solution that Hales found in 1998. Almost every part of the 282-page proof relies on long computer verifications. Random matrix theory was developed by physicists to describe the spectra of complex nuclei. In particular, the statistical fluctuations of the eigenvalues ("the energy levels") follow certain universal laws based on symmetry types. We describe these and then discuss the remarkable appearance of these laws for zeros of the Riemann zeta function (which is the generating function for prime numbers and is the last special function from the last century that is not understood today.) Explaining this phenomenon is a central problem. These topics are distinct, so we present them separately with their own introductory remarks.

  16. Association of protein kinase Cmu with type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase and type I phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, K; Toker, A; Wong, K; Marignani, P A; Johannes, F J; Cantley, L C

    1998-09-04

    Protein kinase Cmu (PKCmu), also named protein kinase D, is an unusual member of the PKC family that has a putative transmembrane domain and pleckstrin homology domain. This enzyme has a substrate specificity distinct from other PKC isoforms (Nishikawa, K., Toker, A., Johannes, F. J., Songyang, Z., and Cantley, L. C. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 952-960), and its mechanism of regulation is not yet clear. Here we show that PKCmu forms a complex in vivo with a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase and a phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase. A region of PKCmu between the amino-terminal transmembrane domain and the pleckstrin homology domain is shown to be involved in the association with the lipid kinases. Interestingly, a kinase-dead point mutant of PKCmu failed to associate with either lipid kinase activity, indicating that autophosphorylation may be required to expose the lipid kinase interaction domain. Furthermore, the subcellular distribution of the PKCmu-associated lipid kinases to the particulate fraction depends on the presence of the amino-terminal region of PKCmu including the predicted transmembrane region. These results suggest a novel model in which the non-catalytic region of PKCmu acts as a scaffold for assembly of enzymes involved in phosphoinositide synthesis at specific membrane locations.

  17. Casualty Risk Assessment Controlled Re-Entry of EPS - Ariane 5ES - ATV Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, M.-H.; Laine, N.; Aussilhou, C.

    2012-01-01

    To fulfil its mission of compliance check to the French Space Operations Act, CNES has developed ELECTRA© tool in order to estimate casualty risk induced by a space activity (like rocket launch, controlled or un-controlled re-entry on Earth of a space object). This article describes the application of such a tool for the EPS controlled re-entry during the second Ariane 5E/S flight (Johannes Kepler mission has been launched in February 2011). EPS is the Ariane 5E/S upper composite which is de-orbited from a 260 km circular orbit after its main mission (release of the Automated Transfer Vehicle - ATV). After a brief description of the launcher, the ATV-mission and a description of all the failure cases taken into account in the mission design (which leads to "back-up scenarios" into the flight software program), the article will describe the steps which lead to the casualty risk assessment (in case of failure) with ELECTRA©. In particular, the presence on board of two propulsive means of de-orbiting (main engine of EPS, and 4 ACS longitudinal nozzles in case of main engine failure or exhaustion) leads to a low remaining casualty risk.

  18. The απολογητοσ-riddle in Kepler's Astronomia Nova, chapter 57. (German Title: Das απολογητοσ-Rätsel in Keplers Astronomia Nova, Kapitel 57)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Ernst

    Since 1937, the latin edition of Johannes Kepler's Astronomia Nova (1609) is available as a standard text. Here, in the 57th chapter, the third one of 48 important marginalia of Kepler, is reproduced as ⪉quo;Quae sit genuina et απολογητοσ mensura librationis huijus etc.». The Grecized word «αpi;ολογητοσ» was ignored to a large extent by translators and commentators, and was at least declared enigmatic by Donahue (1992). A look in the original copies of the 1609 edition shows that it is written ατιολογητοσ, not π but a τι. απολογητοσ in KGW is a read error. In the context of Keplers «natural, causal magnet-like forcesraquo; of planetary motion the conjecture αιτιολογητοσ (as a typographical error a ι is omitted) immediately suggests itself: causally, aetiological. This solution of the απολογητοσ riddle indicates the tight brace between the important Chapter 57 of Kepler's celestial physics and and the complete title ASTRONOMIA NOVA ΑΙΤΙΟΛΟΓΗΤΟΣ, SEV PHYSICA COELESTIS etc.

  19. Kepler, Galilei, the telescope and the consequences. (German Title: Kepler, Galilei, das Fernrohr und die Folgen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaulke, Karsten; Hamel, Jürgen

    The papers of this volume are dedicated to Johannes Kepler, the astronomy of his time, and the consequences of his researches. They deal with the reception on the Copernican system of the world at the court of landgrave William IV in Kassel and the use of astronomy at a princely court in the 16th century, exemplified by the Kassel residence. Two contributions discuss a text fragment in Kepler's Astronomia Nova and the dimensions of the geo- and heliocentric systems of the world in Kepler's Mysterium Cosmographicum. Other contributions deal with mathematical aspects un Kepler's exchange of letters, the biography of Kepler's discussion partner Ph. Feselius, as well as the early reception of the Tabulae Rudolphinae in the calendar literature, telescopes in Kepler's time, Chr. Scheiner's optical theory of the eye, and finally in the continuation of the heliocentric world system by Otto von Guericke's natural philosophy and science. In conclusion, the documents of the planned call of Kepler to Rostock university, as well as the first publication of a recently found, hitherto unknown letter by Kepler.

  20. Habitability and the Possibility of Extraterrestrial Life in the Early Telescope Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Early telescopic observations of the Moon and planets prompted great interest in the already-existing debate about the possibility of life on the Moon and other worlds. New observations of the lunar surface, revealing an apparently Earth-like terrain and possibly the presence of bodies of water, were often considered in relation to their implications for the existence of lunar inhabitants. This depended upon establishing what constituted the fundamental requirements for life and the boundaries of habitability. The growing support for the heliocentric Copernican astronomy was also changing perceptions of the relationships between the Earth, the Moon, and the planets. Works such as Johannes Kepler’s Somnium and John Wilkins’ The Discovery of a World in the Moone presented views of extraterrestrial life that were shifting from the supernatural to the natural, in correspondence with the celestial bodies’ new positions in the cosmos. This paper considers how these and other works from the early telescope era reveal changes in the nature of astronomical speculation about extraterrestrial life and the conditions construed as “habitability,” and what significance that history has for us today in the new era of extrasolar planet discovery.

  1. The old Jesuit observatory in Graz. (German Title: Die alte Jesuiten-Sternwarte in Graz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmayr, Johann; Müller, Isolde; Posch, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    We give a brief overview of the development of astronomical research at the University of Graz from the 16th to the 18th century. This period is intimately connected to the activities of the Jesuit Order and to the counter-reformation in Inner Austria (a territory roughly corresponding to today's Styria, Carinthia, Slovenia and the County of Görz in Italy). Since the opening of the University in 1585, several Jesuits achieved distinction as mathematicians, physicists and astronomers in Graz. Among them are Paul Guldin, who corresponded with Johannes Kepler and died in Graz in 1643, as well as Leopold Biwald and Karl Tirnberger. Between 1745 and 1774, the Jesuit University of Graz also had a chair of astronomy and an observatory. The chair and the observatory were well endowed at the beginning, but later on neglected by their former funders and closed down after less than 30 years. Efforts to re-establish an observatory at Graz at the beginning of the 19th century failed. They were successful only towards the end of the 19th century, which is however a period beyond the scope of the present paper.

  2. Three-body choreographies in given curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Toshiaki

    2009-10-01

    As shown by Johannes Kepler in 1609, in the two-body problem, the shape of the orbit, a given ellipse, and a given non-vanishing constant angular momentum determine the motion of the planet completely. Even in the three-body problem, in some cases, the shape of the orbit, conservation of the center of mass and a constant of motion (the angular momentum or the total energy) determine the motion of the three bodies. We show, by a geometrical method, that choreographic motions, in which equal mass three bodies chase each other around the same curve, will be uniquely determined for the following two cases. (i) Convex curves that have point symmetry and non-vanishing angular momentum are given. (ii) Eight-shaped curves which are similar to the curve for the figure-eight solution and the energy constant are given. The reality of the motion should be tested whether the motion satisfies an equation of motion or not. Extensions of the method for generic curves are shown. The extended methods are applicable to generic curves which do not have point symmetry. Each body may have its own curve and its own non-vanishing masses.

  3. William Herschel's 'Hole in the Sky' and the discovery of dark nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinicke, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    In 1785 William Herschel published a paper in the Philosophical Transactions containing the remarkable section "An opening or hole". It describes an unusual vacant place in Scorpius. This matter falls into oblivion until Caroline Herschel initiated a correspondence with her nephew John in 1833. It contains Herschel's spectacular words "Hier ist wahrhaftig ein Loch im Himmel" ("Here truly is a hole in the sky"). About a hundred years later, Johann Georg Hagen, Director of the Vatican Observatory, presented a spectacular candidate for the 'hole', discovered in 1857 by Angelo Secchi in Sagittarius and later catalogued by Edward E. Barnard as the dark nebula B 86. Hagen's claim initiated a debate, mainly in the Journal of the British Astronomical Association, about the identity of Herschel's 'object'. Though things could be partly cleared up, unjustified claims still remain. This is mainly due to the fact that original sources were not consulted. A comprehensive study of the curious 'hole' is presented here. It covers major parts of the epochal astronomical work of William, Caroline and John Herschel. This includes a general study of 'vacant places', found by William Herschel and others, and the speculations about their nature, eventually leading to the finding that dark nebulae are due to absorbing interstellar matter. Some of the 'vacant places' could be identified in catalogues of dark nebulae and this leads to a 'Herschel Catalogue of Dark Nebulae' - the first historic catalogue of its kind.

  4. Science Signaling Podcast for 24 January 2017: Tissue-specific regulation of L-type calcium channels

    PubMed Central

    Hell, Johannes W.; Navedo, Manuel F.; VanHook, Annalisa M.

    2017-01-01

    This Podcast features an interview with Johannes Hell and Manuel Navedo, senior authors of two Research Articles that appear in the 24 January 2017 issue of Science Signaling, about tissue-specific regulation of the L-type calcium channel CaV1.2. This channel is present in many tissues, including the heart, vasculature, and brain, and allows calcium to flow into cells when it is activated. Signaling through the β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) stimulates CaV1.2 activity in heart cells and neurons to accelerate heart rate and increase neuronal excitability, respectively. Using mouse models, Qian et al. found that βAR-mediated enhancement of CaV1.2 activity in the brain required phosphorylation of Ser1928, whereas βAR-mediated enhancement of CaV1.2 activity in the heart did not require phosphorylation of this residue. In a related study, Nystoriak et al. demonstrated that phosphorylation of Ser1928 in arterial myocytes was required for vasoconstriction during acute hyperglycemia and in diabetic mice. These findings demonstrate tissue-specific differences in CaV1.2 regulation and suggest that it may be possible to design therapies to target this channel in specific tissues. PMID:28119457

  5. Advances in random matrix theory, zeta functions, and sphere packing

    PubMed Central

    Hales, T. C.; Sarnak, P.; Pugh, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    Over four hundred years ago, Sir Walter Raleigh asked his mathematical assistant to find formulas for the number of cannonballs in regularly stacked piles. These investigations aroused the curiosity of the astronomer Johannes Kepler and led to a problem that has gone centuries without a solution: why is the familiar cannonball stack the most efficient arrangement possible? Here we discuss the solution that Hales found in 1998. Almost every part of the 282-page proof relies on long computer verifications. Random matrix theory was developed by physicists to describe the spectra of complex nuclei. In particular, the statistical fluctuations of the eigenvalues (“the energy levels”) follow certain universal laws based on symmetry types. We describe these and then discuss the remarkable appearance of these laws for zeros of the Riemann zeta function (which is the generating function for prime numbers and is the last special function from the last century that is not understood today.) Explaining this phenomenon is a central problem. These topics are distinct, so we present them separately with their own introductory remarks. PMID:11058156

  6. The eye as an optical instrument: from camera obscura to Helmholtz's perspective.

    PubMed

    Wade, N J; Finger, S

    2001-01-01

    The era of modern vision research can be thought of as beginning in the seventeenth century with Johannes Kepler's understanding of the optics of the camera obscura with a lens and its relation to the eye. During the nineteenth century, Helmholtz used "The eye as an optical instrument" as the title for one of his Popular Lectures, and such a conception of the eye is now accepted as a fundamental feature of visual science. In analysing the optics of the eye, Helmholtz constructed some novel optical instruments for studying the eye. The development of optometers, ophthalmometers, and ophthalmoscopes is presented historically, with emphasis on how these instruments and camera analogies helped scientists to understand the functions of the eye, especially the enigma of accommodation. "The laws of optics are so well understood, and the knowledge of the eye, when considered as an optical instrument, has been rendered so perfect, that I do not consider myself capable of making any addition to it; but still there is a power in the eye by which it can adapt itself to different distances far too extensive for the simple mechanism of the parts to effect." (John Hunter in a letter to Joseph Banks in 1793, published by Home 1794, page 24).

  7. On the use of piezoelectric sensors in structural mechanics: some novel strategies.

    PubMed

    Irschik, Hans; Krommer, Michael; Vetyukov, Yury

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper, a review on piezoelectric sensing of mechanical deformations and vibrations of so-called smart or intelligent structures is given. After a short introduction into piezoelectric sensing and actuation of such controlled structures, we pay special emphasis on the description of some own work, which has been performed at the Institute of Technical Mechanics of the Johannes Kepler University of Linz (JKU) in the last years. Among other aspects, this work has been motivated by the fact that collocated control of smart structures requires a sensor output that is work-conjugated to the input by the actuator. This fact in turn brings into the play the more general question of how to measure mechanically meaningful structural quantities, such as displacements, slopes, or other quantities, which form the work-conjugated quantities of the actuation, by means piezoelectric sensors. At least in the range of small strains, there is confidence that distributed piezoelectric sensors or sensor patches in smart structures do measure weighted integrals over their domain. Therefore, there is a need of distributing or shaping the sensor activity in order to be able to re-interpret the sensor signals in the desired mechanical sense. We sketch a general strategy that is based on a special application of work principles, more generally on displacement virials. We also review our work in the past on bringing this concept to application in smart structures, such as beams, rods and plates.

  8. On the Late Invention of the Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2012-03-01

    The invention of the gyroscope is usually attributed to the French physicist Jean-Bernard-Leon Foucault in 1852. He certainly invented the word and also used his gyroscope to demonstrate the rotation of the Earth. However, the gyroscope was actually invented around 1812 by German physicist Johann Bohnenberger who called his device simply the ``machine''. Several others, including American physicist Walter R. Johnson (who called his apparatus the ``rotascope''), independently invented the gyroscope in the 1830's. Each of these devices employed a central object (sphere or disc) that could spin freely on a shaft. This was placed between three independent gimbals, which could also move freely. Bohnenberger's ``machine'' has much the same appearance as an armillary sphere. Such devices had been produced for at least the preceding three centuries. They were used to display the movements of various celestial bodies. However, armillary spheres are only simulations of celestial appearances, not actual demonstrations of physical phenomena. Gimbal systems similar to those found in gyroscopes were used on ships to level oil lamps from at least the sixteenth century and the ideas behind armillary spheres date back at least a millennium before that. So why was the gyroscope invented so late? Some possible reasons will be presented for the long delay between the development of the individual underlying components and the eventual appearance of the gyroscope in its modern form.

  9. From Goethe's plant archetype via Haeckel's biogenetic law to plant evo-devo 2016.

    PubMed

    Niklas, Karl J; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2016-10-18

    In 1790, the German poet Johann W. v. Goethe (1749-1832) proposed the concept of a hypothetical sessile organism known as the 'Plant Archetype,' which was subsequently reconstructed and depicted by 19th-century botanists, such as Franz Unger (1800-1870) and Julius Sachs (1832-1897), and can be considered one of the first expressions of Evo-Devo thinking. Here, we present the history of this concept in the context of Ernst Haeckel's (1834-1919) biogenetic law espoused in his Generelle Morphologie der Organismen of 1866. We show that Haeckel's idea of biological recapitulation may help to explain why various phenomena, such as the ontogenetic transformations in the stellar anatomy of lycopods and ferns, the transition from primary to secondary anatomy of seed plants, the presence of unfused juvenile cone scale segments in the Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica), and the transition of C3- to C4-photosynthesis in the ontogeny of maize (Zea mays), appear to support his theories. In addition, we outline the current status of plant evolutionary developmental biology (Evo-Devo), which can be traced back to Haeckel's (1866) biogenetic law, with a focus on the model plant thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana).

  10. Gene regulatory network inference using out of equilibrium statistical mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Benecke, Arndt

    2008-01-01

    Spatiotemporal control of gene expression is fundamental to multicellular life. Despite prodigious efforts, the encoding of gene expression regulation in eukaryotes is not understood. Gene expression analyses nourish the hope to reverse engineer effector-target gene networks using inference techniques. Inference from noisy and circumstantial data relies on using robust models with few parameters for the underlying mechanisms. However, a systematic path to gene regulatory network reverse engineering from functional genomics data is still impeded by fundamental problems. Recently, Johannes Berg from the Theoretical Physics Institute of Cologne University has made two remarkable contributions that significantly advance the gene regulatory network inference problem. Berg, who uses gene expression data from yeast, has demonstrated a nonequilibrium regime for mRNA concentration dynamics and was able to map the gene regulatory process upon simple stochastic systems driven out of equilibrium. The impact of his demonstration is twofold, affecting both the understanding of the operational constraints under which transcription occurs and the capacity to extract relevant information from highly time-resolved expression data. Berg has used his observation to predict target genes of selected transcription factors, and thereby, in principle, demonstrated applicability of his out of equilibrium statistical mechanics approach to the gene network inference problem. PMID:19404429

  11. Astronomy and calendar reform at the curia of Pope Clement VI: a new source.

    PubMed

    Nothaft, C Philipp E

    2017-01-01

    The article introduces a previously unknown fourteenth-century treatise on computus and calendrical astronomy entitled Expositio kalendarii novi, whose author proposed elaborate solutions to the technical flaws inherent in the calendar used by the Roman Church. An analysis of verbal parallels to other contemporary works on the same topic makes it possible to establish that the Expositio was produced in the context of a calendar reform initiative led by Pope Clement VI in 1344/45 and that this anonymous text is probably identical to a 'great and laborious work' on the calendar that the monk Johannes de Termis prepared for the pope around this time. Its author strove to make an original contribution by extracting new astronomical parameters from both ancient and contemporary data, which made him arrive at an estimate of the length of the tropical year that was independent of the then-current Alfonsine Tables. With its suggestion to remove eleven days from the Julian calendar and to correct the calendar through modified leap-year rhythms and periodically adjusted sequences of lunar epacts, the proposal enshrined in the Expositio exhibits some remarkable similarities to the Gregorian reform of the calendar promulgated in 1582. Although its influence on the latter must remain a matter of speculation, the newly discovered text sheds a revealing light on the history of medieval calendar reform debates and on the mathematical sciences practiced at the Avignon court of Clement VI.

  12. Theodor Meynert's contribution to classical 19th century aphasia studies.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, H A; Etlinger, S C

    1993-11-01

    Carl Wernicke (1848-1905) is traditionally considered the first to have described the features of, and the brain pathology underlying, impaired auditory comprehension and related symptoms. Although Wernicke (1874) clearly and repeatedly indicates his indebtedness to Theodor von Meynert (1833-1892), this is usually understood as an acknowledgment that Meynert taught Wernicke neuroanatomy (Eggert, 1977); Wernicke's own words in part support this interpretation. A more sophisticated historical analysis notes that, prior to Wernicke, both Johann Schmidt in 1871 and Charlton Bastian in 1869 had described the concept of receptive aphasia, but neither had supported their analyses with autopsy evidence as did Wernicke, thus not dislodging Wernicke's claim of priority. However, a virtually unknown work by Theodor von Meynert, published in 1866, has recently been rediscovered by us ["Ein Fall von Sprachstörung, anatomisch begründet." Medizinische Jahrbücher. XII Band der Zeitschrift der K. K. Gesellleschaft der Arzte in Wien, 22. Jahr. Pp. 152-189]. In this paper Meynert analyzes the anatomical basis for localizing the comprehension of language in the superior temporal gyrus, he argues that lesions in this area should (by analogy to Broca's earlier observations on language expression) cause impairments in language comprehension, and he presents a case of receptive aphasia with autopsy evidence of destruction of the superior temporal gyrus in the left hemisphere. The patient's aphasia was classic; impaired auditory comprehension, and fluent speech with paraphasias. It is clear that Meynert should be given historical credit for his work.

  13. Freud and evolution.

    PubMed

    Scharbert, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    The essay analyzes the influence of evolutionary thought in the work of Sigmund Freud. Based on Freud's initial occupation as a neuro-anatomist and physiologist certain aspects stemming from the history of nature and developmental biological reasoning that played a role in his endeavours to find a new basis for medical psychology will be pointed out. These considerations are to be regarded as prolegomena of the task to reread Freud once again, and in doing so avoiding the verdict that holds his neuro-anatomic and comparative-morphological works as simply "pre-analytic." In fact, the time seems ripe to reconsider in a new context particularly those evolutionary, medical, and cultural-scientific elements in Freud's work that appear inconsistent at first sight. The substantial thesis is that Freud, given the fact that he was trained in comparative anatomy and physiology in the tradition of Johannes Müller, had the capability of synthesizing elements of this new point of view with the findings and interrogations concerning developmental history and the theory of evolution. More over, this was perceived not merely metaphoric, as he himself stressed it (Freud 1999, XIII, 99), but in the sense of Ubertragung, that inscribed terms and methods deriving from the given field into the realm of psychology. The moving force behind this particular Ubertragung came from a dynamically-neurological perception of the soul that emerged in France since 1800, which Freud came to know trough the late work of Charcot.

  14. Predicting Spacecraft Trajectories by the WeavEncke Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, Jonathan K.; Adamo, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    A combination of methods is proposed of predicting spacecraft trajectories that possibly include multiple maneuvers and/or perturbing accelerations, with greater speed, accuracy, and repeatability than were heretofore achievable. The combination is denoted the WeavEncke method because it is based on unpublished studies by Jonathan Weaver of the orbit-prediction formulation of the noted astronomer Johann Franz Encke. Weaver evaluated a number of alternatives that arise within that formulation, arriving at an orbit-predicting algorithm optimized for complex trajectory operations. In the WeavEncke method, Encke's method of prediction of perturbed orbits is enhanced by application of modern numerical methods. Among these methods are efficient Kepler s-equation time-of-flight solutions and self-starting numerical integration with time as the independent variable. Self-starting numerical integration satisfies the requirements for accuracy, reproducibility, and efficiency (and, hence, speed). Self-starting numerical integration also supports fully analytic regulation of integration step sizes, thereby further increasing speed while maintaining accuracy.

  15. Astronomy Festival on the National Mall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D.

    2015-11-01

    The annual Astronomy Festival on the National Mall (AFNM) takes place on 11 acres north of the Washington Monument in June (previous AFNM were April and July). AFNM, sponsored by Hofstra University, features optical and radio telescope viewing of the Sun, Moon, planets, stars, clusters, and nebulae; a live large-screen image, a cell phone imaging mount; exhibits; hands-on activities; videos; large outdoor banners and posters; citizen science activities; hand-outs; bookmarks, and teacher information materials. With no tall buildings almost the entire sky is visible and 10th mag. moons of Saturn and the Ring Nebula (9.75 mag.) were easily visible on clear nights. Representatives from some of the nation's foremost scientific and educational institutions presented exciting demonstrations and activities; and answered questions about careers in science, celestial objects, and the latest astronomical discoveries. Local amateur astronomers set up twenty telescopes on the Mall and long lines of 20-30 people waited to look through the telescopes. Visitors met astronaut Dr. John Grunsfeld (Associate Administrator, NASA) and astronomers Dr. Lisse, Dr. Livengood, Dr. Warren, and Dr. Paul Hertz (Director, Astrophysics Division, NASA). Important historical astronomers spoke to the attendees: Caroline Herschel (Lynn King); Tycho Brahe (Dean Howarth); and Johannes Kepler (Jeff Jones). Free telescopes, donated by Celestron, were raffled off.

  16. Böttger stoneware from North America and Europe; are they authentic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swann, Charles P.; Nelson, Christina H.

    2000-03-01

    In the early 18th century, Johann Friedrich Böttger, an alchemist recently arrived in Dresden, was assigned to ceramic experimentation under the orders of Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland. The Elector and his advisors hoped to discover the secret of making hard paste porcelain like the wares imported into Europe from China and Japan. In 1706-1707, Böttger produced his first ceramic body, a red stoneware similar to the wares produced in Yixing, China. The first objects were made following the forms of chinese prototypes or European metalwork of the period. Recently, the authenticity of a number of `Böttger' objects in various museums and private collections in North America and Europe has been questioned. To aide in resolving these questions several non-destructive analytical techniques have been employed, the most important being PIXE. This report is on an initial study of 25 objects with 16 elements from Al to Zr and Pb being analysed. The results strongly suggest three different groupings, one of objects from the Meissen factory during the 20th century, one from the work of Böttger himself early in the 18th century and one from an as yet unknown time period and site. The first two groups were previously identified by one of the authors (C.N.).

  17. [Photoeffects, Einstein's light quanta and the history of their acceptance].

    PubMed

    Wiederkehr, Karl Heinrich

    2006-01-01

    It is generally supposed, that the discovery of the efficacy-quantum by Planck was the impetus to Einstein's hypothesis of lightquanta. With its help Einstein could explain the external light-electrical effect. But even years before Einstein had worked at the photoeffect and already made experiments on it. For that reason the article gives a short survey about the history of the lightelectric effects. Lenard's basical work about the release of the photoelectrons is dealt with in detail, without which Einstein would scarcely have found his lightquanta. Furthermore it is shown how difficult it was for the physicists to give up--at least partially--the traditional view of the undulation-nature of light, and how they searched to explain the great energies of the photoelectrons. On the other side it is set forth how Einstein's formula of lightquanta was gradually confirmed. The tragical development of Einstein's personal relations with Johannes Stark and Philipp Lenard are briefly described. Stark was one of the few who supported Einstein's ideas at the beginning. Only with the Compton-effect, which could only be quantitatively interpreted by means of lightquanta and the special theory of relativity 1923, the way was free for the general acceptance of the lightquanta. Einstein did not agree to the obtained dualism of undulation and corpuscle; he had a different solution in mind about the fusion of the two forms of appearance of light.

  18. Origin of Galactic Type-Ia supernovae: SN 1572 and SN 1006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Hernández, J. I.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Tabernero, H. M.; Montes, D.; Canal, R.; Méndez, J.; Bedin, L. R.

    2015-05-01

    We have been searching for surviving companions of progenitors of Galactic Type-Ia supernovae, in particular SN 1572 and SN 1006. These companion stars are expected to show peculiarities: (i) to be probably more luminous than the Sun, (ii) to have high radial velocity and proper motion, (iii) to be possibly enriched in metals from the SNIa ejecta, and (iv) to be located at the distance of the SNIa remnant. We have been characterizing possible candidate stars using high-resolution spectroscopic data taken at 10m-Keck and 8.2m-VLT facilities. We have identified a very promising candidate companion (Tycho G) for SN 1572 (see Ruiz-Lapuente et al. 2004; however for a different view see Kerzendorf et al., 2012) but we have not found any candidate companion for SN 1006, suggesting that SN event occurred in 1006 could have been the result of the merging of two white dwarfs (see González-Hernández et al., 2012). Adding these results to the evidence from the other direct searches, the clear minority of cases (20% or less) seem to disfavour the single-degenerate channel or that preferentially the single-degenerate escenario would involve main-sequence companions less massive than the Sun. Therefore, it appears to be very important to continue investigating these and other Galactic Type-Ia SNe such as the Johannes Kepler SN 1604.

  19. 9th Transgenic Technology Meeting (TT2010) in Berlin, Germany: a meeting report.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Thomas L; Sobieszczuk, Peter

    2010-12-01

    The first Transgenic Technology (TT) Meeting was organized in 1999 by Johannes Wilbertz, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden as a regional meeting. The TT Meetings continued in this way, constantly gathering additional practitioners of transgenic methodologies until the breakthrough in 2005 when the 6th TT Meeting in Barcelona, Spain, hosted by Lluis Montoliu (Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, Madrid, Spain), generated the momentum to establish the International Society for Transgenic Technologies (ISTT). Since 2006, the ISTT has continued to promote the TT Meetings and provide its membership with a forum to discuss best practices and new methods in the field. The TT2010 Meeting was held at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (Berlin, Germany). Participation at the TT2010 Meeting exceeded the registration capacity and set a new attendance record. Session topics included methods for the generation of rat and mouse models of human disease, fundamental and advanced topics in rodent embryonic stem cells, and the newest transgenic technologies. Short presentations from selected abstracts were of especial interest. Roundtable discussions on transgenic facility establishment and cryoarchiving of mouse lines were favorably received. Students, technical staff, and professors participated in numerous discussions and came away with practical methods and new ideas for research.

  20. Mathematics, experience and laboratories: Herbart's and Brentano's role in the rise of scientific psychology.

    PubMed

    Huemer, Wolfgang; Landerer, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present and compare two early attempts to establish psychology as an independent scientific discipline that had considerable influence in central Europe: the theories of Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841) and Franz Brentano (1838-1917). While both of them emphasize that psychology ought to be conceived as an empirical science, their conceptions show revealing differences. Herbart starts with metaphysical principles and aims at mathematizing psychology, whereas Brentano rejects all metaphysics and bases his method on a conception of inner perception (as opposed to inner observation) as a secondary consciousness, by means of which one gets to be aware of all of one's own conscious phenomena. Brentano's focus on inner perception brings him to deny the claim that there could be unconscious mental phenomena - a view that stands in sharp contrast to Herbart's emphasis on unconscious, "repressed" presentations as a core element of his mechanics of mind. Herbart, on the other hand, denies any role for psychological experiments, while Brentano encouraged laboratory work, thus paving the road for the more experimental work of his students like Stumpf and Meinong. By briefly tracing the fate of the schools of Herbart and Brentano, respectively, we aim to illustrate their impact on the development of psychological research, mainly in central Europe.

  1. A high resolution and large solid angle x-ray Raman spectroscopy end-station at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    SciTech Connect

    Sokaras, D.; Nordlund, D.; Weng, T.-C.; Velikov, P.; Wenger, D.; Garachtchenko, A.; George, M.; Borzenets, V.; Johnson, B.; Rabedeau, T.; Mori, R. Alonso; Bergmann, U.; Qian, Q.

    2012-04-15

    We present a new x-ray Raman spectroscopy end-station recently developed, installed, and operated at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. The end-station is located at wiggler beamline 6-2 equipped with two monochromators-Si(111) and Si(311) as well as collimating and focusing optics. It consists of two multi-crystal Johann type spectrometers arranged on intersecting Rowland circles of 1 m diameter. The first one, positioned at the forward scattering angles (low-q), consists of 40 spherically bent and diced Si(110) crystals with 100 mm diameters providing about 1.9% of 4{pi} sr solid angle of detection. When operated in the (440) order in combination with the Si (311) monochromator, an overall energy resolution of 270 meV is obtained at 6462.20 eV. The second spectrometer, consisting of 14 spherically bent Si(110) crystal analyzers (not diced), is positioned at the backward scattering angles (high-q) enabling the study of non-dipole transitions. The solid angle of this spectrometer is about 0.9% of 4{pi} sr, with a combined energy resolution of 600 meV using the Si (311) monochromator. These features exceed the specifications of currently existing relevant instrumentation, opening new opportunities for the routine application of this photon-in/photon-out hard x-ray technique to emerging research in multidisciplinary scientific fields, such as energy-related sciences, material sciences, physical chemistry, etc.

  2. Low temperature alteration processes affecting ultramafic bodies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nesbitt, H.W.; Bricker, O.P.

    1978-01-01

    At low temperatures, in the presence of an aqueous solution, olivine and orthopyroxene are not stable relative to the hydrous phases brucite, serpentine and talc. Alteration of dunite and peridotite to serpentine or steatite bodies must therefore proceed via non-equilibrium processes. The compositions of natural solutions emanating from dunites and peridotites demonstrate that the dissolution of forsterite and/or enstatite is rapid compared with the precipitation of the hydrous phases; consequently, dissolution of anhydrous minerals controls the chemistry of such solutions. In the presence of an aqueous phase, precipitation of hydrous minerals is the rate-controlling step. Brucite-bearing and -deficient serpentinites alter at low temperature by non-equilibrium processes, as evidenced by the composition of natural solutions from these bodies. The solutions approach equilibrium with the least stable hydrous phase and, as a consequence, are supersaturated with other hydrous phases. Dissolution of the least stable phase is rapid compared to precipitation of other phases, so that the dissolving mineral controls the solution chemistry. Non-equilibrium alteration of anhydrous ultramafic bodies continues until at least one anhydrous phase equilibrates with brucite, chrysotile or talc. The lowest temperature (at a given pressure) at which this happens is defined by the reaction: 3H2O + 2Mg2SiO4 ??? Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + Mg(OH)2 (Johannes, 1968, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 19, 309-315) so that non-equilibrium alteration may occur well into greenschist facies metamorphic conditions. ?? 1978.

  3. Early volcanological research in the Vulkaneifel, Germany, the classic region of maar-diatreme volcanoes: the years 1774-1865

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Herbert; Lorenz, Volker

    2013-08-01

    The Vulkaneifel (Volcanic West Eifel) in the western part of the Rhenish Slate Mountains, Germany, played a major role in the early history of volcanology in general and especially so with respect to the recognition and volcanology of maar-diatreme volcanoes. In 1819, the volcano term "maar" was introduced into the scientific literature by Johann Steininger, a teacher from Trier (Treves) who established the Vulkaneifel as the type region for this kind of volcano. At that time, only a few pioneers—in the earliest days practically all of them were amateurs—had visited this part of western Central Europe in the late eighteenth and earliest nineteenth century. Despite many making important contributions to knowledge of volcanoes, not all were appreciated. In consequence, only in the second half of the twentieth century did new ideas and concepts concerning volcanism in general and phreatomagmatic activity in particular arise that were not previously presented by these pioneers. Their pathbreaking ideas have so far been mostly ignored, we feel, because of the old literature's limited availability. This paper tries to shed new light on these trailblazers. A selection of early geological maps of the Vulkaneifel and its neighbouring regions demonstrates the enormous advancements that had been achieved during those early days, to a large extent, in this part of Western Europe.

  4. [Techniques of mediation. Chemistry as a combination of work, teaching and research: the case of J. F. A. Göttling].

    PubMed

    Frercks, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Atypical career of a chemist in Germany around 1800 consisted of being trained as an apothecary, followed by an occupation as a professor at a university or another institution of higher education. These conditions deeply influenced the concept and the practice of chemistry as a science. Johann Friedrich August Göttling is an intriguing example for merging education and daily duties of teaching with the self-image of a scientific chemist. He linked chemical teaching, work, and research by using different hybrid media, such as the Almanach oder Taschenbuch für Scheidekünstler und Apotheker, a stove specifically designed for the narrow student's room, portable laboratories, a pharmaceutical boarding school and textbooks. This allowed him to practice three different forms of chemistry as a science. A "socio-epistemological diagram" of German chemistry around 1800 shows that these forms neatly corresponded to the then predominant three-level epistemology. In particular, the concept of a chemical fact served to link pharmaceutical practice with teaching practice, while granting only the chemistry done by professors the status of a science.

  5. A Recount of Sunspot Groups on Staudach's Drawings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalgaard, Leif

    2017-01-01

    We have examined the more than 1100 drawings of the solar disk made by the German amateur astronomer Johann Caspar Staudach during 1749 - 1799 and counted the spots on each image. Using the modern perception of how to group spots into active regions, we regrouped the spots as a modern observer would. The resulting number of groups was found to be higher on average by 25 % than the first count of groups performed by Wolf in 1857, which was used by Hoyt and Schatten ( Solar Phys. 181, 491, 1998) in their construction of the group sunspot number. Compared to other observers at the time, Staudach's drawings have a very low average number, about two, of spots per group, possibly indicating an inferior telescope that probably suffered from spherical and chromatic aberration, as would be typical of amateur telescopes of the day. We have initiated an ongoing project aiming at observing sunspots with antique telescopes having similar defects in order to determine the factor necessary to bring the Staudach observations onto a modern scale.

  6. A Documentary History of the Discovery of Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waff, C. B.; Kollerstrom, N.

    2001-12-01

    The discovery of the planet Neptune by Johann Gottfried Galle on 23 September 1846 near the positions predicted by Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier and John Couch Adams has been justly considered by many the greatest achievement of Newtonian celestial mechanics. Aside from communications to societies and journals and a selection of letters published shortly after the discovery by British Astronomer Royal George Biddell Airy, however, contemporary documents (especially letters) concerning the discovery have in large part remained unpublished and scattered in numerous archives in England, France, the United States, Germany, and elsewhere. Partially in response to the longtime disappearance and fortunate recent recovery of the Royal Greenwich Observatory file of documents on the discovery, the authors of this paper have formed the project of editing and annotating for publication a chronologically ordered collection of documents relating to the prediction, discovery, and orbit determination of Neptune. A lengthy introductory essay that would summarize research on the Neptune discovery that has been conducted by various historians would accompany such a collection. This paper will outline the criteria that have been used for selecting the documents that will be published in the edition and describe some of the preliminary associated research findings of the authors.

  7. The star catalogue of Hevelius. Machine-readable version and comparison with the modern Hipparcos Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbunt, F.; van Gent, R. H.

    2010-06-01

    The catalogue by Johannes Hevelius with the positions and magnitudes of 1564 entries was published by his wife Elisabeth Koopman in 1690. We provide a machine-readable version of the catalogue, and briefly discuss its accuracy on the basis of comparison with data from the modern Hipparcos Catalogue. We compare our results with an earlier analysis by Rybka (1984), finding good overall agreement. The magnitudes given by Hevelius correlate well with modern values. The accuracy of his position measurements is similar to that of Brahe, with σ = 2´ for longitudes and latitudes, but with more errors >5´ than expected for a Gaussian distribution. The position accuracy decreases slowly with magnitude. The fraction of stars with position errors larger than a degree is 1.5%, rather smaller than the fraction of 5% in the star catalogue of Brahe. Star catalogue of Hevelius is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/516/A29

  8. Overlooked sunspot observations by Hevelius in the early Maunder Minimum, 1653 1684

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyt, Douglas V.; Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1995-09-01

    In the bookMachina Coelestis (1679), Johannes Hevelius lists his daily solar observations from 1653 to 1679. He mentions 19 sunspot groups during this interval, of which 14 are unique to Hevelius and five are confirmed by other observers. There are an additional 9 sunspot groups during this interval that were not observed by Hevelius. In five cases he was not observing, but in the other four cases he did observe but failed to comment upon sunspots. The spots he missed or failed to observe tend to occur near the end of his career. This suggests Hevelius occasionally missed sunspots but usually was a reliable observer. These observations are important because they provide us the only known daily listing of solar observations during the early years of the Maunder Minimum. They are also important because they were overlooked by Wolf, Spoerer, Maunder, Eddy, and others in their study of solar activity in the seventeenth century. They provide us the best record of the sunspot maximum of 1660 when one sunspot lasted at least 86 days as it traversed the solar disk four times. The same region was active for seven solar rotations.

  9. The Christian chronologies of the creation and the view of modern astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E. Th.

    2004-01-01

    How many different chronologies have been proposed for the beginning of the Creation? It is, of course, well known that the Jewish chronology starts from 7 October (1 Tishri) 3761 BC; however, this starting point apparently did not satisfy various scholars nor Christian savants and astronomers. As a result, from time to time miscellaneous dates were being proposed, from the Jewish historian Josephus (first Century AD) up to the French humanist Joseph Scaliger (1484-1558) and the famous Polish astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87). Not only the scholars of these eras but also the Christian Churches defined through Ecumenical Council decisions the beginning of the Creation. In this study we present the proposed dates, while we note that especially the date proposed by James Ussher (1581-1656), Archbishop of Armagh (Northern Ireland), that is the year 4004 BC and not the centurial year 4000 BC, is due to the historians' belief that Herod died in 4 BC. Thus, Ussher added these 4 years to the year 4000 BC in order to have a more accurate chronology in respect to the birth of Christ, a birth placed by him, as well as by many chronicle writers of the era, in 4 BC.

  10. Strasbourg's "First" astronomical observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, André

    2011-08-01

    The turret lantern located at the top of the Strasbourg Hospital Gate is generally considered as the first astronomical observatory of the city, but such a qualification must be treated with caution. The thesis of this paper is that the idea of a tower-observatory was brought back by a local scholar, Julius Reichelt (1637-1717), after he made a trip to Northern Europe around 1666 and saw the "Rundetårn" (Round Tower) recently completed in Copenhagen. There, however, a terrace allowed (and still allows) the full viewing of the sky, and especially of the zenith area where the atmospheric transparency is best. However, there is no such terrace in Strasbourg around the Hospital Gate lantern. Reichelt had also visited Johannes Hevelius who was then developing advanced observational astronomy in Gdansk, but nothing of the kind followed in Strasbourg. Rather, the Hospital Gate observatory was built essentially for the prestige of the city and for the notoriety of the university, and the users of this observing post did not make any significant contributions to the progress of astronomical knowledge. We conclude that the Hospital Gate observatory was only used for rudimentary viewing of bright celestial objects or phenomena relatively low on the horizon.

  11. Return of the living dead: Re-reading Pierre Flourens' contributions to neurophysiology and literature.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Sharman

    2013-01-01

    Historians of neurophysiology remember Marie Jean Pierre Flourens (1794-1867) for his experimental approach to nineteenth-century debates on cortical localization and, in particular, for his successful attacks on Frantz Joseph Gall's (1758-1828) phrenology (Gall and Spurzheim, 1810-19). Whereas Gall and his colleague, Johann Gaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832), posited correlations between features of the skull and brain development and claimed to have localized character traits, competencies and temperaments in specific cortical regions, Flourens advocated cerebral equipotentiality and provided empirical as well as philosophical grounds for his theories. Flourens has also been recognized for his contributions to the understanding of the cerebellum's role in the coordination of movement, the localization of a respiratory center in the medulla oblongata, the relationship between the semicircular canals and balance, the role of the periosteum in bone growth and regeneration, and finally, the anesthetic properties of chloroform. Less known to historians of neuroscience is the fact that Pierre Flourens was not only a neurophysiologist and Secrétaire Perpetuel of the French Académie des Sciences, he was also a member of the Académie Française, France's most prestigious literary academy. Examining Flourens' contributions as a writer and, at the same time, a prime target for criticism and caricature from journalists, yields a particularly interesting example of the problematic relations between different genres of science writing and their respective publics in mid-nineteenth-century France.

  12. Detection of mercury in the 411-year-old beard hairs of the astronomer Tycho Brahe by elemental analysis in electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Ludwig; Jaksch, Heiner; Zellmann, Erhard; Klemm, Kerstin I; Andersen, Peter Hvilshøj

    2012-10-01

    Hairs more than 400 years old of the famous astronomer Tycho Brahe were studied by electron microscopy to evaluate the hypothesis that Johannes Kepler murdered his teacher Brahe by mercury intoxication. The beard hairs showed a well-preserved ultrastructure with typical hair scales and melanosomes. The authors detected an accumulation of electron-dense granules of about 10 nm inside the outer hair scales, but not in the hair shaft and roots. At the places of these heavy-metal-containing granules they detected mercury besides other elements by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX, Oxford, UK) in a field cathode scanning electron microscope (SEM, Gemini, Zeiss). The mercury-containing granules were found over the whole length of hairs, but only in the outer hair scales. Nevertheless, surface coatings of hairs were free of mercury. This distribution of mercury does not support the murder hypothesis, but could be related to precipitation of mercury dust from the air during long-term alchemistic activities.

  13. The Beginnings of Pancreatology as a Field of Experimental and Clinical Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ceranowicz, Piotr; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Dembiński, Artur

    2015-01-01

    This review presents the history of discoveries concerning the pancreas. In antiquity and the Middle Ages knowledge about the anatomy of the pancreas was very limited and its function was completely unknown. Significant progress was first made in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Johann Georg Wirsüng, the prosector of the University of Padua, discovered the main pancreatic duct, and Giovanni Santorini discovered the accessory duct. Regnier de Graaf was the first to perform pancreatic exocrine studies, and Paul Langerhans's 1869 discovery of pancreatic islets was the first step toward recognizing the pancreas as an endocrine gland. The twentieth century brought the discovery of insulin and other pancreatic hormones. To date, histochemical staining, transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry enabled the discovery of five cell types with identified hormonal products in adult human pancreatic islets. Twentieth-century pancreatic studies led to crucial advances in scientific knowledge and were recognized, among other things, with seven Nobel Prizes. The first of these went to Ivan Pavlov in 1904 for his work on the physiology of digestion. The most recent was awarded to Günter Blobel in 1999 for discovering signaling mechanisms that govern the transport and localization of proteins within pancreatic acinar cells. PMID:26180777

  14. Medical competence, anatomy and the polity in seventeenth-century Rome

    PubMed Central

    De Renzi, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    At the centre of this article are two physicians active in Rome between 1600 and 1630 who combined medical practice with broader involvement in the dynamic cultural, economic and political scene of the centre of the Catholic world. The city's distinctive and very influential social landscape magnified issues of career-building and allows us to recapture physicians’ different strategies of self-fashioning at a time of major social and religious reorganization. At one level, reconstructing Johannes Faber and Giulio Mancini's medical education, arrival in Rome and overlapping but different career trajectories contributes to research on physicians’ identity in early modern Italian states. Most remarkable are their access to different segments of Roman society, including a dynamic art market, and their diplomatic and political role, claimed as well as real. But following these physicians from hospitals to courts, including that of the Pope, and from tribunals to the university and analysing the wide range of their writing – from medico-legal consilia to political essays and reports of anatomical investigations – also enriches our view of medical practice, which included, but went beyond, the bedside. Furthermore, their activities demand that we reassess the complex place of anatomical investigations in a courtly society, and start recovering the fundamental role played by hospitals – those quintessential Catholic institutions – as sites of routine dissections for both medical teaching and research. (pp. 551–567) PMID:21949463

  15. The Integrative Role of the Sigh in Psychology, Physiology, Pathology, and Neurobiology

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Jan-Marino

    2015-01-01

    “Sighs, tears, grief, distress” expresses Johann Sebastian Bach in a musical example for the relationship between sighs and deep emotions. This review explores the neurobiological basis of the sigh and its relationship with psychology, physiology, and pathology. Sighs monitor changes in brain states, induce arousal, and reset breathing variability. These behavioral roles homeostatically regulate breathing stability under physiological and pathological conditions. Sighs evoked in hypoxia evoke arousal and thereby become critical for survival. Hypoarousal and failure to sigh have been associated with sudden infant death syndrome. Increased breathing irregularity may provoke excessive sighing and hyperarousal, a behavioral sequence that may play a role in panic disorders. Essential for generating sighs and breathing is the pre-Bötzinger complex. Modulatory and synaptic interactions within this local network and between networks located in the brainstem, cerebellum, cortex, hypothalamus, amygdala, and the periaqueductal gray may govern the relationships between physiology, psychology, and pathology. Unraveling these circuits will lead to a better understanding of how we balance emotions and how emotions become pathological. PMID:24746045

  16. Non-destructive analysis for the investigation of decomposition phenomena of historical manuscripts and prints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faubel, Werner; Staub, Susanne; Simon, Rolf; Heissler, Stefan; Pataki, Andrea; Banik, Gerhard

    2007-07-01

    As a contribution to the increasing efforts to preserve cultural heritage, historical books as well as illuminated manuscripts endangered by corrosive writing and printing materials or destructive coloring matters, non-destructive analytical methods are highly desirable enabling an in-situ examination of the surface status of an object. The development and application of a novel combination of non-destructive analytic methods based on (a) synchrotron radiation induced micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-μXRF) and (b) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscope allows to investigate the state as well as the effectiveness of conservation procedures for historical manuscripts. Examples of measurements include (1) an iron gall ink manuscript of a historical memo on legal land description of the year 1769, (2) an original hand colored herbal of the years 1536/38 from the Senckenbergische Bibliothek, Frankfurt, and (3) the incunabula Johannes von Saaz: "Der Ackermann aus Boehmen" fated from 1463 and printed by Albrecht Pfister, Bamberg, owned by the Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbuettel.

  17. Teste Albumasare cum Sibylla: astrology and the Sibyls in medieval Europe.

    PubMed

    Smoller, Laura Ackerman

    2010-06-01

    In the 1480s Dominican humanist Filippo de' Barbieri published an illustration of a supposedly ancient female seer called the 'Sybilla Chimica', whose prophetic text repeated the words of the ninth-century astrologer Abu Ma'shar. In tracing the origins of Barbieri's astrological Sibyl, this article examines three sometimes interlocking traditions: the attribution of an ante-diluvian history to the science of the stars, the assertion of astrology's origins in divine revelation, and the belief in the ancient Sibyls' predictions of the birth of Christ and other Christian truths. Medieval authors from the twelfth century on began to cite these traditions together, thereby simultaneously authorizing the use of astrology to predict religious changes and blurring the categories of natural and supernatural as applied to human understanding. This blending of astrology and prophecy appears notably in works by such authors as John of Paris, John of Legnano, Johannes Lichtenberger, and Marsilio Ficino. Ultimately the trajectory that produced Barbieri's astrological Sibyl would lead to a wave of astrological apocalyptic predictions in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as well as to the harnessing of astrology for the defense of the faith in the form of an astrological natural theology, sacralizing science as well as nature.

  18. Ionization balance in EBIT and tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, N. J.; Barnsley, R.; O'Mullane, M. G.; Tarbutt, M. R.; Crosby, D.; Silver, J. D.; Rainnie, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    The equilibrium state in tokamak core plasmas has been studied using the relative intensities of resonance x-ray lines, for example Lyα (H-like), "w" (He-like), and "q" (Li-like) from test ions such as Ar+15, Ar+16, and Ar+17. A full spatial analysis involves comparison of the line intensities with ion diffusion calculations, including relevant atomic rates. A zero-dimensional model using a global ion loss rate approximation has also been demonstrated by comparison with the data collected from a Johann configuration spectrometer with a charged coupled device (CCD) detector. Since the lines are nearly monoenergetic, their intensities are independent of the instrument sensitivity and are directly proportional to the ion abundances. This method has recently been applied to Ar in the Oxford electron beam ion trap (EBIT) with a beam energy in the range 3-10 keV. Taking into account the cross sections for monoenergetic electron collisions and polarization effects, model calculations agree with the observed line ratios at 4.1 keV beam energy. This work will be expanded to provide nomograms of ionization state versus line intensity ratios as a function of EBIT beam energy.

  19. How do cathartic drugs act? A case study on Gregor Horst (1578-1636) and his attempt to defend Galenist theory.

    PubMed

    Schweikardt, C

    1998-12-01

    This case study deals with the argument of the Galenist author Gregor Horst (1578-1636), Medical Professor at Giessen University, Germany, and later town phyusician in Ulm, in the discussion on how purgatives act. Horst tried to reconcile a number of different opinions within a Galenist framework. His vast erudition enabled him to compare several classical as well as contemporary opinions. He takes into account Galen (129-c.200/216), Erasistratos (c. 330-255 BC), Asclepiades (fl. 1st century BC), the Hippocratic Corpus and the Problemata Aristotelis from antiquity, Mesue and Mundinus (c. 1270-1326) from the Middle Ages, and Jean Fernel (c. 1497-1558), Girolamo Cardano (1501-c. 1576), Johannes Costaeus (d. 1603), Laurent Joubert (1529-1583), Francisco Valles (1524-1592), Tobias Dorncreilius (1571-1605) and Gavriele Falloppio (1523-1562) from contemporary authors. Horst also integrated some Paracelsian ideas from Joseph Duchesne alias Quercetanus (1549-1609). In his attempt to preserve fundamentals of Galenic thought, Horst created a complicated theory nearly breaking under its own weight. He shows a rising divergence within traditional views as well as the fragmentation of Renaissance Galenism which took place already before the discovery of the blood circulation.

  20. Crystal Ball Replica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajamian, John

    2016-09-01

    The A2 collaboration of the Institute for Nuclear Physics of Johannes Gutenberg University performs research on (multiple) meson photoproduction and nucleon structure and dynamics using a high energy polarized photon beam at specific targets. Particles scattered from the target are detected in the Crystal Ball, or CB. The CB is composed of 672 NaI crystals that surround the target and can analyze particle type and energy of ejected particles. Our project was to create a replica of the CB that could display what was happening in real time on a 3 Dimensional scale replica. Our replica was constructed to help explain the physics to the general public, be used as a tool when calibrating each of the 672 NaI crystals, and to better analyze the electron showering of particles coming from the target. This poster will focus on the hardware steps necessary to construct the replica and wire the 672 programmable LEDS in such a way that they can be mapped to correspond to the Crystal Ball elements. George Washington NSF Grant.